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Sample records for alpha-helical protein backbones

  1. A Novel Method for Sampling Alpha-Helical Protein Backbones

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fain, Boris; Levitt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel technique of sampling the configurations of helical proteins. Assuming knowledge of native secondary structure, we employ assembly rules gathered from a database of existing structures to enumerate the geometrically possible 3-D arrangements of the constituent helices. We produce a library of possible folds for 25 helical protein cores. In each case the method finds significant numbers of conformations close to the native structure. In addition we assign coordinates to all atoms for 4 of the 25 proteins. In the context of database driven exhaustive enumeration our method performs extremely well, yielding significant percentages of structures (0.02%--82%) within 6A of the native structure. The method's speed and efficiency make it a valuable contribution towards the goal of predicting protein structure.

  2. Dynamic charge interactions create surprising rigidity in the ER/K [alpha]-helical protein motif

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Spink, Benjamin J.; Sim, Adelene Y.L.; Doniach, Sebastian; Spudich, James A.

    2009-06-30

    Protein {alpha}-helices are ubiquitous secondary structural elements, seldom considered to be stable without tertiary contacts. However, amino acid sequences in proteins that are based on alternating repeats of four glutamic acid (E) residues and four positively charged residues, a combination of arginine (R) and lysine (K), have been shown to form stable {alpha}-helices in a few proteins, in the absence of tertiary interactions. Here, we find that this ER/K motif is more prevalent than previously reported, being represented in proteins of diverse function from archaea to humans. By using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we characterize a dynamic pattern of side-chain interactions that extends along the backbone of ER/K {alpha}-helices. A simplified model predicts that side-chain interactions alone contribute substantial bending rigidity (0.5 pN/nm) to ER/K {alpha}-helices. Results of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and single-molecule optical-trap analyses are consistent with the high bending rigidity predicted by our model. Thus, the ER/K {alpha}-helix is an isolated secondary structural element that can efficiently span long distances in proteins, making it a promising tool in designing synthetic proteins. We propose that the significant rigidity of the ER/K {alpha}-helix can help regulate protein function, as a force transducer between protein subdomains.

  3. The MEMPACK alpha-helical transmembrane protein structure prediction server

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Timothy; Ward, Sean; Jones, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: The experimental difficulties of alpha-helical transmembrane protein structure determination make this class of protein an important target for sequence-based structure prediction tools. The MEMPACK prediction server allows users to submit a transmembrane protein sequence and returns transmembrane topology, lipid exposure, residue contacts, helix–helix interactions and helical packing arrangement predictions in both plain text and graphical formats using a number of novel machine learning-based algorithms. Availability: The server can be accessed as a new component of the PSIPRED portal by at http://bioinf.cs.ucl.ac.uk/psipred/. Contact: d.jones@cs.ucl.ac.uk; t.nugent@cs.ucl.ac.uk PMID:21349872

  4. Conformational transitions in peptides containing two putative alpha-helices of the prion protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Kaneko, K; Nguyen, J T; Livshits, T L; Baldwin, M A; Cohen, F E; James, T L; Prusiner, S B

    1995-07-21

    Prions are composed largely, if not entirely, of the scrapie isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc). Conversion of the cellular isoform (PrPC) to PrPSc is accompanied by a diminution in the alpha-helical content and an increase in the beta-sheet structure. To investigate the structural basis of this transition, peptide fragments corresponding to Syrian hamster PrP residues 90 to 145 and 109 to 141, which contain the most conserved residues of the prion protein and the first two putative alpha-helical regions in a PrPC model, were studied using infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The peptides could be induced to form alpha-helical structures in aqueous solutions in the presence of organic solvents, such as trifluoroethanol and hexafluoroisopropanol, or detergents, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl phosphocholine. NaCl at physiological concentration or acetonitrile induced the peptides to acquire substantial beta-sheet. The intermolecular nature of the beta-sheet was evident in the formation of rod-shaped polymers as detected by electron microscopy. Resistance to hydrolysis by proteinase K and epitope mapping argue that the beta-sheet structures were formed by the interaction of residues lying between 109 and 141. A similar range of residues was shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to be capable of forming alpha-helices. The alpha-helical structures seem to require a hydrophobic support from either intermolecular interactions or the hydrophobic environment provided by micelles, in agreement with the predicted hydrophobic nature of the packing surface among the four putative helices of PrPC and the outer surfaces of the first two helices. Our results suggest that perturbation of the packing environment of the highly conserved residues is a possible mechanism for triggering the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc where alpha-helices appear to be converted into beta-sheets.

  5. Amphipathic alpha-helices in proteins: results from analysis of protein structures.

    PubMed

    Sharadadevi, Ambure; Sivakamasundari, Chandrasekaran; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2005-06-01

    Amphipathic alpha-helices play a crucial role in mediating the interaction of peptides and proteins with membranes. We have analyzed protein structures for the occurrence of 18-residue amphipathic helices. We find several of these alpha-helices having average hydrophobic moments and average hydrophobicities that would favor their interaction with membranes. We have analyzed the distribution of net charge, helix length, normalized frequency of occurrence, and propensities of the 20 amino acids in the delineated 18-residue helices. We have observed distinct differences in the frequencies of occurrence of polar and hydrophobic amino acids at positions 1-18 in amphipathic and nonamphipathic helices. There are also differences in propensities of the 20 amino acids to occur at positions 1-18 of amphipathic and nonamphipathic helices. Synthetic peptides corresponding to some of these surface-seeking helices do possess antibacterial and/or hemolytic activities. Knowledge of the distribution of charges in 18-residue surface-seeking amphipathic alpha-helices, as well as propensity of occurrence of amino acids at various positions, would be useful inputs in the de novo design of amphipathic peptides.

  6. Energy landscape, structure and rate effects on strength properties of alpha-helical proteins.

    PubMed

    Bertaud, Jérémie; Hester, Joshua; Jimenez, Daniel D; Buehler, Markus J

    2010-01-27

    The strength of protein domains is crucial to identify the mechanical role of protein domains in biological processes such as mechanotransduction, tissue mechanics and tissue remodeling. Whereas the concept of strength has been widely investigated for engineered materials, the strength of fundamental protein material building blocks and how it depends on structural parameters such as the chemical bonding, the protein filament length and the timescale of observation or deformation velocity remains poorly understood. Here we report a systematic analysis of the influence of key parameters that define the energy landscape of the strength properties of alpha-helical protein domains, including energy barriers, unfolding and refolding distances, the locations of folded and unfolded states, as well as variations of the length and pulling velocity of alpha-helical protein filaments. The analysis is facilitated by the development of a double-well mesoscale potential formulation, utilized here to carry out a systematic numerical analysis of the behavior of alpha-helices. We compare the results against widely used protein strength models based on the Bell model, one of the simplest models used to characterize the strength of protein filaments. We find that, whereas Bell-type models are a reasonable approximation to describe the rupture of alpha-helical protein domains for a certain range of pulling speeds and values of energy barriers, the model ceases to hold for very large energy barriers and for very small pulling speeds, in agreement with earlier findings. We conclude with an application of our mesoscale model to investigate the effect of the length of alpha-helices on their mechanical strength. We find a weakening effect as the length of alpha-helical proteins increases, followed by an asymptotic regime in which the strength remains constant. We compare strand lengths found in biological proteins with the scaling law of strength versus alpha-helix filament length. The

  7. Energy landscape, structure and rate effects on strength properties of alpha-helical proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaud, Jérémie; Hester, Joshua; Jimenez, Daniel D.; Buehler, Markus J.

    2010-01-01

    The strength of protein domains is crucial to identify the mechanical role of protein domains in biological processes such as mechanotransduction, tissue mechanics and tissue remodeling. Whereas the concept of strength has been widely investigated for engineered materials, the strength of fundamental protein material building blocks and how it depends on structural parameters such as the chemical bonding, the protein filament length and the timescale of observation or deformation velocity remains poorly understood. Here we report a systematic analysis of the influence of key parameters that define the energy landscape of the strength properties of alpha-helical protein domains, including energy barriers, unfolding and refolding distances, the locations of folded and unfolded states, as well as variations of the length and pulling velocity of alpha-helical protein filaments. The analysis is facilitated by the development of a double-well mesoscale potential formulation, utilized here to carry out a systematic numerical analysis of the behavior of alpha-helices. We compare the results against widely used protein strength models based on the Bell model, one of the simplest models used to characterize the strength of protein filaments. We find that, whereas Bell-type models are a reasonable approximation to describe the rupture of alpha-helical protein domains for a certain range of pulling speeds and values of energy barriers, the model ceases to hold for very large energy barriers and for very small pulling speeds, in agreement with earlier findings. We conclude with an application of our mesoscale model to investigate the effect of the length of alpha-helices on their mechanical strength. We find a weakening effect as the length of alpha-helical proteins increases, followed by an asymptotic regime in which the strength remains constant. We compare strand lengths found in biological proteins with the scaling law of strength versus alpha-helix filament length. The

  8. Alpha helical trans-membrane proteins: Enhanced prediction using a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul D; Toseland, Christopher P; Attwood, Teresa K; Flower, Darren R

    2006-11-14

    Membrane proteins, which constitute approximately 20% of most genomes, are poorly tractable targets for experimental structure determination, thus analysis by prediction and modelling makes an important contribution to their on-going study. Membrane proteins form two main classes: alpha helical and beta barrel trans-membrane proteins. By using a method based on Bayesian Networks, which provides a flexible and powerful framework for statistical inference, we addressed alpha-helical topology prediction. This method has accuracies of 77.4% for prokaryotic proteins and 61.4% for eukaryotic proteins. The method described here represents an important advance in the computational determination of membrane protein topology and offers a useful, and complementary, tool for the analysis of membrane proteins for a range of applications.

  9. Alternative function for the mitochondrial SAM complex in biogenesis of alpha-helical TOM proteins.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Diana; Guiard, Bernard; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2007-12-03

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains two preprotein translocases: the general translocase of outer membrane (TOM) and the beta-barrel-specific sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). TOM functions as the central entry gate for nuclear-encoded proteins. The channel-forming Tom40 is a beta-barrel protein, whereas all Tom receptors and small Tom proteins are membrane anchored by a transmembrane alpha-helical segment in their N- or C-terminal portion. Synthesis of Tom precursors takes place in the cytosol, and their import occurs via preexisting TOM complexes. The precursor of Tom40 is then transferred to SAM for membrane insertion and assembly. Unexpectedly, we find that the biogenesis of alpha-helical Tom proteins with a membrane anchor in the C-terminal portion is SAM dependent. Each SAM protein is necessary for efficient membrane integration of the receptor Tom22, whereas assembly of the small Tom proteins depends on Sam37. Thus, the substrate specificity of SAM is not restricted to beta-barrel proteins but also includes the majority of alpha-helical Tom proteins.

  10. The nature of phonons and solitary waves in alpha-helical proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, A. F.; McDaniel, J. C.; Chang, D. B.; Birge, R. R.

    1987-01-01

    A parametric study of the Davydov model of energy transduction in alpha-helical proteins is described. Previous investigations have shown that the Davydov model predicts that nonlinear interactions between phonons and amide-I excitations can stabilize the latter and produce a long-lived combined excitation (the so-called Davydov soliton), which propagates along the helix. The dynamics of this solitary wave are approximately those of solitons described using the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The present study extends these previous investigations by analyzing the effect of helix length and nonlinear coupling efficiency on the phonon spectrum in short and medium length alpha-helical segments. The phonon energy accompanying amide-I excitation shows periodic variation in time with fluctuations that follow three different time scales. The phonon spectrum is highly dependent upon chain length but a majority of the energy remains localized in normal mode vibrations even in the long chain alpha-helices. Variation of the phonon-exciton coupling coefficient changes the amplitudes but not the frequencies of the phonon spectrum. The computed spectra contain frequencies ranging from 200 GHz to 6 THz, and as the chain length is increased, the long period oscillations increase in amplitude. The most important prediction of this study, however, is that the dynamics predicted by the numerical calculations have more in common with dynamics described by using the Frohlich polaron model than by using the Davydov soliton. Accordingly, the relevance of the Davydov soliton model was applied to energy transduction in alpha-helical proteins is questionable. We conclude that the Raman lines that have been assigned to solitons in E. coli are either associated with low frequency normal modes or are instrumental- or fluorescence-induced artifacts. PMID:3593874

  11. Prediction of buried helices in multispan alpha helical membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Adamian, Larisa; Liang, Jie

    2006-04-01

    Analysis of a database of structures of membrane proteins shows that membrane proteins composed of 10 or more transmembrane (TM) helices often contain buried helices that are inaccessible to phospholipids. We introduce a method for identifying TM helices that are least phospholipid accessible and for prediction of fully buried TM helices in membrane proteins from sequence information alone. Our method is based on the calculation of residue lipophilicity and evolutionary conservation. Given that the number of buried helices in a membrane protein is known, our method achieves an accuracy of 78% and a Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.68. A server for this tool (RANTS) is available online at http://gila.bioengr.uic.edu/lab/.

  12. A novel method for packing quality assessment of transmembrane alpha-helical domains in proteins.

    PubMed

    Chugunov, A O; Novoseletsky, V N; Arseniev, A S; Efremov, R G

    2007-03-01

    Here we present a novel method for assessment of packing quality for transmembrane (TM) domains of alpha-helical membrane proteins (MPs), based on analysis of available high-resolution experimental structures of MPs. The presented concept of protein-membrane environment classes permits quantitative description of packing characteristics in terms of membrane accessibility and polarity of the nearest protein groups. We demonstrate that the method allows identification of native-like conformations among the large set of theoretical MP models. The developed "membrane scoring function" will be of use for optimization of TM domain packing in theoretical models of MPs, first of all G-protein coupled receptors.

  13. Gas-phase IR spectra of intact [alpha]-helical coiled coil protein complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagel, Kevin; Kupser, Peter; Bierau, Frauke; Polfer, Nicolas C.; Steill, Jeffrey D.; Oomens, Jos; Meijer, Gerard; Koksch, Beate; von Helden, Gert

    2009-06-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) is the softest ionization method that is currently available and it is widely accepted, that ESI generated ions of proteins and protein assemblies at certain conditions retain characteristic aspects of their solution-state conformation. ESI mass spectrometry (MS) therefore evolved as a useful tool to obtain information on composition, stoichiometry, and dynamics of non-covalently associated protein complexes. While tertiary structure information of proteins can be obtained from ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), only a few techniques yield direct information on the secondary structure of gas-phase peptides and proteins. We present here the mid-IR spectroscopic secondary structural analysis of three de novo designed [alpha]-helical coiled coil model peptides and their non-covalently associated complexes in the gas-phase. The conformational stability of such coiled coil peptides in solution is primarily driven by aggregation. Isolated monomers usually remain unfolded. Two of the investigated peptides were designed to assemble into stable [alpha]-helical complexes in acidic solution, while the third one remains monomeric and unfolded at these conditions. Monomer ions of all three peptides show comparable photodissociation IR spectra and therefore suggest an unfolded conformation in the gas phase. In contrast, considerable CO stretch (amide-I) and N-H bend (amide-II) band shifts have been observed for the dimers which is consistent with an elevated H-bond content. These findings provide evidence that at least a fraction of the condensed phase [alpha]-helical structure is retained in the gas-phase coiled coil complexes.

  14. Predicting stability of alpha-helical, orthogonal-bundle proteins on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shuai; Knotts, Thomas A.

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of proteins with surfaces is a key phenomenon in many applications, but current understanding of the biophysics involved is lacking. At present, rational design of such emerging technologies is difficult as no methods or theories exist that correctly predict how surfaces influence protein behavior. Using molecular simulation and a coarse-grain model, this study illustrates for the first time that stability of proteins on surfaces can be correlated with tertiary structural elements for alpha-helical, orthogonal-bundle proteins. Results show that several factors contribute to stability on surfaces including the nature of the loop region where the tether is placed and the ability of the protein to freely rotate on the surface. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that surfaces stabilize proteins entropically and that any destabilization is an enthalpic effect. Moreover, the entropic effects are concentrated on the unfolded state of the protein while the ethalpic effects are focused on the folded state.

  15. Predicting stability of alpha-helical, orthogonal-bundle proteins on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuai; Knotts, Thomas A

    2010-09-21

    The interaction of proteins with surfaces is a key phenomenon in many applications, but current understanding of the biophysics involved is lacking. At present, rational design of such emerging technologies is difficult as no methods or theories exist that correctly predict how surfaces influence protein behavior. Using molecular simulation and a coarse-grain model, this study illustrates for the first time that stability of proteins on surfaces can be correlated with tertiary structural elements for alpha-helical, orthogonal-bundle proteins. Results show that several factors contribute to stability on surfaces including the nature of the loop region where the tether is placed and the ability of the protein to freely rotate on the surface. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that surfaces stabilize proteins entropically and that any destabilization is an enthalpic effect. Moreover, the entropic effects are concentrated on the unfolded state of the protein while the ethalpic effects are focused on the folded state.

  16. Analytical study on the generalized Davydov model in the alpha helical proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pan; Xiao, Shu-Hong; Chen, Li; Yang, Gang

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a generalized Davydov model derived from an infinite chain of alpha helical protein molecules which contain three hydrogen bonding spines running almost parallel to the helical axis. Through the introduction of the auxiliary function, the bilinear form, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions for the generalized Davydov model are obtained firstly. Propagation and interactions of solitons have been investigated analytically and graphically. The amplitude of the soliton is only related to the complex parameter μ and real parameter 𝜃 with a range of [0, 2π]. The velocity of the soliton is only related to the complex parameter μ, real parameter 𝜃, lattice parameter 𝜀, and physical parameters β1, β3 and β4. Overtaking and head-on interactions of two and three solitons are presented. The common in the interactions of three solitons is the directions of the solitons change after the interactions. The soliton derived in this paper is expected to have potential applications in the alpha helical proteins.

  17. A novel partner for Dictyostelium filamin is an alpha-helical developmentally regulated protein.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Monika; Khaire, Nandkumar; Kuspa, Adam; Lu, Si Jie; Schleicher, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A

    2004-10-01

    The filamins are a family of highly homologous actin-crosslinking proteins that stabilize three-dimensional actin networks, link them to membrane proteins and direct intracellular signaling reactions to the actin scaffold through interaction with various binding partners. Here, we describe the first Dictyostelium filamin-interacting protein to be isolated--FIP, a 229.8 kDa protein with two alpha-helical coiled coil domains. FIP was identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen using the rod domain of filamin as bait. FIP can also be coimmunoprecipitated with filamin from cellular extracts. Deletion analysis located the interaction domain of FIP to a C-terminal region; by contrast, in filamin rods, repeats 2-4 interacted with the recombinant FIP protein. The 7 kb transcript of FIP is upregulated during early development. Monoclonal antibodies raised against a bacterially expressed FIP polypeptide recognize a 230 kDa developmentally regulated protein in western blots. Immunofluorescence analysis shows a punctate staining pattern in the cytosol and, in cell fractionation experiments, FIP is mainly found in the cytosolic fraction. A fusion protein composed of GFP and the C-terminal part localizes to the plasma membrane and is associated with the cytoskeleton. Expression of the fusion protein affects development and influences the size of the multicellular aggregates and the phototactic behavior of slugs. Thus, FIP might provide a candidate link between the dynamic actin cytoskeleton and signal transduction events during the multicellular stages of Dictyostelium amoebae.

  18. Alpha-Helical Protein Networks Are Self-Protective and Flaw-Tolerant

    PubMed Central

    Ackbarow, Theodor; Sen, Dipanjan; Thaulow, Christian; Buehler, Markus J.

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-helix based protein networks as they appear in intermediate filaments in the cell’s cytoskeleton and the nuclear membrane robustly withstand large deformation of up to several hundred percent strain, despite the presence of structural imperfections or flaws. This performance is not achieved by most synthetic materials, which typically fail at much smaller deformation and show a great sensitivity to the existence of structural flaws. Here we report a series of molecular dynamics simulations with a simple coarse-grained multi-scale model of alpha-helical protein domains, explaining the structural and mechanistic basis for this observed behavior. We find that the characteristic properties of alpha-helix based protein networks are due to the particular nanomechanical properties of their protein constituents, enabling the formation of large dissipative yield regions around structural flaws, effectively protecting the protein network against catastrophic failure. We show that the key for these self protecting properties is a geometric transformation of the crack shape that significantly reduces the stress concentration at corners. Specifically, our analysis demonstrates that the failure strain of alpha-helix based protein networks is insensitive to the presence of structural flaws in the protein network, only marginally affecting their overall strength. Our findings may help to explain the ability of cells to undergo large deformation without catastrophic failure while providing significant mechanical resistance. PMID:19547709

  19. Alpha-helical protein domains unify strength and robustness through hierarchical nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackbarow, Theodor; Buehler, Markus J.

    2009-02-01

    Hierarchical nanostructures, ranging through atomistic, molecular and macroscopic scales, represent universal features of biological protein materials. Here we show for the case of alpha-helical (AH) protein domains that this use of molecular hierarchies within the structural arrangement leads to an extended physical dimension in the material design space that resolves the conflict between disparate material properties such as strength and robustness, a limitation faced by many synthetic materials. An optimal combination of redundancies at different hierarchical levels enables superior mechanical performance without additional material use. Our analysis is facilitated by the application of a Hierarchical Bell model (HBM), which explicitly considers the hierarchical architecture of H-bonds within the protein structure, providing a structure-property relationship of strength properties of AH protein nanostructures. The HBM is validated by large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of several model protein structures. Our findings may enable the development of self-assembled de novo bioinspired nanomaterials based on peptide and protein building blocks, and could help in elucidating the mechanistic role of AHs in cell signaling and mechanotransduction.

  20. Soliton excitations and shape-changing collisions in alpha helical proteins with interspine coupling at higher order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Xing; Lin, Fuhong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the Lax representation, we solve the three coupled higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equations with the achievement of N-soliton solution formula, by means of Darboux transformation. With the involvement of multi-parameters (actually 21parameters) in the two-soliton solutions, we investigate the soliton excitations and collisions in alpha helical proteins with interspine coupling at higher order, in virtue of multi-parameter management and graphical simulation. It is found that both elastic and inelastic collisions can take place under suitable parametric conditions. Additionally, there exist three kinds of shape-changing collision patterns among the three components, and the inelastic collision of single solitons occur in two different manners: enhancement or suppression of intensity. Our results of multi-parameter management analysis may give theoretical support as well as further impetus in the experimental investigation on soliton excitations, elastic and inelastic collisions in alpha helical proteins with interspine coupling at higher order.

  1. Structural Origins of Nitroxide Side Chain Dynamics on Membrane Protein [alpha]-Helical Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kroncke, Brett M.; Horanyi, Peter S.; Columbus, Linda

    2010-12-07

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of membrane proteins in their native, hydrophobic environment is important to understanding how these proteins function. EPR spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) can measure dynamics and structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid environment; however, until now the dynamics measured have been qualitative due to limited knowledge of the nitroxide spin label's intramolecular motion in the hydrophobic environment. Although several studies have elucidated the structural origins of EPR line shapes of water-soluble proteins, EPR spectra of nitroxide spin-labeled proteins in detergents or lipids have characteristic differences from their water-soluble counterparts, suggesting significant differences in the underlying molecular motion of the spin label between the two environments. To elucidate these differences, membrane-exposed {alpha}-helical sites of the leucine transporter, LeuT, from Aquifex aeolicus, were investigated using X-ray crystallography, mutational analysis, nitroxide side chain derivatives, and spectral simulations in order to obtain a motional model of the nitroxide. For each crystal structure, the nitroxide ring of a disulfide-linked spin label side chain (R1) is resolved and makes contacts with hydrophobic residues on the protein surface. The spin label at site I204 on LeuT makes a nontraditional hydrogen bond with the ortho-hydrogen on its nearest neighbor F208, whereas the spin label at site F177 makes multiple van der Waals contacts with a hydrophobic pocket formed with an adjacent helix. These results coupled with the spectral effect of mutating the i {+-} 3, 4 residues suggest that the spin label has a greater affinity for its local protein environment in the low dielectric than on a water-soluble protein surface. The simulations of the EPR spectra presented here suggest the spin label oscillates about the terminal bond nearest the ring while maintaining weak contact

  2. A predictor of membrane class: Discriminating alpha-helical and beta-barrel membrane proteins from non-membranous proteins.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul D; Toseland, Christopher P; Attwood, Teresa K; Flower, Darren R

    2006-10-07

    Accurate protein structure prediction remains an active objective of research in bioinformatics. Membrane proteins comprise approximately 20% of most genomes. They are, however, poorly tractable targets of experimental structure determination. Their analysis using bioinformatics thus makes an important contribution to their on-going study. Using a method based on Bayesian Networks, which provides a flexible and powerful framework for statistical inference, we have addressed the alignment-free discrimination of membrane from non-membrane proteins. The method successfully identifies prokaryotic and eukaryotic alpha-helical membrane proteins at 94.4% accuracy, beta-barrel proteins at 72.4% accuracy, and distinguishes assorted non-membranous proteins with 85.9% accuracy. The method here is an important potential advance in the computational analysis of membrane protein structure. It represents a useful tool for the characterisation of membrane proteins with a wide variety of potential applications.

  3. Alpha-Helical Protein Domains Unify Strength and Robustness through Hierarchical Nanostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-23

    folding process need to be higher than the entropic contributions at given conditions 0957-4484/09/075103+11$30.00 © 2009 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed...by entropic effects of stretching the protein backbone (and restricting the degrees of freedom again) (see, e.g. the discussion recently reported in...this hypothesis in greater detail. In additional to the biological context, detailed studies of this concept as a novel ‘engineering paradigm ’ are

  4. Soliton excitations in a three-spine alpha-helical protein chain with quintic non-linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravana Veni, S.; Latha, M. M.

    2014-02-01

    We study the dynamics of a three-spine alpha-helical protein chain with quintic non-linearity. The dynamics is found to be governed by a perturbed three-coupled non-linear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. To investigate the solitonic aspects, we identify a completely integrable three-coupled cubic-quintic NLS equation by deriving the Lax pair of operators associated with it. In addition, we study the modulation instability aspects and obtain the conditions for soliton formation.

  5. Effect of a mutation on the structure and dynamics of an alpha-helical antifreeze protein in water and ice.

    PubMed

    Graether, Steffen P; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Sykes, Brian D

    2006-05-15

    One strategy of psychrophilic organisms to survive subzero temperature is to produce antifreeze protein (AFPs), which inhibit the growth of macromolecular ice. To better understand the binding mechanism, the structure and dynamics of several AFPs have been studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray crystallography. The results have shown that different organisms can use diverse structures (alpha-helix, beta-helix, or different globular folds) to achieve the same function. A number of studies have focused on understanding the relationship between the alpha-helical structure of fish type I AFP and its function as an inhibitor of ice growth. The results have not explained whether the 90% activity loss caused by the conservative mutation of two threonines to serines (Thr13Ser/Thr24Ser) is attributable to a change in protein structure in solution or in ice. We examine here the structure and dynamics of the winter flounder type I AFP and the mutant Thr13Ser/Thr24Ser in both solution and solid states using a wide range of NMR approaches. Both proteins remain fully alpha-helical at all temperatures and in ice, demonstrating that the activity change must therefore not be attributable to changes in the protein fold or dynamics but differences in surface properties.

  6. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Abundant Short Alpha-Helices as a Common Structural Feature of Oomycete RxLR Effector Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yang; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-01

    RxLR effectors represent one of the largest and most diverse effector families in oomycete plant pathogens. These effectors have attracted enormous attention since they can be delivered inside the plant cell and manipulates host immunity. With the exceptions of a signal peptide and the following RxLR-dEER and C-terminal W/Y/L motifs identified from the sequences themselves, nearly no functional domains have been found. Recently, protein structures of several RxLRs were revealed to comprise alpha-helical bundle repeats. However, approximately half of all RxLRs lack obvious W/Y/L motifs, which are associated with helical structures. In this study, secondary structure prediction of the putative RxLR proteins was performed. We found that the C-terminus of the majority of these RxLR proteins, irrespective of the presence of W/Y/L motifs, contains abundant short alpha-helices. Since a large-scale experimental determination of protein structures has been difficult to date, results of the current study extend our understanding on the oomycete RxLR effectors in protein secondary structures from individual members to the entire family. Moreover, we identified less alpha-helix-rich proteins from secretomes of several oomycete and fungal organisms in which RxLRs have not been identified, providing additional evidence that these organisms are unlikely to harbor RxLR-like proteins. Therefore, these results provide additional information that will aid further studies on the evolution and functional mechanisms of RxLR effectors. PMID:26252511

  7. Hierarchies, multiple energy barriers, and robustness govern the fracture mechanics of alpha-helical and beta-sheet protein domains.

    PubMed

    Ackbarow, Theodor; Chen, Xuefeng; Keten, Sinan; Buehler, Markus J

    2007-10-16

    The fundamental fracture mechanisms of biological protein materials remain largely unknown, in part, because of a lack of understanding of how individual protein building blocks respond to mechanical load. For instance, it remains controversial whether the free energy landscape of the unfolding behavior of proteins consists of multiple, discrete transition states or the location of the transition state changes continuously with the pulling velocity. This lack in understanding has thus far prevented us from developing predictive strength models of protein materials. Here, we report direct atomistic simulation that over four orders of magnitude in time scales of the unfolding behavior of alpha-helical (AH) and beta-sheet (BS) domains, the key building blocks of hair, hoof, and wool as well as spider silk, amyloids, and titin. We find that two discrete transition states corresponding to two fracture mechanisms exist. Whereas the unfolding mechanism at fast pulling rates is sequential rupture of individual hydrogen bonds (HBs), unfolding at slow pulling rates proceeds by simultaneous rupture of several HBs. We derive the hierarchical Bell model, a theory that explicitly considers the hierarchical architecture of proteins, providing a rigorous structure-property relationship. We exemplify our model in a study of AHs, and show that 3-4 parallel HBs per turn are favorable in light of the protein's mechanical and thermodynamical stability, in agreement with experimental findings that AHs feature 3.6 HBs per turn. Our results provide evidence that the molecular structure of AHs maximizes its robustness at minimal use of building materials.

  8. An engineered disulfide bridge in the transmembrane region of phage M13 coat protein stabilizes the alpha-helical dimer.

    PubMed

    Khan, A R; Deber, C M

    1995-01-05

    A single Cys-residue (Cys24) was introduced into the 50-amino acid major coat protein of M13 bacteriophage as part of a two-site substitution (Y24C-V31A) within the effective transmembrane (TM) segment (Tyr21 to Ile39) of the coat protein. Mutant Y24C-V31A was able to complete the phage life cycle and was shown to contain free sulfhydryls in the intact virus, as evidenced by susceptibility of Y24C-V31A phage to alkylation by Cys-specific 14C-iodoacetamide (14C-IAN). In contrast, the protein solubilized in deoxycholate micelles was resistant to 14C-IAN modification and was virtually inert to a transition from a characteristic alpha-helical oligomeric state to an aggregated beta-sheet structure relative to WT and V31A coat proteins, as shown by circular dichroism spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE. Reduction of mainly dimeric Y24C-V31A protein using beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME) generated monomeric species and resulted in a loss of helical thermostability. The overall results indicated that solubilization of Y24C-V31A coat protein into micelles resulted in formation of thermostable disulfide-bridged helical dimers. The disulfide bridge is deduced to be positioned along the stripe of residues involved in hydrophobic packing of TM parallel helical dimers.

  9. Rational design of alpha-helical tandem repeat proteins with closed architectures

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Lindsey; Hallinan, Jazmine; Bolduc, Jill; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Baker, David; Stoddard, Barry L.; Bradley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Tandem repeat proteins, which are formed by repetition of modular units of protein sequence and structure, play important biological roles as macromolecular binding and scaffolding domains, enzymes, and building blocks for the assembly of fibrous materials1,2. The modular nature of repeat proteins enables the rapid construction and diversification of extended binding surfaces by duplication and recombination of simple building blocks3,4. The overall architecture of tandem repeat protein structures – which is dictated by the internal geometry and local packing of the repeat building blocks – is highly diverse, ranging from extended, super-helical folds that bind peptide, DNA, and RNA partners5–9, to closed and compact conformations with internal cavities suitable for small molecule binding and catalysis10. Here we report the development and validation of computational methods for de novo design of tandem repeat protein architectures driven purely by geometric criteria defining the inter-repeat geometry, without reference to the sequences and structures of existing repeat protein families. We have applied these methods to design a series of closed alpha-solenoid11 repeat structures (alpha-toroids) in which the inter-repeat packing geometry is constrained so as to juxtapose the N- and C-termini; several of these designed structures have been validated by X-ray crystallography. Unlike previous approaches to tandem repeat protein engineering12–20, our design procedure does not rely on template sequence or structural information taken from natural repeat proteins and hence can produce structures unlike those seen in nature. As an example, we have successfully designed and validated closed alpha-solenoid repeats with a left-handed helical architecture that – to our knowledge – is not yet present in the protein structure database21. PMID:26675735

  10. Stable folding core in the folding transition state of an alpha-helical integral membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Curnow, Paul; Di Bartolo, Natalie D; Moreton, Kathleen M; Ajoje, Oluseye O; Saggese, Nicholas P; Booth, Paula J

    2011-08-23

    Defining the structural features of a transition state is important in understanding a folding reaction. Here, we use Φ-value and double mutant analyses to probe the folding transition state of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. We focus on the final C-terminal helix, helix G, of this seven transmembrane helical protein. Φ-values could be derived for 12 amino acid residues in helix G, most of which have low or intermediate values, suggesting that native structure is disrupted at these amino acid positions in the transition state. Notably, a cluster of residues between E204 and M209 all have Φ-values close to zero. Disruption of helix G is further confirmed by a low Φ-value of 0.2 between residues T170 on helix F and S226 on helix G, suggesting the absence of a native hydrogen bond between helices F and G. Φ-values for paired mutations involved in four interhelical hydrogen bonds revealed that all but one of these bonds is absent in the transition state. The unstructured helix G contrasts with Φ-values along helix B that are generally high, implying native structure in helix B in the transition state. Thus helix B seems to constitute part of a stable folding nucleus while the consolidation of helix G is a relatively late folding event. Polarization of secondary structure correlates with sequence position, with a structured helix B near the N terminus contrasting with an unstructured C-terminal helix G.

  11. Putative alpha-helical structures in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein and CD4 are involved in binding and degradation of the CD4 molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Tiganos, E; Yao, X J; Friborg, J; Daniel, N; Cohen, E A

    1997-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpu gene encodes a 16-kDa class I integral membrane phosphoprotein with an N-terminal membrane-spanning region and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. In the cytoplasmic domain, two amphipathic alpha-helices joined by a flexible turn containing two phosphoacceptor sites have been predicted. Previous studies have shown that Vpu downregulates CD4 molecules by inducing their specific degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Phosphorylation of serine residues 52 and 56, present within the cytoplasmic domain of the Vpu protein, has been shown to be essential to this Vpu function. However, the contribution of these two phosphoacceptor sites in the mechanism of CD4 degradation remains undefined. Interestingly, a specific interaction between Vpu and CD4 was recently demonstrated in coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Binding of Vpu was shown to be necessary but not sufficient to mediate CD4 degradation, indicating that interaction between Vpu and CD4 represents an early step critical in triggering a process leading to CD4 degradation. To delineate the sequence(s) and/or structural determinant(s) involved in this Vpu-CD4 interaction and in the Vpu-mediated CD4 degradation, we performed a mutational analysis of the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 and Vpu. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal that disruption of the putative alpha-helical structure in the membrane-proximal cytoplasmic domain of CD4 affects the binding to Vpu, suggesting that this structure may act as an interface for the CD4-Vpu interaction that mediates CD4 degradation. Vpu proteins containing mutations in either or both of the phosphoacceptor sites (Ser52 or/and Ser56) were inactive in regard to CD4 degradation yet retained the capacity to interact with the cytoplasmic domain of CD4. In an attempt to define the minimal region responsible for this interaction, we tested a panel of mutations which were designed to affect the integrity of the putative alpha-helices

  12. Simulation of folding of a small alpha-helical protein in atomistic detail using worldwide-distributed computing.

    PubMed

    Zagrovic, Bojan; Snow, Christopher D; Shirts, Michael R; Pande, Vijay S

    2002-11-08

    By employing thousands of PCs and new worldwide-distributed computing techniques, we have simulated in atomistic detail the folding of a fast-folding 36-residue alpha-helical protein from the villin headpiece. The total simulated time exceeds 300 micros, orders of magnitude more than previous simulations of a molecule of this size. Starting from an extended state, we obtained an ensemble of folded structures, which is on average 1.7A and 1.9A away from the native state in C(alpha) distance-based root-mean-square deviation (dRMS) and C(beta) dRMS sense, respectively. The folding mechanism of villin is most consistent with the hydrophobic collapse view of folding: the molecule collapses non-specifically very quickly ( approximately 20ns), which greatly reduces the size of the conformational space that needs to be explored in search of the native state. The conformational search in the collapsed state appears to be rate-limited by the formation of the aromatic core: in a significant fraction of our simulations, the C-terminal phenylalanine residue packs improperly with the rest of the hydrophobic core. We suggest that the breaking of this interaction may be the rate-determining step in the course of folding. On the basis of our simulations we estimate the folding rate of villin to be approximately 5micros. By analyzing the average features of the folded ensemble obtained by simulation, we see that the mean folded structure is more similar to the native fold than any individual folded structure. This finding highlights the need for simulating ensembles of molecules and averaging the results in an experiment-like fashion if meaningful comparison between simulation and experiment is to be attempted. Moreover, our results demonstrate that (1) the computational methodology exists to simulate the multi-microsecond regime using distributed computing and (2) that potential sets used to describe interatomic interactions may be sufficiently accurate to reach the folded state

  13. Synthesis of stabilized alpha-helical peptides.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Federico; Katz, Samuel G

    2014-01-01

    Stabilized alpha-helical (SAH) peptides are valuable laboratory tools to explore important protein-protein interactions. Whereas most peptides lose their secondary structure when isolated from the host protein, stapled peptides incorporate an all-hydrocarbon "staple" that reinforces their natural alpha-helical structure. Thus, stapled peptides retain their functional ability to bind their native protein targets and serve multiple experimental uses. First, they are useful for structural studies such as NMR or crystal structures that map and better define binding sites. Second, they can be used to identify small molecules that specifically target that interaction site. Third, stapled peptides can be used to test the importance of specific amino acid residues or posttranslational modifications to the binding. Fourth, they can serve as structurally competent bait to identify novel binding partners to specific alpha-helical motifs. In addition to markedly improved alpha-helicity, stapled peptides also display resistance to protease cleavage and enhanced cell permeability. Most importantly, they are useful for intracellular experiments that explore the functional consequences of blocking particular protein interactions. Because of their remarkable stability, stapled peptides can be applied to whole-animal, in vivo studies. Here we describe a protocol for the synthesis of a peptide that incorporates an all-hydrocarbon "staple" employing a ring-closing olefin metathesis reaction. With proper optimization, stapled peptides can be a fundamental, accurate laboratory tool in the modern chemical biologist's armory.

  14. Characterizing alpha helical properties of Ebola viral proteins as potential targets for inhibition of alpha-helix mediated protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Rao, Basuthkar J.; Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Dandekar, Abhaya

    2015-01-01

    Ebola, considered till recently as a rare and endemic disease, has dramatically transformed into a potentially global humanitarian crisis. The genome of Ebola, a member of the Filoviridae family, encodes seven proteins. Based on the recently implemented software (PAGAL) for analyzing the hydrophobicity and amphipathicity properties of alpha helices (AH) in proteins, we characterize the helices in the Ebola proteome. We demonstrate that AHs with characteristically unique features are involved in critical interactions with the host proteins. For example, the Ebola virus membrane fusion subunit, GP2, from the envelope glycoprotein ectodomain has an AH with a large hydrophobic moment. The neutralizing antibody (KZ52) derived from a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit outbreak recognizes a protein epitope on this AH, emphasizing the critical nature of this secondary structure in the virulence of the Ebola virus. Our method ensures a comprehensive list of such `hotspots'. These helices probably are or can be the target of molecules designed to inhibit AH mediated protein-protein interactions. Further, by comparing the AHs in proteins of the related Marburg viruses, we are able to elicit subtle changes in the proteins that might render them ineffective to previously successful drugs. Such differences are difficult to identify by a simple sequence or structural alignment. Thus, analyzing AHs in the small Ebola proteome can aid rational design aimed at countering the `largest Ebola epidemic, affecting multiple countries in West Africa' ( http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/index.html). PMID:25717367

  15. Phase space trajectories and Lyapunov exponents in the dynamics of an alpha-helical protein lattice with intra- and inter-spine interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Angelin Jeba, K.; Latha, M. M.; Jain, Sudhir R.

    2015-11-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of intra- and inter-spine interaction models of alpha-helical proteins is investigated by proposing a Hamiltonian using the first quantized operators. Hamilton's equations of motion are derived, and the dynamics is studied by constructing the trajectories and phase space plots in both cases. The phase space plots display a chaotic behaviour in the dynamics, which opens questions about the relationship between the chaos and exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions. This is verified by plotting the Lyapunov characteristic exponent curves.

  16. Phase space trajectories and Lyapunov exponents in the dynamics of an alpha-helical protein lattice with intra- and inter-spine interactions.

    PubMed

    Angelin Jeba, K; Latha, M M; Jain, Sudhir R

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of intra- and inter-spine interaction models of alpha-helical proteins is investigated by proposing a Hamiltonian using the first quantized operators. Hamilton's equations of motion are derived, and the dynamics is studied by constructing the trajectories and phase space plots in both cases. The phase space plots display a chaotic behaviour in the dynamics, which opens questions about the relationship between the chaos and exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions. This is verified by plotting the Lyapunov characteristic exponent curves.

  17. Phase space trajectories and Lyapunov exponents in the dynamics of an alpha-helical protein lattice with intra- and inter-spine interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelin Jeba, K.; Latha, M. M.; Jain, Sudhir R.

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of intra- and inter-spine interaction models of alpha-helical proteins is investigated by proposing a Hamiltonian using the first quantized operators. Hamilton's equations of motion are derived, and the dynamics is studied by constructing the trajectories and phase space plots in both cases. The phase space plots display a chaotic behaviour in the dynamics, which opens questions about the relationship between the chaos and exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions. This is verified by plotting the Lyapunov characteristic exponent curves.

  18. Synthesis and NMR solution structure of an alpha-helical hairpin stapled with two disulfide bridges.

    PubMed Central

    Barthe, P.; Rochette, S.; Vita, C.; Roumestand, C.

    2000-01-01

    Helical coiled-coils and bundles are some of the most common structural motifs found in proteins. Design and synthesis of alpha-helical motifs may provide interesting scaffolds that can be useful as host structures to display functional sites, thus allowing the engineering of novel functional miniproteins. We have synthesized a 38-amino acid peptide, alpha2p8, encompassing the alpha-helical hairpin present in the structure of p8MTCP1, as an alpha-helical scaffold particularly promising for its stability and permissiveness of sequence mutations. The three-dimensional structure of this peptide has been solved using homonuclear two-dimensional NMR techniques at 600 MHz. After sequence specific assignment, a total of 285 distance and 29 dihedral restraints were collected. The solution structure of alpha2p8 is presented as a set of 30 DIANA structures, further refined by restrained molecular dynamics, using simulated annealing protocol with the AMBER force field. The RMSD values for the backbone and all heavy atoms are 0.65+/-0.25 and 1.51+/-0.21 A, respectively. Excised from its protein context, the alpha-hairpin keeps its native structure: an alpha-helical coiled-coil, similar to that found in superhelical structures, with two helices spanning residues 4-16 and 25-36, and linked by a short loop. This motif is stabilized by two interhelical disulfide bridges and several hydrophobic interactions at the helix interface, leaving most of its solvent-exposed surface available for mutation. This alpha-helical hairpin, easily amenable to synthetic chemistry and biological expression system, may represent a stable and versatile scaffold to display new functional sites and peptide libraries. PMID:10850804

  19. Dark solitonic excitations and collisions from a fourth-order dispersive nonlinear Schrödinger model for the alpha helical protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong-Xiang; Tian, Bo; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Pan

    2014-03-01

    Recent protein observations motivate the dark-soliton study to explain the energy transfer in the proteins. In this paper we will investigate a fourth-order dispersive nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which governs the Davydov solitons in the alpha helical protein with higher-order effects. Painlevé analysis is performed to prove the equation is integrable. Through the introduction of an auxiliary function, bilinear forms and dark N-soliton solutions are constructed with the Hirota method and symbolic computation. Asymptotic analysis on the two-soliton solutions indicates that the soliton collisions are elastic. Decrease of the coefficient of higher-order effects can increase the soliton velocities. Graphical analysis on the two-soliton solutions indicates that the head-on collision between the two solitons, overtaking collision between the two solitons and collision between a moving soliton and a stationary one are all elastic. Collisions among the three solitons are all pairwise elastic.

  20. Boehringer Mannheim award lecture 1995. La conference Boehringer Mannheim 1995. De novo design of alpha-helical proteins: basic research to medical applications.

    PubMed

    Hodges, R S

    1996-01-01

    The two-stranded alpha-helical coiled-coil is a universal dimerization domain used by nature in a diverse group of proteins. The simplicity of the coiled-coil structure makes it an ideal model system to use in understanding the fundamentals of protein folding and stability and in testing the principles of de novo design. The issues that must be addressed in the de novo design of coiled-coils for use in research and medical applications are (i) controlling parallel versus antiparallel orientation of the polypeptide chains, (ii) controlling the number of helical strands in the assembly (iii) maximizing stability of homodimers or heterodimers in the shortest possible chain length that may require the engineering of covalent constraints, and (iv) the ability to have selective heterodimerization without homodimerization, which requires a balancing of selectivity versus affinity of the dimerization strands. Examples of our initial inroads in using this de novo design motif in various applications include: heterodimer technology for the detection and purification of recombinant peptides and proteins; a universal dimerization domain for biosensors; a two-stage targeting and delivery system; and coiled-coils as templates for combinatorial helical libraries for basic research and drug discovery and as synthetic carrier molecules. The universality of this dimerization motif in nature suggests an endless number of possibilities for its use in de novo design, limited only by the creativity of peptide-protein engineers.

  1. The GCN4 basic region leucine zipper binds DNA as a dimer of uninterrupted alpha helices: crystal structure of the protein-DNA complex.

    PubMed

    Ellenberger, T E; Brandl, C J; Struhl, K; Harrison, S C

    1992-12-24

    The yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 is 1 of over 30 identified eukaryotic proteins containing the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA-binding motif. We have determined the crystal structure of the GCN4 bZIP element complexed with DNA at 2.9 A resolution. The bZIP dimer is a pair of continuous alpha helices that form a parallel coiled coil over their carboxy-terminal 30 residues and gradually diverge toward their amino termini to pass through the major groove of the DNA-binding site. The coiled-coil dimerization interface is oriented almost perpendicular to the DNA axis, giving the complex the appearance of the letter T. There are no kinks or sharp bends in either bZIP monomer. Numerous contacts to DNA bases and phosphate oxygens are made by basic region residues that are conserved in the bZIP protein family. The details of the bZIP dimer interaction with DNA can explain recognition of the AP-1 site by the GCN4 protein.

  2. Soliton excitations and interactions for the three-coupled fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the alpha helical proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Rong; Tian, Bo; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhen, Hui-Ling

    2015-06-01

    Three-coupled fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations describe the dynamics of alpha helical proteins with the interspine coupling at the higher order. Through symbolic computation and binary Bell-polynomial approach, bilinear forms and N-soliton solutions for such equations are constructed. Key point lies in the introduction of auxiliary functions in the Bell-polynomial expression. Asymptotic analysis is applied to investigate the elastic interaction between the two solitons: two solitons keep their original amplitudes, energies and velocities invariant after the interaction except for the phase shifts. Soliton amplitudes are related to the energy distributed in the solitons of the three spines. Overtaking interaction, head-on interaction and bound-state solitons of two solitons are given. Bound states of three bright solitons arise when all of them propagate in parallel. Elastic interaction between the bound-state solitons and one bright soliton is shown. Increase of the lattice parameter can lead to the increase of the soliton velocity, that is, the interaction period becomes shorter. The solitons propagating along the neighbouring spines are found to interact elastically. Those solitons, exhibited in this paper, might be viewed as a possible carrier of bio-energy transport in the protein molecules.

  3. A human centromere protein, CENP-B, has a DNA binding domain containing four potential alpha helices at the NH2 terminus, which is separable from dimerizing activity

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The alphoid DNA-CENP-B (centromere protein B) complex is the first sequence-specific DNA/protein complex detected in the centromeric region of human chromosomes. In the reaction, CENP-B recognizes a 17-bp sequence (CENP-B box) and assembles two alphoid DNA molecules into a complex, which is designated complex A (Muro, Y., H. Masumoto, K. Yoda, N. Nozaki, M. Ohashi, and T. Okazaki. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 116:585-596). Since CENP-B gene is conserved in mammalian species and CENP-B boxes are found also in mouse centromere satellite DNA (minor satellite), this sequence-specific DNA-protein interaction may be important for some kind of common centromere function. In this study we have characterized the structure of CENP-B and CENP-B-alphoid DNA complex. We have shown by chemical cross-linking that CENP-B formed a dimer, and have estimated by molecular weight determination the composition of complex A to be a CENP-B dimer and two molecules of alphoid DNA. The DNA binding domain has been delimited within the NH2-terminal 125-amino acid region containing four potential alpha-helices using truncated CENP-B made in Escherichia coli cells. We have shown that CENP-B had sites highly sensitive to proteases and that the DNA binding domain was separable from the dimerizing activity by the proteolytic cleavage at 20 kD from the COOH terminus of the molecule. Thus, CENP-B may organize a higher order structure in the centromere by juxtaposing two CENP-B boxes in the alphoid DNA repeat through both the DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. PMID:1469042

  4. Role of hydrophobicity and solvent-mediated charge-charge interactions in stabilizing alpha-helices.

    PubMed Central

    Vila, J A; Ripoll, D R; Villegas, M E; Vorobjev, Y N; Scheraga, H A

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical study to identify the conformational preferences of lysine-based oligopeptides has been carried out. The solvation free energy and free energy of ionization of the oligopeptides have been calculated by using a fast multigrid boundary element method that considers the coupling between the conformation of the molecule and the ionization equilibria explicitly, at a given pH value. It has been found experimentally that isolated alanine and lysine residues have somewhat small intrinsic helix-forming tendencies; however, results from these simulations indicate that conformations containing right-handed alpha-helical turns are energetically favorable at low values of pH for lysine-based oligopeptides. Also, unusual patterns of interactions among lysine side chains with large hydrophobic contacts and close proximity (5-6 A) between charged NH3+ groups are observed. Similar arrangements of charged groups have been seen for lysine and arginine residues in experimentally determined structures of proteins available from the Protein Data Bank. The lowest-free-energy conformation of the sequence Ac-(LYS)6-NMe from these simulations showed large pKalpha shifts for some of the NH3+ groups of the lysine residues. Such large effects are not observed in the lowest-energy conformations of oligopeptide sequences with two, three, or four lysine residues. Calculations on the sequence Ac-LYS-(ALA)4-LYS-NMe also reveal low-energy alpha-helical conformations with interactions of one of the LYS side chains with the helix backbone in an arrangement quite similar to the one described recently by (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93:4025-4029). The results of this study provide a sound basis with which to discuss the nature of the interactions, such as hydrophobicity, charge-charge interaction, and solvent polarization effects, that stabilize right-handed alpha-helical conformations. PMID:9826588

  5. Computational protein design with backbone plasticity

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, James T.; Freemont, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    The computational algorithms used in the design of artificial proteins have become increasingly sophisticated in recent years, producing a series of remarkable successes. The most dramatic of these is the de novo design of artificial enzymes. The majority of these designs have reused naturally occurring protein structures as ‘scaffolds’ onto which novel functionality can be grafted without having to redesign the backbone structure. The incorporation of backbone flexibility into protein design is a much more computationally challenging problem due to the greatly increased search space, but promises to remove the limitations of reusing natural protein scaffolds. In this review, we outline the principles of computational protein design methods and discuss recent efforts to consider backbone plasticity in the design process. PMID:27911735

  6. Discovering side-chain correlation in {alpha}-Helices

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, T.M.; Brutlag, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Using a new representation for interactions in protein sequences based on correlations between pairs of amino acids, we have examined {alpha}-helical segments from known protein structures for important interactions. Traditional techniques for representing protein sequences usually make an explicit assumption of conditional independence of residues in the sequences. Protein structure analyses, however, have repeatedly demonstrated the importance of amino acid interactions for structural stability. We have developed an automated program for discovering sequence correlations in sets of aligned protein sequences using standard statistical tests and for representing them with Bayesian networks. In this paper, we demonstrate the power of our discovery program and representation by analyzing pairs of residues from {alpha}-helices. The sequence correlations we find represent physical and chemical interactions among amino-acid side chains in helical structures. Furthermore, these local interactions are likely to be important for stabilizing and packing {alpha}-helices. Lastly, we have also detect correlations in side-chain conformations that indicate important structural interactions but which don`t appear as sequence correlations.

  7. Peptide alpha-helices for synthetic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ryadnov, M G

    2007-06-01

    Supramolecular structures arising from a broad range of chemical archetypes are of great technological promise. Defining such structures at the nanoscale is crucial to access principally new types of functional materials for applications in bionanotechnology. In this vein, biomolecular self-assembly has emerged as an efficient approach for building synthetic nanostructures from the bottom up. The approach predominantly employs the spontaneous folding of biopolymers to monodisperse three-dimensional shapes that assemble into hierarchically defined mesoscale composites. An immediate interest here is the extraction of reliable rules that link the chemistry of biopolymers to the mechanisms of their assembly. Once established these can be further harnessed in designing supramolecular objects de novo. Different biopolymer classes compile a rich repertoire of assembly motifs to facilitate the synthesis of otherwise inaccessible nanostructures. Among those are peptide alpha-helices, ubiquitous folding elements of natural protein assemblies. These are particularly appealing candidates for prescriptive supramolecular engineering, as their well-established and conservative design rules give unmatched predictability and rationale. Recent developments of self-assembling systems based on helical peptides, including fibrous systems, nanoscale linkers and reactors will be highlighted herein.

  8. Pyridoxamine Protects Protein Backbone from Oxidative Fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Chetyrkin, Sergei; Mathis, Missy; McDonald, W. Hayes; Shackelford, Xavier; Hudson, Billy; Voziyan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative damage to proteins is one of the major pathogenic mechanisms in many chronic diseases. Therefore, inhibition of this oxidative damage can be an important part of therapeutic strategies. Pyridoxamine (PM), a prospective drug for treatment of diabetic nephropathy, has been previously shown to inhibit several oxidative and glycoxidative pathways, thus protecting amino acid side chains of the proteins from oxidative damage. Here, we demonstrated that PM can also protect protein backbone from fragmentation induced via different oxidative mechanisms including autoxidation of glucose. This protection was due to hydroxyl radical scavenging by PM and may contribute to PM therapeutic effects shown in clinical trials. PMID:21763683

  9. Nonlinear backbone torsional pair correlations in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu

    2016-10-01

    Protein allostery requires dynamical structural correlations. Physical origin of which, however, remain elusive despite intensive studies during last two and half decades. Based on analysis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories for ten proteins with different sizes and folds, we found that nonlinear backbone torsional pair (BTP) correlations, which are mainly spatially long-ranged and are dominantly executed by loop residues, exist extensively in most analyzed proteins. Examination of torsional motion for correlated BTPs suggested that such nonlinear correlations are mainly associated aharmonic torsional state transitions and in some cases strongly anisotropic local torsional motion of participating torsions, and occur on widely different and relatively longer time scales. In contrast, correlations between backbone torsions in stable α helices and β strands are mainly linear and spatially short-ranged, and are more likely to associate with harmonic local torsional motion. Further analysis revealed that the direct cause of nonlinear contributions are heterogeneous linear correlations. These findings implicate a general search strategy for novel allosteric modulation sites of protein activities.

  10. Nonlinear backbone torsional pair correlations in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu

    2016-01-01

    Protein allostery requires dynamical structural correlations. Physical origin of which, however, remain elusive despite intensive studies during last two and half decades. Based on analysis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories for ten proteins with different sizes and folds, we found that nonlinear backbone torsional pair (BTP) correlations, which are mainly spatially long-ranged and are dominantly executed by loop residues, exist extensively in most analyzed proteins. Examination of torsional motion for correlated BTPs suggested that such nonlinear correlations are mainly associated aharmonic torsional state transitions and in some cases strongly anisotropic local torsional motion of participating torsions, and occur on widely different and relatively longer time scales. In contrast, correlations between backbone torsions in stable α helices and β strands are mainly linear and spatially short-ranged, and are more likely to associate with harmonic local torsional motion. Further analysis revealed that the direct cause of nonlinear contributions are heterogeneous linear correlations. These findings implicate a general search strategy for novel allosteric modulation sites of protein activities. PMID:27708342

  11. Hydrogen bonds between short polar side chains and peptide backbone: prevalence in proteins and effects on helix-forming propensities.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, M; Qian, H; Zhou, H X

    1999-03-01

    A survey of 322 proteins showed that the short polar (SP) side chains of four residues, Thr, Ser, Asp, and Asn, have a very strong tendency to form hydrogen bonds with neighboring backbone amides. Specifically, 32% of Thr, 29% of Ser, 26% of Asp, and 19% of Asn engage in such hydrogen bonds. When an SP residue caps the N terminal of a helix, the contribution to helix stability by a hydrogen bond with the amide of the N3 or N2 residue is well established. When an SP residue is in the middle of a helix, the side chain is unlikely to form hydrogen bonds with neighboring backbone amides for steric and geometric reasons. In essence the SP side chain competes with the backbone carbonyl for the same hydrogen-bonding partner (i.e., the backbone amide) and thus SP residues tend to break backbone carbonyl-amide hydrogen bonds. The proposition that this is the origin for the low propensities of SP residues in the middle of alpha helices (relative to those of nonpolar residues) was tested. The combined effects of restricting side-chain rotamer conformations (documented by Creamer and Rose, Proc Acad Sci USA, 1992;89:5937-5941; Proteins, 1994;19:85-97) and excluding side- chain to backbone hydrogen bonds by the helix were quantitatively analyzed. These were found to correlate strongly with four experimentally determined scales of helix-forming propensities. The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.87, which are comparable to those found for nonpolar residues (for which only the loss of side-chain conformational entropy needs to be considered).

  12. Peptide backbone circularization enhances antifreeze protein thermostability.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Corey A; Semrau, Joanna; Chiriac, Dragos; Litschko, Morgan; Campbell, Robert L; Langelaan, David N; Smith, Steven P; Davies, Peter L; Allingham, John S

    2017-10-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a class of ice-binding proteins that promote survival of a variety of cold-adapted organisms by decreasing the freezing temperature of bodily fluids. A growing number of biomedical, agricultural, and commercial products, such as organs, foods, and industrial fluids, have benefited from the ability of AFPs to control ice crystal growth and prevent ice recrystallization at subzero temperatures. One limitation of AFP use in these latter contexts is their tendency to denature and irreversibly lose activity at the elevated temperatures of certain industrial processing or large-scale AFP production. Using the small, thermolabile type III AFP as a model system, we demonstrate that AFP thermostability is dramatically enhanced via split intein-mediated N- and C-terminal end ligation. To engineer this circular protein, computational modeling and molecular dynamics simulations were applied to identify an extein sequence that would fill the 20-Å gap separating the free ends of the AFP, yet impose little impact on the structure and entropic properties of its ice-binding surface. The top candidate was then expressed in bacteria, and the circularized protein was isolated from the intein domains by ice-affinity purification. This circularized AFP induced bipyramidal ice crystals during ice growth in the hysteresis gap and retained 40% of this activity even after incubation at 100°C for 30 min. NMR analysis implicated enhanced thermostability or refolding capacity of this protein compared to the noncyclized wild-type AFP. These studies support protein backbone circularization as a means to expand the thermostability and practical applications of AFPs. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  13. Statistical analysis of intrahelical ionic interactions in alpha-helices and coiled coils.

    PubMed

    Meier, Markus; Burkhard, Peter

    2006-08-01

    There are many controversies concerning whether ionic interactions in alpha-helices and coiled coils actually contribute to the stabilisation and formation of these structures. Here we used a statistical approach to probe this question. We extracted unique alpha-helical and coiled coil structures from the protein database and analysed the ionic interactions between positively and negatively charged residues. The ionic interactions were categorized according to the type, spacing and order of the residues involved. Separate datasets were produced depending on the number of alpha-helices in the coiled coils and the mutual orientation of the helices. We compared the frequency of residue configurations able to form ionic interactions with their probability to form the interaction. We found a correlation between the two variables in alpha-helices, antiparallel two-stranded coiled coils and parallel two-stranded coiled coils. This indicates that some ionic interactions are indeed important for the formation and stabilisation of alpha-helices and coiled coils. We concluded that the configurations, which have simultaneously a large probability to form the ionic interaction and a frequent occurrence, are those, which have the most stabilising effect. These are the 4RE, 3ER and 4ER interactions.

  14. Bilinear forms and soliton solutions for a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an inhomogeneous Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain or an alpha helical protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Wang, Qi-Min; Su, Chuan-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation is studied, which might describe a one-dimensional continuum anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple-dipole interaction or an alpha helical protein with higher-order excitations and interactions under continuum approximation. With the aid of auxiliary function, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Via the symbolic computation, we obtain the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions. We discuss the influence of the variable coefficients on the solitons. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the parabolic, cubic, and periodic solitons, respectively. We analyse the head-on and overtaking interactions between/among the two and three solitons. Interactions between a bound state and a single soliton are displayed with different choices of variable coefficients. We also derive the quasi-periodic formulae for the three cases of the bound states.

  15. Nanofibers formed through pi...pi stacking of the complexes of glucosyl-C2-salicyl-imine and phenylalanine: characterization by microscopy, modeling by molecular mechanics, and interaction by alpha-helical and beta-sheet proteins.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Amitabha; Ramanujam, Balaji; Mitra, Atanu; Rao, Chebrolu P

    2010-07-27

    This paper deals with the self-assembly of the 1:1 complex of two different amphiphiles, namely, a glucosyl-salicyl-imino conjugate (L) and phenylalanine (Phe), forming nanofibers over a period of time through pi...pi interactions. Significant enhancement observed in the fluorescence intensity of L at approximately 423 nm band and the significant decrease observed in the absorbance of the approximately 215 nm band are some characteristics of this self-assembly. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight titration carried out at different time intervals supports the formation of higher aggregates. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron miscroscopy results showed the formation of nanofibers for the solutions of L with phenylalanine. In dynamic light scattering measurements, the distribution of the particles extends to a higher diameter range over time, indicating a slow kinetic process of assembly. Similar spectral and microscopy studies carried out with the control molecules support the role of the amino acid moiety over the simple -COOH moiety as well as the side chain phenyl moiety in association with the amino acid, in the formation of these fibers. All these observations support the presence of pi...pi interactions between the initially formed 1:1 complexes leading to the fiber formation. The aggregation of 1:1 complexes leading to fibers followed by the formation of bundles has been modeled by molecular mechanics studies. Thus the fiber formation with L is limited to phenylalanine and not to any other naturally occurring amino acid and hence a polymer composed of two different biocompatible amphiphiles. AFM studies carried out between the fiber forming mixture and proteins resulted in the observation that only BSA selectively adheres to the fiber among the three alpha-helical and two beta-sheet proteins studied and hence may be of use in some medical applications.

  16. Amphipathic alpha-helices and putative cholesterol binding domains of the influenza virus matrix M1 protein are crucial for virion structure organisation.

    PubMed

    Tsfasman, Tatyana; Kost, Vladimir; Markushin, Stanislav; Lotte, Vera; Koptiaeva, Irina; Bogacheva, Elena; Baratova, Ludmila; Radyukhin, Victor

    2015-12-02

    The influenza virus matrix M1 protein is an amphitropic membrane-associated protein, forming the matrix layer immediately beneath the virus raft membrane, thereby ensuring the proper structure of the influenza virion. The objective of this study was to elucidate M1 fine structural characteristics, which determine amphitropic properties and raft membrane activities of the protein, via 3D in silico modelling with subsequent mutational analysis. Computer simulations suggest the amphipathic nature of the M1 α-helices and the existence of putative cholesterol binding (CRAC) motifs on six amphipathic α-helices. Our finding explains for the first time many features of this protein, particularly the amphitropic properties and raft/cholesterol binding potential. To verify these results, we generated mutants of the A/WSN/33 strain via reverse genetics. The M1 mutations included F32Y in the CRAC of α-helix 2, W45Y and W45F in the CRAC of α-helix 3, Y100S in the CRAC of α-helix 6, M128A and M128S in the CRAC of α-helix 8 and a double L103I/L130I mutation in both a putative cholesterol consensus motif and the nuclear localisation signal. All mutations resulted in viruses with unusual filamentous morphology. Previous experimental data regarding the morphology of M1-gene mutant influenza viruses can now be explained in structural terms and are consistent with the pivotal role of the CRAC-domains and amphipathic α-helices in M1-lipid interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural immune response to Plasmodium vivax alpha-helical coiled coil protein motifs and its association with the risk of P. vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Nora; Li Wai Suen, Connie S N; Koepfli, Cristian; França, Camila T; Felger, Ingrid; Nebie, Issa; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Mueller, Ivo; Corradin, Giampietro; Herrera, Sócrates

    2017-01-01

    Protein α-helical coiled coil structures are known to induce antibodies able to block critical functions in different pathogens. In a previous study, a total of 50 proteins of Plasmodium vivax erythrocytic asexual stages containing α-helical coiled coil structural motifs were identified in silico, and the corresponding peptides were chemically synthesized. A total of 43 peptides were recognized by naturally acquired antibodies in plasma samples from both Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Colombian adult donors. In this study, the association between IgG antibodies to these peptides and clinical immunity was further explored by measuring total IgG antibody levels to 24 peptides in baseline samples from a longitudinal study of children aged 1-3 years (n = 164) followed for 16 months. Samples were reactive to all peptides tested. Eight peptides were recognized by >50% of individuals, whereas only one peptide had < 20% reactivity. Children infected at baseline were seropositive to 23/24 peptides. No significant association was observed between antibody titers and age or molecular force of infection, suggesting that antibody levels had already reached an equilibrium. There was a strong association between antibody levels to all peptides and protection against P. vivax clinical episodes during the 16 months follow-up. These results suggest that the selected coiled coil antigens might be good markers of both exposure and acquired immunity to P. vivax malaria, and further preclinical investigation should be performed to determine their potential as P. vivax vaccine antigens.

  18. Sorting of the neuroendocrine secretory protein Secretogranin II into the regulated secretory pathway: role of N- and C-terminal alpha-helical domains.

    PubMed

    Courel, Maïté; Vasquez, Michael S; Hook, Vivian Y; Mahata, Sushil K; Taupenot, Laurent

    2008-04-25

    Secretogranin II (SgII) belongs to the granin family of prohormones widely distributed in dense-core secretory granules (DCGs) of endocrine, neuroendocrine, and neuronal cells, including sympathoadrenal chromaffin cells. The mechanisms by which secretory proteins, and granins in particular, are sorted into the regulated secretory pathway are unsettled. We designed a strategy based on novel chimeric forms of human SgII fused to fluorescent (green fluorescent protein) or chemiluminescent (embryonic alkaline phosphatase) reporters to identify trafficking determinants mediating DCG targeting of SgII in sympathoadrenal cells. Three-dimensional deconvolution fluorescence microscopy and secretagogue-stimulated release studies demonstrate that SgII chimeras are correctly targeted to DCGs and released by exocytosis in PC12 and primary chromaffin cells. Results from a Golgi-retained mutant form of SgII suggest that sorting of SgII into DCGs depends on a saturable sorting machinery at the trans-Golgi/trans-Golgi network. Truncation analyses reveal the presence of DCG-targeting signals within both the N- and C-terminal regions of SgII, with the putative alpha-helix-containing SgII-(25-41) and SgII-(334-348) acting as sufficient, independent sorting domains. This study defines sequence features of SgII mediating vesicular targeting in sympathoadrenal cells and suggests a mechanism by which discrete domains of the molecule function in sorting, perhaps by virtue of a particular arrangement in tertiary structure and/or interaction with a specific component of the DCG membrane.

  19. Consensus Prediction of Charged Single Alpha-Helices with CSAHserver.

    PubMed

    Dudola, Dániel; Tóth, Gábor; Nyitray, László; Gáspári, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Charged single alpha-helices (CSAHs) constitute a rare structural motif. CSAH is characterized by a high density of regularly alternating residues with positively and negatively charged side chains. Such segments exhibit unique structural properties; however, there are only a handful of proteins where its existence is experimentally verified. Therefore, establishing a pipeline that is capable of predicting the presence of CSAH segments with a low false positive rate is of considerable importance. Here we describe a consensus-based approach that relies on two conceptually different CSAH detection methods and a final filter based on the estimated helix-forming capabilities of the segments. This pipeline was shown to be capable of identifying previously uncharacterized CSAH segments that could be verified experimentally. The method is available as a web server at http://csahserver.itk.ppke.hu and also a downloadable standalone program suitable to scan larger sequence collections.

  20. Evidence that the stalk of Drosophila kinesin heavy chain is an alpha- helical coiled coil

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Kinesin is a mechanochemical enzyme composed of three distinct domains: a globular head domain, a rodlike stalk domain, and a small globular tail domain. The stalk domain has sequence features characteristic of alpha-helical coiled coils. To gain insight into the structure of the kinesin stalk, we expressed it from a segment of the Drosophila melanogaster kinesin heavy chain gene and purified it from Escherichia coli. When observed by EM, this protein formed a rodlike structure 40- 55 nm long that was occasionally bent at a hingelike region near the middle of the molecule. An additional EM study and a chemical cross- linking study showed that this protein forms a parallel dimer and that the two chains are in register. Finally, using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we showed that this protein is approximately 55-60% alpha- helical in physiological aqueous solution at 25 degrees C, and approximately 85-90% alpha-helical at 4 degrees C. From these results, we conclude that the stalk of kinesin heavy chain forms an alpha- helical coiled coil structure. The temperature dependence of the circular dichroism signal has two major transitions, at 25-30 degrees C and at 45-50 degrees C, which suggests that a portion of the alpha- helical structure in the stalk is less stable than the rest. By producing the amino-terminal (coil 1) and carboxy-terminal (coil 2) halves of the stalk separately in E. coli, we showed that the region that melts below 30 degrees C lies within coil 1, while the majority of coil 2 melts above 45 degrees C. We suggest that this difference in stability may play a role in the force-generating mechanism or regulation of kinesin. PMID:1734025

  1. Structural dependencies of protein backbone 2JNC' couplings.

    PubMed

    Juranić, Nenad; Dannenberg, J J; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Salvador, Pedro; Atanasova, Elena; Ahn, Hee-Chul; Macura, Slobodan; Markley, John L; Prendergast, Franklyn G

    2008-04-01

    Protein folding can introduce strain in peptide covalent geometry, including deviations from planarity that are difficult to detect, especially for a protein in solution. We have found dependencies in protein backbone (2)J(NC') couplings on the planarity and the relative orientation of the sequential peptide planes. These dependences were observed in experimental (2)J(NC') couplings from seven proteins, and also were supported by DFT calculations for a model tripeptide. Findings indicate that elevated (2)J(NC') couplings may serve as reporters of structural strain in the protein backbone imposed by protein folds. Such information, supplemented with the H-bond strengths derived from (h3)J(NC') couplings, provides useful insight into the overall energy profile of the protein backbone in solution.

  2. Structural dependencies of protein backbone 2JNC′ couplings

    PubMed Central

    Juranić, Nenad; Dannenberg, J.J.; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Salvador, Pedro; Atanasova, Elena; Ahn, Hee-Chul; Macura, Slobodan; Markley, John L.; Prendergast, Franklyn G.

    2008-01-01

    Protein folding can introduce strain in peptide covalent geometry, including deviations from planarity that are difficult to detect, especially for a protein in solution. We have found dependencies in protein backbone 2JNC′ couplings on the planarity and the relative orientation of the sequential peptide planes. These dependences were observed in experimental 2JNC′ couplings from seven proteins, and also were supported by DFT calculations for a model tripeptide. Findings indicate that elevated 2JNC′ couplings may serve as reporters of structural strain in the protein backbone imposed by protein folds. Such information, supplemented with the H-bond strengths derived from h3JNC′ couplings, provides useful insight into the overall energy profile of the protein backbone in solution. PMID:18305196

  3. Contemporary strategies for the stabilization of peptides in the alpha-helical conformation.

    PubMed

    Henchey, Laura K; Jochim, Andrea L; Arora, Paramjit S

    2008-12-01

    Herein we review contemporary synthetic and protein design strategies to stabilize the alpha-helical motif in short peptides and miniature proteins. Advances in organometallic catalyst design, specifically for the olefin metathesis reaction, enable the use of hydrocarbon bridges to either crosslink side chains of specific residues or mimic intramolecular hydrogen bonds with carbon-carbon bonds. The resulting hydrocarbon-stapled and hydrogen bond surrogate alpha-helices provide unique synthetic ligands for targeting biomolecules. In the protein design realm, several classes of miniature proteins that display stable helical domains have been engineered and manipulated with powerful in vitro selection technologies to yield libraries of sequences that retain their helical folds. Rational re-design of these scaffolds provide distinctive reagents for the modulation of protein-protein interactions.

  4. Amphipathic Alpha-Helical Peptide Compositions as Antiviral Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Jeffrey (Inventor); Cho, Nam-Joon (Inventor); Frank, Curtis W. (Inventor); Cheong, Kwang Ho (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention features methods and compositions that exploit the ability of amphipathic alpha-helical (AH) peptides to cause disruption of lipid-containing vesicles, such as enveloped viruses, in a size-dependent manner.

  5. Probing the alpha-helical structural stability of stapled p53 peptides: molecular dynamics simulations and analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zuojun; Mohanty, Udayan; Noehre, Justin; Sawyer, Tomi K; Sherman, Woody; Krilov, Goran

    2010-04-01

    Reactivation of the p53 cell apoptosis pathway through inhibition of the p53-hDM2 interaction is a viable approach to suppress tumor growth in many human cancers and stabilization of the helical structure of synthetic p53 analogs via a hydrocarbon cross-link (staple) has been found to lead to increased potency and inhibition of protein-protein binding (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129: 5298). However, details of the structure and dynamic stability of the stapled peptides are not well understood. Here, we use extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study a series of stapled alpha-helical peptides over a range of temperatures in solution. The peptides are found to exhibit substantial variations in predicted alpha-helical propensities that are in good agreement with the experimental observations. In addition, we find significant variation in local structural flexibility of the peptides with the position of the linker, which appears to be more closely related to the observed differences in activity than the absolute alpha-helical stability. These simulations provide new insights into the design of alpha-helical stapled peptides and the development of potent inhibitors of alpha-helical protein-protein interfaces.

  6. Backbone fractal dimension and fractal hybrid orbital of protein structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xin; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2013-12-01

    Fractal geometry analysis provides a useful and desirable tool to characterize the configuration and structure of proteins. In this paper we examined the fractal properties of 750 folded proteins from four different structural classes, namely (1) the α-class (dominated by α-helices), (2) the β-class (dominated by β-pleated sheets), (3) the (α/β)-class (α-helices and β-sheets alternately mixed) and (4) the (α + β)-class (α-helices and β-sheets largely segregated) by using two fractal dimension methods, i.e. "the local fractal dimension" and "the backbone fractal dimension" (a new and useful quantitative parameter). The results showed that the protein molecules exhibit a fractal behavior in the range of 1 ⩽ N ⩽ 15 (N is the number of the interval between two adjacent amino acid residues), and the value of backbone fractal dimension is distinctly greater than that of local fractal dimension for the same protein. The average value of two fractal dimensions decreased in order of α > α/β > α + β > β. Moreover, the mathematical formula for the hybrid orbital model of protein based on the concept of backbone fractal dimension is in good coincidence with that of the similarity dimension. So it is a very accurate and simple method to analyze the hybrid orbital model of protein by using the backbone fractal dimension.

  7. Consequences of non-uniformity in the stoichiometry of component fractions within one and two loops models of alpha-helical peptides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Atoms in biomolecular structures like alpha helices contain an array of distances and angles which include abundant multiple patterns of redundancies. Thus all peptides backbones contain the three atom sequence N-C*C, whereas the repeating set of a four atom sequences (N-C*C-N, C*-C-N-C*, and C-N-C...

  8. Designing transmembrane alpha-helices that insert spontaneously.

    PubMed

    Wimley, W C; White, S H

    2000-04-18

    Direct measurement of the free energies of transfer of hydrophobic membrane-spanning alpha-helices from water to membranes is important for the determination of an accurate experiment-based hydrophobicity scale for membrane proteins. An important objective of such a scale is to account for the presently unknown thermodynamic cost of partitioning hydrogen-bonded peptide bonds into the membrane hydrocarbon core. We describe here the physical properties of a transmembrane (TM) peptide, TMX-1, designed to test the feasibility of engineering peptides that spontaneously insert across bilayers but that have the important property of measurable monomeric water solubility. TMX-1, Ac-WNALAAVAAAL-AAVAAALAAVAAGKSKSKS-NH(2), is a 31-residue sequence with a 21-residue nonpolar core, N- and C-caps to favor helix formation, and a highly polar C-terminus to improve solubility and to control directionality of insertion into lipid vesicles. TMX-1 appeared to be soluble in water up to a concentration of at least 1 mg/mL (0.3 mM). However, fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy indicated that the high solubility was due to the formation of molecular aggregates that persisted at peptide concentrations down to at least 0.1 microM peptide. Nevertheless, aqueous TMX-1 partitioned strongly into membrane vesicles with apparent mole-fraction free-energy values of -7.1 kcal mol(-1) for phosphatidylcholine (POPC) vesicles and -8.2 kcal mol(-1) for phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) vesicles. CD spectroscopy of TMX-1 in oriented multilayers formed from either lipid disclosed a very strong preference for a transmembrane alpha-helical conformation. When TMX-1 was added to preformed vesicles, it was fully helical. A novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method demonstrated that at least 50% of the TMX-1 insered spontaneously across the vesicle membranes. Binding and insertion were found to be fully reversible for POPC vesicles but not POPG

  9. Molecular thermodynamic model to predict the alpha-helical secondary structure of polypeptide chains in solution.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Chen, C C; King, J A; Evans, L B

    1992-11-03

    The native state of a protein molecule in aqueous solutions represents one of the lowest states of Gibbs energy [Anfinsen, C.B. (1973) Science 181, 223-230]. Much progress has been made about the rules of protein folding [King, J. (1989) Chem. Eng. News 67, 32-54] and the dominant forces in protein folding [Dill, K.A. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 7133-7155]. However, the quantitative contributions of different Gibbs energy terms to protein stability remains a controversial issue [Moult, J., & Unger, R. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 3816-3824]. A molecular thermodynamic model has been proposed for the Gibbs energy of folding a residue in aqueous homopolypeptides from a random-coiled state to either the alpha-helix state or the beta-sheet state [Chen, C.-C., Zhu, Y., King, J.A., & Evans, L.B. (1992) Biopolymers 32, 1375-1392]. In this work, we present a generalization of the molecular thermodynamic model for the Gibbs energy of folding natural and synthetic heteropolypeptides from random-coiled conformations into alpha-helical conformations. The generalized model incorporates the intrinsic folding potential due to residue-solvent interactions, the cooperative folding effect due to residue-residue interactions, and the location and length of alpha-helices. The utility of the model was demonstrated by examining the stability of alpha-helical conformations of a number of natural polypeptides including C-peptide (residues 1-13) and S-peptide (residues 1-20) of RNase A (bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A), the P alpha fragment in BPTI (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor), and synthetic polypeptides (the copolymers of different amino acid residues) including alanine-based peptides (16 or 17 residues long) in water. The computed Gibbs energies correspond well with the experimental data on helicity. The results also accounted for the effects of amino acid substitution and temperature on the stability of alpha-helical conformations of the test polypeptides.

  10. Proline residues in transmembrane alpha helices affect the folding of bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Lu, H; Marti, T; Booth, P J

    2001-04-27

    Proline residues occur frequently in transmembrane alpha helices, which contrasts with their behaviour as helix-breakers in water-soluble proteins. The three membrane-embedded proline residues of bacteriorhodopsin have been replaced individually by alanine and glycine to give P50A, or P50G on helix B, P91A, or P91G on helix C, and P186A or P186G on helix F, and the effect on the protein folding kinetics has been investigated. The rate-limiting apoprotein folding step, which results in formation of a seven transmembrane, alpha helical state, was slower than wild-type protein for the Pro50 and Pro91 mutants, regardless of whether they were mutated to Ala or Gly. These proline residues give rise to several inter-helix contacts, which are therefore important in folding to the seven transmembrane helix state. No evidence for cis-trans isomerisations of the peptidyl prolyl bonds was found during this rate-limiting apoprotein folding step. Mutations of all three membrane-embedded proline residues affected the subsequent retinal binding and final folding to bacteriorhodopsin, suggesting that these proline residues contribute to formation of the retinal binding pocket within the helix bundle, again via helix/helix interactions. These results point to proline residues in transmembrane alpha helices being important in the folding of integral membrane proteins. The helix/helix interactions and hydrogen bonds that arise from the presence of proline residues in transmembrane alpha helices can affect the formation of transmembrane alpha helix bundles as well as cofactor binding pockets. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Molecular dynamics of individual alpha-helices of bacteriorhodopsin in dimyristol phosphatidylocholine. I. Structure and dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, T B

    1997-01-01

    Understanding the role of the lipid bilayer in membrane protein structure and dynamics is needed for tertiary structure determination methods. However, the molecular details are not well understood. Molecular dynamics computer calculations can provide insight into these molecular details of protein:lipid interactions. This paper reports on 10 simulations of individual alpha-helices in explicit lipid bilayers. The 10 helices were selected from the bacteriorhodopsin structure as representative alpha-helical membrane folding components. The bilayer is constructed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine molecules. The only major difference between simulations is the primary sequence of the alpha-helix. The results show dramatic differences in motional behavior between alpha-helices. For example, helix A has much smaller root-mean-squared deviations than does helix D. This can be understood in terms of the presence of aromatic residues at the interface for helix A that are not present in helix D. Additional motions are possible for the helices that contain proline side chains relative to other amino acids. The results thus provide insight into the types of motion and the average structures possible for helices within the bilayer setting and demonstrate the strength of molecular simulations in providing molecular details that are not directly visualized in experiments. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 Figure 6 PMID:9370432

  12. Infrared and vibrational CD spectra of partially solvated alpha-helices: DFT-based simulations with explicit solvent.

    PubMed

    Turner, David R; Kubelka, Jan

    2007-02-22

    Theoretical simulations are used to investigate the effects of aqueous solvent on the vibrational spectra of model alpha-helices, which are only partly exposed to solvent to mimic alpha-helices in proteins. Infrared absorption (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) amide I' spectra for 15-amide alanine alpha-helices are simulated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations combined with the property transfer method. The solvent is modeled by explicit water molecules hydrogen bonded to the solvated amide groups. Simulated spectra for two partially solvated model alpha-helices, one corresponding to a more exposed and the other to a more buried structure, are compared to the fully solvated and unsolvated (gas phase) simulations. The dependence of the amide I spectra on the orientation of the partially solvated helix with respect to the solvent and effects of solvation on the amide I' of 13C isotopically substituted alpha-helices are also investigated. The partial exposure to solvent causes significant broadening of the amide I' bands due to differences in the vibrational frequencies of the explicitly solvated and unsolvated amide groups. The different degree of partial solvation is reflected primarily in the frequency shifts of the unsolvated (buried) amide group vibrations. Depending on which side of the alpha-helix is exposed to solvent, the simulated IR band-shapes exhibit significant changes, from broad and relatively featureless to distinctly split into two maxima. The simulated amide I' VCD band-shapes for the partially solvated alpha-helices parallel the broadening of the IR and exhibit more sign variation, but generally preserve the sign pattern characteristic of the alpha-helical structures and are much less dependent on the alpha-helix orientation with respect to the solvent. The simulated amide I' IR spectra for the model peptides with explicitly hydrogen-bonded water are consistent with the experimental data for small alpha-helical proteins

  13. De novo design of fibrils made of short alpha-helical coiled coil peptides.

    PubMed

    Potekhin, S A; Melnik, T N; Popov, V; Lanina, N F; Vazina, A A; Rigler, P; Verdini, A S; Corradin, G; Kajava, A V

    2001-11-01

    The alpha-helical coiled coil structures formed by 25-50 residues long peptides are recognized as one of Nature's favorite ways of creating an oligomerization motif. Known de novo designed and natural coiled coils use the lateral dimension for oligomerization but not the axial one. Previous attempts to design alpha-helical peptides with a potential for axial growth led to fibrous aggregates which have an unexpectedly big and irregular thickness. These facts encouraged us to design a coiled coil peptide which self-assembles into soluble oligomers with a fixed lateral dimension and whose alpha-helices associate in a staggered manner and trigger axial growth of the coiled coil. Designing the coiled coil with a large number of subunits, we also pursue the practical goal of obtaining a valuable scaffold for the construction of multivalent fusion proteins. The designed 34-residue peptide self-assembles into long fibrils at slightly acid pH and into spherical aggregates at neutral pH. The fibrillogenesis is completely reversible upon pH change. The fibrils were characterized using circular dichroism spectroscopy, sedimentation diffusion, electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray fiber diffraction. The peptide was deliberately engineered to adopt the structure of a five-stranded coiled coil rope with adjacent alpha-helices, staggered along the fibril axis. As shown experimentally, the most likely structure matches the predicted five-stranded arrangement. The fact that the peptide assembles in an expected fibril arrangement demonstrates the credibility of our conception of design. The discovery of a short peptide with fibril-forming ability and stimulus-sensitive behavior opens new opportunities for a number of applications.

  14. Identification and location of alpha-helices in mammalian cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R J; Murray, B P; Boobis, A R; Davies, D S

    1989-05-02

    A model of the alpha-helical structure of mammalian cytochromes P450 is proposed. The location and sequence of alpha-helices in mammalian cytochromes P450 were predicted from their homology with those of cytochrome P450cam, and these sequences were generally confirmed as helical in nature by using a secondary structure prediction method. These analyses were applied to 26 sequences in 6 gene families of cytochrome P450. Mammalian cytochromes P450 consist of approximately 100 amino acid residues more than cytochrome P450cam. This difference was accounted for by three major areas of insertion: (1) at the N-terminus, (2) between helices C and D and between helices D and E, and (3) between helices J and K. Insertion 1 has been suggested by others as a membrane anchoring sequence, but the apparent insertions at 2 and 3 are novel observations; it is suggested that they may be involved in the binding of cytochrome P450 reductase. Only the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 family appeared to show a major variation from this pattern, as insertion 2 was absent, replaced by an insertion between helices G and H and between helices H and I. This may reflect the difference in electron donor proteins that bind to members of this cytochrome P450 family. Other than these differences the model of mammalian cytochromes P450 proposed maintains the general structure of cytochrome P450cam as determined by its alpha-helical composition.

  15. Arachidonic acid mediates the formation of abundant alpha-helical multimers of alpha-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Iljina, Marija; Tosatto, Laura; Choi, Minee L.; Sang, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Hughes, Craig D.; Bryant, Clare E.; Gandhi, Sonia; Klenerman, David

    2016-01-01

    The protein alpha-synuclein (αS) self-assembles into toxic beta-sheet aggregates in Parkinson’s disease, while it is proposed that αS forms soluble alpha-helical multimers in healthy neurons. Here, we have made αS multimers in vitro using arachidonic acid (ARA), one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and characterized them by a combination of bulk experiments and single-molecule Fӧrster resonance energy transfer (sm-FRET) measurements. The data suggest that ARA-induced oligomers are alpha-helical, resistant to fibril formation, more prone to disaggregation, enzymatic digestion and degradation by the 26S proteasome, and lead to lower neuronal damage and reduced activation of microglia compared to the oligomers formed in the absence of ARA. These multimers can be formed at physiologically-relevant concentrations, and pathological mutants of αS form less multimers than wild-type αS. Our work provides strong biophysical evidence for the formation of alpha-helical multimers of αS in the presence of a biologically relevant fatty acid, which may have a protective role with respect to the generation of beta-sheet toxic structures during αS fibrillation. PMID:27671749

  16. Arachidonic acid mediates the formation of abundant alpha-helical multimers of alpha-synuclein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iljina, Marija; Tosatto, Laura; Choi, Minee L.; Sang, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Hughes, Craig D.; Bryant, Clare E.; Gandhi, Sonia; Klenerman, David

    2016-09-01

    The protein alpha-synuclein (αS) self-assembles into toxic beta-sheet aggregates in Parkinson’s disease, while it is proposed that αS forms soluble alpha-helical multimers in healthy neurons. Here, we have made αS multimers in vitro using arachidonic acid (ARA), one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and characterized them by a combination of bulk experiments and single-molecule Fӧrster resonance energy transfer (sm-FRET) measurements. The data suggest that ARA-induced oligomers are alpha-helical, resistant to fibril formation, more prone to disaggregation, enzymatic digestion and degradation by the 26S proteasome, and lead to lower neuronal damage and reduced activation of microglia compared to the oligomers formed in the absence of ARA. These multimers can be formed at physiologically-relevant concentrations, and pathological mutants of αS form less multimers than wild-type αS. Our work provides strong biophysical evidence for the formation of alpha-helical multimers of αS in the presence of a biologically relevant fatty acid, which may have a protective role with respect to the generation of beta-sheet toxic structures during αS fibrillation.

  17. Geometry motivated alternative view on local protein backbone structures.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, Jan; Knapp, Ernst Walter

    2013-11-01

    We present an alternative to the classical Ramachandran plot (R-plot) to display local protein backbone structure. Instead of the (φ, ψ)-backbone angles relating to the chemical architecture of polypeptides generic helical parameters are used. These are the rotation or twist angle ϑ and the helical rise parameter d. Plots with these parameters provide a different view on the nature of local protein backbone structures. It allows to display the local structures in polar (d, ϑ)-coordinates, which is not possible for an R-plot, where structural regimes connected by periodicity appear disconnected. But there are other advantages, like a clear discrimination of the handedness of a local structure, a larger spread of the different local structure domains--the latter can yield a better separation of different local secondary structure motives--and many more. Compared to the R-plot we are not aware of any major disadvantage to classify local polypeptide structures with the (d, ϑ)-plot, except that it requires some elementary computations. To facilitate usage of the new (d, ϑ)-plot for protein structures we provide a web application (http://agknapp.chemie.fu-berlin.de/secsass), which shows the (d, ϑ)-plot side-by-side with the R-plot.

  18. Examining the Conservation of Kinks in Alpha Helices

    PubMed Central

    Wilman, Henry R.; Kelm, Sebastian; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M.

    2016-01-01

    Kinks are a structural feature of alpha-helices and many are known to have functional roles. Kinks have previously tended to be defined in a binary fashion. In this paper we have deliberately moved towards defining them on a continuum, which given the unimodal distribution of kink angles is a better description. From this perspective, we examine the conservation of kinks in proteins. We find that kink angles are not generally a conserved property of homologs, pointing either to their not being functionally critical or to their function being related to conformational flexibility. In the latter case, the different structures of homologs are providing snapshots of different conformations. Sequence identity between homologous helices is informative in terms of kink conservation, but almost equally so is the sequence identity of residues in spatial proximity to the kink. In the specific case of proline, which is known to be prevalent in kinked helices, loss of a proline from a kinked helix often also results in the loss of a kink or reduction in its kink angle. We carried out a study of the seven transmembrane helices in the GPCR family and found that changes in kinks could be related both to subfamilies of GPCRs and also, in a particular subfamily, to the binding of agonists or antagonists. These results suggest conformational change upon receptor activation within the GPCR family. We also found correlation between kink angles in different helices, and the possibility of concerted motion could be investigated further by applying our method to molecular dynamics simulations. These observations reinforce the belief that helix kinks are key, functional, flexible points in structures. PMID:27314675

  19. Retrieving Backbone String Neighbors Provides Insights Into Structural Modeling of Membrane Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiang-Ming; Li, Tong-Hua; Cong, Pei-Sheng; Tang, Sheng-Nan; Xiong, Wen-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Identification of protein structural neighbors to a query is fundamental in structure and function prediction. Here we present BS-align, a systematic method to retrieve backbone string neighbors from primary sequences as templates for protein modeling. The backbone conformation of a protein is represented by the backbone string, as defined in Ramachandran space. The backbone string of a query can be accurately predicted by two innovative technologies: a knowledge-driven sequence alignment and encoding of a backbone string element profile. Then, the predicted backbone string is employed to align against a backbone string database and retrieve a set of backbone string neighbors. The backbone string neighbors were shown to be close to native structures of query proteins. BS-align was successfully employed to predict models of 10 membrane proteins with lengths ranging between 229 and 595 residues, and whose high-resolution structural determinations were difficult to elucidate both by experiment and prediction. The obtained TM-scores and root mean square deviations of the models confirmed that the models based on the backbone string neighbors retrieved by the BS-align were very close to the native membrane structures although the query and the neighbor shared a very low sequence identity. The backbone string system represents a new road for the prediction of protein structure from sequence, and suggests that the similarity of the backbone string would be more informative than describing a protein as belonging to a fold. PMID:22415040

  20. Increasing Sequence Diversity with Flexible Backbone Protein Design: The Complete Redesign of a Protein Hydrophobic Core

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Grant S.; Mills, Jeffrey L.; Miley, Michael J.; Machius, Mischa; Szyperski, Thomas; Kuhlman, Brian

    2015-10-15

    Protein design tests our understanding of protein stability and structure. Successful design methods should allow the exploration of sequence space not found in nature. However, when redesigning naturally occurring protein structures, most fixed backbone design algorithms return amino acid sequences that share strong sequence identity with wild-type sequences, especially in the protein core. This behavior places a restriction on functional space that can be explored and is not consistent with observations from nature, where sequences of low identity have similar structures. Here, we allow backbone flexibility during design to mutate every position in the core (38 residues) of a four-helix bundle protein. Only small perturbations to the backbone, 12 {angstrom}, were needed to entirely mutate the core. The redesigned protein, DRNN, is exceptionally stable (melting point >140C). An NMR and X-ray crystal structure show that the side chains and backbone were accurately modeled (all-atom RMSD = 1.3 {angstrom}).

  1. Bax-induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria depends on alpha-helices-5 and -6.

    PubMed

    Heimlich, Gerd; McKinnon, Alastair D; Bernardo, Katussevani; Brdiczka, Dieter; Reed, John C; Kain, Renate; Krönke, Martin; Jürgensmeier, Juliane M

    2004-02-15

    The pro-apoptotic protein Bax plays a key role in the mitochondrial signalling pathway. Upon induction of apoptosis, Bax undergoes a conformational change and translocates to mitochondrial membranes, where it inserts and mediates the release of cytochrome c from the intermembrane space into the cytosol. However, the domains of Bax that are essential for the induction of cytochrome c release are still elusive. Therefore various Bax deletion mutants were generated and expressed in Escherichia coli. The proteins were then purified in order to delineate the function of the transmembrane domain, the BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3) domain and the putative pore-forming alpha-helices-5 and -6. These proteins were used to analyse the mechanism of Bax-induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria. None of the Bax proteins caused cytochrome c release merely through physical perturbation of the mitochondrial outer membrane. The alpha-helices-5 and -6 of Bax were shown to mediate the insertion of the protein into mitochondrial membranes and to be essential for the cytochrome c -releasing activity of Bax. In contrast, neither the transmembrane domain nor a functional BH3 domain is required for the Bax-mediated release of cytochrome c from mitochondria.

  2. Bioactivities of fish protein hydrolysates from defatted salmon backbones.

    PubMed

    Slizyte, Rasa; Rommi, Katariina; Mozuraityte, Revilija; Eck, Peter; Five, Kathrine; Rustad, Turid

    2016-09-01

    Bioactivities of bulk fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) from defatted salmon backbones obtained with eight different commercial enzymes and their combinations were tested. All FPH showed antioxidative activity in vitro. DPPH scavenging activity increased, while iron chelating ability decreased with increasing time of hydrolysis. All FPH showed ACE inhibiting effect which depended on type of enzyme and increased with time of hydrolysis. The highest effect was found for FPH produced with Trypsin. Bromelain + Papain hydrolysates reduced the uptake of radiolabelled glucose into CaCo-2 cells, a model of human enterocytes, indicating a potential antidiabetic effect of FPH. FPH obtained by Trypsin, Bromelain + Papain and Protamex showed the highest ACE inhibitory, cellular glucose transporter (GLUT/SGLT) inhibitory and in vitro antioxidative activities, respectively. Correlation was observed between the measured bioactivities, degree of hydrolysis and molecular weight profiles, supporting prolonged hydrolysis to obtain high bioactivities.

  3. A solvent model for simulations of peptides in bilayers. II. Membrane-spanning alpha-helices.

    PubMed Central

    Efremov, R G; Nolde, D E; Vergoten, G; Arseniev, A S

    1999-01-01

    We describe application of the implicit solvation model (see the first paper of this series), to Monte Carlo simulations of several peptides in bilayer- and water-mimetic environments, and in vacuum. The membrane-bound peptides chosen were transmembrane segments A and B of bacteriorhodopsin, the hydrophobic segment of surfactant lipoprotein, and magainin2. Their conformations in membrane-like media are known from the experiments. Also, molecular dynamics study of surfactant lipoprotein with different explicit solvents has been reported (Kovacs, H., A. E. Mark, J. Johansson, and W. F. van Gunsteren. 1995. J. Mol. Biol. 247:808-822). The principal goal of this work is to compare the results obtained in the framework of our solvation model with available experimental and computational data. The findings could be summarized as follows: 1) structural and energetic properties of studied molecules strongly depend on the solvent; membrane-mimetic media significantly promote formation of alpha-helices capable of traversing the bilayer, whereas a polar environment destabilizes alpha-helical conformation via reduction of solvent-exposed surface area and packing; 2) the structures calculated in a membrane-like environment agree with the experimental ones; 3) noticeable differences in conformation of surfactant lipoprotein assessed via Monte Carlo simulation with implicit solvent (this work) and molecular dynamics in explicit solvent were observed; 4) in vacuo simulations do not correctly reproduce protein-membrane interactions, and hence should be avoided in modeling membrane proteins. PMID:10233063

  4. Stability of bacteriorhodopsin alpha-helices and loops analyzed by single-molecule force spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Daniel J; Kessler, Max; Oesterhelt, Filipp; Möller, Clemens; Oesterhelt, Dieter; Gaub, Hermann

    2002-01-01

    The combination of high-resolution atomic force microscopy imaging and single-molecule force spectroscopy allows the identification, selection, and mechanical investigation of individual proteins. In a recent paper we had used this technique to unfold and extract single bacteriorhodopsins (BRs) from native purple membrane patches. We show that subsets of the unfolding spectra can be classified and grouped to reveal detailed insight into the individualism of the unfolding pathways. We have further developed this technique and analysis to report here on the influence of pH effects and local mutations on the stability of individual structural elements of BR against mechanical unfolding. We found that, although the seven transmembrane alpha-helices predominantly unfold in pairs, each of the helices may also unfold individually and in some cases even only partially. Additionally, intermittent states in the unfolding process were found, which are associated with the stretching of the extracellular loops connecting the alpha-helices. This suggests that polypeptide loops potentially act as a barrier to unfolding and contribute significantly to the structural stability of BR. Chemical removal of the Schiff base, the covalent linkage of the photoactive retinal to the helix G, resulted in a predominantly two-step unfolding of this helix. It is concluded that the covalent linkage of the retinal to helix G stabilizes the structure of BR. Trapping mutant D96N in the M state of the proton pumping photocycle did not affect the unfolding barriers of BR. PMID:12496125

  5. Alpha-turn mimetics: short peptide alpha-helices composed of cyclic metallopentapeptide modules.

    PubMed

    Kelso, Michael J; Beyer, Renée L; Hoang, Huy N; Lakdawala, Ami S; Snyder, James P; Oliver, Warren V; Robertson, Tom A; Appleton, Trevor G; Fairlie, David P

    2004-04-21

    Alpha-Helices are key structural components of proteins and important recognition motifs in biology. Short peptides (protein environments. New techniques for stabilizing short peptide helices could be valuable for studying protein folding, modeling proteins, creating artificial proteins, and may aid the design of inhibitors or mimics of protein function. This study reports the facile incorporation of 3- and 4-alpha turns in 10-15 residue peptides through formation in situ of multiple cyclic metallopeptide modules [Pd(en)(H*XXXH*)](2+). The nonhelical peptides Ac-H*ELTH*H*VTDH*-NH(2) (1), Ac-H*ELTH*AVTDYH*ELTH*-NH(2) (2), and Ac-H*AAAH*HELTH*H*VTDH*-NH(2) (3) (H is histidine-methylated at imidazole-N3) react in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or water with 2, 2, and 3 molar equivalents, respectively, of [Pd(en)(NO(3))(2)] to form exclusively [Pd(2)(en)(2)(Ac-H*ELTH*H*VTDH*-NH(2))](4+) (4), [Pd(2)(en)(2)(Ac-H*ELTH*AVTDYH*ELTH*-NH(2))](4+) (5), and [Pd(3)(en)(3)(Ac-H*AAAH*HELTH*H*VTDH*-NH(2))](6+) (6), characterized by mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D (1)H- and 1D (15)N-NMR spectroscopy. Despite the presence of multiple histidines and other possible metal-binding residues in these peptides, 2D (1)H NMR spectra reveal that Pd(en)(2+) is remarkably specific in coordinating to imidazole-N1 of only (i, i + 4) pairs of histidines (i.e., only those separated by three amino acids), resulting in 4-6 made up of cyclic metallopentapeptide modules ([Pd(en)(H*XXXH*)](2+))(n), n = 2, 2, 3, respectively, each cycle being a 22-membered ring. We have previously shown that a single metallopentapeptide can nucleate alpha-helicity (Kelso et al., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 421-424.). We now demonstrate its use as an alpha-turn-mimicking module for the facile conversion of unstructured short peptides into helices of macrocycles and provide 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, structure

  6. Differential stability of beta-sheets and alpha-helices in beta-lactamase: a high temperature molecular dynamics study of unfolding intermediates.

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, S; Vishveshwara, S; Ravishanker, G; Beveridge, D L

    1993-01-01

    beta-Lactamase, which catalyzes beta-lactam antibiotics, is prototypical of large alpha/beta proteins with a scaffolding formed by strong noncovalent interactions. Experimentally, the enzyme is well characterized, and intermediates that are slightly less compact and having nearly the same content of secondary structure have been identified in the folding pathway. In the present study, high temperature molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out on the native enzyme in solution. Analysis of these results in terms of root mean square fluctuations in cartesian and [phi, psi] space, backbone dihedral angles and secondary structural hydrogen bonds forms the basis for an investigation of the topology of partially unfolded states of beta-lactamase. A differential stability has been observed for alpha-helices and beta-sheets upon thermal denaturation to putative unfolding intermediates. These observations contribute to an understanding of the folding/unfolding processes of beta-lactamases in particular, and other alpha/beta proteins in general. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 PMID:8312470

  7. Alpha Helices Are More Robust to Mutations than Beta Strands

    PubMed Central

    Abrusán, György

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly increasing amount of data on human genetic variation has resulted in a growing demand to identify pathogenic mutations computationally, as their experimental validation is currently beyond reach. Here we show that alpha helices and beta strands differ significantly in their ability to tolerate mutations: helices can accumulate more mutations than strands without change, due to the higher numbers of inter-residue contacts in helices. This results in two patterns: a) the same number of mutations causes less structural change in helices than in strands; b) helices diverge more rapidly in sequence than strands within the same domains. Additionally, both helices and strands are significantly more robust than coils. Based on this observation we show that human missense mutations that change secondary structure are more likely to be pathogenic than those that do not. Moreover, inclusion of predicted secondary structure changes shows significant utility for improving upon state-of-the-art pathogenicity predictions. PMID:27935949

  8. Fourier transform infrared evidence for a predominantly alpha-helical structure of the membrane bound channel forming COOH-terminal peptide of colicin E1.

    PubMed Central

    Rath, P; Bousché, O; Merrill, A R; Cramer, W A; Rothschild, K J

    1991-01-01

    The structure of the membrane bound state of the 178-residue thermolytic COOH-terminal channel forming peptide of colicin E1 was studied by polarized Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. This fragment was reconstituted into DMPC liposomes at varying peptide/lipid ratios ranging from 1/25-1/500. The amide I band frequency of the protein indicated a dominant alpha-helical secondary structure with limited beta- and random structures. The amide I and II frequencies are at 1,656 and 1,546 cm-1, close to the frequency of the amide I and II bands of rhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin and other alpha-helical proteins. Polarized FTIR of oriented membranes revealed that the alpha-helices have an average orientation less than the magic angle, 54.6 degrees, relative to the membrane normal. Almost all of the peptide groups in the membrane-bound channel protein undergo rapid hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange. These results are contrasted to the alpha-helical membrane proteins, bacteriorhodopsin, and rhodopsin. PMID:1710937

  9. Salt-resistant alpha-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, C; Scott, M G; Karunaratne, N; Yan, H; Hancock, R E

    1999-07-01

    Analogues based on the insect cecropin-bee melittin hybrid peptide (CEME) were studied and analyzed for activity and salt resistance. The new variants were designed to have an increase in amphipathic alpha-helical content (CP29 and CP26) and in overall positive charge (CP26). The alpha-helicity of these peptides was demonstrated by circular dichroism spectroscopy in the presence of liposomes. CP29 was shown to have activity against gram-negative bacteria that was similar to or better than those of the parent peptides, and CP26 had similar activity. CP29 had cytoplasmic membrane permeabilization activity, as assessed by the unmasking of cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase, similar to that of CEME and its more positively charged derivative named CEMA, whereas CP26 was substantially less effective. The activity of the peptides was not greatly attenuated by an uncoupler of membrane potential, carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone. The tryptophan residue in position 2 was shown to be necessary for interaction with cell membranes, as demonstrated by a complete lack of activity in the peptide CP208. Peptides CP29, CEME, and CEMA were resistant to antagonism by 0.1 to 0.3 M NaCl; however, CP26 was resistant to antagonism only by up to 160 mM NaCl. The peptides were generally more antagonized by 3 and 5 mM Mg2+ and by the polyanion alginate. It appeared that the positively charged C terminus in CP26 altered its ability to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli, although CP26 maintained its ability to kill gram-negative bacteria. These peptides are potential candidates for future therapeutic drugs.

  10. Alpha-helical, but not beta-sheet, propensity of proline is determined by peptide environment.

    PubMed

    Li, S C; Goto, N K; Williams, K A; Deber, C M

    1996-06-25

    Proline is established as a potent breaker of both alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures in soluble (globular) proteins. Thus, the frequent occurrence of the Pro residue in the putative transmembrane helices of integral membrane proteins, particularly transport proteins, presents a structural dilemma. We propose that this phenomenon results from the fact that the structural propensity of a given amino acid may be altered to conform to changes imposed by molecular environment. To test this hypothesis on proline, we synthesized model peptides of generic sequence H2N-(Ser-LyS)2-Ala- Leu-Z-Ala-Leu-Z-Trp-Ala-Leu-Z-(Lys-Ser)3-OH (Z = Ala and/or Pro). Peptide conformations were analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy in aqueous buffer, SDS, lysophosphatidylglycerol micelles, and organic solvents (methanol, trifluoroethanol, and 2-propanol). The helical propensity of Pro was found to be greatly enhanced in the membrane-mimetic environments of both lipid micelles and organic solvents. Proline was found to stabilize the alpha-helical conformation relative to Ala at elevated temperatures in 2-propanol, an observation that argues against the doctrine that Pro is the most potent alpha-helix breaker as established in aqueous media. Parallel studies in deoxycholate micelles of the temperature-induced conformational transitions of the single-spanning membrane bacteriophage IKe major coat protein, in which the Pro-containing wild type was compared with Pro30 --> Ala mutant, Pro was found to protect the helix, but disrupt the beta-sheet structure as effectively as it does to model peptides in water. The intrinsic capacity of Pro to disrupt beta-sheets was further reflected in a survey of porins where Pro was found to be selectively excluded from the core of membrane-spanning beta-sheet barrels. The overall data provide a rationale for predicting and understanding the structural consequences when Pro occurs in the context of a membrane.

  11. Alpha-helical, but not beta-sheet, propensity of proline is determined by peptide environment.

    PubMed Central

    Li, S C; Goto, N K; Williams, K A; Deber, C M

    1996-01-01

    Proline is established as a potent breaker of both alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures in soluble (globular) proteins. Thus, the frequent occurrence of the Pro residue in the putative transmembrane helices of integral membrane proteins, particularly transport proteins, presents a structural dilemma. We propose that this phenomenon results from the fact that the structural propensity of a given amino acid may be altered to conform to changes imposed by molecular environment. To test this hypothesis on proline, we synthesized model peptides of generic sequence H2N-(Ser-LyS)2-Ala- Leu-Z-Ala-Leu-Z-Trp-Ala-Leu-Z-(Lys-Ser)3-OH (Z = Ala and/or Pro). Peptide conformations were analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy in aqueous buffer, SDS, lysophosphatidylglycerol micelles, and organic solvents (methanol, trifluoroethanol, and 2-propanol). The helical propensity of Pro was found to be greatly enhanced in the membrane-mimetic environments of both lipid micelles and organic solvents. Proline was found to stabilize the alpha-helical conformation relative to Ala at elevated temperatures in 2-propanol, an observation that argues against the doctrine that Pro is the most potent alpha-helix breaker as established in aqueous media. Parallel studies in deoxycholate micelles of the temperature-induced conformational transitions of the single-spanning membrane bacteriophage IKe major coat protein, in which the Pro-containing wild type was compared with Pro30 --> Ala mutant, Pro was found to protect the helix, but disrupt the beta-sheet structure as effectively as it does to model peptides in water. The intrinsic capacity of Pro to disrupt beta-sheets was further reflected in a survey of porins where Pro was found to be selectively excluded from the core of membrane-spanning beta-sheet barrels. The overall data provide a rationale for predicting and understanding the structural consequences when Pro occurs in the context of a membrane. PMID:8692877

  12. Increasing Sequence Diversity with Flexible Backbone Protein Design: The Complete Redesign of a Protein Hydrophobic Core

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Grant S.; Mills, Jeffrey L.; Miley, Michael J.; Machius, Mischa; Szyperski, Thomas; Kuhlman, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Summary Protein design tests our understanding of protein stability and structure. Successful design methods should allow the exploration of sequence space not found in nature. However, when redesigning naturally occurring protein structures most fixed backbone design algorithms return amino acid sequences that share strong sequence identity with wild-type sequences, especially in the protein core. This behavior places a restriction on functional space that can be explored and is not consistent with observations from nature, where sequences of low identity have similar structures. Here, we allow backbone flexibility during design to mutate every position in the core (38 residues) of a four-helix bundle protein. Only small perturbations to the backbone, 1-2 Å, were needed to entirely mutate the core. The redesigned protein, DRNN, is exceptionally stable (melting point > 140 °C). An NMR and X-ray crystal structure show that the side chains and backbone were accurately modeled (all-atom RMSD = 1.3 Å). PMID:22632833

  13. Using alpha-helical coiled-coils to design nanostructured metalloporphyrin arrays.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Karen A; Zou, Hongling; Cochran, Frank V; Bender, Gretchen M; Senes, Alessandro; Fry, H Christopher; Nanda, Vikas; Keenan, Patricia A; Lear, James D; Saven, Jeffery G; Therien, Michael J; Blasie, J Kent; DeGrado, William F

    2008-09-10

    We have developed a computational design strategy based on the alpha-helical coiled-coil to generate modular peptide motifs capable of assembling into metalloporphyrin arrays of varying lengths. The current study highlights the extension of a two-metalloporphyrin array to a four-metalloporphyrin array through the incorporation of a coiled-coil repeat unit. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that the initial design evolves rapidly to a stable structure with a small rmsd compared to the original model. Biophysical characterization reveals elongated proteins of the desired length, correct cofactor stoichiometry, and cofactor specificity. The successful extension of the two-porphyrin array demonstrates how this methodology serves as a foundation to create linear assemblies of organized electrically and optically responsive cofactors.

  14. Computation-Guided Backbone Grafting of a Discontinuous Motif onto a Protein Scaffold

    SciTech Connect

    Azoitei, Mihai L.; Correia, Bruno E.; Ban, Yih-En Andrew; Carrico, Chris; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Chen, Lei; Schroeter, Alexandria; Huang, Po-Ssu; McLellan, Jason S.; Kwong, Peter D.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Schief, William R.

    2012-02-07

    The manipulation of protein backbone structure to control interaction and function is a challenge for protein engineering. We integrated computational design with experimental selection for grafting the backbone and side chains of a two-segment HIV gp120 epitope, targeted by the cross-neutralizing antibody b12, onto an unrelated scaffold protein. The final scaffolds bound b12 with high specificity and with affinity similar to that of gp120, and crystallographic analysis of a scaffold bound to b12 revealed high structural mimicry of the gp120-b12 complex structure. The method can be generalized to design other functional proteins through backbone grafting.

  15. Competing interactions contributing to alpha-helical stability in aqueous solution.

    PubMed Central

    Bodkin, M. J.; Goodfellow, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    The stability of a 15-residue peptide has been investigated using CD spectroscopy and molecular simulation techniques. The sequence of the peptide was designed to include key features that are known to stabilize alpha-helices, including ion pairs, helix dipole capping, peptide bond capping, and aromatic interactions. The degree of helicity has been determined experimentally by CD in three solvents (aqueous buffer, methanol, and trifluoroethanol) and at two temperatures. Simulations of the peptide in the aqueous system have been performed over 500 ps at the same two temperatures using a fully explicit solvent model. Consistent with the CD data, the degree of helicity is decreased at the higher temperature. Our analysis of the simulation results has focused on competition between different side-chain/side-chain and side-chain/main-chain interactions, which can, in principle, stabilize the helix. The unfolding in aqueous solution occurs at the amino terminus because the side-chain interactions are insufficient to stabilize both the helix dipole and the peptide hydrogen bonds. Loss of capping of the peptide backbone leads to water insertion within the first peptide hydrogen bond and hence unfolding. In contrast, the carboxy terminus of the alpha-helix is stable in both simulations because the C-terminal lysine residue stabilizes the helix dipole, but at the expense of an ion pair. PMID:7613460

  16. Effect of protein backbone folding on the stability of protein-ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Ernesto; Uriarte, Eugenio; Vilar, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    The role played by the degree of folding of protein backbones in explaining the binding energetics of protein-ligand interactions has been studied. We analyzed the protein/peptide interactions in the RNase-S system in which amino acids at two positions of the peptide S have been mutated. The global degree of folding of the protein S correlates in a significant way with the free energy and enthalpy of the protein-peptide interactions. A much better correlation is found with the local contribution to the degree of folding of one amino acid residue: Thr36. This residue is shown to have a destabilizing interaction with Lys41, which interacts directly with peptide S. Another system, consisting of the interactions of small organic molecules with HIV-1 protease was also studied. In this case, the global change in the degree of folding of the protease backbone does not explain the binding energetics of protein-ligand interactions. However, a significant correlation is observed between the free energy of binding and the contribution of two amino acid residues in the HVI-1 protease: Gly49 and Ile66. In general, it was observed that the changes in the degree of folding are not restricted to the binding site of the protein chain but are distributed along the whole protein backbone. This study provides a basis for further consideration of the degree of folding as a parameter for empirical structural parametrizations of the binding energetics of protein folding and binding.

  17. Backbone building from quadrilaterals: a fast and accurate algorithm for protein backbone reconstruction from alpha carbon coordinates.

    PubMed

    Gront, Dominik; Kmiecik, Sebastian; Kolinski, Andrzej

    2007-07-15

    In this contribution, we present an algorithm for protein backbone reconstruction that comprises very high computational efficiency with high accuracy. Reconstruction of the main chain atomic coordinates from the alpha carbon trace is a common task in protein modeling, including de novo structure prediction, comparative modeling, and processing experimental data. The method employed in this work follows the main idea of some earlier approaches to the problem. The details and careful design of the present approach are new and lead to the algorithm that outperforms all commonly used earlier applications. BBQ (Backbone Building from Quadrilaterals) program has been extensively tested both on native structures as well as on near-native decoy models and compared with the different available existing methods. Obtained results provide a comprehensive benchmark of existing tools and evaluate their applicability to a large scale modeling using a reduced representation of protein conformational space. The BBQ package is available for downloading from our website at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/services/BBQ/. This webpage also provides a user manual that describes BBQ functions in detail.

  18. Proteins of well-defined structures can be designed without backbone readjustment by a statistical model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqun; Xiong, Peng; Wang, Meng; Ma, Rongsheng; Zhang, Jiahai; Chen, Quan; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-12-01

    We report that using mainly a statistical energy model, protein sequence design for designable backbones can be carried out with high confidence without considering backbone relaxation. A recently-developed statistical energy function for backbone-based protein sequence design has been rationally revised to improve its accuracy. As a demonstrative example, this revised model is applied to design a de novo protein for a target backbone for which the previous model had relied on after-design directed evolution to produce a well-folded protein. The actual backbone structure of the newly designed protein agrees excellently with the corresponding target. Besides presenting a new protein design protocol with experimentally verifications on different backbone types, our study implies that with an energy model of an appropriate resolution, proteins of well-defined structures instead of molten globules can be designed without the explicit consideration of backbone variations due to side chain changes, even if the side chain changes correspond to complete sequence redesigns.

  19. The alpha-helical D1 domain of the tobacco bZIP transcription factor BZI-1 interacts with the ankyrin-repeat protein ANK1 and is important for BZI-1 function, both in auxin signaling and pathogen response.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Markus; Horvay, Katja; Strathmann, Anne; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Fischer, Ute; Böttner, Stefan; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang

    2003-03-07

    The tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) bZIP transcription factor BZI-1 is involved in auxin-mediated growth responses and in establishing pathogen defenses. Transgenic plants expressing a dominant-negative BZI-1-DeltaN derivative, which lacks the N-terminal activation domain, showed altered vegetative growth. In particular auxin-induced rooting and formation of tobacco mosaic virus-induced hypersensitive response lesions are affected. BZI-1-related proteins described in various plant species share the conserved domains D1, D2, BD, and D4. To define those BZI-1 domains involved in transcription factor function, BZI-1 deletion derivatives were expressed in transgenic plants. The domains D1 or BD are crucial for BZI-1-DeltaN function in planta. The basic BD domain is mediating DNA binding of BZI-1. Yeast two-hybrid and in vitro binding studies reveal the ankyrin-repeat protein ANK1, which specifically interacts with a part of the BZI-1 protein (amino acids 73-222) encoding the D1 domain. ANK1 does not bind DNA or act as a co-activator of BZI-1-mediated transcription. Moreover, green fluorescence protein localization studies propose that ANK1 is acting mainly inside the cytosol. Transcription analysis reveals that ANK1 is ubiquitously expressed, but after pathogen attack transcription is transiently down-regulated. Along these lines, ANK1 homologous proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana have been reported to function in pathogen defense. We therefore propose that the D1 domain serves as an interaction surface for ANK1, which appears to regulate BZI-1 function in auxin signaling as well as pathogen response.

  20. Modeling 15N NMR chemical shift changes in protein backbone with pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Penna, Giovanni; Mori, Yoshiharu; Kitahara, Ryo; Akasaka, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yuko

    2016-08-01

    Nitrogen chemical shift is a useful parameter for determining the backbone three-dimensional structure of proteins. Empirical models for fast calculation of N chemical shift are improving their reliability, but there are subtle effects that cannot be easily interpreted. Among these, the effects of slight changes in hydrogen bonds, both intramolecular and with water molecules in the solvent, are particularly difficult to predict. On the other hand, these hydrogen bonds are sensitive to changes in protein environment. In this work, the change of N chemical shift with pressure for backbone segments in the protein ubiquitin is correlated with the change in the population of hydrogen bonds involving the backbone amide group. The different extent of interaction of protein backbone with the water molecules in the solvent is put in evidence.

  1. A comprehensive library of blocked dipeptides reveals intrinsic backbone conformational propensities of unfolded proteins.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Im; Lee, Kyung-Koo; Park, Eun-Kyung; Jung, Youngae; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Cho, Minhaeng

    2012-04-01

    Despite prolonged scientific efforts to elucidate the intrinsic peptide backbone preferences of amino-acids based on understanding of intermolecular forces, many open questions remain, particularly concerning neighboring peptide interaction effects on the backbone conformational distribution of short peptides and unfolded proteins. Here, we show that spectroscopic studies of a complete library of 400 dipeptides reveal that, irrespective of side-chain properties, the backbone conformation distribution is narrow and they adopt polyproline II and β-strand, indicating the importance of backbone peptide solvation and electronic effects. By directly comparing the dipeptide circular dichroism and NMR results with those of unfolded proteins, the comprehensive dipeptides form a complete set of structural motifs of unfolded proteins. We thus anticipate that the present dipeptide library with spectroscopic data can serve as a useful database for understanding the nature of unfolded protein structures and for further refinements of molecular mechanical parameters. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Modeling (15)N NMR chemical shift changes in protein backbone with pressure.

    PubMed

    La Penna, Giovanni; Mori, Yoshiharu; Kitahara, Ryo; Akasaka, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yuko

    2016-08-28

    Nitrogen chemical shift is a useful parameter for determining the backbone three-dimensional structure of proteins. Empirical models for fast calculation of N chemical shift are improving their reliability, but there are subtle effects that cannot be easily interpreted. Among these, the effects of slight changes in hydrogen bonds, both intramolecular and with water molecules in the solvent, are particularly difficult to predict. On the other hand, these hydrogen bonds are sensitive to changes in protein environment. In this work, the change of N chemical shift with pressure for backbone segments in the protein ubiquitin is correlated with the change in the population of hydrogen bonds involving the backbone amide group. The different extent of interaction of protein backbone with the water molecules in the solvent is put in evidence.

  3. Changing the topology of protein backbone: the effect of backbone cyclization on the structure and dynamics of a SH3 domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Frank; Varadan, Ranjani; Tayakuniyil, Praveen; Grossman, Jennifer; Camarero, Julio; Fushman, David

    2015-04-01

    Understanding of the effects of the backbone cyclization on the structure and dynamics of a protein is essential for using protein topology engineering to alter protein stability and function. Here we have determined, for the first time, the structure and dynamics of the linear and various circular constructs of the N-SH3 domain from protein c-Crk. These constructs differ in the length and amino acid composition of the cyclization region. The backbone cyclization was carried out using intein-mediated intramolecular chemical ligation between the juxtaposed N- and the C-termini. The structure and backbone dynamics studies were performed using solution NMR. Our data suggest that the backbone cyclization has little effect on the overall three-dimensional structure of the SH3 domain: besides the termini, only minor structural changes were found in the proximity of the cyclization region. In contrast to the structure, backbone dynamics are significantly affected by the cyclization. On the subnanosecond time scale, the backbone of all circular constructs on average appears more rigid than that of the linear SH3 domain; this effect is observed over the entire backbone and is not limited to the cyclization site. The backbone mobility of the circular constructs becomes less restricted with increasing length of the circularization loop. In addition, significant conformational exchange motions (on the sub-millisecond time scale) were found in the N-Src loop and in the adjacent β-strands in all circular constructs studied in this work. These effects of backbone cyclization on protein dynamics have potential implications for the stability of the protein fold and for ligand binding.

  4. Predicting the tolerated sequences for proteins and protein interfaces using RosettaBackrub flexible backbone design.

    PubMed

    Smith, Colin A; Kortemme, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the set of sequences that are tolerated by a protein or protein interface, while maintaining a desired function, is useful for characterizing protein interaction specificity and for computationally designing sequence libraries to engineer proteins with new functions. Here we provide a general method, a detailed set of protocols, and several benchmarks and analyses for estimating tolerated sequences using flexible backbone protein design implemented in the Rosetta molecular modeling software suite. The input to the method is at least one experimentally determined three-dimensional protein structure or high-quality model. The starting structure(s) are expanded or refined into a conformational ensemble using Monte Carlo simulations consisting of backrub backbone and side chain moves in Rosetta. The method then uses a combination of simulated annealing and genetic algorithm optimization methods to enrich for low-energy sequences for the individual members of the ensemble. To emphasize certain functional requirements (e.g. forming a binding interface), interactions between and within parts of the structure (e.g. domains) can be reweighted in the scoring function. Results from each backbone structure are merged together to create a single estimate for the tolerated sequence space. We provide an extensive description of the protocol and its parameters, all source code, example analysis scripts and three tests applying this method to finding sequences predicted to stabilize proteins or protein interfaces. The generality of this method makes many other applications possible, for example stabilizing interactions with small molecules, DNA, or RNA. Through the use of within-domain reweighting and/or multistate design, it may also be possible to use this method to find sequences that stabilize particular protein conformations or binding interactions over others.

  5. Wetting of nonconserved residue-backbones: A feature indicative of aggregation associated regions of proteins.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Mohan R; Pal, Arumay; Hu, Zhongqiao; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Chee Keong, Kwoh; Lane, David P; Verma, Chandra S

    2016-02-01

    Aggregation is an irreversible form of protein complexation and often toxic to cells. The process entails partial or major unfolding that is largely driven by hydration. We model the role of hydration in aggregation using "Dehydrons." "Dehydrons" are unsatisfied backbone hydrogen bonds in proteins that seek shielding from water molecules by associating with ligands or proteins. We find that the residues at aggregation interfaces have hydrated backbones, and in contrast to other forms of protein-protein interactions, are under less evolutionary pressure to be conserved. Combining evolutionary conservation of residues and extent of backbone hydration allows us to distinguish regions on proteins associated with aggregation (non-conserved dehydron-residues) from other interaction interfaces (conserved dehydron-residues). This novel feature can complement the existing strategies used to investigate protein aggregation/complexation.

  6. Using Excel To Study The Relation Between Protein Dihedral Angle Omega And Backbone Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shew, Christopher; Evans, Samari; Tao, Xiuping

    How to involve the uninitiated undergraduate students in computational biophysics research? We made use of Microsoft Excel to carry out calculations of bond lengths, bond angles and dihedral angles of proteins. Specifically, we studied protein backbone dihedral angle omega by examining how its distribution varies with the length of the backbone length. It turns out Excel is a respectable tool for this task. An ordinary current-day desktop or laptop can handle the calculations for midsized proteins in just seconds. Care has to be taken to enter the formulas for the spreadsheet column after column to minimize the computing load. Supported in part by NSF Grant #1238795.

  7. Tether-Supported Biomembranes with Alpha-Helical Peptide-Based Anchoring Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lina; Tu, Raymond; Gilchrist, M. Lane

    2013-01-01

    The strict requirement of constructing a native lipid environment to preserve the structure and functionality of membrane proteins is the starting constraint when building biomaterials and sensor systems from these biomolecules. In order to enhance the viability of supported biomembranes systems and build new ligand display interfaces, we apply rationally-designed peptides partitioned into the lipid bilayer interface. Peptides designed to form membrane-spanning alpha-helical anchoring domains are synthesized using solid-phase peptide synthesis. K3A4L2A7L2A3K2-FITC is synthesized at 100 mg scale for use as a biomembrane anchoring molecules, where orthogonal side-chain modifications allows us to introduce probes enabling peptide localization within supported bilayers. The peptides are found to form alpha-helical domains within liposomes as assessed with circular dichroism spectroscopy. These peptides are designed to incorporate into lipid bilayers supported by microspheres and serve as biomembrane anchoring moieties to amino-terminated surfaces. Here, the silica bead surface (4.7 μm diameter) is activated with homobifunctional NHS-PEG3000-NHS as “polymer cushion” spacers. This tethering to a subset of the K3A4L2A7L2A3K2-FITC molecules present in the bilayer is achieved by fusion of liposomes followed by coupling of the peptide amino groups to the NHS presented from the silica microsphere surfaces. The biomembrane distributions of tethered and untethered K3A4L2A7L2A3K2-FITC is probed with confocal microscopy and found to give 3D reconstructions consistent with largely homogeneous supported biomembranes. The fluidity of the untethered fraction of the peptides within supported membranes is quantified using the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique. The presence of the PEG3000 polymer cushion facilitated a 28.9% increase in peptide diffusivity over untethered bilayers at the lowest peptide to lipid ratio we examined. We show that rationally

  8. Backbone dipoles generate positive potentials in all proteins: origins and implications of the effect.

    PubMed Central

    Gunner, M R; Saleh, M A; Cross, E; ud-Doula, A; Wise, M

    2000-01-01

    Asymmetry in packing the peptide amide dipole results in larger positive than negative regions in proteins of all folding motifs. The average side chain potential in 305 proteins is 109 +/- 30 mV (2. 5 +/- 0.7 kcal/mol/e). Because the backbone has zero net charge, the non-zero potential is unexpected. The larger oxygen at the negative and smaller proton at the positive end of the amide dipole yield positive potentials because: 1) at allowed phi and psi angles residues come off the backbone into the positive end of their own amide dipole, avoiding the large oxygen; and 2) amide dipoles with their carbonyl oxygen surface exposed and amine proton buried make the protein interior more positive. Twice as many amides have their oxygens exposed than their amine protons. The distribution of acidic and basic residues shows the importance of the bias toward positive backbone potentials. Thirty percent of the Asp, Glu, Lys, and Arg are buried. Sixty percent of buried residues are acids, only 40% bases. The positive backbone potential stabilizes ionization of 20% of the acids by >3 pH units (-4.1 kcal/mol). Only 6.5% of the bases are equivalently stabilized by negative regions. The backbone stabilizes bound anions such as phosphates and rarely stabilizes bound cations. PMID:10692303

  9. Water and Backbone Dynamics in a Hydrated Protein

    PubMed Central

    Diakova, Galina; Goddard, Yanina A.; Korb, Jean-Pierre; Bryant, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Rotational immobilization of proteins permits characterization of the internal peptide and water molecule dynamics by magnetic relaxation dispersion spectroscopy. Using different experimental approaches, we have extended measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the proton-spin-lattice-relaxation rate by one decade from 0.01 to 300 MHz for 1H and showed that the underlying dynamics driving the protein 1H spin-lattice relaxation is preserved over 4.5 decades in frequency. This extension is critical to understanding the role of 1H2O in the total proton-spin-relaxation process. The fact that the protein-proton-relaxation-dispersion profile is a power law in frequency with constant coefficient and exponent over nearly 5 decades indicates that the characteristics of the native protein structural fluctuations that cause proton nuclear spin-lattice relaxation are remarkably constant over this wide frequency and length-scale interval. Comparison of protein-proton-spin-lattice-relaxation rate constants in protein gels equilibrated with 2H2O rather than 1H2O shows that water protons make an important contribution to the total spin-lattice relaxation in the middle of this frequency range for hydrated proteins because of water molecule dynamics in the time range of tens of ns. This water contribution is with the motion of relatively rare, long-lived, and perhaps buried water molecules constrained by the confinement. The presence of water molecule reorientational dynamics in the tens of ns range that are sufficient to affect the spin-lattice relaxation driven by 1H dipole-dipole fluctuations should make the local dielectric properties in the protein frequency dependent in a regime relevant to catalytically important kinetic barriers to conformational rearrangements. PMID:20085726

  10. A trimeric, alpha-helical, coiled coil peptide: association stoichiometry and interaction strength by analytical ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R M; Zampieri, A; Jumel, K; Harding, S E

    1997-01-01

    Alpha-helical coiled coils are proving to be almost ideal systems for the modelling of peptide and protein self-association processes. Stable oligomeric systems, in which the stoichiometry is well defined, can be produced by the careful selection of the appropriate amino acid sequence, although the principles behind this are still not fully understood. Here we report on a 35 residue peptide, FZ, synthesized by the solid phase method, which was originally designed to form a dimer, but which, in fact, associates to the trimeric state. A detailed characterization of the associative properties of the peptide has been performed by circular dichroism spectroscopy and, in particular, by sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge. The presence of the trimeric state, which is stable even at low peptide concentrations, has been confirmed by various independent methods of analysis for molar mass. The effects of both temperature and of guanidinium chloride on the peptide have been investigated and both found to be peptide-concentration dependent. The unfolding induced by the denaturant cannot be adequately described by a simple, two state monomer-trimer equilibrium.

  11. Effects of Protein Stabilizing Agents on Thermal Backbone Motions: A Disulfide Trapping Study†

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Scott L.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical stabilizers are widely used to enhance protein stability, both in nature and in the laboratory. Here, the molecular mechanism of chemical stabilizers is studied using a disulfide trapping assay to measure the effects of stabilizers on thermal backbone dynamics in the Escherichia coli galactose/glucose binding protein. Two types of backbone fluctuations are examined: (a) relative movements of adjacent surface α-helices within the same domain and (b) interdomain twisting motions. Both types of fluctuations are significantly reduced by all six stabilizers tested (glycerol, sucrose, trehalose, l-glucose, d-glucose, and d-galactose), and in each case larger amplitude motions are inhibited more than smaller ones. Motional inhibition does not require a high-affinity stabilizer binding site, indicating that the effects of stabilizers are nonspecific. Overall, the results support the theory that effective stabilizing agents act by favoring the most compact structure of a protein, thereby reducing local backbone fluctuations away from the fully folded state. Such inhibition of protein backbone dynamics may be a general mechanism of protein stabilization in extreme thermal or chemical environments. PMID:8718847

  12. Folding a protein by discretizing its backbone torsional dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ariel

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a coarse codification of local conformational constraints associated with each folding motif of a peptide chain in order to obtain a rough solution to the protein folding problem. This is accomplished by implementing a discretized version of the soft-mode dynamics on a personal computer (PC). Our algorithm mimics a parallel process as it evaluates concurrent folding possibilities by pattern recognition. It may be implemented in a PC as a sequence of perturbation-translation-renormalization (p-t-r) cycles performed on a matrix of local topological constraints (LTM). This requires suitable representational tools and a periodic quenching of the dynamics required for renormalization. We introduce a description of the peptide chain based on a local discrete variable the values of which label the basins of attraction of the Ramachandran map for each residue. Thus, the local variable indicates the basin in which the torsional coordinates of each residue lie at a given time. In addition, a coding of local topological constraints associated with each secondary and tertiary structural motif is introduced. Our treatment enables us to adopt a computation time step of 81 ps, a value far larger than hydrodynamic drag time scales. Folding pathways are resolved as transitions between patterns of locally encoded structural signals that change within the 10 μs-100 ms time scale range. These coarse folding pathways are generated by the periodic search for structural patterns in the time-evolving LTM. Each pattern is recorded as a contact matrix, an operation subject to a renormalization feedback loop. The validity of our approach is tested vis-a-vis experimentally-probed folding pathways eventually generating tertiary interactions in proteins which recover their active structure under in vitro renaturation conditions. As an illustration, we focus on determining significant folding intermediates and late kinetic bottlenecks that occur within the

  13. On the relationship between NMR-derived amide order parameters and protein backbone entropy changes.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Kim A; O'Brien, Evan; Kasinath, Vignesh; Wand, A Joshua

    2015-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to analyze the relationship between NMR-derived squared generalized order parameters of amide NH groups and backbone entropy. Amide order parameters (O(2) NH ) are largely determined by the secondary structure and average values appear unrelated to the overall flexibility of the protein. However, analysis of the more flexible subset (O(2) NH  < 0.8) shows that these report both on the local flexibility of the protein and on a different component of the conformational entropy than that reported by the side chain methyl axis order parameters, O(2) axis . A calibration curve for backbone entropy vs. O(2) NH is developed, which accounts for both correlations between amide group motions of different residues, and correlations between backbone and side chain motions. This calibration curve can be used with experimental values of O(2) NH changes obtained by NMR relaxation measurements to extract backbone entropy changes, for example, upon ligand binding. In conjunction with our previous calibration for side chain entropy derived from measured O(2) axis values this provides a prescription for determination of the total protein conformational entropy changes from NMR relaxation measurements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. On the relationship between NMR-derived amide order parameters and protein backbone entropy changes

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Kim A.; O’Brien, Evan; Kasinath, Vignesh; Wand, A. Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to analyze the relationship between NMR-derived squared generalized order parameters of amide NH groups and backbone entropy. Amide order parameters (O2NH) are largely determined by the secondary structure and average values appear unrelated to the overall flexibility of the protein. However, analysis of the more flexible subset (O2NH < 0.8) shows that these report both on the local flexibility of the protein and on a different component of the conformational entropy than that reported by the side chain methyl axis order parameters, O2axis. A calibration curve for backbone entropy vs. O2NH is developed which accounts for both correlations between amide group motions of different residues, and correlations between backbone and side chain motions. This calibration curve can be used with experimental values of O2NH changes obtained by NMR relaxation measurements to extract backbone entropy changes, e.g. upon ligand binding. In conjunction with our previous calibration for side chain entropy derived from measured O2axis values this provides a prescription for determination of the total protein conformational entropy changes from NMR relaxation measurements. PMID:25739366

  15. Centrosymmetric bilayers in the 0.75 A resolution structure of a designed alpha-helical peptide, D,L-Alpha-1.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, W. R.; Anderson, D. H.; DeGrado, W. F.; Cascio, D.; Eisenberg, D.

    1999-01-01

    We report the 0.75 A crystal structure of a racemic mixture of the 12-residue designed peptide "Alpha-1" (Acetyl-ELLKKLLEELKG), the L-enantiomer of which is described in the accompanying paper. Equivalent solutions of the centrosymmetric bilayers were determined by two direct phasing programs in space groups P1 and P1bar. The unit cell contains two L-alpha-helices and two D-alpha-helices. The columnar-sheet bilayer motif seen in L-Alpha-1 is maintained in the D,L-Alpha-1 structure except that each sheet of head-to-tail helices is composed of one enantiomer and is related to its neighboring sheets by inversion symmetry. Comparison to the L-Alpha-1 structure provides further insight into peptide design. The high resolution and small asymmetric unit allowed building an intricate model (R = 13.1%, Rfree = 14.5%) that incorporates much of the discrete disorder of peptide and solvent. Ethanolamine and 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) molecules bind near helix termini. Rigid body analysis identifies sites of restricted displacements and torsions. Side-chain discrete disorder propagates into the backbone of one helix but not the other. Although no side chain in Alpha-1 is rigid, the environments in the crystal restrict some of them to no or only one active torsion. PMID:10422829

  16. Improving the accuracy of protein stability predictions with multistate design using a variety of backbone ensembles.

    PubMed

    Davey, James A; Chica, Roberto A

    2014-05-01

    Multistate computational protein design (MSD) with backbone ensembles approximating conformational flexibility can predict higher quality sequences than single-state design with a single fixed backbone. However, it is currently unclear what characteristics of backbone ensembles are required for the accurate prediction of protein sequence stability. In this study, we aimed to improve the accuracy of protein stability predictions made with MSD by using a variety of backbone ensembles to recapitulate the experimentally measured stability of 85 Streptococcal protein G domain β1 sequences. Ensembles tested here include an NMR ensemble as well as those generated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, by Backrub motions, and by PertMin, a new method that we developed involving the perturbation of atomic coordinates followed by energy minimization. MSD with the PertMin ensembles resulted in the most accurate predictions by providing the highest number of stable sequences in the top 25, and by correctly binning sequences as stable or unstable with the highest success rate (≈90%) and the lowest number of false positives. The performance of PertMin ensembles is due to the fact that their members closely resemble the input crystal structure and have low potential energy. Conversely, the NMR ensemble as well as those generated by MD simulations at 500 or 1000 K reduced prediction accuracy due to their low structural similarity to the crystal structure. The ensembles tested herein thus represent on- or off-target models of the native protein fold and could be used in future studies to design for desired properties other than stability.

  17. SABBAC: online Structural Alphabet-based protein BackBone reconstruction from Alpha-Carbon trace

    PubMed Central

    Maupetit, Julien; Gautier, R.; Tufféry, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    SABBAC is an on-line service devoted to protein backbone reconstruction from alpha-carbon trace. It is based on the assembly of fragments taken from a library of reduced size, selected from the encoding of the protein trace in a hidden Markov model-derived structural alphabet. The assembly of the fragments is achieved by a greedy algorithm, using an energy-based scoring. Alpha-carbon coordinates remain unaffected. SABBAC simply positions the missing backbone atoms, no further refinement is performed. From our tests, SABBAC performs equal or better than other similar on-line approach and is robust to deviations on the alpha-carbon coordinates. It can be accessed at . PMID:16844979

  18. Protein backbone and sidechain torsion angles predicted from NMR chemical shifts using artificial neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yang; Bax, Ad

    2013-01-01

    A new program, TALOS-N, is introduced for predicting protein backbone torsion angles from NMR chemical shifts. The program relies far more extensively on the use of trained artificial neural networks than its predecessor, TALOS+. Validation on an independent set of proteins indicates that backbone torsion angles can be predicted for a larger, ≥ 90% fraction of the residues, with an error rate smaller than ca 3.5%, using an acceptance criterion that is nearly two-fold tighter than that used previously, and a root mean square difference between predicted and crystallographically observed (φ,ψ) torsion angles of ca 12°. TALOS-N also reports sidechain χ1 rotameric states for about 50% of the residues, and a consistency with reference structures of 89%. The program includes a neural network trained to identify secondary structure from residue sequence and chemical shifts. PMID:23728592

  19. Hash: a Program to Accurately Predict Protein Hα Shifts from Neighboring Backbone Shifts3

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    2012-01-01

    Chemical shifts provide not only peak identities for analyzing NMR data, but also an important source of conformational information for studying protein structures. Current structural studies requiring Hα chemical shifts suffer from the following limitations. (1) For large proteins, the Hα chemical shifts can be difficult to assign using conventional NMR triple-resonance experiments, mainly due to the fast transverse relaxation rate of Cα that restricts the signal sensitivity. (2) Previous chemical shift prediction approaches either require homologous models with high sequence similarity or rely heavily on accurate backbone and side-chain structural coordinates. When neither sequence homologues nor structural coordinates are available, we must resort to other information to predict Hα chemical shifts. Predicting accurate Hα chemical shifts using other obtainable information, such as the chemical shifts of nearby backbone atoms (i.e., adjacent atoms in the sequence), can remedy the above dilemmas, and hence advance NMR-based structural studies of proteins. By specifically exploiting the dependencies on chemical shifts of nearby backbone atoms, we propose a novel machine learning algorithm, called Hash, to predict Hα chemical shifts. Hash combines a new fragment-based chemical shift search approach with a non-parametric regression model, called the generalized additive model, to effectively solve the prediction problem. We demonstrate that the chemical shifts of nearby backbone atoms provide a reliable source of information for predicting accurate Hα chemical shifts. Our testing results on different possible combinations of input data indicate that Hash has a wide rage of potential NMR applications in structural and biological studies of proteins. PMID:23242797

  20. Membrane Curvature Sensing by Amphipathic Helices Is Modulated by the Surrounding Protein Backbone

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Christine M.; Esmery, Nina; de Saint-Jean, Maud; Antonny, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Membrane curvature is involved in numerous biological pathways like vesicle trafficking, endocytosis or nuclear pore complex assembly. In addition to its topological role, membrane curvature is sensed by specific proteins, enabling the coordination of biological processes in space and time. Amongst membrane curvature sensors are the ALPS (Amphipathic Lipid Packing Sensors). ALPS motifs are short peptides with peculiar amphipathic properties. They are found in proteins targeted to distinct curved membranes, mostly in the early secretory pathway. For instance, the ALPS motif of the golgin GMAP210 binds trafficking vesicles, while the ALPS motif of Nup133 targets nuclear pores. It is not clear if, besides curvature sensitivity, ALPS motifs also provide target specificity, or if other domains in the surrounding protein backbone are involved. To elucidate this aspect, we studied the subcellular localization of ALPS motifs outside their natural protein context. The ALPS motifs of GMAP210 or Nup133 were grafted on artificial fluorescent probes. Importantly, ALPS motifs are held in different positions and these contrasting architectures were mimicked by the fluorescent probes. The resulting chimeras recapitulated the original proteins localization, indicating that ALPS motifs are sufficient to specifically localize proteins. Modulating the electrostatic or hydrophobic content of Nup133 ALPS motif modified its avidity for cellular membranes but did not change its organelle targeting properties. In contrast, the structure of the backbone surrounding the helix strongly influenced targeting. In particular, introducing an artificial coiled-coil between ALPS and the fluorescent protein increased membrane curvature sensitivity. This coiled-coil domain also provided membrane curvature sensitivity to the amphipathic helix of Sar1. The degree of curvature sensitivity within the coiled-coil context remains correlated to the natural curvature sensitivity of the helices. This suggests

  1. Membrane Curvature Sensing by Amphipathic Helices Is Modulated by the Surrounding Protein Backbone.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Christine M; Esmery, Nina; de Saint-Jean, Maud; Antonny, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Membrane curvature is involved in numerous biological pathways like vesicle trafficking, endocytosis or nuclear pore complex assembly. In addition to its topological role, membrane curvature is sensed by specific proteins, enabling the coordination of biological processes in space and time. Amongst membrane curvature sensors are the ALPS (Amphipathic Lipid Packing Sensors). ALPS motifs are short peptides with peculiar amphipathic properties. They are found in proteins targeted to distinct curved membranes, mostly in the early secretory pathway. For instance, the ALPS motif of the golgin GMAP210 binds trafficking vesicles, while the ALPS motif of Nup133 targets nuclear pores. It is not clear if, besides curvature sensitivity, ALPS motifs also provide target specificity, or if other domains in the surrounding protein backbone are involved. To elucidate this aspect, we studied the subcellular localization of ALPS motifs outside their natural protein context. The ALPS motifs of GMAP210 or Nup133 were grafted on artificial fluorescent probes. Importantly, ALPS motifs are held in different positions and these contrasting architectures were mimicked by the fluorescent probes. The resulting chimeras recapitulated the original proteins localization, indicating that ALPS motifs are sufficient to specifically localize proteins. Modulating the electrostatic or hydrophobic content of Nup133 ALPS motif modified its avidity for cellular membranes but did not change its organelle targeting properties. In contrast, the structure of the backbone surrounding the helix strongly influenced targeting. In particular, introducing an artificial coiled-coil between ALPS and the fluorescent protein increased membrane curvature sensitivity. This coiled-coil domain also provided membrane curvature sensitivity to the amphipathic helix of Sar1. The degree of curvature sensitivity within the coiled-coil context remains correlated to the natural curvature sensitivity of the helices. This suggests

  2. Coupling Protein Side-Chain and Backbone Flexibility Improves the Re-design of Protein-Ligand Specificity.

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Noah; de Jong, René M; Kortemme, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between small molecules and proteins play critical roles in regulating and facilitating diverse biological functions, yet our ability to accurately re-engineer the specificity of these interactions using computational approaches has been limited. One main difficulty, in addition to inaccuracies in energy functions, is the exquisite sensitivity of protein-ligand interactions to subtle conformational changes, coupled with the computational problem of sampling the large conformational search space of degrees of freedom of ligands, amino acid side chains, and the protein backbone. Here, we describe two benchmarks for evaluating the accuracy of computational approaches for re-engineering protein-ligand interactions: (i) prediction of enzyme specificity altering mutations and (ii) prediction of sequence tolerance in ligand binding sites. After finding that current state-of-the-art "fixed backbone" design methods perform poorly on these tests, we develop a new "coupled moves" design method in the program Rosetta that couples changes to protein sequence with alterations in both protein side-chain and protein backbone conformations, and allows for changes in ligand rigid-body and torsion degrees of freedom. We show significantly increased accuracy in both predicting ligand specificity altering mutations and binding site sequences. These methodological improvements should be useful for many applications of protein-ligand design. The approach also provides insights into the role of subtle conformational adjustments that enable functional changes not only in engineering applications but also in natural protein evolution.

  3. Are Proteins Just Coiled Cords? Local and Global Analysis of Contact Maps Reveals the Backbone-Dependent Nature of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Daniele; Paci, Paola; Di Paola, Luisa; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present an extensive analysis of protein contact network topology applied to a wide data set. We extended the concept of degree distribution to graphlets, describing local connectivity patterns. We compared results to those derived from artificial networks of the same size (number of nodes), reproducing the average degree of each protein network. The artificial networks resemble the coiling of immaterial cords and we tried to understand if they could catch the protein structure topology upon the sole constraint of backbone (cord). We found a surprisingly similar pattern for local topological descriptors (graphlets distribution) while real proteins and cords differ at large extent in the global topological invariant average shortest path that presumably catches the systemic nature of protein and the non negligible encumbrance of backbone (residues steric hindrance). We demonstrated average shortest path to link polymer length and physical size of the molecule, and its minimization plays the role of `target function` of folding process.

  4. Osmolyte effects on protein stability and solubility: a balancing act between backbone and side-chains

    PubMed Central

    Auton, Matthew; Rösgen, Jörg; Sinev, Mikhail; Holthauzen, Luis Marcelo F.; Bolen, D. Wayne

    2011-01-01

    In adaptation biology the discovery of intracellular osmolyte molecules that in some cases reach molar levels, raises questions of how they influence protein thermodynamics. We’ve addressed such questions using the premise that from atomic coordinates, the transfer free energy of a native protein (ΔGtr,N) can be predicted by summing measured water-to-osmolyte transfer free energies of the protein’s solvent exposed side chain and backbone component parts. ΔGtr,D is predicted using a self avoiding random coil model for the protein, and ΔGtr,D − ΔGtr,N, predicts the m-value, a quantity that measures the osmolyte effect on the N ⇌ D transition. Using literature and newly measured m-values we show 1:1 correspondence between predicted and measured m-values covering a range of 12 kcal/mol/M in protein stability for 46 proteins and 9 different osmolytes. Osmolytes present a range of side chain and backbone effects on N and D solubility and protein stability key to their biological roles. PMID:21683504

  5. Predicting disease-related proteins based on clique backbone in protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Tang, Xianglong

    2014-01-01

    Network biology integrates different kinds of data, including physical or functional networks and disease gene sets, to interpret human disease. A clique (maximal complete subgraph) in a protein-protein interaction network is a topological module and possesses inherently biological significance. A disease-related clique possibly associates with complex diseases. Fully identifying disease components in a clique is conductive to uncovering disease mechanisms. This paper proposes an approach of predicting disease proteins based on cliques in a protein-protein interaction network. To tolerate false positive and negative interactions in protein networks, extending cliques and scoring predicted disease proteins with gene ontology terms are introduced to the clique-based method. Precisions of predicted disease proteins are verified by disease phenotypes and steadily keep to more than 95%. The predicted disease proteins associated with cliques can partly complement mapping between genotype and phenotype, and provide clues for understanding the pathogenesis of serious diseases.

  6. On contribution of known atomic partial charges of protein backbone in electrostatic potential density maps.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jimin

    2017-06-01

    Partial charges of atoms in a molecule and electrostatic potential (ESP) density for that molecule are known to bear a strong correlation. In order to generate a set of point-field force field parameters for molecular dynamics, Kollman and coworkers have extracted atomic partial charges for each of all 20 amino acids using restrained partial charge-fitting procedures from theoretical ESP density obtained from condensed-state quantum mechanics. The magnitude of atomic partial charges for neutral peptide backbone they have obtained is similar to that of partial atomic charges for ionized carboxylate side chain atoms. In this study, the effect of these known atomic partial charges on ESP is examined using computer simulations and compared with the experimental ESP density recently obtained for proteins using electron microscopy. It is found that the observed ESP density maps are most consistent with the simulations that include atomic partial charges of protein backbone. Therefore, atomic partial charges are integral part of atomic properties in protein molecules and should be included in model refinement. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  7. Dead-End Elimination with Perturbations (“DEEPer”): A provable protein design algorithm with continuous sidechain and backbone flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Hallen, Mark A.; Keedy, Daniel A.; Donald, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    Computational protein and drug design generally require accurate modeling of protein conformations. This modeling typically starts with an experimentally-determined protein structure and considers possible conformational changes due to mutations or new ligands. The DEE/A* algorithm provably finds the GMEC (global minimum-energy conformation) of a protein assuming the backbone does not move and the sidechains take on conformations from a set of discrete, experimentally-observed conformations called rotamers. DEE/A* can efficiently find the overall GMEC for exponentially many mutant sequences. Previous improvements to DEE/A* include modeling ensembles of sidechain conformations and either continuous sidechain or backbone flexibility. We present a new algorithm, DEEPer (Dead-End Elimination with Perturbations), that combines these advantages and can also handle much more extensive backbone flexibility and backbone ensembles. DEEPer provably finds the GMEC or, if desired by the user, all conformations and sequences within a specified energy window of the GMEC. It includes the new abilities to handle arbitrarily large backbone perturbations and to generate ensembles of backbone conformations. It also incorporates the shear, an experimentally-observed local backbone motion never before used in design. Additionally, we derive a new method to accelerate DEE/A*-based calculations, indirect pruning, that is particularly useful for DEEPer. In 67 benchmark tests on 64 proteins, DEEPer consistently identified lower-energy conformations than previous methods did, indicating more accurate modeling. Additional tests demonstrated its ability to incorporate larger, experimentally-observed backbone conformational changes and to model realistic conformational ensembles. These capabilities provide significant advantages for modeling protein mutations and protein-ligand interactions. PMID:22821798

  8. Robust Chemical Synthesis of Membrane Proteins through a General Method of Removable Backbone Modification.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji-Shen; He, Yao; Zuo, Chao; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Tang, Shan; Wang, Zhipeng A; Zhang, Long-Hua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Liu, Lei

    2016-03-16

    Chemical protein synthesis can provide access to proteins with post-translational modifications or site-specific labelings. Although this technology is finding increasing applications in the studies of water-soluble globular proteins, chemical synthesis of membrane proteins remains elusive. In this report, a general and robust removable backbone modification (RBM) method is developed for the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins. This method uses an activated O-to-N acyl transfer auxiliary to install in the Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis process a RBM group with switchable reactivity toward trifluoroacetic acid. The method can be applied to versatile membrane proteins because the RBM group can be placed at any primary amino acid. With RBM, the membrane proteins and their segments behave almost as if they were water-soluble peptides and can be easily handled in the process of ligation, purification, and mass characterizations. After the full-length protein is assembled, the RBM group can be readily removed by trifluoroacetic acid. The efficiency and usefulness of the new method has been demonstrated by the successful synthesis of a two-transmembrane-domain protein (HCV p7 ion channel) with site-specific isotopic labeling and a four-transmembrane-domain protein (multidrug resistance transporter EmrE). This method enables practical synthesis of small- to medium-sized membrane proteins or membrane protein domains for biochemical and biophysical studies.

  9. Facile backbone structure determination of human membrane proteins by NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Klammt, Christian; Maslennikov, Innokentiy; Bayrhuber, Monika; Eichmann, Cédric; Vajpai, Navratna; Chiu, Ellis Jeremy Chua; Blain, Katherine Y; Esquivies, Luis; Kwon, June Hyun Jung; Balana, Bartosz; Pieper, Ursula; Sali, Andrej; Slesinger, Paul A; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Riek, Roland; Choe, Senyon

    2013-01-01

    Although nearly half of today’s major pharmaceutical drugs target human integral membrane proteins (hIMPs), only 30 hIMP structures are currently available in the Protein Data Bank, largely owing to inefficiencies in protein production. Here we describe a strategy for the rapid structure determination of hIMPs, using solution NMR spectroscopy with systematically labeled proteins produced via cell-free expression. We report new backbone structures of six hIMPs, solved in only 18 months from 15 initial targets. Application of our protocols to an additional 135 hIMPs with molecular weight <30 kDa yielded 38 hIMPs suitable for structural characterization by solution NMR spectroscopy without additional optimization. PMID:22609626

  10. Conformation of di-n-propylglycine residues (Dpg) in peptides: crystal structures of a type I' beta-turn forming tetrapeptide and an alpha-helical tetradecapeptide.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Raghurama P; Aravinda, Subrayashastry; Rai, Rajkishor; Kaul, Ramesh; Vijayalakshmi, Sarojini; Rao, R Balaji; Shamala, Narayanaswamy; Balaram, Padmanabhan

    2008-05-01

    The crystal structures of two oligopeptides containing di-n-propylglycine (Dpg) residues, Boc-Gly-Dpg-Gly-Leu-OMe (1) and Boc-Val-Ala-Leu-Dpg-Val-Ala-Leu-Val-Ala-Leu-Dpg-Val-Ala-Leu-OMe (2) are presented. Peptide 1 adopts a type I'beta-turn conformation with Dpg(2)-Gly(3) at the corner positions. The 14-residue peptide 2 crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit, both of which adopt alpha-helical conformations stabilized by 11 successive 5 --> 1 hydrogen bonds. In addition, a single 4 --> 1 hydrogen bond is also observed at the N-terminus. All five Dpg residues adopt backbone torsion angles (phi, psi) in the helical region of conformational space. Evaluation of the available structural data on Dpg peptides confirm the correlation between backbone bond angle N-C(alpha)-C' (tau) and the observed backbone phi,psi values. For tau > 106 degrees, helices are observed, while fully extended structures are characterized by tau < 106 degrees. The mean tau values for extended and folded conformations for the Dpg residue are 103.6 degrees +/- 1.7 degrees and 109.9 degrees +/- 2.6 degrees, respectively.

  11. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    DOE PAGES

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; ...

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL)more » of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.« less

  12. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL) of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.

  13. Statistical mechanics of protein allostery: Roles of backbone and side-chain structural fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kazuhito; Sasai, Masaki

    2011-03-01

    A statistical mechanical model of allosteric transition of proteins is developed by extending the structure-based model of protein folding to cases that a protein has two different native conformations. Partition function is calculated exactly within the model and free-energy surfaces associated with allostery are derived. In this paper, the model of allosteric transition proposed in a previous paper [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 134, 7775 (2010)] is reformulated to describe both fluctuation in side-chain configurations and that in backbone structures in a balanced way. The model is applied to example proteins, Ras, calmodulin, and CheY: Ras undergoes the allosteric transition between guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound and guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound forms, and the model results show that the GDP-bound form is stabilized enough to prevent unnecessary signal transmission, but the conformation in the GTP-bound state bears large fluctuation in side-chain configurations, which may help to bind multiple target proteins for multiple pathways of signaling. The calculated results of calmodulin show the scenario of sequential ordering in Ca2 + binding and the associated allosteric conformational change, which are realized though the sequential appearing of pre-existing structural fluctuations, i.e., fluctuations to show structures suitable to bind Ca2 + before its binding. Here, the pre-existing fluctuations to accept the second and third Ca2 + ions are dominated by the side-chain fluctuation. In CheY, the calculated side-chain fluctuation of Tyr106 is coordinated with the backbone structural change in the β4-α4 loop, which explains the pre-existing Y-T coupling process in this protein. Ability of the model to explain allosteric transitions of example proteins supports the view that the large entropic effects lower the free-energy barrier of allosteric transition.

  14. Enhanced biosynthetically directed fractional carbon-13 enrichment of proteins for backbone NMR Assignments

    PubMed Central

    Wenrich, Broc R.; Sonstrom, Reilly E.; Gupta, Riju A.; Rovnyak, David

    2015-01-01

    Routes to carbon-13 enrichment of bacterially expressed proteins include achieving uniform or positionally selective (e.g. ILV-Me, or 13C′, etc.) enrichment. We consider the potential for biosynthetically directed fractional enrichment (e.g. carbon-13 incorporation in the protein less than 100%) for performing routine n-(D)dimensional NMR spectroscopy of proteins. First, we demonstrate an approach to fractional isotope addition where the initial growth media containing natural abundance glucose is replenished at induction with a small amount (e.g. 10%w/w u-13C-glucose) of enriched nutrient. The approach considered here is to add 10% (e.g. 200 mg for a 2 g/L culture) u-13C-glucose at the induction time (OD600=0.8), resulting in a protein with enhanced 13C incorporation that gives almost the same NMR signal levels as an exact 20% 13C sample. Second, whereas fractional enrichment is used for obtaining stereospecific methyl assignments, we find that 13C incorporation levels no greater than 20%w/w yield 13C and 13C-13C spin pair incorporation sufficient to conduct typical 3D-bioNMR backbone experiments on moderate instrumentation (600 MHz, RT probe). Typical 3D-bioNMR experiments of a fractionally enriched protein yield expected backbone connectivities, and did not show amino acid biases in this work, with one exception. When adding 10% u-13C glucose to expression media at induction, there is poor preservation of 13Cα-13Cβ spin pairs in the amino acids ILV, leading to the absence of Cβ signals in HNCACB spectra for ILV, a potentially useful editing effect. Enhanced fractional carbon-13 enrichment provides lower-cost routes to high throughput protein NMR studies, and makes modern protein NMR more cost-accessible. PMID:26256059

  15. "Chameleonic" backbone hydrogen bonds in protein binding and as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, C A; Accordino, S R; Gerbino, D C; Appignanesi, G A

    2015-10-01

    We carry out a time-averaged contact matrix study to reveal the existence of protein backbone hydrogen bonds (BHBs) whose net persistence in time differs markedly form their corresponding PDB-reported state. We term such interactions as "chameleonic" BHBs, CBHBs, precisely to account for their tendency to change the structural prescription of the PDB for the opposite bonding propensity in solution. We also find a significant enrichment of protein binding sites in CBHBs, relate them to local water exposure and analyze their behavior as ligand/drug targets. Thus, the dynamic analysis of hydrogen bond propensity might lay the foundations for new tools of interest in protein binding-site prediction and in lead optimization for drug design.

  16. Subpicosecond protein backbone changes detected during the green-absorbing proteorhodopsin primary photoreaction.

    PubMed

    Amsden, Jason J; Kralj, Joel M; Chieffo, Logan R; Wang, Xihua; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Spudich, Elena N; Spudich, John L; Ziegler, Lawrence D; Rothschild, Kenneth J

    2007-10-11

    Recent studies demonstrate that photoactive proteins can react within several picoseconds to photon absorption by their chromophores. Faster subpicosecond protein responses have been suggested to occur in rhodopsin-like proteins where retinal photoisomerization may impulsively drive structural changes in nearby protein groups. Here, we test this possibility by investigating the earliest protein structural changes occurring in proteorhodopsin (PR) using ultrafast transient infrared (TIR) spectroscopy with approximately 200 fs time resolution combined with nonperturbing isotope labeling. PR is a recently discovered microbial rhodopsin similar to bacteriorhodopsin (BR) found in marine proteobacteria and functions as a proton pump. Vibrational bands in the retinal fingerprint (1175-1215 cm(-1)) and ethylenic stretching (1500-1570 cm(-1)) regions characteristic of all-trans to 13-cis chromophore isomerization and formation of a red-shifted photointermediate appear with a 500-700 fs time constant after photoexcitation. Bands characteristic of partial return to the ground state evolve with a 2.0-3.5 ps time constant. In addition, a negative band appears at 1548 cm(-1) with a time constant of 500-700 fs, which on the basis of total-15N and retinal C15D (retinal with a deuterium on carbon 15) isotope labeling is assigned to an amide II peptide backbone mode that shifts to near 1538 cm(-1) concomitantly with chromophore isomerization. Our results demonstrate that one or more peptide backbone groups in PR respond with a time constant of 500-700 fs, almost coincident with the light-driven retinylidene chromophore isomerization. The protein changes we observe on a subpicosecond time scale may be involved in storage of the absorbed photon energy subsequently utilized for proton transport.

  17. NMR Polypeptide Backbone Conformation of the E. coli Outer Membrane Protein W

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Reto; Stanczak, Pawel; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The outer membrane proteins (Omp) are key factors for bacterial survival and virulence. Among the Omps which have been structurally characterized either by X-ray crystallography or by NMR in solution, the crystal structure of OmpW stands out because three of its four extracellular loops are well defined, whereas long extracellular loops in other E. coli Omps are disordered in the crystals as well as in NMR structures. OmpW thus presented an opportunity for detailed comparison of the extracellular loops in a β-barrel membrane protein structure in crystals and in non-crystalline milieus. Here the polypeptide backbone conformation of OmpW in 30-Fos micelles was determined. Complete backbone NMR assignments were obtained and the loops were structurally characterized. In combination with the OmpW crystal structure, NMR line shape analyses and 15N{1H}-NOE data, these results showed that intact regular secondary structures in the loops undergo slow hinge motions at the detergent–solvent interface. PMID:25017731

  18. Acceleration of protein backbone NMR assignment by combinatorial labeling: Application to a small molecule binding study.

    PubMed

    Hein, Christopher; Löhr, Frank; Schwarz, Daniel; Dötsch, Volker

    2017-05-01

    Selective labeling with stable isotopes has long been recognized as a valuable tool in protein NMR to alleviate signal overlap and sensitivity limitations. In this study, combinatorial (15) N-, (13) C(α) -, and (13) C'-selective labeling has been used during the backbone assignment of human cyclophilin D to explore binding of an inhibitor molecule. Using a cell-free expression system, a scheme that involves (15) N, 1-(13) C, 2-(13) C, fully (15) N/(13) C, and unlabeled amino acids was optimized to gain a maximum of assignment information from three samples. This scheme was combined with time-shared triple-resonance NMR experiments, which allows a fast and efficient backbone assignment by giving the unambiguous assignment of unique amino acid pairs in the protein, the identity of ambiguous pairs and information about all 19 non-proline amino acid types. It is therefore well suited for binding studies where de novo assignments of amide (1) H and (15) N resonances need to be obtained, even in cases where sensitivity is the limiting factor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Flexible backbone sampling methods to model and design protein alternative conformations.

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Noah; Smith, Colin A; Fraser, James S; Kortemme, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Sampling alternative conformations is key to understanding how proteins work and engineering them for new functions. However, accurately characterizing and modeling protein conformational ensembles remain experimentally and computationally challenging. These challenges must be met before protein conformational heterogeneity can be exploited in protein engineering and design. Here, as a stepping stone, we describe methods to detect alternative conformations in proteins and strategies to model these near-native conformational changes based on backrub-type Monte Carlo moves in Rosetta. We illustrate how Rosetta simulations that apply backrub moves improve modeling of point mutant side-chain conformations, native side-chain conformational heterogeneity, functional conformational changes, tolerated sequence space, protein interaction specificity, and amino acid covariation across protein-protein interfaces. We include relevant Rosetta command lines and RosettaScripts to encourage the application of these types of simulations to other systems. Our work highlights that critical scoring and sampling improvements will be necessary to approximate conformational landscapes. Challenges for the future development of these methods include modeling conformational changes that propagate away from designed mutation sites and modulating backbone flexibility to predictively design functionally important conformational heterogeneity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Methods in Enzymology: “Flexible backbone sampling methods to model and design protein alternative conformations”

    PubMed Central

    Ollikainen, Noah; Smith, Colin A.; Fraser, James S.; Kortemme, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Sampling alternative conformations is key to understanding how proteins work and engineering them for new functions. However, accurately characterizing and modeling protein conformational ensembles remains experimentally and computationally challenging. These challenges must be met before protein conformational heterogeneity can be exploited in protein engineering and design. Here, as a stepping stone, we describe methods to detect alternative conformations in proteins and strategies to model these near-native conformational changes based on backrub-type Monte Carlo moves in Rosetta. We illustrate how Rosetta simulations that apply backrub moves improve modeling of point mutant side chain conformations, native side chain conformational heterogeneity, functional conformational changes, tolerated sequence space, protein interaction specificity, and amino acid co-variation across protein-protein interfaces. We include relevant Rosetta command lines and RosettaScripts to encourage the application of these types of simulations to other systems. Our work highlights that critical scoring and sampling improvements will be necessary to approximate conformational landscapes. Challenges for the future development of these methods include modeling conformational changes that propagate away from designed mutation sites and modulating backbone flexibility to predictively design functionally important conformational heterogeneity. PMID:23422426

  1. Limits on variations in protein backbone dynamics from precise measurements of scalar couplings.

    PubMed

    Vögeli, Beat; Ying, Jinfa; Grishaev, Alexander; Bax, Ad

    2007-08-01

    3JHN,Halpha, 3JHN,Cbeta, and 3JHN,C' couplings, all related to the backbone torsion angle phi, were measured for the third immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G, or GB3. Measurements were carried out using both previously published methods and novel sequences based on the multiple-quantum principle, which limit attenuation of experimental couplings caused by finite lifetimes of the spin states of passive spins. High reproducibility between the multiple-quantum and conventional approaches confirms the accuracy of the measurements. With few exceptions, close agreement between 3JHN,Halpha, 3JHN,Cbeta, and 3JHN,C' and values predicted by their respective Karplus equations is observed. For the three types of couplings, up to 20% better agreement is obtained when fitting the experimental couplings to a dynamic ensemble NMR structure, which has a phi angle root-mean-square spread of 9 +/- 4 degrees and was previously calculated on the basis of a very extensive set of residual dipolar couplings, than for any single static NMR structure. Fits of 3J couplings to a 1.1-A X-ray structure, with hydrogens added in idealized positions, are 40-90% worse. Approximately half of the improvement when fitting to the NMR structures relates to the amide proton deviating from its idealized, in-peptide-plane position, indicating that the positioning of hydrogens relative to the backbone atoms is one of the factors limiting the accuracy at which the backbone torsion angle phi can be extracted from 3J couplings. Introducing an additional, residue-specific variable for the amplitude of phi angle fluctuations does not yield a statistically significant improvement when fitting to a set of dynamic Karplus curves, pointing to a homogeneous behavior of these amplitudes.

  2. Coupling Protein Side-Chain and Backbone Flexibility Improves the Re-design of Protein-Ligand Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Ollikainen, Noah; de Jong, René M.; Kortemme, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between small molecules and proteins play critical roles in regulating and facilitating diverse biological functions, yet our ability to accurately re-engineer the specificity of these interactions using computational approaches has been limited. One main difficulty, in addition to inaccuracies in energy functions, is the exquisite sensitivity of protein–ligand interactions to subtle conformational changes, coupled with the computational problem of sampling the large conformational search space of degrees of freedom of ligands, amino acid side chains, and the protein backbone. Here, we describe two benchmarks for evaluating the accuracy of computational approaches for re-engineering protein-ligand interactions: (i) prediction of enzyme specificity altering mutations and (ii) prediction of sequence tolerance in ligand binding sites. After finding that current state-of-the-art “fixed backbone” design methods perform poorly on these tests, we develop a new “coupled moves” design method in the program Rosetta that couples changes to protein sequence with alterations in both protein side-chain and protein backbone conformations, and allows for changes in ligand rigid-body and torsion degrees of freedom. We show significantly increased accuracy in both predicting ligand specificity altering mutations and binding site sequences. These methodological improvements should be useful for many applications of protein – ligand design. The approach also provides insights into the role of subtle conformational adjustments that enable functional changes not only in engineering applications but also in natural protein evolution. PMID:26397464

  3. Using halogen bonds to address the protein backbone: a systematic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wilcken, Rainer; Zimmermann, Markus O; Lange, Andreas; Zahn, Stefan; Boeckler, Frank M

    2012-08-01

    Halogen bonds are specific embodiments of the sigma hole bonding paradigm. They represent directional interactions between the halogens chlorine, bromine, or iodine and an electron donor as binding partner. Using quantum chemical calculations at the MP2 level, we systematically explore how they can be used in molecular design to address the omnipresent carbonyls of the protein backbone. We characterize energetics and directionality and elucidate their spatial variability in sub-optimal geometries that are expected to occur in protein-ligand complexes featuring a multitude of concomitant interactions. By deriving simple rules, we aid medicinal chemists and chemical biologists in easily exploiting them for scaffold decoration and design. Our work shows that carbonyl-halogen bonds may be used to expand the patentable medicinal chemistry space, redefining halogens as key features. Furthermore, this data will be useful for implementing halogen bonds into pharmacophore models or scoring functions making the QM information available for automatic molecular recognition in virtual high throughput screening.

  4. Using halogen bonds to address the protein backbone: a systematic evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcken, Rainer; Zimmermann, Markus O.; Lange, Andreas; Zahn, Stefan; Boeckler, Frank M.

    2012-08-01

    Halogen bonds are specific embodiments of the sigma hole bonding paradigm. They represent directional interactions between the halogens chlorine, bromine, or iodine and an electron donor as binding partner. Using quantum chemical calculations at the MP2 level, we systematically explore how they can be used in molecular design to address the omnipresent carbonyls of the protein backbone. We characterize energetics and directionality and elucidate their spatial variability in sub-optimal geometries that are expected to occur in protein-ligand complexes featuring a multitude of concomitant interactions. By deriving simple rules, we aid medicinal chemists and chemical biologists in easily exploiting them for scaffold decoration and design. Our work shows that carbonyl-halogen bonds may be used to expand the patentable medicinal chemistry space, redefining halogens as key features. Furthermore, this data will be useful for implementing halogen bonds into pharmacophore models or scoring functions making the QM information available for automatic molecular recognition in virtual high throughput screening.

  5. A computational study of radical initiated protein backbone homolytic dissociation on all natural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Uranga, Jon; Lakuntza, Oier; Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Matxain, Jon M; Mujika, Jon I

    2016-11-16

    Hydroxyl radical (˙OH) is known to be one of the most reactive species. In this work, the hydrogen abstraction by ˙OH from Cα and Cβ atoms of all amino acids is studied in the framework of density functional theory as this is the most favorable reaction mechanism when this kind of radical attacks a protein. From the myriad routes that the oxidation of a protein by a ˙OH radical may follow, fragmentation of the protein is one of the most damaging ones as it hampers the normal function of the protein. Therefore, cleavages of the Cα-C and Cα-N backbone bonds have been investigated as the second step of the mechanism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this reaction pathway has been systematically studied for all natural amino acids. The study includes the effects that the solvent dielectrics or the conformation of the peptide model employed has on the reaction. Interestingly, the results indicate that the nature of the side chain has little effect on the H abstraction reaction, and that for most of amino acids the attack at the Cα atom is favored over the attack at the Cβ atom. The origin of this preference relies on the larger capability of the formed radical intermediate to delocalize the unpaired electron, thus maximizing the captodative effect. Moreover, the reaction is more favorable when the reactant presents a β-sheet conformation, with a completely planar peptide backbone. With respect to the homolytic splitting of the Cα-C and Cα-N bonds, the former is favorable for almost all amino acids, whereas Ser and Thr are the only amino acids favoring the latter. These results agree with previous investigations but an accurate description of the electronic density analysis performed indicates that the origin of the different reaction pathway preferences relies on a large stabilization of the product rather than bond weakening at the radical intermediate.

  6. Effects of solvent damping on side chain and backbone contributions to the protein boson peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarek, Mounir; Tobias, Douglas J.

    2001-07-01

    We report a MD simulation study of the behavior of the boson peak of a globular protein in realistic powder environments corresponding to conditions of neutron scattering studies (hydrated at 150 K, dry at 150 K, and dry at 300 K). The temperature and hydration dependence of the boson peak, an excess of inelastic scattering intensity over the harmonic background at low frequency, are in excellent agreement with neutron scattering data on powder samples of several proteins. To gain further insight into the nature of boson peak, and its relation to hydration water, we have decomposed the inelastic spectrum into contributions from the protein backbone, nonpolar side chains in the interior of the protein, and polar side chains exposed to the solvent. We find that the boson peak arises from motions distributed throughout the protein, regardless of the conditions of temperature and hydration. Furthermore, the relative contribution from each part of the protein considered shows a similar temperature and hydration dependence. This demonstrates that the damping of the boson peak upon hydration is not solely due to the damping of the water-coupled motion of exposed polar side chains, but rather propagates through the whole protein.

  7. Optimization of Protein Backbone Dihedral Angles by Means of Hamiltonian Reweighting

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations depend critically on the accuracy of the underlying force fields in properly representing biomolecules. Hence, it is crucial to validate the force-field parameter sets in this respect. In the context of the GROMOS force field, this is usually achieved by comparing simulation data to experimental observables for small molecules. In this study, we develop new amino acid backbone dihedral angle potential energy parameters based on the widely used 54A7 parameter set by matching to experimental J values and secondary structure propensity scales. In order to find the most appropriate backbone parameters, close to 100 000 different combinations of parameters have been screened. However, since the sheer number of combinations considered prohibits actual molecular dynamics simulations for each of them, we instead predicted the values for every combination using Hamiltonian reweighting. While the original 54A7 parameter set fails to reproduce the experimental data, we are able to provide parameters that match significantly better. However, to ensure applicability in the context of larger peptides and full proteins, further studies have to be undertaken. PMID:27559757

  8. Polarizable Simulations with Second order Interaction Model (POSSIM) force field: Developing parameters for alanine peptides and protein backbone

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarev, Sergei Y.; Kaminski, George A.

    2011-01-01

    A previously introduced POSSIM (POlarizable Simulations with Second order Interaction Model) force field has been extended to include parameters for alanine peptides and protein backbones. New features were introduced into the fitting protocol, as compared to the previous generation of the polarizable force field for proteins. A reduced amount of quantum mechanical data was employed in fitting the electrostatic parameters. Transferability of the electrostatics between our recently developed NMA model and the protein backbone was confirmed. Binding energy and geometry for complexes of alanine dipeptide with a water molecule were estimated and found in a good agreement with high-level quantum mechanical results (for example, the intermolecular distances agreeing within ca. 0.06Å). Following the previously devised procedure, we calculated average errors in alanine di- and tetra-peptide conformational energies and backbone angles and found the agreement to be adequate (for example, the alanine tetrapeptide extended-globular conformational energy gap was calculated to be 3.09 kcal/mol quantim mechanically and 3.14 kcal/mol with the POSSIM force field). However, we have now also included simulation of a simple alpha-helix in both gas-phase and water as the ultimate test of the backbone conformational behavior. The resulting alanine and protein backbone force field is currently being employed in further development of the POSSIM fast polarizable force field for proteins. PMID:21743799

  9. APSY-NMR for protein backbone assignment in high-throughput structural biology

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Samit Kumar; Serrano, Pedro; Proudfoot, Andrew; Geralt, Michael; Pedrini, Bill; Herrmann, Torsten; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    A standard set of three APSY-NMR experiments has been used in daily practice to obtain polypeptide backbone NMR assignments in globular proteins with sizes up to about 150 residues, which had been identified as targets for structure determination by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG) under the auspices of the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). In a representative sample of 30 proteins, initial fully automated data analysis with the software UNIO-MATCH-2014 yielded complete or partial assignments for over 90% of the residues. For most proteins the APSY data acquisition was completed in less than 30 hours. The results of the automated procedure provided a basis for efficient interactive validation and extension to near-completion of the assignments by reference to the same 3D heteronuclear-resolved [1H,1H]-NOESY spectra that were subsequently used for the collection of conformational constraints. High-quality structures were obtained for all 30 proteins, using the J-UNIO protocol, which includes extensive automation of NMR structure determination. PMID:25428764

  10. Backbone Dynamics of an Atypical Orphan Response Regulator Protein, Helicobacter pylori 1043

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ki-Woong; Ko, Hyunsook; Lee, Sung-Ah; Hong, Eunmi; Ko, Sunggeon; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Weontae; Kim, Yangmee

    2013-01-01

    An atypical orphan response regulator protein, HP1043 (HP-RR) in Helicobacter pylori, is proven to be essential for cell growth and does not require the well known phosphorelay scheme. HP-RR was identified as a symmetric dimer with two functional domains, an N-terminal regulatory domain (HP-RRr) and a C-terminal effector domain (HP-RRe). HP-RR is a new class of response regulator, as a phosphorylation-independent regulator. Previously, we have presented a detailed three-dimensional structure of HP-RR using NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. In this study, in order to understand the functional importance of flexibilities in HP-RRr and HP-RRe, T1, T2, heteronuclear NOE experiments have been performed and backbone dynamics of HP-RRr and HP-RRe were investigated. HP-RRr is a symmetric dimer and the interface region, α4-β5-α5 of dimer, showed high rigidity (high S2 values). Site of rearrangements associated with phosphorylation of HP-RRr (Ser75: Rex = 3.382, Ile95: Rex = 5.228) showed slow chemical exchanges. HP-RRe is composed of three α-helices flanked on two sides by anti-parallel β-sheets. Low order parameters as well as conformational exchanges in the centers of loop regions known as the DNA binding site and transcription site of HP-RRe suggested that flexibility of HP-RRe is essential for interaction with DNA. In conclusion, backbone dynamics information for HP-RR implies that structural flexibilities in HP-RRr are necessary for the phosphorylation site and the dynamic nature of HP-RRe is essential for the regulation of interaction between protein and DNA. PMID:23456337

  11. Solution structure and backbone dynamics of human epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP).

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-González, Luis H; Ludwig, Christian; Hohoff, Carsten; Rademacher, Martin; Hanhoff, Thorsten; Rüterjans, Heinz; Spener, Friedrich; Lücke, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Human epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP) belongs to a family of intracellular 14-15 kDa lipid-binding proteins, whose functions have been associated with fatty acid signalling, cell growth, regulation and differentiation. As a contribution to understanding the structure-function relationship, we report in the present study features of its solution structure and backbone dynamics determined by NMR spectroscopy. Applying multi-dimensional high-resolution NMR techniques on unlabelled and 15N-enriched recombinant human E-FABP, the 1H and 15N resonance assignments were completed. On the basis of 2008 distance restraints, the three-dimensional solution structure of human E-FABP was subsequently obtained (backbone atom root-mean-square deviation of 0.92+/-0.11 A; where 1 A=0.1 nm), consisting mainly of 10 anti-parallel beta-strands that form a beta-barrel structure. 15N relaxation experiments (T1, T2 and heteronuclear nuclear Overhauser effects) at 500, 600 and 800 MHz provided information on the internal dynamics of the protein backbone. Nearly all non-terminal backbone amide groups showed order parameters S(2)>0.8, with an average value of 0.88+/-0.04, suggesting a uniformly low backbone mobility in the nanosecond-to-picosecond time range. Moreover, hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments indicated a direct correlation between the stability of the hydrogen-bonding network in the beta-sheet structure and the conformational exchange in the millisecond-to-microsecond time range. The features of E-FABP backbone dynamics elaborated in the present study differ markedly from those of the phylogenetically closely related heart-type FABP and the more distantly related ileal lipid-binding protein, implying a strong interdependence with the overall protein stability and possibly also with the ligand-binding affinity for members of the lipid-binding protein family. PMID:12049637

  12. Capillary zone electrophoresis of alpha-helical diastereomeric peptide pairs with anionic ion-pairing reagents.

    PubMed

    Popa, Traian V; Mant, Colin T; Chen, Y; Hodges, Robert S

    2004-07-16

    The present study uses an unique capillary electrophoresis (CE) approach, that we have termed ion-interaction capillary zone electrophoresis (II-CZE), for the separation of diastereomeric peptide pairs where a single site in the centre of the non-polar face of an 18-residue amphipathic alpha-helical peptide is substituted by the 19 L- or D-amino acids. Through the addition of perfluorinated acids at very high concentrations (up to 400 mM), such concentration levels not having been used previously in chromatography or CE, to the background electrolyte (pH 2.0), we have been able to achieve baseline resolution of all 19 diastereomeric peptide pairs with an uncoated capillary. Since each diastereomeric peptide pair has the same sequence, identical mass-to-charge ratio and identical intrinsic hydrophobicity, such a separation by CZE has previously been considered theoretically impossible. Excellent resolution was achieved due to maximum advantage being taken of even subtle disruption of peptide structure/conformation (due to the presence of D-amino acids) of the non-polar face of the amphipathic alpha-helix and its interaction with the hydrophobic anionic ion-pairing reagents. In addition, due to the excellent resolution of diastereomeric peptide pairs by this novel CZE approach, we have also been able to separate a mixture of these closely-related alpha-helical peptides.

  13. Rational design and application of responsive alpha-helical peptide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Banwell, Eleanor F; Abelardo, Edgardo S; Adams, Dave J; Birchall, Martin A; Corrigan, Adam; Donald, Athene M; Kirkland, Mark; Serpell, Louise C; Butler, Michael F; Woolfson, Derek N

    2009-07-01

    Biocompatible hydrogels have a wide variety of potential applications in biotechnology and medicine, such as the controlled delivery and release of cells, cosmetics and drugs, and as supports for cell growth and tissue engineering. Rational peptide design and engineering are emerging as promising new routes to such functional biomaterials. Here, we present the first examples of rationally designed and fully characterized self-assembling hydrogels based on standard linear peptides with purely alpha-helical structures, which we call hydrogelating self-assembling fibres (hSAFs). These form spanning networks of alpha-helical fibrils that interact to give self-supporting physical hydrogels of >99% water content. The peptide sequences can be engineered to alter the underlying mechanism of gelation and, consequently, the hydrogel properties. Interestingly, for example, those with hydrogen-bonded networks of fibrils melt on heating, whereas those formed through hydrophobic fibril-fibril interactions strengthen when warmed. The hSAFs are dual-peptide systems that gel only on mixing, which gives tight control over assembly. These properties raise possibilities for using the hSAFs as substrates in cell culture. We have tested this in comparison with the widely used Matrigel substrate, and demonstrate that, like Matrigel, hSAFs support both growth and differentiation of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells for sustained periods in culture.

  14. An alpha-helical cationic antimicrobial peptide selectively modulates macrophage responses to lipopolysaccharide and directly alters macrophage gene expression.

    PubMed

    Scott, M G; Rosenberger, C M; Gold, M R; Finlay, B B; Hancock, R E

    2000-09-15

    Certain cationic antimicrobial peptides block the binding of LPS to LPS-binding protein and reduce the ability of LPS to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by macrophages. To gain a more complete understanding of how LPS activates macrophages and how cationic peptides influence this process, we have used gene array technology to profile gene expression patterns in macrophages treated with LPS in the presence or the absence of the insect-derived cationic antimicrobial peptide CEMA (cecropin-melittin hybrid). We found that CEMA selectively blocked LPS-induced gene expression in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. The ability of LPS to induce the expression of >40 genes was strongly inhibited by CEMA, while LPS-induced expression of another 16 genes was relatively unaffected. In addition, CEMA itself induced the expression of a distinct set of 35 genes, including genes involved in cell adhesion and apoptosis. Thus, CEMA, a synthetic alpha-helical peptide, selectively modulates the transcriptional response of macrophages to LPS and can alter gene expression in macrophages.

  15. Slow dynamics of a protein backbone in molecular dynamics simulation revealed by time-structure based independent component analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Naritomi, Yusuke; Fuchigami, Sotaro

    2013-12-07

    We recently proposed the method of time-structure based independent component analysis (tICA) to examine the slow dynamics involved in conformational fluctuations of a protein as estimated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation [Y. Naritomi and S. Fuchigami, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 065101 (2011)]. Our previous study focused on domain motions of the protein and examined its dynamics by using rigid-body domain analysis and tICA. However, the protein changes its conformation not only through domain motions but also by various types of motions involving its backbone and side chains. Some of these motions might occur on a slow time scale: we hypothesize that if so, we could effectively detect and characterize them using tICA. In the present study, we investigated slow dynamics of the protein backbone using MD simulation and tICA. The selected target protein was lysine-, arginine-, ornithine-binding protein (LAO), which comprises two domains and undergoes large domain motions. MD simulation of LAO in explicit water was performed for 1 μs, and the obtained trajectory of C{sub α} atoms in the backbone was analyzed by tICA. This analysis successfully provided us with slow modes for LAO that represented either domain motions or local movements of the backbone. Further analysis elucidated the atomic details of the suggested local motions and confirmed that these motions truly occurred on the expected slow time scale.

  16. Slow dynamics of a protein backbone in molecular dynamics simulation revealed by time-structure based independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naritomi, Yusuke; Fuchigami, Sotaro

    2013-12-01

    We recently proposed the method of time-structure based independent component analysis (tICA) to examine the slow dynamics involved in conformational fluctuations of a protein as estimated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation [Y. Naritomi and S. Fuchigami, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 065101 (2011)]. Our previous study focused on domain motions of the protein and examined its dynamics by using rigid-body domain analysis and tICA. However, the protein changes its conformation not only through domain motions but also by various types of motions involving its backbone and side chains. Some of these motions might occur on a slow time scale: we hypothesize that if so, we could effectively detect and characterize them using tICA. In the present study, we investigated slow dynamics of the protein backbone using MD simulation and tICA. The selected target protein was lysine-, arginine-, ornithine-binding protein (LAO), which comprises two domains and undergoes large domain motions. MD simulation of LAO in explicit water was performed for 1 μs, and the obtained trajectory of Cα atoms in the backbone was analyzed by tICA. This analysis successfully provided us with slow modes for LAO that represented either domain motions or local movements of the backbone. Further analysis elucidated the atomic details of the suggested local motions and confirmed that these motions truly occurred on the expected slow time scale.

  17. Quantitative residue-specific protein backbone torsion angle dynamics from concerted measurement of 3J couplings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ho; Li, Fang; Grishaev, Alexander; Bax, Ad

    2015-02-04

    Three-bond (3)J(C'C') and (3)J(HNHα) couplings in peptides and proteins are functions of the intervening backbone torsion angle ϕ. In well-ordered regions, (3)J(HNHα) is tightly correlated with (3)J(C'C'), but the presence of large ϕ angle fluctuations differentially affects the two types of couplings. Assuming the ϕ angles follow a Gaussian distribution, the width of this distribution can be extracted from (3)J(C'C') and (3)J(HNHα), as demonstrated for the folded proteins ubiquitin and GB3. In intrinsically disordered proteins, slow transverse relaxation permits measurement of (3)J(C'C') and (3)J(HNH) couplings at very high precision, and impact of factors other than the intervening torsion angle on (3)J will be minimal, making these couplings exceptionally valuable structural reporters. Analysis of α-synuclein yields rather homogeneous widths of 69 ± 6° for the ϕ angle distributions and (3)J(C'C') values that agree well with those of a recent maximum entropy analysis of chemical shifts, J couplings, and (1)H-(1)H NOEs. Data are consistent with a modest (≤30%) population of the polyproline II region.

  18. Designed protein G core variants fold to native-like structures: Sequence selection by ORBIT tolerates variation in backbone specification

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Scott A.; Sarisky, Catherine A.; Su, Alyce; Mayo, Stephen L.

    2001-01-01

    The solution structures of two computationally designed core variants of the β1 domain of streptococcal protein G (Gβ1) were solved by 1H NMR methods to assess the robustness of amino acid sequence selection by the ORBIT protein design package under changes in protein backbone specification. One variant has mutations at three of 10 core positions and corresponds to minimal perturbations of the native Gβ1 backbone. The other, with mutations at six of 10 positions, was calculated for a backbone in which the separation between Gβ1's α-helix and β-sheet was increased by 15% relative to native Gβ1. Exchange broadening of some resonances and the complete absence of others in spectra of the sixfold mutant bespeak conformational heterogeneity in this protein. The NMR data were sufficiently abundant, however, to generate structures of similar, moderately high quality for both variants. Both proteins adopt backbone structures similar to their target folds. Moreover, the sequence selection algorithm successfully predicted all core χ1 angles in both variants, five of six χ2 angles in the threefold mutant and four of seven χ2 angles in the sixfold mutant. We conclude that ORBIT calculates sequences that fold specifically to a geometry close to the template, even when the template is moderately perturbed relative to a naturally occurring structure. There are apparently limits to the size of acceptable perturbations: In this study, the larger perturbation led to undesired dynamic behavior. PMID:11266631

  19. Water proton spin saturation affects measured protein backbone 15 N spin relaxation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kang; Tjandra, Nico

    2011-12-01

    Protein backbone 15N NMR spin relaxation rates are useful in characterizing the protein dynamics and structures. To observe the protein nuclear-spin resonances a pulse sequence has to include a water suppression scheme. There are two commonly employed methods, saturating or dephasing the water spins with pulse field gradients and keeping them unperturbed with flip-back pulses. Here different water suppression methods were incorporated into pulse sequences to measure 15N longitudinal T1 and transversal rotating-frame T1ρ spin relaxation. Unexpectedly the 15N T1 relaxation time constants varied significantly with the choice of water suppression method. For a 25-kDa Escherichiacoli. glutamine binding protein (GlnBP) the T1 values acquired with the pulse sequence containing a water dephasing gradient are on average 20% longer than the ones obtained using a pulse sequence containing the water flip-back pulse. In contrast the two T1ρ data sets are correlated without an apparent offset. The average T1 difference was reduced to 12% when the experimental recycle delay was doubled, while the average T1 values from the flip-back measurements were nearly unchanged. Analysis of spectral signal to noise ratios ( s/ n) showed the apparent slower 15N relaxation obtained with the water dephasing experiment originated from the differences in 1H N recovery for each relaxation time point. This in turn offset signal reduction from 15N relaxation decay. The artifact becomes noticeable when the measured 15N relaxation time constant is comparable to recycle delay, e.g., the 15N T1 of medium to large proteins. The 15N relaxation rates measured with either water suppression schemes yield reasonable fits to the structure. However, data from the saturated scheme results in significantly lower Model-Free order parameters (< S2> = 0.81) than the non-saturated ones (< S2> = 0.88), indicating such order parameters may be previously underestimated.

  20. A new default restraint library for the protein backbone in Phenix: a conformation-dependent geometry goes mainstream

    DOE PAGES

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Chemical restraints are a fundamental part of crystallographic protein structure refinement. In response to mounting evidence that conventional restraints have shortcomings, it has previously been documented that using backbone restraints that depend on the protein backbone conformation helps to address these shortcomings and improves the performance of refinements [Moriartyet al.(2014),FEBS J.281, 4061–4071]. It is important that these improvements be made available to all in the protein crystallography community. Toward this end, a change in the default geometry library used byPhenixis described here. Tests are presented showing that this change will not generate increased numbers of outliers during validation, or depositionmore » in the Protein Data Bank, during the transition period in which some validation tools still use the conventional restraint libraries.« less

  1. TANGLE: Two-Level Support Vector Regression Approach for Protein Backbone Torsion Angle Prediction from Primary Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiangning; Tan, Hao; Wang, Mingjun; Webb, Geoffrey I.; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    Protein backbone torsion angles (Phi) and (Psi) involve two rotation angles rotating around the Cα-N bond (Phi) and the Cα-C bond (Psi). Due to the planarity of the linked rigid peptide bonds, these two angles can essentially determine the backbone geometry of proteins. Accordingly, the accurate prediction of protein backbone torsion angle from sequence information can assist the prediction of protein structures. In this study, we develop a new approach called TANGLE (Torsion ANGLE predictor) to predict the protein backbone torsion angles from amino acid sequences. TANGLE uses a two-level support vector regression approach to perform real-value torsion angle prediction using a variety of features derived from amino acid sequences, including the evolutionary profiles in the form of position-specific scoring matrices, predicted secondary structure, solvent accessibility and natively disordered region as well as other global sequence features. When evaluated based on a large benchmark dataset of 1,526 non-homologous proteins, the mean absolute errors (MAEs) of the Phi and Psi angle prediction are 27.8° and 44.6°, respectively, which are 1% and 3% respectively lower than that using one of the state-of-the-art prediction tools ANGLOR. Moreover, the prediction of TANGLE is significantly better than a random predictor that was built on the amino acid-specific basis, with the p-value<1.46e-147 and 7.97e-150, respectively by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. As a complementary approach to the current torsion angle prediction algorithms, TANGLE should prove useful in predicting protein structural properties and assisting protein fold recognition by applying the predicted torsion angles as useful restraints. TANGLE is freely accessible at http://sunflower.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~sjn/TANGLE/. PMID:22319565

  2. Unconventional N-H…N Hydrogen Bonds Involving Proline Backbone Nitrogen in Protein Structures.

    PubMed

    Deepak, R N V Krishna; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2016-05-10

    Contrary to DNA double-helical structures, hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) involving nitrogen as the acceptor are not common in protein structures. We systematically searched N-H…N H-bonds in two different sets of protein structures. Data set I consists of neutron diffraction and ultrahigh-resolution x-ray structures (0.9 Å resolution or better) and the hydrogen atom positions in these structures were determined experimentally. Data set II contains structures determined using x-ray diffraction (resolution ≤ 1.8 Å) and the positions of hydrogen atoms were generated using a computational method. We identified 114 and 14,347 potential N-H…N H-bonds from these two data sets, respectively, and 56-66% of these were of the Ni+1-Hi+1…Ni type, with Ni being the proline backbone nitrogen. To further understand the nature of such unusual contacts, we performed quantum chemical calculations on the model compound N-acetyl-L-proline-N-methylamide (Ace-Pro-NMe) with coordinates taken from the experimentally determined structures. A potential energy profile generated by varying the ψ dihedral angle in Ace-Pro-NMe indicates that the conformation with the N-H…N H-bond is the most stable. An analysis of H-bond-forming proline residues reveals that more than 30% of the proline carbonyl groups are also involved in n → π(∗) interactions with the carbonyl carbon of the preceding residue. Natural bond orbital analyses demonstrate that the strength of N-H…N H-bonds is less than half of that observed for a conventional H-bond. This study clearly establishes the H-bonding capability of proline nitrogen and its prevalence in protein structures. We found many proteins with multiple instances of H-bond-forming prolines. With more than 15% of all proline residues participating in N-H…N H-bonds, we suggest a new, to our knowledge, structural role for proline in providing stability to loops and capping regions of secondary structures in proteins.

  3. The determinants of bond angle variability in protein/peptide backbones: A comprehensive statistical/quantum mechanics analysis.

    PubMed

    Improta, Roberto; Vitagliano, Luigi; Esposito, Luciana

    2015-11-01

    The elucidation of the mutual influence between peptide bond geometry and local conformation has important implications for protein structure refinement, validation, and prediction. To gain insights into the structural determinants and the energetic contributions associated with protein/peptide backbone plasticity, we here report an extensive analysis of the variability of the peptide bond angles by combining statistical analyses of protein structures and quantum mechanics calculations on small model peptide systems. Our analyses demonstrate that all the backbone bond angles strongly depend on the peptide conformation and unveil the existence of regular trends as function of ψ and/or φ. The excellent agreement of the quantum mechanics calculations with the statistical surveys of protein structures validates the computational scheme here employed and demonstrates that the valence geometry of protein/peptide backbone is primarily dictated by local interactions. Notably, for the first time we show that the position of the H(α) hydrogen atom, which is an important parameter in NMR structural studies, is also dependent on the local conformation. Most of the trends observed may be satisfactorily explained by invoking steric repulsive interactions; in some specific cases the valence bond variability is also influenced by hydrogen-bond like interactions. Moreover, we can provide a reliable estimate of the energies involved in the interplay between geometry and conformations.

  4. Protein inhibitors of serine proteinases: role of backbone structure and dynamics in controlling the hydrolysis constant.

    PubMed

    Song, Jikui; Markley, John L

    2003-05-13

    Standard mechanism protein inhibitors of serine proteinases bind as substrates and are cleaved by cognate proteinases at their reactive sites. The hydrolysis constant for this cleavage reaction at the P(1)-P(1)' peptide bond (K(hyd)) is determined by the relative concentrations at equilibrium of the "intact" (uncleaved, I) and "modified" (reactive site cleaved, I*) forms of the inhibitor. The pH dependence of K(hyd) can be explained in terms of a pH-independent term, K(hyd) degrees, plus the proton dissociation constants of the newly formed amino and carboxylate groups at the cleavage site. Two protein inhibitors that differ from one another by a single residue substitution have been found to have K(hyd) degrees values that differ by a factor of 5 [Ardelt, W., and Laskowski, M., Jr. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 220, 1041-1052]: turkey ovomucoid third domain (OMTKY3) has K(hyd) degrees = 1.0, and Indian peafowl ovomucoid third domain (OMIPF3), which differs from OMTKY3 by the substitution P(2)'-Tyr(20)His, has K(hyd) degrees = 5.15. What mechanism is responsible for this small difference? Is it structural (enthalpic) or dynamic (entropic)? Does the mutation affect the free energy of the I state, the I* state, or both? We have addressed these questions through NMR investigations of the I and I forms of OMTKY3 and OMIPF3. Information about structure was derived from measurements of NMR chemical shift changes and trans-hydrogen-bond J-couplings; information about dynamics was obtained through measurements of (15)N relaxation rates and (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear NOEs with model-free analysis of the results. Although the I forms of each variant are more dynamic than the corresponding I forms, the study revealed no appreciable difference in the backbone dynamics of either intact inhibitor (OMIPF3 vs OMTKY3) or modified inhibitor (OMIPF3* vs OMTKY3*). Instead, changes in chemical shifts and trans-hydrogen-bond J-couplings suggested that the K(hyd) degrees difference arises from

  5. Amide-I relaxation-induced hydrogen bond distortion: An intermediate in electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry of alpha-helical peptides?

    PubMed

    Pouthier, Vincent; Tsybin, Yury O

    2008-09-07

    Electron capture dissociation (ECD) of peptides and proteins in the gas phase is a powerful tool in tandem mass spectrometry whose current description is not sufficient to explain many experimental observations. Here, we attempt to bridge the current understanding of the vibrational dynamics in alpha-helices with the recent experimental results on ECD of alpha-helical peptides through consideration of amide-I relaxation-induced hydrogen bond distortion. Based on a single spine of H-bonded peptide units, we assume that charge neutralization upon electron capture by a charged alpha-helix excites a nearby amide-I mode, which relaxes over a few picoseconds due to Fermi resonances with intramolecular normal modes. The amide-I population plays the role of an external force, which drives the displacements of each peptide unit. It induces a large immobile contraction of the H bonds surrounding the excited site whose lifetime is about the amide-I lifetime. In addition, it creates two lattice deformations describing H bond stretchings, which propagate from the excited region toward both termini of the alpha-helix, get reflected at the termini and yield H bond contractions which move back to the excited region. Consequently, we show that H bonds experience rather large contractions whose amplitude depends on general features such as the position of the amide-I mode, the peptide length and the H bond force constants. When an H bond contraction is sufficiently large, it may promote a hydrogen atom transfer between two neighboring peptide units leading to the formation of a radical at charge site remote carbonyl carbon which is known to be a precursor to the rupture of the corresponding N[Single Bond]C(alpha) bond. The introduced here way of excitation energy generation and transfer may significantly advance ECD understanding and complement existing ECD mechanisms.

  6. Assessing side-chain perturbations of the protein backbone: a knowledge-based classification of residue Ramachandran space.

    PubMed

    Dahl, David B; Bohannan, Zach; Mo, Qianxing; Vannucci, Marina; Tsai, Jerry

    2008-05-02

    Grouping the 20 residues is a classic strategy to discover ordered patterns and insights about the fundamental nature of proteins, their structure, and how they fold. Usually, this categorization is based on the biophysical and/or structural properties of a residue's side-chain group. We extend this approach to understand the effects of side chains on backbone conformation and to perform a knowledge-based classification of amino acids by comparing their backbone phi, psi distributions in different types of secondary structure. At this finer, more specific resolution, torsion angle data are often sparse and discontinuous (especially for nonhelical classes) even though a comprehensive set of protein structures is used. To ensure the precision of Ramachandran plot comparisons, we applied a rigorous Bayesian density estimation method that produces continuous estimates of the backbone phi, psi distributions. Based on this statistical modeling, a robust hierarchical clustering was performed using a divergence score to measure the similarity between plots. There were seven general groups based on the clusters from the complete Ramachandran data: nonpolar/beta-branched (Ile and Val), AsX (Asn and Asp), long (Met, Gln, Arg, Glu, Lys, and Leu), aromatic (Phe, Tyr, His, and Cys), small (Ala and Ser), bulky (Thr and Trp), and, lastly, the singletons of Gly and Pro. At the level of secondary structure (helix, sheet, turn, and coil), these groups remain somewhat consistent, although there are a few significant variations. Besides the expected uniqueness of the Gly and Pro distributions, the nonpolar/beta-branched and AsX clusters were very consistent across all types of secondary structure. Effectively, this consistency across the secondary structure classes implies that side-chain steric effects strongly influence a residue's backbone torsion angle conformation. These results help to explain the plasticity of amino acid substitutions on protein structure and should help in

  7. Alpha-helical hydrophobic polypeptides form proton-selective channels in lipid bilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, A. E.; Deamer, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Proton translocation is important in membrane-mediated processes such as ATP-dependent proton pumps, ATP synthesis, bacteriorhodopsin, and cytochrome oxidase function. The fundamental mechanism, however, is poorly understood. To test the theoretical possibility that bundles of hydrophobic alpha-helices could provide a low energy pathway for ion translocation through the lipid bilayer, polyamino acids were incorporated into extruded liposomes and planar lipid membranes, and proton translocation was measured. Liposomes with incorporated long-chain poly-L-alanine or poly-L-leucine were found to have proton permeability coefficients 5 to 7 times greater than control liposomes, whereas short-chain polyamino acids had relatively little effect. Potassium permeability was not increased markedly by any of the polyamino acids tested. Analytical thin layer chromatography measurements of lipid content and a fluorescamine assay for amino acids showed that there were approximately 135 polyleucine or 65 polyalanine molecules associated with each liposome. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that a major fraction of the long-chain hydrophobic peptides existed in an alpha-helical conformation. Single-channel recording in both 0.1 N HCl and 0.1 M KCl was also used to determine whether proton-conducting channels formed in planar lipid membranes (phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine, 1:1). Poly-L-leucine and poly-L-alanine in HCl caused a 10- to 30-fold increase in frequency of conductive events compared to that seen in KCl or by the other polyamino acids in either solution. This finding correlates well with the liposome observations in which these two polyamino acids caused the largest increase in membrane proton permeability but had little effect on potassium permeability. Poly-L-leucine was considerably more conductive than poly-L-alanine due primarily to larger event amplitudes and, to a lesser extent, a higher event frequency. Poly-L-leucine caused two

  8. Alpha-helical hydrophobic polypeptides form proton-selective channels in lipid bilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, A. E.; Deamer, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Proton translocation is important in membrane-mediated processes such as ATP-dependent proton pumps, ATP synthesis, bacteriorhodopsin, and cytochrome oxidase function. The fundamental mechanism, however, is poorly understood. To test the theoretical possibility that bundles of hydrophobic alpha-helices could provide a low energy pathway for ion translocation through the lipid bilayer, polyamino acids were incorporated into extruded liposomes and planar lipid membranes, and proton translocation was measured. Liposomes with incorporated long-chain poly-L-alanine or poly-L-leucine were found to have proton permeability coefficients 5 to 7 times greater than control liposomes, whereas short-chain polyamino acids had relatively little effect. Potassium permeability was not increased markedly by any of the polyamino acids tested. Analytical thin layer chromatography measurements of lipid content and a fluorescamine assay for amino acids showed that there were approximately 135 polyleucine or 65 polyalanine molecules associated with each liposome. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that a major fraction of the long-chain hydrophobic peptides existed in an alpha-helical conformation. Single-channel recording in both 0.1 N HCl and 0.1 M KCl was also used to determine whether proton-conducting channels formed in planar lipid membranes (phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine, 1:1). Poly-L-leucine and poly-L-alanine in HCl caused a 10- to 30-fold increase in frequency of conductive events compared to that seen in KCl or by the other polyamino acids in either solution. This finding correlates well with the liposome observations in which these two polyamino acids caused the largest increase in membrane proton permeability but had little effect on potassium permeability. Poly-L-leucine was considerably more conductive than poly-L-alanine due primarily to larger event amplitudes and, to a lesser extent, a higher event frequency. Poly-L-leucine caused two

  9. Improving prediction of secondary structure, local backbone angles, and solvent accessible surface area of proteins by iterative deep learning

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Rhys; Paliwal, Kuldip; Lyons, James; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Sharma, Alok; Wang, Jihua; Sattar, Abdul; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2015-01-01

    Direct prediction of protein structure from sequence is a challenging problem. An effective approach is to break it up into independent sub-problems. These sub-problems such as prediction of protein secondary structure can then be solved independently. In a previous study, we found that an iterative use of predicted secondary structure and backbone torsion angles can further improve secondary structure and torsion angle prediction. In this study, we expand the iterative features to include solvent accessible surface area and backbone angles and dihedrals based on Cα atoms. By using a deep learning neural network in three iterations, we achieved 82% accuracy for secondary structure prediction, 0.76 for the correlation coefficient between predicted and actual solvent accessible surface area, 19° and 30° for mean absolute errors of backbone φ and ψ angles, respectively, and 8° and 32° for mean absolute errors of Cα-based θ and τ angles, respectively, for an independent test dataset of 1199 proteins. The accuracy of the method is slightly lower for 72 CASP 11 targets but much higher than those of model structures from current state-of-the-art techniques. This suggests the potentially beneficial use of these predicted properties for model assessment and ranking. PMID:26098304

  10. Adsorption of alpha-helical antifreeze peptides on specific ice crystal surface planes.

    PubMed

    Knight, C A; Cheng, C C; DeVries, A L

    1991-02-01

    The noncolligative peptide and glycopeptide antifreezes found in some cold-water fish act by binding to the ice surface and preventing crystal growth, not by altering the equilibrium freezing point of the water. A simple crystal growth and etching technique allows determination of the crystallographic planes where the binding occurs. In the case of elongated molecules, such as the alpha-helical peptides in this report, it also allows a deduction of the molecular alignment on the ice surface. The structurally similar antifreeze peptides from winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and Alaskan plaice (Pleuronectes quadritaberulatus) adsorb onto the (2021) pyramidal planes of ice, whereas the sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) peptide adsorbs on (2110), the secondary prism planes. All three are probably aligned along (0112). These antifreeze peptides have 11-amino acid sequence repeats ending with a polar residue, and each repeat constitutes a distance of 16.5 A along the helix, which nearly matches the 16.7 A repeat spacing along (0112) in ice. This structural match is undoubtedly important, but the mechanism of binding is not yet clear. The suggested mechanism of growth inhibition operates through the influence of local surface curvature upon melting point and results in complete inhibition of the crystal growth even though individual antifreeze molecules bind at only one interface orientation.

  11. Adsorption of alpha-helical antifreeze peptides on specific ice crystal surface planes.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, C A; Cheng, C C; DeVries, A L

    1991-01-01

    The noncolligative peptide and glycopeptide antifreezes found in some cold-water fish act by binding to the ice surface and preventing crystal growth, not by altering the equilibrium freezing point of the water. A simple crystal growth and etching technique allows determination of the crystallographic planes where the binding occurs. In the case of elongated molecules, such as the alpha-helical peptides in this report, it also allows a deduction of the molecular alignment on the ice surface. The structurally similar antifreeze peptides from winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and Alaskan plaice (Pleuronectes quadritaberulatus) adsorb onto the (2021) pyramidal planes of ice, whereas the sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) peptide adsorbs on (2110), the secondary prism planes. All three are probably aligned along (0112). These antifreeze peptides have 11-amino acid sequence repeats ending with a polar residue, and each repeat constitutes a distance of 16.5 A along the helix, which nearly matches the 16.7 A repeat spacing along (0112) in ice. This structural match is undoubtedly important, but the mechanism of binding is not yet clear. The suggested mechanism of growth inhibition operates through the influence of local surface curvature upon melting point and results in complete inhibition of the crystal growth even though individual antifreeze molecules bind at only one interface orientation. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:2009357

  12. Protein side-chain resonance assignment and NOE assignment using RDC-defined backbones without TOCSY data.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    2011-08-01

    One bottleneck in NMR structure determination lies in the laborious and time-consuming process of side-chain resonance and NOE assignments. Compared to the well-studied backbone resonance assignment problem, automated side-chain resonance and NOE assignments are relatively less explored. Most NOE assignment algorithms require nearly complete side-chain resonance assignments from a series of through-bond experiments such as HCCH-TOCSY or HCCCONH. Unfortunately, these TOCSY experiments perform poorly on large proteins. To overcome this deficiency, we present a novel algorithm, called NASCA: (NOE Assignment and Side-Chain Assignment), to automate both side-chain resonance and NOE assignments and to perform high-resolution protein structure determination in the absence of any explicit through-bond experiment to facilitate side-chain resonance assignment, such as HCCH-TOCSY. After casting the assignment problem into a Markov Random Field (MRF), NASCA: extends and applies combinatorial protein design algorithms to compute optimal assignments that best interpret the NMR data. The MRF captures the contact map information of the protein derived from NOESY spectra, exploits the backbone structural information determined by RDCs, and considers all possible side-chain rotamers. The complexity of the combinatorial search is reduced by using a dead-end elimination (DEE) algorithm, which prunes side-chain resonance assignments that are provably not part of the optimal solution. Then an A* search algorithm is employed to find a set of optimal side-chain resonance assignments that best fit the NMR data. These side-chain resonance assignments are then used to resolve the NOE assignment ambiguity and compute high-resolution protein structures. Tests on five proteins show that NASCA: assigns resonances for more than 90% of side-chain protons, and achieves about 80% correct assignments. The final structures computed using the NOE distance restraints assigned by NASCA: have backbone

  13. Artificial antifreeze polypeptides: alpha-helical peptides with KAAK motifs have antifreeze and ice crystal morphology modifying properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Laursen, R A

    1999-07-23

    Antifreeze polypeptides from fish are generally thought to inhibit ice crystal growth by specific adsorption onto ice surfaces and preventing addition of water molecules to the ice lattice. Recent studies have suggested that this adsorption results from hydrogen bonding through the side chains of polar amino acids as well as hydrophobic interactions between the non-polar domains on the ice-binding side of antifreeze polypeptides and the clathrate-like surfaces of ice. In order to better understand the activity of one of the antifreeze polypeptide families, namely the alpha-helical type I antifreeze polypeptides, four alpha-helical peptides having sequences not directly analogous to those of known antifreeze polypeptides and containing only positively charged and non-polar side chains were synthesized. Two peptides with regularly spaced lysine residues, GAAKAAKAAAAAAAKAAKAAAAAAAKAAKAAGGY-NH2 and GAALKAAKAAAAAALKAAKAAAAAALKAAKAAGGY-NH2, showed antifreeze activity, albeit weaker than seen in natural antifreeze polypeptides, by the criteria of freezing point depression (thermal hysteresis) and ice crystal modification to a hexagonal trapezohedron. Peptides with irregular spacing of Lys residues were completely inactive. Up to now, lysine residues have not been generally associated with antifreeze activity, though they have been implicated in some antifreeze polypeptides. This work also shows that lysine residues in themselves, when properly positioned on an alpha-helical polyalanine scaffold, have all the requisite properties needed for such an activity.

  14. Light-enhanced and fear-potentiated startle: temporal characteristics and effects of alpha-helical corticotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Reinoud; Groenink, Lucianne; van der Gugten, Jan; Olivier, Berend

    2003-11-15

    It has been suggested that the light-enhanced startle paradigm (LES) is an animal model for anxiety, because of the unconditioned and nonspecific cue and the long-term effect. In contrast, the fear-potentiated startle (FPS) is suggested to model fear. In the present study, we assessed in detail the time course of LES and FPS and investigated whether corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is differentially involved in these two models. In experiment 1, the amplitude of the startle response was tracked in the presence of the light and after light offset, in both models. In experiment 2, the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of the CRH-receptor antagonist alpha-helical CRH (0, 1, 5, and 25 microg) on LES and FPS were studied. In LES, light onset resulted in a long-lasting potentiation of the startle response and a slow return to baseline after light offset. In FPS, the potentiation of the startle response returned to baseline almost immediately after light offset. Alpha-helical CRH reduced the potentiation in LES at the 5-microg dose but not at 25 microg. In FPS, alpha-helical CRH had no effect. The results show that the time course of LES is markedly different from that of FPS, which together with the differences in eliciting stimuli suggest that they model anxiety and fear, respectively. Moreover, the results suggest that CRH is involved in LES and not in FPS.

  15. Polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin. Transmembrane alpha helices are resistant to hydrogen/deuterium exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, T N; Herzfeld, J; Rothschild, K J

    1990-01-01

    The secondary structure of bacteriorhodopsin has been investigated by polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with hydrogen/deuterium exchange, isotope labeling and resolution enhancement methods. Oriented films of purple membrane were measured at low temperature after exposure to H2O or D2O. Resolution enhancement techniques and isotopic labeling of the Schiff base were used to assign peaks in the amide I region of the spectrum. alpha-helical structure, which exhibits strong infrared dichroism, undergoes little H/D exchange, even after 48 h of D2O exposure. In contrast, non-alpha-helical structure, which exhibits little dichroism, undergoes rapid H/D exchange. A band at 1,640 cm-1, which has previously been assigned to beta-sheet structure, is found to be due in part to the C = N stretching vibration of protonated Schiff base of the retinylidene chromophore. We conclude that the membrane spanning regions of bR consist predominantly of alpha-helical structure whereas most beta-type structure is located in surface regions directly accessible to water. PMID:2275968

  16. Carbon and amide detect backbone assignment methods of a novel repeat protein from the staphylocoagulase in S. aureus.

    PubMed

    Voehler, Markus; Ashoka, Maddur Appajaiah; Meiler, Jens; Bock, Paul E

    2017-08-17

    The C-terminal repeat domain of staphylocoagulase that is secreted by the S. aureus is believed to play an important role interacting with fibrinogen and promotes blood clotting. To study this interaction by NMR, full assignment of each amide residue in the HSQC spectrum was required. Despite of the short sequence of the repeat construct, the HSQC spectrum contained a substantial amount of overlapped and exchange broadened resonances, indicating little secondary or tertiary structure. This caused severe problems while using the conventional, amide based NMR method for the backbone assignment. With the growing interest in small apparently disordered proteins, these issues are being faced more frequently. An alternative strategy to improve the backbone assignment capability involved carbon direct detection methods. Circumventing the amide proton detection offers a larger signal dispersion and more uniform signal intensity. For peptides with higher concentrations and in combination with the cold carbon channels of new cryoprobes, higher fields, and sufficiently long relaxation times, the disadvantage of the lower sensitivity of the (13)C nucleus can be overcome. Another advantage of this method is the assignment of the proline backbone residues. Complete assignment with the carbon-detected strategy was achieved with a set of only two 3D, one 2D, and a HNCO measurement, which was necessary to translate the information to the HSQC spectrum.

  17. Alpha helical structures in the leader sequence of human GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase responsible for mitochondrial import.

    PubMed

    Kotzamani, Dimitra; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Human glutamate dehydrogenase (hGDH) exists in two highly homologous isoforms with a distinct regulatory and tissue expression profile: a housekeeping hGDH1 isoprotein encoded by the GLUD1 gene and an hGDH2 isoenzyme encoded by the GLUD2 gene. There is evidence that both isoenzymes are synthesized as pro-enzymes containing a 53 amino acid long N-terminal leader peptide that is cleaved upon translocation into the mitochondria. However, this GDH signal peptide is substantially larger than that of most nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins, the leader sequence of which typically contains 17-35 amino acids and they often form a single amphipathic α-helix. To decode the structural elements that are essential for the mitochondrial targeting of human GDHs, we performed secondary structure analyses of their leader sequence. These analyses predicted, with 82% accuracy, that both leader peptides are positively charged and that they form two to three α-helices, separated by intermediate loops. The first α-helix of hGDH2 is strongly amphipathic, displaying both a positively charged surface and a hydrophobic plane. We then constructed GLUD2-EGFP deletion mutants and used them to transfect three mammalian cell lines (HEK293, COS 7 and SHSY-5Y). Confocal laser scanning microscopy, following co-transfection with pDsRed2-Mito mitochondrial targeting vector, revealed that deletion of the entire leader sequence prevented the enzyme from entering the mitochondria, resulting in its retention in the cytoplasm. Deletion of the first strongly amphipathic α-helix only was also sufficient to prevent the mitochondrial localization of the truncated protein. Moreover, truncated leader sequences, retaining the second and/or the third putative α-helix, failed to restore the mitochondrial import of hGDH2. As such, the first N-terminal alpha helical structure is crucial for the mitochondrial import of hGDH2 and these findings may have implications in understanding the evolutionary

  18. Refined solution structure and backbone dynamics of HIV-1 Nef.

    PubMed Central

    Grzesiek, S.; Bax, A.; Hu, J. S.; Kaufman, J.; Palmer, I.; Stahl, S. J.; Tjandra, N.; Wingfield, P. T.

    1997-01-01

    The tendency of HIV-1 Nef to form aggregates in solution, particularly at pH values below 8, together with its large fraction of highly mobile residues seriously complicated determination of its three-dimensional structure, both for heteronuclear solution NMR (Grzesiek et al., 1996a, Nat Struct Biol 3:340-345) and for X-ray crystallography (Lee et al., 1996, Cell 85:931-942). Methods used to determine the Nef structure by NMR at pH 8 and 0.6 mM concentration are presented, together with a detailed description of Nef's secondary and tertiary structure. The described techniques have general applicability for the NMR structure determination of proteins that are aggregating and/or have limited stability at low pH values. Extensive chemical shift assignments are reported for backbone and side chain 1H, 13C, and 15N resonances of the HIV-1 Nef deletion mutants NEF delta 2-39, NEF delta 2-39, delta 159-173, and of NEF delta 2-39, delta 159-173 in complex with the SH3 domain of the Hck tyrosine protein kinase. Besides a type II polyproline helix, Nef's structure consists of three alpha-helices, a 3(10) helix, and a five-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet. The analysis of 15N relaxation parameters of the backbone amide sites reveals that all the secondary structure elements are non-mobile on the picosecond to nanosecond and on the millisecond time scale. A large number of slowly exchanging amide protons provides evidence for the stability of the Nef core even on the time scale of hours. Significant internal motions on the ps to ns time scale are detected for residues 60 to 71 and for residues 149 to 180, which form solvent-exposed loops. The residues of the HIV-1 protease cleavage site (W57/L58) do not exhibit large amplitude motions on the sub-nanosecond time scale, and their side chains insert themselves into a hydrophobic crevice formed between the C-terminus of helix 1 and the N-terminus of helix 2. A refined structure has been determined based on additional constraints

  19. Assembly and Structure of alpha-helical Peptide Films on Hydrophobic Fluorocarbon Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, T.; Samual, N; McCrea, K; Gamble, L; Ward, R; Castner, D

    2010-01-01

    The structure, orientation, and formation of amphiphilic {alpha}-helix model peptide films on fluorocarbon surfaces has been monitored with sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The {alpha}-helix peptide is a 14-mer of hydrophilic lysine and hydrophobic leucine residues with a hydrophobic periodicity of 3.5. This periodicity yields a rigid amphiphilic peptide with leucine and lysine side chains located on opposite sides. XPS composition analysis confirms the formation of a peptide film that covers about 75% of the surface. NEXAFS data are consistent with chemically intact adsorption of the peptides. A weak linear dichroism of the amide {pi}* is likely due to the broad distribution of amide bond orientations inherent to the {alpha}-helical secondary structure. SFG spectra exhibit strong peaks near 2865 and 2935 cm{sup -1} related to aligned leucine side chains interacting with the hydrophobic surface. Water modes near 3200 and 3400 cm{sup -1} indicate ordering of water molecules in the adsorbed-peptide fluorocarbon surface interfacial region. Amide I peaks observed near 1655 cm{sup -1} confirm that the secondary structure is preserved in the adsorbed peptide. A kinetic study of the film formation process using XPS and SFG showed rapid adsorption of the peptides followed by a longer assembly process. Peptide SFG spectra taken at the air-buffer interface showed features related to well-ordered peptide films. Moving samples through the buffer surface led to the transfer of ordered peptide films onto the substrates.

  20. Synergistic inhibition of human cancer cell growth by cytotoxic drugs and mixed backbone antisense oligonucleotide targeting protein kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Tortora, Giampaolo; Caputo, Rosa; Damiano, Vincenzo; Bianco, Roberto; Pepe, Stefano; Bianco, A. Raffaele; Jiang, Zhiwei; Agrawal, Sudhir; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    1997-01-01

    Protein kinase A type I plays a key role in neoplastic transformation, conveying mitogenic signals of different growth factors and oncogenes. Inhibition of protein kinase A type I by antisense oligonucleotides targeting its RIα regulatory subunit results in cancer cell growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo. A novel mixed backbone oligonucleotide HYB 190 and its mismatched control HYB 239 were tested on soft agar growth of several human cancer cell types. HYB 190 demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of colony formation in all cell lines whereas the HYB 239 at the same doses caused a modest or no growth inhibition. A noninhibitory dose of each mixed backbone oligonucleotide was used in OVCAR-3 ovarian and GEO colon cancer cells to study whether any cooperative effect may occur between the antisense and a series of cytotoxic drugs acting by different mechanisms. Treatment with HYB 190 resulted in an additive growth inhibitory effect with several cytotoxic drugs when measured by soft agar colony formation. A synergistic growth inhibition, which correlated with increased apoptosis, was observed when HYB 190 was added to cancer cells treated with taxanes, platinum-based compounds, and topoisomerase II selective drugs. This synergistic effect was also observed in breast cancer cells and was obtained with other related drugs such as docetaxel and carboplatin. Combination of HYB 190 and paclitaxel resulted in an accumulation of cells in late S-G2 phases of cell cycle and marked induction of apoptosis. A cooperative effect of HYB 190 and paclitaxel was also obtained in vivo in nude mice bearing human GEO colon cancer xenografts. These results are the first report of a cooperative growth inhibitory effect obtained in a variety of human cancer cell lines by antisense mixed backbone oligonucleotide targeting protein kinase A type I-mediated mitogenic signals and specific cytotoxic drugs. PMID:9356493

  1. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the unfolding and refolding of the three-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil, Lpp-56.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Anatoly I; Potekhin, Sergey A; Sivolob, Andrei; Lu, Min; Privalov, Peter L

    2004-11-30

    Temperature-induced reversible unfolding and refolding of the three-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil, Lpp-56, were studied by kinetic and thermodynamic methods, using CD spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and scanning calorimetry. It was found that both unfolding and refolding reactions of this protein in neutral solution in the presence of 100 mM NaCl are characterized by unusually slow kinetics, which permits detailed investigation of the mechanism of these reactions. Kinetic analyses show that the unfolding of this coiled coil represents a single-stage first-order reaction, while the refolding represents a single-stage third-order reaction. The activation enthalpy and entropy for unfolding do not depend noticeably on temperature and are both significantly greater than those for the folding reaction, which show a significant dependence on temperature. The activation heat capacity change for the unfolding reaction is close to zero, while it is quite significant for the folding reaction. The correlation between the activation and structural parameters obtained for the Lpp-56 coiled coil suggests that interhelical van der Waals interactions are disrupted in the transition state, which is nevertheless still compact, and water has not yet penetrated into the interface; the transition from the transient state to the unfolded state results in hydration of exposed apolar groups of the interface and the disruption of helices. The low propensity for the Lpp-56 strands to fold and associate is caused by the high number of charged groups at neutral pH. On one hand, these charges give rise to considerable repulsive forces destabilizing the helical conformation of the strands. On the other hand, they align the folded helices in parallel and in register so that the apolar sides face each other, and the oppositely charged groups may form salt links, which are important for the formation of the trimeric coiled coil. A decrease in pH, which eliminates the salt links

  2. General order parameter based correlation analysis of protein backbone motions between experimental NMR relaxation measurements and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Shi, Chaowei; Yu, Lu; Zhang, Longhua; Xiong, Ying; Tian, Changlin

    2015-02-13

    Internal backbone dynamic motions are essential for different protein functions and occur on a wide range of time scales, from femtoseconds to seconds. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin relaxation measurements are valuable tools to gain access to fast (nanosecond) internal motions. However, there exist few reports on correlation analysis between MD and NMR relaxation data. Here, backbone relaxation measurements of (15)N-labeled SH3 (Src homology 3) domain proteins in aqueous buffer were used to generate general order parameters (S(2)) using a model-free approach. Simultaneously, 80 ns MD simulations of SH3 domain proteins in a defined hydrated box at neutral pH were conducted and the general order parameters (S(2)) were derived from the MD trajectory. Correlation analysis using the Gromos force field indicated that S(2) values from NMR relaxation measurements and MD simulations were significantly different. MD simulations were performed on models with different charge states for three histidine residues, and with different water models, which were SPC (simple point charge) water model and SPC/E (extended simple point charge) water model. S(2) parameters from MD simulations with charges for all three histidines and with the SPC/E water model correlated well with S(2) calculated from the experimental NMR relaxation measurements, in a site-specific manner.

  3. Vanishing amplitude of backbone dynamics causes a true protein dynamical transition: 2H NMR studies on perdeuterated C-phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Kämpf, Kerstin; Kremmling, Beke; Vogel, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Using a combination of H2 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, we study internal rotational dynamics of the perdeuterated protein C-phycocyanin (CPC) in dry and hydrated states over broad temperature and dynamic ranges with high angular resolution. Separating H2 NMR signals from methyl deuterons, we show that basically all backbone deuterons exhibit highly restricted motion occurring on time scales faster than microseconds. The amplitude of this motion increases when a hydration shell exists, while it decreases upon cooling and vanishes near 175 K. We conclude that the vanishing of the highly restricted motion marks a dynamical transition, which is independent of the time window and of a fundamental importance. This conclusion is supported by results from experimental and computational studies of the proteins myoglobin and elastin. In particular, we argue based on findings in molecular dynamics simulations that the behavior of the highly restricted motion of proteins at the dynamical transition resembles that of a characteristic secondary relaxation of liquids at the glass transition, namely the nearly constant loss. Furthermore, H2 NMR studies on perdeuterated CPC reveal that, in addition to highly restricted motion, small fractions of backbone segments exhibit weakly restricted dynamics when temperature and hydration are sufficiently high.

  4. Vanishing amplitude of backbone dynamics causes a true protein dynamical transition: H2 NMR studies on perdeuterated C-phycocyanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, Kerstin; Kremmling, Beke; Vogel, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Using a combination of H2 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, we study internal rotational dynamics of the perdeuterated protein C-phycocyanin (CPC) in dry and hydrated states over broad temperature and dynamic ranges with high angular resolution. Separating H2 NMR signals from methyl deuterons, we show that basically all backbone deuterons exhibit highly restricted motion occurring on time scales faster than microseconds. The amplitude of this motion increases when a hydration shell exists, while it decreases upon cooling and vanishes near 175 K. We conclude that the vanishing of the highly restricted motion marks a dynamical transition, which is independent of the time window and of a fundamental importance. This conclusion is supported by results from experimental and computational studies of the proteins myoglobin and elastin. In particular, we argue based on findings in molecular dynamics simulations that the behavior of the highly restricted motion of proteins at the dynamical transition resembles that of a characteristic secondary relaxation of liquids at the glass transition, namely the nearly constant loss. Furthermore, H2 NMR studies on perdeuterated CPC reveal that, in addition to highly restricted motion, small fractions of backbone segments exhibit weakly restricted dynamics when temperature and hydration are sufficiently high.

  5. NMR Spectroscopic Assignment of Backbone and Side-Chain Protons in Fully Protonated Proteins: Microcrystals, Sedimented Assemblies, and Amyloid Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Jan; Andreas, Loren B; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Cala, Diane; Lalli, Daniela; Bertarello, Andrea; Schubeis, Tobias; Akopjana, Inara; Kotelovica, Svetlana; Tars, Kaspars; Pica, Andrea; Leone, Serena; Picone, Delia; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Dixon, Nicholas E; Martinez, Denis; Berbon, Mélanie; El Mammeri, Nadia; Noubhani, Abdelmajid; Saupe, Sven; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Pintacuda, Guido

    2016-12-12

    We demonstrate sensitive detection of alpha protons of fully protonated proteins by solid-state NMR spectroscopy with 100-111 kHz magic-angle spinning (MAS). The excellent resolution in the Cα-Hα plane is demonstrated for 5 proteins, including microcrystals, a sedimented complex, a capsid and amyloid fibrils. A set of 3D spectra based on a Cα-Hα detection block was developed and applied for the sequence-specific backbone and aliphatic side-chain resonance assignment using only 500 μg of sample. These developments accelerate structural studies of biomolecular assemblies available in submilligram quantities without the need of protein deuteration.

  6. Protein Side-Chain Resonance Assignment and NOE Assignment Using RDC-Defined Backbones without TOCSY Data3

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    2011-01-01

    One bottleneck in NMR structure determination lies in the laborious and time-consuming process of side-chain resonance and NOE assignments. Compared to the well-studied backbone resonance assignment problem, automated side-chain resonance and NOE assignments are relatively less explored. Most NOE assignment algorithms require nearly complete side-chain resonance assignments from a series of through-bond experiments such as HCCH-TOCSY or HCCCONH. Unfortunately, these TOCSY experiments perform poorly on large proteins. To overcome this deficiency, we present a novel algorithm, called NASCA (NOE Assignment and Side-Chain Assignment), to automate both side-chain resonance and NOE assignments and to perform high-resolution protein structure determination in the absence of any explicit through-bond experiment to facilitate side-chain resonance assignment, such as HCCH-TOCSY. After casting the assignment problem into a Markov Random Field (MRF), NASCA extends and applies combinatorial protein design algorithms to compute optimal assignments that best interpret the NMR data. The MRF captures the contact map information of the protein derived from NOESY spectra, exploits the backbone structural information determined by RDCs, and considers all possible side-chain rotamers. The complexity of the combinatorial search is reduced by using a dead-end elimination (DEE) algorithm, which prunes side-chain resonance assignments that are provably not part of the optimal solution. Then an A* search algorithm is employed to find a set of optimal side-chain resonance assignments that best fit the NMR data. These side-chain resonance assignments are then used to resolve the NOE assignment ambiguity and compute high-resolution protein structures. Tests on five proteins show that NASCA assigns resonances for more than 90% of side-chain protons, and achieves about 80% correct assignments. The final structures computed using the NOE distance restraints assigned by NASCA have backbone RMSD 0

  7. General order parameter based correlation analysis of protein backbone motions between experimental NMR relaxation measurements and molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qing; Shi, Chaowei; Yu, Lu; Zhang, Longhua; Xiong, Ying; Tian, Changlin

    2015-02-13

    Internal backbone dynamic motions are essential for different protein functions and occur on a wide range of time scales, from femtoseconds to seconds. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin relaxation measurements are valuable tools to gain access to fast (nanosecond) internal motions. However, there exist few reports on correlation analysis between MD and NMR relaxation data. Here, backbone relaxation measurements of {sup 15}N-labeled SH3 (Src homology 3) domain proteins in aqueous buffer were used to generate general order parameters (S{sup 2}) using a model-free approach. Simultaneously, 80 ns MD simulations of SH3 domain proteins in a defined hydrated box at neutral pH were conducted and the general order parameters (S{sup 2}) were derived from the MD trajectory. Correlation analysis using the Gromos force field indicated that S{sup 2} values from NMR relaxation measurements and MD simulations were significantly different. MD simulations were performed on models with different charge states for three histidine residues, and with different water models, which were SPC (simple point charge) water model and SPC/E (extended simple point charge) water model. S{sup 2} parameters from MD simulations with charges for all three histidines and with the SPC/E water model correlated well with S{sup 2} calculated from the experimental NMR relaxation measurements, in a site-specific manner. - Highlights: • Correlation analysis between NMR relaxation measurements and MD simulations. • General order parameter (S{sup 2}) as common reference between the two methods. • Different protein dynamics with different Histidine charge states in neutral pH. • Different protein dynamics with different water models.

  8. Introduction of all-hydrocarbon i,i+3 staples into alpha-helices via ring-closing olefin metathesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Woo; Kutchukian, Peter S; Verdine, Gregory L

    2010-07-02

    The introduction of all-hydrocarbon i,i+3 staples into alpha-helical peptide scaffolds via ring-closing olefin metathesis (RCM) between two alpha-methyl,alpha-pentenylglycine residues incorporated at i and i+3 positions, which lie on the same face of the helix, has been investigated. The reactions were found to be highly dependent upon the side-chain stereochemistry of the amino acids undergoing RCM. The i,i+3 stapling system established here provides a potentially useful alternative to the well-established i,i+4 stapling system now in widespread use.

  9. Unraveling the complexity of protein backbone dynamics with combined (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR relaxation measurements.

    PubMed

    Lamley, Jonathan M; Lougher, Matthew J; Sass, Hans Juergen; Rogowski, Marco; Grzesiek, Stephan; Lewandowski, Józef R

    2015-09-14

    Typically, protein dynamics involve a complex hierarchy of motions occurring on different time scales between conformations separated by a range of different energy barriers. NMR relaxation can in principle provide a site-specific picture of both the time scales and amplitudes of these motions, but independent relaxation rates sensitive to fluctuations in different time scale ranges are required to obtain a faithful representation of the underlying dynamic complexity. This is especially pertinent for relaxation measurements in the solid state, which report on dynamics in a broader window of time scales by more than 3 orders of magnitudes compared to solution NMR relaxation. To aid in unraveling the intricacies of biomolecular dynamics we introduce (13)C spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame (R1ρ) as a probe of backbone nanosecond-microsecond motions in proteins in the solid state. We present measurements of (13)C'R1ρ rates in fully protonated crystalline protein GB1 at 600 and 850 MHz (1)H Larmor frequencies and compare them to (13)C'R1, (15)N R1 and R1ρ measured under the same conditions. The addition of carbon relaxation data to the model free analysis of nitrogen relaxation data leads to greatly improved characterization of time scales of protein backbone motions, minimizing the occurrence of fitting artifacts that may be present when (15)N data is used alone. We also discuss how internal motions characterized by different time scales contribute to (15)N and (13)C relaxation rates in the solid state and solution state, leading to fundamental differences between them, as well as phenomena such as underestimation of picosecond-range motions in the solid state and nanosecond-range motions in solution.

  10. Predicting backbone Cα angles and dihedrals from protein sequences by stacked sparse auto-encoder deep neural network.

    PubMed

    Lyons, James; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Heffernan, Rhys; Sharma, Alok; Paliwal, Kuldip; Sattar, Abdul; Zhou, Yaoqi; Yang, Yuedong

    2014-10-30

    Because a nearly constant distance between two neighbouring Cα atoms, local backbone structure of proteins can be represented accurately by the angle between C(αi-1)-C(αi)-C(αi+1) (θ) and a dihedral angle rotated about the C(αi)-C(αi+1) bond (τ). θ and τ angles, as the representative of structural properties of three to four amino-acid residues, offer a description of backbone conformations that is complementary to φ and ψ angles (single residue) and secondary structures (>3 residues). Here, we report the first machine-learning technique for sequence-based prediction of θ and τ angles. Predicted angles based on an independent test have a mean absolute error of 9° for θ and 34° for τ with a distribution on the θ-τ plane close to that of native values. The average root-mean-square distance of 10-residue fragment structures constructed from predicted θ and τ angles is only 1.9Å from their corresponding native structures. Predicted θ and τ angles are expected to be complementary to predicted ϕ and ψ angles and secondary structures for using in model validation and template-based as well as template-free structure prediction. The deep neural network learning technique is available as an on-line server called Structural Property prediction with Integrated DEep neuRal network (SPIDER) at http://sparks-lab.org.

  11. Insight into a molecular interaction force supporting peptide backbones and its implication to protein loops and folding

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qi-Shi; Chen, Dong; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Huang, Ri-Bo; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Although not being classified as the most fundamental protein structural elements like α-helices and β-strands, the loop segment may play considerable roles for protein stability, flexibility, and dynamic activity. Meanwhile, the protein loop is also quite elusive; i.e. its interactions with the other parts of protein as well as its own shape-maintaining forces have still remained as a puzzle or at least not quite clear yet. Here, we report a molecular force, the so-called polar hydrogen–π interaction (Hp–π), which may play an important role in supporting the backbones of protein loops. By conducting the potential energy surface scanning calculations on the quasi π-plane of peptide bond unit, we have observed the following intriguing phenomena: (1) when the polar hydrogen atom of a peptide unit is perpendicularly pointing to the π-plane of other peptide bond units, a remarkable Hp–π interaction occurs; (2) the interaction is distance and orientation dependent, acting in a broad space, and belonging to the ‘point-to-plane’ one. The molecular force reported here may provide useful interaction concepts and insights into better understanding the loop’s unique stability and flexibility feature, as well as the driving force of the protein global folding. PMID:25375237

  12. A single-stranded amphipathic alpha-helix in aqueous solution: design, structural characterization, and its application for determining alpha-helical propensities of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Zhou, N E; Kay, C M; Sykes, B D; Hodges, R S

    1993-06-22

    In order to investigate the positional effect of alpha-helical propensities of amino acids in an amphipathic alpha-helix, an amphipathic alpha-helical model peptide (Ac-Glu-Ala-Glu-Lys-Ala-Ala-Lys-Glu-Ala-Glu-Lys-Ala-Ala-Lys-Glu-Ala-Glu-Lys- amide) was designed and characterized by circular dichroism and 2D-NMR spectroscopies. This peptide contains 65% alpha-helical structure in solution, and its monomeric molecular weight in aqueous solution was determined by size-exclusion chromatography. The independence of alpha-helical structure and stability on peptide concentration demonstrates that helix formation of this peptide is a monomolecular process. To compare the effect of substitutions in the hydrophobic and hydrophilic face of the helix on structure and stability, a leucine, alanine, or glycine was individually substituted in the hydrophobic face (position 9) or hydrophilic face (position 7) of the model peptide. The change in helix content and stability upon substitution was measured by circular dichroism studies in the absence and presence of TFE or urea. The results indicate that each amino acid has a different helix propensity when it is located in the hydrophobic face versus hydrophilic face and the effect of substitution is more significant in the hydrophobic face. This single-stranded amphipathic alpha-helical peptide provides an appropriate model system to determine helix propensities of amino acids on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces.

  13. The three-dimensional structural surface of two beta-sheet scorpion toxins mimics that of an alpha-helical dihydropyridine receptor segment.

    PubMed Central

    Green, Daniel; Pace, Suzi; Curtis, Suzanne M; Sakowska, Magdalena; Lamb, Graham D; Dulhunty, Angela F; Casarotto, Marco G

    2003-01-01

    An alpha-helical II-III loop segment of the dihydropyridine receptor activates the ryanodine receptor calcium-release channel. We describe a novel manipulation in which this agonist's activity is increased by modifying its surface structure to resemble that of a toxin molecule. In a unique system, native beta-sheet scorpion toxins have been reported to activate skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor calcium channels with high affinity by binding to the same site as the lower-affinity alpha-helical dihydropyridine receptor segment. We increased the alignment of basic residues in the alpha-helical peptide to mimic the spatial orientation of active residues in the scorpion toxin, with a consequent 2-20-fold increase in the activity of the alpha-helical peptide. We hypothesized that, like the native peptide, the modified peptide and the scorpion toxin may bind to a common site. This was supported by (i) similar changes in ryanodine receptor channel gating induced by the native or modified alpha-helical peptide and the beta-sheet toxin, a 10-100-fold reduction in channel closed time, with a < or = 2-fold increase in open dwell time and (ii) a failure of the toxin to further activate channels activated by the peptides. These results suggest that diverse structural scaffolds can present similar conformational surface properties to target common receptor sites. PMID:12429019

  14. Toward quantification of protein backbone–backbone hydrogen bonding energies: An energetic analysis of an amide-to-ester mutation in an α-helix within a protein

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianmin; Kelly, Jeffery W.

    2008-01-01

    Amide-to-ester backbone mutagenesis enables a specific backbone–backbone hydrogen bond (H-bond) in a protein to be eliminated in order to quantify its energetic contribution to protein folding. To extract a H-bonding free energy from an amide-to-ester perturbation free energy (ΔG folding,wt − ΔG folding,mut), it is necessary to correct for the putative introduction of a lone pair–lone pair electrostatic repulsion, as well as for the transfer free energy differences that may arise between the all amide sequence and the predominantly amide sequence harboring an ester bond. Mutation of the 9–10 amide bond within the V9F variant of the predominantly helical villin headpiece subdomain (HP35) to an ester or an E-olefin backbone bond results in a less stable but defined wild-type fold, an attribute required for this study. Comparing the folding free energies of the ester and E-olefin mutants, with correction for the desolvation free energy differences (ester and E-olefin) and the loss of an n-to-π* interaction (E-olefin), yields an experimentally based estimate of +0.4 kcal/mol for the O–O repulsion energy in an α-helical context, analogous to our previous experimentally based estimate of the O–O repulsion free energy in the context of a β-sheet. The small O–O repulsion energy indicates that amide-to-ester perturbation free energies can largely be attributed to the deletion of the backbone H-bonds after correction for desolvation differences. Quantitative evaluation of H-bonding in an α-helix should now be possible, an important step toward deciphering the balance of forces that enable spontaneous protein folding. PMID:18434500

  15. Tuning the biological properties of amphipathic alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides: rational use of minimal amino acid substitutions.

    PubMed

    Zelezetsky, Igor; Pag, Ulrike; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Tossi, Alessandro

    2005-12-01

    In nature, alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides present the small and flexible residue glycine at positions 7 or 14 with a significant frequency. Based on the sequence of the non-proteinogenic alpha-helical model peptide P1(Aib7), with a potent, broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, six peptides were designed by effecting a single amino acid substitution to investigate how tuning the structural characteristics at position 7 could lead to optimization of selectivity without affecting antimicrobial activity against a broad panel of multidrug resistant bacterial and yeast indicator strains. The relationship between structural features (size/hydrophobicity of the side chain as well as conformation and flexibility) and biological activity, in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration, membrane permeabilization kinetics and lysis of red blood cells are discussed. On conversion of the peptide to proteinogenic residues, these principles allowed development of a potent antimicrobial peptide with a reduced cytotoxicity. However, while results suggest that both hydrophobicity of residue 7 and chain flexibility at this position can be modulated to improve selectivity, position 14 is less tolerant of substitutions.

  16. Backbone and side chain assignment strategies for multiply labeled membrane peptides and proteins in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, Aneta T.; Baldus, Marc; Belenky, Marina; Hong, Mei; Griffin, Robert G.; Herzfeld, Judith

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that the SPECIFIC CP technique can be used to obtain heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectra of peptide backbones with greater efficiency than conventional HETCOR methods. We show that similar design principles can be employed to achieve selective homonuclear polarization transfer mediated through dipolar or scalar couplings. Both approaches are demonstrated in a tripeptide with uniform 15N and 13C labeling, and with uniform 15N labeling and natural abundance 13C. In other applications, the high efficiency of the heteronuclear SPECIFIC CP transfer allows discrimination of single amide signals in the 248-residue membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR). In particular, variations are detected in the ordering of the Ala81-Arg82 peptide bond among the photocycle intermediates of bR and SPECIFIC CP is used to correlate 15N and 13C signals from the three Val-Pro peptide bonds.

  17. Structural basis for the enhanced stability of protein model compounds and peptide backbone unit in ammonium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Vasantha, T; Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Devi, R S Rama

    2012-10-04

    Protein folding/unfolding is a fascinating study in the presence of cosolvents, which protect/disrupt the native structure of protein, respectively. The structure and stability of proteins and their functional groups may be modulated by the addition of cosolvents. Ionic liquids (ILs) are finding a vast array of applications as novel cosolvents for a wide variety of biochemical processes that include protein folding. Here, the systematic and quantitative apparent transfer free energies (ΔG'(tr)) of protein model compounds from water to ILs through solubility measurements as a function of IL concentration at 25 °C have been exploited to quantify and interpret biomolecular interactions between model compounds of glycine peptides (GPs) with ammonium based ILs. The investigated aqueous systems consist of zwitterionic glycine peptides: glycine (Gly), diglycine (Gly(2)), triglycine (Gly(3)), tetraglycine (Gly(4)), and cyclic glycylglycine (c(GG)) in the presence of six ILs such as diethylammonium acetate (DEAA), diethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (DEAS), triethylammonium acetate (TEAA), triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (TEAS), triethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate (TEAP), and trimethylammonium acetate (TMAA). We have observed positive values of ΔG'(tr) for GPs from water to ILs, indicating that interactions between ILs and GPs are unfavorable, which leads to stabilization of the structure of model protein compounds. Moreover, our experimental data ΔG'(tr) is used to obtain transfer free energies (Δg'(tr)) of the peptide backbone unit (or glycyl unit) (-CH(2)C═ONH-), which is the most numerous group in globular proteins, from water to IL solutions. To obtain the mechanism events of the ILs' role in enhancing the stability of the model compounds, we have further obtained m-values for GPs from solubility limits. These results explicitly elucidate that all alkyl ammonium ILs act as stabilizers for model compounds through the exclusion of ILs from model compounds of

  18. Predicting the errors of predicted local backbone angles and non-local solvent- accessibilities of proteins by deep neural networks.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianzhao; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2016-12-15

    Backbone structures and solvent accessible surface area of proteins are benefited from continuous real value prediction because it removes the arbitrariness of defining boundary between different secondary-structure and solvent-accessibility states. However, lacking the confidence score for predicted values has limited their applications. Here we investigated whether or not we can make a reasonable prediction of absolute errors for predicted backbone torsion angles, Cα-atom-based angles and torsion angles, solvent accessibility, contact numbers and half-sphere exposures by employing deep neural networks. We found that angle-based errors can be predicted most accurately with Spearman correlation coefficient (SPC) between predicted and actual errors at about 0.6. This is followed by solvent accessibility (SPC∼0.5). The errors on contact-based structural properties are most difficult to predict (SPC between 0.2 and 0.3). We showed that predicted errors are significantly better error indicators than the average errors based on secondary-structure and amino-acid residue types. We further demonstrated the usefulness of predicted errors in model quality assessment. These error or confidence indictors are expected to be useful for prediction, assessment, and refinement of protein structures. The method is available at http://sparks-lab.org as a part of SPIDER2 package. yuedong.yang@griffith.edu.au or yaoqi.zhou@griffith.edu.auSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Origins of the enhanced affinity of RNA-protein interactions triggered by RNA phosphorodithioate backbone modification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianbin; Dinuka Abeydeera, N; Liu, Feng-Wu; Egli, Martin

    2017-09-21

    The well-characterized interaction between the MS2 coat protein and its cognate RNA hairpin was used to evaluate changes in affinity as a result of phosphorodithioate (PS2) replacing phosphate by biolayer interferometry (BLI). A structure-based analysis of the data provides insights into the origins of the enhanced affinity of RNA-protein interactions triggered by the PS2 moiety.

  20. Backbone NMR assignments of a topologically knotted protein in urea-denatured state.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Ju Micky; Mallam, Anna L; Jackson, Sophie E; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny

    2014-10-01

    YbeA is a 3-methylpseudoridine methyltransferase from Escherichia coli that forms a stable homodimer in solution. It is one of the deeply trefoil 31 knotted proteins, of which the knot encompasses the C-terminal helix that threads through a long loop. Recent studies on the knotted protein folding pathways using YbeA have suggested that the protein knot remains present under chemically denaturing conditions. Here, we report (1)H, (13)C and (15)N chemical shift assignments for urea-denatured YbeA, which will serve as the basis for further structural characterisations using solution state NMR spectroscopy with paramagnetic spin labeled and partial alignment media.

  1. The effects of regularly spaced glutamine substitutions on alpha-helical peptide structures: A DFT/ONIOM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Dipankar; Dannenberg, J. J.

    2011-08-01

    The side-chains of the residues of glutamine (Q) and asparagine (N) contain amide groups. These can H-bond to each other in patterns similar to those of the backbone amides in α-helices. We show that mutating multiple Q's for alanines (A's) in a polyalanine helix stabilizes the helical structure, while similar mutations with multiple N's do not. We suggest that modification of peptides by incorporating Q's in such positions can make more robust helices that can be used to test the effects of secondary structures in biochemical experiments linked to proteins with variable structures such as tau and α-synuclein.

  2. Dynamics of backbone conformational heterogeneity in Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease P protein.

    PubMed

    Henkels, Christopher H; Chang, Yu-Chu; Chamberlin, Stacy I; Oas, Terrence G

    2007-12-25

    Interconversion of protein conformations is imperative to function, as evidenced by conformational changes associated with enzyme catalytic cycles, ligand binding and post-translational modifications. In this study, we used 15N NMR relaxation experiments to probe the fast (i.e., ps-ns) and slow (i.e., micros-ms) conformational dynamics of Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease P protein (P protein) in its folded state, bound to two sulfate anions. Using the Lipari-Szabo mapping method [Andrec, M., Montelione, G. T., and Levy, R. M. (2000) J. Biomol. NMR 18, 83-100] to interpret the data, we find evidence for P protein dynamics on the mus-ms time scale in the ensemble. The residues that exhibit these slow internal motions are found in regions that have been previously identified as part of the P protein-P RNA interface. These results suggest that structural flexibility within the P protein ensemble may be important for proper RNase P holoenzyme assembly and/or catalysis.

  3. Backbone resonance assignments for G protein α(i3) subunit in the GDP-bound state.

    PubMed

    Mase, Yoko; Yokogawa, Mariko; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-10-01

    Guanine-nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signaling pathways, by coupling the activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the cell surface to intracellular responses. In the resting state, G protein forms a heterotrimer, consisting of the G protein α subunit with GDP (Gα·GDP) and the G protein βγ subunit (Gβγ). Ligand binding to GPCRs promotes the GDP-GTP exchange on Gα, leading to the dissociation of the GTP-bound form of Gα (Gα·GTP) and Gβγ. Then, Gα·GTP and Gβγ bind to their downstream effector enzymes or ion channels and regulate their activities, leading to a variety of cellular responses. Finally, Gα hydrolyzes the bound GTP to GDP and returns to the resting state by re-associating with Gβγ. The G proteins are classified with four major families based on the amino acid sequences of Gα: i/o, s, q/11, and 12/13. Here, we established the backbone resonance assignments of human Gαi3, a member of the i/o family with a molecular weight of 41 K, in complex with GDP. The chemical shifts were compared with those of Gα(i3) in complex with a GTP-analogue, GTPγS, which we recently reported, indicating that the residues with significant chemical shift differences are mostly consistent with the regions with the structural differences between the GDP- and GTPγS-bound states, as indicated in the crystal structures. The assignments of Gα(i3)·GDP would be useful for the analyses of the dynamics of Gα(i3) and its interactions with various target molecules.

  4. Independent Metrics for Protein Backbone and Side-Chain Flexibility: Time Scales and Effects of Ligand Binding.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Julian E; Waldner, Birgit J; Huber, Roland G; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Kramer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R

    2015-03-10

    Conformational dynamics are central for understanding biomolecular structure and function, since biological macromolecules are inherently flexible at room temperature and in solution. Computational methods are nowadays capable of providing valuable information on the conformational ensembles of biomolecules. However, analysis tools and intuitive metrics that capture dynamic information from in silico generated structural ensembles are limited. In standard work-flows, flexibility in a conformational ensemble is represented through residue-wise root-mean-square fluctuations or B-factors following a global alignment. Consequently, these approaches relying on global alignments discard valuable information on local dynamics. Results inherently depend on global flexibility, residue size, and connectivity. In this study we present a novel approach for capturing positional fluctuations based on multiple local alignments instead of one single global alignment. The method captures local dynamics within a structural ensemble independent of residue type by splitting individual local and global degrees of freedom of protein backbone and side-chains. Dependence on residue type and size in the side-chains is removed via normalization with the B-factors of the isolated residue. As a test case, we demonstrate its application to a molecular dynamics simulation of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) on the millisecond time scale. This allows for illustrating different time scales of backbone and side-chain flexibility. Additionally, we demonstrate the effects of ligand binding on side-chain flexibility of three serine proteases. We expect our new methodology for quantifying local flexibility to be helpful in unraveling local changes in biomolecular dynamics.

  5. Complete backbone and DENQ side chain NMR assignments in proteins from a single experiment: implications to structure-function studies.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Jithender G; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2014-03-01

    Resonance assignment is the first and the most crucial step in all nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations on structure-function relationships in biological macromolecules. Often, the assignment exercise has to be repeated several times when specific interactions with ligands, substrates etc., have to be elucidated for understanding the functional mechanisms. While the protein backbone serves to provide a scaffold, the side chains interact directly with the ligands. Such investigations will be greatly facilitated, if there are rapid methods for obtaining exhaustive information with minimum of NMR experimentation. In this context, we present here a pulse sequence which exploits the recently introduced technique of parallel detection of multiple nuclei, e.g. (1)H and (13)C, and results in two 3D-data sets simultaneously. These yield complete backbone resonance assignment ((1)H(N), (15)N, (13)CO, (1)Hα/(13)Cα, and (1)Hβ/(13)Cβ chemical shifts) and side chain assignment of D, E, N and Q residues. Such an exhaustive assignment has the potential of yielding accurate 3D structures using one or more of several algorithms which calculate structures of the molecules very reliably on the basis of NMR chemical shifts alone. The side chain assignments of D, E, N, and Q will be extremely valuable for interaction studies with different ligands; D and E side chains are known to be involved in majority of catalytic activities. Utility of this experiment has been demonstrated with Ca(2+) bound M-crystallin, which contains largely D, E, N and Q residues at the metal binding sites.

  6. Rapid Classification of Protein Structure Models Using Unassigned Backbone RDCs and Probability Density Profile Analysis (PDPA)

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sonal; Miao, Xijiang; Adams, Michael W. W.; Prestegard, James H.; Valafar, Homayoun

    2009-01-01

    A method of identifying the best structural model for a protein of unknown structure from a list of structural candidates using unassigned 15N-1H residual dipolar coupling (RDC) data and probability density profile analysis (PDPA) is described. Ten candidate structures have been obtained for the structural genomics target protein PF2048.1 using ROBETTA. 15N-1H residual dipolar couplings have been measured from NMR spectra of the protein in two alignment media and these data have been analyzed using PDPA to rank the models in terms of their ability to represent the actual structure. A number of advantages in using this method to characterize a protein structure become apparent. RDCs can easily and rapidly be acquired, and without the need for assignment, the cost and duration of data acquisition is greatly reduced. The approach is quite robust with respect to imprecise and missing data. In the case of PF2048.1, a 79 residue protein, only 58 and 55 of the total RDC data were observed. The method can accelerate structure determination at higher resolution using traditional NMR spectroscopy by providing a starting point for the addition of NOEs and other NMR structural data. PMID:18321742

  7. Rapid classification of protein structure models using unassigned backbone RDCs and probability density profile analysis (PDPA).

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sonal; Miao, Xijiang; Adams, Michael W W; Prestegard, James H; Valafar, Homayoun

    2008-05-01

    A method of identifying the best structural model for a protein of unknown structure from a list of structural candidates using unassigned 15N1H residual dipolar coupling (RDC) data and probability density profile analysis (PDPA) is described. Ten candidate structures have been obtained for the structural genomics target protein PF2048.1 using ROBETTA. 15N1H residual dipolar couplings have been measured from NMR spectra of the protein in two alignment media and these data have been analyzed using PDPA to rank the models in terms of their ability to represent the actual structure. A number of advantages in using this method to characterize a protein structure become apparent. RDCs can easily and rapidly be acquired, and without the need for assignment, the cost and duration of data acquisition is greatly reduced. The approach is quite robust with respect to imprecise and missing data. In the case of PF2048.1, a 79 residue protein, only 58 and 55 of the total RDC data were observed. The method can accelerate structure determination at higher resolution using traditional NMR spectroscopy by providing a starting point for the addition of NOEs and other NMR structural data.

  8. Rapid classification of protein structure models using unassigned backbone RDCs and probability density profile analysis ( PDPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Sonal; Miao, Xijiang; Adams, Michael W. W.; Prestegard, James H.; Valafar, Homayoun

    2008-05-01

    A method of identifying the best structural model for a protein of unknown structure from a list of structural candidates using unassigned 15N sbnd 1H residual dipolar coupling (RDC) data and probability density profile analysis ( PDPA) is described. Ten candidate structures have been obtained for the structural genomics target protein PF2048.1 using ROBETTA. 15N sbnd 1H residual dipolar couplings have been measured from NMR spectra of the protein in two alignment media and these data have been analyzed using PDPA to rank the models in terms of their ability to represent the actual structure. A number of advantages in using this method to characterize a protein structure become apparent. RDCs can easily and rapidly be acquired, and without the need for assignment, the cost and duration of data acquisition is greatly reduced. The approach is quite robust with respect to imprecise and missing data. In the case of PF2048.1, a 79 residue protein, only 58 and 55 of the total RDC data were observed. The method can accelerate structure determination at higher resolution using traditional NMR spectroscopy by providing a starting point for the addition of NOEs and other NMR structural data.

  9. ProCS15: a DFT-based chemical shift predictor for backbone and Cβ atoms in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Anders S.; Bratholm, Lars A.; Christensen, Anders S.; Channir, Maher

    2015-01-01

    We present ProCS15: a program that computes the isotropic chemical shielding values of backbone and Cβ atoms given a protein structure in less than a second. ProCS15 is based on around 2.35 million OPBE/6-31G(d,p)//PM6 calculations on tripeptides and small structural models of hydrogen-bonding. The ProCS15-predicted chemical shielding values are compared to experimentally measured chemical shifts for Ubiquitin and the third IgG-binding domain of Protein G through linear regression and yield RMSD values of up to 2.2, 0.7, and 4.8 ppm for carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen atoms. These RMSD values are very similar to corresponding RMSD values computed using OPBE/6-31G(d,p) for the entire structure for each proteins. These maximum RMSD values can be reduced by using NMR-derived structural ensembles of Ubiquitin. For example, for the largest ensemble the largest RMSD values are 1.7, 0.5, and 3.5 ppm for carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. The corresponding RMSD values predicted by several empirical chemical shift predictors range between 0.7–1.1, 0.2–0.4, and 1.8–2.8 ppm for carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen atoms, respectively. PMID:26623185

  10. High accuracy of Karplus equations for relating three-bond J couplings to protein backbone torsion angles.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Lee, Jung Ho; Grishaev, Alexander; Ying, Jinfa; Bax, Ad

    2015-02-23

    (3) JC'C' and (3) JHNHα couplings are related to the intervening backbone torsion angle ${\\varphi }$ by standard Karplus equations. Although these couplings are known to be affected by parameters other than ${\\varphi }$, including H-bonding, valence angles and residue type, experimental results and quantum calculations indicate that the impact of these latter parameters is typically very small. The solution NMR structure of protein GB3, newly refined by using extensive sets of residual dipolar couplings, yields 50-60 % better Karplus equation agreement between ${\\varphi }$ angles and experimental (3) JC'C' and (3) JHNHα values than does the high-resolution X-ray structure. In intrinsically disordered proteins, (3) JC'C' and (3) JHNHα couplings can be measured at even higher accuracy, and the impact of factors other than the intervening torsion angle on (3) J will be smaller than in folded proteins, making these couplings exceptionally valuable reporters on the ensemble of ${\\varphi }$ angles sampled by each residue.

  11. Identification of kinesin neck region as a stable alpha-helical coiled coil and its thermodynamic characterization.

    PubMed

    Morii, H; Takenawa, T; Arisaka, F; Shimizu, T

    1997-02-18

    The kinesin heavy chain consists of an N-terminal globular domain, referred to as the motor domain, a rod-like middle region, and a C-terminal domain. In this study, the human kinesin neck region, the region adjacent to the motor domain which promotes dimerization, has been investigated. First, we predicted coiled-coil regions including the neck region by our newly devised statistical method. The sequence (335-372) was predominated by a unique heptad amphipathy. A comparison of the bacterially expressed human kinesin heavy chain fragments, K349 (1-349), a monomeric motor domain, and K379 (1-379), a dimer, by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy showed that K379 had more alpha-helical content. Chemically synthesized peptides, (332-349), (350-379), and (332-369), gave CD spectra with an alpha-helix-rich pattern, but the spectra varied depending on the peptide concentration. Analysis of the molar ellipticity at 222 nm indicated that those peptides were in monomer-dimer equilibria, and the dissociation isotherms established dissociation constants of 9.6 mM. 60 microM, and 62 nM for the above peptides, respectively. Sedimentation equilibrium measurements verified that the peptide (332-369) existed as a dimeric form. These results strongly suggest that the sequence from 332 to 369 of the neck region forms an alpha-helical coiled coil. The differential peptide of K349 and K379, (350-379), did not show sufficient ability to make K379 dimeric. It is likely that the region (350-379) forms a stable alpha-helical coiled coil only together with the (332-349) region. Fluorescence energy transfer studies of [Cys363]-(332-369) labeled with a fluorescence donor and an acceptor revealed that the peptide formed a parallel coiled coil. This coiled coil was thermodynamically stable against urea and thermal denaturation, and peptide exchange of the coiled coil was undetectable, or extremely slow, at neutral pH. The dissociation free energy was estimated to be 57.7 kJ mol-1 at a peptide

  12. Two Dimensional Electronic Correlation Spectroscopy of the npi* and pipi* Protein Backbone Transitions: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenyu; Abramavicius, Darius; Zhuang, Wei; Mukamel, Shaul

    2007-11-15

    The two dimensional (2D) photon echo spectrum of the amide ultraviolet (UV) bands of proteins are simulated. Two effective exciton Hamiltonian parameter sets developed by Woody and Hirst, which predict similar CD spectra, may be distinguished by their very different 2DUV spectra. These differences are enhanced in specific configurations of pulse polarizations which provide chirality-induced signals.

  13. Protein structure quality assessment based on the distance profiles of consecutive backbone Cα atoms

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Venkatramani, Ravindra; Rao, Basuthkar J.; Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the three dimensional native state structure of a protein from its primary sequence is an unsolved grand challenge in molecular biology. Two main computational approaches have evolved to obtain the structure from the protein sequence - ab initio/de novo methods and template-based modeling - both of which typically generate multiple possible native state structures. Model quality assessment programs (MQAP) validate these predicted structures in order to identify the correct native state structure. Here, we propose a MQAP for assessing the quality of protein structures based on the distances of consecutive Cα atoms. We hypothesize that the root-mean-square deviation of the distance of consecutive Cα (RDCC) atoms from the ideal value of 3.8 Å, derived from a statistical analysis of high quality protein structures (top100H database), is minimized in native structures. Based on tests with the top100H set, we propose a RDCC cutoff value of 0.012 Å, above which a structure can be filtered out as a non-native structure. We applied the RDCC discriminator on decoy sets from the Decoys 'R' Us database to show that the native structures in all decoy sets tested have RDCC below the 0.012 Å cutoff. While most decoy sets were either indistinguishable using this discriminator or had very few violations, all the decoy structures in the fisa decoy set were discriminated by applying the RDCC criterion. This highlights the physical non-viability of the fisa decoy set, and possible issues in benchmarking other methods using this set. The source code and manual is made available at https://github.com/sanchak/mqap and permanently available on 10.5281/zenodo.7134. PMID:24555103

  14. Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant functions of protein hydrolysate from backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta by proteolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sheriff, Sheik Abdulazeez; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2013-01-01

    Every year, a huge quantity of fishery wastes and by-products are generated by fish processing industries. These wastes are either underutilized to produce low market value products or dumped leading to environmental issues. Complete utilization of fishery wastes for recovering value added products would be beneficial to the society and individual. The fish protein hydrolysates and derived peptides of fishery resources are widely used as nutritional supplements, functional ingredients, and flavor enhancers in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. Antioxidants from fishery resources have attracted the attention of researchers as they are cheaper in cost, easy to derive, and do not have side effects. Thus the present investigation was designed to produce protein hydrolysate by pepsin and papain digestion from the backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluate its antioxidant properties through various in vitro assays. The results reveal that both hydrolysates are potent antioxidants, capable of scavenging 46% and 36% of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl) and 58.5% and 37.54% of superoxide radicals respectively. The hydrolysates exhibit significant (p < 0.05) reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Among the two hydrolysates produced, pepsin derived fraction is superior than papain derived fraction in terms of yield, DH (Degree of hydrolysis), and antioxidant activity. PMID:24596496

  15. Conformational properties of bacterial DnaK and yeast mitochondrial Hsp70. Role of the divergent C-terminal alpha-helical subdomain.

    PubMed

    Moro, Fernando; Fernández-Sáiz, Vanesa; Slutsky, Olga; Azem, Abdussalam; Muga, Arturo

    2005-06-01

    Among the eukaryotic members of the Hsp70 family, mitochondrial Hsp70 shows the highest degree of sequence identity with bacterial DnaK. Although they share a functional mechanism and homologous co-chaperones, they are highly specific and cannot be exchanged between Escherichia coli and yeast mitochondria. To provide a structural basis for this finding, we characterized both proteins, as well as two DnaK/mtHsp70 chimeras constructed by domain swapping, using biochemical and biophysical methods. Here, we show that DnaK and mtHsp70 display different conformational and biochemical properties. Replacing different regions of the DnaK peptide-binding domain with those of mtHsp70 results in chimeric proteins that: (a) are not able to support growth of an E. coli DnaK deletion strain at stress temperatures (e.g. 42 degrees C); (b) show increased accessibility and decreased thermal stability of the peptide-binding pocket; and (c) have reduced activation by bacterial, but not mitochondrial co-chaperones, as compared with DnaK. Importantly, swapping the C-terminal alpha-helical subdomain promotes a conformational change in the chimeras to an mtHsp70-like conformation. Thus, interaction with bacterial co-chaperones correlates well with the conformation that natural and chimeric Hsp70s adopt in solution. Our results support the hypothesis that a specific protein structure might regulate the interaction of Hsp70s with particular components of the cellular machinery, such as Tim44, so that they perform specific functions.

  16. Voltage dependence of a stochastic model of activation of an alpha helical S4 sensor in a K channel membrane.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, S R

    2011-09-07

    The voltage dependence of the ionic and gating currents of a K channel is dependent on the activation barriers of a voltage sensor with a potential function which may be derived from the principal electrostatic forces on an S4 segment in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium. By variation of the parameters of a voltage-sensing domain model, consistent with x-ray structures and biophysical data, the lowest frequency of the survival probability of each stationary state derived from a solution of the Smoluchowski equation provides a good fit to the voltage dependence of the slowest time constant of the ionic current in a depolarized membrane, and the gating current exhibits a rising phase that precedes an exponential relaxation. For each depolarizing potential, the calculated time dependence of the survival probabilities of the closed states of an alpha helical S4 sensor are in accord with an empirical model of the ionic and gating currents recorded during the activation process.

  17. The creation of the artificial RING finger from the cross-brace zinc finger by {alpha}-helical region substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Togiya, Kayo

    2010-04-16

    The creation of the artificial RING finger as ubiquitin-ligating enzyme (E3) has been demonstrated. In this study, by the {alpha}-helical region substitution between the EL5 RING finger and the Williams-Beuren syndrome transcription factor (WSTF) PHD finger, the artificial E3 (WSTF PHD{sub R}ING finger) was newly created. The experiments of the chemical modification of residues Cys and the circular dichroism spectra revealed that the WSTF PHD{sub R}ING finger binds two zinc atoms and adopts the zinc-dependent ordered-structure. In the substrate-independent ubiquitination assay, the WSTF PHD{sub R}ING finger functions as E3 and was poly- or mono-ubiquitinated. The present strategy is very simple and convenient, and consequently it might be widely applicable to the creation of various artificial E3 RING fingers with the specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2)-binding capability.

  18. Probing alpha-helical secondary structure at a specific site in model peptides via restriction of tryptophan side-chain rotamer conformation.

    PubMed Central

    Willis, K J; Neugebauer, W; Sikorska, M; Szabo, A G

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between alpha-helical secondary structure and the fluorescence properties of an intrinsic tryptophan residue were investigated. A monomeric alpha-helix forming peptide and a dimeric coiled-coil forming peptide containing a central tryptophan residue were synthesized. The fluorescence parameters of the tryptophan residue were determined for these model systems at a range of fractional alpha-helical contents. The steady-state emission maximum was independent of the fractional alpha-helical content. A minimum of three exponential decay times was required to fully describe the time-resolved fluorescence data. Changes were observed in the decay times and more significantly, in their relative contributions that could be correlated with alpha-helix content. The results were also shown to be consistent with a model in which the decay times were independent of both alpha-helix content and emission wavelength. In this model the relative contributions of the decay time components were directly proportional to the alpha-helix content. Data were also analyzed according to a continuous distribution of exponential decay time model, employing global analysis techniques. The recovered distributions had "widths" that were both poorly defined and independent of peptide conformation. We propose that the three decay times are associated with the three ground-state chi 1 rotamers of the tryptophan residue and that the changes in the relative contributions of the decay times are the result of conformational constraints, imposed by the alpha-helical main-chain, on the chi 1 rotamer populations. PMID:8061211

  19. Pseudoelastic behaviour of a natural material is achieved via reversible changes in protein backbone conformation

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Matthew J.; Wasko, S. Scott; Masic, Admir; Fischer, F. Dieter; Gupta, Himadri S.; Fratzl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The egg capsules of marine prosobranch gastropods, commonly know as whelks, function as a protective encapsulant for whelk embryos in wave-swept marine environments. The proteinaceous sheets comprising the wall of whelk egg capsules (WEC) exhibit long-range reversible extensibility with a hysteresis of up to 50 per cent, previously suggested to result from reversible changes in the structure of the constituent protein building blocks. Here, we further investigate the structural changes of the WEC biopolymer at various hierarchical levels using several different time-resolved in situ approaches. We find strong evidence in these biological polymers for a strain-induced reversible transition from an ordered conformational phase to a largely disordered one that leads to the characteristic reversible hysteretic behaviour, which is reminiscent of the pseudoelastic behaviour in some metallic alloys. On the basis of these results, we generate a simple numerical model incorporating a worm-like chain equation to explain the phase transition behaviour of the WEC at the molecular level. PMID:22696489

  20. A new default restraint library for the protein backbone in Phenix: a conformation-dependent geometry goes mainstream

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Chemical restraints are a fundamental part of crystallographic protein structure refinement. In response to mounting evidence that conventional restraints have shortcomings, it has previously been documented that using backbone restraints that depend on the protein backbone conformation helps to address these shortcomings and improves the performance of refinements [Moriartyet al.(2014),FEBS J.281, 4061–4071]. It is important that these improvements be made available to all in the protein crystallography community. Toward this end, a change in the default geometry library used byPhenixis described here. Tests are presented showing that this change will not generate increased numbers of outliers during validation, or deposition in the Protein Data Bank, during the transition period in which some validation tools still use the conventional restraint libraries.

  1. Rapid analysis of protein backbone resonance assignments using cryogenic probes, a distributed Linux-based computing architecture, and an integrated set of spectral analysis tools.

    PubMed

    Monleón, Daniel; Colson, Kimberly; Moseley, Hunter N B; Anklin, Clemens; Oswald, Robert; Szyperski, Thomas; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2002-01-01

    Rapid data collection, spectral referencing, processing by time domain deconvolution, peak picking and editing, and assignment of NMR spectra are necessary components of any efficient integrated system for protein NMR structure analysis. We have developed a set of software tools designated AutoProc, AutoPeak, and AutoAssign, which function together with the data processing and peak-picking programs NMRPipe and Sparky, to provide an integrated software system for rapid analysis of protein backbone resonance assignments. In this paper we demonstrate that these tools, together with high-sensitivity triple resonance NMR cryoprobes for data collection and a Linux-based computer cluster architecture, can be combined to provide nearly complete backbone resonance assignments and secondary structures (based on chemical shift data) for a 59-residue protein in less than 30 hours of data collection and processing time. In this optimum case of a small protein providing excellent spectra, extensive backbone resonance assignments could also be obtained using less than 6 hours of data collection and processing time. These results demonstrate the feasibility of high throughput triple resonance NMR for determining resonance assignments and secondary structures of small proteins, and the potential for applying NMR in large scale structural proteomics projects.

  2. Soft metal ions, Cd(II) and Hg(II), induce triple-stranded alpha-helical assembly and folding of a de novo designed peptide in their trigonal geometries.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Suzuki, K; Kanaori, K; Tajima, K; Kashiwada, A; Hiroaki, H; Kohda, D; Tanaka, T

    2000-07-01

    We previously reported the de novo design of an amphiphilic peptide [YGG(IEKKIEA)4] that forms a native-like, parallel triple-stranded coiled coil. Starting from this peptide, we sought to regulate the assembly of the peptide by a metal ion. The replacement of the Ile18 and Ile22 residues with Ala and Cys residues, respectively, in the hydrophobic positions disrupted of the triple-stranded alpha-helix structure. The addition of Cd(II), however, resulted in the reconstitution of the triple-stranded alpha-helix bundle, as revealed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and sedimentation equilibrium analysis. By titration with metal ions and monitoring the change in the intensity of the CD spectra at 222 nm, the dissociation constant Kd was determined to be 1.5 +/- 0.8 microM for Cd(II). The triple-stranded complex formed by the 113Cd(II) ion showed a single 113Cd NMR resonance at 572 ppm whose chemical shift was not affected by the presence of Cl- ions. The 113Cd NMR resonance was connected with the betaH protons of the cysteine residue by 1H-113Cd heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation spectroscopy. These NMR results indicate that the three cysteine residues are coordinated to the cadmium ion in a trigonal-planar complex. Hg(II) also induced the assembly of the peptide into a triple-stranded alpha-helical bundle below the Hg(II)/peptide ratio of 1/3. With excess Hg(II), however, the alpha-helicity of the peptide was decreased, with the change of the Hg(II) coordination state from three to two. Combining this construct with other functional domains should facilitate the production of artificial proteins with functions controlled by metal ions.

  3. Soft metal ions, Cd(II) and Hg(II), induce triple-stranded alpha-helical assembly and folding of a de novo designed peptide in their trigonal geometries.

    PubMed Central

    Li, X.; Suzuki, K.; Kanaori, K.; Tajima, K.; Kashiwada, A.; Hiroaki, H.; Kohda, D.; Tanaka, T.

    2000-01-01

    We previously reported the de novo design of an amphiphilic peptide [YGG(IEKKIEA)4] that forms a native-like, parallel triple-stranded coiled coil. Starting from this peptide, we sought to regulate the assembly of the peptide by a metal ion. The replacement of the Ile18 and Ile22 residues with Ala and Cys residues, respectively, in the hydrophobic positions disrupted of the triple-stranded alpha-helix structure. The addition of Cd(II), however, resulted in the reconstitution of the triple-stranded alpha-helix bundle, as revealed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and sedimentation equilibrium analysis. By titration with metal ions and monitoring the change in the intensity of the CD spectra at 222 nm, the dissociation constant Kd was determined to be 1.5 +/- 0.8 microM for Cd(II). The triple-stranded complex formed by the 113Cd(II) ion showed a single 113Cd NMR resonance at 572 ppm whose chemical shift was not affected by the presence of Cl- ions. The 113Cd NMR resonance was connected with the betaH protons of the cysteine residue by 1H-113Cd heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation spectroscopy. These NMR results indicate that the three cysteine residues are coordinated to the cadmium ion in a trigonal-planar complex. Hg(II) also induced the assembly of the peptide into a triple-stranded alpha-helical bundle below the Hg(II)/peptide ratio of 1/3. With excess Hg(II), however, the alpha-helicity of the peptide was decreased, with the change of the Hg(II) coordination state from three to two. Combining this construct with other functional domains should facilitate the production of artificial proteins with functions controlled by metal ions. PMID:10933497

  4. Charged single alpha-helices in proteomes revealed by a consensus prediction approach.

    PubMed

    Gáspári, Zoltán; Süveges, Dániel; Perczel, András; Nyitray, László; Tóth, Gábor

    2012-04-01

    Charged single α-helices (CSAHs) constitute a recently recognized protein structural motif. Its presence and role is characterized in only a few proteins. To explore its general features, a comprehensive study is necessary. We have set up a consensus prediction method available as a web service (at http://csahserver.chem.elte.hu) and downloadable scripts capable of predicting CSAHs from protein sequences. Using our method, we have performed a comprehensive search on the UniProt database. We found that the motif is very rare but seems abundant in proteins involved in symbiosis and RNA binding/processing. Although there are related proteins with CSAH segments, the motif shows no deep conservation in protein families. We conclude that CSAH-containing proteins, although rare, are involved in many key biological processes. Their conservation pattern and prevalence in symbiosis-associated proteins suggest that they might be subjects of relatively rapid molecular evolution and thus can contribute to the emergence of novel functions.

  5. Backbone dynamics of a model membrane protein: assignment of the carbonyl carbon /sup 13/C NMR resonances in detergent-solubilized M13 coat protein

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, G.D.; Weiner, J.H.; Sykes, B.D.

    1987-06-16

    The major coat protein of the filamentous bacteriophage M13 is a 50-residue amphiphilic polypeptide which is inserted, as an integral membrane-spanning protein, in the inner membrane of the Escherichia coli host during infection. /sup 13/C was incorporated biosynthetically into a total of 23 of the peptide carbonyls using labeled amino acids (alanine, glycine, lysine, phenylalanine, and proline). The structure and dynamics of carbonyl-labeled M13 coat protein were monitored by /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Assignment of many resonances was achieved by using protease digestion, pH titration, or labeling of the peptide bond with both /sup 13/C and /sup 15/N. The carbonyl region of the natural-abundance /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of M13 coat protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution shows approximately eight backbone carbonyl resonances with line widths much narrower than the rest. Three of these more mobile residues correspond to assigned peaks (glycine-3, lysine-48, and alanine-49) in the individual amino acid spectra, and another almost certainly arises from glutamic acid-2. A ninth residue, alanine-1, also gives rise to a very narrow carbonyl resonance if the pH is well above or below the pK/sub a/ of the terminal amino group. These data suggest that only about four residues at either end of the protein experience large-amplitude spatial fluctuations; the rest of the molecule is essentially rigid on the time scale of the overall rotational tumbling of the protein-detergent complex. The relative exposure of different regions of detergent-bound protein was monitored by limited digestion with proteinase K. Comparable spectra and digestion patterns were obtained when the protein was solubilized in sodium deoxycholate, suggesting that the coat protein binds both amphiphiles in a similar fashion.

  6. Improving the prediction accuracy of residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins by guided-learning through a two-layer neural network.

    PubMed

    Faraggi, Eshel; Xue, Bin; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2009-03-01

    This article attempts to increase the prediction accuracy of residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins through improved learning. Most methods developed for improving the backpropagation algorithm of artificial neural networks are limited to small neural networks. Here, we introduce a guided-learning method suitable for networks of any size. The method employs a part of the weights for guiding and the other part for training and optimization. We demonstrate this technique by predicting residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins. In this application, the guiding factor is designed to satisfy the intuitive condition that for most residues, the contribution of a residue to the structural properties of another residue is smaller for greater separation in the protein-sequence distance between the two residues. We show that the guided-learning method makes a 2-4% reduction in 10-fold cross-validated mean absolute errors (MAE) for predicting residue solvent accessibility and backbone torsion angles, regardless of the size of database, the number of hidden layers and the size of input windows. This together with introduction of two-layer neural network with a bipolar activation function leads to a new method that has a MAE of 0.11 for residue solvent accessibility, 36 degrees for psi, and 22 degrees for phi. The method is available as a Real-SPINE 3.0 server in http://sparks.informatics.iupui.edu.

  7. A maximum entropy approach to the study of residue-specific backbone angle distributions in α-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein

    PubMed Central

    Mantsyzov, Alexey B; Maltsev, Alexander S; Ying, Jinfa; Shen, Yang; Hummer, Gerhard; Bax, Ad

    2014-01-01

    α-Synuclein is an intrinsically disordered protein of 140 residues that switches to an α-helical conformation upon binding phospholipid membranes. We characterize its residue-specific backbone structure in free solution with a novel maximum entropy procedure that integrates an extensive set of NMR data. These data include intraresidue and sequential HN–Hα and HN–HN NOEs, values for 3JHNHα, 1JHαCα, 2JCαN, and 1JCαN, as well as chemical shifts of 15N, 13Cα, and 13C′ nuclei, which are sensitive to backbone torsion angles. Distributions of these torsion angles were identified that yield best agreement to the experimental data, while using an entropy term to minimize the deviation from statistical distributions seen in a large protein coil library. Results indicate that although at the individual residue level considerable deviations from the coil library distribution are seen, on average the fitted distributions agree fairly well with this library, yielding a moderate population (20–30%) of the PPII region and a somewhat higher population of the potentially aggregation-prone β region (20–40%) than seen in the database. A generally lower population of the αR region (10–20%) is found. Analysis of 1H–1H NOE data required consideration of the considerable backbone diffusion anisotropy of a disordered protein. PMID:24976112

  8. Effects of Synthetic Amphiphilic alpha-Helical Peptides on the Electrochemical and Structural Properties of Supported Hybrid Bilayers on Gold

    SciTech Connect

    Smith,M.; Tong, J.; Genzer, J.; Fischer, D.; Kilpatrick, P.

    2006-01-01

    Amphiphilic {alpha}-helices were formed from designed synthetic peptides comprising alanine, phenylalanine, and lysine residues. The insertion of the -helical peptides into hybrid bilayers assembled on gold was studied by a variety of methods to assess the resulting structural characteristics, such as electrical resistance and molecular orientation. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of dodecanethiol (DDT); octadecanethiol (ODT); and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphothioethanol (DPPTE) were formed on gold substrates with and without incorporated peptide. Supported hybrid bilayers and multilayers of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) were formed on SAMs by the 'paint-freeze' method of bilayer formation. Modeling of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data using equivalent electrochemical circuits revealed that the addition of peptide decreased dramatically the resistive element of the bilayer films while maintaining the value of the capacitive element, indicating successful incorporation of peptide into a well-formed bilayer. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy data provided evidence that the molecules in the SAMs and hybrid multilayers were ordered even in the presence of peptide. The peptide insertion into the SAM was confirmed by observing the {pi}* resonance peak correlating with phenylalanine and a peak in the nitrogen K-edge regime attributable to the peptide bond.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of individual alpha-helices of bacteriorhodopsin in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. II. Interaction energy analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, T B

    1998-01-01

    The concepts of hydrophobicity and hydrophobic moments have been applied in attempts to predict membrane protein secondary and tertiary structure. The current paper uses molecular dynamics computer calculations of individual bacteriorhodopsin helices in explicit dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers to examine the atomic basis of these approaches. The results suggest that the types of interactions between a particular amino acid and the surrounding bilayer depend on the position and type of the amino acid. In particular, aromatic residues are seen to interact favorably at the interface region. Analysis of the trajectories in terms of hydrophobic moments suggests the presence of a particular face that prefers lipid. The results of these simulations may be used to improve secondary structure prediction methods and to provide further insights into the two-stage model of protein folding. PMID:9449316

  10. Predicted unfolding order of the 13 alpha-helices in the catalytic domain of glucoamylase from Aspergillus awamori var. X100 by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Wang, Wen-Chi

    2003-01-01

    The unfolding mechanism of the 13 alpha-helices in the catalytic domain of Aspergillus awamori var. X100 glucoamylase was investigated by 200 ps molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water with temperature jump technique. Rather than a simultaneous event, the unfolding of these 13 alpha-helices followed a random ordered mechanism as alpha8-->alpha1-->alpha11-->alpha7-->alpha10-->alpha3-->alpha12-->alpha13-->alpha4-->alpha5-->alpha9-->alpha6-->alpha2. No significant relationships were found between the unfolding order and the length and the hydrophobicity of the helix. alpha-Helix 8 located in the inner region of the catalytic domain was predicted to be the first helix to unfold, indicating that the destruction of the secondary structure motif was initiated from the inner region of the catalytic domain. The dynamic behavior of these alpha-helices induced by increased kinetic energy during the unfolding process is considered to be similar to the expansion and compression of a series of springs under the influence of mechanical stress.

  11. The membrane integration of a naturally occurring alpha-helical hairpin.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Akos; Turner, R James

    2007-05-04

    Helical hairpins, two closely spaced helical membrane spanning segments separated by a short surface turn, are thought to be common in integral membrane proteins. Here, we study the membrane integration of a naturally occurring helical hairpin from the secretory Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1. This sequence is only slightly longer and significantly less hydrophobic than a previously identified minimal poly-leucine model hairpin structure. Using site directed mutagenesis we document the importance of the turn propensity of the amino acids in the intervening surface turn but, somewhat surprisingly, our results indicate that the formation of this natural hairpin apparently does not depend on specific helix-helix interactions. Our results suggest that helical hairpins may be formed quite readily from even minimally hydrophobic sequences separated by a short, sufficiently strong, turn signal, and that current methods for predicting integral membrane protein topology may miss many similar short helical hairpin sequences. Thus the occurrence of these structures may be much more common than presently thought.

  12. All-atom model for stabilization of alpha-helical structure in peptides by hydrocarbon staples.

    PubMed

    Kutchukian, Peter S; Yang, Jae Shick; Verdine, Gregory L; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2009-04-08

    Recent work has shown that the incorporation of an all-hydrocarbon "staple" into peptides can greatly increase their alpha-helix propensity, leading to an improvement in pharmaceutical properties such as proteolytic stability, receptor affinity, and cell permeability. Stapled peptides thus show promise as a new class of drugs capable of accessing intractable targets such as those that engage in intracellular protein-protein interactions. The extent of alpha-helix stabilization provided by stapling has proven to be substantially context dependent, requiring cumbersome screening to identify the optimal site for staple incorporation. In certain cases, a staple encompassing one turn of the helix (attached at residues i and i+4) furnishes greater helix stabilization than one encompassing two turns (i,i+7 staple), which runs counter to expectation based on polymer theory. These findings highlight the need for a more thorough understanding of the forces that underlie helix stabilization by hydrocarbon staples. Here we report all-atom Monte Carlo folding simulations comparing unmodified peptides derived from RNase A and BID BH3 with various i,i+4 and i,i+7 stapled versions thereof. The results of these simulations were found to be in quantitative agreement with experimentally determined helix propensities. We also discovered that staples can stabilize quasi-stable decoy conformations, and that the removal of these states plays a major role in determining the helix stability of stapled peptides. Finally, we critically investigate why our method works, exposing the underlying physical forces that stabilize stapled peptides.

  13. Stable proline box motif at the N-terminal end of alpha-helices.

    PubMed Central

    Viguera, A. R.; Serrano, L.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a novel N-terminal alpha-helix local motif that involves three hydrophobic residues and a Pro residue (Pro-box motif). Database analysis shows that when Pro is the N-cap of an alpha-helix the distribution of amino acids in adjacent positions changes dramatically with respect to the average distribution in an alpha-helix, but not when Pro is at position N1. N-cap Pro residues are usually associated to Ile and Leu, at position N', Val at position N3 and a hydrophobic residue (h) at position N4. The side chain of the N-cap Pro packs against Val, while the hydrophobic residues at positions N' and N4 make favorable interactions. To analyze the role of this putative motif (sequence fingerprint hPXXhh), we have synthesized a series of peptides and analyzed them by circular dichroism (CD) and NMR. We find that this motif is formed in peptides, and that the accompanying hydrophobic interactions contribute up to 1.2 kcal/mol to helix stability. The fact that some of the residues in this fingerprint are not good N-cap and helix formers results in a small overall stabilization of the alpha-helix with respect to other peptides having Gly as the N-cap and Ala at N3 and N4. This suggests that the Pro-box motif will not specially contribute to protein stability but to the specificity of its fold. In fact, 80% of the sequences that contain the fingerprint sequence in the protein database are adopting the described structural motif, and in none of them is the helix extended to place Pro at the more favorable N1 position. PMID:10493574

  14. An efficient randomized algorithm for contact-based NMR backbone resonance assignment.

    PubMed

    Kamisetty, Hetunandan; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Pandurangan, Gopal

    2006-01-15

    Backbone resonance assignment is a critical bottleneck in studies of protein structure, dynamics and interactions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A minimalist approach to assignment, which we call 'contact-based', seeks to dramatically reduce experimental time and expense by replacing the standard suite of through-bond experiments with the through-space (nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy, NOESY) experiment. In the contact-based approach, spectral data are represented in a graph with vertices for putative residues (of unknown relation to the primary sequence) and edges for hypothesized NOESY interactions, such that observed spectral peaks could be explained if the residues were 'close enough'. Due to experimental ambiguity, several incorrect edges can be hypothesized for each spectral peak. An assignment is derived by identifying consistent patterns of edges (e.g. for alpha-helices and beta-sheets) within a graph and by mapping the vertices to the primary sequence. The key algorithmic challenge is to be able to uncover these patterns even when they are obscured by significant noise. This paper develops, analyzes and applies a novel algorithm for the identification of polytopes representing consistent patterns of edges in a corrupted NOESY graph. Our randomized algorithm aggregates simplices into polytopes and fixes inconsistencies with simple local modifications, called rotations, that maintain most of the structure already uncovered. In characterizing the effects of experimental noise, we employ an NMR-specific random graph model in proving that our algorithm gives optimal performance in expected polynomial time, even when the input graph is significantly corrupted. We confirm this analysis in simulation studies with graphs corrupted by up to 500% noise. Finally, we demonstrate the practical application of the algorithm on several experimental beta-sheet datasets. Our approach is able to eliminate a large majority of noise edges and to

  15. Concentration-dependent oligomerization of an alpha-helical antifreeze polypeptide makes it hyperactive

    PubMed Central

    Mahatabuddin, Sheikh; Hanada, Yuichi; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Miura, Ai; Kondo, Hidemasa; Davies, Peter L.; Tsuda, Sakae

    2017-01-01

    A supersoluble 40-residue type I antifreeze protein (AFP) was discovered in a righteye flounder, the barfin plaice (bp). Unlike all other AFPs characterized to date, bpAFP transitions from moderately-active to hyperactive with increasing concentration. At sub-mM concentrations, bpAFP bound to pyramidal planes of ice to shape it into a bi-pyramidal hexagonal trapezohedron, similarly to the other moderately-active AFPs. At mM concentrations, bpAFP uniquely underwent further binding to the whole ice crystal surface including the basal planes. The latter caused a bursting ice crystal growth normal to c-axis, 3 °C of high thermal hysteresis, and alteration of an ice crystal into a smaller lemon-shaped morphology, all of which are well-known properties of hyperactive AFPs. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed this activity transition is associated with oligomerization to form tetramer, which might be the forerunner of a naturally occurring four-helix-bundle AFP in other flounders. PMID:28211917

  16. Designed low amphipathic peptides with alpha-helical propensity exhibiting antimicrobial activity via a lipid domain formation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Tamura, Atsuo

    2010-05-01

    Although several low amphipathic peptides have been known to exhibit antimicrobial activity, their mode of action has not been completely elucidated. In this study, using designed low amphipathic peptides that retain different alpha-helical content and hydrophobicity, we attempted to investigate the mechanism of these properties. Calorimetric and thermodynamic analyses demonstrated that the peptides induce formation of two lipid domains in an anionic liposome at a high peptide-to-lipid ratio. On the other hand, even at a low peptide-to-lipid ratio, they caused minimal membrane damage, such as flip-flop of membrane lipids or leakage of calcein molecules from liposomes, and never translocated across membranes. Interaction energies between the peptides and anionic liposomes showed good correlation with antimicrobial activity for both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We thus propose that the domain formation mechanism in which antimicrobial peptides exhibit activity solely by forming lipid domains without membrane damage is a major determinant of the antimicrobial activity of low amphipathic peptides. These peptides appear to stiffen the membrane such that it is deprived of the fluidity necessary for biological functions. We also showed that to construct the lipid domains, peptides need not form stable and cooperative structures. Rather, it is essential for peptides to only interact tightly with the membrane interface via strong electrostatic interactions, and slight differences in binding strength are invoked by differences in hydrophobicity. The peptides thus designed might pave the way for "clean" antimicrobial reagents that never cause release of membrane elements and efflux of their inner components.

  17. Backbone NMR assignments of tryparedoxin, the central protein in the hydroperoxide detoxification cascade of African trypanosomes, in the oxidized and reduced form.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Annika; Diehl, Erika; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Hellmich, Ute A

    2017-06-01

    Tryparedoxin (Tpx) is a pivotal protein in the redox-metabolism of trypanosomatid parasites. Tpx has previously been identified as a potential target for drug development in the fight against human African sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei. Tpx belongs to the thioredoxin superfamily and acts as an oxidoreductase in the parasite's cytoplasm. It contains a WCPPC active site motif, which enables the protein to undergo thiol-disulfide exchange. To promote future protein-drug interaction analyses, we report the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone chemical shift assignments for both the oxidized and reduced states of Tpx. The redox state of the protein has a significant impact on the chemical shifts of the residues at the active site of the protein, especially on the two redox active site cysteines. The NMR assignments presented here will be a prerequisite for investigating drug binding to Tpx in molecular detail and to drive further drug optimization.

  18. TAT Modification of Alpha-Helical Anticancer Peptides to Improve Specificity and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xueyu; Yan, Qiuyan; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Wenren; Huang, Yibing; Chen, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    HPRP-A1 is an amphipathic α-helical anticancer peptide (ACP) derived from the N-terminus of ribosomal protein L1 (RpL1) of Helicobacter pylori. In our previously study, HPRP-A1 has been reported that induced HeLa cell apoptosis in a caspase-dependent approach and involved both by the death receptor ‘extrinsic’ pathway and the mitochondria ‘intrinsic’ pathway. Here we report the construction of a new hybrid peptide, HPRP-A1-TAT, comprising the cell-permeating peptide TAT linked to the C-terminus of HPRP-A1. This peptide exhibits higher anticancer activity against HeLa cells with lower toxicity against human RBC than HPRP-A1. Two FITC-labeled peptides, FITC-HPRP-A1 and FITC-HPRP-A1-TAT, were used to investigate and compare the cellular uptake mechanism using fluorescence spectra and flow cytometry. Compared with HPRP-A1, HPRP-A1-TAT quickly crossed cell, entered the cytoplasm via endocytosis, and disrupted the cell membrane integrity. HPRP-A1-TAT exhibited stronger anticancer activity than HPRP-A1 at the same concentration by increasing early apoptosis of HeLa cells and inducing caspase activity. Notably, after 24 h, the cellular concentration of HPRP-A1-TAT was higher than that of HPRP-A1. This result suggests that TAT protects HPRP-A1 against degradation, likely due to its high number of positively charged amino acids or the further release of peptides into cancer cells from endocytotic vesicles. We believe that this TAT modification approach may provide an effective new strategy for improving the therapeutic index and anticancer activity of ACPs for clinical use. PMID:26405806

  19. A new approach to measuring protein backbone protection with high spatial resolution using H/D exchange and electron capture dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Abzalimov, Rinat R.; Bobst, Cedric E.; Kaltashov, Igor A.

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate spatial resolution remains one of the most serious limitations of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS), especially when applied to larger proteins (over 30 kDa). Supplementing proteolytic fragmentation of the protein in solution with ion dissociation in the gas phase has been used successfully by several groups to obtain near-residue level resolution. However, the restrictions imposed by the LC/MS/MS mode of operation on the data acquisition time frame makes it difficult in many cases to obtain signal-to-noise ratio adequate for reliable assignment of the backbone amide protection levels at individual residues. This restriction is lifted in the present work by eliminating the LC separation step from the workflow and taking advantage of the high resolving power and dynamic range of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT ICR MS). A residue-level resolution is demonstrated for a peptic fragment of a 37 kDa recombinant protein (N-lobe of human serum transferrin) using electron-capture dissociation as an ion fragmentation tool. The absence of hydrogen scrambling in the gas phase prior to ion dissociation is verified using redundant HDX MS data generated by FT ICR MS. The backbone protection pattern generated by direct HDX MS/MS is in excellent agreement with the known crystal structure of the protein, but also provides information on conformational dynamics, which is not available from the static X-ray structure. PMID:23978257

  20. Protein backbone flexibility pattern is evolutionarily conserved in the Flaviviridae family: A case of NS3 protease in Flavivirus and Hepacivirus.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Navaneethan; Akaberi, Dario; Lennerstrand, Johan

    2017-09-22

    Viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family have been an important health concern for humans, animals and birds alike. No specific treatment is available yet for many of the viral infections caused by the members of this family. Lack of specific drugs against these viruses is mainly due to lack of protein structure information. It has been known that protein backbone fluctuation pattern is highly conserved in protein pairs with similar folds, in spite of the lack of sequence similarity. We hypothesized that this concept should also hold true for proteins (especially enzymes) of viruses included in different genera of the Flaviviridae family, as we know that the sequence similarity between them is low. Using available NS3 protease crystal structures of the Flaviviridae family, our preliminary results have shown that the Cα (i.e. backbone) fluctuation patterns are highly similar between Flaviviruses and a Hepacivirus (i.e. hepatitis C virus, HCV). This has to be validated further experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural flexibility of the pentameric SARS coronavirus envelope protein ion channel.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Krupakar; Ng, Lifang; Lin, Xin; Liu, Ding Xiang; Pervushin, Konstantin; Gong, Xiandi; Torres, Jaume

    2008-09-15

    Coronaviruses contain a small envelope membrane protein with cation-selective ion channel activity mediated by its transmembrane domain (ETM). In a computational study, we proposed that ion channel activity can be explained by either of two similar ETM homopentameric transmembrane alpha-helical bundles, related by a approximately 50 degrees rotation of the helices. Later, we tested this prediction, using site-specific infrared dichroism of a lysine-flanked isotopically labeled ETM peptide from the virus responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome, SARS, reconstituted in lipid bilayers. However, the data were consistent with the presence of a kink at the center of the ETM alpha-helix, and it did not fit completely either computational model. Herein, we have used native ETM, without flanking lysines, and show that the helix orientation is now consistent with one of the predicted models. ETM only produced one oligomeric form, pentamers, in the lipid-mimic detergent dodecylphosphocholine and in perfluorooctanoic acid. We thus report the correct backbone model for the pentameric alpha-helical bundle of ETM. The disruptive effects caused by terminal lysines probably highlight the conformational flexibility required during ion channel function.

  2. Proton-detected MAS NMR experiments based on dipolar transfers for backbone assignment of highly deuterated proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevelkov, Veniamin; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Proton-detected solid-state NMR was applied to a highly deuterated insoluble, non-crystalline biological assembly, the Salmonella typhimurium type iii secretion system (T3SS) needle. Spectra of very high resolution and sensitivity were obtained at a low protonation level of 10-20% at exchangeable amide positions. We developed efficient experimental protocols for resonance assignment tailored for this system and the employed experimental conditions. Using exclusively dipolar-based interspin magnetization transfers, we recorded two sets of 3D spectra allowing for an almost complete backbone resonance assignment of the needle subunit PrgI. The additional information provided by the well-resolved proton dimension revealed the presence of two sets of resonances in the N-terminal helix of PrgI, while in previous studies employing 13C detection only a single set of resonances was observed.

  3. Reduced dimensionality tailored HN(C)N experiments for facile backbone resonance assignment of proteins through unambiguous identification of sequential HSQC peaks.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2013-12-01

    Two novel reduced dimensionality (RD) tailored HN(C)N [S.C. Panchal, N.S. Bhavesh, R.V. Hosur, Improved 3D triple resonance experiments, HNN and HN(C)N, for HN and 15N sequential correlations in (13C, 15N) labeled proteins: application to unfolded proteins, J. Biomol. NMR 20 (2001) 135-147] experiments are proposed to facilitate the backbone resonance assignment of proteins both in terms of its accuracy and speed. These experiments - referred here as (4,3)D-hNCOcaNH and (4,3)D-hNcoCANH - exploit the linear combination of backbone (15)N and (13)C'/(13)C(α) chemical shifts simultaneously to achieve higher peak dispersion and randomness along their respective F1 dimensions. Simply, this has been achieved by modulating the backbone (15)N(i) chemical shifts with that of (13)C' (i-1)/(13)C(α) (i-1) spins following the established reduced dimensionality NMR approach [T. Szyperski, D.C. Yeh, D.K. Sukumaran, H.N. Moseley, G.T. Montelione, Reduced-dimensionality NMR spectroscopy for high-throughput protein resonance assignment, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 8009-8014]. Though the modification is simple it has resulted an ingenious improvement of HN(C)N both in terms of peak dispersion and easiness of establishing the sequential connectivities. The increased dispersion along F1 dimension solves two purposes here: (i) resolves the ambiguities arising because of degenerate (15)N chemical shifts and (ii) reduces the signal overlap in F2((15)N)-F3((1)H) planes (an important requisite in HN(C)N based assignment protocol for facile and unambiguous identification of sequentially connected HSQC peaks). The performance of both these experiments and the assignment protocol has been demonstrated using bovine apo Calbindin-d9k (75 aa) and urea denatured UNC60B (a 152 amino acid ADF/cofilin family protein of Caenorhabditis elegans), as representatives of folded and unfolded protein systems, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-distance effects of site-directed mutations on backbone conformation in bacteriorhodopsin from solid state NMR of [1-13C]Val-labeled proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Tanio, M; Inoue, S; Yokota, K; Seki, T; Tuzi, S; Needleman, R; Lanyi, J K; Naito, A; Saitô, H

    1999-01-01

    We have recorded 13C cross-polarization-magic angle spinning and dipolar decoupled-magic angle spinning NMR spectra of [1-13C]Val-labeled wild-type bacteriorhodopsin (bR), and the V49A, V199A, T46V, T46V/V49A, D96N, and D85N mutants, in order to study conformational changes of the backbone caused by site-directed mutations along the extracellular surface and the cytoplasmic half channel. On the basis of spectral changes in the V49A and V199A mutants, and upon specific cleavage by chymotrypsin, we assigned the three well-resolved 13C signals observed at 172.93, 172.00, and 171. 11 ppm to [1-13C]Val 69, Val 49, and Val 199, respectively. The local conformations of the backbone at these residues are revealed by the conformation-dependent 13C chemical shifts. We find that at the ambient temperature of these measurements Val 69 is not in a beta-sheet, in spite of previous observations by electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction at cryogenic temperatures, but in a flexible turn structure that undergoes conformational fluctuation. Results with the T46V mutant suggest that there is a long-distance effect on backbone conformation between Thr 46 and Val 49. From the spectra of the D85N and E204Q mutants there also appears to be coupling between Val 49 and Asp 85 and between Asp 85 and Glu 204, respectively. In addition, the T2 measurement indicates conformational interaction between Asp 96 and extracellular surface. The protonation of Asp 85 in the photocycle therefore might induce changes in conformation or dynamics, or both, throughout the protein, from the extracellular surface to the side chain of Asp 96. PMID:10388769

  5. Backbone and Ile-δ1, Leu, Val Methyl 1H, 13C and 15N NMR chemical shift assignments for human interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Cuifeng; Aramini, James M.; Ma, LiChung; Cort, John R.; Swapna, G.V.T.; Krug, R. M.; Montelione, Gaetano

    2011-10-01

    Human interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein (ISG15), also called ubiquitin cross-reactive protein (UCRP), is the first identified ubiquitin-like protein containing two ubiquitin-like domains fused in tandem. The active form of ISG15 is conjugated to target proteins via the C-terminal glycine residue through an isopeptide bond in a manner similar to ubiquitin. The biological role of ISG15 is strongly associated with the modulation of cell immune function, and there is mounting evidence suggesting that many viral pathogens evade the host innate immune response by interfering with ISG15 conjugation to both host and viral proteins in a variety of ways. Here we report nearly complete backbone 1HN, 15N, 13CO, and 13Ca, as well as side chain 13Cb, methyl (Ile-d1, Leu, Val), amide (Asn, Gln), and indole NH (Trp) NMR resonance assignments for the 157-residue human ISG15 protein. These resonance assignments provide the basis for future structural and functional solution NMR studies of the biologically important human ISG15 protein.

  6. Contribution of a putative salt bridge and backbone dynamics in the structural instability of human prion protein upon R208H mutation.

    PubMed

    Bamdad, Kourosh; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2007-12-28

    Molecular dynamics simulation method is used to assess the contribution of a disease-associated salt bridge in the early stages of the conformational rearrangement of human prion protein upon Arg208-->His mutation, which causes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Previous investigations have suggested that the breakage of this putative salt bridge (D144/E146<-->Arg208) between helix 1 and helix 3 is responsible for such a mutation-driven process. So far, no experimental data has been reported in order to distinguish the contribution of this single salt bridge in the initial steps of amyloid formation. Consequently, we decided to investigate the role of this salt bridge in early conformational rearrangements. To remove the salt bridge without perturbations in the backbone structure, the neutralized states of the involved residues were used. Three 10-ns molecular dynamics simulations on three initial structures have been performed. The results revealed that the early stages of the conformational rearrangements, against common belief, are mainly associated with the mutation-induced global changes in the backbone dynamics but not with the breaking of the salt bridge.

  7. Description and recognition of regular and distorted secondary structures in proteins using the automated protein structure analysis method.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Sushilee; Izotov, Dmitry; Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter

    2009-08-01

    The Automated Protein Structure Analysis (APSA) method, which describes the protein backbone as a smooth line in three-dimensional space and characterizes it by curvature kappa and torsion tau as a function of arc length s, was applied on 77 proteins to determine all secondary structural units via specific kappa(s) and tau(s) patterns. A total of 533 alpha-helices and 644 beta-strands were recognized by APSA, whereas DSSP gives 536 and 651 units, respectively. Kinks and distortions were quantified and the boundaries (entry and exit) of secondary structures were classified. Similarity between proteins can be easily quantified using APSA, as was demonstrated for the roll architecture of proteins ubiquitin and spinach ferridoxin. A twenty-by-twenty comparison of all alpha domains showed that the curvature-torsion patterns generated by APSA provide an accurate and meaningful similarity measurement for secondary, super secondary, and tertiary protein structure. APSA is shown to accurately reflect the conformation of the backbone effectively reducing three-dimensional structure information to two-dimensional representations that are easy to interpret and understand. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Solution NMR structure, backbone dynamics, and heme-binding properties of a novel cytochrome c maturation protein CcmE from Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aramini, James M; Hamilton, Keith; Rossi, Paolo; Ertekin, Asli; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Lemak, Alexander; Wang, Huang; Xiao, Rong; Acton, Thomas B; Everett, John K; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2012-05-08

    Cytochrome c maturation protein E, CcmE, plays an integral role in the transfer of heme to apocytochrome c in many prokaryotes and some mitochondria. A novel subclass featuring a heme-binding cysteine has been identified in archaea and some bacteria. Here we describe the solution NMR structure, backbone dynamics, and heme binding properties of the soluble C-terminal domain of Desulfovibrio vulgaris CcmE, dvCcmE'. The structure adopts a conserved β-barrel OB fold followed by an unstructured C-terminal tail encompassing the CxxxY heme-binding motif. Heme binding analyses of wild-type and mutant dvCcmE' demonstrate the absolute requirement of residue C127 for noncovalent heme binding in vitro.

  9. Intein-mediated backbone cyclization of VP1 protein enhanced protection of CVB3-induced viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xingmei; Xiong, Sidong

    2017-01-01

    CVB3 is a common human pathogen to be highly lethal to newborns and causes viral myocarditis and pancreatitis in adults. However, there is no vaccine available for clinical use. CVB3 capsid protein VP1 is an immunodominant structural protein, containing several B- and T-cell epitopes. However, immunization of mice with VP1 protein is ineffective. Cyclization of peptide is commonly used to improve their in vivo stability and biological activity. Here, we designed and synthesizd cyclic VP1 protein by using engineered split Rma DnaB intein and the cyclization efficiency was 100% in E. coli. As a result, the cyclic VP1 was significantly more stable against irreversible aggregation upon heating and against carboxypeptidase in vitro and the degradation rate was more slowly in vivo. Compared with linear VP1, immunization mice with circular VP1 significantly increased CVB3-specific serum IgG level and augmented CVB3-specific cellular immune responses, consequently afforded better protection against CVB3-induced viral myocarditis. The cyclic VP1 may be a novel candidate protein vaccine for preventing CVB3 infection and similar approaches could be employed to a variety of protein vaccines to enhance their protection effect. PMID:28148910

  10. Structural insights into the evolution of a sexy protein: novel topology and restricted backbone flexibility in a hypervariable pheromone from the red-legged salamander, Plethodon shermani.

    PubMed

    Wilburn, Damien B; Bowen, Kathleen E; Doty, Kari A; Arumugam, Sengodagounder; Lane, Andrew N; Feldhoff, Pamela W; Feldhoff, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    In response to pervasive sexual selection, protein sex pheromones often display rapid mutation and accelerated evolution of corresponding gene sequences. For proteins, the general dogma is that structure is maintained even as sequence or function may rapidly change. This phenomenon is well exemplified by the three-finger protein (TFP) superfamily: a diverse class of vertebrate proteins co-opted for many biological functions - such as components of snake venoms, regulators of the complement system, and coordinators of amphibian limb regeneration. All of the >200 structurally characterized TFPs adopt the namesake "three-finger" topology. In male red-legged salamanders, the TFP pheromone Plethodontid Modulating Factor (PMF) is a hypervariable protein such that, through extensive gene duplication and pervasive sexual selection, individual male salamanders express more than 30 unique isoforms. However, it remained unclear how this accelerated evolution affected the protein structure of PMF. Using LC/MS-MS and multidimensional NMR, we report the 3D structure of the most abundant PMF isoform, PMF-G. The high resolution structural ensemble revealed a highly modified TFP structure, including a unique disulfide bonding pattern and loss of secondary structure, that define a novel protein topology with greater backbone flexibility in the third peptide finger. Sequence comparison, models of molecular evolution, and homology modeling together support that this flexible third finger is the most rapidly evolving segment of PMF. Combined with PMF sequence hypervariability, this structural flexibility may enhance the plasticity of PMF as a chemical signal by permitting potentially thousands of structural conformers. We propose that the flexible third finger plays a critical role in PMF:receptor interactions. As female receptors co-evolve, this flexibility may allow PMF to still bind its receptor(s) without the immediate need for complementary mutations. Consequently, this unique

  11. Structural Insights into the Evolution of a Sexy Protein: Novel Topology and Restricted Backbone Flexibility in a Hypervariable Pheromone from the Red-Legged Salamander, Plethodon shermani

    PubMed Central

    Wilburn, Damien B.; Bowen, Kathleen E.; Doty, Kari A.; Arumugam, Sengodagounder; Lane, Andrew N.; Feldhoff, Pamela W.; Feldhoff, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    In response to pervasive sexual selection, protein sex pheromones often display rapid mutation and accelerated evolution of corresponding gene sequences. For proteins, the general dogma is that structure is maintained even as sequence or function may rapidly change. This phenomenon is well exemplified by the three-finger protein (TFP) superfamily: a diverse class of vertebrate proteins co-opted for many biological functions – such as components of snake venoms, regulators of the complement system, and coordinators of amphibian limb regeneration. All of the >200 structurally characterized TFPs adopt the namesake “three-finger” topology. In male red-legged salamanders, the TFP pheromone Plethodontid Modulating Factor (PMF) is a hypervariable protein such that, through extensive gene duplication and pervasive sexual selection, individual male salamanders express more than 30 unique isoforms. However, it remained unclear how this accelerated evolution affected the protein structure of PMF. Using LC/MS-MS and multidimensional NMR, we report the 3D structure of the most abundant PMF isoform, PMF-G. The high resolution structural ensemble revealed a highly modified TFP structure, including a unique disulfide bonding pattern and loss of secondary structure, that define a novel protein topology with greater backbone flexibility in the third peptide finger. Sequence comparison, models of molecular evolution, and homology modeling together support that this flexible third finger is the most rapidly evolving segment of PMF. Combined with PMF sequence hypervariability, this structural flexibility may enhance the plasticity of PMF as a chemical signal by permitting potentially thousands of structural conformers. We propose that the flexible third finger plays a critical role in PMF:receptor interactions. As female receptors co-evolve, this flexibility may allow PMF to still bind its receptor(s) without the immediate need for complementary mutations. Consequently, this

  12. Circular dichroism and UV resonance raman study of the impact of alcohols on the Gibbs free energy landscape of an alpha-helical peptide.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Kan; Asher, Sanford A

    2010-04-20

    We used CD and UV resonance Raman spectroscopy to study the impact of alcohols on the conformational equilibria and relative Gibbs free energy landscapes along the Ramachandran Psi-coordinate of a mainly poly-Ala peptide, AP with an AAAAA(AAARA)(3)A sequence. 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE) most stabilizes the alpha-helix-like conformations, followed by ethanol, methanol, and pure water. The pi-bulge conformation is stabilized more than the alpha-helix, while the 3(10)-helix is destabilized due to the alcohol-increased hydrophobicity. Turns are also stabilized by alcohols. We also found that while TFE induces more alpha-helices, it favors multiple, shorter helix segments.

  13. Ionophore properties of a synthetic alpha-helical transmembrane fragment of the mitochondrial H+ ATP synthetase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Comparison with alamethicin.

    PubMed Central

    Molle, G; Dugast, J Y; Duclohier, H; Daumas, P; Heitz, F; Spach, G

    1988-01-01

    A 22-amino acid polypeptide was synthesized to model the central transmembrane segment of subunit 8 of the H+ ATP synthetase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to test ionophore properties. Solid-phase synthesis was conducted on benzhydrilamino resin, and purification followed by high pressure liquid chromatography allowed the isolation of the pure product whose NH2 terminal was acetylated and whose molecular weight determined by Fast Atomic Bombardment was the expected 2,666. The infrared spectrum of this peptide in the solid state reveals a fully alpha-helical conformation, whereas in low dielectric constant solvents the alpha-helical content is 60%, as determined by circular dichroism studies. Macroscopic current-voltage curves displayed by different planar lipid bilayers (monomyristoleoyl-glycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine) doped with this peptide suggest a weakly voltage-dependent conductance. Only one conductance level is observed in any given single-channel conductance experiment. However, a series of experiments shows a distribution of conductance states, most often 440 or 3,000 pS, and occasionally 80, 1,200, or 6,500 pS. This behavior contrasts with the usual behavior of alamethicin, chosen as a model of "aggregating-helices" ionophore and whose conductance fluctuates continually between substates, through uptake and release of monomers. Nevertheless, alamethicin too can display, under certain conditions, long-lived and mono-level conductance states similar to those reported here for the newly synthesized peptide. These properties could possibly be explained by the formation of large domains of helical rods with a set of allowed and independent ionic pathways. PMID:2449918

  14. Effect of variations in the structure of a polyleucine-based alpha-helical transmembrane peptide on its interaction with phosphatidylglycerol bilayers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Lewis, Ruthven N A H; Hodges, Robert S; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2004-03-30

    High-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to study the interaction of a cationic alpha-helical transmembrane peptide, acetyl-Lys(2)-Leu(24)-Lys(2)-amide (L(24)), and members of the homologous series of anionic n-saturated diacyl phosphatidylglycerols (PGs). Analogues of L(24), in which the lysine residues were replaced by 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (L(24)DAP), or in which a leucine residue at each end of the polyleucine sequence was replaced by a tryptophan (WL(22)W), were also studied to investigate the roles of lysine side-chain snorkeling and aromatic side-chain interactions with the interfacial region of phospholipid bilayers. The gel/liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature of the host PG bilayers is altered by these peptides in a hydrophobic mismatch-dependent manner, as previously found with zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers. However, all three peptides reduce the phase transition temperature and enthalpy to a greater extent in anionic PG bilayers than in zwitterionic PC bilayers, with WL(22)W having the largest effect. All three peptides form very stable alpha-helices in PG bilayers, but small conformational changes are induced in response to a mismatch between peptide hydrophobic length and gel-state lipid bilayer hydrophobic thickness. Moreover, electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions occur between the terminal lysine residues of L(24) and L(24)DAP and the polar headgroups of PG bilayers. However, such interactions were not observed in PG/WL(22)W bilayers, suggesting that the cation-pi interactions between the tryptophan and lysine residues predominate. These results indicate that the lipid-peptide interactions are affected not only by the hydrophobic mismatch between these peptides and the host lipid bilayer, but also by the tryptophan-modulated electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions between the positively charged lysine residues at the termini of these

  15. A chimera carrying the functional domain of the orphan protein SLC7A14 in the backbone of SLC7A2 mediates trans-stimulated arginine transport.

    PubMed

    Jaenecke, Isabel; Boissel, Jean-Paul; Lemke, Matthias; Rupp, Johanna; Gasnier, Bruno; Closs, Ellen I

    2012-08-31

    In human skin fibroblasts, a lysosomal transport system specific for cationic amino acids has been described and named system c. We asked if SLC7A14 (solute carrier family 7 member A14), an orphan protein assigned to the SLC7 subfamily of cationic amino acid transporters (CATs) due to sequence homology, may represent system c. Fusion proteins between SLC7A14 and enhanced GFP localized to intracellular vesicles, co-staining with the lysosomal marker LysoTracker(®). To perform transport studies, we first tried to redirect SLC7A14 to the plasma membrane (by mutating putative lysosomal targeting motifs) but without success. We then created a chimera carrying the backbone of human (h) CAT-2 and the protein domain of SLC7A14 corresponding to the so-called "functional domain" of the hCAT proteins, a protein stretch of 81 amino acids that determines the apparent substrate affinity, sensitivity to trans-stimulation, and (as revealed in this study) pH dependence. The chimera mediated arginine transport and exhibited characteristics similar but not identical to hCAT-2A (the low affinity hCAT-2 isoform). Western blot and microscopic analyses confirmed localization of the chimera in the plasma membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes. Noticeably, arginine transport by the hCAT-2/SLC7A14 chimera was pH-dependent, trans-stimulated, and inhibited by α-trimethyl-L-lysine, properties assigned to lysosomal transport system c in human skin fibroblasts. Expression analysis showed strong expression of SLC7A14 mRNA in these cells. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that SLC7A14 is a lysosomal transporter for cationic amino acids.

  16. Periodic sequence distribution of product ion abundances in electron capture dissociation of amphipathic peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamidane, Hisham; He, Huan; Tsybin, Oleg Yu; Emmett, Mark R; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Marshall, Alan G; Tsybin, Yury O

    2009-06-01

    The rules for product ion formation in electron capture dissociation (ECD) mass spectrometry of peptides and proteins remain unclear. Random backbone cleavage probability and the nonspecific nature of ECD toward amino acid sequence have been reported, contrary to preferential channels of fragmentation in slow heating-based tandem mass spectrometry. Here we demonstrate that for amphipathic peptides and proteins, modulation of ECD product ion abundance (PIA) along the sequence is pronounced. Moreover, because of the specific primary (and presumably secondary) structure of amphipathic peptides, PIA in ECD demonstrates a clear and reproducible periodic sequence distribution. On the one hand, the period of ECD PIA corresponds to periodic distribution of spatially separated hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains within the peptide primary sequence. On the other hand, the same period correlates with secondary structure units, such as alpha-helical turns, known for solution-phase structure. Based on a number of examples, we formulate a set of characteristic features for ECD of amphipathic peptides and proteins: (1) periodic distribution of PIA is observed and is reproducible in a wide range of ECD parameters and on different experimental platforms; (2) local maxima of PIA are not necessarily located near the charged site; (3) ion activation before ECD not only extends product ion sequence coverage but also preserves ion yield modulation; (4) the most efficient cleavage (e.g. global maximum of ECD PIA distribution) can be remote from the charged site; (5) the number and location of PIA maxima correlate with amino acid hydrophobicity maxima generally to within a single amino acid displacement; and (6) preferential cleavage sites follow a selected hydrogen spine in an alpha-helical peptide segment. Presently proposed novel insights into ECD behavior are important for advancing understanding of the ECD mechanism, particularly the role of peptide sequence on PIA. An improved ECD

  17. Design of lambda Cro fold: solution structure of a monomeric variant of the de novo protein.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Yasuhiro; Ito, Yutaka; Ikeya, Teppei; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Ota, Motonori

    2005-12-09

    One of the classical DNA-binding proteins, bacteriophage lambda Cro, forms a homodimer with a unique fold of alpha-helices and beta-sheets. We have computationally designed an artificial sequence of 60 amino acid residues to stabilize the backbone tertiary structure of the lambda Cro dimer by simulated annealing using knowledge-based structure-sequence compatibility functions. The designed amino acid sequence has 25% identity with that of natural lambda Cro and preserves Phe58, which is important for formation of the stably folded structure of lambda Cro. The designed dimer protein and its monomeric variant, which was redesigned by the insertion of a beta-hairpin sequence at the C-terminal region to prevent dimerization, were synthesized and biochemically characterized to be well folded. The designed protein was monomeric under a wide range of protein concentrations and its solution structure was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The solved structure is similar to that of a monomeric variant of natural lambda Cro with a root-mean-square deviation of the polypeptide backbones at 2.1A and has a well-packed protein core. Thus, our knowledge-based functions provide approximate but essential relationships between amino acid sequences and protein structures, and are useful for finding novel sequences that are foldable into a given target structure.

  18. Improvements to REDCRAFT: a software tool for simultaneous characterization of protein backbone structure and dynamics from residual dipolar couplings.

    PubMed

    Simin, Mikhail; Irausquin, Stephanie; Cole, Casey A; Valafar, Homayoun

    2014-12-01

    Within the past two decades, there has been an increase in the acquisition of residual dipolar couplings (RDC) for investigations of biomolecular structures. Their use however is still not as widely adopted as the traditional methods of structure determination by NMR, despite their potential for extending the limits in studies that examine both the structure and dynamics of biomolecules. This is in part due to the difficulties associated with the analysis of this information-rich data type. The software analysis tool REDCRAFT was previously introduced to address some of these challenges. Here we describe and evaluate a number of additional features that have been incorporated in order to extend its computational and analytical capabilities. REDCRAFT's more traditional enhancements integrate a modified steric collision term, as well as structural refinement in the rotamer space. Other, non-traditional improvements include: the filtering of viable structures based on relative order tensor estimates, decimation of the conformational space based on structural similarity, and forward/reverse folding of proteins. Utilizing REDCRAFT's newest features we demonstrate de-novo folding of proteins 1D3Z and 1P7E to within less than 1.6 Å of the corresponding X-ray structures, using as many as four RDCs per residue and as little as two RDCs per residue, in two alignment media. We also show the successful folding of a structure to less than 1.6 Å of the X-ray structure using {C(i-1)-N(i), N(i)-H(i), and C(i-1)-H(i)} RDCs in one alignment medium, and only {N(i)-H(i)} in the second alignment medium (a set of data which can be collected on deuterated samples). The program is available for download from our website at http://ifestos.cse.sc.edu .

  19. Ner protein of phage Mu: Assignments using {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-labeled protein

    SciTech Connect

    Strzelecka, T.; Gronenborn, A.M.; Clore, G.M.

    1994-12-01

    The Ner protein is a small (74-amino acid) DNA-binding protein that regulates a switch between the lysogenic and lytic stages of phage Mu. It inhibits expression of the C repressor gene and down-regulates its own expression. Two-dimensional NMR experiments on uniformly {sup 15}N-labeled protein provided most of the backbone and some of the sidechain proton assignments. The secondary structure determination using two-dimensional NOESY experiments showed that Ner consists of five {alpha}-helices. However, because most of the sidechain protons could not be assigned, the full structure was not determined. Using uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-labeled Ner and a set of three-dimensional experiments, we were able to assign all of the backbone and 98% of the sidechain protons. In particular, the CBCANH and CBCA(CO)NH experiments were used to sequentially assign the C{alpha} and C{beta} resonances; the HCCH-CTOCSY and HCCH-COSY were used to assign sidechain carbon and proton resonances.

  20. Strike a Balance: Optimization of Backbone Torsion Parameters of AMBER Polarizable Force Field for Simulations of Proteins and Peptides

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHI-XIANG; ZHANG, WEI; WU, CHUN; LEI, HONGXING; CIEPLAK, PIOTR; DUAN, YONG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the AMBER polarizable model (ff02), we have reoptimized the parameters related to the main-chain (Φ, Ψ) torsion angles by fitting to the Boltzmann-weighted average quantum mechanical (QM) energies of the important regions (i.e., β, PII, αR, and αL regions). Following the naming convention of the AMBER force field series, this release will be called ff02pol.rl The force field has been assessed both by energetic comparison against the QM data and by the replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of short alanine peptides in water. For Ace-Ala-Nme, the simulated populations in the β, PII and αR regions were approximately 30, 43, and 26%, respectively. For Ace-(Ala)7-Nme, the populations in these three regions were approximately 24, 49, and 26%. Both were in qualitative agreement with the NMR and CD experimental conclusions. In comparison with the previous force field, ff02pol.rl demonstrated good balance among these three important regions. The optimized torsion parameters, together with those in ff02, allow us to carry out simulations on proteins and peptides with the consideration of polarization. PMID:16526038

  1. Evaluation of backbone-cyclized HER2-binding 2-helix affibody molecule for in vivo molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Honarvar, Hadis; Jokilaakso, Nima; Andersson, Karl; Malmberg, Jennie; Rosik, Daniel; Orlova, Anna; Karlström, Amelie Eriksson; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Järver, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Affibody molecules, small scaffold proteins, have demonstrated an appreciable potential as imaging probes. Affibody molecules are composed of three alpha-helices. Helices 1 and 2 are involved in molecular recognition, while helix 3 provides stability. The size of Affibody molecules can be reduced by omitting the third alpha-helix and cross-linking the two remaining, providing a smaller molecule with better extravasation and quicker clearance of unbound tracer. The goal of this study was to develop a novel 2-helix Affibody molecule based on backbone cyclization by native chemical ligation (NCL). The HER2-targeting NCL-cyclized Affibody molecule ZHER2:342min has been designed, synthesized and site-specifically conjugated with a DOTA chelator. DOTA-ZHER2:342min was labeled with (111)In and (68)Ga. The binding affinity of DOTA-ZHER2:342min was evaluated in vitro. The targeting properties of (111)In- and (68)Ga-DOTA-ZHER2:342min were evaluated in mice bearing SKOV-3 xenografts and compared with the properties of (111)In- and (68)Ga-labeled PEP09239, a DOTA-conjugated 2-helix Affibody analogue cyclized by a homocysteine disulfide bridge. The dissociation constant (KD) for DOTA-ZHER2:342min binding to HER2 was 18nM according to SPR measurements. DOTA-ZHER2:342min was labeled with (111)In and (68)Ga. Both conjugates demonstrated bi-phasic binding kinetics to HER2-expressing cells, with KD1 in low nanomolar range. Both variants demonstrated specific uptake in HER2-expressing xenografts. Tumor-to-blood ratios at 2h p.i. were 6.1±1.3 for (111)In- DOTA-ZHER2:342min and 4.6±0.7 for (68)Ga-DOTA-ZHER2:342min. However, the uptake of DOTA-ZHER2:342min in lung, liver and spleen was appreciably higher than the uptake of PEP09239-based counterparts. Native chemical ligation enables production of a backbone-cyclized HER2-binding 2-helix Affibody molecule (ZHER2:342min) with low nanomolar target affinity and specific tumor uptake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of variations in the structure of a polyleucine-based alpha-helical transmembrane peptide on its interaction with phosphatidylethanolamine Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Lewis, Ruthven N A H; Hodges, Robert S; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2004-10-01

    High-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to study the interaction of a cationic alpha-helical transmembrane peptide, acetyl-Lys2-Leu24-Lys2-amide (L24), and members of the homologous series of zwitterionic n-saturated diacyl phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs). Analogs of L24, in which the lysine residues were replaced by 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (acetyl-DAP2-Leu24-DAP2-amide (L24DAP)) or in which a leucine residue at each end of the polyleucine sequence was replaced by a tryptophan (Ac-K2-W-L22-W-K2-amide (WL22W)), were also studied to investigate the roles of lysine side-chain snorkeling and aromatic side-chain interactions with the interfacial region of phospholipid bilayers. The gel/liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature of the PE bilayers is altered by these peptides in a hydrophobic mismatch-independent manner, in contrast to the hydrophobic mismatch-dependent manner observed previously with zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) and anionic phosphatidylglycerol (PG) bilayers. Moreover, all three peptides reduce the phase transition temperature to a greater extent in PE bilayers than in PC and PG bilayers, indicating a greater disruption of PE gel-phase bilayer organization. Moreover, the lysine-anchored L24 reduces the phase transition temperature, enthalpy, and the cooperativity of PE bilayers to a much greater extent than DAP-anchored L24DAP, whereas replacement of the terminal leucines by tryptophan residues (Ac-K2-W-L22-W-K2-amide) only slightly attenuates the effects of this peptide on the chain-melting phase transition of the host PE bilayers. All three peptides form very stable alpha-helices in PE bilayers, but small conformational changes occur in response to mismatch between peptide hydrophobic length and gel-state lipid bilayer hydrophobic thickness. These results suggest that the lysine snorkeling plays a significant role in the peptide-PE interactions and that cation

  3. Backbone dynamics study of C12A-p8MTCP1 using the linear correlation approach at two magnetic field strengths. Effect of protein aggregation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthe, P.; Declerck, N.; Delsuc, M.-A.; Lefevre, J.-F.; Roumestand, C.

    1999-10-01

    We discussed here the effect of the presence of non-specific oligomerization states on the backbone dynamics of C12A-p8MTCP1. Dynamic parameters were obtained from the analysis of 15N spin relaxation measurements (T1, T2 and 15N{H}NOEs) at two magnetic field strengths and on two different protein samples (4 mM and 400 μM) using the linear correlation assumption between J(0) and J(ω). At high concentration, the presence of aggregation states leads to a significantly higher value for the overall tumbling as compared to the dilute sample, whereas the features of the internal motion are essentially preserved. Nous avons analysé les effets de l'association non spécifique en solution concentrée de la protéine C12A-p8MTCP1 sur la dynamique interne de son squelette peptidique. Les informations dynamiques ont été extraites de l'analyse des paramètres de relaxation hétéronucléaire 15N(T1, T2 et 15N{H}NOEs) obtenus à deux champs magnétiques et sur deux échantillons (4 mM et 400 μM) par la méthode dite des corrélations linéaires entre J(0) and J(ω). A haute concentration, la présence d'agrégation entraîne une augmentation significative du temps de réorientation global, par rapport à l'échantillon dilué, mais affecte peu la dynamique interne de la protéine.

  4. Regio-selective detection of dynamic structure of transmembrane alpha-helices as revealed from (13)C NMR spectra of [3-13C]Ala-labeled bacteriorhodopsin in the presence of Mn2+ ion.

    PubMed

    Tuzi, S; Hasegawa, J; Kawaminami, R; Naito, A; Saitô, H

    2001-07-01

    13C Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of [3-(13)C]Ala-labeled bacteriorhodopsin (bR) were edited to give rise to regio-selective signals from hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helices by using NMR relaxation reagent, Mn(2+) ion. As a result of selective suppression of (13)C NMR signals from the surfaces in the presence of Mn(2+) ions, several (13)C NMR signals of Ala residues in the transmembrane alpha-helices were identified on the basis of site-directed mutagenesis without overlaps from (13)C NMR signals of residues located near the bilayer surfaces. The upper bound of the interatomic distances between (13)C nucleus in bR and Mn(2+) ions bound to the hydrophilic surface to cause suppressed peaks by the presence of Mn(2+) ion was estimated as 8.7 A to result in the signal broadening to 100 Hz and consistent with the data based on experimental finding. The Ala C(beta) (13)C NMR peaks corresponding to Ala-51, Ala-53, Ala-81, Ala-84, and Ala-215 located around the extracellular half of the proton channel and Ala-184 located at the kink in the helix F were successfully identified on the basis of (13)C NMR spectra of bR in the presence of Mn(2+) ion and site-directed replacement of Ala by Gly or Val. Utilizing these peaks as probes to observe local structure in the transmembrane alpha-helices, dynamic conformation of the extracellular half of bR at ambient temperature was examined, and the local structures of Ala-215 and 184 were compared with those elucidated at low temperature. Conformational changes in the transmembrane alpha-helices induced in D85N and E204Q and its long-range transmission from the proton release site to the site around the Schiff base in E204Q were also examined.

  5. The Stability of Right- and Left-Handed Alpha-Helices as a Function of Monomer Chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Lins, Roberto D.; Ferreira, Ricardo

    2006-10-01

    A few years ago Milton, Milton and Kent1 described the total synthesis of the enzyme HIV-1 protease starting from D-amino acids. They found2 that the α-helices of the synthetic D-protease are left-handed, in contrast with the α-helices of the standard (L-amino acids) proteins, which are, of course, right-handed3. At present it is possible to study the stabilities of homochiral and mixed protein structures with the help of computer simulation techniques4,5. For example, using molecular mechanics calculations with the AMBER force field it was possible to show that DL-alanine in right-handed α-helices is 21.3 ± 3.4 kcal mol-1 less stable than right-handed α-helices made from L-alanine6. In the present paper we describe very accurate calculations which gives strong support to these findings.

  6. Monitoring the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of amino acid side-chains in the non-polar and polar faces of amphipathic alpha-helices by reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction/cation-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hodges, R S; Chen, Y; Kopecky, E; Mant, C T

    2004-10-22

    The ability to monitor precisely the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity effects of amino acid substitutions in both the non-polar and polar faces of amphipathic alpha-helical peptides is critical in such areas as the rational de novo design of more effective antimicrobial peptides. The present study reports our initial results of employing the complementary separation modes of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and hydrophilic interaction/cation-exchange chromatography (HILIC/CEX) to monitor the effect on apparent peptide hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and amphipathicity of substituting single L- or D-amino acids into the centre of the non-polar or polar faces of a 26-residue biologically active amphipathic alpha-helical peptide, V681. Our results clearly show that RP-HPLC and HILIC/CEX are best suited for resolving amphipathic peptides where substitutions are made in the non-polar and polar faces, respectively. Further, RP-HPLC and HILIC/CEX were demonstrated to be excellent monitors of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity variations where amino acid substitutions were made in these respective faces. We believe these complementary high-performance modes offer excellent potential for rational design of novel amphipathic alpha-helical biologically active peptides.

  7. Mechanical design of proteins studied by single-molecule force spectroscopy and protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Carrion-Vazquez, M; Oberhauser, A F; Fisher, T E; Marszalek, P E; Li, H; Fernandez, J M

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical unfolding and refolding may regulate the molecular elasticity of modular proteins with mechanical functions. The development of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) has recently enabled the dynamic measurement of these processes at the single-molecule level. Protein engineering techniques allow the construction of homomeric polyproteins for the precise analysis of the mechanical unfolding of single domains. alpha-Helical domains are mechanically compliant, whereas beta-sandwich domains, particularly those that resist unfolding with backbone hydrogen bonds between strands perpendicular to the applied force, are more stable and appear frequently in proteins subject to mechanical forces. The mechanical stability of a domain seems to be determined by its hydrogen bonding pattern and is correlated with its kinetic stability rather than its thermodynamic stability. Force spectroscopy using AFM promises to elucidate the dynamic mechanical properties of a wide variety of proteins at the single molecule level and provide an important complement to other structural and dynamic techniques (e.g., X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, patch-clamp).

  8. Co-administration of tilapia alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides with subunit antigens boost immunogenicity in mice and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Acosta, Jannel; Carpio, Yamila; Valdés, Iris; Velázquez, Janet; Zamora, Yasser; Morales, Reynold; Morales, Antonio; Rodríguez, Elsa; Estrada, Mario P

    2014-01-03

    Modern vaccines based on purified recombinant antigens have improved their safety; however they induce a suboptimal immune response without the help of adjuvants. Consequently, the development of new adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of purified subunit antigens and modulate resulting immune responses is of great interest. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of antimicrobial peptides Oreochromicins previously isolated from tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to enhance adaptive immune responses in mice and tilapia. When co-administrated with ovalbumin in mice, Oreochromicin-1 induced a TH1 humoral immune response. Oreochromicin-2 and 3 induce a TH1 cellular immune response characterized by the induction of interferon-γ in a dose depend manner. Additionally, co-administration of Oreochromicin-1 with the sea lice my32 from Lepeophtheirus salmonis antigen (my32-Ls) increases the humoral immune response in mice and tilapia. We also tested different combinations of these Oreochromicins with the sea lice antigen my32-Ls in mice. Humoral and cellular TH1 responses were enhanced by co-administration of my32-Ls/Oreochromicin-3 and the combination my32-Ls/Oreochromicin-2/3. In agreement with these results, Oreochromicin-1 and 3 enhanced in vitro TH1 cytokine IFN-γ production in Concanavalin A primed splenocytes from naïve mice after a 48h incubation period. In summary, the results showed that tilapia alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides Oreochromicins are able to boost immune response in mammals and fish, encouraging their use as TH1 molecular adjuvants to subunit antigens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of alpha-helical coiled-coil dimer formation by spin-labeled synthetic peptides: a model parallel coiled-coil peptide and the antiparallel coiled coil formed by a replica of the ProP C-terminus.

    PubMed

    Hillar, Alexander; Tripet, Brian; Zoetewey, David; Wood, Janet M; Hodges, Robert S; Boggs, Joan M

    2003-12-30

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to determine relative peptide orientation within homodimeric, alpha-helical coiled-coil structures. Introduction of cysteine (Cys) residues into peptides/proteins for spin labeling allows detection of their oligomerization from exchange broadening or dipolar interactions between residues within 25 A of each other. Two synthetic peptides containing Cys substitutions were used: a 35-residue model peptide and the 30-residue ProP peptide. The model peptide is known to form a stable, parallel homodimeric coiled coil, which is partially destabilized by Cys substitutions at heptad a and d positions (peptides C30a and C33d). The ProP peptide, a 30-residue synthetic peptide, corresponds to residues 468-497 of osmoregulatory transporter ProP from Escherichia coli. It forms a relatively unstable, homodimeric coiled coil that is predicted to be antiparallel in orientation. Cys was introduced in heptad g positions of the ProP peptide, near the N-terminus (K473C, creating peptide C473g) or closer to the center of the sequence (E480C, creating peptide C480g). In contrast to the destabilizing effect of Cys substitution at the core heptad a or d positions of model peptides C30a and C33d, circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that Cys substitutions at the heptad g positions of the ProP peptide had little or no effect on coiled-coil stability. Thermal denaturation analysis showed that spin labeling increased the stability of the coiled coil for all peptides. Strong exchange broadening was detected for both C30a and C33d, in agreement with a parallel structure. EPR spectra of C480g had a large hyperfine splitting of about 90 G, indicative of strong dipole-dipole interactions and a distance between spin-labeled residues of less than 9 A. Spin-spin interactions were much weaker for C473g. These results supported the hypothesis that the ProP peptide primarily formed an antiparallel coiled coil, since formation of a parallel dimer

  10. Helix packing in polytopic membrane proteins: role of glycine in transmembrane helix association.

    PubMed Central

    Javadpour, M M; Eilers, M; Groesbeek, M; Smith, S O

    1999-01-01

    The nature and distribution of amino acids in the helix interfaces of four polytopic membrane proteins (cytochrome c oxidase, bacteriorhodopsin, the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and the potassium channel of Streptomyces lividans) are studied to address the role of glycine in transmembrane helix packing. In contrast to soluble proteins where glycine is a noted helix breaker, the backbone dihedral angles of glycine in transmembrane helices largely fall in the standard alpha-helical region of a Ramachandran plot. An analysis of helix packing reveals that glycine residues in the transmembrane region of these proteins are predominantly oriented toward helix-helix interfaces and have a high occurrence at helix crossing points. Moreover, packing voids are generally not formed at the position of glycine in folded protein structures. This suggests that transmembrane glycine residues mediate helix-helix interactions in polytopic membrane proteins in a fashion similar to that seen in oligomers of membrane proteins with single membrane-spanning helices. The picture that emerges is one where glycine residues serve as molecular notches for orienting multiple helices in a folded protein complex. PMID:10465772

  11. Enzyme IIBcellobiose of the phosphoenol-pyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli: backbone assignment and secondary structure determined by three-dimensional NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ab, E.; Schuurman-Wolters, G. K.; Saier, M. H.; Reizer, J.; Jacuinod, M.; Roepstorff, P.; Dijkstra, K.; Scheek, R. M.; Robillard, G. T.

    1994-01-01

    The assignment of backbone resonances and the secondary structure determination of the Cys 10 Ser mutant of enzyme IIBcellobiose of the Escherichia coli cellobiose-specific phosphoenol-pyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system are presented. The backbone resonances were assigned using 4 triple resonance experiments, the HNCA and HN(CO)CA experiments, correlating backbone 1H, 15N, and 13C alpha resonances, and the HN(CA)CO and HNCO experiments, correlating backbone 1H,15N and 13CO resonances. Heteronuclear 1H-NOE 1H-15N single quantum coherence (15N-NOESY-HSQC) spectroscopy and heteronuclear 1H total correlation 1H-15N single quantum coherence (15N-TOCSY-HSQC) spectroscopy were used to resolve ambiguities arising from overlapping 13C alpha and 13CO frequencies and to check the assignments from the triple resonance experiments. This procedure, together with a 3-dimensional 1H alpha-13C alpha-13CO experiment (COCAH), yielded the assignment for all observed backbone resonances. The secondary structure was determined using information both from the deviation of observed 1H alpha and 13C alpha chemical shifts from their random coil values and 1H-NOE information from the 15N-NOESY-HSQC. These data show that enzyme IIBcellobiose consists of a 4-stranded parallel beta-sheet and 5 alpha-helices. In the wild-type enzyme IIBcellobiose, the catalytic residue appears to be located at the end of a beta-strand. PMID:8003964

  12. Quantitative determination of site-specific conformational distributions in an unfolded protein by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kan-Nian; Havlin, Robert H; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2009-10-02

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used to investigate the structure of the 35-residue villin headpiece subdomain (HP35) in folded, partially denatured, and fully denatured states. Experiments are carried out in frozen glycerol/water solutions, with chemical denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). Without GdnHCl, two-dimensional solid-state (13)C NMR spectra of samples prepared with uniform (13)C labeling of selected residues show relatively sharp cross-peaks at chemical shifts that are consistent with the known three-helix bundle structure of folded HP35. At high GdnHCl concentrations, most cross-peaks broaden and shift, qualitatively indicating disruption of the folded structure and development of static conformational disorder in the frozen denatured state. Conformational distributions at one residue in each helical segment are probed quantitatively with three solid-state NMR techniques that provide independent constraints on backbone varphi and psi torsion angles in samples with sequential pairs of carbonyl (13)C labels. Without GdnHCl, the combined data are well fit by alpha-helical conformations. At [GdnHCl]=4.5 M, corresponding to the approximate denaturation midpoint, the combined data are well fit by a combination of alpha-helical and partially extended conformations at each site, but with a site-dependent population ratio. At [GdnHCl]=7.0 M, corresponding to the fully denatured state, the combined data are well fit by a combination of partially extended and polyproline II conformations, again with a site-dependent population ratio. Two entirely different models for conformational distributions lead to nearly the same best-fit distributions, demonstrating the robustness of these conclusions. This work represents the first quantitative investigation of site-specific conformational distributions in partially folded and unfolded states of a protein by solid-state NMR.

  13. Structure-function analysis of the heat shock factor-binding protein reveals a protein composed solely of a highly conserved and dynamic coiled-coil trimerization domain.

    PubMed

    Tai, Li-Jung; McFall, Sally M; Huang, Kai; Demeler, Borries; Fox, Sue G; Brubaker, Kurt; Radhakrishnan, Ishwar; Morimoto, Richard I

    2002-01-04

    Heat shock factor-binding protein (HSBP) 1 is a small, evolutionarily conserved protein originally identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen using the trimerization domain of heat shock factor (HSF) 1 as the bait. Similar in size to HSF1 trimerization domain, human HSBP1 contains two arrays of hydrophobic heptad repeats (designated HR-N and HR-C) characteristic of coiled-coil proteins. Proteins of the HSBP family are relatively small (<100 residues), comprising solely a putative coiled-coil oligomerization domain without any other readily recognizable structural or functional motif. Our biophysical and biochemical characterization of human HSBP1 reveals a cooperatively folded protein with high alpha-helical content and moderate stability. NMR analyses reveal a single continuous helix encompassing both HR-N and HR-C in the highly conserved central region, whereas the less conserved carboxyl terminus is unstructured and accessible to proteases. Unlike previously characterized coiled-coils, backbone 15N relaxation measurements implicate motional processes on the millisecond time scale in the coiled-coil region. Analytical ultracentrifugation and native PAGE studies indicate that HSBP1 is predominantly trimeric over a wide concentration range. NMR analyses suggest a rotationally symmetric trimer. Because the highly conserved hydrophobic heptad repeats extend over 60% of HSBP1, we propose that HSBP most likely regulates the function of other proteins through coiled-coil interactions.

  14. Optimization of amino acid type-specific 13C and 15N labeling for the backbone assignment of membrane proteins by solution- and solid-state NMR with the UPLABEL algorithm.

    PubMed

    Hefke, Frederik; Bagaria, Anurag; Reckel, Sina; Ullrich, Sandra Johanna; Dötsch, Volker; Glaubitz, Clemens; Güntert, Peter

    2011-02-01

    We present a computational method for finding optimal labeling patterns for the backbone assignment of membrane proteins and other large proteins that cannot be assigned by conventional strategies. Following the approach of Kainosho and Tsuji (Biochemistry 21:6273-6279 (1982)), types of amino acids are labeled with (13)C or/and (15)N such that cross peaks between (13)CO(i - 1) and (15)NH(i) result only for pairs of sequentially adjacent amino acids of which the first is labeled with (13)C and the second with (15)N. In this way, unambiguous sequence-specific assignments can be obtained for unique pairs of amino acids that occur exactly once in the sequence of the protein. To be practical, it is crucial to limit the number of differently labeled protein samples that have to be prepared while obtaining an optimal extent of labeled unique amino acid pairs. Our computer algorithm UPLABEL for optimal unique pair labeling, implemented in the program CYANA and in a standalone program, and also available through a web portal, uses combinatorial optimization to find for a given amino acid sequence labeling patterns that maximize the number of unique pair assignments with a minimal number of differently labeled protein samples. Various auxiliary conditions, including labeled amino acid availability and price, previously known partial assignments, and sequence regions of particular interest can be taken into account when determining optimal amino acid type-specific labeling patterns. The method is illustrated for the assignment of the human G-protein coupled receptor bradykinin B2 (B(2)R) and applied as a starting point for the backbone assignment of the membrane protein proteorhodopsin.

  15. Parameterization of backbone flexibility in a coarse-grained force field for proteins (COFFDROP) derived from all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations of all possible two-residue peptides

    PubMed Central

    Frembgen-Kesner, Tamara; Andrews, Casey T.; Li, Shuxiang; Ngo, Nguyet Anh; Shubert, Scott A.; Jain, Aakash; Olayiwola, Oluwatoni; Weishaar, Mitch R.; Elcock, Adrian H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the parameterization of a set of coarse-grained (CG) nonbonded potential functions, derived from all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of amino acid pairs, and designed for use in (implicit-solvent) Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations of proteins; this force field was named COFFDROP (COarse-grained Force Field for Dynamic Representations Of Proteins). Here, we describe the extension of COFFDROP to include bonded backbone terms derived from fitting to results of explicit-solvent MD simulations of all possible two-residue peptides containing the 20 standard amino acids, with histidine modeled in both its protonated and neutral forms. The iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) method was used to optimize new CG potential functions for backbone-related terms by attempting to reproduce angle, dihedral and distance probability distributions generated by the MD simulations. In a simple test of the transferability of the extended force field, the angle, dihedral and distance probability distributions obtained from BD simulations of 56 three-residue peptides were compared to results from corresponding explicit-solvent MD simulations. In a more challenging test of the COFFDROP force field, it was used to simulate eight intrinsically disordered proteins and was shown to quite accurately reproduce the experimental hydrodynamic radii (Rhydro), provided that the favorable nonbonded interactions of the force field were uniformly scaled downwards in magnitude. Overall, the results indicate that the COFFDROP force field is likely to find use in modeling the conformational behavior of intrinsically disordered proteins and multi-domain proteins connected by flexible linkers. PMID:26574429

  16. Parametrization of Backbone Flexibility in a Coarse-Grained Force Field for Proteins (COFFDROP) Derived from All-Atom Explicit-Solvent Molecular Dynamics Simulations of All Possible Two-Residue Peptides.

    PubMed

    Frembgen-Kesner, Tamara; Andrews, Casey T; Li, Shuxiang; Ngo, Nguyet Anh; Shubert, Scott A; Jain, Aakash; Olayiwola, Oluwatoni J; Weishaar, Mitch R; Elcock, Adrian H

    2015-05-12

    Recently, we reported the parametrization of a set of coarse-grained (CG) nonbonded potential functions, derived from all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of amino acid pairs and designed for use in (implicit-solvent) Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations of proteins; this force field was named COFFDROP (COarse-grained Force Field for Dynamic Representations Of Proteins). Here, we describe the extension of COFFDROP to include bonded backbone terms derived from fitting to results of explicit-solvent MD simulations of all possible two-residue peptides containing the 20 standard amino acids, with histidine modeled in both its protonated and neutral forms. The iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) method was used to optimize new CG potential functions for backbone-related terms by attempting to reproduce angle, dihedral, and distance probability distributions generated by the MD simulations. In a simple test of the transferability of the extended force field, the angle, dihedral, and distance probability distributions obtained from BD simulations of 56 three-residue peptides were compared to results from corresponding explicit-solvent MD simulations. In a more challenging test of the COFFDROP force field, it was used to simulate eight intrinsically disordered proteins and was shown to quite accurately reproduce the experimental hydrodynamic radii (Rhydro), provided that the favorable nonbonded interactions of the force field were uniformly scaled downward in magnitude. Overall, the results indicate that the COFFDROP force field is likely to find use in modeling the conformational behavior of intrinsically disordered proteins and multidomain proteins connected by flexible linkers.

  17. Possible role of the Nt-4/1 protein in macromolecular transport in vascular tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Arabidopsis thaliana 4/1 (At-4/1) protein has a highly alpha-helical structure with potential to interact both with itself and other protein ligands, including the movement proteins of some plant viruses; the Nicotiana tabacum ortholog (Nt-4/1) has similar structure. Here we describe localizatio...

  18. NMR study of non-structural proteins-part III: (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of macro domain from Chikungunya virus (CHIKV).

    PubMed

    Lykouras, Michail V; Tsika, Aikaterini C; Lichière, Julie; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Coutard, Bruno; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2017-09-05

    Macro domains are conserved protein domains found in eukaryotic organisms, bacteria, and archaea as well as in certain viruses. They consist of 130-190 amino acids and can bind ADP-ribose. Although the exact role of these domains is not fully understood, the conserved binding affinity for ADP-ribose indicates that this ligand is important for the function of the domain. Such a macro domain is also present in the non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) of Chikungunya Alphavirus (CHIKV) and consists of 160 amino acids. In this study we describe the high yield expression of the macro domain from CHIKV and its preliminary structural analysis via solution NMR spectroscopy. The macro domain seems to be folded in solution and an almost complete backbone assignment was achieved. In addition, the α/β/α sandwich topology with 4 α-helices and 6 β-strands was predicted by TALOS+.

  19. Design of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with Pyrrolidinones and Oxazolidinones as Novel P1’-Ligands to Enhance Backbone-binding interactions with Protease: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Protein-ligand X-ray Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Leshchenko-Yashchuk, Sofiya; Anderson, David D.; Baldridge, Abigail; Noetzel, Marcus; Miller, Heather B.; Tie, Yunfeng; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Koh, Yasuhiro; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Structure-based design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors are described. In an effort to enhance interactions with protease backbone atoms, we have incorporated stereochemically defined methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and methyl oxazolidinone as the P1′-ligands. These ligands are designed to interact with Gly-27′ carbonyl and Arg-8 side chain in the S1′-subsite of the HIV protease. We have investigated the potential of these ligands in combination with our previously developed bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) and cyclopentanyltetrahydrofuran (Cp-THF) as the P2-ligands. Inhibitor 19b with an (S)-aminomethyl-2-pyrrolidinone and a Cp-THF was shown to be the most potent compound. Inhibitor 19b maintained near full potency against multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants. A high resolution protein-ligand X-ray crystal structure of 19b–bound HIV-1 protease revealed that the P1′-pyrrolidinone heterocycle and the P2-Cp-ligand are involved in several critical interactions with the backbone atoms in the S1’ and S2-subsites of HIV-1 protease. PMID:19473017

  20. Design of HIV-1 protease inhibitors with pyrrolidinones and oxazolidinones as novel P1'-ligands to enhance backbone-binding interactions with protease: synthesis, biological evaluation, and protein-ligand X-ray studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Leshchenko-Yashchuk, Sofiya; Anderson, David D.; Baldridge, Abigail; Noetzel, Marcus; Miller, Heather B.; Tie, Yunfeng; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Koh, Yasuhiro; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2009-09-02

    Structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors are described. In an effort to enhance interactions with protease backbone atoms, we have incorporated stereochemically defined methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and methyl oxazolidinone as the P1{prime}-ligands. These ligands are designed to interact with Gly-27{prime} carbonyl and Arg-8 side chain in the S1{prime}-subsite of the HIV protease. We have investigated the potential of these ligands in combination with our previously developed bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) and cyclopentanyltetrahydrofuran (Cp-THF) as the P2-ligands. Inhibitor 19b with a (R)-aminomethyl-2-pyrrolidinone and a Cp-THF was shown to be the most potent compound. This inhibitor maintained near full potency against multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants. A high resolution protein-ligand X-ray crystal structure of 19b-bound HIV-1 protease revealed that the P1{prime}-pyrrolidinone heterocycle and the P2-Cp-ligand are involved in several critical interactions with the backbone atoms in the S1{prime} and S2 subsites of HIV-1 protease.

  1. Solution structure of NPr, a bacterial signal-transducing protein that controls the phosphorylation state of the potassium transporter-regulating protein IIA Ntr.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Peterkofsky, Alan; Wang, Guangshun

    2008-10-01

    A nitrogen-related signal transduction pathway, consisting of the three phosphotransfer proteins EI(Ntr), NPr, and IIA(Ntr), was discovered recently to regulate the uptake of K(+) in Escherichia coli. In particular, dephosphorylated IIA(Ntr) inhibits the activity of the K(+) transporter TrkA. Since the phosphorylation state of IIA(Ntr) is partially determined by its reversible phosphorylation by NPr, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of NPr by solution NMR spectroscopy. In total, we obtained 973 NOE-derived distance restraints, 112 chemical shift-derived backbone angle restraints, and 35 hydrogen-bond restraints derived from temperature coefficients (wave). We propose that temperature wave is useful for identifying exposed beta-strands and assists in establishing protein folds based on chemical shifts. The deduced structure of NPr contains three alpha-helices and four beta-strands with the three helices all packed on the same face of the beta-sheet. The active site residue His16 of NPr for phosphoryl transfer was found to be neutral and in the N epsilon 2-H tautomeric state. There appears to be increased motion in the active site region of NPr compared to HPr, a homologous protein involved in the uptake and regulation of carbohydrate utilization.

  2. Secondary-structure analysis of denatured proteins by vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koichi; Sakurada, Yoshie; Yonehara, Ryuta; Kataoka, Mikio; Gekko, Kunihiko

    2007-06-01

    To elucidate the structure of denatured proteins, we measured the vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectra from 260 to 172 nm of three proteins (metmyoglobin, staphylococcal nuclease, and thioredoxin) in the native and the acid-, cold-, and heat-denatured states, using a synchrotron-radiation VUVCD spectrophotometer. The circular dichroism spectra of proteins fully unfolded by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) were also measured down to 197 nm for comparison. These denatured proteins exhibited characteristic VUVCD spectra that reflected a considerable amount of residual secondary structures. The contents of alpha-helices, beta-strands, turns, poly-L-proline type II (PPII), and unordered structures were estimated for each denatured state of the three proteins using the SELCON3 program with Protein Data Bank data and the VUVCD spectra of 31 reference proteins reported in our previous study. Based on these contents, the characteristics of the four types of denaturation were discussed for each protein. In all types of denaturation, a decrease in alpha-helices was accompanied by increases in beta-strands, PPII, and unordered structures. About 20% beta-strands were present even in the proteins fully unfolded by GdnHCl in which beta-sheets should be broken. From these results, we propose that denatured proteins constitute an ensemble of residual alpha-helices and beta-sheets, partly unfolded (or distorted) alpha-helices and beta-strands, PPII, and unordered structures.

  3. Computational analysis of protein-protein interfaces involving an alpha helix: insights for terphenyl–like molecules binding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) are key for many cellular processes. The characterization of PPI interfaces and the prediction of putative ligand binding sites and hot spot residues are essential to design efficient small-molecule modulators of PPI. Terphenyl and its derivatives are small organic molecules known to mimic one face of protein-binding alpha-helical peptides. In this work we focus on several PPIs mediated by alpha-helical peptides. Method We performed computational sequence- and structure-based analyses in order to evaluate several key physicochemical and surface properties of proteins known to interact with alpha-helical peptides and/or terphenyl and its derivatives. Results Sequence-based analysis revealed low sequence identity between some of the analyzed proteins binding alpha-helical peptides. Structure-based analysis was performed to calculate the volume, the fractal dimension roughness and the hydrophobicity of the binding regions. Besides the overall hydrophobic character of the binding pockets, some specificities were detected. We showed that the hydrophobicity is not uniformly distributed in different alpha-helix binding pockets that can help to identify key hydrophobic hot spots. Conclusions The presence of hydrophobic cavities at the protein surface with a more complex shape than the entire protein surface seems to be an important property related to the ability of proteins to bind alpha-helical peptides and low molecular weight mimetics. Characterization of similarities and specificities of PPI binding sites can be helpful for further development of small molecules targeting alpha-helix binding proteins. PMID:23768251

  4. Discontinuous membrane helices in transport proteins and their correlation with function.

    PubMed

    Screpanti, Emanuela; Hunte, Carola

    2007-08-01

    Alpha-helical bundles and beta-barrel proteins represent the two basic types of architecture known for integral membrane proteins. Irregular structural motifs have been revealed with the growing number of structures determined. "Discontinuous" helices are present in membrane proteins that actively transport ions. In the Ca(2+)-ATPase, a primary active transporter, and in the secondary transporters NhaA, LeuT(Aa), ClC H(+)/Cl(-) exchanger and Glt(Ph), the helical structure of two membrane segments is interrupted and the interjacent polypeptide chain forms an extended peptide. The discontinuous helices are integrated in the membrane either as transmembrane-spanning or hairpin-type segments. In addition, the secondary transporters have inverted internal duplication domains, which are only weakly correlated with their amino acid sequence. The symmetry comprises either parts of or the complete molecule, but always includes the discontinuous helices. The helix-peptide-helix motif is correlated with the ion translocation function. The extended peptides with their backbone atoms, the helix termini and the polar/charged amino acid residues in close vicinity provide the basis for ion recognition, binding and translocation.

  5. Improved side-chain torsion potentials for the Amber ff99SB protein force field

    PubMed Central

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Piana, Stefano; Palmo, Kim; Maragakis, Paul; Klepeis, John L; Dror, Ron O; Shaw, David E

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in hardware and software have enabled increasingly long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecules, exposing certain limitations in the accuracy of the force fields used for such simulations and spurring efforts to refine these force fields. Recent modifications to the Amber and CHARMM protein force fields, for example, have improved the backbone torsion potentials, remedying deficiencies in earlier versions. Here, we further advance simulation accuracy by improving the amino acid side-chain torsion potentials of the Amber ff99SB force field. First, we used simulations of model alpha-helical systems to identify the four residue types whose rotamer distribution differed the most from expectations based on Protein Data Bank statistics. Second, we optimized the side-chain torsion potentials of these residues to match new, high-level quantum-mechanical calculations. Finally, we used microsecond-timescale MD simulations in explicit solvent to validate the resulting force field against a large set of experimental NMR measurements that directly probe side-chain conformations. The new force field, which we have termed Amber ff99SB-ILDN, exhibits considerably better agreement with the NMR data. Proteins 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20408171

  6. Distinct interaction modes of an AKAP bound to two regulatory subunit isoforms of protein kinase A revealed by amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange.

    PubMed

    Burns-Hamuro, Lora L; Hamuro, Yoshitomo; Kim, Jack S; Sigala, Paul; Fayos, Rosa; Stranz, David D; Jennings, Patricia A; Taylor, Susan S; Woods, Virgil L

    2005-12-01

    The structure of an AKAP docked to the dimerization/docking (D/D) domain of the type II (RIIalpha) isoform of protein kinase A (PKA) has been well characterized, but there currently is no detailed structural information of an AKAP docked to the type I (RIalpha) isoform. Dual-specific AKAP2 (D-AKAP2) binds in the nanomolar range to both isoforms and provided us with an opportunity to characterize the isoform-selective nature of AKAP binding using a common docked ligand. Hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange combined with mass spectrometry (DXMS) was used to probe backbone structural changes of an alpha-helical A-kinase binding (AKB) motif from D-AKAP2 docked to both RIalpha and RIIalpha D/D domains. The region of protection upon complex formation and the magnitude of protection from H/D exchange were determined for both interacting partners in each complex. The backbone of the AKB ligand was more protected when bound to RIalpha compared to RIIalpha, suggesting an increased helical stabilization of the docked AKB ligand. This combined with a broader region of backbone protection induced by the AKAP on the docking surface of RIalpha indicated that there were more binding constraints for the AKB ligand when bound to RIalpha. This was in contrast to RIIalpha, which has a preformed, localized binding surface. These distinct modes of AKAP binding may contribute to the more discriminating nature of the RIalpha AKAP-docking surface. DXMS provides valuable structural information for understanding binding specificity in the absence of a high-resolution structure, and can readily be applied to other protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions.

  7. RNA binding by Hfq and ring-forming (L)Sm proteins: a trade-off between optimal sequence readout and RNA backbone conformation.

    PubMed

    Weichenrieder, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic Sm and the Sm-like (LSm) proteins form a large family that includes LSm proteins in archaea and the Hfq proteins in bacteria. Commonly referred to as the (L)Sm protein family, the various members play important roles in RNA processing, decay, and riboregulation. Particularly interesting from a structural point of view is their ability to assemble into doughnut-shaped rings, which allows them to bind preferentially the uridine-rich 3'-end of RNA oligonucleotides. With an emphasis on Hfq, this review compares the RNA-binding properties of the various (L)Sm rings that were recently co-crystallized with RNA substrates, and it discusses how these properties relate to physiological function.

  8. Bloch spin waves and emergent structure in protein folding with HIV envelope glycoprotein as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jin; Niemi, Antti J.; He, Jianfeng; Sieradzan, Adam; Ilieva, Nevena

    2015-11-01

    We inquire how structure emerges during the process of protein folding. For this we scrutinise col- lective many-atom motions during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce, develop and employ various topological techniques, in combination with analytic tools that we deduce from the concept of integrable models and structure of discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The example we consider is an alpha-helical subunit of the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp41. The helical structure is stable when the subunit is part of the biological oligomer. But in isolation the helix becomes unstable, and the monomer starts deforming. We follow the process computationally. We interpret the evolving structure both in terms of a backbone based Heisenberg spin chain and in terms of a side chain based XY spin chain. We find that in both cases the formation of protein super-secondary structure is akin the formation of a topological Bloch domain wall along a spin chain. During the process we identify three individual Bloch walls and we show that each of them can be modelled with a very high precision in terms of a soliton solution to a discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation.

  9. Structural Basis for RNA-Silencing Suppression by Tomato Aspermy Virus Protein 2b

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,H.; Yang, J.; Lin, C.; Yuan, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The 2b proteins encoded by cucumovirus act as post-transcriptional gene silencing suppressors to counter host defence during infection. Here we report the crystal structure of Tomato aspermy virus 2b (TAV2b) protein bound to a 19 bp small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplex. TAV2b adopts an all {alpha}-helix structure and forms a homodimer to measure siRNA duplex in a length-preference mode. TAV2b has a pair of hook-like structures to recognize simultaneously two {alpha}-helical turns of A-form RNA duplex by fitting its {alpha}-helix backbone into two adjacent major grooves of siRNA duplex. The conserved {pi}-stackings between tryptophan and the 5'-terminal base of siRNA duplex from both ends enhance the recognition. TAV2b further oligomerizes to form a dimer of dimers through the conserved leucine-zipper-like motif at its amino-terminal {alpha}-helix. Biochemical experiments suggest that TAV2b might interfere with the post-transcriptional gene silencing pathway by directly binding to siRNA duplex.

  10. Structures of N-termini of helices in proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Doig, A. J.; MacArthur, M. W.; Stapley, B. J.; Thornton, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    We have surveyed 393 N-termini of alpha-helices and 156 N-termini of 3(10)-helices in 85 high resolution, non-homologous protein crystal structures for N-cap side-chain rotamer preferences, hydrogen bonding patterns, and solvent accessibilities. We find very strong rotamer preferences that are unique to N-cap sites. The following rules are generally observed for N-capping in alpha-helices: Thr and Ser N-cap side chains adopt the gauche - rotamer, hydrogen bond to the N3 NH and have psi restricted to 164 +/- 8 degrees. Asp and Asn N-cap side chains either adopt the gauche - rotamer and hydrogen bond to the N3 NH with psi = 172 +/- 10 degrees, or adopt the trans rotamer and hydrogen bond to both the N2 and N3 NH groups with psi = 1-7 +/- 19 degrees. With all other N-caps, the side chain is found in the gauche + rotamer so that the side chain does not interact unfavorably with the N-terminus by blocking solvation and psi is unrestricted. An i, i + 3 hydrogen bond from N3 NH to the N-cap backbone C = O in more likely to form at the N-terminus when an unfavorable N-cap is present. In the 3(10)-helix Asn and Asp remain favorable N-caps as they can hydrogen bond to the N2 NH while in the trans rotamer; in contrast, Ser and Thr are disfavored as their preferred hydrogen bonding partner (N3 NH) is inaccessible. This suggests that Ser is the optimum choice of N-cap when alpha-helix formation is to be encouraged while 3(10)-helix formation discouraged. The strong energetic and structural preferences found for N-caps, which differ greatly from positions within helix interiors, suggest that N-caps should be treated explicitly in any consideration of helical structure in peptides or proteins. PMID:9007987

  11. Stabilized helical peptides: a strategy to target protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Klein, Mark A

    2014-08-14

    Protein-protein interactions are critical for cell proliferation, differentiation, and function. Peptides hold great promise for clinical applications focused on targeting protein-protein interactions. Advantages of peptides include a large chemical space and potential diversity of sequences and structures. However, peptides do present well-known challenges for drug development. Progress has been made in the development of stabilizing alpha helices for potential therapeutic applications. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods of helical peptide stabilization are discussed.

  12. hNCOcanH pulse sequence and a robust protocol for rapid and unambiguous assignment of backbone ((1)H(N), (15)N and (13)C') resonances in (15)N/(13)C-labeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2011-09-01

    A three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulse sequence named as hNCOcanH has been described to aid rapid sequential assignment of backbone resonances in (15)N/(13)C-labeled proteins. The experiment has been derived by a simple modification of the previously described HN(C)N pulse sequence [Panchal et al., J. Biomol. NMR 20 (2001) 135-147]; t2 evolution is used to frequency label (13)C' rather than (15)N (similar trick has also been used in the design of hNCAnH pulse sequence from hNcaNH [Frueh et al., JACS, 131 (2009) 12880-12881]). The modification results in a spectrum equivalent to HNCO, but in addition to inter-residue correlation peaks (i.e. Hi , Ci-1), the spectrum also contains additional intra-residue correlation peaks (i.e. Hi-1 , Ci-1) in the direct proton dimension which has maximum resolution. This is the main strength of the experiment and thus, even a small difference in amide (1) H chemical shifts (5-6 Hz) can be used for establishing a sequential connectivity. This experiment in combination with the HNN experiment described previously [Panchal et al., J. Biomol. NMR 20 (2001) 135-147] leads to a more robust assignment protocol for backbone resonances ((1) H(N) , (15)N) than could be derived from the combination of HNN and HN(C)N experiments [Bhavesh et al., Biochemistry, 40 (2001) 14727-14735]. Further, this new protocol enables assignment of (13)C' resonances as well. We believe that the experiment and the protocol presented here will be of immense value for structural-and functional-proteomics research by NMR. Performance of this experiment has been demonstrated using (13)C/(15)N labeled ubiquitin. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Fe2+-Tetracycline-Mediated Cleavage of the Tn10 Tetracycline Efflux Protein TetA Reveals a Substrate Binding Site near Glutamine 225 in Transmembrane Helix 7

    PubMed Central

    McMurry, Laura M.; Aldema-Ramos, Mila L.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2002-01-01

    TetA specified by Tn10 is a class B member of a group of related bacterial transport proteins of 12 transmembrane alpha helices that mediate resistance to the antibiotic tetracycline. A tetracycline-divalent metal cation complex is expelled from the cell in exchange for a entering proton. The site(s) where tetracycline binds to this export pump is not known. We found that, when chelated to tetracycline, Fe2+ cleaved the backbone of TetA predominantly at a single position, glutamine 225 in transmembrane helix 7. The related class D TetA protein from plasmid RA1 was cut at exactly the same position. There was no cleavage with glycylcycline, an analog of tetracycline that does not bind to TetA. The Fe2+-tetracycline complex was not detectably transported by TetA. However, cleavage products of the same size as with Fe2+ occurred with Co2+, known to be cotransported with tetracycline. The known substrate Mg 2+-tetracycline interfered with cleavage by Fe2+. These findings suggest that cleavage results from binding at a substrate-specific site. Fe2+ is known to be able to cleave amide bonds in proteins at distances up to approximately 12 Å. We conclude that the α carbon of glutamine 225 is probably within 12 Å of the position of the Fe2+ ion in the Fe2+-tetracycline complex bound to the protein. PMID:12193628

  14. Development of potent anti-infective agents from Silurana tropicalis: conformational analysis of the amphipathic, alpha-helical antimicrobial peptide XT-7 and its non-haemolytic analogue [G4K]XT-7.

    PubMed

    Subasinghage, Anusha P; Conlon, J Michael; Hewage, Chandralal M

    2010-04-01

    Peptide XT-7 (GLLGP(5)LLKIA(10)AKVGS(15)NLL.NH(2)) is a cationic, leucine-rich peptide, first isolated from skin secretions of the frog, Silurana tropicalis (Pipidae). The peptide shows potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity but its therapeutic potential is limited by haemolytic activity (LC(50)=140 microM). The analogue [G4K]XT-7, however, retains potent antimicrobial activity but is non-haemolytic (LC(50)>500 microM). In order to elucidate the molecular basis for this difference in properties, the three dimensional structures of XT-7 and the analogue have been investigated by proton NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling. In aqueous solution, both peptides lack secondary structure. In a 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE-d(3))-H(2)O mixed solvent system, XT-7 is characterised by a right handed alpha-helical conformation between residues Leu(3) and Leu(17) whereas [G4K]XT-7 adopts a more restricted alpha-helical conformation between residues Leu(6) and Leu(17). A similar conformation for XT-7 in 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) micellular media was observed with a helical segment between Leu(3) and Leu(17). However, differences in side chain orientations restricting the hydrophilic residues to a smaller patch resulted in an increased hydrophobic surface relative to the conformation in TFE-H(2)O. Molecular modelling of the structures obtained in our study demonstrates the amphipathic character of the helical segments. It is proposed that the marked decrease in haemolytic activity produced by the substitution Gly(4)-->Lys in XT-7 arises from a decrease in both helicity and hydrophobicity. These studies may facilitate the development of potent but non-toxic anti-infective agents based upon the structure of XT-7.

  15. Access of hydrogen-radicals to the peptide-backbone as a measure for estimating the flexibility of proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Mitsuo; Nagoshi, Keishiro; Iimuro, Ryunosuke; Inatomi, Kazuma

    2014-05-13

    A factor for estimating the flexibility of proteins is described that uses a cleavage method of "in-source decay (ISD)" coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). The MALDI-ISD spectra of bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin and thioredoxin show discontinuous intense ion peaks originating from one-side preferential cleavage at the N-Cα bond of Xxx-Asp, Xxx-Asn, Xxx-Cys and Gly-Xxx residues. Consistent with these observations, Asp, Asn and Gly residues are also identified by other flexibility measures such as B-factor, turn preference, protection and fluorescence decay factors, while Asp, Asn, Cys and Gly residues are identified by turn preference factor based on X-ray crystallography. The results suggest that protein molecules embedded in/on MALDI matrix crystals partly maintain α-helix and that the reason some of the residues are more susceptible to ISD (Asp, Asn, Cys and Gly) and others less so (Ile and Val) is because of accessibility of the peptide backbone to hydrogen-radicals from matrix molecules. The hydrogen-radical accessibility in MALDI-ISD could therefore be adopted as a factor for measuring protein flexibility.

  16. Access of Hydrogen-Radicals to the Peptide-Backbone as a Measure for Estimating the Flexibility of Proteins Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mitsuo; Nagoshi, Keishiro; Iimuro, Ryunosuke; Inatomi, Kazuma

    2014-01-01

    A factor for estimating the flexibility of proteins is described that uses a cleavage method of “in-source decay (ISD)” coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). The MALDI-ISD spectra of bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin and thioredoxin show discontinuous intense ion peaks originating from one-side preferential cleavage at the N-Cα bond of Xxx-Asp, Xxx-Asn, Xxx-Cys and Gly-Xxx residues. Consistent with these observations, Asp, Asn and Gly residues are also identified by other flexibility measures such as B-factor, turn preference, protection and fluorescence decay factors, while Asp, Asn, Cys and Gly residues are identified by turn preference factor based on X-ray crystallography. The results suggest that protein molecules embedded in/on MALDI matrix crystals partly maintain α-helix and that the reason some of the residues are more susceptible to ISD (Asp, Asn, Cys and Gly) and others less so (Ile and Val) is because of accessibility of the peptide backbone to hydrogen-radicals from matrix molecules. The hydrogen-radical accessibility in MALDI-ISD could therefore be adopted as a factor for measuring protein flexibility. PMID:24828203

  17. ANSS Backbone Station Quality Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeds, A.; McNamara, D.; Benz, H.; Gee, L.

    2006-12-01

    In this study we assess the ambient noise levels of the broadband seismic stations within the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) backbone network. The backbone consists of stations operated by the USGS as well as several regional network stations operated by universities. We also assess the improved detection capability of the network due to the installation of 13 additional backbone stations and the upgrade of 26 existing stations funded by the Earthscope initiative. This assessment makes use of probability density functions (PDF) of power spectral densities (PSD) (after McNamara and Buland, 2004) computed by a continuous noise monitoring system developed by the USGS- ANSS and the Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). We compute the median and mode of the PDF distribution and rank the stations relative to the Peterson Low noise model (LNM) (Peterson, 1993) for 11 different period bands. The power of the method lies in the fact that there is no need to screen the data for system transients, earthquakes or general data artifacts since they map into a background probability level. Previous studies have shown that most regional stations, instrumented with short period or extended short period instruments, have a higher noise level in all period bands while stations in the US network have lower noise levels at short periods (0.0625-8.0 seconds), high frequencies (8.0- 0.125Hz). The overall network is evaluated with respect to accomplishing the design goals set for the USArray/ANSS backbone project which were intended to increase broadband performance for the national monitoring network.

  18. Structure and Dynamics of Helical Protein Fragments Investigated by Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Afshin

    This work addresses the conformation and dynamics of model peptides using spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Experimentally, we investigate the structure and dynamics of peptide fragments taken from coiled coil and three helical bundle motifs of bacterial coat proteins. Theoretically, we use molecular dynamics simulations of isolated helices with explicit water molecules to derive trajectories which reveal features about picosecond dynamics and local unfolding events. The assignment of the ^1H, ^{15}N, and ^ {13}C resonances, secondary structure, backbone dynamics, hydration and other biophysical parameters of a 30 residue recombinant peptide corresponding to an immunogenic site on the coiled coil region of Streptococcus pyogenes 24M protein are reported. Our results suggest that this peptide is a symmetric parallel dimeric alpha-helical coiled coil with local defects within the helix and fraying at the termini. The ^1H and ^ {15}N assignments, the hydration, the overall fold, and other biophysical parameters of a recombinant B domain of Staphylococcal protein A (FB) are reported. Our results indicate FB is a highly stable monomeric three helical bundle. A symmetric two domain construct was used to probe the modular assembly of two B domains. Here, spectroscopic results suggest weak interactions between the two domains. The folding pathway of FB was investigated using amide exchange data of the native protein and peptide models. We propose that the helical hairpin consisting of helices II and III is an on-pathway intermediate in the folding of FB. Two 1 ns molecular dynamics simulations (MD) on two mainly helical peptides--an 18 residue peptide corresponding to a portion of the H helix of myoglobin (MBH) and a 14 residue analogue of the C-peptide of ribonuclease A (CRNA) --were carried out in water using the united atom AMBER/OPLS force-field. In the case of MBH, the initial helical conformation progressively frays to a more disordered structure. A

  19. Chemical synthesis of a polypeptide backbone derived from the primary sequence of the cancer protein NY-ESO-1 enabled by kinetically controlled ligation and pseudoprolines.

    PubMed

    Harris, Paul W R; Brimble, Margaret A

    2015-03-01

    The cancer protein NY-ESO-1 has been shown to be one of the most promising vaccine candidates although little is known about its cellular function. Using a chemical protein strategy, the 180 amino acid polypeptide, tagged with an arginine solubilizing tail, was assembled in a convergent manner from four unprotected peptide α-thioester peptide building blocks and one cysteinyl polypeptide, which were in turn prepared by Boc and Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) respectively. To facilitate the assembly by ligation chemistries, non-native cysteines were introduced as chemical handles into the polypeptide fragments; pseudoproline dipeptides and microwave assisted Fmoc SPPS were crucial techniques to prepare the challenging hydrophobic C-terminal fragment. Three sequential kinetically controlled ligations, which exploited the reactivity between peptide arylthioesters and peptide alkylthioesters, were then used in order to assemble the more tractable N-terminal region of NY-ESO-1. The ensuing 147 residue polypeptide thioester then underwent successful final native chemical ligation with the very hydrophobic C-terminal polypeptide bearing an N-terminal cysteine affording the 186 residue polypeptide as an advanced intermediate en route to the native NY-ESO-1 protein. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Proton NMR measurements of bacteriophage T4 lysozyme aided by 15N isotopic labeling: structural and dynamic studies of larger proteins

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, L.P.; Griffey, R.H.; Muchmore, D.C.; Nielson, C.P.; Redfield, A.G.; Dahlquist, F.W.

    1987-03-01

    A strategy for resolution and assignment of single proton resonances in proteins of molecular mass up to at least 40 kDa is presented. This approach is based on /sup 15/N (or /sup 13/C) labeling of selected residues in a protein. The resonances from protons directly bonded to labeled atoms are detected in a two-dimensional 1H-/sup 15/N (or /sup 13/C) spectrum. The nuclear Overhauser effects from isotopically tagged protons are selectively observed in one-dimensional isotope-directed measurements. Using this approach, we have observed approximately 160 resonances from /sup 15/N-bonded protons in the backbone and sidechains of uniformly /sup 15/N-labeled T4 lysozyme (molecular mass = 18.7 kDa). Partial proton-deuterium exchange can be used to simplify the 1H-/sup 15/N spectrum of this protein. These resonances are identified by amino acid class using selective incorporation of /sup 15/N-labeled amino acids and are assigned to specific residues by mutational substitution, multiple /sup 15/N and /sup 13/C labeling, and isotope-directed nuclear Overhauser effect measurements. For example, using a phenyl(/sup 15/N)alanine-labeled lysozyme variant containing two consecutive phenylalanine residues in an alpha-helical region, we observe an isotope-directed nuclear Overhauser effect from the amide proton of Phe-66 to that of Phe-67.

  1. Sequential assignment of 1H, 15N, 13C resonances and secondary structure of human calmodulin-like protein determined by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, H.; Rogers, M. S.; Schleucher, J.; Edlund, U.; Strehler, E. E.; Sethson, I.

    1998-01-01

    Human calmodulin-like protein (CLP) is closely related to vertebrate calmodulin, yet its unique cell specific expression pattern, overlapping but divergent biochemical properties, and specific target proteins suggest that it is not an isoform of calmodulin. To gain insight into the structural differences that may underlie the difference target specificities and biochemical properties of CLP when compared to calmodulin, we determined the sequential backbone assignment and associated secondary structure of 144 out of the 148 residues of Ca2+-CLP by using multinuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Despite a very high overall degree of structural similarity between CLP and calmodulin, a number of significant differences were found mainly in the length of alpha-helices and in the central nonhelical flexible region. Interestingly, the regions of greatest primary sequence divergence between CLP and calmodulin in helices III and VIII displayed only minor secondary structure differences. The data suggest that the distinct differences in target specificity and biochemical properties of CLP and calmodulin result from the sum of several minor structural and side-chain changes spread over multiple domains in these proteins. PMID:9828009

  2. Computational design of high-affinity epitope scaffolds by backbone grafting of a linear epitope.

    PubMed

    Azoitei, Mihai L; Ban, Yih-En Andrew; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Bryson, Steve; Schroeter, Alexandria; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Porter, Justin R; Adachi, Yumiko; Baker, David; Pai, Emil F; Schief, William R

    2012-01-06

    Computational grafting of functional motifs onto scaffold proteins is a promising way to engineer novel proteins with pre-specified functionalities. Typically, protein grafting involves the transplantation of protein side chains from a functional motif onto structurally homologous regions of scaffold proteins. Using this approach, we previously transplanted the human immunodeficiency virus 2F5 and 4E10 epitopes onto heterologous proteins to design novel "epitope-scaffold" antigens. However, side-chain grafting is limited by the availability of scaffolds with compatible backbone for a given epitope structure and offers no route to modify backbone structure to improve mimicry or binding affinity. To address this, we report here a new and more aggressive computational method-backbone grafting of linear motifs-that transplants the backbone and side chains of linear functional motifs onto scaffold proteins. To test this method, we first used side-chain grafting to design new 2F5 epitope scaffolds with improved biophysical characteristics. We then independently transplanted the 2F5 epitope onto three of the same parent scaffolds using the newly developed backbone grafting procedure. Crystal structures of side-chain and backbone grafting designs showed close agreement with both the computational models and the desired epitope structure. In two cases, backbone grafting scaffolds bound antibody 2F5 with 30- and 9-fold higher affinity than corresponding side-chain grafting designs. These results demonstrate that flexible backbone methods for epitope grafting can significantly improve binding affinities over those achieved by fixed backbone methods alone. Backbone grafting of linear motifs is a general method to transplant functional motifs when backbone remodeling of the target scaffold is necessary.

  3. Solution structure and backbone dynamics of the pleckstrin homology domain of the human protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). Interaction with inositol phosphates.

    PubMed

    Auguin, Daniel; Barthe, Philippe; Augé-Sénégas, Marie-Thérèse; Stern, Marc-Henri; Noguchi, Masayuki; Roumestand, Christian

    2004-02-01

    The programmed cell death occurs as part of normal mammalian development. The induction of developmental cell death is a highly regulated process and can be suppressed by a variety of extracellular stimuli. Recently, the ability of trophic factors to promote survival have been attributed, at least in part, to the phosphatidylinositide 3'-OH kinase (PI3K)/Protein Kinase B (PKB, also named Akt) cascade. Several targets of the PI3K/PKB signaling pathway have been identified that may underlie the ability of this regulatory cascade to promote cell survival. PKB possesses a N-terminal Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain that binds specifically and with high affinity to PtIns(3,4,5)P(3) and PtIns(3,4)P(2), the PI3K second messengers. PKB is then recruited to the plasma membrane by virtue of its interaction with 3'-OH phosphatidylinositides and activated. Recent evidence indicates that PKB is active in various types of human cancer; constitutive PKB signaling activation is believed to promote proliferation and increased cell survival, thereby contributing to cancer progression. Thus, it has been shown that induction of PKB activity is augmented by the TCL1/MTCP1 oncoproteins through a physical association requiring the PKB PH domain. Here we present the three-dimensional solution structure of the PH domain of the human protein PKB (isoform beta). PKBbeta-PH is an electrostatically polarized molecule that adopts the same fold and topology as other PH-domains, consisting of a beta-sandwich of seven strands capped on one top by an alpha-helix. The opposite face presents three variable loops that appear poorly defined in the NMR structure. Measurements of (15)N spin relaxation times and heteronuclear (15)N[(1)H]NOEs showed that this poor definition is due to intrinsic flexibility, involving complex motions on different time scales. Chemical shift mapping studies correctly defined the binding site of Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) (the head group of PtIns(3,4,5)P(3)), as was previously proposed

  4. Physics-based potentials for the coupling between backbone- and side-chain-local conformational states in the united residue (UNRES) force field for protein simulations

    PubMed Central

    Sieradzan, Adam K.; Krupa, Paweł; Scheraga, Harold A.; Liwo, Adam; Czaplewski, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    The UNited RESidue (UNRES) model of polypeptide chains is a coarse-grained model in which each amino-acid residue is reduced to two interaction sites, namely a united peptide group (p) located halfway between the two neighboring α-carbon atoms (Cαs), which serve only as geometrical points, and a united side chain (SC) attached to the respective Cα. Owing to this simplification, millisecond Molecular Dynamics simulations of large systems can be performed. While UNRES predicts overall folds well, it reproduces the details of local chain conformation with lower accuracy. Recently, we implemented new knowledge-based torsional potentials (Krupa et. al. J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2013, 9, 4620–4632) that depend on the virtual-bond dihedral angles involving side chains: Cα ⋯ Cα ⋯ Cα ⋯ SC (τ(1)), SC ⋯ Cα ⋯ Cα ⋯ Cα (τ(2)), and SC ⋯ Cα ⋯ Cα ⋯ SC (τ(3)) in the UNRES force field. These potentials resulted in significant improvement of the simulated structures, especially in the loop regions. In this work, we introduce the physics-based counterparts of these potentials, which we derived from the all-atom energy surfaces of terminally-blocked amino-acid residues by Boltzmann integration over the angles λ(1) and λ(2) for rotation about the Cα ⋯ Cα virtual-bond angles and over the side-chain angles χ. The energy surfaces were, in turn, calculated by using the semiempirical AM1 method of molecular quantum mechanics. Entropy contribution was evaluated with use of the harmonic approximation from Hessian matrices. One-dimensional Fourier series in the respective virtual-bond-dihedral angles were fitted to the calculated potentials, and these expressions have been implemented in the UNRES force field. Basic calibration of the UNRES force field with the new potentials was carried out with eight training proteins, by selecting the optimal weight of the new energy terms and reducing the weight of the regular torsional terms. The force field was

  5. The backbone of a city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scellato, S.; Cardillo, A.; Latora, V.; Porta, S.

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of centrality measures to analyze various spatial factors affecting human life in cities. Here we show how it is possible to extract the backbone of a city by deriving spanning trees based on edge betweenness and edge information. By using as sample cases the cities of Bologna and San Francisco, we show how the obtained trees are radically different from those based on edge lengths, and allow an extended comprehension of the “skeleton” of most important routes that so much affects pedestrian/vehicular flows, retail commerce vitality, land-use separation, urban crime and collective dynamical behaviours.

  6. Cross-Correlated Relaxation of Dipolar Coupling and Chemical-Shift Anisotropy in Magic-Angle Spinning R1ρ NMR Measurements: Application to Protein Backbone Dynamics Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kurauskas, Vilius; Weber, Emmanuelle; Hessel, Audrey; Ayala, Isabel; Marion, Dominique; Schanda, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transverse relaxation rate measurements in MAS solid-state NMR provide information about molecular motions occurring on nanoseconds-to-milliseconds (ns-ms) time scales. The measurement of heteronuclear (13C, 15N) relaxation rate constants in the presence of a spin-lock radio-frequency field (R1ρ relaxation) provides access to such motions, and an increasing number of studies involving R1ρ relaxation in proteins has been reported. However, two factors that influence the observed relaxation rate constants have so far been neglected, namely (i) the role of CSA/dipolar cross-correlated relaxation (CCR), and (ii) the impact of fast proton spin flips (i.e. proton spin diffusion and relaxation). We show that CSA/D CCR in R1ρ experiments is measurable, and that this cross-correlated relaxation rate constant depends on ns-ms motions, and can thus itself provide insight into dynamics. We find that proton spin-diffusion attenuates this cross-correlated relaxation, due to its decoupling effect on the doublet components. For measurements of dynamics, the use of R1ρ rate constants has practical advantages over the use of CCR rates, and the present manuscript reveals factors that have so far been disregarded and which are important for accurate measurements and interpretation. PMID:27500976

  7. A rhodopsin-like protein in Cyanophora paradoxa: gene sequence and protein immunolocalization.

    PubMed

    Frassanito, Anna Maria; Barsanti, Laura; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Evangelista, Valtere; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    Here, we report the DNA sequence of the rhodopsin gene in the alga Cyanophora paradoxa (Glaucophyta). The primers were designed according to the conserved regions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic rhodopsin-like proteins deposited in the GenBank. The sequence consists of 1,272 bp comprised of 5 introns. The correspondent protein, named Cyanophopsin, showed high identity to rhodopsin-like proteins of Archea, Bacteria, Fungi, and Algae. At the N-terminal, the protein is characterized by a region with no transmembrane alpha-helices (80 aa), followed by a region with 7alpha-helices (219 aa) and a shorter 35-aa C-terminal region. The DNA sequence of the N-terminal region was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant purified peptide was used as antigen in hens to obtain polyclonal antibodies. Indirect immunofluorescence in C. paradoxa cells showed a marked labeling of the muroplast (aka cyanelle) membrane.

  8. Self assembling proteins

    DOEpatents

    Yeates, Todd O.; Padilla, Jennifer; Colovos, Chris

    2004-06-29

    Novel fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into regular structures, as well as nucleic acids encoding the same, are provided. The subject fusion proteins comprise at least two oligomerization domains rigidly linked together, e.g. through an alpha helical linking group. Also provided are regular structures comprising a plurality of self-assembled fusion proteins of the subject invention, and methods for producing the same. The subject fusion proteins find use in the preparation of a variety of nanostructures, where such structures include: cages, shells, double-layer rings, two-dimensional layers, three-dimensional crystals, filaments, and tubes.

  9. Backbone flexibility of CDR3 and immune recognition of antigens.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Jaafar N; Zhu, Wei; Lypowy, Jacqueline; Pierce, Brian G; Bari, Amtul; Persaud, Kris; Luna, Xenia; Snavely, Marshall; Ludwig, Dale; Weng, Zhiping

    2014-04-03

    Conformational entropy is an important component of protein-protein interactions; however, there is no reliable method for computing this parameter. We have developed a statistical measure of residual backbone entropy in folded proteins by using the ϕ-ψ distributions of the 20 amino acids in common secondary structures. The backbone entropy patterns of amino acids within helix, sheet or coil form clusters that recapitulate the branching and hydrogen bonding properties of the side chains in the secondary structure type. The same types of residues in coil and sheet have identical backbone entropies, while helix residues have much smaller conformational entropies. We estimated the backbone entropy change for immunoglobulin complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) from the crystal structures of 34 low-affinity T-cell receptors and 40 high-affinity Fabs as a result of the formation of protein complexes. Surprisingly, we discovered that the computed backbone entropy loss of only the CDR3, but not all CDRs, correlated significantly with the kinetic and affinity constants of the 74 selected complexes. Consequently, we propose a simple algorithm to introduce proline mutations that restrict the conformational flexibility of CDRs and enhance the kinetics and affinity of immunoglobulin interactions. Combining the proline mutations with rationally designed mutants from a previous study led to 2400-fold increase in the affinity of the A6 T-cell receptor for Tax-HLAA2. However, this mutational scheme failed to induce significant binding changes in the already-high-affinity C225-Fab/huEGFR interface. Our results will serve as a roadmap to formulate more effective target functions to design immune complexes with improved biological functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The noncompetitive blocker ( sup 3 H)chlorpromazine labels three amino acids of the acetylcholine receptor gamma subunit: Implications for the alpha-helical organization of regions MII and for the structure of the ion channel

    SciTech Connect

    Revah, F.; Galzi, J.L.; Giraudat, J.; Haumont, P.Y.; Lederer, F.; Changeux, J.P. )

    1990-06-01

    Labeling studies of Torpedo marmorata nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with the noncompetitive channel blocker ({sup 3}H)chlorpromazine have led to the initial identification of amino acids plausibly participating to the walls of the ion channel on the alpha, beta, and delta subunits. We report here results obtained with the gamma subunit, which bring additional information on the structure of the channel. After photolabeling of the membrane-bound receptor under equilibrium conditions in the presence of agonist and with or without phencyclidine (a specific ligand for the high-affinity site for noncompetitive blockers), the purified labeled gamma subunit was digested with trypsin, and the resulting fragments were fractionated by HPLC. Sequence analysis of peptide mixtures containing various amounts of highly hydrophobic fragments showed that three amino acids are labeled by ({sup 3}H)chlorpromazine in a phencyclidine-sensitive manner: Thr-253, Ser-257, and Leu-260. These residues all belong to the hydrophobic and putative transmembrane region MII of the gamma subunit. Their distribution along the sequence is consistent with an alpha-helical organization of this segment. The ({sup 3}H)chlorpromazine-labeled amino acids are conserved at homologous positions in the known sequences of other ligand-gated ion channels and may, thus, play a critical role in ion-transport mechanisms.

  11. Comparison of reversed-phase liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction/cation-exchange chromatography for the separation of amphipathic alpha-helical peptides with L- and D-amino acid substitutions in the hydrophilic face.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Eva; Chen, Yuxin; Mant, Colin T; Jungbauer, Alois; Hodges, Robert S

    2003-08-15

    Mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/cation-exchange chromatography (HILIC/CEX) is a novel high-performance technique which has excellent potential for peptide separations. Separations by HILIX/CEX are carried out by subjecting peptides to linear increasing salt gradients in the presence of high levels of acetonitrile, which promotes hydrophilic interactions overlaid on ionic interactions with the cation-exchange matrix. In the present study, HILIC/CEX has been compared to reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) for separation of mixtures of diastereomeric amphipathic alpha-helical peptide analogues, where L- and D-amino acid substitutions were made in the centre of the hydrophilic face of the amphipathic alpha-helix. Unlike RP-HPLC, temperature had a substantial effect on HILIC/CEX of the peptides, with a rise in temperature from 25 to 65 degrees C increasing the retention times of the peptides as well as improving resolution. Our results again highlight the potential of HILIC/CEX as a peptide separation mode in its own right as well as an excellent complement to RP-HPLC.

  12. A simple model of backbone flexibility improves modeling of side-chain conformational variability.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Gregory D; Linares, Anthony J; Smith, Colin A; Kortemme, Tanja

    2008-07-18

    The considerable flexibility of side-chains in folded proteins is important for protein stability and function, and may have a role in mediating allosteric interactions. While sampling side-chain degrees of freedom has been an integral part of several successful computational protein design methods, the predictions of these approaches have not been directly compared to experimental measurements of side-chain motional amplitudes. In addition, protein design methods frequently keep the backbone fixed, an approximation that may substantially limit the ability to accurately model side-chain flexibility. Here, we describe a Monte Carlo approach to modeling side-chain conformational variability and validate our method against a large dataset of methyl relaxation order parameters derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments (17 proteins and a total of 530 data points). We also evaluate a model of backbone flexibility based on Backrub motions, a type of conformational change frequently observed in ultra-high-resolution X-ray structures that accounts for correlated side-chain backbone movements. The fixed-backbone model performs reasonably well with an overall rmsd between computed and predicted side-chain order parameters of 0.26. Notably, including backbone flexibility leads to significant improvements in modeling side-chain order parameters for ten of the 17 proteins in the set. Greater accuracy of the flexible backbone model results from both increases and decreases in side-chain flexibility relative to the fixed-backbone model. This simple flexible-backbone model should be useful for a variety of protein design applications, including improved modeling of protein-protein interactions, design of proteins with desired flexibility or rigidity, and prediction of correlated motions within proteins.

  13. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    1989-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  14. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  15. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    1989-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  16. Deterministic features of side-chain main-chain hydrogen bonds in globular protein structures.

    PubMed

    Eswar, N; Ramakrishnan, C

    2000-04-01

    A total of 19 835 polar residues from a data set of 250 non-homologous and highly resolved protein crystal structures were used to identify side-chain main-chain (SC-MC) hydrogen bonds. The ratio of the number of SC-MC hydrogen bonds to the total number of polar residues is close to 1:2, indicating the ubiquitous nature of such hydrogen bonds. Close to 56% of the SC-MC hydrogen bonds are local involving side-chain acceptor/donor ('i') and a main-chain donor/acceptor within the window i-5 to i+5. These short-range hydrogen bonds form well defined conformational motifs characterized by specific combinations of backbone and side-chain torsion angles. (a) The Ser/Thr residues show the greatest preference in forming intra-helical hydrogen bonds between the atoms O(gamma)(i) and O(i-4). More than half the examples of such hydrogen bonds are found at the middle of alpha-helices rather than at their ends. The most favoured motif of these examples is alpha(R)alpha(R)alpha(R)alpha(R)(g(-)). (b) These residues also show great preference to form hydrogen bonds between O(gamma)(i) and O(i-3), which are closely related to the previous type and though intra-helical, these hydrogen bonds are more often found at the C-termini of helices than at the middle. The motif represented by alpha(R)alpha(R)alpha(R)alpha(R)(g(+)) is most preferred in these cases. (c) The Ser, Thr and Glu are the most frequently found residues participating in intra-residue hydrogen bonds (between the side-chain and main-chain of the same residue) which are characterized by specific motifs of the form beta(g(+)) for Ser/Thr residues and alpha(R)(g(-)g(+)t) for Glu/Gln. (d) The side-chain acceptor atoms of Asn/Asp and Ser/Thr residues show high preference to form hydrogen bonds with acceptors two residues ahead in the chain, which are characterized by the motifs beta (tt')alphaR and beta(t)alpha(R), respectively. These hydrogen bonded segments, referred to as Asx turns, are known to provide stability to type I

  17. Free backbone carbonyls mediate rhodopsin activation

    PubMed Central

    Kimata, Naoki; Pope, Andreyah; Sanchez-Reyes, Omar B.; Eilers, Markus; Opefi, Chikwado A.; Ziliox, Martine; Reeves, Philip J.; Smith, Steven O.

    2016-01-01

    Conserved prolines in the transmembrane helices of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are often considered to function as hinges that divide the helix into two segments capable of independent motion. Depending on their potential to hydrogen-bond, the free C=O groups associated with these prolines can facilitate conformational flexibility, conformational switching or stabilize receptor structure. To address the role of conserved prolines in family A GPCRs, we focus on bovine rhodopsin, a GPCR in the visual receptor subfamily, using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The free backbone C=O groups on helices H5 and H7 are found to stabilize the inactive rhodopsin structure through hydrogen-bonds to residues on adjacent helices. In response to light-induced isomerization of the retinal chromophore, hydrogen-bonding interactions involving these C=O groups are released facilitating H5 and H7 repacking onto the transmembrane core of the receptor. These results provide insights into the multiple structural and functional roles prolines play in membrane proteins. PMID:27376589

  18. Amino acid sequences of alpha-helical segments from S-carboxymethylkerateine-A. Tryptic and chymotryptic peptides from a type-II segment.

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, D M; Dowling, L M; Crewther, W G

    1978-01-01

    1. Amino acid-sequence studies were done on a peptide of mol.wt. approx. 12500 that was isolated from the highly helical fragments obtained by partial chymotryptic digestion of the low-sulphur proteins (S-carboxymethylkerateine-A) from wool. 2. The peptides obtained by tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of this large peptide were separated by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose at pH8.5 with an (NH4)(2)CO(3) concentration gradient and, where necessary, purified further by paper electrophoresis. 3. Determination of the sequences of many of these peptides showed that a high proportion of the cationic residues occurs in pairs. 4. Although two of the four S-carboxymethylcysteine residues are located in what appears to be a non-helical region near the N-terminus the other two S-carboxymethylcysteine residues occur in or near sequences suggesting a helical conformation. 5. Some peptides were obtained, in low yields, that appeared to be homologues of more major ones. These suggest either homologies in the helical portions of the low-sulphur proteins or the presence of closely related amino acid sequences in helical regions of completely different origins. 6. A partial sequence of the complete peptide is proposed. PMID:581263

  19. Amino acid sequences of alpha-helical segments from S-carbosymethylkerateine-A. Complete sequence of a type-I segment.

    PubMed Central

    Gough, K H; Inglis, A S; Crewther, W G

    1978-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of a type-I helical segment from the low-sulphur protein (S-carboxymethylkerateine-A) of wool was determined by combining automatic and manual-sequencing data. Whereas in the type-II helical segment most of the cationic groups occur in pairs, 11 of the 22 anionic residues in the sequence of the type-I segment were situated next to a second anionic residue. This suggests possible interactions between type-I and type-II helical segments in alpha-keratin. As observed with the sequence of a type-II helical segment a model constructed on 3.6 residues per turn of helix shows a line of hydrophobic residues along the helix, thereby supporting the physicochemical evidence that the molecule is predominantly helical and forms part of a coiled-coil structure. Examination of the sequence data by predictive methods indicates the possibilty of extensive sections of alpha-helix interspersed with discontinuities. The molecule contains a number of regions with peptide sequences identical with those found by other workers after enzymic digestion of fractions from oxidized wool. Images Fig. 1. PMID:697725

  20. Specific interactions between diphenhydramine and alpha-helical poly(glutamic acid)--a new ion-pairing complex for taste masking and pH-controlled diphenhydramine release.

    PubMed

    Agresti, Ciara; Tu, Zhigang; Ng, Charlene; Yang, Yongsheng; Liang, Jun F

    2008-09-01

    Formation of drug/excipient complex through ionic interactions has proven to be very effective for both controlled release and taste masking. Unfortunately, the ionic interactions between drugs and small molecule excipients are usually weak, and the stability of the formed complexes can be greatly influenced by solution ionic strength. In this study, we explored to formulate diphenhydramine (DPH), a very bitter tasting drug, using small molecular weight and carboxyl group containing polymers. Studies showed that DPH interacted with alpha-helical poly(glutamic acid) specifically to produce DPH/poly(glutamic acid) complexes, mostly spherical in shape with a diameter of around 1.0 microm. Other drugs with similar chemical structures as DPH, such as phenylephrine and pseudoephedrine, could not form complexes with poly(glutamic acid) or other polymers under the same conditions. Although DPH in DPH/poly(glutamic acid) complexes existed amorphously, it showed increased stability. In vitro studies using electronic tongue demonstrated that poly(glutamic acid) might be as effective as sucralose for DPH bitter taste blocking. In addition, DPH/poly(glutamic acid) complexes were not stable in neutral or weak acidic (pH>5) environments and dissolved rapidly and completely. Therefore, DPH/poly(glutamic acid) complex may serve as a new formulation for taste masking and controlled DPH release in gastrointestinal tract. This is the first report that small molecule drugs can interact with peptides of specific secondary structures to form stable complexes. In addition to greatly expanded ion-pairing excipient pool, application of peptides in drug formulation may also solve the selectivity and stability problems faced by current small molecule excipients.

  1. External Tank - The Structure Backbone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Kenneth; Pilet, Jeffrey C.; Diecidue-Conners, Dawn; Worden, Michelle; Guillot, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The External Tank forms the structural backbone of the Space Shuttle in the launch configuration. Because the tank flies to orbital velocity with the Space Shuttle Orbiter, minimization of weight is mandatory, to maximize payload performance. Choice of lightweight materials both for structure and thermal conditioning was necessary. The tank is large, and unique manufacturing facilities, tooling, handling, and transportation operations were required. Weld processes and tooling evolved with the design as it matured through several block changes, to reduce weight. Non Destructive Evaluation methods were used to assure integrity of welds and thermal protection system materials. The aluminum-lithium alloy was used near the end of the program and weld processes and weld repair techniques had to be refined. Development and implementation of friction stir welding was a substantial technology development incorporated during the Program. Automated thermal protection system application processes were developed for the majority of the tank surface. Material obsolescence was an issue throughout the 40 year program. The final configuration and tank weight enabled international space station assembly in a high inclination orbit allowing international cooperation with the Russian Federal Space Agency. Numerous process controls were implemented to assure product quality, and innovative proof testing was accomplished prior to delivery. Process controls were implemented to assure cleanliness in the production environment, to control contaminants, and to preclude corrosion. Each tank was accepted via rigorous inspections, including non-destructive evaluation techniques, proof testing, and all systems testing. In the post STS-107 era, the project focused on ascent debris risk reduction. This was accomplished via stringent process controls, post flight assessment using substantially improved imagery, and selective redesigns. These efforts were supported with a number of test programs to

  2. Insights into interactions between the alpha-helical region of the salmon calcitonin antagonists and the human calcitonin receptor using photoaffinity labeling.

    PubMed

    Pham, Vi; Dong, Maoqing; Wade, John D; Miller, Laurence J; Morton, Craig J; Ng, Hooi-Ling; Parker, Michael W; Sexton, Patrick M

    2005-08-05

    Fish-like calcitonins (CTs), such as salmon CT (sCT), are widely used clinically in the treatment of bone-related disorders; however, the molecular basis for CT binding to its receptor, a class II G protein-coupled receptor, is not well defined. In this study we have used photoaffinity labeling to identify proximity sites between CT and its receptor. Two analogues of the antagonist sCT(8-32) containing a single photolabile p-benzoyl-l-phenylalanine (Bpa) residue in position 8 or 19 were used. Both analogues retained high affinity for the CT receptor and potently inhibited agonist-induced cAMP production. The [Bpa(19)]sCT(8-32) analogue cross-linked to the receptor at or near the equivalent cross-linking site of the full-length peptide, within the fragment Cys(134)-Lys(141) (within the amino terminus of the receptor, adjacent to transmembrane 1) (Pham, V., Wade, J. D., Purdue, B. W., and Sexton, P. M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 6720-6729). In contrast, proteolytic mapping and mutational analysis identified Met(49) as the cross-linking site for [Bpa(8)]sCT(8-32). This site differed from the previously identified cross-linking site of the agonist [Bpa(8)]human CT (Dong, M., Pinon, D. I., Cox, R. F., and Miller, L. J. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 31177-31182) and may provide evidence for conformational differences between interaction with active and inactive state receptors. Molecular modeling suggests that the difference in cross-linking between the two Bpa(8) analogues can be accounted for by a relatively small change in peptide orientation. The model was also consistent with cooperative interaction between the receptor amino terminus and the receptor core.

  3. Hydrophobic core packing and backbone flexibility in coiled coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plecs, Joseph John

    1999-11-01

    An understanding of the structure and function of protein molecules requires an understanding of how their hydrophobic cores are assembled, including how the peptide backbone can adjust to accommodate different packing arrangements. Using coiled-coil molecules as a model of protein structures, we studied several cases in which the arrangement of packing groups in the hydrophobic core controls the structure of a folded molecule. First, we consider an example of a prosthetic packing group, where the addition of a hydrophobic ligand permits a new packing arrangement that incorporates the ligand, leading to a new overall structure. Second, the crystal structures of two peptides designed to adopt a novel fold, the right-handed coiled coils, reveal how a small change in core packing can discriminate between two different folds. And last, the design of heterodimers based on core-packing complementarity establishes that core packing can convey specificity of association between different molecules, as well as determining the molecular structure. The heterodimer designs also demonstrate the importance of a combination of backbone freedom and restriction in predicting the energetics of folded molecules. In this case, a parametrized coiled- coil backbone with appropriate parameters and restrictions was required to predict stabilities. We conclude that core packing can exert a great deal of control over the structure of proteins, and that many of its effects can be accurately predicted by modeling the molecular interactions in the context of a flexible overall structure.

  4. Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment How important is it? What can be done? North American Spine Society Public Education Series ... flow comes to the area to help repair injury. Your ability to function in your daily activities ...

  5. Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment How important is it? What can be done? North American Spine Society ... you should see your physician before starting any exercises. The Importance of Exercise for the Neck Spine ...

  6. Design of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with Amino-bis-tetrahydrofuran Derivatives as P2-Ligands to Enhance Backbone-Binding Interactions. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Protein-Ligand X-ray Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Martyr, Cuthbert D.; Osswald, Heather L.; Sheri, Venkat Reddy; Kassekert, Luke A.; Chen, Shujing; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Hayashi, Hironori; Aoki, Manabu; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2015-10-30

    Structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of very potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors are described. In an effort to improve backbone ligand–binding site interactions, we have incorporated basic-amines at the C4 position of the bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) ring. We speculated that these substituents would make hydrogen bonding interactions in the flap region of HIV-1 protease. Synthesis of these inhibitors was performed diastereoselectively. A number of inhibitors displayed very potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity. Inhibitors 25f, 25i, and 25j were evaluated against a number of highly-PI-resistant HIV-1 strains, and they exhibited improved antiviral activity over darunavir. Two high resolution X-ray structures of 25f- and 25g-bound HIV-1 protease revealed unique hydrogen bonding interactions with the backbone carbonyl group of Gly48 as well as with the backbone NH of Gly48 in the flap region of the enzyme active site. These ligand–binding site interactions are possibly responsible for their potent activity.

  7. Side-chain and backbone ordering in homopolymers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanjie; Nadler, Walter; Hansmann, Ulrich H E

    2007-04-26

    In order to study the relation between backbone and side-chain ordering in proteins, we have performed multicanonical simulations of deka-peptide chains with various side groups. Glu(10), Gln(10), Asp(10), Asn(10), and Lys(10) were selected to cover a wide variety of possible interactions between the side chains of the monomers. All homopolymers undergo helix-coil transitions. We found that peptides with long side chains that are capable of hydrogen bonding, i.e., Glu(10), and Gln(10), exhibit a second transition at lower temperatures connected with side-chain ordering. This occurs in the gas phase as well as in solvent, although the character of the side-chain structure is different in each case. However, in polymers with short side chains capable of hydrogen bonding, i.e., Asp(10) and Asn(10), side-chain ordering takes place over a wide temperature range and exhibits no phase transition-like character. Moreover, non-backbone hydrogen bonds show enhanced formation and fluctuations already at the helix-coil transition temperature, indicating competition between side-chain and backbone hydrogen bond formation. Again, these results are qualitatively independent of the environment. Side-chain ordering in Lys(10), whose side groups are long and polar, also takes place over a wide temperature range and exhibits no phase transition-like character in both environments. Reasons for the observed chain length threshold and consequences from these results for protein folding are discussed.

  8. Ice-binding structure and mechanism of an antifreeze protein from winter flounder.

    PubMed

    Sicheri, F; Yang, D S

    1995-06-01

    Antifreeze proteins provide fish with protection against the freezing effect of polar environments by binding to ice surfaces and inhibiting growth of ice crystals. We present the X-ray crystal structure at 1.5 A resolution of a lone alpha-helical antifreeze protein from winter flounder, which provides a detailed look at its ice-binding features. These consist of four repeated ice-binding motifs, the side chains of which are inherently rigid or restrained by pair-wise side-chain interactions to form a flat binding surface. Elaborate amino- and carboxy-terminal cap structures are also present, which explain the protein's rich alpha-helical content in solution. We propose an ice-binding model that accounts for the binding specificity of the antifreeze protein along the <0112> axes of the (2021) ice planes.

  9. Extended weak bonding interactions in DNA: pi-stacking (base-base), base-backbone, and backbone-backbone interactions.

    PubMed

    Matta, Chérif F; Castillo, Norberto; Boyd, Russell J

    2006-01-12

    We report on several weak interactions in nucleic acids, which, collectively, can make a nonnegligible contribution to the structure and stability of these molecules. Fragments of DNA were obtained from previously determined accurate experimental geometries and their electron density distributions calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The electron densities were analyzed topologically according to the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (AIM). A web of closed-shell bonding interactions is shown to connect neighboring base pairs in base-pair duplexes and in dinuleotide steps. This bonding underlies the well-known pi-stacking interaction between adjacent nucleic acid bases and is characterized topologically for the first time. Two less widely appreciated modes of weak closed-shell interactions in nucleic acids are also described: (i) interactions between atoms in the bases and atoms belonging to the backbone (base-backbone) and (ii) interactions among atoms within the backbone itself (backbone-backbone). These interactions include hydrogen bonding, dihydrogen bonding, hydrogen-hydrogen bonding, and several other weak closed-shell X-Y interactions (X, Y = O, N, C). While each individual interaction is very weak and typically accompanied by perhaps 0.5-3 kcal/mol, the sum total of these interactions is postulated to play a role in stabilizing the structure of nucleic acids. The Watson-and-Crick hydrogen bonding is also characterized in detail at the experimental geometries as a prelude to the discussion of the modes of interactions listed in the title.

  10. Kinetic role of helix caps in protein folding is context-dependent.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Gregory T; Richardson, Jane S; Oas, Terrence G

    2004-04-06

    Secondary structure punctuation through specific backbone and side chain interactions at the beginning and end of alpha-helices has been proposed to play a key role in hierarchical protein folding mechanisms [Baldwin, R. L., and Rose, G. D. (1999) Trends Biochem. Sci. 24, 26-33; Presta, L. G., and Rose, G. D. (1988) Science 240, 1632-1641]. We have made site-specific substitutions in the N- and C-cap motifs of the 5-helix protein monomeric lambda repressor (lambda(6-85)) and have measured the rate constants for folding and unfolding of each variant. The consequences of C-cap changes are strongly context-dependent. When the C-cap was located at the chain terminus, changes had little energetic and no kinetic effect. However, substitutions in a C-cap at the boundary between helix 4 and the subsequent interhelical loop resulted in large changes to the stability and rate constants of the variant, showing a substantial kinetic role for this interior C-cap and suggesting a general kinetic role for interior helix C-caps. Statistical preferences tabulated separately for internal and terminal C-caps also show only weak residue preferences in terminal C-caps. This kinetic distinction between interior and terminal C-caps can explain the discrepancy between the near-absence of stability and kinetic effects seen for C-caps of isolated peptides versus the very strong C-cap effects seen for proteins in statistical sequence preferences and mutational energetics. Introduction of consensus, in-register N-capping motifs resulted in increased stability, accelerated folding, and slower unfolding. The kinetic measurements indicate that some of the new native-state capping interactions remain unformed in the transition state. The accelerated folding rates could result from helix stabilization without invoking a specific role for N-caps in the folding reaction.

  11. Backbone dynamics of a model membrane protein: measurement of individual amide hydrogen-exchange rates in detergent-solubilized M13 coat protein using /sup 13/C NMR hydrogen/deuterium isotope shifts

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, G.D.; Weiner, J.H.; Sykes, B.D.

    1987-06-16

    Hydrogen-exchange rates have been measured for individual assigned amide protons in M13 coat protein, a 50-residue integral membrane protein, using a /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) equilibrium isotope shift technique. The locations of the more rapidly exchanging amides have been determined. In D/sub 2/O solutions, a peptide carbonyl resonance undergoes a small upfield isotope shift (0.08-0.09 ppm) from its position in H/sub 2/O solutions; in 1:1 H/sub 2/O/D/sub 2/O mixtures, the carbonyl line shape is determined by the exchange rate at the adjacent nitrogen atom. M13 coat protein was labeled biosynthetically with /sup 13/C at the peptide carbonyls of alanine, glycine, phenylalanine, proline, and lysine, and the exchange rates of 12 assigned amide protons in the hydrophilic regions were measured as a function of pH by using the isotope shift method. This equilibrium technique is sensitive to the more rapidly exchanging protons which are difficult to measure by classical exchange-out experiments. In proteins, structural factors, notably H bonding, can decrease the exchange rate of an amide proton by many orders of magnitude from that observed in the freely exposed amides of model peptides such as poly(DL-alanine). With corrections for sequence-related inductive effects, the retardation of amide exchange in sodium dodecyl sulfate solubilized coat protein has been calculated with respect to poly(DL-alanine). The most rapidly exchanging protons, which are retarded very little or not at all, are shown to occur at the N- and C-termini of the molecule. A model of the detergent-solubilized coat protein is constructed from these H-exchange data which is consistent with circular dichroism and other NMR results.

  12. Understanding traffic dynamics at a backbone POP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taft, Nina; Bhattacharyya, Supratik; Jetcheva, Jorjeta; Diot, Christophe

    2001-07-01

    Spatial and temporal information about traffic dynamics is central to the design of effective traffic engineering practices for IP backbones. In this paper we study backbone traffic dynamics using data collected at a major POP on a tier-1 IP backbone. We develop a methodology that combines packet-level traces from access links in the POP and BGP routing information to build components of POP-to-POP traffic matrices. Our results show that there is wide disparity in the volume of traffic headed towards different egress POPs. At the same time, we find that current routing practices in the backbone tend to constrain traffic between ingress-egress POP pairs to a small number of paths. As a result, there is a wide variation in the utilization level of links in the backbone. Frequent capacity upgrades of the heavily used links are expensive; the need for such upgrades can be reduced by designing load balancing policies that will route more traffic over less utilized links. We identify traffic aggregates based on destination address prefixes and find that this set of criteria isolates a few aggregates that account for an overwhelmingly large portion of inter-POP traffic. We also demonstrate that these aggregates exhibit stability throughout the day on per-hour time scales, and thus they form a natural basis for splitting traffic over multiple paths in order to improve load balancing.

  13. A periodic table of coiled-coil protein structures.

    PubMed

    Moutevelis, Efrosini; Woolfson, Derek N

    2009-01-23

    Coiled coils are protein structure domains with two or more alpha-helices packed together via interlacing of side chains known as knob-into-hole packing. We analysed and classified a large set of coiled-coil structures using a combination of automated and manual methods. This led to a systematic classification that we termed a "periodic table of coiled coils," which we have made available at http://coiledcoils.chm.bris.ac.uk/ccplus/search/periodic_table. In this table, coiled-coil assemblies are arranged in columns with increasing numbers of alpha-helices and in rows of increased complexity. The table provides a framework for understanding possibilities in and limits on coiled-coil structures and a basis for future prediction, engineering and design studies.

  14. Statistical Analysis of RNA Backbone

    PubMed Central

    Hershkovitz, Eli; Sapiro, Guillermo; Tannenbaum, Allen; Williams, Loren Dean

    2009-01-01

    Local conformation is an important determinant of RNA catalysis and binding. The analysis of RNA conformation is particularly difficult due to the large number of degrees of freedom (torsion angles) per residue. Proteins, by comparison, have many fewer degrees of freedom per residue. In this work, we use and extend classical tools from statistics and signal processing to search for clusters in RNA conformational space. Results are reported both for scalar analysis, where each torsion angle is separately studied, and for vectorial analysis, where several angles are simultaneously clustered. Adapting techniques from vector quantization and clustering to the RNA structure, we find torsion angle clusters and RNA conformational motifs. We validate the technique using well-known conformational motifs, showing that the simultaneous study of the total torsion angle space leads to results consistent with known motifs reported in the literature and also to the finding of new ones. PMID:17048391

  15. An exhaustive survey of regular peptide conformations using a new metric for backbone handedness (h)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The Ramachandran plot is important to structural biology as it describes a peptide backbone in the context of its dominant degrees of freedom—the backbone dihedral angles φ and ψ (Ramachandran, Ramakrishnan & Sasisekharan, 1963). Since its introduction, the Ramachandran plot has been a crucial tool to characterize protein backbone features. However, the conformation or twist of a backbone as a function of φ and ψ has not been completely described for both cis and trans backbones. Additionally, little intuitive understanding is available about a peptide’s conformation simply from knowing the φ and ψ values of a peptide (e.g., is the regular peptide defined by φ = ψ =  − 100°  left-handed or right-handed?). This report provides a new metric for backbone handedness (h) based on interpreting a peptide backbone as a helix with axial displacement d and angular displacement θ, both of which are derived from a peptide backbone’s internal coordinates, especially dihedral angles φ, ψ and ω. In particular, h equals sin(θ)d∕|d|, with range [−1, 1] and negative (or positive) values indicating left(or right)-handedness. The metric h is used to characterize the handedness of every region of the Ramachandran plot for both cis (ω = 0°) and trans (ω = 180°) backbones, which provides the first exhaustive survey of twist handedness in Ramachandran (φ, ψ) space. These maps fill in the ‘dead space’ within the Ramachandran plot, which are regions that are not commonly accessed by structured proteins, but which may be accessible to intrinsically disordered proteins, short peptide fragments, and protein mimics such as peptoids. Finally, building on the work of (Zacharias & Knapp, 2013), this report presents a new plot based on d and θ that serves as a universal and intuitive alternative to the Ramachandran plot. The universality arises from the fact that the co-inhabitants of such a plot include every possible peptide backbone including cis

  16. Structures of yeast vesicle trafficking proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Tishgarten, T.; Yin, F. F.; Faucher, K. M.; Dluhy, R. A.; Grant, T. R.; Fischer von Mollard, G.; Stevens, T. H.; Lipscomb, L. A.

    1999-01-01

    In protein transport between organelles, interactions of v- and t-SNARE proteins are required for fusion of protein-containing vesicles with appropriate target compartments. Mammalian SNARE proteins have been observed to interact with NSF and SNAP, and yeast SNAREs with yeast homologues of NSF and SNAP proteins. This observation led to the hypothesis that, despite low sequence homology, SNARE proteins are structurally similar among eukaryotes. SNARE proteins can be classified into two groups depending on whether they interact with SNARE binding partners via conserved glutamine (Q-SNAREs) or arginine (R-SNAREs). Much of the published structural data available is for SNAREs involved in exocytosis (either in yeast or synaptic vesicles). This paper describes circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering data for a set of yeast v- and t-SNARE proteins, Vti1p and Pep12p, that are Q-SNAREs involved in intracellular trafficking. Our results suggest that the secondary structure of Vti1p is highly alpha-helical and that Vti1p forms multimers under a variety of solution conditions. In these respects, Vti1p appears to be distinct from R-SNARE proteins characterized previously. The alpha-helicity of Vti1p is similar to that of Q-SNARE proteins characterized previously. Pep12p, a Q-SNARE, is highly alpha-helical. It is distinct from other Q-SNAREs in that it forms dimers under many of the solution conditions tested in our experiments. The results presented in this paper are among the first to suggest heterogeneity in the functioning of SNARE complexes. PMID:10595551

  17. Identification of membrane proteins by tandem mass spectrometry of protein ions.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Joe; Altman, Matthew C; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2007-09-04

    The most common way of identifying proteins in proteomic analyses is to use short segments of sequence ("tags") determined by mass spectrometric analysis of proteolytic fragments. The approach is effective with globular proteins and with membrane proteins with significant polar segments between membrane-spanning alpha-helices, but it is ineffective with other hydrophobic proteins where protease cleavage sites are either infrequent or absent. By developing methods to purify hydrophobic proteins in organic solvents and by fragmenting ions of these proteins by collision induced dissociation with argon, we have shown that partial sequences of many membrane proteins can be deduced easily by manual inspection. The spectra from small proteolipids (1-4 transmembrane alpha-helices) are dominated usually by fragment ions arising from internal amide cleavages, from which internal sequences can be obtained, whereas the spectra from larger membrane proteins (5-18 transmembrane alpha-helices) often contain fragment ions from N- and/or C-terminal parts yielding sequences in those regions. With these techniques, we have, for example, identified an abundant protein of unknown function from inner membranes of mitochondria that to our knowledge has escaped detection in proteomic studies, and we have produced sequences from 10 of 13 proteins encoded in mitochondrial DNA. They include the ND6 subunit of complex I, the last of its 45 subunits to be analyzed. The procedures have the potential to be developed further, for example by using newly introduced methods for protein ion dissociation to induce fragmentation of internal regions of large membrane proteins, which may remain partially folded in the gas phase.

  18. AbDesign: an algorithm for combinatorial backbone design guided by natural conformations and sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lapidoth, Gideon D.; Baran, Dror; Pszolla, Gabriele M.; Norn, Christoffer; Alon, Assaf; Tyka, Michael D.; Fleishman, Sarel J.

    2016-01-01

    Computational design of protein function has made substantial progress, generating new enzymes, binders, inhibitors, and nanomaterials not previously seen in nature. However, the ability to design new protein backbones for function – essential to exert control over all polypeptide degrees of freedom – remains a critical challenge. Most previous attempts to design new backbones computed the mainchain from scratch. Here, instead, we describe a combinatorial backbone and sequence optimization algorithm called AbDesign, which leverages the large number of sequences and experimentally determined molecular structures of antibodies to construct new antibody models, dock them against target surfaces and optimize their sequence and backbone conformation for high stability and binding affinity. We used the algorithm to produce antibody designs that target the same molecular surfaces as nine natural, high-affinity antibodies; in six the backbone conformation at the core of the antibody binding surface is similar to the natural antibody targets, and in several cases sequence and sidechain conformations recapitulate those seen in the natural antibodies. In the case of an anti-lysozyme antibody, designed antibody CDRs at the periphery of the interface, such as L1 and H2, show a greater backbone conformation diversity than the CDRs at the core of the interface, and increase the binding surface area compared to the natural antibody, which could enhance affinity and specificity. PMID:25670500

  19. ExScal Backbone Network Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    802.11 battery powered nodes was laid over the sensor network. We adopted the Stargate platform for the backbone tier to serve as the basis for...its head. XSS Hardware and Network: XSS stands for eXtreme Scaling Stargate . A stargate is a linux-based single board computer. It has a 400 MHz

  20. Fourier transform infared spectroscopy investigation of protein conformation in spray-dried protein/trehalose powders.

    PubMed

    French, Donna L; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Li, Tiansheng

    2004-03-01

    Spray drying is a way to generate protein solids (powders), which is also true for lyophilization. Sugars are used to protect proteins from conformational changes and chemical degradations arising from drying processes and storage conditions such as the humidity. The influence of trehalose and humidity on the conformation and hydration of spray-dried recombinant human granolucyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) and recombinant consensus interferon-alpha (rConIFN) was investigated using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. The spectral analysis of spray-dried powders in the amide I region demonstrated that trehalose stabilized the alpha-helical conformation of both rhG-CSF and rConIFN proteins. Exposure of the pure protein powders to 33% relative humidity (RH) resulted in the formation of beta sheets and loss of turns but no change in alpha-helical structure. Trehalose reduced the magnitude of the changes in beta sheets and turns. Exposure of the pure protein powders to 75% RH resulted in the loss of alpha-helical conformation with a corresponding increase in beta structures (beta sheets and turns). Trehalose did not protect proteins from the loss of alpha-helical structures, but it reduced the formation of antiparallel beta sheets. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (H-D exchange) was used to further characterize these hydration-induced conformational changes. At 33% RH the percent exchange of the protein decreased with increasing trehalose content, indicating a greater protection of the protein from H-D exchange by a higher concentration of trehalose. Such protection correlates with decreased conformational changes of the protein by trehalose at this humidity. At 75% RH the degree of H-D exchange of the protein was insensitive to the powder composition in all powders. Surprisingly, the H-D exchange of trehalose was low at about 20-25%, which was nearly independent of the protein/trehalose ratio and humidity, indicating that the exchangeable protons on trehalose

  1. Solution structure of human insulin-like growth factor II. Relationship to receptor and binding protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Torres, A M; Forbes, B E; Aplin, S E; Wallace, J C; Francis, G L; Norton, R S

    1995-04-28

    The three-dimensional structure of human insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II in aqueous solution at pH 3.1 and 300 K has been determined from nuclear magnetic resonance data and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. Structural constraints consisting of 502 NOE-derived distance constraints, 11 dihedral angle restraints, and three disulfide bridges were used as input for distance geometry calculations in DIANA and X-PLOR, followed by simulated annealing refinement and energy minimization in X-PLOR. The resulting family of 20 structures was well defined in the regions of residues 5 to 28 and 41 to 62, with an average pairwise root-mean-square deviation of 1.24 A for the backbone heavy-atoms (N, C2, C) and 1.90 A for all heavy atoms. The poorly defined regions consist of the N and C termini, part of the B-domain, and the C-domain loop. Resonances from these regions of the protein gave stronger cross peaks in two dimensional NMR spectra, consistent with significant motional averaging. The main secondary structure elements in IGF-II are alpha-helices encompassing residues 11 to 21, 42 to 49 and 53 to 59. A small anti-parallel beta-sheet is formed by residues 59 to 61 and 25 to 27, while residues 26 to 28 appear to participate in intermolecular beta-sheet formation. The structure of IGF-II in the well-defined regions is very similar to those of the corresponding regions of insulin and IGF-I. Significant differences between IGF-II and IGF-I occur near the start of the third helix, in a region known to modulate affinity for the type 2 IGF receptor, and at the C terminus. The IGF II structure is discussed in relation to its binding sites for the insulin and IGF receptors and the IGF binding proteins.

  2. Constructing backbone network by using tinker algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhiwei; Zhan, Meng; Wang, Jianxiong; Yao, Chenggui

    2017-01-01

    Revealing how a biological network is organized to realize its function is one of the main topics in systems biology. The functional backbone network, defined as the primary structure of the biological network, is of great importance in maintaining the main function of the biological network. We propose a new algorithm, the tinker algorithm, to determine this core structure and apply it in the cell-cycle system. With this algorithm, the backbone network of the cell-cycle network can be determined accurately and efficiently in various models such as the Boolean model, stochastic model, and ordinary differential equation model. Results show that our algorithm is more efficient than that used in the previous research. We hope this method can be put into practical use in relevant future studies.

  3. ANSS Backbone Station Installation and Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meremonte, M.; Leeds, A.; Overturf, D.; McMillian, J.; Allen, J.; McNamara, D.

    2004-12-01

    During 2004 several new broadband seismic stations have been deployed as a part of the USGS's Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) backbone and regional networks. New stations include: ERPA, MNTX, OGLA, AMTX, NATX, KCCO, BMO, MARC, TZTN, LAO, DGMT, REDW, KSU1, MOOW, TPAW, LOHW, RAMW. Permanent station locations were chosen to minimize the local noise conditions by recording continuous data and using a quantitative analysis of the statistical distribution of noise power estimates. For each one-hour segment of continuous data, a power spectral density (PSD) is estimated and smoothed in full octave averages at 1/8 octave intervals. Powers for each 1/8 period interval were then accumulated in one dB power bins. A statistical analysis of power bins yields probability density functions (PDFs) as a function of noise power for each of the octave bands at each station and component. Examination of earthquake signal, artifacts related to station operation and episodic cultural noise in the PDFs allow us to estimate both the overall station quality and the level of earth noise at each potential backbone site. The main function of a seismic network, such as the ANSS, is to provide high quality data for earthquake monitoring, source studies, and Earth structure research. The utility of seismic data is greatly increased when noise levels are reduced. A good quantification and understanding of seismic noise is a first step at reducing noise levels in seismic data and improving overall data quality from the ANSS backbone network.

  4. Local NH-π interactions involving aromatic residues of proteins: influence of backbone conformation and ππ* excitation on the π H-bond strength, as revealed from studies of isolated model peptides.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon Yong; Brenner, Valérie; Gloaguen, Eric; Mons, Michel

    2016-11-02

    Conformer-selective IR gas phase spectroscopy and high level quantum chemistry methods have been used to characterise the diversity of local NH-π interactions between the π ring of a phenylalanine aromatic residue and the nearby main chain amide groups. The study of model systems shows how the amide NH stretch vibrational features, in the 3410-3460 cm(-1) frequency range, can be used to monitor the strength of these local π H-bonds, which is found to depend on both the backbone conformation and the aromatic side chain orientation. This is rationalized in terms of partial electron transfer between the π cloud and the main chain NH bonds, with the help of analysis tools based on Natural Bonding Orbitals and Non-Covalent Interactions plots. The experimental study, extended to the NH-π interactions when the Phe residue is excited in its first ππ* electronic state, also demonstrates the principle of the ππ* labelling technique, i.e. a selective labelling of those NH bonds in a peptide molecule that are in close contact with an aromatic ring, as an elegant tool for IR spectroscopic assignments. The validation of theoretical predictions against experimental data (frequency change upon excitation) eventually qualifies the use of the CC2 method for the description of the ππ* excited states of systems having a phenyl ring, both in terms of structure, vibrational modes and nature of excited states.

  5. An exhaustive survey of regular peptide conformations using a new metric for backbone handedness ( h )

    DOE PAGES

    Mannige, Ranjan V.

    2017-05-16

    The Ramachandran plot is important to structural biology as it describes a peptide backbone in the context of its dominant degrees of freedom—the backbone dihedral anglesφandψ(Ramachandran, Ramakrishnan & Sasisekharan, 1963). Since its introduction, the Ramachandran plot has been a crucial tool to characterize protein backbone features. However, the conformation or twist of a backbone as a function ofφandψhas not been completely described for bothcisandtransbackbones. Additionally, little intuitive understanding is available about a peptide’s conformation simply from knowing theφandψvalues of a peptide (e.g., is the regular peptide defined byφ = ψ =  - 100°  left-handed or right-handed?). This report provides a new metric for backbone handednessmore » (h) based on interpreting a peptide backbone as a helix with axial displacementdand angular displacementθ, both of which are derived from a peptide backbone’s internal coordinates, especially dihedral anglesφ,ψandω. In particular,hequals sin(θ)d/d|, with range [-1, 1] and negative (or positive) values indicating left(or right)-handedness. The metrichis used to characterize the handedness of every region of the Ramachandran plot for bothcis(ω = 0°) and trans (ω = 180°) backbones, which provides the first exhaustive survey of twist handedness in Ramachandran (φ,ψ) space. These maps fill in the ‘dead space’ within the Ramachandran plot, which are regions that are not commonly accessed by structured proteins, but which may be accessible to intrinsically disordered proteins, short peptide fragments, and protein mimics such as peptoids. Finally, building on the work of (Zacharias & Knapp, 2013), this report presents a new plot based ondandθthat serves as a universal and intuitive alternative to the Ramachandran plot. The universality arises from the fact that the co-inhabitants of such a plot include every possible peptide backbone includingcisandtransbackbones. The intuitiveness

  6. Computational prediction of atomic structures of helical membrane proteins aided by EM maps.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Julio A; Yeager, Mark; Abagyan, Ruben

    2007-09-15

    Integral membrane proteins pose a major challenge for protein-structure prediction because only approximately 100 high-resolution structures are available currently, thereby impeding the development of rules or empirical potentials to predict the packing of transmembrane alpha-helices. However, when an intermediate-resolution electron microscopy (EM) map is available, it can be used to provide restraints which, in combination with a suitable computational protocol, make structure prediction feasible. In this work we present such a protocol, which proceeds in three stages: 1), generation of an ensemble of alpha-helices by flexible fitting into each of the density rods in the low-resolution EM map, spanning a range of rotational angles around the main helical axes and translational shifts along the density rods; 2), fast optimization of side chains and scoring of the resulting conformations; and 3), refinement of the lowest-scoring conformations with internal coordinate mechanics, by optimizing the van der Waals, electrostatics, hydrogen bonding, torsional, and solvation energy contributions. In addition, our method implements a penalty term through a so-called tethering map, derived from the EM map, which restrains the positions of the alpha-helices. The protocol was validated on three test cases: GpA, KcsA, and MscL.

  7. Automated extraction of backbone deuteration levels from amide H/2H mass spectrometry experiments

    PubMed Central

    Hotchko, Matthew; Anand, Ganesh S.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Ten Eyck, Lynn F.

    2006-01-01

    A Fourier deconvolution method has been developed to explicitly determine the amount of backbone amide deuterium incorporated into protein regions or segments by hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Determination and analysis of the level and number of backbone amide exchanging in solution provide more information about the solvent accessibility of the protein than do previous centroid methods, which only calculate the average deuterons exchanged. After exchange, a protein is digested into peptides as a way of determining the exchange within a local area of the protein. The mass of a peptide upon deuteration is a sum of the natural isotope abundance, fast exchanging side-chain hydrogens (present in MALDI-TOF H/2H data) and backbone amide exchange. Removal of the components of the isotopic distribution due to the natural isotope abundances and the fast exchanging side-chains allows for a precise quantification of the levels of backbone amide exchange, as is shown by an example from protein kinase A. The deconvoluted results are affected by overlapping peptides or inconsistent mass envelopes, and evaluation procedures for these cases are discussed. Finally, a method for determining the back exchange corrected populations is presented, and its effect on the data is discussed under various circumstances. PMID:16501228

  8. Structures of segments of [alpha]-synuclein fused to maltose-binding protein suggest intermediate states during amyloid formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Minglei; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberg, David

    2011-08-29

    Aggregates of the protein {alpha}-synuclein are the main component of Lewy bodies, the hallmark of Parkinson's disease. {alpha}-Synuclein aggregates are also found in many human neurodegenerative diseases known as synucleinopathies. In vivo, {alpha}-synuclein associates with membranes and adopts {alpha}-helical conformations. The details of how {alpha}-synuclein converts from the functional native state to amyloid aggregates remain unknown. In this study, we use maltose-binding protein (MBP) as a carrier to crystallize segments of {alpha}-synuclein. From crystal structures of fusions between MBP and four segments of {alpha}-synuclein, we have been able to trace a virtual model of the first 72 residues of {alpha}-synuclein. Instead of a mostly {alpha}-helical conformation observed in the lipid environment, our crystal structures show {alpha}-helices only at residues 1-13 and 20-34. The remaining segments are extended loops or coils. All of the predicted fiber-forming segments based on the 3D profile method are in extended conformations. We further show that the MBP fusion proteins with fiber-forming segments from {alpha}-synuclein can also form fiber-like nano-crystals or amyloid-like fibrils. Our structures suggest intermediate states during amyloid formation of {alpha}-synuclein.

  9. Telephone wire is backbone of security system

    SciTech Connect

    Brede, K.; Rackson, L.T.

    1995-09-01

    Video provides a variety of low-cost, high-quality solutions in today`s security environment. Cost-conscious managers of power generation stations, casinos, prison facilities, military bases and office buildings are considering using regular telephone wire (unshielded twisted pair-UTP) within their existing systems as the backbone of a video to the PC, personal and video-conferencing and training are other areas where phone wire in a building can save money and provide an alternative to coax or fiber for video. More and more, businesses and government agencies are meeting their needs efficiently by using telephone wires for more than just telephones.

  10. An algorithm for automatically generating protein topology cartoons.

    PubMed

    Flores, T P; Moss, D S; Thornton, J M

    1994-01-01

    An algorithm is described for automatically generating protein topology cartoons. This algorithm optimally places circles and triangles depicting alpha-helices and beta-strands respectively giving a pictorial topological summary of any protein structure. beta-Sheets, sandwiches and barrels are automatically identified and represented using special templates. The output from this algorithm may be controlled by adjustment of variable weights during the optimization step giving a preferred result. The rules for generating protein toplogy cartoons, including consideration of the handedness of local structure motifs, are discussed. The design of this algorithm is completely general and is easily adapted to include further rules that dictate the generation of the cartoons.

  11. Advanced routing in interplanetary backbone network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ge; Sheng, Min; Wu, Chengke

    2007-11-01

    Interplanetary (IPN) Internet is a communication infrastructure providing communication services for scientific data delivery and navigation services for the explorer spacecrafts and orbiters of the future deep space missions. The interplanetary backbone network has the unique characteristics hence routing through the backbone network present many challenges that are not presented in traditional networks. Some routing algorithms have been proposed, in which, LPDB integrates the shortest path algorithm and the directional broadcast method to guarantee fast and reliable message delivery. Through this mutipath routing strategy, unpredictable link failures is addressed, but additional network overhead is introduced. In this paper, we propose an improvement of the LPDB named ALPDB in which the source could adaptively decide the next-hop nodes according to the link condition, hence reduce the network overhead. We model this algorithm on the network simulation platform of OPNET and compare it with other applicable algorithms in data passing ratio, data delay and network overhead. The result indicates that the ALPDB algorithm could not only guarantee reliable message delivery, but also decrease the cost significantly.

  12. Peptide-functionalized semiconductor surfaces: strong surface electronic effects from minor alterations to backbone composition.

    PubMed

    Matmor, Maayan; Lengyel, George A; Horne, W Seth; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2017-02-22

    The use of non-canonical amino acids is a powerful way to control protein structure. Here, we show that subtle changes to backbone composition affect the ability of a dipeptide to modify solid surface electronic properties. The extreme sensitivity of the interactions to the peptide structure suggests potential applications in improving the performance of electronic devices.

  13. Secondary-structure characterization by far-UV CD of highly purified uncoupling protein 1 expressed in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Douette, Pierre; Navet, Rachel; Bouillenne, Fabrice; Brans, Alain; Sluse-Goffart, Claudine; Matagne, André; Sluse, Francis E

    2004-01-01

    The rat UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) is a mitochondrial inner-membrane carrier involved in energy dissipation and heat production. We expressed UCP1 carrying a His6 epitope at its C-terminus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria. The recombinant-tagged UCP1 was purified by immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography to homogeneity (>95%). This made it suitable for subsequent biophysical characterization. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments showed that n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside-solubilized UCP1-His6 retained its PN (purine nucleotide)-binding capacity. The far-UV CD spectrum of the functional protein clearly indicated the predominance of alpha-helices in the UCP1 secondary structure. The UCP1 secondary structure exhibited an alpha-helical degree of approx. 68%, which is at least 25% higher than the previously reported estimations based on computational predictions. Moreover, the helical content remained unchanged in free and PN-loaded UCP1. A homology model of the first repeat of UCP1, built on the basis of X-ray-solved close parent, the ADP/ATP carrier, strengthened the CD experimental results. Our experimental and computational results indicate that (i) alpha-helices are the major component of UCP1 secondary structure; (ii) PN-binding mechanism does not involve significant secondary-structure rearrangement; and (iii) UCP1 shares similar secondary-structure characteristics with the ADP/ATP carrier, at least for the first repeat. PMID:14766012

  14. Secondary Structure Switch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2006-01-01

    Neurogenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease involve a transformation between two peptide and protein structures of alpha-helices and beta-sheets, where the peptide backbone can also participate in metal ion binding in addition to histidine residues. However, the complete absence of change in conformation of Coiled…

  15. Secondary Structure Switch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2006-01-01

    Neurogenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease involve a transformation between two peptide and protein structures of alpha-helices and beta-sheets, where the peptide backbone can also participate in metal ion binding in addition to histidine residues. However, the complete absence of change in conformation of Coiled…

  16. AbDesign: An algorithm for combinatorial backbone design guided by natural conformations and sequences.

    PubMed

    Lapidoth, Gideon D; Baran, Dror; Pszolla, Gabriele M; Norn, Christoffer; Alon, Assaf; Tyka, Michael D; Fleishman, Sarel J

    2015-08-01

    Computational design of protein function has made substantial progress, generating new enzymes, binders, inhibitors, and nanomaterials not previously seen in nature. However, the ability to design new protein backbones for function--essential to exert control over all polypeptide degrees of freedom--remains a critical challenge. Most previous attempts to design new backbones computed the mainchain from scratch. Here, instead, we describe a combinatorial backbone and sequence optimization algorithm called AbDesign, which leverages the large number of sequences and experimentally determined molecular structures of antibodies to construct new antibody models, dock them against target surfaces and optimize their sequence and backbone conformation for high stability and binding affinity. We used the algorithm to produce antibody designs that target the same molecular surfaces as nine natural, high-affinity antibodies; in five cases interface sequence identity is above 30%, and in four of those the backbone conformation at the core of the antibody binding surface is within 1 Å root-mean square deviation from the natural antibodies. Designs recapitulate polar interaction networks observed in natural complexes, and amino acid sidechain rigidity at the designed binding surface, which is likely important for affinity and specificity, is high compared to previous design studies. In designed anti-lysozyme antibodies, complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) at the periphery of the interface, such as L1 and H2, show greater backbone conformation diversity than the CDRs at the core of the interface, and increase the binding surface area compared to the natural antibody, potentially enhancing affinity and specificity.

  17. NMR study of non-structural proteins--part I: (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of macro domain from Mayaro virus (MAYV).

    PubMed

    Melekis, Efstathios; Tsika, Aikaterini C; Lichière, Julie; Chasapis, Christos T; Margiolaki, Irene; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Coutard, Bruno; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-04-01

    Macro domains are ADP-ribose-binding modules present in all eukaryotic organisms, bacteria and archaea. They are also found in non-structural proteins of several positive strand RNA viruses such as alphaviruses. Here, we report the high yield expression and preliminary structural analysis through solution NMR spectroscopy of the macro domain from New World Mayaro Alphavirus. The recombinant protein was well-folded and in a monomeric state. An almost complete sequence-specific assignment of its (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonances was obtained and its secondary structure determined by TALOS+.

  18. Sofosbuvir as backbone of interferon free treatments.

    PubMed

    Bourlière, Marc; Oules, Valèrie; Ansaldi, Christelle; Adhoute, Xavier; Castellani, Paul

    2014-12-15

    Sofosbuvir is the first-in-class NS5B nucleotide analogues to be launched for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. Its viral potency, pangenotypic activity and high barrier to resistance make it the ideal candidate to become a backbone for several IFN-free regimens. Recent data demonstrated that sofosbuvir either with ribavirin alone or in combination with other direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) as daclatasvir, ledipasvir or simeprevir are able to cure HCV in at least 90% or over of patients. Treatment experienced genotype 3 population may remain the most difficult to treat population, but ongoing DAA combination studies will help to fill this gap. Safety profile of sofosbuvir or combination with other DAAs is good. Resistance to sofosbuvir did not appear as a significant issue. The rationale for using this class of drug and the available clinical data are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments of apolipophorin III from Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Crowhurst, Karin A; Horn, James V C; Weers, Paul M M

    2016-04-01

    Apolipophorin III, a 163 residue monomeric protein from the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (abbreviated as apoLp-IIIGM), has roles in upregulating expression of antimicrobial proteins as well as binding and deforming bacterial membranes. Due to its similarity to vertebrate apolipoproteins there is interest in performing atomic resolution analysis of apoLp-IIIGM as part of an effort to better understand its mechanism of action in innate immunity. In the first step towards structural characterization of apoLp-IIIGM, 99 % of backbone and 88 % of side chain (1)H, (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts were assigned. TALOS+ analysis of the backbone resonances has predicted that the protein is composed of five long helices, which is consistent with the reported structures of apolipophorins from other insect species. The next stage in the characterization of apoLp-III from G. mellonella will be to utilize these resonance assignments in solving the solution structure of this protein.

  20. Evaluation of impact of backbone outages in IP networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Yaakov; Choudhury, Gagan L.; Tarapore, Percy

    2004-09-01

    Nationwide IP networks typically include nodes in major cities and the following elements: customer equipment, access routers, backbone routers, peering routers, access links connecting customer equipment to access routers, access routers to backbone routers, and backbone links interconnecting backbone routers. The part of this network consisting of backbone routers and related interconnecting links is referred to as the "backbone". We develop a new approach for accurately computing the Availability measure of IP networks by directly simulating each type of backbone outage event and its impact on traffic loss. We use this approach to quantify availability improvement as a result of introducing various technological changes in the network such as IGP tuning, high availability router architecture, MPLS-TE and Fast Reroute. A situation, where operational backbone links do not have enough spare capacity to carry additional traffic during the outage time, is referred to as bandwidth loss. We concentrate on one unidirectional backbone link and derive asymptotic approximations for the expected bandwidth loss in the framework of generalized Erlang and Engset models when the total number of resource units and request arrival rates are proportionally large. Simulation results demonstrate good accuracy of the approximations.

  1. Functional and Genomic Analyses of Alpha-Solenoid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, David; Palidwor, Gareth A.; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Szengel, Angelika; Schaefer, Martin H.; Perez-Iratxeta, Carol; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-solenoids are flexible protein structural domains formed by ensembles of alpha-helical repeats (Armadillo and HEAT repeats among others). While homology can be used to detect many of these repeats, some alpha-solenoids have very little sequence homology to proteins of known structure and we expect that many remain undetected. We previously developed a method for detection of alpha-helical repeats based on a neural network trained on a dataset of protein structures. Here we improved the detection algorithm and updated the training dataset using recently solved structures of alpha-solenoids. Unexpectedly, we identified occurrences of alpha-solenoids in solved protein structures that escaped attention, for example within the core of the catalytic subunit of PI3KC. Our results expand the current set of known alpha-solenoids. Application of our tool to the protein universe allowed us to detect their significant enrichment in proteins interacting with many proteins, confirming that alpha-solenoids are generally involved in protein-protein interactions. We then studied the taxonomic distribution of alpha-solenoids to discuss an evolutionary scenario for the emergence of this type of domain, speculating that alpha-solenoids have emerged in multiple taxa in independent events by convergent evolution. We observe a higher rate of alpha-solenoids in eukaryotic genomes and in some prokaryotic families, such as Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes, which could be associated to increased cellular complexity. The method is available at http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/~ard2/. PMID:24278209

  2. Antibody recognition of synthetic peptides mimicking immunodominant regions of HIV-1 p24 and p17 proteins.

    PubMed

    Lottersberger, J; Salvetti, J L; Beltramini, L M; Tonarelli, G

    2004-01-01

    The gag gene of HIV-1 encodes a single open reading frame of 55 kDa that contains three subdomains: the matrix domain (p17), the capsid domain (p24) and the nucleocapsid domain (p15). The p24 and p17 proteins have a predominant alpha-helical structure and perform important functions throughout the viral life-cycle. The determination of gag-specific antibodies is important because declining titers of these antibodies herald clinical deterioration. In this work we present the results obtained on immunoreactiviy of synthetic peptides that mimic immunogenic alpha-helical regions of p24 and p17. The influence on the immunoreactivity of structural modifications in native sequences, including the addition of non immunogenic side chains: AAAC- and -CAAA on both side of minimal epitopes was evaluated in indirect and competitive enzyme immunoassays. The conformational characteristcs to the peptides were analysed by circular dichroism and these results were correlated with that obtained in the immunoassays. It was shown that the reactivity of peptides mimicking short alpha-helical regions of p24 and p17 is improved by adding short non immunogenic chains on both N- and C-terminus. These modifications enhanced the immobilization of the peptides onto the solid support and allowed more accessibility to the minimal epitopes by specific antibodies, in solution.

  3. Backbone Assignment of the MALT1 Paracaspase by Solution NMR.

    PubMed

    Unnerståle, Sofia; Nowakowski, Michal; Baraznenok, Vera; Stenberg, Gun; Lindberg, Jimmy; Mayzel, Maxim; Orekhov, Vladislav; Agback, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1) is a unique paracaspase protein whose protease activity mediates oncogenic NF-κB signalling in activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphomas (ABC-DLBCLs). ABC-DLBCLs are aggressive lymphomas with high resistance to current chemotherapies. Low survival rate among patients emphasizes the urgent need for alternative treatment options. The characterization of the MALT1 will be an essential tool for developing new target-directed drugs against MALT1 dependent disorders. As the first step in the atomic-level NMR studies of the system, here we report, the (15)N/(13)C/(1)H backbone assignment of the apo form of the MALT1 paracaspase region together with the third immunoglobulin-like (Ig3) domain, 44 kDa, by high resolution NMR. In addition, the non-uniform sampling (NUS) based targeted acquisition procedure is evaluated as a mean of decreasing acquisition and analysis time for larger proteins.

  4. Backbone Assignment of the MALT1 Paracaspase by Solution NMR

    PubMed Central

    Unnerståle, Sofia; Nowakowski, Michal; Baraznenok, Vera; Stenberg, Gun; Lindberg, Jimmy; Mayzel, Maxim; Orekhov, Vladislav; Agback, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1) is a unique paracaspase protein whose protease activity mediates oncogenic NF-κB signalling in activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphomas (ABC-DLBCLs). ABC-DLBCLs are aggressive lymphomas with high resistance to current chemotherapies. Low survival rate among patients emphasizes the urgent need for alternative treatment options. The characterization of the MALT1 will be an essential tool for developing new target-directed drugs against MALT1 dependent disorders. As the first step in the atomic-level NMR studies of the system, here we report, the 15N/13C/1H backbone assignment of the apo form of the MALT1 paracaspase region together with the third immunoglobulin-like (Ig3) domain, 44 kDa, by high resolution NMR. In addition, the non-uniform sampling (NUS) based targeted acquisition procedure is evaluated as a mean of decreasing acquisition and analysis time for larger proteins. PMID:26788853

  5. Backbone dependency further improves side chain prediction efficiency in the Energy-based Conformer Library (bEBL).

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sabareesh; Senes, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    Side chain optimization is an integral component of many protein modeling applications. In these applications, the conformational freedom of the side chains is often explored using libraries of discrete, frequently occurring conformations. Because side chain optimization can pose a computationally intensive combinatorial problem, the nature of these conformer libraries is important for ensuring efficiency and accuracy in side chain prediction. We have previously developed an innovative method to create a conformer library with enhanced performance. The Energy-based Library (EBL) was obtained by analyzing the energetic interactions between conformers and a large number of natural protein environments from crystal structures. This process guided the selection of conformers with the highest propensity to fit into spaces that should accommodate a side chain. Because the method requires a large crystallographic data-set, the EBL was created in a backbone-independent fashion. However, it is well established that side chain conformation is strongly dependent on the local backbone geometry, and that backbone-dependent libraries are more efficient in side chain optimization. Here we present the backbone-dependent EBL (bEBL), whose conformers are independently sorted for each populated region of Ramachandran space. The resulting library closely mirrors the local backbone-dependent distribution of side chain conformation. Compared to the EBL, we demonstrate that the bEBL uses fewer conformers to produce similar side chain prediction outcomes, thus further improving performance with respect to the already efficient backbone-independent version of the library.

  6. A simple model for the band structure and D.C. conductivity of an infinite C dbond O···H bond N chain perpendicular to the protein backbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bende, Attila; Bogár, Ferenc; Ladik, János

    The1 Hartree-Fock crystal orbital (CO) method in its linear combination of atomic orbitals form was applied to determine the band structure of histone proteins taking 0.041e charge transfer per nucleotide base from the PO4- groups of poly(guanilic acid) to the arginine, and lysine side chains in histones (see text). Assuming that there are infinite COs, perpendicular to the main chain, formed by the amide groups of one segment of the protein chain bound together by H-bonds with the C dbond O groups of another segment of the chain, we have calculated the band structure. From this, we have determined the mobility using the deformation potential approximation. Multiplying this with the mobile electron concentration due to the charge transfer between the PO4- groups of DNA and the positive side chains in histones, we have obtained for the direct current (D.C.) electron conductivity sigmafib = 1.07 × 10-9 Omega-1 cm for a single fiber and after division by the cross-section of 9.10 × 10-16 cm2, sigmaspec = 1.18 × 106 Omega-1 cm-1 for the specific conductivity.

  7. HTP: a neural network-based method for predicting the topology of helical transmembrane domains in proteins.

    PubMed

    Fariselli, P; Casadio, R

    1996-02-01

    In this paper we describe a microcomputer program (HTP) for predicting the location and orientation of alpha-helical transmembrane segments in integral membrane proteins. HTP is a neural network-based tool which gives as output the protein membrane topology based on the statistical propensity of residues to be located in external and internal loops. This method, which uses single protein sequences as input to the network system, correctly predicts the topology of 71 out of 92 membrane proteins of putative membrane orientation, independently of the protein source.

  8. ¹H, ¹³C, ¹⁵N backbone and side chain NMR resonance assignments for the N-terminal RNA recognition motif of the HvGR-RBP1 protein involved in the regulation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) senescence.

    PubMed

    Mason, Katelyn E; Tripet, Brian P; Parrott, David; Fischer, Andreas M; Copié, Valérie

    2014-04-01

    Leaf senescence is an important process in the developmental life of all plant species. Senescence efficiency influences important agricultural traits such as grain protein content and plant growth, which are often limited by nitrogen use. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating this highly orchestrated process. To enhance our understanding of leaf senescence and its regulation, we have undertaken the structural and functional characterization of previously unknown proteins that are involved in the control of senescence in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Previous microarray analysis highlighted several barley genes whose transcripts are differentially expressed during senescence, including a specific gene which is greater than 40-fold up-regulated in the flag leaves of early- as compared to late-senescing near-isogenic barley lines at 14 and 21 days past flowering (anthesis). From inspection of its amino acid sequence, this gene is predicted to encode a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein herein referred to as HvGR-RBP1. HvGR-RBP1 has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, and preliminary NMR data analysis has revealed that its glycine-rich C-terminal region [residues: 93-162] is structurally disordered whereas its N-terminal region [residues: 1-92] forms a well-folded domain. Herein, we report the complete (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N resonance assignments of backbone and sidechain atoms, and the secondary structural topology of the N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain of HvGR-RBP1, as a first step to unraveling its structural and functional role in the regulation of barley leaf senescence.

  9. NMR study of non-structural proteins--part II: (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of macro domain from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV).

    PubMed

    Makrynitsa, Garyfallia I; Ntonti, Dioni; Marousis, Konstantinos D; Tsika, Aikaterini C; Lichière, Julie; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Coutard, Bruno; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-10-01

    Macro domains consist of 130-190 amino acid residues and appear to be highly conserved in all kingdoms of life. Intense research on this field has shown that macro domains bind ADP-ribose and other similar molecules, but their exact function still remains intangible. Macro domains are highly conserved in the Alphavirus genus and the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a member of this genus that causes fatal encephalitis to equines and humans. In this study we report the high yield recombinant expression and preliminary solution NMR study of the macro domain of VEEV. An almost complete sequence-specific assignment of its (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonances was obtained and its secondary structure predicted by TALOS+. The protein shows a unique mixed α/β-fold.

  10. Global Transcriptional Regulation of Backbone Genes in Broad-Host-Range Plasmid RA3 from the IncU Group Involves Segregation Protein KorB (ParB Family)

    PubMed Central

    Godziszewska, Jolanta; Wojciechowska, Anna; Ludwiczak, Marta; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    The KorB protein of the broad-host-range conjugative plasmid RA3 from the IncU group belongs to the ParB family of plasmid and chromosomal segregation proteins. As a partitioning DNA-binding factor, KorB specifically recognizes a 16-bp palindrome which is an essential motif in the centromere-like sequence parSRA3, forms a segrosome, and together with its partner IncC (ParA family) participates in active DNA segregation ensuring stable plasmid maintenance. Here we show that by binding to this palindromic sequence, KorB also acts as a repressor for the adjacent mobC promoter driving expression of the mobC-nic operon, which is involved in DNA processing during conjugation. Three other promoters, one buried in the conjugative transfer module and two divergent promoters located at the border between the replication and stability regions, are regulated by KorB binding to additional KorB operators (OBs). KorB acts as a repressor at a distance, binding to OBs separated from their cognate promoters by between 46 and 1,317 nucleotides. This repressor activity is facilitated by KorB spreading along DNA, since a polymerization-deficient KorB variant with its dimerization and DNA-binding abilities intact is inactive in transcriptional repression. KorB may act as a global regulator of RA3 plasmid functions in Escherichia coli, since its overexpression in trans negatively interferes with mini-RA3 replication and stable maintenance of RA3. PMID:26850301

  11. High Speed Fibre Optic Backbone LAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Masaaki; Hara, Shingo; Kajita, Yuji; Kashu, Fumitoshi; Ikeuchi, Masaru; Hagihara, Satoshi; Tsuzuki, Shinji

    1987-09-01

    Our firm has developed the SUMINET-4100 series, a fibre optic local area network (LAN), to serve the communications system trunk line needs for facilities, such as steel refineries, automobile plants and university campuses, that require large transmission capacity, and for the backbone networks used in intelligent building systems. The SUMINET-4100 series is already in service in various fields of application. Of the networks available in this series, the SUMINET-4150 has a trunk line speed of 128 Mbps and the multiplexer used for time division multiplexing (TDM) was enabled by designing an ECL-TTL gate array (3000 gates) based custom LSI. The synchronous, full-duplex V.24 and V.3.5 interfaces (SUMINET-2100) are provided for use with general purpose lines. And the IBM token ring network, the SUMINET-3200, designed for heterogeneous PCs and the Ethernet can all be connected to sub loops. Further, the IBM 3270 TCA and 5080 CADAM can be connected in the local mode. Interfaces are also provided for the NTT high-speed digital service, the digital PBX systems, and the Video CODEC system. The built-in loop monitor (LM) and network supervisory processor (NSP) provide management of loop utilization and send loop status signals to the host CPU's network configuration and control facility (NCCF). These built-in functions allow both the computer system and LAN to be managed from a single source at the host. This paper outlines features of the SUMINET-4150 and provides an example of its installation.

  12. Extracting the Information Backbone in Online System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zeng, An; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Information overload is a serious problem in modern society and many solutions such as recommender system have been proposed to filter out irrelevant information. In the literature, researchers have been mainly dedicated to improving the recommendation performance (accuracy and diversity) of the algorithms while they have overlooked the influence of topology of the online user-object bipartite networks. In this paper, we find that some information provided by the bipartite networks is not only redundant but also misleading. With such “less can be more” feature, we design some algorithms to improve the recommendation performance by eliminating some links from the original networks. Moreover, we propose a hybrid method combining the time-aware and topology-aware link removal algorithms to extract the backbone which contains the essential information for the recommender systems. From the practical point of view, our method can improve the performance and reduce the computational time of the recommendation system, thus improving both of their effectiveness and efficiency. PMID:23690946

  13. The Backbone of the Climate Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Y.; Donges, J. F.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.

    2009-12-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system, relying on the nonlinear mutual information of time series analysis and betweenness centrality of complex network theory. We show, that this approach reveals a rich internal structure in complex climate networks constructed from reanalysis and model surface air temperature data. Our novel method uncovers peculiar wave-like structures of high energy flow, that we relate to global surface ocean currents. This points to a major role of the oceanic surface circulation in coupling and stabilizing the global temperature field in the long term mean (140 years for the model run and 60 years for reanalysis data). We find that these results cannot be obtained using classical linear methods of multivariate data analysis. Furthermore, we introduce significance tests to quantify the robustness of measured network properties to uncertainties. References: [1] J.F. Donges, Y. Zou, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths. Complex networks in climate dynamics -- -- Comparing linear and nonlinear network construction methods. European Physical Journal -- Special Topics, 174, 157-179, 2009. [2] J.F. Donges, Y. Zou, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths. Backbone of the climate network. Europhysics Letters, in press, 2009.

  14. Solvation thermodynamics of amino acid side chains on a short peptide backbone

    SciTech Connect

    Hajari, Timir; Vegt, Nico F. A. van der

    2015-04-14

    The hydration process of side chain analogue molecules differs from that of the actual amino acid side chains in peptides and proteins owing to the effects of the peptide backbone on the aqueous solvent environment. A recent molecular simulation study has provided evidence that all nonpolar side chains, attached to a short peptide backbone, are considerably less hydrophobic than the free side chain analogue molecules. In contrast to this, the hydrophilicity of the polar side chains is hardly affected by the backbone. To analyze the origin of these observations, we here present a molecular simulation study on temperature dependent solvation free energies of nonpolar and polar side chains attached to a short peptide backbone. The estimated solvation entropies and enthalpies of the various amino acid side chains are compared with existing side chain analogue data. The solvation entropies and enthalpies of the polar side chains are negative, but in absolute magnitude smaller compared with the corresponding analogue data. The observed differences are large; however, owing to a nearly perfect enthalpy-entropy compensation, the solvation free energies of polar side chains remain largely unaffected by the peptide backbone. We find that a similar compensation does not apply to the nonpolar side chains; while the backbone greatly reduces the unfavorable solvation entropies, the solvation enthalpies are either more favorable or only marginally affected. This results in a very small unfavorable free energy cost, or even free energy gain, of solvating the nonpolar side chains in strong contrast to solvation of small hydrophobic or nonpolar molecules in bulk water. The solvation free energies of nonpolar side chains have been furthermore decomposed into a repulsive cavity formation contribution and an attractive dispersion free energy contribution. We find that cavity formation next to the peptide backbone is entropically favored over formation of similar sized nonpolar side

  15. Detecting the Significant Flux Backbone of Escherichia coli metabolism.

    PubMed

    Güell, Oriol; Sagués, Francesc; Serrano, M Ángeles

    2017-04-09

    The heterogeneity of computationally predicted reaction fluxes in metabolic networks within a single flux state can be exploited to detect their significant flux backbone. Here, we disclose the backbone of Escherichia coli, and compare it with the backbones of other bacteria. We find that, in general, the core of the backbones is mainly composed of reactions in energy metabolism corresponding to ancient pathways. In E. coli, the synthesis of nucleotides and the metabolism of lipids form smaller cores which rely critically on energy metabolism. Moreover, the consideration of different media leads to the identification of pathways sensitive to environmental changes. The metabolic backbone of an organism is thus useful for tracing, simultaneously, both its evolution and adaptation fingerprints. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Secondary Structure Assignment Algorithm Using Cα Backbone Fragments.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Wang, Guishen; Liu, An; Xu, Shutan; Wang, Lincong; Zou, Shuxue

    2016-03-11

    The assignment of secondary structure elements in proteins is a key step in the analysis of their structures and functions. We have developed an algorithm, SACF (secondary structure assignment based on Cα fragments), for secondary structure element (SSE) assignment based on the alignment of Cα backbone fragments with central poses derived by clustering known SSE fragments. The assignment algorithm consists of three steps: First, the outlier fragments on known SSEs are detected. Next, the remaining fragments are clustered to obtain the central fragments for each cluster. Finally, the central fragments are used as a template to make assignments. Following a large-scale comparison of 11 secondary structure assignment methods, SACF, KAKSI and PROSS are found to have similar agreement with DSSP, while PCASSO agrees with DSSP best. SACF and PCASSO show preference to reducing residues in N and C cap regions, whereas KAKSI, P-SEA and SEGNO tend to add residues to the terminals when DSSP assignment is taken as standard. Moreover, our algorithm is able to assign subtle helices (310-helix, π-helix and left-handed helix) and make uniform assignments, as well as to detect rare SSEs in β-sheets or long helices as outlier fragments from other programs. The structural uniformity should be useful for protein structure classification and prediction, while outlier fragments underlie the structure-function relationship.

  17. A New Secondary Structure Assignment Algorithm Using Cα Backbone Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chen; Wang, Guishen; Liu, An; Xu, Shutan; Wang, Lincong; Zou, Shuxue

    2016-01-01

    The assignment of secondary structure elements in proteins is a key step in the analysis of their structures and functions. We have developed an algorithm, SACF (secondary structure assignment based on Cα fragments), for secondary structure element (SSE) assignment based on the alignment of Cα backbone fragments with central poses derived by clustering known SSE fragments. The assignment algorithm consists of three steps: First, the outlier fragments on known SSEs are detected. Next, the remaining fragments are clustered to obtain the central fragments for each cluster. Finally, the central fragments are used as a template to make assignments. Following a large-scale comparison of 11 secondary structure assignment methods, SACF, KAKSI and PROSS are found to have similar agreement with DSSP, while PCASSO agrees with DSSP best. SACF and PCASSO show preference to reducing residues in N and C cap regions, whereas KAKSI, P-SEA and SEGNO tend to add residues to the terminals when DSSP assignment is taken as standard. Moreover, our algorithm is able to assign subtle helices (310-helix, π-helix and left-handed helix) and make uniform assignments, as well as to detect rare SSEs in β-sheets or long helices as outlier fragments from other programs. The structural uniformity should be useful for protein structure classification and prediction, while outlier fragments underlie the structure–function relationship. PMID:26978354

  18. Residue-Specific Side-Chain Packing Determines the Backbone Dynamics of Transmembrane Model Helices

    PubMed Central

    Quint, Stefan; Widmaier, Simon; Minde, David; Hornburg, Daniel; Langosch, Dieter; Scharnagl, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The transmembrane domains (TMDs) of membrane-fusogenic proteins contain an overabundance of β-branched residues. In a previous effort to systematically study the relation among valine content, fusogenicity, and helix dynamics, we developed model TMDs that we termed LV-peptides. The content and position of valine in LV-peptides determine their fusogenicity and backbone dynamics, as shown experimentally. Here, we analyze their conformational dynamics and the underlying molecular forces using molecular-dynamics simulations. Our study reveals that backbone dynamics is correlated with the efficiency of side-chain to side-chain van der Waals packing between consecutive turns of the helix. Leu side chains rapidly interconvert between two rotameric states, thus favoring contacts to its i±3 and i±4 neighbors. Stereochemical restraints acting on valine side chains in the α-helix force both β-substituents into an orientation where i,i±3 interactions are less favorable than i,i±4 interactions, thus inducing a local packing deficiency at VV3 motifs. We provide a quantitative molecular model to explain the relationship among chain connectivity, side-chain mobility, and backbone flexibility. We expect that this mechanism also defines the backbone flexibility of natural TMDs. PMID:20959095

  19. Identical repeated backbone of the human genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Identical sequences with a minimal length of about 300 base pairs (bp) have been involved in the generation of various meiotic/mitotic genomic rearrangements through non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) events. Genomic disorders and structural variation, together with gene remodelling processes have been associated with many of these rearrangements. Based on these observations, we identified and integrated all the 100% identical repeats of at least 300 bp in the NCBI version 36.2 human genome reference assembly into non-overlapping regions, thus defining the Identical Repeated Backbone (IRB) of the reference human genome. Results The IRB sequences are distributed all over the genome in 66,600 regions, which correspond to ~2% of the total NCBI human genome reference assembly. Important structural and functional elements such as common repeats, segmental duplications, and genes are contained in the IRB. About 80% of the IRB bp overlap with known copy-number variants (CNVs). By analyzing the genes embedded in the IRB, we were able to detect some identical genes not previously included in the Ensembl release 50 annotation of human genes. In addition, we found evidence of IRB gene copy-number polymorphisms in raw sequence reads of two diploid sequenced genomes. Conclusions In general, the IRB offers new insight into the complex organization of the identical repeated sequences of the human genome. It provides an accurate map of potential NAHR sites which could be used in targeting the study of novel CNVs, predicting DNA copy-number variation in newly sequenced genomes, and improve genome annotation. PMID:20096123

  20. Protein secondary structural types are differentially coded on messenger RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Thanaraj, T. A.; Argos, P.

    1996-01-01

    Tricodon regions on messenger RNAs corresponding to a set of proteins from Escherichia coli were scrutinized for their translation speed. The fractional frequency values of the individual codons as they occur in mRNAs of highly expressed genes from Escherichia coli were taken as an indicative measure of the translation speed. The tricodons were classified by the sum of the frequency values of the constituent codons. Examination of the conformation of the encoded amino acid residues in the corresponding protein tertiary structures revealed a correlation between codon usage in mRNA and topological features of the encoded proteins. Alpha helices on proteins tend to be preferentially coded by translationally fast mRNA regions while the slow segments often code for beta strands and coil regions. Fast regions correspondingly avoid coding for beta strands and coil regions while the slow regions similarly move away from encoding alpha helices. Structural and mechanistic aspects of the ribosome peptide channel support the relevance of sequence fragment translation and subsequent conformation. A discussion is presented relating the observation to the reported kinetic data on the formation and stabilization of protein secondary structural types during protein folding. The observed absence of such strong positive selection for codons in non-highly expressed genes is compatible with existing theories that mutation pressure may well dominate codon selection in non-highly expressed genes. PMID:8897597

  1. How Sensitive Is the Amide I Vibration of the Polypeptide Backbone to Electric Field?

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kwang-Im; Fiorin, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Site-selective isotopic labelling of amide carbonyls offers a non-perturbative means to introduce a localized infrared probe into proteins. While this strategy has been widely used to investigate various biological questions, the dependence of the underlying amide I vibrational frequency on electric field (or Stark tuning rate) has not been fully determined, which prevents it from being used in a quantitative manner in certain applications. Herein, through the use of experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, the Stark tuning rate of the amide I vibration of an isotopically labeled backbone carbonyl in a transmembrane α-helix is determined to be approximately 1.4 cm−1/(MV/cm). This result provides a quantitative basis for using this vibrational model to assess local electric fields in proteins, among other applications. For instance, using this value, we are able to show that the backbone region of a dipeptide has a surprisingly low dielectric constant. PMID:26419214

  2. Radiation safety system (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J.E.; Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) Backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system insuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS Backbones control the safety fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low energy beam transport. The Backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the Backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two Linac Backbone segments and experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3,500 feet from beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The Backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  3. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J.E.; Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J. E.; Sturrock, J. C.; Gallegos, F. R.

    1998-12-10

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  5. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmarth, J. E.; Sturrock, J. C.; Gallegos, F. R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  6. Solution structure of murine macrophage inflammatory protein-2.

    PubMed

    Shao, W; Jerva, L F; West, J; Lolis, E; Schweitzer, B I

    1998-06-09

    The solution structure of murine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), a heparin-binding chemokine that is secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli, has been determined using two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Structure calculations were carried out by means of torsion-angle molecular dynamics using the program X-PLOR. The structure is based on a total of 2390 experimental restraints, comprising 2246 NOE-derived distance restraints, 44 distance restraints for 22 hydrogen bonds, and 100 torsion angle restraints. The structure is well-defined, with the backbone (N, Calpha, C) and heavy atom atomic rms distribution about the mean coordinates for residues 9-69 of the dimer being 0.57 +/- 0.16 A and 0.96 +/- 0.12 A, respectively. The N- and C-terminal residues (1-8 and 70-73, respectively) are disordered. The overall structure of the MIP-2 dimer is similar to that reported previously for the NMR structures of MGSA and IL-8 and consists of a six-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet (residue 25-29, 39-44, and 48-52) packed against two C-terminal antiparallel alpha-helices. A best fit superposition of the NMR structure of MIP-2 on the structures of MGSA, NAP-2, and the NMR and X-ray structures of IL-8 are 1.11, 1.02, 1.27, and 1.19 A, respectively, for the monomers, and 1.28, 1.10, 1.55, and 1.36 A, respectively, for the dimers (IL-8 residues 7-14 and 16-67, NAP-2 residues 25-84). At the tertiary level, the main differences between the MIP-2 solution structure and the IL-8, MGSA, and NAP-2 structures involve the N-terminal loop between residues 9-23 and the loops formed by residues 30-38 and residues 53-58. At the quaternary level, the difference between MIP-2 and IL-8, MGSA, or NAP-2 results from differing interhelical angles and separations.

  7. "Hot cores" in proteins: Comparative analysis of the apolar contact area in structures from hyper/thermophilic and mesophilic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Paiardini, Alessandro; Sali, Riccardo; Bossa, Francesco; Pascarella, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Background A wide variety of stabilizing factors have been invoked so far to elucidate the structural basis of protein thermostability. These include, amongst the others, a higher number of ion-pairs interactions and hydrogen bonds, together with a better packing of hydrophobic residues. It has been frequently observed that packing of hydrophobic side chains is improved in hyperthermophilic proteins, when compared to their mesophilic counterparts. In this work, protein crystal structures from hyper/thermophilic organisms and their mesophilic homologs have been compared, in order to quantify the difference of apolar contact area and to assess the role played by the hydrophobic contacts in the stabilization of the protein core, at high temperatures. Results The construction of two datasets was carried out so as to satisfy several restrictive criteria, such as minimum redundancy, resolution and R-value thresholds and lack of any structural defect in the collected structures. This approach allowed to quantify with relatively high precision the apolar contact area between interacting residues, reducing the uncertainty due to the position of atoms in the crystal structures, the redundancy of data and the size of the dataset. To identify the common core regions of these proteins, the study was focused on segments that conserve a similar main chain conformation in the structures analyzed, excluding the intervening regions whose structure differs markedly. The results indicated that hyperthermophilic proteins underwent a significant increase of the hydrophobic contact area contributed by those residues composing the alpha-helices of the structurally conserved regions. Conclusion This study indicates the decreased flexibility of alpha-helices in proteins core as a major factor contributing to the enhanced termostability of a number of hyperthermophilic proteins. This effect, in turn, may be due to an increased number of buried methyl groups in the protein core and/or a

  8. Backbone resonance assignments of the micro-RNA precursor binding region of human TRBP.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Matthieu P M H; Plevin, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    TAR-RNA binding protein (TRBP) is a multidomain human protein involved in micro-RNA (miRNA) biogenesis. TRBP is a component of both the Dicer complex, which processes precursor miRNAs, and the RNA-induced silencing complex-loading complex. In addition, TRBP is implicated in the human immunodeficiency virus replication cycle and interferon-protein kinase R activity. TRBP contains 3 double-stranded RNA binding domains the first two of which have been shown to interact with miRNA precursors. Here we present the backbone resonance assignments and secondary structure of residues 19-228 of human TRBP2.

  9. Changes and roles of secondary structures of whey protein for the formation of protein membrane at soy oil/water interface under high-pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Lefèvre, Thiery; Subirade, Muriel; Paquin, Paul

    2007-12-26

    The conformational changes of whey proteins upon adsorption at the soy oil/water interface were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Significant changes were observed in the bands assigned to beta-sheets and alpha-helix structures following the adsorption of proteins at the oil/water interface. The remaining interfacial proteins after Tween 20 desorption revealed small changes in beta-sheet and alpha-helical structures, whereas in the desorbed whey proteins the unordered structures largely increased, and beta-sheet structures almost disappeared. These FT-IR results provide important knowledge about the conformational modifications in whey proteins occurring upon adsorption at the oil/water interface. Finally, specific conformational changes are necessary to stabilize emulsions: adsorption-induced unfolding, increase in alpha-helical structures to establish interactions with the oil phase, and aggregation between adsorbed whey proteins to form protein membranes. Moreover, the structural changes in whey protein adsorbed at the oil/water interface under high-pressure homogenization are irreversible.

  10. A backbone lever-arm effect enhances polymer mechanochemistry.

    PubMed

    Klukovich, Hope M; Kouznetsova, Tatiana B; Kean, Zachary S; Lenhardt, Jeremy M; Craig, Stephen L

    2013-02-01

    Mechanical forces along a polymer backbone can be used to bring about remarkable reactivity in embedded mechanically active functional groups, but little attention has been paid to how a given polymer backbone delivers that force to the reactant. Here, single-molecule force spectroscopy was used to directly quantify and compare the forces associated with the ring opening of gem-dibromo and gem-dichlorocyclopropanes affixed along the backbone of cis-polynorbornene and cis-polybutadiene. The critical force for isomerization drops by about one-third in the polynorbornene scaffold relative to polybutadiene. The root of the effect lies in more efficient chemomechanical coupling through the polynorbornene backbone, which acts as a phenomenological lever with greater mechanical advantage than polybutadiene. The experimental results are supported computationally and provide the foundation for a new strategy by which to engineer mechanochemical reactivity.

  11. A backbone lever-arm effect enhances polymer mechanochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klukovich, Hope M.; Kouznetsova, Tatiana B.; Kean, Zachary S.; Lenhardt, Jeremy M.; Craig, Stephen L.

    2013-02-01

    Mechanical forces along a polymer backbone can be used to bring about remarkable reactivity in embedded mechanically active functional groups, but little attention has been paid to how a given polymer backbone delivers that force to the reactant. Here, single-molecule force spectroscopy was used to directly quantify and compare the forces associated with the ring opening of gem-dibromo and gem-dichlorocyclopropanes affixed along the backbone of cis-polynorbornene and cis-polybutadiene. The critical force for isomerization drops by about one-third in the polynorbornene scaffold relative to polybutadiene. The root of the effect lies in more efficient chemomechanical coupling through the polynorbornene backbone, which acts as a phenomenological lever with greater mechanical advantage than polybutadiene. The experimental results are supported computationally and provide the foundation for a new strategy by which to engineer mechanochemical reactivity.

  12. The plant PRAT proteins - preprotein and amino acid transport in mitochondria and chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Pudelski, B; Kraus, S; Soll, J; Philippar, K

    2010-09-01

    The membrane proteins of the plant preprotein and amino acid transporter (PRAT) superfamily all share common structural elements, such as four membrane-spanning alpha-helices. Interestingly they display diverse localisation to outer and inner membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria. Furthermore, they fulfil different functions in preprotein translocation as well as amino acid transport across these membranes. This review summarises current knowledge on precursor protein import and amino acid transport in plastids and mitochondria and provides an overview of the distinct tasks and features of members of the PRAT superfamily in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  13. Side-chain and backbone ordering in a polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanjie; Nadler, Walter; Hansmann, Ulrich H E

    2006-10-28

    We report results from multicanonical simulations of polyglutamic acid chains of length of ten residues. For this simple polypeptide we observe a decoupling of backbone and side-chain ordering in the folding process. While the details of the two transitions vary between the peptide in gas phase and in an implicit solvent, our results indicate that, independent of the specific surroundings, upon continuously lowering the temperature side-chain ordering occurs only after the backbone topology is completely formed.

  14. Crystal Structure of Menin Reveals Binding Site for Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Murai, Marcelo J.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Reddy, Gireesh; Grembecka, Jolanta; Cierpicki, Tomasz

    2014-10-02

    Menin is a tumor suppressor protein that is encoded by the MEN1 (multiple endocrine neoplasia 1) gene and controls cell growth in endocrine tissues. Importantly, menin also serves as a critical oncogenic cofactor of MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) fusion proteins in acute leukemias. Direct association of menin with MLL fusion proteins is required for MLL fusion protein-mediated leukemogenesis in vivo, and this interaction has been validated as a new potential therapeutic target for development of novel anti-leukemia agents. Here, we report the first crystal structure of menin homolog from Nematostella vectensis. Due to a very high sequence similarity, the Nematostella menin is a close homolog of human menin, and these two proteins likely have very similar structures. Menin is predominantly an {alpha}-helical protein with the protein core comprising three tetratricopeptide motifs that are flanked by two {alpha}-helical bundles and covered by a {beta}-sheet motif. A very interesting feature of menin structure is the presence of a large central cavity that is highly conserved between Nematostella and human menin. By employing site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that this cavity constitutes the binding site for MLL. Our data provide a structural basis for understanding the role of menin as a tumor suppressor protein and as an oncogenic co-factor of MLL fusion proteins. It also provides essential structural information for development of inhibitors targeting the menin-MLL interaction as a novel therapeutic strategy in MLL-related leukemias.

  15. Constructing optimal backbone segments for joining fixed DNA base pairs.

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, J; Jernigan, R L; Sarai, A

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented to link a sequence of space-fixed base pairs by the sugar-phosphate segments of single nucleotides and to evaluate the effects in the backbone caused by this positioning of the bases. The entire computational unit comprises several nucleotides that are energy-minimized, subject to constraints imposed by the sugar-phosphate backbone segments being anchored to space-fixed base pairs. The minimization schemes are based on two stages, a conjugate gradient method followed by a Newton-Raphson algorithm. Because our purpose is to examine the response, or relaxation, of an artificially stressed backbone, it is essential to be able to obtain, as closely as possible, a lowest minimum energy conformation of the backbone segment in conformational space. For this purpose, an algorithm is developed that leads to the generation of an assembly of many local energy minima. From these sets of local minima, one conformation corresponding to the one with the lowest minimum is then selected and designated to represent the backbone segment at its minimum. The effective electrostatic potential of mean force is expressed in terms of adjustable parameters that incorporate solvent screening action in the Coulombic interactions between charged backbone atoms; these parameters are adjusted to obtain the best fit of the nearest-neighbor phosphorous atoms in an x-ray structure. PMID:8874023

  16. Large-scale measurement and modeling of backbone Internet traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughan, Matthew; Gottlieb, Joel

    2002-07-01

    There is a brewing controversy in the traffic modeling community concerning how to model backbone traffic. The fundamental work on self-similarity in data traffic appears to be contradicted by recent findings that suggest that backbone traffic is smooth. The traffic analysis work to date has focused on high-quality but limited-scope packet trace measurements; this limits its applicability to high-speed backbone traffic. This paper uses more than one year's worth of SNMP traffic data covering an entire Tier 1 ISP backbone to address the question of how backbone network traffic should be modeled. Although the limitations of SNMP measurements do not permit us to comment on the fine timescale behavior of the traffic, careful analysis of the data suggests that irrespective of the variation at fine timescales, we can construct a simple traffic model that captures key features of the observed traffic. Furthermore, the model's parameters are measurable using existing network infrastructure, making this model practical in a present-day operational network. In addition to its practicality, the model verifies basic statistical multiplexing results, and thus sheds deep insight into how smooth backbone traffic really is.

  17. Physical studies of conformational plasticity in a recombinant prion protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Stockel, J; Mehlhorn, I; Groth, D; Baldwin, M A; Prusiner, S B; James, T L; Cohen, F E

    1997-03-25

    PrP(Sc) is known to be the major, if not the only, component of the infectious prion. Limited proteolysis of PrP(Sc) produces an N-terminally truncated polypeptide of about 142 residues, designated PrP 27-30. Recently, a recombinant protein (rPrP) of 142 residues corresponding to the Syrian hamster PrP 27-30 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified (Mehlhorn et al., 1996). rPrP has been refolded into both alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures as well as various intermediates in aqueous buffers. The beta-sheet state and two pH-dependent alpha-helical states were characterized by CD and NMR. The alpha-helical conformation occurred only after the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond, whereas the beta-sheet form was accessible either with or without the disulfide. Of the different alpha-helical forms studied, only those refolded in the pH range 5-8 were substantially soluble at physiological pH, exhibiting similar conformations and monomeric analytical sedimentation profiles throughout the above pH range. Furthermore, refolded alpha-rPrP showed NMR chemical shift dispersion typical of proteins with native conformations, although 2D NMR indicated large segments of conformational flexibility. It displayed a cooperative thermal denaturation transition; at elevated temperatures, it converted rapidly and irreversibly to the thermodynamically more stable beta-sheet form. Unfolding of alpha-rPrP by GdnHCl revealed a two-phase transition with a relatively stable folding intermediate at 2 M GdnHCl. The deltaG values were estimated to be 1.9 +/- 0.4 kcal/mol for the first phase and 6.5 +/- 1.2 kcal/mol for the second, consistent with a folding core surrounded by significant segments of flexible conformation. By NMR, alpha-rPrP(acid) isolated at pH 2 without refolding exhibited heterogeneous line widths, consistent with an acid-denatured molten globular state. We conclude that to the extent that rPrP constitutes a relevant folding domain of PrP(C), the various

  18. Triazine-Based Sequence-Defined Polymers with Side-Chain Diversity and Backbone-Backbone Interaction Motifs.

    PubMed

    Grate, Jay W; Mo, Kai-For; Daily, Michael D

    2016-03-14

    Sequence control in polymers, well-known in nature, encodes structure and functionality. Here we introduce a new architecture, based on the nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry of cyanuric chloride, that creates a new class of sequence-defined polymers dubbed TZPs. Proof of concept is demonstrated with two synthesized hexamers, having neutral and ionizable side chains. Molecular dynamics simulations show backbone-backbone interactions, including H-bonding motifs and pi-pi interactions. This architecture is arguably biomimetic while differing from sequence-defined polymers having peptide bonds. The synthetic methodology supports the structural diversity of side chains known in peptides, as well as backbone-backbone hydrogen-bonding motifs, and will thus enable new macromolecules and materials with useful functions.

  19. Molecular Chemical Structure of Barley Proteins Revealed by Ultra-Spatially Resolved Synchrotron Light Sourced FTIR Microspectroscopy: Comparison of Barley Varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,P.

    2007-01-01

    Barley protein structure affects the barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals among other factors such as protein matrix. Publications show various biological differences among barley varieties such as Valier and Harrington, which have significantly different degradation behaviors. The objectives of this study were to reveal the molecular structure of barley protein, comparing various varieties (Dolly, Valier, Harrington, LP955, AC Metcalfe, and Sisler), and quantify protein structure profiles using Gaussian and Lorentzian methods of multi-component peak modeling by using the ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron light sourced Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM). The items of the protein molecular structure revealed included protein structure {alpha}-helices, {beta}-sheets, and others such as {beta}-turns and random coils. The experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, US Department of Energy, NY). The results showed that with the SFTIRM, the molecular structure of barley protein could be revealed. Barley protein structures exhibited significant differences among the varieties in terms of proportion and ratio of model-fitted {alpha}-helices, {beta}-sheets, and others. By using multi-component peaks modeling at protein amide I region of 1710-1576 cm{sup -1}, the results show that barley protein consisted of approximately 18-34% of {alpha}-helices, 14-25% of {beta}-sheets, and 44-69% others. AC Metcalfe, Sisler, and LP955 consisted of higher (P < 0.05) proportions of {alpha}-helices (30-34%) than Dolly and Valier ({alpha}-helices 18-23%). Harrington was in between which was 25%. For protein {beta}-sheets, AC Metcalfe, and LP955 consisted of higher proportions (22-25%) than Dolly and Valier (13-17%). Different barley varieties contained different {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratios, ranging from 1.4 to 2.0, although the difference were

  20. Gene cloning and characterization of a soybean (Glycine max L.) LEA protein, GmPM16.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ming-der; Lin, Shu-Chin; Hsieh, Jaw-Shu; Tsou, Chi-Hua; Chow, Teh-Yuan; Lin, Tsai-Piao; Hsing, Yue-Ie C

    2004-11-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, present in abundance in seeds during the late stages of development, are associated with desiccation tolerance. In the present work, we characterize a soybean LEA protein, GmPM16, with low molecular weight, high pI value, and an unusual amino acid residue distribution along the protein. The transcripts were detected in cotyledon mesophyll cells but not in the vascular system of mature or pod-dried soybean seeds. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis and Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated that the GmPM16 protein in solution was highly unordered, possessing only partial alpha-helical structures. However, the protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or trifluoroethanol (TFE) solution or in a dry state exhibited a conformation of abundant alpha-helical structures. As well, the GmPM16 protein interacts with sugar and forms tightly glassy matrixes in the dry state. The protein may play a role in reducing cellular damage in drying seeds by changing the protein conformation and forming tight cellular glasses.

  1. Development of a Backbone Cyclic Peptide Library as Potential Antiparasitic Therapeutics Using Microwave Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Qvit, Nir; Kornfeld, Opher S

    2016-01-26

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are intimately involved in almost all biological processes and are linked to many human diseases. Therefore, there is a major effort to target PPIs in basic research and in the pharmaceutical industry. Protein-protein interfaces are usually large, flat, and often lack pockets, complicating the discovery of small molecules that target such sites. Alternative targeting approaches using antibodies have limitations due to poor oral bioavailability, low cell-permeability, and production inefficiency. Using peptides to target PPI interfaces has several advantages. Peptides have higher conformational flexibility, increased selectivity, and are generally inexpensive. However, peptides have their own limitations including poor stability and inefficiency crossing cell membranes. To overcome such limitations, peptide cyclization can be performed. Cyclization has been demonstrated to improve peptide selectivity, metabolic stability, and bioavailability. However, predicting the bioactive conformation of a cyclic peptide is not trivial. To overcome this challenge, one attractive approach it to screen a focused library to screen in which all backbone cyclic peptides have the same primary sequence, but differ in parameters that influence their conformation, such as ring size and position. We describe a detailed protocol for synthesizing a library of backbone cyclic peptides targeting specific parasite PPIs. Using a rational design approach, we developed peptides derived from the scaffold protein Leishmania receptor for activated C-kinase (LACK). We hypothesized that sequences in LACK that are conserved in parasites, but not in the mammalian host homolog, may represent interaction sites for proteins that are critical for the parasites' viability. The cyclic peptides were synthesized using microwave irradiation to reduce reaction times and increase efficiency. Developing a library of backbone cyclic peptides with different ring sizes facilitates a

  2. Solution structure of murine epidermal growth factor: determination of the polypeptide backbone chain-fold by nuclear magnetic resonance and distance geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Montelione, G.T.; Wuethrich, K.; Nice, E.C.; Burgess, A.W.; Scheraga, H.A.

    1987-08-01

    The polypeptide backbone fold in the solution structure of murine epidermal growth factor has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and distance geometry calculations. The results are based on nearly complete sequence-specific resonance assignments and on 333 distance and dihedral-angle constraints; these were determined from nuclear Overhauser effect measurements, identification of hydrogen-bonded amide protons, the known locations of disulfide bonds, and backbone vicinal spin-spin coupling constants. The polypeptide chains of the protein is arranged into two distinct domains. The structures of these domains were determined independently in separate calculations and then combined to obtain an overall view of the protein. The backbone fold thus determined includes the regular backbone structure elements that were previously identified using different techniques for the analysis of the nuclear magnetic resonance data. The distance geometry calculations also provided additional details about the conformations of bends and loops and about the twists of the ..beta..-sheets.

  3. A new protein domain for binding to DNA through the minor groove.

    PubMed Central

    Freire, R; Salas, M; Hermoso, J M

    1994-01-01

    Protein p6 of the Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 binds with low sequence specificity to DNA through the minor groove, forming a multimeric nucleoprotein complex that activates the initiation of phi 29 DNA replication. Deletion analysis suggested that the N-terminal part of protein p6, predicted to form an amphipathic alpha-helix, is involved in DNA binding. We have constructed site-directed mutants at the polar side of the putative alpha-helix. DNA binding and activation of initiation of phi 29 DNA replication were impaired in most of the mutant proteins obtained. A 19 amino acid peptide comprising the N-terminus of protein p6 interacted with a DNA fragment containing high-affinity signals for protein p6 binding with approximately 50-fold higher affinity than the peptide corresponding to an inactive mutant. Both wild-type peptide and protein p6 recognized the same sequences in this DNA fragment. This result, together with distamycin competition experiments, suggested that the wild-type peptide also binds to DNA through the minor groove. In addition, CD spectra of the wild-type peptide showed an increase in the alpha-helical content when bound to DNA. All these results indicate that an alpha-helical structure located in the N-terminal region of protein p6 is involved in DNA binding through the minor groove. Images PMID:7925279

  4. Amino acid substitution analyses of the DNA contact region, two amphipathic alpha-helices and a recognition-helix-like helix outside the dimeric beta-barrel of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Ikeda, M; Kusano, S; Yamazaki, M; Ito, S; Obayashi, M; Yanagi, K

    2001-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), which is essential for EBV latency, homodimerizes and binds to the EBV replication origin, oriP. We analyzed the dimerization/DNA-binding domain of EBNA-1 by random and site-directed amino acid substitution. Random point mutations that resulted in reduced DNA binding clustered in the DNA contact region (a.a. 461-473) and at or near the termini of alpha-helix II (514-527). Three substitutions of Gly in the DNA contact region each greatly reduced binding to a single binding site oligonucleotide. Substitutions at and near the termini of alpha-helix II diminished DNA binding. A helix-deforming substitution in alpha-helix I (477-489) blocked DNA binding. A helix-deforming substitution in alpha-helix III (568-582) abolished dimerization and DNA binding. Similarities in surface electrostatic properties and conserved amino acids were found between alpha-helix II and recognition helices of papillomavirus E2 proteins. The basic DNA contact region is crucial for the specific interaction of EBNA-1 with a single binding site. Alpha-helix I477 is indispensable for oriP binding, and alpha-helix III568 contributes to the homodimeric structure of EBNA-1. Alpha-helix II514 contributes to oriP binding, perhaps changing its alignment with DNA. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. ADAR RNA editing below the backbone.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Liam; Khan, Anzer; Vukic, Dragana; O'Connell, Mary

    2017-09-01

    ADAR RNA editing enzymes (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) that convert adenosine bases to inosines were first identified biochemically 30 years ago. Since then, studies on ADARs in genetic model organisms, and evolutionary comparisons between them, continue to reveal a surprising range of pleiotropic biological effects of ADARs. This review focuses on Drosophila melanogaster, which has a single Adar gene encoding a homolog of vertebrate ADAR2 that site-specifically edits hundreds of transcripts to change individual codons in ion channel subunits and membrane and cytoskeletal proteins. Drosophila ADAR is involved in the control of neuronal excitability and neurodegeneration and, intriguingly, in the control of neuronal plasticity and sleep. Drosophila ADAR also interacts strongly with RNA interference, a key antiviral defense mechanism in invertebrates. Recent crystal structures of human ADAR2 deaminase domain-RNA complexes help to interpret available information on Drosophila ADAR isoforms and on the evolution of ADARs from tRNA deaminase ADAT proteins. ADAR RNA editing is a paradigm for the now rapidly expanding range of RNA modifications in mRNAs and ncRNAs. Even with recent progress, much remains to be understood about these groundbreaking ADAR RNA modification systems. © 2017 Keegan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Mapping of the Neisseria meningitidis NadA cell-binding site: relevance of predicted {alpha}-helices in the NH2-terminal and dimeric coiled-coil regions.

    PubMed

    Tavano, Regina; Capecchi, Barbara; Montanari, Paolo; Franzoso, Susanna; Marin, Oriano; Sztukowska, Maryta; Cecchini, Paola; Segat, Daniela; Scarselli, Maria; Aricò, Beatrice; Papini, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    NadA is a trimeric autotransporter protein of Neisseria meningitidis belonging to the group of oligomeric coiled-coil adhesins. It is implicated in the colonization of the human upper respiratory tract by hypervirulent serogroup B N. meningitidis strains and is part of a multiantigen anti-serogroup B vaccine. Structure prediction indicates that NadA is made by a COOH-terminal membrane anchor (also necessary for autotranslocation to the bacterial surface), an intermediate elongated coiled-coil-rich stalk, and an NH(2)-terminal region involved in cell interaction. Electron microscopy analysis and structure prediction suggest that the apical region of NadA forms a compact and globular domain. Deletion studies proved that the NH(2)-terminal sequence (residues 24 to 87) is necessary for cell adhesion. In this study, to better define the NadA cell binding site, we exploited (i) a panel of NadA mutants lacking sequences along the coiled-coil stalk and (ii) several oligoclonal rabbit antibodies, and their relative Fab fragments, directed to linear epitopes distributed along the NadA ectodomain. We identified two critical regions for the NadA-cell receptor interaction with Chang cells: the NH(2) globular head domain and the NH(2) dimeric intrachain coiled-coil α-helices stemming from the stalk. This raises the importance of different modules within the predicted NadA structure. The identification of linear epitopes involved in receptor binding that are able to induce interfering antibodies reinforces the importance of NadA as a vaccine antigen.

  7. Exploring NMR ensembles of calcium binding proteins: Perspectives to design inhibitors of protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disrupting protein-protein interactions by small organic molecules is nowadays a promising strategy employed to block protein targets involved in different pathologies. However, structural changes occurring at the binding interfaces make difficult drug discovery processes using structure-based drug design/virtual screening approaches. Here we focused on two homologous calcium binding proteins, calmodulin and human centrin 2, involved in different cellular functions via protein-protein interactions, and known to undergo important conformational changes upon ligand binding. Results In order to find suitable protein conformations of calmodulin and centrin for further structure-based drug design/virtual screening, we performed in silico structural/energetic analysis and molecular docking of terphenyl (a mimicking alpha-helical molecule known to inhibit protein-protein interactions of calmodulin) into X-ray and NMR ensembles of calmodulin and centrin. We employed several scoring methods in order to find the best protein conformations. Our results show that docking on NMR structures of calmodulin and centrin can be very helpful to take into account conformational changes occurring at protein-protein interfaces. Conclusions NMR structures of protein-protein complexes nowadays available could efficiently be exploited for further structure-based drug design/virtual screening processes employed to design small molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. PMID:21569443

  8. Toxoplasma gondii: Biochemical and biophysical characterization of recombinant soluble dense granule proteins GRA2 and GRA6

    SciTech Connect

    Bittame, Amina; Effantin, Grégory; Pètre, Graciane; Ruffiot, Pauline; Travier, Laetitia; Schoehn, Guy; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Gagnon, Jean; Mercier, Corinne

    2015-03-27

    The most prominent structural feature of the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in which the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii proliferates is a membranous nanotubular network (MNN), which interconnects the parasites and the PV membrane. The MNN function remains unclear. The GRA2 and GRA6 proteins secreted from the parasite dense granules into the PV have been implicated in the MNN biogenesis. Amphipathic alpha-helices (AAHs) predicted in GRA2 and an alpha-helical hydrophobic domain predicted in GRA6 have been proposed to be responsible for their membrane association, thereby potentially molding the MMN in its structure. Here we report an analysis of the recombinant proteins (expressed in detergent-free conditions) by circular dichroism, which showed that full length GRA2 displays an alpha-helical secondary structure while recombinant GRA6 and GRA2 truncated of its AAHs are mainly random coiled. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy showed that recombinant GRA6 and truncated GRA2 constitute a homogenous population of small particles (6–8 nm in diameter) while recombinant GRA2 corresponds to 2 populations of particles (∼8–15 nm and up to 40 nm in diameter, respectively). The unusual properties of GRA2 due to its AAHs are discussed. - Highlights: • Toxoplasma gondii: soluble GRA2 forms 2 populations of particles. • T. gondii: the dense granule protein GRA2 folds intrinsically as an alpha-helix. • T. gondii: monomeric soluble GRA6 forms particles of 6–8 nm in diameter. • T. gondii: monomeric soluble GRA6 is random coiled. • Unusual biophysical properties of the dense granule protein GRA2 from T. gondii.

  9. On relationships between surfactant type and globular proteins interactions in solution.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Elena; Ruso, Juan M; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix

    2007-12-01

    The binding of sodium perfluorooctanoate (C8FONa), sodium octanoate (C8HONa), lithium perfluorooctanoate (C8FOLi), and sodium dodecanoate (C12HONa) onto myoglobin, ovalbumin, and catalase in water has been characterized using electrophoretic mobility. The tendency of the protein-surfactant complexes to change their charge in the order catalase < ovalbumin < myoglobin was observed which was related to the contents of alpha-helices in the proteins. alpha-Helices are more hydrophobic than beta-sheets. The effect of surfactant on the zeta potentials follows C8HONa < C8FONa < C8FOLi < C12HONa for catalase and ovalbumin; and C8HONa < C8FOLi < C8FONa < C12HONa for myoglobin. The numbers of binding sites on the proteins were determined from the observed increases of the zeta-potential as a function of surfactant concentration in the regions where the binding was a consequence of the hydrophobic effect. The Gibbs energies of binding of the surfactants onto the proteins were evaluated. For all systems, Gibbs energies are negative and large at low concentrations (where binding to the high energy sites takes place) and become less negative at higher ones. This fact suggests a saturation process. Changes in Gibbs energies with the different proteins and surfactants under study have been found to follow same sequence than that found for the charge. The role of hydrophobic interactions in these systems has been demonstrated to be the predominant.

  10. Chemical Synthesis of Hydrocarbon-Stapled Peptides for Protein Interaction Research and Therapeutic Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Gregory H.; Crannell, W. Christian; Walensky, Loren D.

    2016-01-01

    The peptide alpha-helix represents one of Nature’s most featured protein shapes and is employed in a diversity of protein architectures, spanning the very cytoskeletal infrastructure of the cell to the most intimate contact points between crucial signaling proteins. By installing an all-hydrocarbon crosslink into native sequences, we recapitulate the shape and biological activity of natural peptide alpha-helices, yielding a chemical toolbox to both interrogate the protein interactome and modulate interaction networks for potential therapeutic benefit. Here, we describe our latest approach to synthesizing Stabilized Alpha-Helices (SAH) corresponding to key protein interaction domains. We emphasize a stepwise approach to the production of crosslinking non-natural amino acids, their incorporation into peptide templates, and the application of ruthenium-catalyzed ring closing metathesis to generate hydrocarbon-stapled peptides. Through facile derivatization and functionalization steps, SAHs can be tailored for a broad range of applications in biochemical, structural, proteomic, cellular and in vivo studies. PMID:23801563

  11. Triazole linkages and backbone branches in nucleic acids for biological and extra-biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, Eduardo

    The recently increasing evidence of nucleic acids' alternative roles in biology and potential as useful nanomaterials and therapeutic agents has enabled the development of useful probes, elaborate nanostructures and therapeutic effectors based on nucleic acids. The study of alternative nucleic acid structure and function, particularly RNA, hinges on the ability to introduce site-specific modifications that either provide clues to the nucleic acid structure function relationship or alter the nucleic acid's function. Although the available chemistries allow for the conjugation of useful labels and molecules, their limitations lie in their tedious conjugation conditions or the lability of the installed probes. The development and optimization of click chemistry with RNA now provides the access to a robust and orthogonal conjugation methodology while providing stable conjugates. Our ability to introduce click reactive groups enzymatically, rather than only in the solid-phase, allows for the modification of larger, more cell relevant RNAs. Additionally, ligation of modified RNAs with larger RNA constructs through click chemistry represents an improvement over traditional ligation techniques. We determined that the triazole linkage generated through click chemistry is compatible in diverse nucleic acid based biological systems. Click chemistry has also been developed for extra-biological applications, particularly with DNA. We have expanded its use to generate useful polymer-DNA conjugates which can form controllable soft nanoparticles which take advantage of DNA's properties, i.e. DNA hybridization and computing. Additionally, we have generated protein-DNA conjugates and assembled protein-polymer hybrids mediated by DNA hybridization. The use of click chemistry in these reactions allows for the facile synthesis of these unnatural conjugates. We have also developed backbone branched DNA through click chemistry and showed that these branched DNAs are useful in generating

  12. The Graphical Representation of the Digital Astronaut Physiology Backbone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briers, Demarcus

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes my internship project with the NASA Digital Astronaut Project to analyze the Digital Astronaut (DA) physiology backbone model. The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) applies integrated physiology models to support space biomedical operations, and to assist NASA researchers in closing knowledge gaps related to human physiologic responses to space flight. The DA physiology backbone is a set of integrated physiological equations and functions that model the interacting systems of the human body. The current release of the model is HumMod (Human Model) version 1.5 and was developed over forty years at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC). The physiology equations and functions are scripted in an XML schema specifically designed for physiology modeling by Dr. Thomas G. Coleman at UMMC. Currently it is difficult to examine the physiology backbone without being knowledgeable of the XML schema. While investigating and documenting the tags and algorithms used in the XML schema, I proposed a standard methodology for a graphical representation. This standard methodology may be used to transcribe graphical representations from the DA physiology backbone. In turn, the graphical representations can allow examination of the physiological functions and equations without the need to be familiar with the computer programming languages or markup languages used by DA modeling software.

  13. Impact of template backbone heterogeneity on RNA polymerase II transcription

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Lu; Chong, Jenny; Huang, Xuhui; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the sugar component (ribose or deoxyribose) and the nature of the phosphodiester linkage (3′-5′ or 2′-5′ orientation) have been a challenge for genetic information transfer from the very beginning of evolution. RNA polymerase II (pol II) governs the transcription of DNA into precursor mRNA in all eukaryotic cells. How pol II recognizes DNA template backbone (phosphodiester linkage and sugar) and whether it tolerates the backbone heterogeneity remain elusive. Such knowledge is not only important for elucidating the chemical basis of transcriptional fidelity but also provides new insights into molecular evolution. In this study, we systematically and quantitatively investigated pol II transcriptional behaviors through different template backbone variants. We revealed that pol II can well tolerate and bypass sugar heterogeneity sites at the template but stalls at phosphodiester linkage heterogeneity sites. The distinct impacts of these two backbone components on pol II transcription reveal the molecular basis of template recognition during pol II transcription and provide the evolutionary insight from the RNA world to the contemporary ‘imperfect’ DNA world. In addition, our results also reveal the transcriptional consequences from ribose-containing genomic DNA. PMID:25662224

  14. Cooperative UAV-Based Communications Backbone for Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R S

    2001-10-07

    The objective of this project is to investigate the use of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) as mobile, adaptive communications backbones for ground-based sensor networks. In this type of network, the UAVs provide communication connectivity to sensors that cannot communicate with each other because of terrain, distance, or other geographical constraints. In these situations, UAVs provide a vertical communication path for the sensors, thereby mitigating geographic obstacles often imposed on networks. With the proper use of UAVs, connectivity to a widely disbursed sensor network in rugged terrain is readily achieved. Our investigation has focused on networks where multiple cooperating UAVs are used to form a network backbone. The advantage of using multiple UAVs to form the network backbone is parallelization of sensor connectivity. Many widely spaced or isolated sensors can be connected to the network at once using this approach. In these networks, the UAVs logically partition the sensor network into sub-networks (subnets), with one UAV assigned per subnet. Partitioning the network into subnets allows the UAVs to service sensors in parallel thereby decreasing the sensor-to-network connectivity. A UAV services sensors in its subnet by flying a route (path) through the subnet, uplinking data collected by the sensors, and forwarding the data to a ground station. An additional advantage of using multiple UAVs in the network is that they provide redundancy in the communications backbone, so that the failure of a single UAV does not necessarily imply the loss of the network.

  15. The T=1 capsid protein of Penicillium chrysogenum virus is formed by a repeated helix-rich core indicative of gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Luque, Daniel; González, José M; Garriga, Damiá; Ghabrial, Said A; Havens, Wendy M; Trus, Benes; Verdaguer, Nuria; Carrascosa, José L; Castón, José R

    2010-07-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum virus (PcV), a member of the Chrysoviridae family, is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) fungal virus with a multipartite genome, with each RNA molecule encapsidated in a separate particle. Chrysoviruses lack an extracellular route and are transmitted during sporogenesis and cell fusion. The PcV capsid, based on a T=1 lattice containing 60 subunits of the 982-amino-acid capsid protein, remains structurally undisturbed throughout the viral cycle, participates in genome metabolism, and isolates the virus genome from host defense mechanisms. Using three-dimensional cryoelectron microscopy, we determined the structure of the PcV virion at 8.0 A resolution. The capsid protein has a high content of rod-like densities characteristic of alpha-helices, forming a repeated alpha-helical core indicative of gene duplication. Whereas the PcV capsid protein has two motifs with the same fold, most dsRNA virus capsid subunits consist of dimers of a single protein with similar folds. The spatial arrangement of the alpha-helical core resembles that found in the capsid protein of the L-A virus, a fungal totivirus with an undivided genome, suggesting a conserved basic fold. The encapsidated genome is organized in concentric shells; whereas the inner dsRNA shells are well defined, the outermost layer is dense due to numerous interactions with the inner capsid surface, specifically, six interacting areas per monomer. The outermost genome layer is arranged in an icosahedral cage, sufficiently well ordered to allow for modeling of an A-form dsRNA. The genome ordering might constitute a framework for dsRNA transcription at the capsid interior and/or have a structural role for capsid stability.

  16. An algorithm for converting a virtual-bond chain into a complete polypeptide backbone chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, N.; Shibata, M.; Rein, R.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic analysis is presented of the algorithm for converting a virtual-bond chain, defined by the coordinates of the alpha-carbons of a given protein, into a complete polypeptide backbone. An alternative algorithm, based upon the same set of geometric parameters used in the Purisima-Scheraga algorithm but with a different "linkage map" of the algorithmic procedures, is proposed. The global virtual-bond chain geometric constraints are more easily separable from the loal peptide geometric and energetic constraints derived from, for example, the Ramachandran criterion, within the framework of this approach.

  17. Why fibrous proteins are romantic.

    PubMed

    Cohen, C

    1998-01-01

    Here I give a personal account of the great history of fibrous protein structure. I describe how Astbury first recognized the essential simplicity of fibrous proteins and their paradigmatic role in protein structure. The poor diffraction patterns yielded by these proteins were then deciphered by Pauling, Crick, Ramachandran and others (in part by model building) to reveal alpha-helical coiled coils, beta-sheets, and the collagen triple helical coiled coil-all characterized by different local sequence periodicities. Longer-range sequence periodicities (or "magic numbers") present in diverse fibrous proteins, such as collagen, tropomyosin, paramyosin, myosin, and were then shown to account for the characteristic axial repeats observed in filaments of these proteins. More recently, analysis of fibrous protein structure has been extended in many cases to atomic resolution, and some systems, such as "leucine zippers," are providing a deeper understanding of protein design than similar studies of globular proteins. In the last sections, I provide some dramatic examples of fibrous protein dynamics. One example is the so-called "spring-loaded" mechanism for viral fusion by the hemagglutinin protein of influenza. Another is the possible conformational changes in prion proteins, implicated in "mad cow disease," which may be related to similar transitions in a variety of globular and fibrous proteins.

  18. Backbone and side-chain (1)H, (15)N, (13)C assignment and secondary structure of BPSL1445 from Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Quilici, Giacomo; Berardi, Andrea; Gaudesi, Davide; Gourlay, Louise J; Bolognesi, Martino; Musco, Giovanna

    2015-10-01

    BPSL1445 is a lipoprotein produced by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei), the etiological agent of melioidosis. Immunodetection assays against sera patients using protein microarray suggest BPSL1445 involvement in melioidosis. Herein we report backbone, side chain NMR assignment and secondary structure for the recombinant protein.

  19. Structures of revertant signal sequences of Escherichia coli ribose binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Chi, S W; Yi, G S; Suh, J Y; Choi, B S; Kim, H

    1995-01-01

    Recently we reported (Yi et al., 1994) that the alpha-helical content of the signal peptide of Escherichia coli ribose binding protein, when determined by circular dichroism (CD) and two-dimensional NMR in trifluoroethanol/water solvent, is higher than that of its nonfunctional mutant signal peptide. In the present investigation, the structures of the signal peptides of two revertant ribose binding proteins in the same solvent were also determined with CD and two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy. According to the CD results, both of these revertant signal peptides showed an intermediate helicity between those of wild-type and mutant signal peptides, the helical content of the revertant peptide with higher recovery of the translocation capability being higher. On the other hand, the alpha-helix regions of the wild-type and the revertant peptides as determined by NMR were shown to be the same. This discrepancy may be due to the difference in stability between identical alpha-helical stretches in wild-type and revertant peptides. A good correlation was observed between the helical content of these four ribose binding protein signal peptides in TFE/water as studied by CD and their in vivo translocation activities. It appears, therefore, that both the proper length of the helix and the stability are of functional significance. PMID:8599676

  20. Noncanonical α/γ Backbone Conformations in RNA and the Accuracy of Their Description by the AMBER Force Field.

    PubMed

    Zgarbová, Marie; Jurečka, Petr; Banáš, Pavel; Havrila, Marek; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, Michal

    2017-03-23

    The sugar-phosphate backbone of RNA can exist in diverse rotameric substates, giving RNA molecules enormous conformational variability. The most frequent noncanonical backbone conformation in RNA is α/γ = t/t, which is derived from the canonical backbone by a crankshaft motion and largely preserves the standard geometry of the RNA duplex. A similar conformation also exists in DNA, where it has been extensively studied and shown to be involved in DNA-protein interactions. However, the function of the α/γ = t/t conformation in RNA is poorly understood. Here, we present molecular dynamics simulations of several prototypical RNA structures obtained from X-ray and NMR experiments, including canonical and mismatched RNA duplexes, UUCG and GAGA tetraloops, Loop E, the sarcin-ricin loop, a parallel guanine quadruplex, and a viral pseudoknot. The stability of various noncanonical α/γ backbone conformations was analyzed with two AMBER force fields, ff99bsc0χOL3 and ff99bsc0χOL3 with the recent εζOL1 and βOL1 corrections for DNA. Although some α/γ substates were stable with seemingly well-described equilibria, many were unstable in our simulations. Notably, the most frequent noncanonical conformer α/γ = t/t was unstable in both tested force fields. Possible reasons for this instability are discussed. Our work reveals a potentially important artifact in RNA force fields and highlights a need for further force field refinement.

  1. Energy minimization method using automata network for sequence and side-chain conformation prediction from given backbone geometry.

    PubMed

    Kono, H; Doi, J

    1994-07-01

    Globular proteins have high packing densities as a result of residue side chains in the core achieving a tight, complementary packing. The internal packing is considered the main determinant of native protein structure. From that point of view, we present here a method of energy minimization using an automata network to predict a set of amino acid sequences and their side-chain conformations from a desired backbone geometry for de novo design of proteins. Using discrete side-chain conformations, that is, rotamers, the sequence generation problem from a given backbone geometry becomes one of combinatorial problems. We focused on the residues composing the interior core region and predicted a set of amino acid sequences and their side-chain conformations only from a given backbone geometry. The kinds of residues were restricted to six hydrophobic amino acids (Ala, Ile, Met, Leu, Phe, and Val) because the core regions are almost always composed of hydrophobic residues. The obtained sequences were well packed as was the native sequence. The method can be used for automated sequence generation in the de novo design of proteins.

  2. Identification of systems containing nonlinear stiffnesses using backbone curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londoño, Julián M.; Cooper, Jonathan E.; Neild, Simon A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a method for the dynamic identification of structures containing discrete nonlinear stiffnesses. The approach requires the structure to be excited at a single resonant frequency, enabling measurements to be made in regimes of large displacements where nonlinearities are more likely to be significant. Measured resonant decay data is used to estimate the system backbone curves. Linear natural frequencies and nonlinear parameters are identified using these backbone curves assuming a form for the nonlinear behaviour. Numerical and experimental examples, inspired by an aerospace industry test case study, are considered to illustrate how the method can be applied. Results from these models demonstrate that the method can successfully deliver nonlinear models able to predict the response of the test structure nonlinear dynamics.

  3. Students' understanding of primary and secondary protein structure: drawing secondary protein structure reveals student understanding better than simple recognition of structures.

    PubMed

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of biochemistry courses requires students to use both chemistry and biology knowledge to understand biochemical concepts. Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations in addition to a fragmented understanding of fundamental biochemistry concepts. This project focuses on students' understanding of primary and secondary protein structure and drawings (representations) of hydrogen-bonding in alpha helices and beta sheets. Analysis demonstrated that students can recognize and identify primary protein structure concepts when given a polypeptide. However, when asked to draw alpha helices and beta sheets and explain the role of hydrogen bonding their drawings students exhibited a fragmented understanding that lacked coherence. Faculty are encouraged to have students draw molecular level representations to make their mental models more explicit, complete, and coherent. This is in contrast to recognition and identification tasks, which do not adequately probe mental models and molecular level understanding. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Functional domains of the bacteriophage P2 scaffolding protein: identification of residues involved in assembly and protease activity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jenny R; Spilman, Michael S; Rodenburg, Cynthia M; Dokland, Terje

    2009-02-05

    Bacteriophage P2 encodes a scaffolding protein, gpO, which is required for correct assembly of P2 procapsids from the gpN major capsid protein. The 284 residue gpO protein also acts as a protease, cleaving itself into an N-terminal fragment, O, that remains in the capsid following maturation. In addition, gpO is presumed to act as the maturation protease for gpN, which is N-terminally processed to N, accompanied by DNA packaging and capsid expansion. The protease activity of gpO resides in the N-terminal half of the protein. We show that gpO is a classical serine protease, with a catalytic triad comprised of Asp 19, His 48 and Ser 107. The C-terminal 90 amino acids of gpO are required and sufficient for capsid assembly. This fragment contains a predicted alpha-helical segment between residues 197 and 257 and exists as a multimer in solution, suggesting that oligomerization is required for scaffolding activity. Correct assembly requires the C-terminal cysteine residue, which is most likely involved in transient gpN interactions. Our results suggest a model for gpO scaffolding action in which the N-terminal half of gpO binds strongly to gpN, while oligomerization of the C-terminal alpha-helical domain of gpO and transient interactions between Cys 284 and gpN lead to capsid assembly.

  5. Induced helical backbone conformations of self-organizable dendronized polymers.

    PubMed

    Rudick, Jonathan G; Percec, Virgil

    2008-12-01

    Control of function through the primary structure of a molecule presents a significant challenge with valuable rewards for nanoscience. Dendritic building blocks encoded with information that defines their three-dimensional shape (e.g., flat-tapered or conical) and how they associate with each other are referred to as self-assembling dendrons. Self-organizable dendronized polymers possess a flat-tapered or conical self-assembling dendritic side chain on each repeat unit of a linear polymer backbone. When appended to a covalent polymer, the self-assembling dendrons direct a folding process (i.e., intramolecular self-assembly). Alternatively, intermolecular self-assembly of dendrons mediated by noncovalent interactions between apex groups can generate a supramolecular polymer backbone. Self-organization, as we refer to it, is the spontaneous formation of periodic and quasiperiodic arrays from supramolecular elements. Covalent and supramolecular polymers jacketed with self-assembling dendrons self-organize. The arrays are most often comprised of cylindrical or spherical objects. The shape of the object is determined by the primary structure of the dendronized polymer: the structure of the self-assembling dendron and the length of the polymer backbone. It is therefore possible to predictably generate building blocks for single-molecule nanotechnologies or arrays of supramolecules for bottom-up self-assembly. We exploit the self-organization of polymers jacketed with self-assembling dendrons to elucidate how primary structure determines the adopted conformation and fold (i.e., secondary and tertiary structure), how the supramolecules associate (i.e., quaternary structure), and their resulting functions. A combination of experimental techniques is employed to interrogate the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of the self-organizable dendronized polymers. We refer to the process by which we interpolate between the various levels of structural

  6. Exposing hidden alternative backbone conformations in X-ray crystallography using qFit

    SciTech Connect

    Keedy, Daniel A.; Fraser, James S.; van den Bedem, Henry; Shehu, Amarda

    2015-10-27

    Proteins must move between different conformations of their native ensemble to perform their functions. Crystal structures obtained from high-resolution X-ray diffraction data reflect this heterogeneity as a spatial and temporal conformational average. Although movement between natively populated alternative conformations can be critical for characterizing molecular mechanisms, it is challenging to identify these conformations within electron density maps. Alternative side chain conformations are generally well separated into distinct rotameric conformations, but alternative backbone conformations can overlap at several atomic positions. Our model building program qFit uses mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) to evaluate an extremely large number of combinations of sidechain conformers and backbone fragments to locally explain the electron density. Here, we describe two major modeling enhancements to qFit: peptide flips and alternative glycine conformations. We find that peptide flips fall into four stereotypical clusters and are enriched in glycine residues at the n+1 position. The potential for insights uncovered by new peptide flips and glycine conformations is exemplified by HIV protease, where different inhibitors are associated with peptide flips in the “flap” regions adjacent to the inhibitor binding site. Our results paint a picture of peptide flips as conformational switches, often enabled by glycine flexibility, that result in dramatic local rearrangements. Our results furthermore demonstrate the power of large-scale computational analysis to provide new insights into conformational heterogeneity. Furthermore, improved modeling of backbone heterogeneity with high-resolution X-ray data will connect dynamics to the structure-function relationship and help drive new design strategies for inhibitors of biomedically important systems.

  7. Exposing hidden alternative backbone conformations in X-ray crystallography using qFit

    DOE PAGES

    Keedy, Daniel A.; Fraser, James S.; van den Bedem, Henry; ...

    2015-10-27

    Proteins must move between different conformations of their native ensemble to perform their functions. Crystal structures obtained from high-resolution X-ray diffraction data reflect this heterogeneity as a spatial and temporal conformational average. Although movement between natively populated alternative conformations can be critical for characterizing molecular mechanisms, it is challenging to identify these conformations within electron density maps. Alternative side chain conformations are generally well separated into distinct rotameric conformations, but alternative backbone conformations can overlap at several atomic positions. Our model building program qFit uses mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) to evaluate an extremely large number of combinations of sidechainmore » conformers and backbone fragments to locally explain the electron density. Here, we describe two major modeling enhancements to qFit: peptide flips and alternative glycine conformations. We find that peptide flips fall into four stereotypical clusters and are enriched in glycine residues at the n+1 position. The potential for insights uncovered by new peptide flips and glycine conformations is exemplified by HIV protease, where different inhibitors are associated with peptide flips in the “flap” regions adjacent to the inhibitor binding site. Our results paint a picture of peptide flips as conformational switches, often enabled by glycine flexibility, that result in dramatic local rearrangements. Our results furthermore demonstrate the power of large-scale computational analysis to provide new insights into conformational heterogeneity. Furthermore, improved modeling of backbone heterogeneity with high-resolution X-ray data will connect dynamics to the structure-function relationship and help drive new design strategies for inhibitors of biomedically important systems.« less

  8. Exposing Hidden Alternative Backbone Conformations in X-ray Crystallography Using qFit

    PubMed Central

    Keedy, Daniel A.; Fraser, James S.; van den Bedem, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Proteins must move between different conformations of their native ensemble to perform their functions. Crystal structures obtained from high-resolution X-ray diffraction data reflect this heterogeneity as a spatial and temporal conformational average. Although movement between natively populated alternative conformations can be critical for characterizing molecular mechanisms, it is challenging to identify these conformations within electron density maps. Alternative side chain conformations are generally well separated into distinct rotameric conformations, but alternative backbone conformations can overlap at several atomic positions. Our model building program qFit uses mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) to evaluate an extremely large number of combinations of sidechain conformers and backbone fragments to locally explain the electron density. Here, we describe two major modeling enhancements to qFit: peptide flips and alternative glycine conformations. We find that peptide flips fall into four stereotypical clusters and are enriched in glycine residues at the n+1 position. The potential for insights uncovered by new peptide flips and glycine conformations is exemplified by HIV protease, where different inhibitors are associated with peptide flips in the “flap” regions adjacent to the inhibitor binding site. Our results paint a picture of peptide flips as conformational switches, often enabled by glycine flexibility, that result in dramatic local rearrangements. Our results furthermore demonstrate the power of large-scale computational analysis to provide new insights into conformational heterogeneity. Overall, improved modeling of backbone heterogeneity with high-resolution X-ray data will connect dynamics to the structure-function relationship and help drive new design strategies for inhibitors of biomedically important systems. PMID:26506617

  9. On the role of thermal backbone fluctuations in myoglobin ligand gate dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Niemi, Antti J.; Peng, Xubiao

    2013-05-01

    We construct an energy function that describes the crystallographic structure of sperm whale myoglobin backbone. As a model in our construction, we use the Protein Data Bank entry 1ABS that has been measured at liquid helium temperature. Consequently, the thermal B-factor fluctuations are very small, which is an advantage in our construction. The energy function that we utilize resembles that of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Likewise, ours supports topological solitons as local minimum energy configurations. We describe the 1ABS backbone in terms of topological solitons with a precision that deviates from 1ABS by an average root-mean-square distance, which is less than the experimentally observed Debye-Waller B-factor fluctuation distance. We then subject the topological multi-soliton solution to extensive numerical heating and cooling experiments, over a very wide range of temperatures. We concentrate in particular to temperatures above 300 K and below the Θ-point unfolding temperature, which is around 348 K. We confirm that the behavior of the topological multi-soliton is fully consistent with Anfinsen's thermodynamic principle, up to very high temperatures. We observe that the structure responds to an increase of temperature consistently in a very similar manner. This enables us to characterize the onset of thermally induced conformational changes in terms of three distinct backbone ligand gates. One of the gates is made of the helix F and the helix E. The two other gates are chosen similarly, when open they provide a direct access route for a ligand to reach the heme. We find that out of the three gates we investigate, the one which is formed by helices B and G is the most sensitive to thermally induced conformational changes. Our approach provides a novel perspective to the important problem of ligand entry and exit.

  10. Exposing Hidden Alternative Backbone Conformations in X-ray Crystallography Using qFit.

    PubMed

    Keedy, Daniel A; Fraser, James S; van den Bedem, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Proteins must move between different conformations of their native ensemble to perform their functions. Crystal structures obtained from high-resolution X-ray diffraction data reflect this heterogeneity as a spatial and temporal conformational average. Although movement between natively populated alternative conformations can be critical for characterizing molecular mechanisms, it is challenging to identify these conformations within electron density maps. Alternative side chain conformations are generally well separated into distinct rotameric conformations, but alternative backbone conformations can overlap at several atomic positions. Our model building program qFit uses mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) to evaluate an extremely large number of combinations of sidechain conformers and backbone fragments to locally explain the electron density. Here, we describe two major modeling enhancements to qFit: peptide flips and alternative glycine conformations. We find that peptide flips fall into four stereotypical clusters and are enriched in glycine residues at the n+1 position. The potential for insights uncovered by new peptide flips and glycine conformations is exemplified by HIV protease, where different inhibitors are associated with peptide flips in the "flap" regions adjacent to the inhibitor binding site. Our results paint a picture of peptide flips as conformational switches, often enabled by glycine flexibility, that result in dramatic local rearrangements. Our results furthermore demonstrate the power of large-scale computational analysis to provide new insights into conformational heterogeneity. Overall, improved modeling of backbone heterogeneity with high-resolution X-ray data will connect dynamics to the structure-function relationship and help drive new design strategies for inhibitors of biomedically important systems.

  11. pH-dependent Interactions of the carboxyl-terminal helix of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein with synthetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Yaworsky, Dustin C; Baker, Bo Y; Bose, Himangshu S; Best, Katrina B; Jensen, Lauren B; Bell, John D; Baldwin, Michael A; Miller, Walter L

    2005-01-21

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein facilitates import of cholesterol into adrenal and gonadal mitochondria where cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone, initiating steroidogenesis. StAR acts exclusively on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) by unknown mechanisms. To identify StAR domains involved in membrane association, we reacted N-62 StAR with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) composed of lipids resembling the OMM. Solvent-exposed domains were digested with trypsin, Asp-N, or pepsin at different pH levels, and StAR peptides protected from proteolysis were identified by mass spectrometry. At pH 4 SUVs completely protected residues 259-282; at pH 6.5 this region was partially digested into 254-272, 254-273, and 254-274. Computer-graphic modeling of N-62 StAR indicated these peptides correspond to the C-terminal alpha4 helix and that residues Leu(275), Thr(263), and Arg(272) in alpha4 form stabilizing interactions with Gln(128), Asp(150), and Asp(106) in adjacent loops. CD spectroscopy of a 37-mer model of alpha4 (residues 247-287) indicated a random coil in aqueous buffer, but in 40% methanol the peptide was alpha-helical and achieved maximal alpha-helicity at pH 5.0 in the presence of SUVs. Reacting the 37-mer with diethyl pyrocarbamate incorporated into SUVs increased the number of modified residues. Thus the C-terminal alpha4 helix is critically involved in the membrane association of StAR with OMM lipids. The membrane association and the alpha-helical structure of the C terminus in the presence of OMM lipids are also pH-dependent. These results further support StAR undergoing a pH-dependent change in its conformation when interacting with the acidic phospholipid head groups of a membrane.

  12. The Structure of the Human Centrin 2-Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group C Protein Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson,J.; Ryan, Z.; Salisbury, J.; Kumar, R.

    2006-01-01

    Human centrin-2 plays a key role in centrosome function and stimulates nucleotide excision repair by binding to the xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein. To determine the structure of human centrin-2 and to develop an understanding of molecular interactions between centrin and xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein, we characterized the crystal structure of calcium-loaded full-length centrin-2 complexed with a xeroderma pigmentosum group C peptide. Our structure shows that the carboxyl-terminal domain of centrin-2 binds this peptide and two calcium atoms, whereas the amino-terminal lobe is in a closed conformation positioned distantly by an ordered {alpha}-helical linker. A stretch of the amino-terminal domain unique to centrins appears disordered. Two xeroderma pigmentosum group C peptides both bound to centrin-2 also interact to form an {alpha}-helical coiled-coil. The interface between centrin-2 and each peptide is predominantly nonpolar, and key hydrophobic residues of XPC have been identified that lead us to propose a novel binding motif for centrin.

  13. A helix propensity scale based on experimental studies of peptides and proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Pace, C N; Scholtz, J M

    1998-01-01

    The average globular protein contains 30% alpha-helix, the most common type of secondary structure. Some amino acids occur more frequently in alpha-helices than others; this tendency is known as helix propensity. Here we derive a helix propensity scale for solvent-exposed residues in the middle positions of alpha-helices. The scale is based on measurements of helix propensity in 11 systems, including both proteins and peptides. Alanine has the highest helix propensity, and, excluding proline, glycine has the lowest, approximately 1 kcal/mol less favorable than alanine. Based on our analysis, the helix propensities of the amino acids are as follows (kcal/mol): Ala = 0, Leu = 0.21, Arg = 0.21, Met = 0.24, Lys = 0.26, Gln = 0.39, Glu = 0.40, Ile = 0.41, Trp = 0.49, Ser = 0.50, Tyr = 0. 53, Phe = 0.54, Val = 0.61, His = 0.61, Asn = 0.65, Thr = 0.66, Cys = 0.68, Asp = 0.69, and Gly = 1. PMID:9649402

  14. The role of charged amphipathic helices in the structure and function of surfactant protein B.

    PubMed

    Waring, A J; Walther, F J; Gordon, L M; Hernandez-Juviel, J M; Hong, T; Sherman, M A; Alonso, C; Alig, T; Braun, A; Bacon, D; Zasadzinski, J A

    2005-12-01

    Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is essential for normal lung surfactant function. Theoretical models predict that the disulfide cross-linked, N- and C-terminal domains of SP-B fold as charged amphipathic helices, and suggest that these adjacent helices participate in critical surfactant activities. This hypothesis is tested using a disulfide-linked construct (Mini-B) based on the primary sequences of the N- and C-terminal domains. Consistent with theoretical predictions of the full-length protein, both isotope-enhanced Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and molecular modeling confirm the presence of charged amphipathic alpha-helices in Mini-B. Similar to that observed with native SP-B, Mini-B in model surfactant lipid mixtures exhibits marked in vitro activity, with spread films showing near-zero minimum surface tensions during cycling using captive bubble surfactometry. In vivo, Mini-B shows oxygenation and dynamic compliance that compare favorably with that of full-length SP-B. Mini-B variants (i.e. reduced disulfides or cationic residues replaced by uncharged residues) or Mini-B fragments (i.e. unlinked N- and C-terminal domains) produced greatly attenuated in vivo and in vitro surfactant properties. Hence, the combination of structure and charge for the amphipathic alpha-helical N- and C-terminal domains are key to SP-B function.

  15. Conformational detection of prion protein with biarsenical labeling and FlAsH fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Bradley M.; Nisbet, Rebecca M.; Han, Sen; Cappai, Roberto; Hatters, Danny M.; Hill, Andrew F.

    2009-03-13

    Prion diseases are associated with the misfolding of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) into a disease associated form (PrP{sup Sc}). Recombinant PrP can be refolded into either an {alpha}-helical rich conformation ({alpha}-PrP) resembling PrP{sup C} or a {beta}-sheet rich, protease resistant form similar to PrP{sup Sc}. Here, we generated tetracysteine tagged recombinant PrP, folded this into {alpha}- or {beta}-PrP and determined the levels of FlAsH fluorescence. Insertion of the tetracysteine tag at three different sites within the 91-111 epitope readily distinguished {beta}-PrP from {alpha}-PrP upon FlAsH labeling. Labelling of tetracysteine tagged PrP in the {alpha}-helical form showed minimal fluorescence, whereas labeling of tagged PrP in the {beta}-sheet form showed high fluorescence indicating that this region is exposed upon conversion. This highlights a region of PrP that can be implicated in the development of diagnostics and is a novel, protease free mechanism for distinguishing PrP{sup Sc} from PrP{sup C}. This technique may also be applied to any protein that undergoes conformational change and/or misfolding such as those involved in other neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases.

  16. TRAMPLE: the transmembrane protein labelling environment.

    PubMed

    Fariselli, Piero; Finelli, Michele; Rossi, Ivan; Amico, Mauro; Zauli, Andrea; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Casadio, Rita

    2005-07-01

    TRAMPLE (http://gpcr.biocomp.unibo.it/biodec/) is a web application server dedicated to the detection and the annotation of transmembrane protein sequences. TRAMPLE includes different state-of-the-art algorithms for the prediction of signal peptides, transmembrane segments (both beta-strands and alpha-helices), secondary structure and fast fold recognition. TRAMPLE also includes a complete content management system to manage the results of the predictions. Each user of the server has his/her own workplace, where the data can be stored, organized, accessed and annotated with documents through a simple web-based interface. In this manner, TRAMPLE significantly improves usability with respect to other more traditional web servers.

  17. High-throughput backbone resonance assignment of small 13C, 15N-labeled proteins by a triple-resonance experiment with four sequential connectivity pathways using chemical shift-dependent, apparent 1J ( 1H, 13C): HNCACB codedHAHB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegan, Scott; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Choe, Senyon; Riek, Roland

    2003-12-01

    The proposed three-dimensional triple-resonance experiment HNCACB codedHAHB correlates sequential 15N, 1H moieties via the chemical shifts of 13C α, 13C β, 1H α, and 1H β. The four sequential correlation pathways are achieved by the incorporation of the concept of chemical shift-coding [J. Biomol. NMR 25 (2003) 281] to the TROSY-HNCACB experiment. The monitored 1H α and 1H β chemical shifts are then coded in the line shape of the cross-peaks of 13C α, 13C β along the 13C dimension through an apparent residual scalar coupling, the size of which depends on the attached hydrogen chemical shift. The information of four sequential correlation pathways enables a rapid backbone assignment. The HNCACB codedHAHB experiment was applied to ˜85% labeled 13C, 15N-labeled amino-terminal fragment of Vaccinia virus DNA topoisomerase I comprising residues 1-77. After one day of measurement on a Bruker Avance 700 MHz spectrometer and 8 h of manual analysis of the spectrum 93% of the backbone assignment was achieved.

  18. Stabilization of secondary structure elements by specific combinations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acid residues is more important for proteins encoded by GC-poor genes.

    PubMed

    Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich; Barkovsky, Eugene Victorovich

    2012-12-01

    Stabilization of secondary structure elements by specific combinations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids has been studied by the way of analysis of pentapeptide fragments from twelve partial bacterial proteomes. PDB files describing structures of proteins from species with extremely high and low genomic GC-content, as well as with average G + C were included in the study. Amino acid residues in 78,009 pentapeptides from alpha helices, beta strands and coil regions were classified into hydrophobic and hydrophilic ones. The common propensity scale for 32 possible combinations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acid residues in pentapeptide has been created: specific pentapeptides for helix, sheet and coil were described. The usage of pentapeptides preferably forming alpha helices is decreasing in alpha helices of partial bacterial proteomes with the increase of the average genomic GC-content in first and second codon positions. The usage of pentapeptides preferably forming beta strands is increasing in coil regions and in helices of partial bacterial proteomes with the growth of the average genomic GC-content in first and second codon positions. Due to these circumstances the probability of coil-sheet and helix-sheet transitions should be increased in proteins encoded by GC-rich genes making them prone to form amyloid in certain conditions. Possible causes of the described fact that importance of alpha helix and coil stabilization by specific combinations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids is growing with the decrease of genomic GC-content have been discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Equilibrium folding and stability of myotrophin: a model ankyrin repeat protein.

    PubMed

    Mosavi, Leila K; Williams, Suzanna; Peng Zy, Zheng-yu

    2002-07-05

    Proteins containing stretches of repeating amino acid sequences are prevalent throughout nature, yet little is known about the general folding and assembly mechanisms of these systems. Here we propose myotrophin as a model system to study the folding of ankyrin repeat proteins. Myotrophin is folded over a large pH range and is soluble at high concentrations. Thermal and urea denaturation studies show that the protein displays cooperative two-state folding properties despite its modular nature. Taken together with previous studies on other ankyrin repeat proteins, our data suggest that the two-state folding pathway may be characteristic of ankyrin repeat proteins and other integrated alpha-helical repeat proteins in general.

  20. Structural evolution of the 4/1 genes and proteins in non-vascular and lower vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Sergey Y; Milyutina, Irina A; Bobrova, Vera K; Ryazantsev, Dmitry Y; Erokhina, Tatiana N; Zavriev, Sergey K; Agranovsky, Alexey A; Solovyev, Andrey G; Troitsky, Alexey V

    2015-12-01

    The 4/1 protein of unknown function is encoded by a single-copy gene in most higher plants. The 4/1 protein of Nicotiana tabacum (Nt-4/1 protein) has been shown to be alpha-helical and predominantly expressed in conductive tissues. Here, we report the analysis of 4/1 genes and the encoded proteins of lower land plants. Sequences of a number of 4/1 genes from liverworts, lycophytes, ferns and gymnosperms were determined and analyzed together with sequences available in databases. Most of the vascular plants were found to encode Magnoliophyta-like 4/1 proteins exhibiting previously described gene structure and protein properties. Identification of the 4/1-like proteins in hornworts, liverworts and charophyte algae (sister lineage to all land plants) but not in mosses suggests that 4/1 proteins are likely important for plant development but not required for a primary metabolic function of plant cell.

  1. Atomic resolution structure of cucurmosin, a novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Xiaomin; Meehan, Edward J.; Xie, Jieming; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Minghuang; Chen, Liqing

    2008-10-27

    A novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) designated cucurmosin was isolated from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin). Besides rRNA N-glycosidase activity, cucurmosin exhibits strong cytotoxicities to three cancer cell lines of both human and murine origins, but low toxicity to normal cells. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the tender leaves was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal sequence and X-ray sequence of the C-terminal. The complete mature protein sequence was obtained from N-terminal protein sequencing and partial DNA sequencing, confirmed by high resolution crystal structure analysis. The crystal structure of cucurmosin has been determined at 1.04 {angstrom}, a resolution that has never been achieved before for any RIP. The structure contains two domains: a large N-terminal domain composed of seven {alpha}-helices and eight {beta}-strands, and a smaller C-terminal domain consisting of three {alpha}-helices and two {beta}-strands. The high resolution structure established a glycosylation pattern of GlcNAc{sub 2}Man3Xyl. Asn225 was identified as a glycosylation site. Residues Tyr70, Tyr109, Glu158 and Arg161 define the active site of cucurmosin as an RNA N-glycosidase. The structural basis of cytotoxicity difference between cucurmosin and trichosanthin is discussed.

  2. Synthesis and structure-function study about tenecin 1, an antibacterial protein from larvae of Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Hong, S Y; Oh, J E

    1998-11-13

    Tenecin 1, an inducible antibacterial protein secreted in the larvae of Tenebrio molitor, has a long N-terminal loop and common structural feature of insect defensin family corresponding to cysteine stabilized alpha/beta motif. To study the function of the N-terminal loop and disulfide bridges, N-terminal loop deleted tenecin 1, reduced tenecin 1 and tenecin 1 were chemically synthesized and their activities were measured. N-terminal loop deleted tenecin and reduced tenecin 1 did not show antibacterial activity. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy data revealed that the alpha-helical content of tenecin 1 and the other proteins increased in the presence of 50% (v/v) trifluoroethanol (TFE) and the alpha-helical content of tenecin 1 was much higher than that of the other proteins in buffer with or without 50% (v/v) TFE. These results suggest that disulfide bridges are necessary for the activity structure and the N-terminal loop plays an important role in the increase of alpha-helix in the membrane mimetic environment and the activity.

  3. RNA-Redesign: a web server for fixed-backbone 3D design of RNA.

    PubMed

    Yesselman, Joseph D; Das, Rhiju

    2015-07-01

    RNA is rising in importance as a design medium for interrogating fundamental biology and for developing therapeutic and bioengineering applications. While there are several online servers for design of RNA secondary structure, there are no tools available for the rational design of 3D RNA structure. Here we present RNA-Redesign (http://rnaredesign.stanford.edu), an online 3D design tool for RNA. This resource utilizes fixed-backbone design to optimize the sequence identity and nucleobase conformations of an RNA to match a desired backbone, analogous to fundamental tools that underlie rational protein engineering. The resulting sequences suggest thermostabilizing mutations that can be experimentally verified. Further, sequence preferences that differ between natural and computationally designed sequences can suggest whether natural sequences possess functional constraints besides folding stability, such as cofactor binding or conformational switching. Finally, for biochemical studies, the designed sequences can suggest experimental tests of 3D models, including concomitant mutation of base triples. In addition to the designs generated, detailed graphical analysis is presented through an integrated and user-friendly environment.

  4. Resistance of Feynman diagrams and the percolation backbone dimension.

    PubMed

    Janssen, H K; Stenull, O; Oerding, K

    1999-06-01

    We present an alternative view of Feynman diagrams for the field theory of random resistor networks, in which the diagrams are interpreted as being resistor networks themselves. This simplifies the field theory considerably as we demonstrate by calculating the fractal dimension D(B) of the percolation backbone to three loop order. Using renormalization group methods we obtain D(B)=2+epsilon/21-172epsilon(2)/9261+2epsilon(3)[-74 639+22 680zeta(3)]/4 084 101, where epsilon=6-d with d being the spatial dimension and zeta(3)=1.202 057... .

  5. Robust identification of backbone curves using control-based continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renson, L.; Gonzalez-Buelga, A.; Barton, D. A. W.; Neild, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Control-based continuation is a recently developed approach for testing nonlinear dynamic systems in a controlled manner and exploring their dynamic features as system parameters are varied. In this paper, control-based continuation is adapted to follow the locus where system response and excitation are in quadrature, extracting the backbone curve of the underlying conservative system. The method is applied to a single-degree-of-freedom oscillator under base excitation, and the results are compared with the standard resonant-decay method.

  6. Stoichiometry of lipid interactions with transmembrane proteins--Deduced from the 3D structures.

    PubMed

    Páli, Tibor; Bashtovyy, Denys; Marsh, Derek

    2006-05-01

    The stoichiometry of the first shell of lipids interacting with a transmembrane protein is defined operationally by the population of spin-labeled lipid chains whose motion is restricted directly by the protein. Interaction stoichiometries have been determined experimentally for a wide range of alpha-helical integral membrane proteins by using spin-label ESR spectroscopy. Here, we determine the spatially defined number of first-shell lipids at the hydrophobic perimeter of integral membrane proteins whose 3D structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography and lipid-protein interactions characterized by spin-labeling. Molecular modeling is used to build a single shell of lipids surrounding transmembrane structures derived from the PDB. Constrained energy optimization of the protein-lipid assemblies is performed by molecular mechanics. For relatively small proteins (up to 7-12 transmembrane helices), the geometrical first shell corresponds to that defined experimentally by perturbation of the lipid-chain dynamics. For larger, multi-subunit alpha-helical proteins, the lipids perturbed directly by the protein may either exceed or be less in number than those that can be accommodated at the intramembranous perimeter. In these latter cases, the motionally restricted spin-labeled lipids can be augmented by intercalation, or can correspond to a specific subpopulation at the protein interface, respectively. For monomeric beta-barrel proteins, the geometrical lipid stoichiometry corresponds to that determined from lipid mobility for a 22-stranded barrel, but fewer lipids are motionally restricted than can be accommodated around an eight-stranded barrel. Deviations from the geometrical first shell, in the beta-barrel case, are for the smaller protein with a highly curved barrel.

  7. Pharmacological interference with protein-protein interactions mediated by coiled-coil motifs.

    PubMed

    Strauss, H M; Keller, S

    2008-01-01

    Coiled coils are bundles of intertwined alpha-helices that provide protein-protein interaction sites for the dynamic assembly and disassembly of protein complexes. The coiled-coil motif combines structural versatility and adaptability with mechanical strength and specificity. Multimeric proteins that rely on coiled-coil interactions are structurally and functionally very diverse, ranging from simple homodimeric transcription factors to elaborate heteromultimeric scaffolding clusters. Several coiled-coil-bearing proteins are of outstanding pharmacological importance, most notably SNARE proteins involved in vesicular trafficking of neurotransmitters and viral fusion proteins. Together with their crucial roles in many physiological and pathological processes, the structural simplicity and reversible nature of coiled-coil associations render them a promising target for pharmacological interference, as successfully exemplified by botulinum toxins and viral fusion inhibitors. The alpha-helical coiled coil is a ubiquitous protein domain that mediates highly specific homo- and heteromeric protein-protein interactions among a wide range of proteins. The coiled-coil motif was first proposed by Crick on the basis of X-ray diffraction data on alpha-keratin more than 50 years ago (Crick 1952, 1953) and nowadays belongs to the best-characterized protein interaction modules. By definition, a coiled coil is an oligomeric protein assembly consisting of several right-handed amphipathic alpha-helices that wind around each other into a superhelix (or a supercoil) in which the hydrophobic surfaces of the constituent helices are in continuous contact, forming a hydrophobic core. Both homomeric and heteromeric coiled coils with different stoichiometries are possible, and the helices can be aligned in either a parallel or an antiparallel topology (Harbury et al. 1993, 1994). Stoichiometry and topology are governed by the primary structure, that is, the sequence of the polypeptide chains

  8. Solution structure of a membrane-anchored ubiquitin-fold (MUB) protein from Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Norberto B; Peterson, Francis C; Lytle, Betsy L; Volkman, Brian F

    2007-07-01

    The protein Bc059385, whose solution structure is reported here, is the human representative of a recently identified family of membrane-anchored ubiquitin-fold (MUB) proteins. Analysis of their similarity to ubiquitin indicates that homologous amino acid residues in MUBs form a hydrophobic surface very similar to the recognition patch surrounding Ile-44 in ubiquitin. This suggests that MUBs may interact with proteins containing an alpha-helical motif similar to those of some ubiquitin binding domains. A disordered loop common to MUBs may also provide a second protein interaction site. From the available data, it is probable that this protein is prenylated and associated with the membrane. With <20% identity to ubiquitin, the MUB family further expands the sequence space that maps to the beta-grasp fold, and adds membrane localization to its list of functional roles.

  9. Long-term forecasting of internet backbone traffic.

    PubMed

    Papagiannaki, Konstantina; Taft, Nina; Zhang, Zhi-Li; Diot, Christophe

    2005-09-01

    We introduce a methodology to predict when and where link additions/upgrades have to take place in an Internet protocol (IP) backbone network. Using simple network management protocol (SNMP) statistics, collected continuously since 1999, we compute aggregate demand between any two adjacent points of presence (PoPs) and look at its evolution at time scales larger than 1 h. We show that IP backbone traffic exhibits visible long term trends, strong periodicities, and variability at multiple time scales. Our methodology relies on the wavelet multiresolution analysis (MRA) and linear time series models. Using wavelet MRA, we smooth the collected measurements until we identify the overall long-term trend. The fluctuations around the obtained trend are further analyzed at multiple time scales. We show that the largest amount of variability in the original signal is due to its fluctuations at the 12-h time scale. We model inter-PoP aggregate demand as a multiple linear regression model, consisting of the two identified components. We show that this model accounts for 98% of the total energy in the original signal, while explaining 90% of its variance. Weekly approximations of those components can be accurately modeled with low-order autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. We show that forecasting the long term trend and the fluctuations of the traffic at the 12-h time scale yields accurate estimates for at least 6 months in the future.

  10. A phylogenetic backbone for Bivalvia: an RNA-seq approach

    PubMed Central

    González, Vanessa L.; Andrade, Sónia C. S.; Bieler, Rüdiger; Collins, Timothy M.; Dunn, Casey W.; Mikkelsen, Paula M.; Taylor, John D.; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Bivalves are an ancient and ubiquitous group of aquatic invertebrates with an estimated 10 000–20 000 living species. They are economically significant as a human food source, and ecologically important given their biomass and effects on communities. Their phylogenetic relationships have been studied for decades, and their unparalleled fossil record extends from the Cambrian to the Recent. Nevertheless, a robustly supported phylogeny of the deepest nodes, needed to fully exploit the bivalves as a model for testing macroevolutionary theories, is lacking. Here, we present the first phylogenomic approach for this important group of molluscs, including novel transcriptomic data for 31 bivalves obtained through an RNA-seq approach, and analyse these data with published genomes and transcriptomes of other bivalves plus outgroups. Our results provide a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic backbone for Bivalvia with all major lineages delineated, addressing long-standing questions about the monophyly of Protobranchia and Heterodonta, and resolving the position of particular groups such as Palaeoheterodonta, Archiheterodonta and Anomalodesmata. This now fully resolved backbone demonstrates that genomic approaches using hundreds of genes are feasible for resolving phylogenetic questions in bivalves and other animals. PMID:25589608

  11. A phylogenetic backbone for Bivalvia: an RNA-seq approach.

    PubMed

    González, Vanessa L; Andrade, Sónia C S; Bieler, Rüdiger; Collins, Timothy M; Dunn, Casey W; Mikkelsen, Paula M; Taylor, John D; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2015-02-22

    Bivalves are an ancient and ubiquitous group of aquatic invertebrates with an estimated 10 000-20 000 living species. They are economically significant as a human food source, and ecologically important given their biomass and effects on communities. Their phylogenetic relationships have been studied for decades, and their unparalleled fossil record extends from the Cambrian to the Recent. Nevertheless, a robustly supported phylogeny of the deepest nodes, needed to fully exploit the bivalves as a model for testing macroevolutionary theories, is lacking. Here, we present the first phylogenomic approach for this important group of molluscs, including novel transcriptomic data for 31 bivalves obtained through an RNA-seq approach, and analyse these data with published genomes and transcriptomes of other bivalves plus outgroups. Our results provide a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic backbone for Bivalvia with all major lineages delineated, addressing long-standing questions about the monophyly of Protobranchia and Heterodonta, and resolving the position of particular groups such as Palaeoheterodonta, Archiheterodonta and Anomalodesmata. This now fully resolved backbone demonstrates that genomic approaches using hundreds of genes are feasible for resolving phylogenetic questions in bivalves and other animals.

  12. Structural and thermodynamic studies of the tobacco calmodulin-like rgs-CaM protein.

    PubMed

    Makiyama, Rodrigo K; Fernandes, Carlos A H; Dreyer, Thiago R; Moda, Bruno S; Matioli, Fabio F; Fontes, Marcos R M; Maia, Ivan G

    2016-11-01

    The tobacco calmodulin-like protein rgs-CaM is involved in host defense against virus and is reported to possess an associated RNA silencing suppressor activity. Rgs-CaM is also believed to act as an antiviral factor by interacting and targeting viral silencing suppressors for autophagic degradation. Despite these functional data, calcium interplay in the modulation of rgs-CaM is still poorly understood. Here we show that rgs-CaM displays a prevalent alpha-helical conformation and possesses three functional Ca(2+)-binding sites. Using computational modeling and molecular dynamics simulation, we demonstrate that Ca(2+) binding to rgs-CaM triggers expansion of its tertiary structure with reorientation of alpha-helices within the EF-hands. This conformational change leads to the exposure of a large negatively charged region that may be implicated in the electrostatic interactions between rgs-CaM and viral suppressors. Moreover, the kd values obtained for Ca(2+) binding to the three functional sites are not within the affinity range of a typical Ca(2+) sensor.

  13. Design of a minimal protein oligomerization domain by a structural approach.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, P; Meier, M; Lustig, A

    2000-12-01

    Because of the simplicity and regularity of the alpha-helical coiled coil relative to other structural motifs, it can be conveniently used to clarify the molecular interactions responsible for protein folding and stability. Here we describe the de novo design and characterization of a two heptad-repeat peptide stabilized by a complex network of inter- and intrahelical salt bridges. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation show that this peptide is highly alpha-helical and 100% dimeric tinder physiological buffer conditions. Interestingly, the peptide was shown to switch its oligomerization state from a dimer to a trimer upon increasing ionic strength. The correctness of the rational design principles used here is supported by details of the atomic structure of the peptide deduced from X-ray crystallography. The structure of the peptide shows that it is not a molten globule but assumes a unique, native-like conformation. This de novo peptide thus represents an attractive model system for the design of a molecular recognition system.

  14. Design of a minimal protein oligomerization domain by a structural approach.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhard, P.; Meier, M.; Lustig, A.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the simplicity and regularity of the alpha-helical coiled coil relative to other structural motifs, it can be conveniently used to clarify the molecular interactions responsible for protein folding and stability. Here we describe the de novo design and characterization of a two heptad-repeat peptide stabilized by a complex network of inter- and intrahelical salt bridges. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation show that this peptide is highly alpha-helical and 100% dimeric tinder physiological buffer conditions. Interestingly, the peptide was shown to switch its oligomerization state from a dimer to a trimer upon increasing ionic strength. The co