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Sample records for alpha-pinene beta-pinene 3-carene

  1. Evaluation of sensory irritation of delta3-carene and turpentine, and acceptable levels of monoterpenes in occupational and indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Kasanen, J P; Pasanen, A L; Pasanen, P; Liesivuori, J; Kosma, V M; Alarie, Y

    1999-05-28

    The standard mouse bioassay was used for obtaining the RD50 (i.e., the concentration that causes a 50% decrease in respiratory frequency) and for estimating the irritation properties of d-delta3-carene (i.e., (+)-delta3-carene) and commercial turpentine. The chemicals studied possess mainly sensory irritation properties similar to the previously studied monoterpenes, pinenes. The irritation potency of d-delta3-carene (RD50 = 1345 ppm) was almost equal to that of d-pinenes. Thus, d-delta3-carene was about four times more potent as a sensory irritant than I-beta-pinene, whereas the difference with I-alpha-pinene was more marked; as a sensory irritant, I-alpha-pinene is almost inactive. Based on sensory irritation potency and physicochemical and structural properties of pinenes and delta3-carene, the potency of a closely related monoterpene, limonene, is discussed. For commercial turpentine, a mixture of monoterpenes (mainly d-delta3-carene, I-beta-pinene, alpha-pinenes, and limonenes), the RD50 (1173 ppm) was the same order of magnitude as those of d-pinenes and d-delta3-carene. Apparently, d-monoterpenes are responsible for the sensory irritation caused by turpentine. In the wood industry and in the indoor air of nonindustrial environments, monoterpenes are thought to be one of the causative agents for irritation symptoms. The occupational exposure limit (OEL) of turpentine (100 ppm in Finland and the United States) is also used for individual monoterpenes, excluding limonene. Using results from this and our previous study, proposed OELs and recommended indoor levels (RILs) for selected monoterpenes and turpentine were determined based on their RD50 values. According to our studies, the present OEL of turpentine (100 ppm; 560 mg/m3) in Finland and in the United States seems to be suitable only for I-pinenes. For d-monoterpenes and turpentine, an OEL about three times lower is suggested. Our results show that recommended indoor levels (RILs) for monoterpenes are high

  2. The essential oil of turpentine and its major volatile fraction (alpha- and beta-pinenes): a review.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Beatrice; Prost, Josiane; Prost, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary review of the major biological features concerning the essential oil of turpentine, its origin and use in traditional and modern medicine. More precisely, the safety of this volatile fraction to human health, and the medical, biological and environmental effects of the two major compounds of this fraction (alpha- and beta-pinenes) have been discussed.

  3. Contributions of toluene and alpha-pinene to SOA formed in an irradiated toluene/alpha-pinene/NO(x)/ air mixture: comparison of results using 14C content and SOA organic tracer methods.

    PubMed

    Offenberg, John H; Lewis, Charles W; Lewandowski, Michael; Jaoui, Mohammed; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Edney, Edward O

    2007-06-01

    An organic tracer method, recently proposed for estimating individual contributions of toluene and alpha-pinene to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, was evaluated by conducting a laboratory study where a binary hydrocarbon mixture, containing the anthropogenic aromatic hydrocarbon, toluene, and the biogenic monoterpene, alpha-pinene, was irradiated in air in the presence of NO(x) to form SOA. The contributions of toluene and alpha-pinene to the total SOA concentration, calculated using the organic tracer method, were compared with those obtained with a more direct 14C content method. In the study, SOA to SOC ratios of 2.07 +/- 0.08 and 1.41 +/- 0.04 were measured for toluene and (alpha-pinene SOA, respectively. The individual tracer-based SOA contributions of 156 microg m(-3) for toluene and 198 microg m(-)3 for alpha-pinene, which together accounted for 82% of the gravimetrically determined total SOA concentration, compared well with the 14C values of 182 and 230 microg m(-3) measured for the respective SOA precursors. While there are uncertainties associated with the organic tracer method, largely due to the chemical complexity of SOA forming chemical mechanisms, the results of this study suggest the organic tracer method may serve as a useful tool for determining whether a precursor hydrocarbon is a major SOA contributor.

  4. Temperature-dependent rate coefficients for the reactions of the hydroxyl radical with the atmospheric biogenics isoprene, alpha-pinene and delta-3-carene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Terry J.; Dulitz, Katrin; Groß, Christoph B. M.; Crowley, John N.

    2017-12-01

    Pulsed laser methods for OH generation and detection were used to study atmospheric degradation reactions for three important biogenic gases: OH + isoprene (Reaction R1), OH +α-pinene (Reaction R2) and OH + Δ-3-carene (Reaction R3). Gas-phase rate coefficients were characterized by non-Arrhenius kinetics for all three reactions. For (R1), k1 (241-356 K) = (1.93±0.08) × 10-11exp{(466±12)/T} cm3 molecule-1 s-1 was determined, with a room temperature value of k1 (297 K) = (9.3±0.4) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, independent of bath-gas pressure (5-200 Torr) and composition (M = N2 or air). Accuracy and precision were enhanced by online optical monitoring of isoprene, with absolute concentrations obtained via an absorption cross section, σisoprene = (1.28±0.06) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at λ = 184.95 nm, determined in this work. These results indicate that significant discrepancies between previous absolute and relative-rate determinations of k1 result in part from σ values used to derive the isoprene concentration in high-precision absolute determinations.

    Similar methods were used to determine rate coefficients (in 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) for (R2)-(R3): k2 (238-357 K) = (1.83±0.04) × exp{(330±6)/T} and k3 (235-357 K) = (2.48±0.14) × exp{(357±17)/T}. This is the first temperature-dependent dataset for (R3) and enables the calculation of reliable atmospheric lifetimes with respect to OH removal for e.g. boreal forest springtime conditions. Room temperature values of k2 (296 K) = (5.4±0.2) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and k3 (297 K) = (8.1±0.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 were independent of bath-gas pressure (7-200 Torr, N2 or air) and in good agreement with previously reported values. In the course of this work, 184.95 nm absorption cross sections were determined: σ = (1.54±0.08) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 for α-pinene and (2.40±0.12) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 for Δ-3-carene.

  5. Removal characteristics and kinetic analysis of an aerobic vapor-phase bioreactor for hydrophobic alpha-pinene.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yifeng; Li, Shanshan; Cheng, Zhuowei; Zhu, Runye; Chen, Jianmeng

    2012-01-01

    Biofiltration is considered an effective method to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of a bacterial biofilter packed with wood chips and peat for the removal of hydrophobic alpha-pinene. When inoculated with two pure degraders and adapted activated sludge, a removal efficiency (RE) of more than 95% was achieved after a startup period of 11 days. The maximum elimination capacity (EC) of 50 g/(m3 x hr) with RE of 94% was obtained at empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 102 sec. When higher alpha-pinene concentrations and shorter EBRTs were applied, the REs and ECs decreased significantly due to mass-transfer and biological reaction limitations. As deduced from the experimental results, approximately 74% of alpha-pinene were completely mineralized by the consortiums and the biomass yield was 0.60 g biomass/g alpha-pinene. Sequence analysis of the selected bands excised from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the inoculated pure cultures could be present during the whole operation, and others were closely related to bacteria being able to degrade hydrocarbons. The kinetic results demonstrated that the whole biofiltration for alpha-pinene was diffusion-limit controlled owing to its hydrophobic characteristics. These findings indicated that this bacterial biofiltration is a promising technology for the remediation of hydrophobic industrial waste gases containing alpha-pinene.

  6. Removal of alpha-pinene from gases using biofilters containing fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Groenestijn, J. W.; Liu, J. X.

    Biofiltration is cost-effective for the treatment of gases containing low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (<3 g m -3) . However, conventional biofilters, based on compost and bacterial activity, face problems with the elimination of hydrophobic compounds. Besides that, biofilter operational stability is often hampered by acidification and drying out of the filter bed. To overcome these problems, biofilters with fungi on inert packing material have been developed. Fungi are more resistant to acid and dry conditions than bacteria, and it is hypothesised that the aerial mycelia of fungi, which are in direct contact with the gas, can take up hydrophobic compounds faster than flat aqueous bacterial biofilm surfaces. Alpha-pinene was chosen as a model compound. It is an odorous compound emitted by the wood processing industry. In 2 l biofilter columns four different packing materials were tested: perlite, expanded clay granules, polyurethane foam cubes and compost. The filters were inoculated with forest soil and ventilated with gas containing alpha-pinene. Start up took 1-2 months and removal efficiencies of more than 90% were observed, but mostly ranged from 50% to 90% due to overloading. In the filters containing perlite, clay, polyurethane and compost volumetric removal capacities of, respectively, 24, 33, 38 and 24 g alpha- pinene m -3 filter bed h -1 were attained and the gas pressure drops in the 60 cm high filter beds measured at a superficial gas velocity of 35 m h -1 were 70, 550, 180 and 250 Pa. The results indicate that it is possible to develop biofilters based on the action of fungi with higher elimination capacities for alpha-pinene as reported in literature for bacterial biofilters. The use of polyurethane foam cubes is preferred because of the low gas pressure drop in combination with a high volumetric elimination capacity.

  7. Theoretical study of the gas-phase ozonolysis of beta-pinene (C10H16).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T L; Peeters, J; Vereecken, L

    2009-07-21

    The O3-initiated oxidation of beta-pinene, a monoterpene emitted in forested areas, was theoretically characterized using DFT, CBS-QB3 and CASPT2 quantum chemical calculations combined with statistical kinetic RRKM/master equation analysis and transition state theory. The first-principles based rate coefficient of the initial 03 attack on the exocyclic double bond shows a slight positive temperature dependence, k(tot)T = 1.27 x 10(-22) x T2.64 x exp(-714 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) and is in close agreement with experiment. The resulting primary ozonides are found to give rise to two distinct, non-interconvertible conformers of the predominant Criegee intermediate (CI-1 and CI-2), with subsequent chemistries that are shown to be very different; this crucial aspect of beta-pinene ozonolysis was not taken into account in earlier studies. One of the conformers CI-2--carrying nearly half the total reaction flux--cannot undergo the usual "hydroperoxide channel", thus rationalizing why the OH yield from beta-pinene is barely half of that from alpha-pinene. The predicted first-generation product distribution for atmospheric conditions is consistent with the available experimental data on the overall products. Our final results predict 5% of nopinone formation, 28% OH radicals with 2-oxo-alkyl radical coproducts, 37% of stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI), 17% lactones, 10% CO2 formed after an intersystem crossing, and 3% of a newly proposed biradical formed from prompt ring opening in the CI. In atmospheric conditions, additional OH production is expected from the stabilized CI-1 conformer via the thermal unimolecular "hydroperoxide channel", whereas the stabilized CI-2 can react with H2O and its dimer, to produce additional nopinone. The expected subsequent chemistries of the large coproduct radicals formed from reactions of the two CI are also addressed in extenso.

  8. Influence of environmental factors and air composition on the emission of {alpha}-pinene from Quercus ilex leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Loreto, F.; Tricoli, D.; Ciccioli, P.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the emission of {alpha}-pinene from Quercus ilex leaves. Only the abaxial side of the hypostomatous Q. ilex leaf emits {alpha}-pinene. Light induced photosynthesis and {alpha}-pinene emission. However, the response of photosynthesis to dark-to-light transitions was faster than that of {alpha}-pinene, suggesting that ATP controls the emission. The emission was higher at 30 than at 20{degrees}C, whereas photosynthesis did not change. Therefore, the relationship between photosynthesis and {alpha}-pinene emission does not always hold. When CO{sub 2} was removed from the air, transpiration was stimulated and transpiration was reduced, but {alpha}-pinene emission was unaffected. Therefore, the emission depends on themore » availability of photosynthetic carbon, is not saturated at ambient CO{sub 2}, and is not dependent on stomatal opening. The pattern of {alpha}-pinene emission from Q. ilex is different from that of plants having specialized structures for storage and emission of terpenes. We suggest that {alpha}-pinene emitted by Q. ilex leaves is synthesized in the chloroplasts and shares the same biochemical pathway with isoprene emitted by isoprene-emitting oak species. 28 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.« less

  9. Acidity-controlled selective oxidation of alpha-pinene, isolated from Indonesian pine's turpentine oils (pinus merkusii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masruri; Farid Rahman, Mohamad; Nurkam Ramadhan, Bagus

    2016-02-01

    Alpha-pinene was isolated in high purity from turpentine oil harvested from Pinus merkusii plantation. The recent investigation on selective oxidation of alpha-pinene using potassium permanganate was undertaken under acidic conditions. The result taught the selective oxidation of alpha-pinene in acidic using potassium permanganate lead to the formation of 2-(3-acetyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutyl)acetaldehyde or pinon aldehyde. The study method applied reaction in various different buffer conditions i.e. pH 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively, and each reaction product was monitored using TLC every hour. Product determination was undertaken on spectrometry basis such as infrared, ultra violet-visible, gas chromatography- and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  10. Effect of cineole, alpha-pinene, and camphor on survivability of skin flaps

    PubMed

    İnce, Bilsev; Dadacı, Mehmet; Kılınç, İbrahim; Oltulu, Pembe; Yarar, Serhat; Uyar, Mehmet

    2018-06-14

    Background/aim: The aim of this study was to determine the specific component of Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) responsible for increased flap survival and how RO displays its efficacy. Materials and methods: Rectangular random-pattern flaps were elevated from the back of each rat. Group I was the control group. In group II 0.1 mL of cineole, in group III 0.1 mL of alpha-pinene, in group IV 0.1 mL of camphor, in group V 0.1 mL each of alpha-pinene and cineole, in group VI 0.1 mL each of alpha-pinene and camphor, in group VII 0.1 mL each of cineole and camphor, and in group VIII, 0.1 mL each of alpha-pinene, cineole, and camphor was orally administered once a day before surgery. The luminal area of the largest blood vessel in the proximal flap was measured. Interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and vascular endothelial growth factor values were measured. Results: The mean percentage of the viable surface area was significantly greater in groups VIII, III, and V. The mean percentage of vessel diameter was significantly greater in groups V, VIII, and VII. Conclusion: We suggest that alpha-pinene and cineole were the components of RO that were responsible for increased flap survival. The most effective of feature of RO was the antiinflammatory effects.

  11. Short term inhalation exposure to turpentine: toxicokinetics and acute effects in men.

    PubMed Central

    Filipsson, A F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study describes the toxicokinetics, pulmonary function, and subjective ratings of discomfort in volunteers experimentally exposed to turpentine vapour (a mixture of monoterpenes). The results were compared with similar exposure to single monoterpenes to look in the toxicokinetics and acute effects for signs of interactions between the monoterpenes. METHODS: Eight male volunteers were exposed to 450 mg/m3 turpentine by inhalation (2 h, 50 W) in an exposure chamber. RESULTS: The mean relative uptakes of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and 3-carene were 62%, 66%, and 68% respectively, of the amount supplied. Between 2% and 5% of the net uptake was excreted unchanged in the expired air after the end of exposure. The mean blood clearance 21 hours after exposure (CL21h) of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and 3-carene, were 0.8, 0.5, and 0.4 l.kg-1.h-1, respectively. The mean half lives (t1/2) of the last phase of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and 3-carene averaged 32, 25, and 42 hours, respectively. The t1/2s agreed with previously calculated half lives from single exposures. The total blood clearance CL21h of 3-carene found in this turpentine study was lower, and CL4h of 3-carene was significantly lower than the values obtained from similar exposure to pure 3-carene. The subjects attending both exposure to turpentine and to pure alpha-pinene at 450 mg/m3 had lower CL4h during the exposure to turpentine, when they experienced more discomfort of the throat or the airways (F = 5.7, P = 0.048) than during exposure to control concentrations. After experimental exposure to turpentine an increase in airway resistance was found that differed significantly from results of exposure to 3-carene at 10 mg/m3 (P = 0.021) or 450 mg/m3 (P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Toxicokinetics and acute effects show small, if any, interactions between alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and 3-carene. The subjects experienced discomfort in the throat and airways during exposure to turpentine and airway

  12. Citrus essential oils and four enantiomeric pinenes against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Michaelakis, Antonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Koliopoulos, George; Giatropoulos, Athanasios; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (enantiomers of alpha- and beta-) and essential oils from Greek plants of the Rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon L.), and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). The chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Citrus essential oils contained in high proportion limonene and in lower quantities p-menthane molecules and pinenes. The insecticidal action of these essential oils and enantiomers of their pinenes on mosquito larvae was evaluated. Plant essential oils exhibited strong toxicity against larvae with the LC(50) values ranging from 30.1 (lemon) to 51.5 mg/L (orange) depending on Citrus species and their composition. Finally, the LC(50) value of pinenes ranging from 36.53 to 66.52 mg/L indicated an enantioselective toxicity only for the beta-pinene enantiomer.

  13. Two-stage gas-phase bioreactor for the combined removal of hydrogen sulphide, methanol and alpha-pinene.

    PubMed

    Rene, Eldon R; Jin, Yaomin; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2009-11-01

    Biological treatment systems have emerged as cost-effective and eco-friendly techniques for treating waste gases from process industries at moderately high gas flow rates and low pollutant concentrations. In this study, we have assessed the performance of a two-stage bioreactor, namely a biotrickling filter packed with pall rings (BTF, 1st stage) and a perlite + pall ring mixed biofilter (BF, 2nd stage) operated in series, for handling a complex mixture of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), methanol (CH3OH) and alpha-pinene (C10H16). It has been reported that the presence of H2S can reduce the biofiltration efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when both are present in the gas mixture. Hydrogen sulphide and methanol were removed in the first stage BTF, previously inoculated with H2S-adapted populations and a culture containing Candida boidinii, an acid-tolerant yeast, whereas, in the second stage, alpha-pinene was removed predominantly by the fungus Ophiostoma stenoceras. Experiments were conducted in five different phases, corresponding to inlet loading rates varying between 2.1 and 93.5 g m(-3) h(-1) for H2S, 55.3 and 1260.2 g m(-3) h(-1) for methanol, and 2.8 and 161.1 g m(-3) h(-1) for alpha-pinene. Empty bed residence times were varied between 83.4 and 10 s in the first stage and 146.4 and 17.6 s in the second stage. The BTF, working at a pH as low as 2.7 as a result of H2S degradation, removed most of the H2S and methanol but only very little alpha-pinene. On the other hand, the BF, at a pH around 6.0, removed the rest of the H2S, the non-degraded methanol and most of the alpha-pinene vapours. Attempts were originally made to remove the three pollutants in a single acidophilic bioreactor, but the Ophiostoma strain was hardly active at pH <4. The maximum elimination capacities (ECs) reached by the two-stage bioreactor for individual pollutants were 894.4 g m(-3) h(-1) for methanol, 45.1 g m(-3) h(-1) for H2S and 138.1 g m(-3) h(-1) for alpha-pinene. The

  14. Chirality transition in the epoxidation of (-)-alpha-pinene and successive hydrolysis studied by Raman optical activity and DFT.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shi; Li, Guanna; Liu, Peng; Wang, Changhao; Feng, Zhaochi; Li, Can

    2010-03-28

    Characterization of the chirality evolution involved in chemical and biochemical reaction processes is extremely important to the understanding of the chiral catalysis mechanism. In this work, the chiral transition from the epoxidation of (-)-alpha-pinene to alpha-pinene oxide and successive hydrolysis to (-)-pinanediol has been studied as an archetype of the asymmetric catalysis by Raman optical activity (ROA) and the DFT calculation. Minor changes of the absolute configuration of the chiral products from (-)-alpha-pinene to (-)-pinanediol lead to the dramatic variation in ROA spectra indicating that the chirality is delocalized in the whole molecule rather than only concentrated on the chiral centers. The oxygen atom of alpha-pinene oxide contributes strong ROA signals while the two hydroxyl groups of (-)-pinanediol give no apparent contribution to the chirality in terms of ROA signals. Isolation of the two symmetric anisotropic invariants shows that the predominant contribution to the ROA signals stems from the electric dipole-magnetic dipole invariant, and the bond polarizability model is indeed found to be a good approximation for molecules composed of entirely axially-symmetric bonds in alpha-pinene oxide and (-)-pinanediol. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using ROA to sensitively monitor the variation of the chirality transition during the chiral reactions either in the chemical or biological system.

  15. A Blend of Ethanol and (-)-α-Pinene were Highly Attractive to Native Siricid Woodwasps (Siricidae, Siricinae) Infesting Conifers of the Sierra Nevada and the Allegheny Mountains.

    PubMed

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Stein, Jack D; Acciavatti, Robert E; Gillette, Nancy E; Mori, Sylvia R; Bischel, Kristi; Cale, Jonathan A; Carvalho, Carline R; Wood, David L

    2017-02-01

    Woodwasps in Sirex and related genera are well-represented in North American conifer forests, but the chemical ecology of native woodwasps is limited to a few studies demonstrating their attraction to volatile host tree compounds, primarily monoterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene alcohols. Thus, we systematically investigated woodwasp-host chemical interactions in California's Sierra Nevada and West Virginia's Allegheny Mountains. We first tested common conifer monoterpene hydrocarbons and found that (-)-α-pinene, (+)-3-carene, and (-)-β-pinene were the three most attractive compounds. Based on these results and those of earlier studies, we further tested three monoterpene hydrocarbons and four monoterpene alcohols along with ethanol in California: monoterpene hydrocarbons caught 72.3% of all woodwasps. Among monoterpene hydrocarbons, (+)-3-carene was the most attractive followed by (-)-β-pinene and (-)-α-pinene. Among alcohols, ethanol was the most attractive, catching 41.4% of woodwasps trapped. Subsequent tests were done with fewer selected compounds, including ethanol, 3-carene, and ethanol plus (-)-α-pinene in both Sierra Nevada and Allegheny Mountains. In both locations, ethanol plus (-)-α-pinene caught more woodwasps than other treatments. We discussed the implications of these results for understanding the chemical ecology of native woodwasps and invasive Sirex noctilio in North America. In California, 749 woodwasps were caught, representing five species: Sirex areolatus Cresson, Sirex behrensii Cresson, Sirex cyaneus Fabricius, Sirex longicauda Middlekauff, and Urocerus californicus Norton. In West Virginia 411 woodwasps were caught representing four species: Sirex edwardsii Brullé, Tremex columba Linnaeus, Sirex nigricornis F., and Urocerus cressoni Norton.

  16. Two Photon Absorption in a Novel Nano-optical Material Based on the Nonconjugated Conductive Polymer, Poly(beta-pinene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Jitto; Thakur, Mrinal

    2006-03-01

    As recently reported, the electrical conductivity of the nonconjugated polymer, poly(beta-pinene) increases by more than ten orders of magnitude upon doping with iodine [1]. The FTIR, optical absorption and EPR measurements have shown that radical cations are formed upon doping and charge-transfer involving the isolated double-bond in poly(beta-pinene). In this report, exceptionally large two-photon absorption in iodine-doped poly(beta-pinene) will be discussed. The linear absorption spectrum of medium-doped poly(beta-pinene) have peaks at about 4 eV and 3.1 eV. The first peak is due to the radical cation and the second due to the charge-transfer between the double bond and the dopant. The two-photon absorption of the medium-doped polymer has been measured at 730-860 nm using open-aperture z-scan with 150 femtosecond pulses from a Ti:Sapphire laser. A two-photon peak at about 1.5 eV with a magnitude of more than 1 cm/MW has been observed. The large magnitude of the two-photon absorption coefficient which is proportional to the imaginary part of the third order susceptibility has been attributed to the special structure of the radical cation and the confinement within a sub-nanometer dimension. [1] Vippa, Rajagopalan and Thakur, J. Poly. Sci. Part B: Poly. Phys., 43, 3695 (2005).

  17. Density of α-pinene, Β-pinene, limonene, and essence of turpentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares Sousa, A.; Nieto de Castro, C. A.

    1992-03-01

    Densities of ga-pinene, Β-pinene, limonene, and essence of turpentine have been measured at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15 K, at atmospheric pressure, with a mechanical oscillator densimeter. Benzene and cyclohexane were used as calibration fluids. The precision is of the order of 0.01 kg · m-3, while the accuracy is estimated to be 0.1%. A linear representation of the variation of the density with temperature reproduces the experimental data within 0.2%.

  18. Gastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Marcelo de Almeida; Magalhães, Rafael Matos; Torres, Danielle Mesquita; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Mota, Francisca Sheila Xavier; Oliveira Coelho, Emanuela Maria Araújo; Moreira, Henrique Pires; Lima, Glauber Cruz; Araújo, Pamella Cristina da Costa; Cardoso, José Henrique Leal; de Souza, Andrelina Noronha Coelho; Diniz, Lúcio Ricardo Leite

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alpha-pinene (α-pinene) is a monoterpene commonly found in essential oils with gastroprotective activity obtained from diverse medicinal plants, including Hyptis species. The genus Hyptis (lamiaceae) consists of almost 400 species widespread in tropical and temperate regions of America. In the north and northeastern Brazil, some Hyptis species are used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disturbances. Objective: The present study has investigated the gastoprotective effect of purified α-pinene in experimental gastric ulcer induced by ethanol and indomethacin in mice. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcers were induced in male Swiss mice (20-30 g) by oral administration of absolute ethanol or indomethacin 45 min after oral pretreatment with vehicle, standard control drugs or α-pinene (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg). One hour after the ulcerative challenges, the stomach were removed, and gastric lesions areas measured. The effects of α-pinene on the gastric juice acidity were determined by pylorus ligation model. The gastrointestinal motility and mucus depletion were determined by measuring the gastric levels of phenol red and alcian blue, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of gastric mucosa of the experimental groups were used for histology analysis. Results: α-pinene pretreatment inhibited ethanol-induced gastric lesions, reduced volume and acidity of the gastric juice and increased gastric wall mucus (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we showed an interesting correlation between concentration of α-pinene and gastroprotective effect of Hyptis species (P Pearson = 0.98). Conclusion: Our data showed that the α-pinene exhibited significant antiulcerogenic activity and a great correlation between concentration of α-pinene and gastroprotective effect of Hyptis species was also observed. PMID:25709221

  19. Modeling of combined effects of citral, linalool and beta-pinene used against Saccharomyces cerevisiae in citrus-based beverages subjected to a mild heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Belletti, Nicoletta; Kamdem, Sylvain Sado; Tabanelli, Giulia; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gardini, Fausto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of three terpenes (citral, linalool and beta-pinene), in combination with a mild heat treatment (55 degrees C, 15 min). The study has been carried out on an orange based soft drink inoculated using a wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results, expressed as growth/no-growth data, were analyzed with the logistic regression. A model comprising only of significant individual parameters (p < or = 0.05) and describing the relationships between terpene concentrations and the probability of having stable beverages was obtained. When citral and beta-pinene were combined, the citral concentration required to achieve a 50% probability of having stable bottles (P=0.5) dropped from 100.9 microL/L in the absence of beta-pinene to 49.3 microL/L in the presence of 20 microL/L of beta-pinene. The mixture of citral and linalool was less effective, in fact, the same probability (P=0.5) was obtained combining 60 microL/L of linalool with 35.1 microL/L of citral. The addition of 20 microL/L of linalool and beta-pinene reinforced citral bioactivity and the concentration of citral needed to reach P=0.5 fell from 100.9 microL/L in the presence of citral alone to 42.0 microL/L. The presence of both linalool and beta-pinene at a concentration of 40 or 60 microL/L in the absence of citral led to a lower spoilage probability (P=0.58 and P=0.93, respectively). It can be concluded that the antimicrobial potential of the three terpenes alone can be strengthened combining appropriate concentrations of each of them. This study confirmed also the potentiating effect of a mild temperature treatment on the antimicrobial efficacy of the molecules. Neither the thermal treatment alone nor the presence of the terpenes at their maximum concentrations (without thermal treatment) were able to guarantee the microbial stability of the beverages. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurotoxic Effects of Linalool and β-Pinene on Tribolium castaneum Herbst.

    PubMed

    Pajaro-Castro, Nerlis; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2017-11-24

    Effective, ethical pest control requires the use of chemicals that are highly specific, safe, and ecofriendly. Linalool and β-pinene occur naturally as major constituents of the essential oils of many plant species distributed throughout the world, and thus meet these requirements. These monoterpenes were tested as repellents against Tribolium castaneum , using the area preference method, after four hours of exposure and the effect transcriptional of genes associated with neurotransmission. Changes in gene expression of acetylcholinesterase (Ace1), GABA-gated anion channel splice variant 3a6a (Rdl), GABA-gated ion channel (Grd), glutamate-gated chloride channel (Glucl), and histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2) were assessed and the interaction with proteins important for the insect using in silico methods was also studied. For linalool and β-pinene, the repellent concentration 50 (RC 50 ) values were 0.11 µL/cm² and 0.03 µL/cm², respectively. Both compounds induced overexpression of Hiscl2 gen in adult insects, and β-pinene also promoted the overexpression of Grd and the Ace1 gene. However, β-pinene and linalool had little potential to dock on computer-generated models for GABA-gated ion channel LCCH3, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha1 and alpha2, and putative octopamine/tyramine receptor proteins from T. castaneum as their respective binding affinities were marginal, and therefore the repellent action probably involved mechanisms other than direct interaction with these targets. Results indicated that β-pinene was more potent than linalool in inducing insect repellency, and also had a greater capacity to generate changes in the expression of genes involved in neuronal transmission.

  1. Evaluation of semiochemicals potentially synergistic to a-pinene for trapping the larger European pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda, (Col., Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    T.M. Poland; P. de Groot; R.A. Haack; D. Czokajlo

    2004-01-01

    The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Col., Scolytidae) is an exotic pest of pine, Pinus, spp., in North America. It is attracted strongly to host volatiles (±)-a-pinene, (+)-3-carene, and a-terpinolene. Attraction to insectproduced compounds is less clear. Other potential attractants include trans-verbenol,...

  2. Chemotypes of Pistacia atlantica leaf essential oils from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Gourine, Nadhir; Bombarda, Isabelle; Yousfi, Mohamed; Gaydou, Emile M

    2010-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Pistacia atlantica Desf. leaves collected from different regions of Algeria were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was rich in monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major components were alpha-pinene (0.0-67%), delta-3-carene (0.0-56%), spathulenol (0.5-22%), camphene (0.0-21%), terpinen-4-ol (0.0-16%) and beta-pinene (0.0-13%). Among the various components identified, twenty were used for statistical analyses. The result of principal component analysis (PCA) showed the occurrence of three chemotypes: a delta-3-carene chemotype (16.4-56.2%), a terpinen-4-ol chemotype (10.8-16.0%) and an alpha-pinene/camphene chemotype (10.9-66.6%/3.8-20.9%). It was found that the essential oil from female plants (delta-3-carene chemotype) could be easily differentiated from the two other chemotypes corresponding to male trees.

  3. Inhibitory effects of α-pinene on hepatoma carcinoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Bin; Mao, Jian-Wen; Wei, Feng-Xiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Tao; Jin, Xiao-Bao; Zhang, Li-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Pine needle oil from crude extract of pine needles has anti-tumor effects, but the effective component is not known. In the present study, compounds from a steam distillation extract of pine needles were isolated and characterized. Alpha-pinene was identified as an active anti-proliferative compound on hepatoma carcinoma BEL-7402 cells using the MTT assay. Further experiments showed that α-pinene inhibited BEL-7402 cells by arresting cell growth in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, downregulating Cdc25C mRNA and protein expression, and reducing cycle dependence on kinase 1(CDK1) activity. Taken together, these findings indicate that α-pinene may be useful as a potential anti-tumor drug.

  4. The role of genetic and chemical variation of Pinus sylvestris seedlings in influencing slug herbivory.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Iason, Glenn R; Thoss, Vera

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated the genetic and chemical basis of resistance of Pinus sylvestris seedlings to herbivory by a generalist mollusc, Arion ater. Using feeding trials with captive animals, we examined selective herbivory by A. ater of young P. sylvestris seedlings of different genotypes and correlated preferences with seedling monoterpene levels. We also investigated the feeding responses of A. ater to artificial diets laced with two monoterpenes, Delta(3)-carene and alpha-pinene. Logistic regression indicated that two factors were the best predictors of whether seedlings in the trial would be consumed. Individual slug variation (replicates) was the most significant factor in the model; however, alpha-pinene concentration (also representing beta-pinene, Delta(3)-carene and total monoterpenes due to multicollinearity) of needles was also a significant factor. While A. ater did not select seedlings on the basis of family, seedlings not eaten were significantly higher in levels of alpha-pinene compared to seedlings that were consumed. We also demonstrated significant genetic variation in alpha-pinene concentration of seedlings between different families of P. sylvestris. Nitrogen and three morphological seedling characteristics (stem length, needle length and stem diameter) also showed significant genetic variation between P. sylvestris families. Artificial diets laced with high (5 mg g(-1) dry matter) quantities of either Delta(3)-carene or alpha-pinene, were eaten significantly less than control diets with no added monoterpenes, supporting the results of the seedling feeding trial. This study demonstrates that A. ater selectively feed on P. sylvestris seedlings and that this selection is based, in part, on the monoterpene concentration of seedlings. These results, coupled with significant genetic variation in alpha-pinene concentration of seedlings and evidence that slug herbivory is detrimental to P. sylvestris fitness, are discussed as possible evidence for A

  5. ESTIMATES OF ALPHA-PINENE EMISSIONS FROM A LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST USING AN ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The body of information presented in this paper is directed to atmospheric chemists and modelers who are concerned with assessing the impact of biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. A field study was conducted to determine the emission rate of alpha-pinene from a loblolly pine forest u...

  6. Terpene exposure and respiratory effects among workers in Swedish joinery shops.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, K A; Levin, J O; Sandström, T; Lindström-Espeling, K; Lindén, G; Stjernberg, N L

    1997-04-01

    Exposure to monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and delta 3-carene) in joinery shops was studied in Sweden during the processing of Scot's pine, and the acute respiratory effects among the employees were evaluated. A cross-sectional study of 38 workers was carried out in 4 joinery shops. The investigation included personal air sampling of monoterpenes, biological monitoring of metabolites of alpha-pinene in the workers' urine, interviews following a standardized questionnaire, and dynamic spirometry. The personal exposure to monoterpenes in the joinery shops was 10-214 mg/m3. The correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.69) between exposure to alpha-pinene and verbenols (metabolites from alpha-pinene) in urine was relatively good. No acute effects on forced vital capacity or forced expiratory volume during 1 s were detected. The workers had significantly reduced preshift lung function values when compared with the values of a local reference group, even when smokers and ex-smokers were excluded. Personal exposure to the monoterpenes alpha-pinene, and delta 3-carene in joinery shops may exceed the present Swedish occupational exposure limit of 150 mg/m3 during the winter season when workroom air is commonly recirculated. The determination of metabolites of alpha-pinene (verbenols) in urine can be used as an index of exposure to fumes released during wood-treating processes. The results from the lung function tests indicate chronic rather than acute reactions in the airways. The fact that there were no major changes in lung function over a workshift indicates chronic reaction in the airways.

  7. Mechanistic and kinetic insights into the thermally induced rearrangement of alpha-pinene.

    PubMed

    Stolle, Achim; Ondruschka, Bernd; Findeisen, Matthias

    2008-11-07

    The thermal rearrangement of alpha-pinene (1) is interesting from mechanistic as well as kinetic point of view. Carrier gas pyrolyses with 1 and its acyclic isomers ocimene (2) and alloocimene (3) were performed to investigate the thermal network of these hydrocarbons. Kinetic analysis of the major reaction steps allows for a deeper insight in the reaction mechanism. Thus it was possible to explain the racemization of 1, the formation of racemic limonene (4), and the absence of the primary pyrolysis product 2 in the reaction mixture resulting from thermal rearrangement of 1. Results supported the conclusion that the reactions starting with 1 involve biradical transition states.

  8. High-Density Renewable Fuels Based on the Selective Dimerization of Pinenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    spectrometry (GC/MS), revealing that the principal reaction was isomerization to a mixture of camphene, limonene , and R-pinene, with some β-pinene...ratio of R-pinene/ camphene/β-pinene/ limonene was roughly 3:5:2:4. Heating the mixture to the reflux temperature of heptane led to a vigorous...important product is p-cymene, which is derived from limonene . Pre- vious studies suggest that the mechanism for formation of p-cymene proceeds

  9. Poly-beta-pinene, a Novel Nonconjugated Conductive Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Mrinal; Vippa, Prakash; Rajagopalan, Harish

    2004-03-01

    Electrical conductivity in a novel nonconjugated conductive polymer, poly-beta-pinene, has been measured as a function of iodine doping. The conductivity increases about ten orders of magnitude to a maximum value ˜ 0.01 S/cm. The molar concentration of iodine corresponding to saturation is ˜ 0.8. The optical absorption measurements after light doping have shown two peaks: one at 4.1 eV and the other at 3.1 eV. The first peak is due to the radical cation and the second due the charge-transfer between the double bond and the dopant. As observed in other nonconjugated conductive polymers, the second peak becomes broader and undergoes a red-shift upon higher doping [1,2]. The FTIR spectroscopic studies have shown that the C=C stretching vibration at 1610 cm-1 and the =C-H bending vibration band at 728 cm-1 decrease upon doping as observed in other nonconjugated conductive polymers. Preliminary measurements have shown large quadratic electro-optic effects in this material. 1. M. Thakur, J. Macromol. Sci.-PAC,2001,A38(12),1337. 2. M. Thakur, S. Khatavkar and E.J. Parish, J. Macromol. Sci.-PAC,2003,A40(12),1397.

  10. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  11. The aqueous photolysis of α-pinene in solution with humic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Marvin C.; Cunningham, Kirkwood M.; Aiken, George R.; Weiner, Eugene R.; ,

    1992-01-01

    Terpenes are produced abundantly by environmental processes but are found in very low concentrations in natural waters. Aqueous photolysis of solutions containing α-pinene, a representative terpene, in the presence of humic acid resulted in degradation of the pinene. Comparison of this reaction to photolysis of α-pinene in the presence of methylene blue leads to the conclusion that the reactive pathway for the abiotic degradation of α-pinene is due to reaction with singlet oxygen produced by irradiation of the humic material. The initial product of single oxygen and α-pinene is a hydroperoxide. Since humic materials are prevalent in most natural waters, this mechanism of photodecomposition for α-pinene probably also applies to other terpenes in surface waters and may be reasonably considered to contribute to their low environmental concentration.

  12. Photooxidation of Alpha-Pinene at High Relative Humidity in the Presence of Increasing Concentrations of NOx

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yong; Ezell, Michael J.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2008-06-01

    The photooxidation of ~1 ppm alpha-pinene in the presence of increasing concentrations of NO2 was studied in a Teflon chamber at relative humidities from 70 - 88% and temperatures from 296 - 304 K. The loss of alpha-pinene and formation of gas phase products were followed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Gas phase reaction products measured by PTR-MS and their yields include formaldehyde (5 + 1%), formic acid (2.5 + 1.4%), methanol (0.6 + 0.3%), acetaldehyde (3.9 + 1.7%), acetic acid (10 + 2%), acetone (11.5 + 3.1%), pinonaldehyde (22 + 6%), and pinene oxide (0.9 + 0.1%).more » There was evidence of organic nitrates in the gas phase and small peaks were tentatively assigned to norpinonaldehyde, 4-oxopinonaldehyde, propanedial, 2,3-dioxobutanal and 3,5,6-trioxoheptanal or 3-hydroxymethyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutylethanone. The formation and growth of new particles were followed using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and their chemical composition was probed using single particle mass spectrometry (SPLAT II). SPLAT II analysis also provided measurements of the vacuum aerodynamic diameters of the newly formed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles and, in combination with the electrical mobility diameter, a particle density of 1.21 + 0.02 g cm-3 was calculated, 20% larger than often assumed in calculating SOA yields. SPLAT II showed that the suspended SOA consisted of a complex mixture of organic nitrates and organics, possibly including pinonic acid, pinic acid and trans-sobrerol. Three-wavelength light scattering measurements made using an integrating nephelometer were consistent with particles having a refractive index characteristic of organic compounds, but the data could not be well matched at all three wavelengths with a single refractive index. The effect of addition of cyclohexane or NO on particle formation showed that ozonolysis was the major mechanism of SOA formation in this system. However, unlike simple ozonolysis

  13. High Molecular Weight Dimer Esters in α-Pinene Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Cui, Tianqu; Zhang, Haofei; Gold, Avram; Glasius, Marianne; Surratt, Jason D.

    2014-05-01

    Monoterpenes, such as α-pinene, constitute an important group of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). Once emitted into the atmosphere α-pinene is removed by oxidization by the hydroxyl radical (OH), reactions with ozone (O3), and with nitrate radicals (NO3) resulting in the formation of first-generation oxidation products, such as semi-volatile carboxylic acids. In addition, higher molecular weight dimer esters originating from the oxidation of α-pinene have been observed in both laboratory-generated and ambient secondary organic aerosols (SOA). While recent studies suggest that the dimers are formed through esterification between carboxylic acids in the particle phase, the formation mechanism of the dimer esters is still ambiguous. In this work, we present the results of a series of smog chamber experiments to assess the formation of dimer esters formed from the oxidation of α-pinene. Experiments were conducted in the University of North Carolina (UNC) dual outdoor smog chamber facility to investigate the effect of oxidant species (OH versus O3), relative humidity (RH), and seed aerosol acidity in order to obtain a better understanding of the conditions leading to the formation of the dimer esters and how these parameters may affect the formation and chemical composition of SOA. The chemical composition of α-pinene SOA was investigated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-Q-TOFMS), and a total of eight carboxylic acids and four dimer esters were identified, constituting between 8 and 12 % of the total α-pinene SOA mass.

  14. Short Communication: Evaluation of the chemical composition of essential oil of Thuja occidentalis leaves grown in Peshawar, Pakistan by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Siddique, Muhammad; Rahman, Inayat-Ur; Kanwal, Farina

    2016-11-01

    Essential oil extracted from the fresh leaves of Thuja occidentalis were evaluated for its chemical composition employing GC-MS. Total of twenty nine components were identified and determined quantitatively using the area normalization procedure. Alpha-pinene and (+)-4-carene were found in high amount with a percentage concentration of 54.78 and 11.28 respectively. Other compounds which yielded appreciable amounts are: alpha-cedrol (6.87%), terpinolene (5.88%), p-menth-1-en-8-ol acetate (5.21%), beta-myrcene (4.04%), beta-pinene (2.26%), germacrene D (1.72%), sabinene (1.65%) and D-Limonene (1.62%).

  15. MODELING AEROSOL FORMATION FROM ALPHA-PINENE + NOX IN THE PRESENCE OF NATURAL SUNLIGHT USING GAS PHASE KINETICS AND GAS-PARTICLE PARTITIONING THEORY. (R826771)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A kinetic mechanism was used to link and model the gas-phase reactions and
    aerosol accumulation resulting from src="/ncer/pubs/images/alpha.gif">-pinene reactions in the presence of sunlight,
    ozone (O3), and oxides of nitrogen
    (NO

  16. Photochemical Aging of α-pinene and β-pinene Secondary Organic Aerosol formed from Nitrate Radical Oxidation: New Insights into the Formation and Fates of Highly Oxygenated Gas- and Particle-phase Organic Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nah, T.; Sanchez, J.; Boyd, C.; Ng, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    The nitrate radical (NO3), one of the most important oxidants in the nocturnal atmosphere, can react rapidly with a variety of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) to form high mass concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and organic nitrates (ON). Despite its critical importance in aerosol formation, the mechanisms and products from the NO3 oxidation of BVOCs have been largely unexplored, and the fates of their SOA and ON after formation are not well characterized. In this work, we studied the formation of SOA and ON from the NO3 oxidation of α-pinene and β-pinene and investigated for the first time how they evolve during dark and photochemical aging through a series of chamber experiments performed at the Georgia Tech Environmental Chamber (GTEC) facility. The α-pinene and β-pinene SOA are characterized using real-time gas- and particle-phase measurements, which are used to propose mechanisms for SOA and organic nitrate formation and aging. Highly oxygenated gas- and particle-phase ON (containing as many as 9 oxygen atoms) are detected during the NO3 reaction. In addition, the β-pinene SOA and α-pinene SOA exhibited drastically different behavior during photochemical aging. Our results indicate that nighttime ON formed by NO3+monoterpene chemistry can serve as either NOx reservoirs or sinks depending on the monoterpene precursor. Results from this study provide fundamental data for evaluating the contributions of NO3+monoterpene reactions to ambient OA measured in the Southeastern U.S.

  17. Is the gas-particle partitioning in alpha-pinene secondary organic aerosol reversible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieshop, Andrew P.; Donahue, Neil M.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the reversibility of gas-particle partitioning in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from α-pinene ozonolysis in a smog chamber. Previously, phase partitioning has been studied quantitatively via SOA production experiments and qualitatively by perturbing temperature and observing particle evaporation. In this work, two methods were used to isothermally dilute the SOA: an external dilution sampler and an in-chamber technique. Dilution caused some evaporation of SOA, but repartitioning took place on a time scale of tens of minutes to hours-consistent with an uptake coefficient on the order of 0.001-0.01. However, given sufficient time, α-pinene SOA repartitions reversibly based on comparisons with data from conventional SOA yield experiments. Further, aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data indicate that the composition of SOA varies with partitioning. These results suggest that oligomerization observed in high-concentration laboratory experiments may be a reversible process and underscore the complexity of the kinetics of formation and evaporation of SOA.

  18. Investigation on minimum ignition energy of mixtures of α-pinene-benzene/air.

    PubMed

    Coudour, B; Chetehouna, K; Rudz, S; Gillard, P; Garo, J P

    2015-01-01

    Minimum ignition energies (MIE) of α-pinene-benzene/air mixtures at a given temperature for different equivalence ratios and fuel proportions are experimented in this paper. We used a cylindrical chamber of combustion using a nanosecond pulse at 1,064 nm from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Laser-induced spark ignitions were studied for two molar proportions of α-pinene/benzene mixtures, respectively 20-80% and 50-50%. The effect of the equivalence ratio (Φ) has been investigated for 0.7, 0.9, 1.1 and 1.5 and ignition of fuel/air mixtures has been experimented for two different incident laser energies: 25 and 33 mJ. This study aims at observing the influence of different α-pinene/benzene proportions on the flammability of the mixture to have further knowledge of the potential of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and smoke mixtures to influence forest fires, especially in the case of the accelerating forest fire phenomenon (AFF). Results of ignition probability and energy absorption are based on 400 laser shots for each studied fuel proportions. MIE results as functions of equivalence ratio compared to data of pure α-pinene and pure benzene demonstrate that the presence of benzene in α-pinene-air mixture tends to increase ignition probability and reduce MIE without depending strongly on the α-pinene/benzene proportion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies on the Effect of Sub-zero Temperatures on the Formation of Extremely Low Volatility Dimer Esters in Secondary Organic Aerosol from Alpha-Pinene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Normann Jensen, Louise; Bilde, Merete

    2016-04-01

    The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) is considered a major source of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Recently, extremely low volatility organic compounds, or ELVOC, formed from the oxidation of VOCs have been shown to play a crucial role in new particle formation (Ehn et al., 2014). In addition, higher molecular weight dimer esters originating from the oxidation of the biogenic VOC alpha-pinene have been observed in both laboratory-generated and ambient SOA (Kristensen et al., 2013). The low volatility of the dimer esters along with an observed rapid formation makes these high molecular weight compounds likely candidates involved in new particle formation from the oxidation of alpha-pinene. Furthermore, laboratory experiments show that the dimer esters only form in the presence of ozone, thus may be used as tracers for the ozone-initiated oxidation of alpha-pinene, and are therefore indicative of enhanced anthropogenic activities. In this work, we present the results of a series of oxidation experiments performed in the newly constructed cold-room smog chamber at Aarhus University. This unique and state-of-the-art Teflon chamber allows for atmospheric simulations of the oxidation VOCs and subsequent SOA formation at temperatures down to -16 °C. In this study, ozonolysis and photochemical oxidations of alpha-pinene are performed at temperatures ranging from +20 to -16 °C. Chemical characterization of the formed SOA is performed using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results show significant differences in the chemical composition related to the experiment temperature. In particularly, the concentration of the high molecular weight dimer esters showed to be highly affected by temperature. Interestingly, preliminary results show higher formation of dimer esters related to increased SOA formation rate, thus indicating that these particle-phase ELVOCs may be linked with new particle

  20. The effect of sub-zero temperature on the formation and composition of secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, K; Jensen, L N; Glasius, M; Bilde, M

    2017-10-18

    This study presents a newly constructed temperature controlled cold-room smog chamber at Aarhus University, Denmark. The chamber is herein utilized to study the effect of sub-zero temperature on the formation and chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from ozone initiated oxidation of α-pinene. The chemical composition of α-pinene SOA formed from dark ozonolysis of α-pinene at 293 K and 258 K was investigated using High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) and Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI-qToF-MS). For comparison, an OH-initiated oxidation experiment was performed at 293 K. In ozonolysis experiments it was found that oxygen-to-carbon (O : C) ratios were higher in the particles formed at 293 K compared to 258 K. A total of 16 different organic acids and 30 dimers esters were quantified in the collected particles composing up to 34% of the total α-pinene SOA mass with increased mass fraction of carboxylic acids in particles from α-pinene ozonolysis at 258 K compared to 293 K. In contrast, dimer esters showed suppressed formation at the sub-zero reaction temperature, thus contributing 3% to SOA mass at 258 K while contributing 9% at 293 K. SOA formed in the OH-initiated oxidation of α-pinene at 293 K resulted in low concentrations of dimer esters supporting Criegee intermediates as a possible pathway to dimer ester formation. Vapour pressure estimates of the identified carboxylic acids and dimer esters are presented and show how otherwise semi-volatile carboxylic acids at sufficiently low temperatures may classify as low or even extremely low volatile organic compounds (ELVOC), thus may add to an enhanced particle formation observed at the sub-zero temperature through gas-to-particle conversion. The change in chemical composition of the SOA particles with temperature is ascribed to a combination of effects: the decreased

  1. Formation and evolution of molecular products in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; McVay, Renee C; Huang, Dan D; Dalleska, Nathan F; Aumont, Bernard; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-11-17

    Much of our understanding of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from volatile organic compounds derives from laboratory chamber measurements, including mass yield and elemental composition. These measurements alone are insufficient to identify the chemical mechanisms of SOA production. We present here a comprehensive dataset on the molecular identity, abundance, and kinetics of α-pinene SOA, a canonical system that has received much attention owing to its importance as an organic aerosol source in the pristine atmosphere. Identified organic species account for ∼58-72% of the α-pinene SOA mass, and are characterized as semivolatile/low-volatility monomers and extremely low volatility dimers, which exhibit comparable oxidation states yet different functionalities. Features of the α-pinene SOA formation process are revealed for the first time, to our knowledge, from the dynamics of individual particle-phase components. Although monomeric products dominate the overall aerosol mass, rapid production of dimers plays a key role in initiating particle growth. Continuous production of monomers is observed after the parent α-pinene is consumed, which cannot be explained solely by gas-phase photochemical production. Additionally, distinct responses of monomers and dimers to α-pinene oxidation by ozone vs. hydroxyl radicals, temperature, and relative humidity are observed. Gas-phase radical combination reactions together with condensed phase rearrangement of labile molecules potentially explain the newly characterized SOA features, thereby opening up further avenues for understanding formation and evolution mechanisms of α-pinene SOA.

  2. Characterization of a monoterpene synthase from Paeonia lactiflora producing α-pinene as its single product.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaohui; Guo, Juan; Ma, Ying; Jin, Baolong; Zhan, Zhilai; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Luqi

    2016-07-01

    To identify a terpene synthase that catalyzes the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) to α-pinene and is involved in the biosynthesis of paeoniflorin. Two new terpene synthase genes were isolated from the transcriptome data of Peaonia lactiflora. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence characterization revealed that one gene, named PlPIN, encoded a monoterpene synthase that might be involved in the biosynthesis of paeoniflorin. In vitro enzyme assay showed that, in contrast to most monoterpene synthases, PlPIN encoded an α-pinene synthase which converted GPP into α-pinene as a single product. This newly identified α-pinene synthase could be used for improving paeoniflorin accumulation by metabolic engineering or for producing α-pinene via synthetic biology.

  3. Potential of sustainable hierarchical zeolites in the valorization of α-pinene.

    PubMed

    Nuttens, Nicolas; Verboekend, Danny; Deneyer, Aron; Van Aelst, Joost; Sels, Bert F

    2015-04-13

    In the valorization of α-pinene, which is an important biomass intermediate derived from turpentine oil, hierarchical (mesoporous) zeolites represent a superior class of catalysts. Hierarchical USY, ZSM-5, and beta zeolites have been prepared, characterized, and catalytically evaluated, with the aim of combining the highest catalytic performance with the most sustainable synthetic protocol. These zeolites are prepared by alkaline treatment in aqueous solutions of NH4 OH, NaOH, diethylamine, and NaOH complemented with tetrapropylammonium bromide. The hierarchical USY zeolite is the most attractive catalyst of the tested series, and is able to combine an overall organic-free synthesis with an up to sixfold activity enhancement and comparable selectivity over the conventional USY zeolite. This superior performance relates to a threefold greater activity than that of the commercial standard, namely, H2 SO4 /TiO2 . Correlation of the obtained benefits to the amount of solid lost during the postsynthetic modifications highlights that the highest activity gains are obtained with minor leaching. Furthermore, a highly zeolitic character, as determined by bulk XRD, is beneficial, but not crucial, in the conversion of α-pinene. The alkaline treatments not only result in a higher overall activity, but also a more functional external surface area, attaining up to four times the pinene conversions per square nanometer. The efficiency of the hierarchical USY zeolite is concomitantly demonstrated in the conversion of limonene and turpentine oil, which emphasizes its industrial potential. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Transient re-emergence of oil of turpentine allergy in the pottery industry.

    PubMed

    Lear, J T; Heagerty, A H; Tan, B B; Smith, A G; English, J S

    1996-09-01

    Allergy to oil of turpentine has diminished largely due to the use of cheaper substitutes in many occupations. However, 2 particular areas still reliant on real oil of turpentine are those of the perfume industry and ceramic decoration. We report 24 cases of hand dermatitis in pottery workers involved in ceramic decoration, paintresses, liners, gilders, enamellers and a fine china painter, seen in a 6-month period following a change from Portuguese to Indonesian turpentine, of whom 14 were sensitive to Indonesian turpentine, 8 to alpha-pinene, 4 to delta-3-carene and 2 positive to turpentine peroxides. Previous reports suggest that delta-3-carene is the main allergen and reports of sensitivity to alpha-pinene in the absence of sensitivity to turpentine peroxide, in particular to the hydroperoxide of delta-3-carene, are few. Turpentine allergy continues to be a problem in the pottery industry and is more common than allergy to the heavy metals of the colours used in ceramic decoration. alpha-Pinene, an unusual allergen, appears to be the most common in our area. Reversion to Portuguese turpentine seems to have alleviated the problem.

  5. Characterization of secondary organic aerosol generated from ozonolysis of α-pinene mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Hardik S.; Hatfield, Meagan L.; Huff Hartz, Kara E.

    2013-03-01

    In the atmosphere, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) co-exist, and they can be oxidized concurrently and generate secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this work, SOA is formed by the oxidation (in presence of excess ozone) of mixtures containing α-pinene and other VOCs. The VOC mixtures were made so their composition approached a commercially-available α-pinene-based essential oil, Siberian fir needle oil. The SOA products were sampled using filters, solvent extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with trimethylsilyl derivatization. The individual product yields for SOA generated from α-pinene changed upon the addition of other VOCs. An increase in concentration of non-reactive VOCs (bornyl acetate, camphene, and borneol) lead to a decrease in individual product yields of characteristic α-pinene SOA products. Although these experiments were carried out under higher VOC and ozone concentrations in comparison to the atmosphere, this work suggests that the role of non-reactive VOCs should be explored in SOA products formation.

  6. Dimers in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol: effect of hydroxyl radical, ozone, relative humidity and aerosol acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, K.; Cui, T.; Zhang, H.; Gold, A.; Glasius, M.; Surratt, J. D.

    2014-04-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from both ozonolysis and hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation of α-pinene under conditions of high nitric oxide (NO) concentrations with varying relative humidity (RH) and aerosol acidity was investigated in the University of North Carolina dual outdoor smog chamber facility. SOA formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene was enhanced relative to that from OH-initiated oxidation in the presence of initially high-NO conditions. However, no effect of RH on SOA mass was evident. Ozone (O3)-initiated oxidation of α-pinene in the presence of ammonium sulfate (AS) seed coated with organic aerosol from OH-initiated oxidation of α-pinene showed reduced nucleation compared to ozonolysis in the presence of pure AS seed aerosol. The chemical composition of α-pinene SOA was investigated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-Q-TOFMS), with a focus on the formation of carboxylic acids and high-molecular weight dimers. A total of eight carboxylic acids and four dimers were identified, constituting between 8 and 12% of the total α-pinene SOA mass. OH-initiated oxidation of α-pinene in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx) resulted in the formation of highly oxidized carboxylic acids, such as 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA) and diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA). The formation of dimers was observed only in SOA produced from the ozonolysis of α-pinene in the absence of NOx, with increased concentrations by a factor of two at higher RH (50-90%) relative to lower RH (30-50%). The increased formation of dimers correlates with an observed increase in new particle formation at higher RH due to nucleation. Increased aerosol acidity was found to have a negligible effect on the formation of the dimers. SOA mass yield did not influence the chemical composition of SOA formed from α-pinene ozonolysis with respect to

  7. Fusion proteins useful for producing pinene

    DOEpatents

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides for a modified host cell comprising a heterologous pinene synthase (PS), or enzymatically active fragment or variant thereof, and optionally a geranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GPPS), or enzymatically active fragment or variant thereof, or a fusion protein comprising: (a) a PS and (b) a GPPS linked by a linker.

  8. Sorption of the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene to carbonaceous geosorbents including biochar.

    PubMed

    Hale, Sarah E; Endo, Satoshi; Arp, Hans Peter H; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The sorption of two monoterpenes, α pinene and limonene to the carbonaceous geosorbents graphite, bituminous coal, lignite coke, biochar and Pahokee peat was quantified. Polyethylene (PE) passive samplers were calibrated for the first time for these compounds by determining the PE-water partitioning coefficients and used as a tool to determine sorption to the carbonaceous geosorbents. Log KPE-water values were 3.49±0.58 for α pinene and 4.08±0.27 for limonene. The sorption of limonene to all materials was stronger than that for α pinene (differences of 0.2-1.3 log units between distribution coefficients for the monoterpenes). Placing Kd values in increasing order for α pinene gave biochar≈Pahokee peat≈bituminous coal≈lignite coke

  9. Influence of plant origin natural α-pinene with different enantiomeric composition on bacteria, yeasts and fungi.

    PubMed

    Ložienė, Kristina; Švedienė, Jurgita; Paškevičius, Algimantas; Raudonienė, Vita; Sytar, Oksana; Kosyan, Anatoliy

    2018-04-22

    Although the nature-identical chemical compounds are cheaper, they not always repeat biological activity of plant origin natural chemical compounds, often react allergies and resistance of microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of Juniperus communis origin α-pinene with different enantiomeric composition on bacteria, yeasts and fungi. Results showed that different enantiomeric composition of α-pinene have different activities on microorganisms: essential oil with (1S)-(-) ≈ (1R)-(+) enantiomeric composition of α-pinene influenced on some microorganisms stronger than essential oil with (1S)-(-) < (1R)-(+) enantiomeric composition of α-pinene; the pure natural α-pinene with enantiomeric composition S < R more strongly inhibited growth of investigated bacteria and Candida yeasts, α-pinene with enantiomeric composition S ≈ R - growth of Trichophyton and Aspergillus. (1S)-(-) and (1R)-(+) enantiomeric forms of α-pinene can have also different synergistic effects with other compounds of essential oil. The results of study showed that the same amount of α-pinene with different enantiomeric composition can have diverse antimicrobial potential due different specific interactions with other chemical compounds of essential oil. Therefore, it is very important to determine and present the enantiomeric composition of those plant origin compounds, which are characterized by enantiomerisation, during the course of research of biological activities of natural plant products (essential oils and other) and their isolated compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Aroma compound analysis of Piper nigrum and Piper guineense essential oils from Cameroon using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography, solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Ngassoum, Martin Benoit; Geissler, Margit

    2002-11-08

    The investigation of aroma compounds of the essential oils of dried fruits of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and black and white "Ashanti pepper" (Piper guineense) from Cameroon by means of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was carried out for the first time to identify the odorous target components responsible for the characteristic odor of these valuable spices and food flavoring products. By means of GC-flame ionization detection (FID) and GC-MS (using different polar columns) the main compounds (concentration >3.0%, calculated as area of GC-FID analysis using a non-polar fused-silica open tubular RSL-200 column) of the SPME headspace samples of P. nigrum (black) and P. guineense (black and white) were found to be: P. nigrum (black)--germacrene D (11.01%), limonene (10.26%), beta-pinene (10.02%), alpha-phellandrene (8.56%), beta-caryophyllene (7.29%), alpha-pinene (6.40%) and cis-beta-ocimene (3.19%); P. guineense (black)--beta-caryophyllene (57.59%), beta-elemene (5.10%), bicyclogermacrene (5.05%) and alpha-humulene (4.86%); and P. guineense (white)--beta-caryophyllene (51.75%), cis-beta-ocimene (6.61%), limonene (5.88%), beta-pinene (4.56%), linalool (3.97%) and alpha-humulene (3.29%). The most intense odor impressions of the essential oils of the various dried pepper fruits were given byprofessional perfumers as follows: P nigrum (black)--fine, pleasant black pepper note; P. guineense (black)--black pepper top-note; and P. guineense (white)--pleasant white pepper note. These analytical results for the SPME headspace samples of three different pepper species from Cameroon are in accordance with the olfactoric data of the corresponding essential oils. A GC-sniffing technique was used to correlate the single odor impression of the identified SPME headspace volatiles of the three investigated pepper samples with the following results: themain compounds such as beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D, limonene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene and alpha-humulene, as well as

  11. Formation kinetics and abundance of organic nitrates in α-pinene ozonolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkemeier, Thomas; Ammann, Markus; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-04-01

    Formation of organic nitrates affects the total atmospheric budget of oxidized nitrogen (NOy) and alters the total aerosol mass yield from secondary sources. We investigated the formation of organic nitrate species during ozonolysis of α-pinene and subsequent formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) using the short-lived radioactive tracer 13N inside an aerosol flow reactor (Ammann et al., 2001). The results represent direct measurements of the organic nitrate content of α-pinene secondary aerosol and give insight into the kinetics of organic nitrate formation. Organic nitrates constituted up to 40 % of aerosol mass with a pronounced influence during the initial period of particle growth. Kinetic modelling, as well as additional experiments using OH scavengers and UV irradiation, suggests that organic peroxy radicals (RO2) from the reaction of α-pinene with secondarily produced OH are important intermediates in the organic nitrate formation process. Direct oxidation of α-pinene by NO3 was found to be a less efficient pathway for formation of particle phase nitrate. The organic nitrate content decreased very slightly with an increase of relative humidity on the experimental time scale. The experiments show a tight correlation between organic nitrate content and SOA number concentrations, implying that organic nitrates play an important role in nucleation and growth of nanoparticles. Since present in large amounts in organic aerosol, organic nitrates deposited in the lung might have implications for human health as they release nitric acid upon hydrolysis, especially in regions influenced by urban pollution and large sources of monoterpene SOA precursors. References Ammann et al. (2001) Radiochimica Acta 89, 831.

  12. Quantitative Intensity Studies of Three Gas-Phase Monoterpenes in the Infrared: α-PINENE, β-PINENE and D-Limonene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sams, Robert L.

    2013-06-01

    Monoterpenes are a class of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) whose general formula is C_{10}H_{16}. Like other VOCs, monoterpenes play an important role in the atmosphere as they are produced by vegetation in large quantities, and have recently been discovered in biomass burning plumes. Absorption coefficients and integrated band intensities are reported in the 600 - 6500 cm^{-1} region for three monoterpenes: α-pinene, β-pinene and d-limonene. The pressure broadened (1 atmosphere N_2) spectra were recorded in a 19.96 cm path length cell with 0.112 cm^{-1} resolution at two temperatures and a minimum of six different partial pressures using a Bruker 66V FTIR. These data are part of the PNNL Spectral Database, which contains quantitative spectra of over 600 molecules. Potential atmospheric applications will be discussed Timothy J. Johnson, Luisa T. M. Profeta, Robert L. Sams, David W. T. Griffith, Robert L. Yokelson Vibrational Spectroscopy {53}(1);97-102 (2010).

  13. Chemical and isotopic composition of secondary organic aerosol generated by α-pinene ozonolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusinger, Carl; Dusek, Ulrike; King, Stephanie M.; Holzinger, Rupert; Rosenørn, Thomas; Sperlich, Peter; Julien, Maxime; Remaud, Gerald S.; Bilde, Merete; Röckmann, Thomas; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2017-05-01

    raised from 100 to 250 °C. At temperatures above 250 °C, the O : C ratio of thermally desorbed material, presumably from oligomeric precursors, was constant. The observation of a number of components that occurred across the full range of desorption temperatures suggests that they are generated by thermal decomposition of oligomers. The isotopic composition of SOA was more or less independent of desorption temperature above 100 °C. TC analysis showed that SOA was enriched in 13C by 0.6-1.2 ‰ relative to the initial α-pinene. According to mass balance, gas-phase products will be depleted relative to the initial α-pinene. Accordingly, organic material on the back filters, which contain adsorbed gas-phase compounds, is depleted in 13C in TC by 0.7 ‰ relative to the initial α-pinene, and by 1.3 ‰ compared to SOA collected on the front filter. The observed difference in 13C between the gas and particle phases may arise from isotope-dependent changes in the branching ratios in the α-pinene + O3 reaction. Alternatively, some gas-phase products involve carbon atoms from highly enriched and depleted sites, as shown in the PSIA analysis, giving a non-kinetic origin to the observed fractionations. In either case, the present study suggests that the site-specific distribution of 13C in the source material itself governs the abundance of 13C in SOA.

  14. Effect of Pellet Boiler Exhaust on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from α-Pinene.

    PubMed

    Kari, Eetu; Hao, Liqing; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Ari; Kortelainen, Miika; Grigonyte, Julija; Worsnop, Douglas R; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Sippula, Olli; Faiola, Celia L; Virtanen, Annele

    2017-02-07

    Interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and implications for aerosol production, have raised particular scientific interest. Despite active research in this area, real anthropogenic emission sources have not been exploited for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction studies until now. This work examines these interactions using α-pinene and pellet boiler emissions as a model test system. The impact of pellet boiler emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from α-pinene photo-oxidation was studied under atmospherically relevant conditions in an environmental chamber. The aim of this study was to identify which of the major pellet exhaust components (including high nitrogen oxide (NO x ), primary particles, or a combination of the two) affected SOA formation from α-pinene. Results demonstrated that high NO x concentrations emitted by the pellet boiler reduced SOA yields from α-pinene, whereas the chemical properties of the primary particles emitted by the pellet boiler had no effect on observed SOA yields. The maximum SOA yield of α-pinene in the presence of pellet boiler exhaust (under high-NO x conditions) was 18.7% and in the absence of pellet boiler exhaust (under low-NO x conditions) was 34.1%. The reduced SOA yield under high-NO x conditions was caused by changes in gas-phase chemistry that led to the formation of organonitrate compounds.

  15. The gas phase structure of α -pinene, a main biogenic volatile organic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeman, Elias M.; Avilés Moreno, Juan Ramón; Huet, Thérèse R.

    2017-12-01

    The gas phase structure of the bicyclic atmospheric aerosol precursor α-pinene was investigated employing a combination of quantum chemical calculation and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy coupled to a supersonic jet expansion. The very weak rotational spectra of the parent species and all singly substituted 13C in natural abundance have been identified, from 2 to 20 GHz, and fitted to Watson's Hamiltonian model. The rotational constants were used together with geometrical parameters from density functional theory and ab initio calculations to determine the rs, r0, and rm(1 ) structures of the skeleton, without any structural assumption in the fit concerning the heavy atoms. The double C=C bond was found to belong to a quasiplanar skeleton structure containing 6 carbon atoms. Comparison with solid phase structure is reported. The significant differences of α-pinene in gas phase and other gas phase bicyclic monoterpene structures (β-pinene, nopinone, myrtenal, and bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane) are discussed.

  16. Dimer esters in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol: effect of hydroxyl radical, ozone, relative humidity and aerosol acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, K.; Cui, T.; Zhang, H.; Gold, A.; Glasius, M.; Surratt, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from both ozonolysis and hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation of α-pinene under conditions of high nitric oxide (NO) concentrations with varying relative humidity (RH) and aerosol acidity was investigated in the University of North Carolina dual outdoor smog chamber facility. SOA formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene was enhanced relative to that from OH-initiated oxidation in the presence of initially high NO conditions. However, no effect of RH on SOA mass was evident. Ozone (O3)-initiated oxidation of α-pinene in the presence of ammonium sulfate (AS) seed coated with organic aerosol from OH-initiated oxidation of α-pinene showed reduced nucleation compared to ozonolysis in the presence of pure AS seed aerosol. The chemical composition of α-pinene SOA was investigated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-Q-TOFMS), with a focus on the formation of carboxylic acids and high-molecular weight dimer esters. A total of eight carboxylic acids and four dimer esters were identified, constituting between 8 and 12% of the total α-pinene SOA mass. OH-initiated oxidation of α-pinene in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx) resulted in the formation of highly oxidized carboxylic acids, such as 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA) and diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA). The formation of dimer esters was observed only in SOA produced from the ozonolysis of α-pinene in the absence of NOx, with increased concentrations by a~factor of two at higher RH (50-90%) relative to lower RH (30-50%). The increased formation of dimer esters correlates with an observed increase in new particle formation at higher RH due to nucleation. Increased aerosol acidity was found to have a negligible effect on the formation of the dimer esters. SOA mass yield did not influence the chemical composition of SOA formed from α-pinene

  17. Microwave Spectroscopy of Monoterpenes of Atmospheric Interest: α-PINENE, β-PINENE, and Nopinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aviles Moreno, Juan-Ramon; Neeman, Elias; Huet, T. R.

    2014-06-01

    Several monoterpenes and terpenoids are biogenic volatile organic compounds which are emitted in the atmosphere, and react with OH, O_3, NO_x, etc. to give rise to several oxydation and degradation products. Spectroscopic information on these atmospheric species are still very scarse. Meanwhile we have demonstrated that combining quantum calculations to microwave spectroscopy led to the unambiguous characterization of the most stable conformers for perillaldehyde, limonene and carvone. This information can be used to subsequently model accurately the vibrational signature for atmospheric purposes. We have recorded the pure rotational spectra of α-pinene and β-pinene (C10H_{16}), and of nopinone (C9H_{14O}), using the MB-FTMW spectrometer of Lille, in the 2-20 GHz range at temperatures varying between 340 and 380 K. For these three bicyclic molecules only one conformer can be observed, and the rotational structure was observed up to J, K_a = 8, 3 ; 8, 4 ; 8, 5, respectively. All the spectra were modeled with a semi-rigid rotor Hamiltonian and fitted to obtain a rms value better than 5 kHz using a-, b- and c- type transitions. All the experimental results were supported by several quantum calculations performed at different levels of theory (DFT and ab initio). In particular no experimental evidence of internal rotation motion was found (methyl groups), in good agreement with the calculated barriers. Support from the French Laboratoire d'Excellence CaPPA (Chemical and Physical Properties of the Atmosphere) through contract ANR-10-LABX-0005 of the Programme d'Investissements d'Avenir is acknowledged. J.-R. Aviles Moreno, F. Partal Urena, J.-J. Lopez Gonzalez and T. R. Huet, Chem. Phys. Lett. 473 (2009) 17 J.-R. Aviles Moreno, T. R. Huet, F. Partal Urena, J.-J. Lopez Gonzalez, Struct. Chem. 24 (2013) 1163 T. R. Huet, J.-R. Aviles Moreno, O. Pirali, M. Tudorie, F. Partal Urena, J.-J. Lopez Gonzalez, JQSRT. 113 (2012) 1261

  18. Vibrational Mode Assignment of α-Pinene by Isotope Editing: One Down, Seventy-One To Go

    SciTech Connect

    Upshur, Mary Alice; Chase, Hilary M.; Strick, Benjamin F.

    This study aims to reliably assign the vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectrum of α-pinene at the vapor/solid interface using a method involving deuteration of various methyl groups. The synthesis of five different deuterated isotopologues of α-pinene is presented in order to determine the impact that removing contributions from methyl group C$-$H oscillators has on its SFG response. 0.6 cm -1 Resolution SFG spectra of these isotopologues show varying degrees of differences in the C–H stretching region when compared to the SFG response of unlabeled α-pinene. The largest spectral changes were observed for the isotopologue containing a fully deuterated vinylmore » methyl group. Noticeable losses in signal intensities allow us to reliably assign the 2860 cm -1 peak to the vinyl methyl symmetric stretch. Furthermore, upon removing the vinyl methyl group entirely by synthesizing apopinene, the steric influence of the unlabeled C 9H 14 fragment on the SFG response of α-pinene SFG can be readily observed. The work presented here brings us one step closer to understanding the vibrational spectroscopy of α-pinene.« less

  19. Highly Oxygenated Multifunctional Compounds in α-Pinene Secondary Organic Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Lambe, Andrew T; Upshur, Mary Alice; Brooks, William A; Gray Bé, Ariana; Thomson, Regan J; Geiger, Franz M; Surratt, Jason D; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Graf, Stephan; Cubison, Michael J; Groessl, Michael; Jayne, John T; Worsnop, Douglas R; Canagaratna, Manjula R

    2017-06-06

    Highly oxygenated multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) originating from biogenic emissions constitute a widespread source of organic aerosols in the pristine atmosphere. However, the molecular forms in which HOMs are present in the condensed phase upon gas-particle partitioning remain unclear. In this study, we show that highly oxygenated molecules that contain multiple peroxide functionalities are readily cationized by the attachment of Na + during electrospray ionization operated in the positive ion mode. With this method, we present the first identification of HOMs characterized as C 8-10 H 12-18 O 4-9 monomers and C 16-20 H 24-36 O 8-14 dimers in α-pinene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Simultaneous detection of these molecules in the gas phase provides direct evidence for their gas-to-particle conversion. Molecular properties of particulate HOMs generated from ozonolysis and OH oxidation of unsubstituted (C 10 H 16 ) and deuterated (C 10 H 13 D 3 ) α-pinene are investigated using coupled ion mobility spectrometry with mass spectrometry. The systematic shift in the mass of monomers in the deuterated system is consistent with the decomposition of isomeric vinylhydroperoxides to release vinoxy radical isotopologues, the precursors to a sequence of autoxidation reactions that ultimately yield HOMs in the gas phase. The remarkable difference observed in the dimer abundance under O 3 - versus OH-dominant environments underlines the competition between intramolecular hydrogen migration of peroxy radicals and their bimolecular termination reactions. Our results provide new and direct molecular-level information for a key component needed for achieving carbon mass closure of α-pinene SOA.

  20. Infrared matrix isolation and theoretical studies of reactions of ozone with bicyclic alkenes: α-pinene, norbornene, and norbornadiene.

    PubMed

    Kugel, Roger W; Ault, Bruce S

    2015-01-15

    The reactions of ozone with three bicyclic alkenes, α-pinene, norbornene, and norbornadiene, were studied by low-temperature (14 K), argon matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy including (18)O isotope-labeling studies. Theoretical calculations of some of the proposed reaction intermediates and products were carried out using the Gaussian 09 suite of programs, applying density functional theory (DFT), the B3LYP functional, and the 6-311G++(d,2p) basis set. In the α-pinene/ozone system, the thermal reaction between α-pinene and ozone was too slow to observe under the twin-jet or merged-jet deposition conditions of these experiments. However, red light (λ ≥ 600 nm) irradiation of the argon matrixes containing α-pinene and ozone caused new infrared peaks to appear that could be readily assigned to reaction products of α-pinene with O((3)P) resulting from ozone photolysis: α-pinene oxide (with an epoxide ring) and two isomeric ketones. Norbornene and norbornadiene were both found to react with ozone in the gas phase during twin-jet or merged-jet deposition of these mixtures with argon. New peaks observed in the infrared spectra were assigned to the primary ozonides, Criegee intermediates, and secondary ozonides of norbornene and norbornadiene, indicating that the bulk of these reactions proceeded via the "classic" Criegee mechanism for ozonolysis of alkenes. Calculated infrared frequencies and molecular energies support these conclusions. Ultraviolet irradiation of these mixtures resulted in complete decomposition of the early intermediates and the formation of acids, aldehydes, alcohols, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. In any case, no evidence for "unusual" chemistry, prompted by the bicyclic nature of the reactants, was observed.

  1. Light absorption by secondary organic aerosol from α-pinene: Effects of oxidants, seed aerosol acidity, and relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chen; Gyawali, Madhu; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2013-10-25

    It is well known that light absorption from dust and black carbon aerosols has a warming effect on climate while light scattering from sulfate, nitrate, and sea salt aerosols has a cooling effect. However, there are large uncertainties associated with light absorption and scattering by different types of organic aerosols, especially in the near-UV and UV spectral regions. In this paper, we present the results from a systematic laboratory study focused on measuring light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated from dark α-pinene + O 3 and α-pinene + NO x + O 3 systems in the presence ofmore » neutral and acidic sulfate seed aerosols. Light absorption was monitored using photoacoustic spectrometers at four different wavelengths: 355, 405, 532, and 870 nm. Significant light absorption at 355 and 405 nm was observed for the SOA formed from α-pinene + O 3 + NO 3 system only in the presence of highly acidic sulfate seed aerosols under dry conditions. In contrast, no absorption was observed when the relative humidity was elevated to greater than 27% or in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols. Organic nitrates in the SOA formed in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols were found to be nonabsorbing, while the light-absorbing compounds are speculated to be aldol condensation oligomers with nitroxy organosulfate groups that are formed in highly acidic sulfate aerosols. Finally and overall, these results suggest that dark α-pinene + O 3 and α-pinene + NO x + O 3 systems do not form light-absorbing SOA under typical atmospheric conditions.« less

  2. Synergistic effect of ethanol to a-pinene in primart attraction of the larger pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda

    Treesearch

    Dariusz Czokajlo; Stephen A. Teale

    1999-01-01

    a-Pinene and ethanol were released in the approximate proportions 1:0.1, 1:0.9 and 1:9 (at 21oC). Ethanol, released in the range of 3-279 mg/day, generally synergized the attraction of T. piniperda to a-pinene(30 mg/day at 21oC), although attraction to the mixtures...

  3. Paraquat-induced lightwood in two European conifers - Scotch pine and Norway spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Wroblewska, H.; Conner, A.H.; Rowe, J.W.

    1978-04-01

    Paraquat treatment induced oleoresin-soaked lightwood in Scotch pine; borehole and ax-frill treatment methods were equally effective. Paraquat treatment of Norway spruce induced limited lightwood formation accompanied by heavy external oleoresin exudation. Thus paraquat treatment of Scotch pine and possibly Norway spruce could be commercially advantageous for increasing naval stores production from these species. Analysis of tall oil precursors (nonvolatile ether extractives) for resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables showed that the increase from paraquat treatment was mainly from an increased resin acid content. The chemical composition of the resin acids from the lightwood and control wood areas was similar andmore » consisted of the usual pimaric and abietic type resin acids found in conifers. The fatty acids were predominately unsaturated C/sub 18/ isomers. Turpentine of both species consisted mainly of ..cap alpha..-pinene, ..beta..-pinene, and 3-carene. The composition of the turpentine from the Scotch pine lightwood did not differ from that of the control wood. However, turpentine from the Norway spruce lightwood had an increased 3-carene content compared to that from the control.« less

  4. Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulations Reveal a Rotationally Fluid Adsorption State of α-Pinene on Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Junming; Psciuk, Brian T.; Chase, Hilary M.

    2016-06-16

    A rotationally fluid state of α-pinene at fused silica/vapor interfaces is revealed by computational and experimental vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) studies. We report the first assignment of the vibrational modes in the notoriously congested C-H stretching region of α-pinene and identify its bridge methylene group on the four-membered ring ("βCH2") as the origin of its dominant spectral feature. We find that the spectra are perfused with Fermi resonances that need to be accounted for explicitly in the computation of vibrational spectra of strained hydrocarbons such α-pinene. The preferred orientations of α-pinene are consistent with optimization of van der Waalsmore » contacts with the silica surface that results in a bimodal distribution of highly fluxional orientations in which the βCH2 group points "towards" or "away from” the surface. The reported findings are particularly relevant to the exposure of α-pinene to primary oxidants in heterogeneous catalytic pathways that exploit α-pinene as a sustainable feedstock for fine chemicals and polymers.« less

  5. Cloning and Characterization of the Gene Encoding Alpha-Pinene Oxide Lyase Enzyme (Prα-POL) from Pseudomonas rhodesiae CIP 107491 and Production of the Recombinant Protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dubessay, Pascal; Larroche, Christian; Fontanille, Pierre

    2017-12-28

    The alpha-pinene oxide lyase (Prα-POL) from Pseudomonas rhodesiae CIP107491 belongs to catabolic alpha-pinene degradation pathway. In this study, the gene encoding Prα-POL has been identified using mapping approach combined to inverse PCR (iPCR) strategy. The Prα-POL gene included a 609-bp open reading frame encoding 202 amino acids and giving rise to a 23.7 kDa protein, with a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.23. The amino acids sequence analysis showed homologies with those of proteins with unknown function from GammaProteobacteria group. Identification of a conserved domain in amino acid in positions 18 to 190 permitted to classify Prα-POL among the nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF2) protein superfamily. Heterologous expression of Prα-POL, both under its native form and with a histidin tag, was successfully performed in Escherichia coli, and enzymatic kinetics were analyzed. Bioconversion assay using recombinant E. coli strain allowed to reach a rate of isonovalal production per gramme of biomass about 40-fold higher than the rate obtained with P. rhodesiae.

  6. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation and Organic Nitrate Yield from NO 3 Oxidation of Biogenic Hydrocarbons

    DOE PAGES

    Fry, Juliane L.; Draper, Danielle C.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; ...

    2014-09-17

    Here, the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass yields from NO 3 oxidation of a series of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), consisting of five monoterpenes and one sesquiterpene (α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ-3-carene, limonene, sabinene, and β-caryophyllene), were investigated in a series of continuous flow experiments in a 10 m 3 indoor Teflon chamber. By making in situ measurements of the nitrate radical and employing a kinetics box model, we generate time-dependent yield curves as a function of reacted BVOC. SOA yields varied dramatically among the different BVOCs, from zero for α-pinene to 38–65% for Δ-3-carene and 86% for β-caryophyllene at massmore » loading of 10 μg m –3, suggesting that model mechanisms that treat all NO 3 + monoterpene reactions equally will lead to errors in predicted SOA depending on each location’s mix of BVOC emissions. In most cases, organonitrate is a dominant component of the aerosol produced, but in the case of α-pinene, little organonitrate and no aerosol is formed.« less

  7. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation and Organic Nitrate Yield from NO3 Oxidation of Biogenic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass yields from NO3 oxidation of a series of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), consisting of five monoterpenes and one sesquiterpene (α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ-3-carene, limonene, sabinene, and β-caryophyllene), were investigated in a series of continuous flow experiments in a 10 m3 indoor Teflon chamber. By making in situ measurements of the nitrate radical and employing a kinetics box model, we generate time-dependent yield curves as a function of reacted BVOC. SOA yields varied dramatically among the different BVOCs, from zero for α-pinene to 38–65% for Δ-3-carene and 86% for β-caryophyllene at mass loading of 10 μg m–3, suggesting that model mechanisms that treat all NO3 + monoterpene reactions equally will lead to errors in predicted SOA depending on each location’s mix of BVOC emissions. In most cases, organonitrate is a dominant component of the aerosol produced, but in the case of α-pinene, little organonitrate and no aerosol is formed. PMID:25229208

  8. Chemical composition of essential oils from needles and twigs of balkan pine (Pinus peuce grisebach) grown in Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Koukos, P K; Papadopoulou, K I; Patiaka, D T; Papagiannopoulos, A D

    2000-04-01

    The composition of essential oils from twigs and needles of Balkan pine (Pinus peuce Gris.) grown in northern Greece was investigated. The compounds were identified by using GC-MS analysis. The twig oil was rich in alpha-pinene (7.38%), beta-pinene (12.46%), beta-phellandrene (26.93%), beta-caryophyllene (4.48%), and citronellol (12.48%), and the needle oil was rich in alpha-pinene (23.07%), camphene (5.52%), beta-pinene (22.00%), beta-phellandrene (6.78%), bornyl acetate (9.76%), beta-caryophyllene (3.05%), and citronellol (13.42%). The mean oil yield was 2.85% for twigs and 0. 57% for needles.

  9. Tall oil precursors in three western pines: ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pine

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonvolatile diethyl ether extracts (NVEE) from ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pines were analyzed to determine the amounts and chemical composition of the tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables) and turpentine precursors available from these species. The results showed that crude tall oil compositions would be approximately as follows (% resin acids, % fatty acids, % nonsaponifiables); ponderosa pine - sapwood (15, 75, 10), heartwood (78, 7, 15); lodgepole pine - sapwood (24, 57, 19), heartwood (51, 26, 23); limber pine - sapwood (10, 82, 8), heartwood (23, 60, 17). The larger nonsaponifiables content, as compared tomore » southern pines, is the major factor in explaining the greater difficulty in the distillative refining of tall oil from these western species. Eight resin acids were found in ponderosa and lodgepole pine: palustric, isopimaric, abietic, dehydroabietic, and neoabietic acids predominated. Seven resin acids were identified from limber pine: anticopalic, isopimaric, abietic, and dehydroabietic acids predominated. The free and esterfied fatty acids from these species contained predominantly oleic and linoleic acids. In addition limber pine contained major amounts of 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid. The nonsaponifiables contained mostly diterpenes and the sterols, sitosterol and campesterol. The major turpentine components were: ponderosa pine - ..beta..-pinene and 3-carene; lodgepole pine - ..beta..-phellandrene; and limber pine - 3-carene, ..beta..-phellandrene, ..cap alpha..-piene, and ..beta..-pinene.« less

  10. Ethanol and (-)-a-pinene: attractant kairomones for some large wood-boring beetles in Southeastern USA

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol and a-pinene were tested as attractants for large wood-boring pine beetles in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina in 2002-2004. Multiple-funnel traps baited with (-)-a-pinene (released at about 2 g/d at 25-28°C) were attractive to the following Cerambycidae: Acanthocinus nodosus, A. obsoletus, Arhopalus...

  11. Ethanol and (-)-α-Pinene: Attractant Kairomones for Some Large Wood-Boring Beetles in Southeastern USA

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol and α-pinene were tested as attractants for large wood-boring pine beetles in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina in 2002 –2004. Multiple-funnel traps baited with (-)-α-pinene (released at about 2 g/d at 25–28 degrees C) were attractive to the following Cerambycidae: Acanthocinus nodosus,

  12. Phytochemical Study of the Ecuadorian Species Lepechinia mutica (Benth.) Epling and High Antifungal Activity of Carnosol against Pyricularia oryzae.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Jorge; Gilardoni, Gianluca; Ramón, Erika; Tosi, Solveig; Picco, Anna Maria; Bicchi, Carlo; Vidari, Giovanni

    2018-04-19

    The plant Lepechinia mutica (Benth.) Epling (family Lamiaceae) is endemic to Ecuador. In the present study, we report some major non-volatile secondary metabolites from the leaves and the chemistry of the essential oil distilled from the flowers. The main identified compounds were carnosol, viridiflorol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, chrysothol, and 5-hydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxy flavone. Their structures were determined by X-ray diffraction and NMR and MS techniques. The essential oil showed a chemical composition similar to that distilled from the leaves, but with some qualitative and quantitative differences regarding several minor compounds. The main constituents (>4%) were: δ-3-carene (24.23%), eudesm-7(11)-en-4-ol (13.02%), thujopsan-2-&alpha;-ol (11.90%), &beta;-pinene (7.96%), valerianol (5.19%), and co-eluting limonene and &beta;-phellandrene (4.47%). The volatile fraction was also submitted to enantioselective analysis on a &beta;-cyclodextrin column, obtaining the separation and identification of the enantiomers for &alpha;-thujene, &beta;-pinene, sabinene, &alpha;-phellandrene, limonene and &beta;-phellandrene. Furthermore, the anti-fungal activity of non-volatile secondary metabolites was tested in vitro, with carnosol resulting in being very active against the “blast disease” caused by the fungus Pyricularia oryzae .

  13. Biotransformation of (-)-α-pinene and geraniol to α-terpineol and p-menthane-3,8-diol by the white rot fungus, Polyporus brumalis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Park, Se-Yeong; Choi, In-Gyu

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the monoterpenes, α-pinene and geraniol, were biotransformed to synthesize monoterpene alcohol compounds. Polyporus brumalis which is classified as a white rot fungus was used as a biocatalyst. Consequently α-terpineol was synthesized from α-pinene by P. brumalis mycelium, after three days. Moreover, another substrate, the acyclic monoterpenoids geraniol was transformed into the cyclic compound, p-menthane-3, 8-diol (PMD). The main metabolites, i.e., α-terpineol and PMD, are known to be bioactive monoterpene alcohol compounds. This study highlights the potential of fungal biocatalysts for monoterpene transformation.

  14. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels essential oil and its major constituent α-pinene exhibit anti-Leishmania activity through immunomodulation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Amorim, Layane Valéria; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2015-02-03

    , and the elevated NO levels. ScEO and α-pinene exhibited low cytotoxicity against murine macrophages and human erythrocytes. The 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) values for the macrophages in the MTT assay were 614.1 and 425.2µg/mL for ScEO and α-pinene, respectively, while the corresponding half-maximal hemolytic concentration (HC50) values were 874.3 and 233.3µg/mL. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ScEO and its major constituent α-pinene have significant anti-Leishmania activity, modulated by macrophage activation, with acceptable levels of cytotoxicity in murine macrophages and human erythrocytes. Further work is warranted, involving more in-depth mechanistic studies and in vivo investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The essential oil qualitative and quantitative composition in the needles of Pinus sylvestris L. growing along industrial transects.

    PubMed

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Stikliene, Aida; Judzentiene, Asta

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the areas affected by a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Volatile components of the needles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The most heavily polluted CF stand had significantly higher concentration of gamma-Terpinene, Caryophyllene oxide in the current-year needles, while higher concentration of delta-3-Carene, alpha-Terpinene, gamma-Terpinene and Terpinolene was documented for 1-year-old needles. The most heavily polluted OR stand had a significantly higher concentration of Sabinene+beta-Pinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the current-year needles and a significantly higher concentration of Camphene, Sabinene+beta-Pinene, Myrcene, alpha-Cadinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the 1-year-old needles than the least polluted site. Along transects an increase in the amount of some diterpenes and a decrease in the components of the shorter chain essential oils was observed. These effects could be at least partially attributed to SO(2).

  16. The effect of particle acidity on secondary organic aerosol formation from α-pinene photooxidation under atmospherically relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yuemei; Stroud, Craig A.; Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng

    2016-11-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from photooxidation of α-pinene has been investigated in a photochemical reaction chamber under varied inorganic seed particle acidity levels at moderate relative humidity. The effect of particle acidity on SOA yield and chemical composition was examined under high- and low-NOx conditions. The SOA yield (4.2-7.6 %) increased nearly linearly with the increase in particle acidity under high-NOx conditions. In contrast, the SOA yield (28.6-36.3 %) was substantially higher under low-NOx conditions, but its dependency on particle acidity was insignificant. A relatively strong increase in SOA yield (up to 220 %) was observed in the first hour of α-pinene photooxidation under high-NOx conditions, suggesting that SOA formation was more effective for early α-pinene oxidation products in the presence of fresh acidic particles. The SOA yield decreased gradually with the increase in organic mass in the initial stage (approximately 0-1 h) under high-NOx conditions, which is likely due to the inaccessibility to the acidity over time with the coating of α-pinene SOA, assuming a slow particle-phase diffusion of organic molecules into the inorganic seeds. The formation of later-generation SOA was enhanced by particle acidity even under low-NOx conditions when introducing acidic seed particles after α-pinene photooxidation, suggesting a different acidity effect exists for α-pinene SOA derived from later oxidation stages. This effect could be important in the atmosphere under conditions where α-pinene oxidation products in the gas-phase originating in forested areas (with low NOx and SOx) are transported to regions abundant in acidic aerosols such as power plant plumes or urban regions. The fraction of oxygen-containing organic fragments (CxHyO1+ 33-35 % and CxHyO2+ 16-17 %) in the total organics and the O / C ratio (0.52-0.56) of α-pinene SOA were lower under high-NOx conditions than those under low-NOx conditions (39-40, 17-19, and

  17. Uptake of Semivolatile Secondary Organic Aerosol Formed from α-Pinene into Nonvolatile Polyethylene Glycol Probe Particles.

    PubMed

    Ye, Penglin; Ding, Xiang; Ye, Qing; Robinson, Ellis S; Donahue, Neil M

    2016-03-10

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) play an essential role in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, chemical aging, and mixing of organic aerosol (OA) from different sources. Polyethylene glycol (PEG400) particles are liquid, polar, and nearly nonvolatile; they provide a new vehicle to study the interaction between SVOCs with OA. With a unique fragment ion C4H9O2(+) (m/z 89), PEG400 can be easily separated from α-pinene SOA in aerosol mass spectra. By injecting separately prepared PEG probe particles into a chamber containing SOA coated on ammonium sulfate seeds, we show that a substantial pool of SVOCs exists in equilibrium with the original SOA particles. Quantitative findings are based on bulk mass spectra, size-dependent composition, and the evolution of individual particle mass spectra, which we use to separate the two particle populations. We observed a larger fraction of SVOC vapors with increased amounts of reacted α-pinene. For the same amount of reacted α-pinene, the SOA formed from α-pinene oxidized by OH radicals had a higher fraction of SOA vapors than SOA formed by α-pinene ozonolysis. Compared to the PEG400 probe particles, we observed a lower mass fraction of SVOCs in poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (MePEG500) probe particles under otherwise identical conditions; this may be due to the lower polarity of the MePEG500 or caused by esterification reactions between the PEG400 and organic acids in the SOA.

  18. Adsorption at the biocompatible α-pinene-water interface and emulsifying properties of two eco-friendly surfactants.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Cayado, Luis Alfonso; Ramírez, Pablo; Alfaro, María Carmen; Ruíz, Manuela; Muñoz, José

    2014-10-01

    In this contribution, we provide an accurate characterization at the α-pinene/water interface of two commercial polyoxytheylene glycerol ester surfactants which differ in the number of ethylene oxide (EO) groups, comprising a systematic analysis of interfacial pressure isotherms, dynamic curves, interfacial rheology and emulsifying properties. Polyoxyethylene glycerol esters derived from cocoa oil are non-ionic surfactants obtained from a renewable source which fulfill the environmental and toxicological requirements to be used as eco-friendly emulsifying agents. α-Pinene is a renewable biosolvent completely insoluble in water, which could find numerous applications. Interfacial rheology and equilibrium interfacial pressure data fitted a rigorous reorientation model that assumes that the surfactant molecules, when adsorbed at the interface, can acquire two orientations. The surfactant with the highest number of EO groups (Levenol C201) turned out to be more surface active at the α-pinene/water interface. In addition, the surfactant with the lowest number of EO groups (Levenol H&B) is solubilized into the adjacent oil phase. Slightly concentrated α-pinene emulsions were obtained using both surfactants. Nevertheless, more stable α-pinene emulsions with smaller droplet sizes and lower polidispersity were obtained when Levenol C201 was used as emulsifier instead of Levenol H&B. The systematic characterization presented in this work provides important new findings on the interfacial and emulsifying properties of polyoxytheylene glycerol ester surfactants, which can be applied in the rational development of new biocompatible products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-generation chemical aging of α-pinene ozonolysis products by reactions with OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ningxin; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Donahue, Neil M.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2018-03-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere can be thought of as a succession of oxidation steps. The production of later-generation SOA via continued oxidation of the first-generation products is defined as chemical aging. This study investigates aging in the α-pinene ozonolysis system with hydroxyl radicals (OH) through smog chamber experiments. The first-generation α-pinene ozonolysis products were allowed to react further with OH formed via HONO photolysis. After an equivalent of 2-4 days of typical atmospheric oxidation conditions, homogeneous OH oxidation of the α-pinene ozonolysis products resulted in a 20-40 % net increase in the SOA for the experimental conditions used in this work. A more oxygenated product distribution was observed after aging based on the increase in aerosol atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O : C) by up to 0.04. Experiments performed at intermediate relative humidity (RH) of 50 % showed no significant difference in additional SOA formation during aging compared to those performed at a low RH of less than 20 %.

  20. α-Pinene isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) induces apoptosis and confers antimetastatic protection in a melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Alisson L; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Arruda, Denise C; Pereira, Felipe V; Scutti, Jorge A Borin; Massaoka, Mariana H; Travassos, Luiz R; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João H G

    2011-07-29

    Malignant melanoma is one the most aggressive types of cancer and its incidence has gradually increased in the last years, accounting for about 75% of skin cancer deaths. This poor prognosis results from the tumor resistance to conventional drugs mainly by deregulation of apoptotic pathways. The aim of this work was to investigate the cell death mechanism induced by α-pinene and its therapeutic application. Our results demonstrated that α-pinene was able to induce apoptosis evidenced by early disruption of the mitochondrial potential, production of reactive oxygen species, increase in caspase-3 activity, heterochromatin aggregation, DNA fragmentation and exposure of phosphatidyl serine on the cell surface. Most importantly, this molecule was very effective in the treatment of experimental metastatic melanoma reducing the number of lung tumor nodules. This is the first report on the apoptotic and antimetastatic activity of isolated α-pinene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Uncertainties in SOA Formation from the Photooxidation of α-pinene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVay, R.; Zhang, X.; Aumont, B.; Valorso, R.; Camredon, M.; La, S.; Seinfeld, J.

    2015-12-01

    Explicit chemical models such as GECKO-A (the Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere) enable detailed modeling of gas-phase photooxidation and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Comparison between these explicit models and chamber experiments can provide insight into processes that are missing or unknown in these models. GECKO-A is used to model seven SOA formation experiments from α-pinene photooxidation conducted at varying seed particle concentrations with varying oxidation rates. We investigate various physical and chemical processes to evaluate the extent of agreement between the experiments and the model predictions. We examine the effect of vapor wall loss on SOA formation and how the importance of this effect changes at different oxidation rates. Proposed gas-phase autoxidation mechanisms are shown to significantly affect SOA predictions. The potential effects of particle-phase dimerization and condensed-phase photolysis are investigated. We demonstrate the extent to which SOA predictions in the α-pinene photooxidation system depend on uncertainties in the chemical mechanism.

  2. Identification of organic nitrates in the NO3 radical initiated oxidation of alpha-pinene by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Perraud, Véronique; Bruns, Emily A; Ezell, Michael J; Johnson, Stanley N; Greaves, John; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    The gas-phase reactions of nitrate radicals (NO3) with biogenic organic compounds are a major sink for these organics during night-time. These reactions form secondary organic aerosols, including organic nitrates that can undergo long-range transport, releasing NOx downwind. We report here studies of the reaction of NO3 with alpha-pinene at 1 atm in dry synthetic air (relative humidity approximately 3%) and at 298 K using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) to identify gaseous and particulate products. The emphasis is on the identification of individual organic nitrates in the particle phase that were obtained by passing the product mixture through a denuder to remove gas-phase reactants and products prior to entering the source region of the mass spectrometer. Filter extracts were also analyzed by GC-MS and by APCI time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APCI-ToF-MS) with methanol as the proton source. In addition to pinonaldehyde and pinonic acid, five organic nitrates were identified in the particles as well as in the gas phase: 3-oxopinane-2-nitrate, 2-hydroxypinane-3-nitrate, pinonaldehyde-PAN, norpinonaldehyde-PAN, and (3-acetyl-2,2-dimethyl-3-nitrooxycyclobutyl)acetaldehyde. Furthermore, there was an additional first-generation organic nitrate product tentatively identified as a carbonyl hydroxynitrate with a molecular mass of 229. These studies suggest that a variety of organic nitrates would partition between the gas phase and particles in the atmosphere, and serve as a reservoir for NOx.

  3. Optimization of renewable pinene production from the conversion of macroalgae Saccharina latissima.

    PubMed

    Scullin, Chessa; Stavila, Vitalie; Skarstad, Anita; Keasling, Jay D; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema

    2015-05-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of Saccharina latissima with laminarinase was compared to hydrolysis with different combinations of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme mixtures. The hemicellulase mixture resulted in similar release of glucose, while the cellulase mixture released 40% more glucose than laminarinase alone. The combination of a laminarinase augmented with a cellulase mixture resulted in a 53% increase of glucose release from S. latissima than laminarinase. Increasing biomass loading above 4% (w/v) reduced the sugar yield. Resulting macroalgae hydrolysates were used as a carbon source for the production of pinene, making use of a novel two plasmid Escherichia coli system. The macroalgal hydrolysates were suitable for the novel microbial production of pinene with no further treatment and/or purification. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Aerosol formation by ozonolysis of α- and β-pinene with initial concentrations below 1 ppb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saathoff, Harald; Naumann, Karl-Heinz; Möhler, Ottmar

    2014-05-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are a large fraction of the tropospheric aerosol especially over tropical continental regions. The dominant SOA forming compounds are monoterpenes of which pinene is the most abundant. The reactions of monoterpenes with OH radicals, NO3 radicals, and ozone yield secondary organic aerosol mass in highly variable yields. Despite the various studies on SOA formation the influence of temperature and precursor concentrations on SOA yields are still major uncertainties in tropospheric aerosol models. In previous studies we observed a negative temperature dependence of SOA yields for SOA from ozonolysis α-pinene and limonene (Saathoff et al., 2009). However, this study as well as most of the literature data for measured SOA yields is limited to terpene concentrations of several ppb and higher (e.g. Bernard et al., 2012), hence about an order of magnitude higher than terpene concentrations even near their sources. Monoterpene concentrations in and above tropical or boral forests reach values up to a few tenth of a ppb during daytime decreasing rapidly with altitude in the boundary layer (Kesselmeier et al. 2000; Boy et al., 2004). Therefore we investigated the yield of SOA material from the ozonolysis of α- and β-pinene under simulated tropospheric conditions in the large aerosol chamber AIDA on time scales of several hours and for terpene concentrations between 0.1 and 1 ppb. The temperatures investigated were 243, 274, and 296 K with relative humidities ranging from 25% to 41%. The organic aerosol was generated by controlled oxidation with an excess of ozone (220-930 ppb) and the aerosol yield is calculated from size distributions measured with differential mobility analysers (SMPS, TSI, 3071 & 3080N) in the size range between 2 and 820 nm. On the basis of the measured initial particle size distribution, particle number concentration (CPC, TSI, 3775, 3776, 3022), and

  5. Molecular characterization and volatility evolution of α-pinene ozonolysis SOA during isothermal evaporations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambro, E.; Schobesberger, S.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Shilling, J. E.; Lee, B. H.; Thornton, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    α-Pinene (C10H16), the most abundantly emitted monoterpene, is a large contributor to global biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budgets due to its high SOA yields upon oxidation. We probe the volatility and evaporation behavior upon dilution of α-pinene SOA to further our understanding of the nascent volatility distribution, viscosity, and how these evolve in time absent photochemical oxidation. We present molecular composition measurements of the gas and particle phases of α-pinene ozonolysis SOA formed at 0% and 50% relative humidity (RH), followed by room-temperature evaporation in ultra-high purity N2 humidified to 20-90% RH. Experiments were performed in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 10.6 m3 and the University of Washington 0.7 m3 environmental chambers utilizing a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer utilizing iodide adduct ionization. We present novel insights into the total mass that evaporates as a function of time from 10 min to 24 hours without heating, the molecular speciation of the evaporate, as well as the effective volatility and composition of the SOA mass remaining. Consistent with previous studies, we find two stages of evaporation: a rapid loss of a large portion of the total signal over the course of ≤3 hours, followed by a stage of much slower evaporation over the proceeding 21 hours. Varying the RH of formation effects evaporation rate on timescales ≤3 hours, however the mass fraction remaining after 24 hours converges to 30-50% under all formation and evaporation RHs. We simulate the evaporation behavior and remaining fractions desorbed via temperature programmed thermal desorption to derive effective saturation vapor concentrations, mass accommodation coefficients, and rates of chemical evolution producing both higher and lower volatility components during the evaporation time period.

  6. Evaluation of allergenicity of constituents of myoga using the murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Wei, Q J; Wei, C N; Harada, K; Minamoto, K; Okamoto, Y; Otsuka, M; Ueda, A

    2010-01-01

    Myoga (Zingiber Myoga Roscoe) is a perennial plant with a pungent smell from its flower buds. It is native to East Asia and has been reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study is to assess the allergenicity of myoga related to its major chemical components, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, limonene oxide and beta-phellandrene, which are supposed to be the causative agents of contact dermatitis among myoga cultivators. We performed a toxicity study of the volatile constituents of myoga using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), in which limonene, limonene oxide and beta-phellandrene had positive responses and the EC3 was 35.8%, 8.22%, and 0.54%, respectively. EC3 for both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene was over 100%. Both chemicals failed to induce positive responses in the LLNA. While the maximization rating of limonene, limonene oxide and phellandrene were evaluated as moderate, extreme, and extreme respectively, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were evaluated as weak in the previously reported GPMT. The usage of LLNA was also confirmed by comparing with previously reported GPMT results to detect the allergenicity of myoga constituents. The actual risk of humans developing an allergy to myoga constituents depends on many factors. The concentration of the compounds, the frequency and duration of exposure and the condition of the skin are supposed to be important factors.

  7. Heterogeneous ice nucleation of α-pinene SOA particles before and after ice cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert; Höhler, Kristina; Huang, Wei; Kiselev, Alexei; Möhler, Ottmar; Mohr, Claudia; Pajunoja, Aki; Saathoff, Harald; Schiebel, Thea; Shen, Xiaoli; Virtanen, Annele

    2017-05-01

    The ice nucleation ability of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles was investigated at temperatures between 253 and 205 K in the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere cloud simulation chamber. Pristine SOA particles were nucleated and grown from pure gas precursors and then subjected to repeated expansion cooling cycles to compare their intrinsic ice nucleation ability during the first nucleation event with that observed after ice cloud processing. The unprocessed α-pinene SOA particles were found to be inefficient ice-nucleating particles at cirrus temperatures, with nucleation onsets (for an activated fraction of 0.1%) as high as for the homogeneous freezing of aqueous solution droplets. Ice cloud processing at temperatures below 235 K only marginally improved the particles' ice nucleation ability and did not significantly alter their morphology. In contrast, the particles' morphology and ice nucleation ability was substantially modified upon ice cloud processing in a simulated convective cloud system, where the α-pinene SOA particles were first activated to supercooled cloud droplets and then froze homogeneously at about 235 K. As evidenced by electron microscopy, the α-pinene SOA particles adopted a highly porous morphology during such a freeze-drying cycle. When probing the freeze-dried particles in succeeding expansion cooling runs in the mixed-phase cloud regime up to 253 K, the increase in relative humidity led to a collapse of the porous structure. Heterogeneous ice formation was observed after the droplet activation of the collapsed, freeze-dried SOA particles, presumably caused by ice remnants in the highly viscous material or the larger surface area of the particles.

  8. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and phase transition of viscous α-pinene secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatius, Karoliina; Kristensen, Thomas B.; Järvinen, Emma; Nichman, Leonid; Fuchs, Claudia; Gordon, Hamish; Herenz, Paul; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Duplissy, Jonathan; Baltensperger, Urs; Curtius, Joachim; Donahue, Neil M.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Virtanen, Annele; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-04-01

    There are strong indications that particles containing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) exhibit amorphous solid or semi-solid phase states in the atmosphere. This may facilitate deposition ice nucleation and thus influence cirrus cloud properties. Global model simulations of monoterpene SOA particles suggest that viscous biogenic SOA are indeed present in regions where cirrus cloud formation takes place. Hence, they could make up an important contribution to the global ice nucleating particle (INP) budget. However, experimental ice nucleation studies of biogenic SOA are scarce. Here, we investigated the ice nucleation ability of viscous SOA particles at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) experiment at CERN (Ignatius et al., 2015, Järvinen et al., 2015). In the CLOUD chamber, the SOA particles were produced from the ozone initiated oxidation of α-pinene at temperatures in the range from -38 to -10° C at 5-15 % relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) to ensure their formation in a highly viscous phase state, i.e. semi-solid or glassy. We found that particles formed and grown in the chamber developed an asymmetric shape through coagulation. As the RHw was increased to between 35 % at -10° C and 80 % at -38° C, a transition to spherical shape was observed with a new in-situ optical method. This transition confirms previous modelling of the viscosity transition conditions. The ice nucleation ability of SOA particles was investigated with a new continuous flow diffusion chamber SPIN (Spectrometer for Ice Nuclei) for different SOA particle sizes. For the first time, we observed heterogeneous ice nucleation of viscous α-pinene SOA in the deposition mode for ice saturation ratios between 1.3 and 1.4, significantly below the homogeneous freezing limit. The maximum frozen fractions found at temperatures between -36.5 and -38.3° C ranged from 6 to 20 % and did not depend on the particle surface area. References Ignatius, K. et al., Heterogeneous ice

  9. Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol from Irradiated a-Pinene/Tolueme/NOx Mixtures and the Effect of Isoprene and Sulfur Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated by irradiating a series of a-pinene/toluene/NOx mixtures in the absence and presence of isoprene or sulfur dioxide. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate the extent to which chemical perturbations to this base-case (a-pinene/...

  10. Organic Nitrate Contribution to New Particle Formation and Growth in Secondary Organic Aerosols from α-Pinene Ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Berkemeier, Thomas; Ammann, Markus; Mentel, Thomas F; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-06-21

    The chemical kinetics of organic nitrate production during new particle formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were investigated using the short-lived radioactive tracer (13)N in flow-reactor studies of α-pinene oxidation with ozone. Direct and quantitative measurements of the nitrogen content indicate that organic nitrates accounted for ∼40% of SOA mass during initial particle formation, decreasing to ∼15% upon particle growth to the accumulation-mode size range (>100 nm). Experiments with OH scavengers and kinetic model results suggest that organic peroxy radicals formed by α-pinene reacting with secondary OH from ozonolysis are key intermediates in the organic nitrate formation process. The direct reaction of α-pinene with NO3 was found to be less important for particle-phase organic nitrate formation. The nitrogen content of SOA particles decreased slightly upon increase of relative humidity up to 80%. The experiments show a tight correlation between organic nitrate content and SOA particle-number concentrations, implying that the condensing organic nitrates are among the extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) that may play an important role in the nucleation and growth of atmospheric nanoparticles.

  11. Ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry characterization of a-pinene ozonolysis SOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of α-pinene ozonolysis with and without hydroxyl radical scavenging hexane was characterized by ultrahigh-resolution. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Molecular formulas for more than 900 negative ions were i...

  12. Dose and Enantiospecific Responses of White Pine Cone Beetles, Conophthorus coniperda, to a-Pinene in an Eastern White Pine Seed Orchard

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; Christopher M. Crowe; Christopher Asaro; Gary L. DeBarr

    2003-01-01

    The white pine cone beetle, Conophthorus coniperda, exhibited dose and enantiospecific responses to a-pinene in stands of mature eastern white pine, Pinus strobus, in a seed orchard near Murphy, North Carolina, USA. (-)-a-Pinene significantly increased catches of cone beetles to...

  13. Investigation of the β-pinene photooxidation by OH in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Martin; Fuchs, Hendrik; Acir, Ismail-Hakki; Bohn, Birger; Brauers, Theo; Dorn, Hans-Peter; Häseler, Rolf; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Li, Xin; Lutz, Anna; Nehr, Sascha; Rohrer, Franz; Tillmann, Ralf; Vereecken, Luc; Wegener, Robert; Wahner, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Besides isoprene, monoterpenes are the non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with the highest global emission rates. Due to their high reactivity towards OH, monoterpenes can dominate the radical chemistry of the atmosphere in forested areas. In the present study the photochemical degradation mechanism of β-pinene was investigated in the Jülich atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber). One focus of this study is on the OH budget in the degradation process. Therefore, the SAPHIR chamber was equipped with instrumentation to measure radicals (OH, HO2, RO2), the total OH reactivity, important OH precursors (O3, HONO, HCHO), the parent VOC β-pinene, its main oxidation products, acetone and nopinone and photolysis frequencies. All experiments were carried out under low-NO conditions ( ≤ 300 ppt) and at atmospheric β-pinene concentrations ( ≤ 5 ppb) with and without addition of ozone. For the investigation of the OH budget, the OH production and destruction rates were calculated from measured quantities. Within the limits of accuracy of the instruments, the OH budget was balanced in all β-pinene oxidation experiments. However, even though the OH budget was closed, simulation results from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) 3.2 showed that the OH production and destruction rates were underestimated by the model. The measured OH and HO2 concentrations were underestimated by up to a factor of 2, whereas the total OH reactivity was slightly overestimated because the model predicted a nopinone mixing ratio which was 3 times higher than measured. A new, theory-derived, first-generation product distribution by Vereecken and Peeters (2012) was able to reproduce the measured nopinone time series and the total OH reactivity. Nevertheless, the measured OH and HO2 concentrations remained underestimated by the numerical simulations. These observations together with the fact that the measured OH budget

  14. A REVIEW AND SYNTHESIS OF MONOTERPENE SPECIATION FROM FORESTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The monoterpene composition (emission and tissue internal concentration) of major forest tree species in the United States is discussed. Of the 14 most commonly occurring compounds ( -pinene, -pinene, 3-carene, d-limonene, camphene, myrcene, -terpinenen, -phellandrene, sabin...

  15. Pine Sawyers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Attracted to α-Pinene, Monochamol, and Ipsenol in North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, D R; Allison, J D; Crowe, C M; Dickinson, D M; Eglitis, A; Hofstetter, R W; Munson, A S; Poland, T M; Reid, L S; Steed, B E; Sweeney, J D

    2016-04-22

    Detection tools are needed for Monochamus species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) because they are known to introduce pine wilt disease by vectoring nematodes in Asia, Europe, and North America. In 2012-2014, we examined the effects of the semiochemicals monochamol and ipsenol on the flight responses of the sawyer beetles Monochamus carolinensis (Olivier), Monochamus clamator (LeConte), Monochamus mutator LeConte, Monochamus notatus (Drury), Monochamus obtusus Casey, Monochamus scutellatus (Say), and Monochamus titillator (F.) complex (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to traps baited with α-pinene. Experiments were set in pine forests in New Brunswick and Ontario (Canada), and Arizona, Georgia, Michigan, Montana, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, and Washington (United States). In brief, 40 traps were placed in 10 blocks of 4 traps per block per location. Traps were baited with: 1) α-pinene; 2) α-pinene + monochamol; 3) α-pinene + ipsenol; and 4) α-pinene + monochamol + ipsenol. Monochamol increased catches of six species and one species complex of Monochamus with an additive effect of ipsenol for five species and one species complex. There was no evidence of synergy between monochamol and ipsenol on beetle catches. Monochamol had no effect on catches of other Cerambycidae or on any associated species of bark beetles, weevils, or bark beetle predators. We present a robust data set suggesting that the combination of α-pinene, ipsenol, and monochamol may be a useful lure for detecting Monochamus species. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. CONTRIBUTIONS OF TOLUENE AND Α -PINENE TO SOA FORMED IN AN IRRADIATED TOLUENE/Α-PINENE/NOX/AIR MIXTURE: COMPARISON OF RESULTS USING 14C CONTENT AND SOA ORGANIC TRACER METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An organic tracer method, recently proposed for estimating individual contributions of toluene and α-pinene to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, was evaluated by conducting a laboratory study where a binary hydrocarbon mixture, containing the anthropogenic aromatic hydro...

  17. Aging of Secondary Organic Aerosol from β-Pinene: Changes in Chemical Composition, Density and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafzadeh, M.; Hastie, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) are emitted in large quantities into the atmosphere. These VOC, which includes β-pinene, can react to produce secondary organic aerosols (SOA), which contribute to a substantial fraction of ambient organic aerosols and are known to adversely affect visibility, climate and health. Despite this, the current knowledge regarding the SOA composition, their physical properties and the chemical aging processes they undergo in the atmosphere is limited. In this study, chemical aging of SOA generated from the photooxidation of β-pinene was investigated in the York University smog chamber. The formation and aging of both gas and particle phase products were analyzed using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The density of secondary organic matter was also simultaneously measured over the course of the aging experiments, allowing us to improve our understanding in changes in particle composition that may occur. In addition, particle phase and shape was investigated for generated particles from β-pinene oxidation by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results of this work, including particle density and morphology will be presented as well as comparisons of gas and particle phase products time profiles during aging.

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from cones of Pinus koraiensis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Yang, Hye-Young; Lee, Hong-Sub; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2008-03-01

    The essential oil from the cones of Pinus koraiensis was prepared after removing the seeds, and its chemical composition analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrodistillation of the P. koraiensis cones yielded 1.07% (v/w) of essential oil, which was almost three times the amount of essential oil extracted from the needles of the same plant. Moreover, the antimicrobial activities of the oil against the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi were evaluated using the agar disc diffusion method and broth microdilution method. Eighty-seven components, comprising about 96.8% of the total oil, were identified. The most abundant oil components were limonene (27.90%), alpha-pinene (23.89%), beta-pinene (12.02%), 3-carene (4.95%), beta-myrcene (4.53%), isolongifolene (3.35%), (-)-bornyl acetate (2.02%), caryophyllene (1.71%), and camphene (1.54%). The essential oil was confirmed to have significant antimicrobial activities, especially against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida glabrata YFCC 062 and Cryptococcus neoformans B 42419. Therefore, the present results indicate that the essential oil from the cones of Pinus koraiensis can be used in various ways as a nontoxic and environmentally friendly disinfectant.

  19. Larvicidal effect of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and turpentine and their major components on Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Seccacini, Emilia; Licastro, Susana; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector

    2007-09-01

    In the search for new alternatives for the control of Aedes aegypti the larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and pine resin essential oil (turpentine) and their major components (alpha- and beta-pinene and 1,8-cineole) was determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of E. grandis essential oil revealed that its major components are alpha-pinene and 1,8-cineole. Similar analysis of turpentine obtained by distillation of the resin pitch of conifers showed that alpha- and beta-pinene are the only major components. Third and early 4th instars of the CIPEIN-susceptible strain of Ae. aegypti were exposed to acetonic solutions of E. grandis essential oil, turpentine, and their major components for 24 h. Turpentine, with an LC50 of 14.7 ppm, was more active than the essential oil of E. grandis (LC50: 32.4 ppm). Larvicidal activity of the essential oil components showed that alpha- and beta-pinene present low LC50 values (15.4 and 12.1 ppm, respectively), whereas pure 1,8-cineole showed an LC50 of 57.2 ppm. These results suggest that alpha-pinene in E. grandis and alpha- and beta-pinene in turpentine serve as the principal larvicidal components of both oils. Results obtained on larvicidal effects of essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis and turpentine could be considered a contribution to the search for new biodegradable larvicides of natural origin.

  20. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Juniperus from ripe and unripe berries and leaves and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Russo, Maria T; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessi, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

    2003-05-07

    The composition of the essential oil from ripe and unripe berries and leaves of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea ssp. turbinata and Juniperus communis ssp. communis was analyzed by GC-MS, and microbiological assays were carried out. Samples were collected in different localities (Sardinia, Italy) and hydro distilled. The yields ranged between 2.54% +/- 0.21 (v\\w dried weight) and 0.04% +/- 0.00. A total of 36 components were identified. The major compounds in the essential oils were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta-3-carene, sabinene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, limonene, and D-germacrene. Both qualitative and quantitative differences between species and between different parts of the plant were observed. The essential oils and their major compounds were tested against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined. The results obtained led to a nonsignificant inhibitory effect, although all the essential oils from Juniperus phoenicea ssp. turbinata and the essential oil from leaves of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus exhibited rather good or weak activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. The link between organic aerosol mass loading and degree of oxygenation: an α-pinene photooxidation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffenberger, L.; Barmet, P.; Slowik, J. G.; Praplan, A. P.; Dommen, J.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2013-07-01

    A series of smog chamber (SC) experiments was conducted to identify factors responsible for the discrepancy between ambient and SC aerosol degree of oxygenation. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer is used to compare mass spectra from α-pinene photooxidation with ambient aerosol. Composition is compared in terms of the fraction of particulate CO2+, a surrogate for carboxylic acids, vs. the fraction of C2H3O+, a surrogate for aldehydes, alcohols and ketones, as well as in the Van Krevelen space, where the evolution of the atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H : C) vs. the atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O : C) is investigated. Low (near-ambient) organic mass concentrations were found to be necessary to obtain oxygenation levels similar to those of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) commonly identified in ambient measurements. The effects of organic mass loading and OH (hydroxyl radical) exposure were decoupled by inter-experiment comparisons at the same integrated OH concentration. An OH exposure between 3 and 25 × 107 cm-3 h is needed to increase O : C by 0.05 during aerosol aging. For the first time, LV-OOA-like aerosol from the abundant biogenic precursor α-pinene was produced in a smog chamber by oxidation at typical atmospheric OH concentrations. Significant correlation between measured secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and reference LV-OOA mass spectra is shown by Pearson's R2 values larger than 0.90 for experiments with low organic mass concentrations between 1.2 and 18 μg m-3 at an OH exposure of 4 × 107 cm-3 h, corresponding to about two days of oxidation time in the atmosphere, based on a global mean OH concentration of ~ 1 × 106 cm-3. α-Pinene SOA is more oxygenated at low organic mass loadings. Because the degree of oxygenation influences the chemical, volatility and hygroscopic properties of ambient aerosol, smog chamber studies must be performed at near-ambient concentrations to accurately simulate

  2. Photo-oxidation products of α-pinene in coarse, fine and ultrafine aerosol: A new high sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltracco, Matteo; Barbaro, Elena; Contini, Daniele; Zangrando, Roberta; Toscano, Giuseppa; Battistel, Dario; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    Oxidation products of α-pinene represent a fraction of organic matter in the environmental aerosol. α-pinene is one of most abundant monoterpenes released in the atmosphere by plants, located typically in boreal, temperate and tropical forests. This primary compound reacts with atmospheric oxidants, such as O3, O2, OH radicals and NOx, through the major tropospheric degradation pathway for many monoterpenes under typical atmospheric condition. Although several studies identified a series of by-products deriving from the α-pinene photo-oxidation in the atmosphere, such as pinic and cis-pinonic acid, the knowledge of the mechanism of this process is partially still lacking. Thus, the investigation of the distribution of these acids in the different size aerosol particles provides additional information on this regard. The aim of this study is twofold. First, we aim to improve the existing analytical methods for the determination of pinic and cis-pinonic acid in aerosol samples, especially in terms of analytical sensitivity and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ). We even attempted to increase the knowledge of the α-pinene photo-oxidation processes by analysing, for the first time, the particle-size distribution up to nanoparticle level of pinic and cis-pinonic acid. The analysis of aerosol samples was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The instrumental LOD values of cis-pinonic and pinic acid are 1.6 and 1.2 ng L-1 while LOQ values are 5.4 and 4.1 ng L-1, respectively. Samples were collected by MOUDI II™ cascade impactor with twelve cut-sizes, from March to May 2016 in the urban area of Mestre-Venice (Italy). The range concentrations in the aerosol samples were from 0.1 to 0.9 ng m-3 for cis-pinonic acid and from 0.1 to 0.8 ng m-3 for pinic acid.

  3. Evaluation of extracts and oils of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellent plants from Sweden and Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2006-01-01

    In laboratory tests, ethyl acetate extracts of Hyptis suaveolens Poit. from Guinea-Bissau and Rhododendon tomentosum (Stokes) H. Harmaja (formerly Ledum palustre L.) and Myrica gale L. significantly reduced probing activity of Aedes aegypti (L.). In the field in southern Sweden, extracts of leaves of R. tomentosum, M. gale, and Achillea millefolium L. significantly reduced biting by Aedes mosquitoes. Volatile compounds from M. gale, R. tomentosum, A. millefolium, and H. suaveolens were collected by solid phase microextraction (SPME). Alternatively, compounds in the plants were subjected to extraction by organic solvents of different polarities or by steam distillation and collection by SPME. Compounds collected were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Leaves of H. suaveolens contained mainly beta-caryophyllene, bergamotene, and terpinolene. The volatile fraction of an ethyl acetate extract of H. suaveolens was collected by SPME and included beta-caryophyllene, (-) -sabinene, beta-pinene, limonene, alpha-pinene, and bergamotene. The main volatiles detected were alpha-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, myrcene, and limonene from M. gale leaves or inflorescences; pcymene, sabinene, and terpinyl acetate from leaves of R. tomentosum; and (-)-germacrene D, beta-pinene, sabinene, and alpha-pinene from A. millefolium leaves or inflorescences. The selected plant species contained numerous volatiles known to have insecticidal, acaricidal, "pesticidal," and/ or insect repellent properties.

  4. α-Pinene secondary organic aerosol at low temperature: chemical composition and implications for particle viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Saathoff, Harald; Pajunoja, Aki; Shen, Xiaoli; Naumann, Karl-Heinz; Wagner, Robert; Virtanen, Annele; Leisner, Thomas; Mohr, Claudia

    2018-02-01

    Chemical composition, size distributions, and degree of oligomerization of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from α-pinene (C10H16) ozonolysis were investigated for low-temperature conditions (223 K). Two types of experiments were performed using two simulation chambers at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology: the Aerosol Preparation and Characterization (APC) chamber, and the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber. Experiment type 1 simulated SOA formation at upper tropospheric conditions: SOA was generated in the AIDA chamber directly at 223 K at 61 % relative humidity (RH; experiment termed cold humid, CH) and for comparison at 6 % RH (experiment termed cold dry, CD) conditions. Experiment type 2 simulated SOA uplifting: SOA was formed in the APC chamber at room temperature (296 K) and < 1 % RH (experiment termed warm dry, WD) or 21 % RH (experiment termed warm humid, WH) conditions, and then partially transferred to the AIDA chamber kept at 223 K, and 61 % RH (WDtoCH) or 30 % RH (WHtoCH), respectively. Precursor concentrations varied between 0.7 and 2.2 ppm α-pinene, and between 2.3 and 1.8 ppm ozone for type 1 and type 2 experiments, respectively. Among other instrumentation, a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) coupled to a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO), deploying I- as reagent ion, was used for SOA chemical composition analysis. For type 1 experiments with lower α-pinene concentrations and cold SOA formation temperature (223 K), smaller particles of 100-300 nm vacuum aerodynamic diameter (dva) and higher mass fractions (> 40 %) of adducts (molecules with more than 10 carbon atoms) of α-pinene oxidation products were observed. For type 2 experiments with higher α-pinene concentrations and warm SOA formation temperature (296 K), larger particles ( ˜ 500 nm dva) with smaller mass fractions of adducts (< 35 %) were produced. We also observed differences (up to 20 °C) in

  5. Ethanol and (-)-a-pinene: attractants for bark and ambrosia beetles in southeastern USA.

    Treesearch

    D. R. Miller; R. J. Rabaglia

    2009-01-01

    In 2002–2004, we examined the flight responses of 49 species of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae) to traps baited with ethanol and/or (−)-α-pinene in the southeastern US. Eight field trials were conducted in mature pine stands in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South...

  6. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellency field tests of essential oils from plants traditionally used in Laos.

    PubMed

    Vongsombath, Chanda; Pålsson, Katinka; Björk, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2012-11-01

    Essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Croton roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae), and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were tested in the field near Vientiane city, Lao PDR, on humans for repellent activity against mosquitoes. Landing mosquitoes were collected and later identified. The most abundant mosquitoes captured belonged to the genera Armigeres, Culex, and Aedes. All the plant oils tested at concentrations of 1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2) were significantly more mosquito repellent than the negative control. Croton oil was significantly repellent against mosquitoes of the three genera at the highest (6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentration tested. Litsea oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at all (1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentrations tested. Hyptis oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at 3.3 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2) and against Culex at 1.7 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2). The oils were analyzed for chemical content of volatiles, mainly terpenes. Main constituents were beta-pinene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from oils of the green parts of H. suaveolens; alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and alpha-phellandrene from fresh bark of C. roxburghii; and alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from fresh fruits of L. cubeba.

  7. Local and regional variation in the monoterpenes of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin

    Treesearch

    R.H. Smith; R.L. Peloquin; P.C. Passof

    1969-01-01

    A gas chromatographic analysis of the mono-terpenes of 927 ponderosa pines, representing to some degree a major portion of the species' range, showed considerable local and regional diversity in composition. Five major monoterpenes— α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene, and limonene—were analyzed. There is some evidence to support the...

  8. Composition and enantiomeric analysis of the essential oil of the fruits and the leaves of Pistacia vera from Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsokou, Anastasia; Georgopoulou, Katerina; Melliou, Eleni; Magiatis, Prokopios; Tsitsa, Eugenia

    2007-06-30

    The essential oils of the fruits and the leaves of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Fresh unripe pistachio fruits were richer in essential oil (0.5%, w/w) than the leaves (0.1%, w/w). Twenty one compounds were identified in the essential oil of the fruits and the major components were (+)-alpha-pinene (54.6%) and terpinolene (31.2%). The enantiomeric ratio of the major constituents of the essential oil of the fruits was determined using chiral GC/MS and it was found that the (+)/(-)-alpha-pinene ratio was 99.5:0.5, (+)/(-)-limonene 80:20, (+)/(-)-beta-pinene 96:4, and (+)/(-)-alpha-terpineol 0:100. Thirty three compounds were identified in the essential oil of the leaves and the major components were found to be alpha-pinene (30.0%), terpinolene (17.6%) and bornyl acetate (11.3%).

  9. Heterogeneous ice nucleation of viscous secondary organic aerosol produced from ozonolysis of α-pinene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatius, Karoliina; Kristensen, Thomas B.; Järvinen, Emma; Nichman, Leonid; Fuchs, Claudia; Gordon, Hamish; Herenz, Paul; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Duplissy, Jonathan; Garimella, Sarvesh; Dias, Antonio; Frege, Carla; Höppel, Niko; Tröstl, Jasmin; Wagner, Robert; Yan, Chao; Amorim, Antonio; Baltensperger, Urs; Curtius, Joachim; Donahue, Neil M.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Worsnop, Douglas; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-05-01

    There are strong indications that particles containing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) exhibit amorphous solid or semi-solid phase states in the atmosphere. This may facilitate heterogeneous ice nucleation and thus influence cloud properties. However, experimental ice nucleation studies of biogenic SOA are scarce. Here, we investigated the ice nucleation ability of viscous SOA particles. The SOA particles were produced from the ozone initiated oxidation of α-pinene in an aerosol chamber at temperatures in the range from -38 to -10 °C at 5-15 % relative humidity with respect to water to ensure their formation in a highly viscous phase state, i.e. semi-solid or glassy. The ice nucleation ability of SOA particles with different sizes was investigated with a new continuous flow diffusion chamber. For the first time, we observed heterogeneous ice nucleation of viscous α-pinene SOA for ice saturation ratios between 1.3 and 1.4 significantly below the homogeneous freezing limit. The maximum frozen fractions found at temperatures between -39.0 and -37.2 °C ranged from 6 to 20 % and did not depend on the particle surface area. Global modelling of monoterpene SOA particles suggests that viscous biogenic SOA particles are indeed present in regions where cirrus cloud formation takes place. Hence, they could make up an important contribution to the global ice nucleating particle budget.

  10. Ethanol and (-)-?-pinene: attratant kairomones for bark ad ambrosia beetles in the Southeastern US

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; Robert J. Rabaglia

    2009-01-01

    In 2002–2004, we examined the flight responses of 49 species of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae) to traps baited with ethanol and/or (?)-?-pinene in the southeastern US. Eight field trials were conducted in mature pine stands in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Funnel traps baited with...

  11. Diel cycles of isoprenoids in the emissions of Norway spruce, different Scots pine chemotypes, and in Boreal forest ambient air during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, N.; Williams, J.; Song, W.; Vanhatalo, A.; Bäck, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    Cuvette based emission rates of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes from four chemotypes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and one chemotype of Norway spruce (Picea abies) as well as the ambient mixing ratios of monoterpenes were determined during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 summer campaign. Differences in chemical composition as well as in emission strength were observed between the different chemotypes. The chemotypes of Scots pine can be classified according to species with high, no and intermediate content of Δ3-carene. The "no- Δ3-carene" chemotype was found to be the strongest emitter of monoterpenes. From this chemotype, β-myrcene, a very reactive organic gas, was the dominant species accounting for more than 35 % of the total emission rates of isoprenoids followed by ß-phellandrene (~34%). Myrcene emission rates ranged from 0.8 up to 24 µg/g (dw)/h. α-farnesene was the dominant sesquiterpene species, with measured average emission rates of 318 ng/g (dw)/h. In the high Δ3-carene chemotype, which is the most studied in Hyytiälä, Δ3-carene was more than 48 % of the total monoterpene emission. The mean Δ3-carene emission rate, circa 609 ng/g (dw)/h reported here is consistent with the previously reported value during the same season. The terpene emission from spruce was dominated by limonene (35%), ß-phellandrene (15%), α-pinene (14 %) and eucalyptol (9%). Total spruce monoterpene emissions ranged from 0.549 up to 12.2 µg/g (dw)/h. Overall the total terpene flux (monoterpenes + sesquiterpenes) from all studied plant species varied from 230 ng/g (dw)/h up to 66 µg/g (dw)/h. The total ambient monoterpenes (including α-pinene, Δ3-carene, ß-pinene and ß-myrcene) measured during the campaign varied in mixing ratio from a few ppt to over one ppb. The most abundant biogenic VOCs measured above the canopy were α-pinene and Δ3-carene and these two compounds together contributed more than 50% of the total monoterpenes. The diel cycles of isoprenoid mixing ratios

  12. Indoor transient SOA formation from ozone + α-pinene reactions: Impacts of air exchange and initial product concentrations, and comparison to limonene ozonolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssefi, Somayeh; Waring, Michael S.

    2015-07-01

    The ozonolysis of reactive organic gases (ROG), e.g. terpenes, generates secondary organic aerosol (SOA) indoors. The SOA formation strength of such reactions is parameterized by the aerosol mass fraction (AMF), a.k.a. SOA yield, which is the mass ratio of generated SOA to oxidized ROG. AMFs vary in magnitude both among and for individual ROGs. Here, we quantified dynamic SOA formation from the ozonolysis of α-pinene with 'transient AMFs,' which describe SOA formation due to pulse emission of a ROG in an indoor space with air exchange, as is common when consumer products are intermittently used in ventilated buildings. We performed 19 experiments at low, moderate, and high (0.30, 0.52, and 0.94 h-1, respectively) air exchange rates (AER) at varying concentrations of initial reactants. Transient AMFs as a function of peak SOA concentrations ranged from 0.071 to 0.25, and they tended to increase as the AER and product of the initial reactant concentrations increased. Compared to our similar research on limonene ozonolysis (Youssefi and Waring, 2014), for which formation strength was driven by secondary ozone reactions, the AER impact for α-pinene was opposite in direction and weaker, while the initial reactant product impact was in the same direction but stronger for α-pinene than for limonene. Linear fits of AMFs for α-pinene ozonolysis as a function of the AER and initial reactant concentrations are provided so that future indoor models can predict SOA formation strength.

  13. Composition of the essential oils from Peucedanum cervaria and P. alsaticum growing wild in the urban area of Vienna (Austria).

    PubMed

    Chizzola, Remigius

    2012-11-01

    The composition of the essential oil from the different above ground plant parts of Peucedanum cervaria and P. alsaticum (Apiaceae) collected in the urban area of Vienna has been studied. P. cervaria fruits and inflorescences had 1.5 and 1.8% essential oil, respectively. All the oils of P. cervaria were dominated by monoterpenes, with the main components being beta-pinene (7-58%), alpha-pinene (7-22%), sabinene (up to 22%), and beta-phellandrene with limonene (6-21%). P. alsaticum fruits afforded 0.3-0.4% essential oil. These oils were made up mainly by alpha-pinene (11-40%), sabinene (16-34%) and beta-phellandrene (12-31%). Stems and leaves produced only very small amounts of essential oil (< 0.05%). Besides monoterpenes, these oils contained also E-nerolidol (5-22%), spathulenol (up to 18%), dodecanal (up to 7.5%) and caryophyllene oxide (up to 7%).

  14. 2-Hydroxyterpenylic acid: An oxygenated marker compound for a-pinene secondary organic aerosol in ambient fine aerosol

    EPA Science Inventory

    An oxygenated MW 188 compound is commonly observed in substantial abundance in atmospheric aerosol samples and was proposed in previous studies as an α-pinene-related marker compound that is associated with aging processes. Owing to difficulties in producing this compound in suff...

  15. Similarities in STXM-NEXAFS Spectra of Atmospheric Particles and Secondary Organic Aerosol Generated from Glyoxal, α-Pinene, Isoprene, 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, and d-Limonene

    SciTech Connect

    Shakya, Kabindra M.; Liu, Shang; Takahama, Satoshi

    2013-02-06

    Functional group composition of particles produced in smog chambers are examined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy in order to identify characteristic spectral signatures for secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Glyoxal uptake studies showed absorption for mainly alkyl, carbon-nitrogen (C-N), and carboxylic carbonyl groups. The SOA formed from the photooxidation of α-pinene (with and without isoprene) showed stronger absorptions for alkyl and carbonyl groups than the glyoxal studies. The mass ratio of carbonyl to acid group was larger in α-pinene-only experiments relative to the mixed α-pinene-isoprene experiments. The chamber particle spectra were comparedmore » with the ambient particle spectra from multiple field campaigns to understand the potential SOA sources. One hundred nineteen particles from six field campaigns had spectral features that were considered similar to the chamber-SOA particles: MILAGRO-2006 (9 particles), VOCALS-2008 (42 particles), Whistler-2008 (22 particles), Scripps Pier-2009 (9 particles), Bakersfield-2010 (25 particles), and Whistler-2010 (12 particles). These similarities with SOA formed from glyoxal, α-pinene (with and without isoprene), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and limonene provide spectroscopic evidence of SOA products from these precursors in ambient particles.« less

  16. Treatment of gaseous alpha-pinene by a combined system containing photo oxidation and aerobic biotrickling filtration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuo-Wei; Zhang, Li-Li; Chen, Jian-Meng; Yu, Jian-Ming; Gao, Zeng-Liang; Jiang, Yi-Feng

    2011-09-15

    Biofiltration of hydrophobic and/or recalcitrant volatile pollutants is intrinsically limited. In the present study, a combined ultraviolet-biotrickling filter (UV-BTF) was developed to improve the removal of these compounds, and a single BTF as the control was operated under the same conditions. The experimental results showed that the UV-BTF provided higher removal efficiencies than the single BTF at an inlet concentration range of 600-1500 mg m(-3) under shorter residence times. The maximum elimination capacities (ECs) obtained were 94.2 mg m(-3)h(-1) and 44 mg m(-3)h(-1) in the combined UV-BTF and single BTF, respectively. The mass ratio of carbon dioxide produced to α-pinene removed in the UV-BTF was approximately 2.74, which was much higher than that of the single BTF (1.99). Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis indicated that there was more complicated microbial community in the UV-BTF than that in the single BTF. In addition, we investigated the effect of starvation or stagnation on re-acclimation and removal performance from an engineering standpoint. The results showed that the combined UV-BTF could deal with fluctuating conditions or periods without any flow (air or liquid) supply much better than the single BTF. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. α-Pinene, 3-carene and d-limonene in indoor air of Polish apartments: the impact on air quality and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Król, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2014-01-15

    Monoterpenes are among most ubiquitous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to be detected in indoor air. Since the quality of indoor air is considered important for inhabitants' well-being, the present study aimed at investigating impact of human activity on levels of selected monoterpenes applying passive sampling technique followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry. One of the objectives of the present work was to identify and characterize main emission sources as well as to investigate relationship between selected monoterpenes in indoor air. Concentration levels obtained for studied monoterpenes varied from 3 μg m(-3) for 3-carene to 1261 μg m(-3) for d-limonene. D-limonene was reported the most abundant of studied monoterpenes in indoor air. The strong correlation observed between monoterpenes suggests that studied compounds originate from same emission sources, while the I/O >1 proves the strong contribution of endogenous emission sources. The in-depth study of day-night fluctuations in concentrations of monoterpenes lead to the conclusion that human presence and specific pattern of behavior strongly influences presence and concentrations of VOCs in indoor environment. The evaluation of human exposure to selected monoterpenes via inhalation of air revealed that infants, toddlers and young children were the highly exposed individuals. © 2013.

  18. Effect of storage on the essential oil composition of Piper nigrum L. fruits of different ripening states.

    PubMed

    Orav, Anne; Stulova, Irina; Kailas, Tiiu; Müürisepp, Mati

    2004-05-05

    The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil from black, green, and white pepper was determined by using a simultaneous distillation and extraction micromethod for oil isolation and gas chromatography (GC)/flame ionization detection (FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analysis techniques. The most abundant compounds in pepper oils were (E)-beta-caryophyllene (1.4-70.4%), limonene (2.9-38.4%), beta-pinene (0.7-25.6%), Delta-3-carene (1.7-19.0%), sabinene (0-12.2%), alpha-pinene (0.3-10.4%), eugenol (0.1-41.0%), terpinen-4-ol (0-13.2%), hedycaryol (0-9.1%), beta-eudesmol (0-9.7%), and caryophyllene oxide (0.1-7.2%). Green pepper corn obtained by a sublimation drying method gave more oil (12.1 mg/g) and a much higher content of monoterpenes (84.2%) in the oil than air-dried green pepper corn (0.8 mg/g and 26.8%, respectively). The oil from ground black pepper contained more monoterpenes and less sesquiterprnes and oxygenated terpenoids as compared to green and white pepper oils. After 1 year of storage of pepper samples in a glass vessel at room temperature, the amount of the oils isolated decreased, the content of terpenes decreased, and the amount of oxygenated terpenoids increased. Differently from other pepper samples, 1 year storage of green pepper corn raised the oil amount more than twice of both drying methods.

  19. The properties and behavior of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol particles exposed to ammonia under dry conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, David M.; Imre, Dan; T. Martin, Scot

    Chemical transformations and aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles can alter their physical and chemical properties, including particle morphology. Ammonia, one of the common atmospheric reactive constituents, can react with SOA particles, changing their properties and behavior. At low relative humidity NH3 uptake by α-pinene SOA particles appears to be limited to the particle surface, which suggests that the reacted particles might not be homogeneous and have complex morphology. Here, we present a study aimed at detailed characterization of the effect of ammonia on the composition, density, morphology, shape, and evaporation kinetics of α-pinene SOA particles. We find thatmore » a small amount of NH3 diffuses and reacts throughout the particles bulk, while most of the ammoniated products result from the reaction of NH3 with carboxylic acids on the particle surface, leading to a slight increase in particle size. We show that the reaction products form a solid semi-volatile coating that is a few nanometers thick. This solid coating prevents coagulating particles from coalescing for over two days. However, when the gas phase is diluted this semi-volatile coating evaporates in minutes, which is ensued by rapid coalescence. The ammoniated products in the particle bulk affect particles evaporation kinetics, more so for the smaller particles that contain higher fraction of ammoniated products.« less

  20. A qualitative comparison of secondary organic aerosol yields and composition from ozonolysis of monoterpenes at varying concentrations of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, D. C.; Farmer, D. K.; Desyaterik, Y.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of NO2 on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ3-carene, and limonene was investigated using a dark flow-through reaction chamber. SOA mass yields were calculated for each monoterpene from ozonolysis with varying NO2 concentrations. Kinetics modeling of the first-generation gas-phase chemistry suggests that differences in observed aerosol yields for different NO2 concentrations are consistent with NO3 formation and subsequent competition between O3 and NO3 to oxidize each monoterpene. α-Pinene was the only monoterpene studied that showed a systematic decrease in both aerosol number concentration and mass concentration with increasing [NO2]. β-Pinene and Δ3-carene produced fewer particles at higher [NO2], but both retained moderate mass yields. Limonene exhibited both higher number concentrations and greater mass concentrations at higher [NO2]. SOA from each experiment was collected and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS, enabling comparisons between product distributions for each system. In general, the systems influenced by NO3 oxidation contained more high molecular weight products (MW > 400 amu), suggesting the importance of oligomerization mechanisms in NO3-initiated SOA formation. α-Pinene, which showed anomalously low aerosol mass yields in the presence of NO2, showed no increase in these oligomer peaks, suggesting that lack of oligomer formation is a likely cause of α-pinene's near 0 % yields with NO3. Through direct comparisons of mixed-oxidant systems, this work suggests that NO3 is likely to dominate nighttime oxidation pathways in most regions with both biogenic and anthropogenic influences. Therefore, accurately constraining SOA yields from NO3 oxidation, which vary substantially with the volatile organic compound precursor, is essential in predicting nighttime aerosol production.

  1. A comparison of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields and composition from ozonolysis of monoterpenes at varying concentrations of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, D. C.; Farmer, D. K.; Desyaterik, Y.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of NO2 on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ3-carene, and limonene was investigated using a dark flow-through reaction chamber. SOA mass yields were calculated for each monoterpene from ozonolysis with varying NO2 concentrations. Kinetics modeling of the first generation gas-phase chemistry suggests that differences in observed aerosol yields for different NO2 concentrations are consistent with NO3 formation and subsequent competition between O3 and NO3 to oxidize each monoterpene. α-pinene was the only monoterpene studied that showed a systematic decrease in both aerosol number concentration and mass concentration with increasing [NO2]. β-pinene and Δ3-carene produced fewer particles at higher [NO2], but both retained moderate mass yields. Limonene exhibited both higher number concentrations and greater mass concentrations at higher [NO2]. SOA from each experiment was collected and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS, enabling comparisons between product distributions for each system. In general, the systems influenced by NO3 oxidation contained more high molecular weight products (MW >400 amu), suggesting the importance of oligomerization mechanisms in NO3-initiated SOA formation. α-pinene, which showed anomalously low aerosol mass yields in the presence of NO2, showed no increase in these oligomer peaks, suggesting that lack of oligomer formation is a likely cause of α-pinene's near 0% yields with NO3. Through direct comparisons of mixed-oxidant systems, this work suggests that NO3 is likely to dominate nighttime oxidation pathways in most regions with both biogenic and anthropogenic influences. Therefore, accurately constraining SOA yields from NO3 oxidation, which vary substantially with the VOC precursor, is essential in predicting nighttime aerosol production.

  2. Aerosol-chamber study of the α-pinene/O 3 reaction: influence of particle acidity on aerosol yields and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Böge, Olaf; Gnauk, Thomas; Herrmann, Hartmut

    α-Pinene ozonolysis was carried out in the presence of ammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid seed particles in a 9 m 3 Teflon chamber at the mixing ratios of 100 ppbv for α-pinene and about 70 ppbv for ozone. The evolution of size distribution was measured by means of a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS). The resulting secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was sampled by a denuder/quartz fiber filter combination for the determination of the total organic carbon concentration (TOC) in the particle phase, using a thermographic method and by a denuder/PTFE filter combination for the analysis of individual chemical species in the particle phase using capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS). cis-Pinic acid ( m/ z 185) and another species tentatively identified at m/ z 171 and 199 were the major particle phase species for both seed particles although the product yields were different, indicating the influence of seed particle acidity. A thermographic method for the determination of TOC showed an increase of particle phase organics by 40% for the experiments with higher acidity. CE-ESI-MS analysis showed a large increase in the concentration of compounds with Mw>300 from the experiments with sulfuric acid seed particles. These results suggest that the seed particle acidity enhances the yield of SOA and plays an important role in the formation of larger molecules in the particle phase. Our results from direct particle phase chemical analysis suggest for the first time that condensation of smaller organics takes place by polymerization or aldol condensation following the formation of aldehydes, such as pinonaldehyde from the terpene ozonolysis.

  3. Tribochemical synthesis of nano-lubricant films from adsorbed molecules at sliding solid interface: Tribo-polymers from α-pinene, pinane, and n-decane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin; Barthel, Anthony J.; Kim, Seong H.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanochemical reactions of adsorbed molecules at sliding interfaces were studied for α-pinene (C10H16), pinane (C10H18), and n-decane (C10H22) on a stainless steel substrate surface. During vapor phase lubrication, molecules adsorbed at the sliding interface could be activated by mechanical shear. Under the equilibrium adsorption condition of these molecules, the friction coefficient of sliding steel surfaces was about 0.2 and a polymeric film was tribochemically produced. The synthesis yield of α-pinene tribo-polymers was about twice as much as pinane tribo-polymers. In contrast to these strained bicyclic hydrocarbons, n-decane showed much weaker activity for tribo-polymerization at the same mechanical shear condition. These results suggested that the mechanical shear at tribological interfaces could induce the opening of the strained ring structure of α-pinene and pinane, which leads to polymerization of adsorbed molecules at the sliding track. On a stainless steel surface, such polymerization reactions of adsorbed molecules do not occur under typical surface reaction conditions. The mechanical properties and boundary lubrication efficiency of the produced tribo-polymer films are discussed.

  4. Chemodiversity of a Scots pine stand and implications for terpene air concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2012-02-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 48 yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ significantly between trees

  5. Chemodiversity in terpene emissions at a boreal Scots pine stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes to the surrounding air. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 47-yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ

  6. Ethanol and (–)-α-pinene for detecting and monitoring bark and ambrosia beetles in the southeastern USA

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; Robert J. Rabaglia; Christopher M. Crowe

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to verify the need for separate traps baited with ethanol or ethanol and (–)-α-pinene for bark and ambrosia beetles in pine stands of the southeastern U.S. Eight trapping experiments were conducted in stands of mature pine in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.

  7. Hydronopylformamides: Modification of the Naturally Occurring Compound (-)-β-Pinene to Produce Insect Repellent Candidates against Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shengliang; Liu, Yan; Si, Hongyan; Xiao, Zhuanquan; Fan, Guorong; Chen, Shangxing; Wang, Peng; Wang, Zongde

    2017-06-16

    The development of a novel repellent plays an important role in the integrated control of Blattella germanica . A series of novel hydronopylformamides derivatives were synthesized from a naturally occurring compound (-)-β-pinene. The structures of these hydronopylformamides derivatives were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR and 13 C-NMR), and electron impact mass spectrometry (EI-MS). Repellency of these hydronopylformamides derivatives against Blattella germanica was evaluated by the using petri dish arena method. The results showed that four derivatives (compounds 8a , 8b , 8c and 8e ) exhibited repellency against Blattella germanica at a concentration of 20 mg/mL. Compound 8a was the most active compound among these derivatives, where the repelling ratios of compound 8a against Blattella germanica were 66.10%, 50.46%, 48.26%, at concentrations of 20 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, and 5 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 8a showed better repellency than the traditional insect repellent N , N -diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), which indicated that compound 8a had a good application prospect in the prevention of Blattella germanica . This research hopes to promote the value-added utilization of (-)-β-pinene and the development of novel German cockroach repellents.

  8. Cloning and Functional Characterization of a β-Pinene Synthase from Artemisia annua That Shows a Circadian Pattern of Expression1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shan; Xu, Ran; Jia, Jun-Wei; Pang, Jihai; Matsuda, Seiichi P.T.; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2002-01-01

    Artemisia annua plants produce a broad range of volatile compounds, including monoterpenes, which contribute to the characteristic fragrance of this medicinal species. A cDNA clone, QH6, contained an open reading frame encoding a 582-amino acid protein that showed high sequence identity to plant monoterpene synthases. The prokaryotically expressed QH6 fusion protein converted geranyl diphosphate to (−)-β-pinene and (−)-α-pinene in a 94:6 ratio. QH6 was predominantly expressed in juvenile leaves 2 weeks postsprouting. QH6 transcript levels were transiently reduced following mechanical wounding or fungal elicitor treatment, suggesting that this gene is not directly involved in defense reaction induced by either of these treatments. Under a photoperiod of 12 h/12 h (light/dark), the abundance of QH6 transcripts fluctuated in a diurnal pattern that ebbed around 3 h before daybreak (9th h in the dark phase) and peaked after 9 h in light (9th h in the light phase). The contents of (−)-β-pinene in juvenile leaves and in emitted volatiles also varied in a diurnal rhythm, correlating strongly with mRNA accumulation. When A. annua was entrained by constant light or constant dark conditions, QH6 transcript accumulation continued to fluctuate with circadian rhythms. Under constant light, advanced cycles of fluctuation of QH6 transcript levels were observed, and under constant dark, the cycle was delayed. However, the original diurnal pattern could be regained when the plants were returned to the normal light/dark (12 h/12 h) photoperiod. This is the first report that monoterpene biosynthesis is transcriptionally regulated in a circadian pattern. PMID:12226526

  9. Humidity influence on gas-particle phase partitioning of α-pinene + O3 secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisle, N. L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Bilde, M.; Donahue, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    Water vapor uptake to particles could potentially affect organic-aerosol mass in three ways: first, water in the organic phase could reduce organic (equilibrium) partial pressures according to Raoult's law; second, an aqueous phase could attract water soluble organics according to Henry's law; finally, deliquescence of inorganic particle cores could mix the organic and inorganic particle phases, significantly diluting the organics and again reducing organic partial pressures according to Raoult's law. We present experiments using initially dry α-pinene + ozone secondary organic aerosol (SOA) on ammonium sulfate (AS) seeds at atmospheric concentrations in a smog chamber. After SOA formation, the chamber relative humidity is increased steadily by addition of steam to near 100%. Little subsequent SOA mass growth is observed, suggesting that none of these potential effects play a strong role in this system.

  10. Pinenes: Abundant and Renewable Building Blocks for a Variety of Sustainable Polymers.

    PubMed

    Winnacker, Malte

    2018-05-14

    Pinenes - a group of monoterpenes containing a double bond - are very suitable renewable building blocks for a variety of sustainable polymers and materials. Their abundance from mainly non-edible parts of plants as well as the feasibility to isolate them render these compounds unique amongst the variety of biomass that is utilizable for novel materials. Accordingly, their use for the synthesis of biobased polymers has been investigated intensively, and strong progress has been made with this especially within the past 2-3 years. Direct cationic or radical polymerization via the double bonds as well as polymerization upon their further functionalization can afford a variety of sustainable polymers suitable for many applications, which is summarized in this article. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

    1999-08-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of the dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-8192, all of which could be identified. The highest FD factor was found for linalol (floral), followed by (E)-beta-ocimene (flowery), alpha-farnesene (sweet, flowery), beta-pinene (terpeny), alpha-pinene (pine needle-like), myrtenol (flowery), and beta-phellandrene (terpeny). Vanillin (vanilla-like) and 3-ethylphenol (smoky, phenolic) showing somewhat lower FD factors (FD = 128) were detected for the first time as constituents of the dried fruit.

  12. α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Yan-Jing; Li, Yu-Sang; Zhang, Wei Kevin; Tang, He-Bin

    2016-02-17

    Frankincense oil and water extracts (FOE, FWE) have long been used for external treatment of inflammation and pain. The present study was conducted to identify the active ingredients responsible for the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and to determine the underlying mechanisms. The compositions of FOE and FWE were identified and compared by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the two extracts and their possible active ingredients (α-pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol) were evaluated and compared in a xylene-induced ear edema model and a formalin-inflamed hind paw model. Inflammatory infiltrates and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in hind paw skin were investigated by histological staining. The contents of α-pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol in FOE were much higher than those in FWE. Mice treated with FOE exhibited greater and faster lessening of swelling and pain than mice treated with FWE. The combination of the three components had more potent pharmacological effects on hind paw inflammation and COX-2 overexpression than the three components used alone. These findings suggest that topical application of FOE or its active ingredients (including α-pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol) exhibit significantly anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects through inhibiting nociceptive stimulus-induced inflammatory infiltrates and COX-2 overexpression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. LC-MS-MS-TOF analysis of oxygenated organic compounds in ambient aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roempp, A.; Moortgat, G.

    2003-04-01

    Ambient aerosol samples were taken at different sites across Europe. The fine mode aerosol was collected on quartz filters at flow rates of 160 L/min and 500 L/min. These samples were analyzed for organic acids (C>4) by an HPLC system coupled to a hybrid mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer consists of a quadrupole mass analyzer, a quadrupole collision cell and a time-of-flight mass analyzer (TOF). Analytes were identified by standards when available or MS-MS experiments and exact mass measurements utilizing the high mass resolution of the TOF instrument. Monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, sabinene, limonene, 3-carene) were ozonolyzed in the laboratory and compared with field samples. Besides the commonly measured organic acids (pinic, pinonic and norpinic acid) sabinic, caric and caronic acid were identified for the first time in ambient aerosol. In addition, nearly all samples showed significant concentrations of newly identified keto dicarboxylic acids (C9 - C12). Laboratory experiments were used to investigate the formation mechanisms of these compounds. By comparing laboratory measurements of wood combustion and field samples from the Eastern Mediterranean region, nitrocatechol was identified as a possible tracer for biomass burning. The data obtained is used to determine the role of biogenic sources in secondary organic aerosol formation.

  14. Effect of oil concentration and residence time on the biodegradation of α-pinene vapours in two-liquid phase suspended-growth bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Montes, María; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2012-02-20

    Recently, research on the use of binary aqueous-organic liquid phase systems for the treatment of polluted air has significantly increased. This paper reports the removal of α-pinene from a waste air stream in a continuous stirred tank bioreactor (CSTB), using either a single-liquid aqueous phase or a mixed aqueous-organic liquid phase. The influence of gas flow rate, load and pollutant concentration was evaluated as well as the effect of the organic to aqueous phase ratio. Continuous experiments were carried out at different inlet α-pinene concentrations, ranging between 0.03 and 25.1 g m⁻³ and at four different flow rates, corresponding to residence times (RTs) of 120 s, 60 s, 36 s and 26 s. The maximum elimination capacities (ECs) reached in the CSTB were 382 g m⁻³ h⁻¹ (without silicone oil) and 608 g m⁻³ h⁻¹ (with 5%v/v silicone oil), corresponding to a 1.6-fold improvement using an aqueous-organic liquid phase. During shock-loads experiments, the performance and stability of the CSTB were enhanced with 5% silicone oil, quickly recovering almost 100% removal efficiency (RE), when pre-shock conditions were restored. The addition of silicone oil acted as a buffer for high α-pinene loads, showing a more stable behaviour in the case of two-liquid-phase systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cloud Activation Potentials for Atmospheric α-Pinene and β-Caryophyllene Ozonolysis Products.

    PubMed

    Gray Bé, Ariana; Upshur, Mary Alice; Liu, Pengfei; Martin, Scot T; Geiger, Franz M; Thomson, Regan J

    2017-07-26

    The formation of atmospheric cloud droplets due to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles is important for quantifying the Earth's radiative balance under future, possibly warmer, climates, yet is only poorly understood. While cloud activation may be parametrized using the surface tension depression that coincides with surfactant partitioning to the gas-droplet interface, the extent to which cloud activation is influenced by both the chemical structure and reactivity of the individual molecules comprising this surfactant pool is largely unknown. We report herein considerable differences in the surface tension depression of aqueous pendant droplets that contain synthetically prepared ozonolysis products derived from α-pinene and β-caryophyllene, the most abundant of the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively, that are emitted over the planet's vast forest ecosystems. Oxidation products derived from β-caryophyllene were found to exhibit significantly higher surface activity than those prepared from α-pinene, with the critical supersaturation required for cloud droplet activation reduced by 50% for β-caryophyllene aldehyde at 1 mM. These considerable reductions in the critical supersaturation were found to coincide with free energies of adsorption that exceed ∼25 kJ/mol, or just one hydrogen bond equivalent, depending on the ammonium sulfate and oxidation product concentration in the solution. Additional experiments showed that aldehyde-containing oxidation products exist in equilibrium with hydrated forms in aqueous solution, which may modulate their bulk solubility and surface activity. Equilibration time scales on the order of 10 -5 to 10 -4 s calculated for micrometer-sized aerosol particles indicate instantaneous surface tension depression in the activation processes leading to cloud formation in the atmosphere. Our findings highlight the underlying importance of molecular structure and reactivity when considering cloud condensation activity in

  16. Simultaneous quantification of GABAergic 3alpha,5alpha/3alpha,5beta neuroactive steroids in human and rat serum.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Patrizia; O'Buckley, Todd K; Alward, Sarah E; Marx, Christine E; Shampine, Lawrence J; Girdler, Susan S; Morrow, A Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite substantial information on the progesterone derivative (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP, allopregnanolone), the physiological significance of the other endogenous GABAergic neuroactive steroids has remained elusive. Here, we describe the validation of a method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to simultaneously identify serum levels of the eight 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone. The method shows specificity, sensitivity and enhanced throughput compared to other methods already available for neuroactive steroid quantification. Administration of pregnenolone to rats and progesterone to women produced selective effects on the 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced neuroactive steroids, indicating differential regulation of their biosynthetic pathways. Pregnenolone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1488%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THDOC, +205%, p<0.01), (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5alpha-A, +216%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5alpha-A-diol, +190%, p<0.01). (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THP) and (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5beta-A) were not altered, while (3alpha,5beta)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THDOC) and (3alpha,5beta,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5beta-A-diol) were increased from undetectable levels to 271+/-100 and 2.4+/-0.9 pg+/-SEM, respectively (5/8 rats). Progesterone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1806%, p<0.0001), 3alpha,5beta-THP (+575%, p<0.001), 3alpha,5alpha

  17. Preparation of 3 beta, 5 alpha-, 3 alpha, 5 alpha- and 3 alpha, 5 beta-tetrahydro derivatives of 19-noraldosterone by chemical synthesis and microbial bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Harnik, M; Kashman, Y; Carmely, S; Cojocaru, M

    1988-07-01

    The 3 beta, 5 alpha-, 3 alpha, 5 alpha- and 3 alpha, 5 beta-tetrahydro derivatives 19, 20 and 27 of 19-noraldosterone (1) were prepared to facilitate the search for these compounds in urine. The diketal 4, consisting of a 2:1 mixture of the 5,6- and 5(10)-ene isomers, was hydrogenated with Pd-C and partially hydrolyzed to 5 alpha, 10 alpha- and 5 alpha, 10 beta-dihydroketals 8 and 10 in a 1:2.5 ratio. Assignment of protons was done with aid of COSY 45 experiments. Compound 10 was reduced with diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAH) to 4 products: the 3 alpha- and 3 beta-ol hemiacetals 16 and 15, and the corresponding tetraols 14 and 13. Alternatively, hydrogenation of the 4-en-3-one 2 gave 10, its 5 beta, 10 beta-isomer 21 and the tetrahydro compound 22, in a 4:2:1 ratio. A better way to prepare the 5 beta, 10 beta-series involved microbial conversion of 2 with Clostridium paraputrificum, and the resulting tetrahydrolactone 23 was reduced with DIBAH to the hemiacetal 24. Acid hydrolysis of 16, 15 and 24 afforded 20, 19 and 27, respectively. According to [1H]-NMR, in solution 20 and 24 exist as mixtures of isomers, while 19 appears in one form only. Periodate oxidation converted 19 and 27 into their gamma-etiolactones 18 and 28. EI MS base peaks are different and characteristic for 19, 20 and 27.

  18. Monoterpene oxidation in an oxidative flow reactor: SOA yields and the relationship between bulk gas-phase properties and organic aerosol growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, B.; Link, M.; Farmer, D.

    2016-12-01

    We use an oxidative flow reactor (OFR) to determine the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields of five monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, sabinene, and terpinolene) at a range of OH exposures. These OH exposures correspond to aging timescales of a few hours to seven days. We further determine how SOA yields of beta-pinene and alpha-pinene vary as a function of seed particle type (organic vs. inorganic) and seed particle mass concentration. We hypothesize that the monoterpene structure largely accounts for the observed variance in SOA yields for the different monoterpenes. We also use high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry to calculate the bulk gas-phase properties (O:C and H:C) of the monoterpene oxidation systems as a function of oxidant concentrations. Bulk gas-phase properties can be compared to the SOA yields to assess the capability of the precursor gas-phase species to inform the SOA yields of each monoterpene oxidation system. We find that the extent of oxygenated precursor gas-phase species corresponds to SOA yield.

  19. Immunological characterization of eristostatin and echistatin binding sites on alpha IIb beta 3 and alpha V beta 3 integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkiewicz, C; Rosenthal, L A; Mosser, D M; Kunicki, T J; Niewiarowski, S

    1996-01-01

    Two disintegrins with a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity, echistatin and eristostatin, showed a low level of interaction with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, but they bound to CHO cells transfected with alpha IIb beta 3 genes (A5 cells) and to CHO cells transfected with alpha v beta 3 genes (VNRC3 cells) in a reversible and saturable manner. Scatchard analysis revealed that eristostatin bound to 816000 sites per A5 cell (Kd 28 nM) and to 200000 sites (Kd 14 nM) per VNRC3 cell respectively. However, VNRC3 cells did not bind to immobilized eristostatin. Echistatin bound to 495000 sites (Kd 53 nM) per A5 cell and to 443000 sites (Kd 20 nM) per VNRC3 cell. As determined by flow cytometry, radiobinding assay and adhesion studies, binding of both disintegrins to A5 cells and resting platelets and binding of echistatin to VNRC3 cells resulted in the expression of ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on the beta 3 subunit. Eristostatin inhibited, more strongly than echistatin, the binding of three monoclonal antibodies: OPG2 (RGD motif dependent), A2A9 (alpha IIb beta 3 complex dependent) and 7E3 (alpha IIb beta 3 and alpha v beta 3 complex dependent) to A5 cells, to resting and to activated platelets and to purified alpha IIb beta 3. Experiments in which echistatin and eristostatin were used alone or in combination to inhibit the binding of 7E3 and OPG2 antibodies to resting platelets suggested that these two disintegrins bind to different but overlapping sites on alpha IIb beta 3 integrin. Monoclonal antibody LM 609 and echistatin seemed to bind to different sites on alpha v beta 3 integrin. However, echistatin inhibited binding of 7E3 antibody to VNRC3 cells and to purified alpha v beta 3 suggesting that alpha v beta 3 and alpha IIb beta 3 might share the same epitope to which both echistatin and 7E3 bind. Eristostatin had no effect in these systems, providing further evidence that it binds to a different epitope on alpha v beta 3. PMID:8760368

  20. Isomerization of α-pinene in the terpentin oil with TCA/Natural Zeolite using microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayati, N.; Supartono; Kusumastuti, E.

    2018-04-01

    The catalytic potensial of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)//Natural Zeolite in the isomerization of α-pinene in the terpentin oil was investigated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the power of microvawe on activity and selectivity of catalyst. The main product were champhene, terpinene, limonene, p-cymene, and terpinolene. The highest selectivity was 28.26% with a conversion of 23.25%, whereas the higher conversion was 98.99% with selectivity of 16.90% at room temperature using power of microwave 640 W.

  1. Composition and antimicrobial properties of Sardinian Juniperus essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Sofia; Barra, Andrea; Pisano, Barbara; Cabizza, Maddalena; Pirisi, Filippo Maria; Palmas, Francesca

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the chemical compositions and antimicrobial properties of Juniperus essential oils and of their main components were determined. Five berry essential oils obtained from different species of Juniperus growing wild in Sardinia were analyzed. The components of the essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the oils and their components against food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were determined by a broth microdilution method. The GC-MS analysis showed a certain variability in the concentrations of the main constituents of the oils. Alpha-pinene was largely predominant in the oils of the species J. phoenicea subsp. turbinata and J. oxycedrus. Alpha-pinene and myrcene constituted the bulk (67.56%) of the essential oil of J. communis. Significant quantitative differences were observed for myrcene, delta-3-carene, and D-germacrene. The results of the antimicrobial assay show that the oils of J. communis and J. oxycedrus failed to inhibit any of the microorganisms at the highest concentrations tested (MLC > or = 900 microg/ml), while the oils extracted from J. turbinata specimens were active against fungi, particularly against a strain of Aspergillus flavus (an aflatoxin B1 producer). Of the single compounds tested, delta-3-carene was found to possess the broadest spectrum of activity and appeared to contribute significantly to the antifungal activity observed for J. turbinata oils. This activity may be helpful in the prevention of aflatoxin contamination for many foods.

  2. Kinetics, Mechanism, and Secondary Organic Aerosol Yield of Aqueous Phase Photo-oxidation of α-Pinene Oxidation Products.

    PubMed

    Aljawhary, Dana; Zhao, Ran; Lee, Alex K Y; Wang, Chen; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2016-03-10

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) involves atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the majority of which are emitted from biogenic sources. Oxidation can occur not only in the gas-phase but also in atmospheric aqueous phases such as cloudwater and aerosol liquid water. This study explores for the first time the aqueous-phase OH oxidation chemistry of oxidation products of α-pinene, a major biogenic VOC species emitted to the atmosphere. The kinetics, reaction mechanisms, and formation of SOA compounds in the aqueous phase of two model compounds, cis-pinonic acid (PIN) and tricarballylic acid (TCA), were investigated in the laboratory; TCA was used as a surrogate for 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA), a known α-pinene oxidation product. Aerosol time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (Aerosol-ToF-CIMS) was used to follow the kinetics and reaction mechanisms at the molecular level. Room-temperature second-order rate constants of PIN and TCA were determined to be 3.3 (± 0.5) × 10(9) and 3.1 (± 0.2) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, from which were estimated their condensed-phase atmospheric lifetimes. Aerosol-ToF-CIMS detected a large number of products leading to detailed reaction mechanisms for PIN and MBTCA. By monitoring the particle size distribution after drying, the amount of SOA material remaining in the particle phase was determined. An aqueous SOA yield of 40 to 60% was determined for PIN OH oxidation. Although recent laboratory studies have focused primarily on aqueous-phase processing of isoprene-related compounds, we demonstrate that aqueous formation of SOA materials also occurs from monoterpene oxidation products, thus representing an additional source of biogenically driven aerosol formation.

  3. Converting S-limonene synthase to pinene or phellandrene synthases reveals the plasticity of the active site.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinkun; Ai, Ying; Wang, Jianhui; Xu, Jingwei; Zhang, Yongkang; Yang, Dong

    2017-05-01

    S-limonene synthase is a model monoterpene synthase that cyclizes geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) to form S-limonene. It is a relatively specific enzyme as the majority of its products are composed of limonene. In this study, we converted it to pinene or phellandrene synthases after introducing N345A/L423A/S454A or N345I mutations. Further studies on N345 suggest the polarity of this residue plays a critical role in limonene production by stabilizing the terpinyl cation intermediate. If it is mutated to a non-polar residue, further cyclization or hydride shifts occurs so the carbocation migrates towards the pyrophosphate, leading to the production of pinene or phellandrene. On the other hand, mutant enzymes that still possess a polar residue at this position produce limonene as the major product. N345 is not the only polar residue that may stabilize the terpinyl cation because it is not strictly conserved among limonene synthases across species and there are also several other polar residues in this area. These residues could form a "polar pocket" that may collectively play this stabilizing role. Our study provides important insights into the catalytic mechanism of limonene synthases. Furthermore, it also has wider implications on the evolution of terpene synthases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Studying volatility from composition, dilution, and heating measurements of secondary organic aerosols formed during α-pinene ozonolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Inomata, Satoshi; Morino, Yu; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Ramasamy, Sathiyamurthi; Hikida, Toshihide; Shimono, Akio; Takami, Akinori; Fushimi, Akihiro; Kondo, Yoshinori; Imamura, Takashi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Sugata, Seiji

    2018-04-01

    Traditional yield curve analysis shows that semi-volatile organic compounds are a major component of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). We investigated the volatility distribution of SOAs from α-pinene ozonolysis using positive electrospray ionization mass analysis and dilution- and heat-induced evaporation measurements. Laboratory chamber experiments were conducted on α-pinene ozonolysis, in the presence and absence of OH scavengers. Among these, we identified not only semi-volatile products, but also less volatile highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) and dimers. Ozonolysis products were further exposed to OH radicals to check the effects of photochemical aging. HOMs were also formed during OH-initiated photochemical aging. Most HOMs that formed from ozonolysis and photochemical aging had 10 or fewer carbons. SOA particle evaporation after instantaneous dilution was measured at < 1 and ˜ 40 % relative humidity. The volume fraction remaining of SOAs decreased with time and the equilibration timescale was determined to be 24-46 min for SOA evaporation. The experimental results of the equilibration timescale can be explained when the mass accommodation coefficient is assumed to be 0.1, suggesting that the existence of low-volatility materials in SOAs, kinetic inhibition, or some combined effect may affect the equilibration timescale measured in this study.

  5. Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. ssp. argenteum and T. densum (Lab.) Schultz Bip. ssp. amani heywood from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Demirci, Fatih; Demirci, Betül; Gören, Nezhun; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2010-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum ssp. argenteum and T. densum ssp. amani from Turkey were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil of T. argenteum ssp. argenteum was characterized with alpha-pinene 36.7%, beta-pinene 27.5% and 1,8-cineole 9.8%. T. densum ssp. amani was characterized with beta-pinene 27.2%, 1,8-cineole 13.1%, alpha-pinene 9.7% and p-cymene 8.9%. Antibacterial activity of the oils were evaluated for five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria by using a broth microdilution assay. The highest inhibitory activity was observed against Bacillus cereus for T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil (125 microg/mL) when compared with positive control chloramphenicol it showed the same inhibition potency. However, the same oil showed lower inhibitory activity against B. subtilis when compared. The oil of T. densum ssp. amani did not show significant activity against the tested microorganisms. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil was investigated for 15 and 10 mg/mL concentrations. However, the oil did not show significant activity when compared to positive control alpha-tocopherol. Both oils showed toxicity to Vibrio fischeri in the TLC-bioluminescence assay.

  6. Full-scale chamber investigation and simulation of air freshener emissions in the presence of ozone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Mason, Mark; Krebs, Kenneth; Sparks, Leslie

    2004-05-15

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from one electrical plug-in type of pine-scented air freshener and their reactions with O3 were investigated in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency indoor air research large chamber facility. Ozone was generated from a device marketed as an ozone generator air cleaner. Ozone and oxides of nitrogen concentrations and chamber conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and air exchange rate were controlled and/or monitored. VOC emissions and some of the reaction products were identified and quantified. Source emission models were developed to predict the time/concentration profiles of the major VOCs (limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, camphene, benzyl propionate, benzyl alcohol, bornyl acetate, isobornyl acetate, and benzaldehyde) emitted bythe air freshener. Gas-phase reactions of VOCs from the air freshener with O3 were simulated by a photochemical kinetics simulation system using VOC reaction mechanisms and rate constants adopted from the literature. The concentration-time predictions were in good agreement with the data for O3 and VOCs emitted from the air freshener and with some of the primary reaction products. Systematic differences between the predictions and the experimental results were found for some species. Poor understanding of secondary reactions and heterogeneous chemistry in the chamber is the likely cause of these differences. The method has the potential to provide data to predict the impact of O3/VOC interactions on indoor air quality.

  7. Trap Type, Chirality of a-Pinene, and Geographic Region Affect Sampling Efficiency of Root and Lower Stem Insects in Pine

    Treesearch

    Nadir Erbilgin; Alex Szele; Kier Dean Klepzig; Kenneth Francis Raffa

    2001-01-01

    Root and lower stem insects cause significant damage to conifers, vector phytopathogenic fungi, and can predispose trees to bark beetle attacks. The development of effective sampling techniques is an important component in managing these cryptic insects. We tested the effects of trap type and stereochemistry of a-pinene, in combination with ethanol, on catches of the...

  8. EAG response and behavioral orientation of Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) to synthetic host-associated volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Dastarcus helophoroides Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) is an effective predatory beetle of larvae and pupae of several cerambycid beetles including Monochamus alternatus and Anoplophora glabripennis. Electroantennography (EAG) and a dynamic two-choice olfactometer were respectively used to measure the antennal and behavioral responses of both sexes to selected volatile compounds. Female and male D. helophoroides exhibited similar EAG and behavioral responses. Significant dose-dependent EAG responses in both sexes were elicited by nonanal, octanal, cis-3-hexenol, 3-carene, (R)-(+)-α-pinene, (S)-(-)-α-pinene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (S)-(-)-limonene. Female and male beetles were repelled at high concentration by cis-3-hexenol and (S)-(-)-limonene, respectively. Both sexes of D. helophoroides were significantly attracted to nonanal, cis-3-hexenol, 3-carene and (R)-(+)-limonene even at low concentrations. These compounds might be used either individually or in mixtures for developing biological control methods to attract this predatory beetle into forest stands threatened by cerambycid beetles. PMID:29267391

  9. Allelopathic effects of volatile monoterpenoids produced by Salvia leucophylla: Inhibition of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in the root apical meristem of Brassica campestris seedlings.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Nami; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Nagata, Noriko; Saito, Chieko; Sakai, Atsushi

    2005-05-01

    Salvia leucophylla, a shrub observed in coastal south California, produces several volatile monoterpenoids (camphor, 1,8-cineole, beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, and camphene) that potentially act as allelochemicals. The effects of these were examined using Brassica campestris as the test plant. Camphor, 1,8-cineole, and beta-pinene inhibited germination of B. campestris seeds at high concentrations, whereas alpha-pinene and camphene did not. Root growth was inhibited by all five monoterpenoids in a dose-dependent manner, but hypocotyl growth was largely unaffected. The monoterpenoids did not alter the sizes of matured cells in either hypocotyls or roots, indicating that cell expansion is relatively insensitive to these compounds. They did not decrease the mitotic index in the shoot apical region, but specifically lowered mitotic index in the root apical meristem. Moreover, morphological and biochemical analyses on the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine into DNA demonstrated that the monoterpenoids inhibit both cell-nuclear and organelle DNA synthesis in the root apical meristem. These results suggest that the monoterpenoids produced by S. leucophylla could interfere with the growth of other plants in its vicinity through inhibition of cell proliferation in the root apical meristem.

  10. Anthropogenic Sulfur Perturbations on Biogenic Oxidation: SO2 Additions Impact Gas-Phase OH Oxidation Products of α- and β-Pinene.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Beth; Brophy, Patrick; Brune, William H; Farmer, Delphine K

    2016-02-02

    In order to probe how anthropogenic pollutants can impact the atmospheric oxidation of biogenic emissions, we investigated how sulfur dioxide (SO2) perturbations impact the oxidation of two monoterpenes, α-and β-pinene. We used chemical ionization mass spectrometry to examine changes in both individual molecules and gas-phase bulk properties of oxidation products as a function of SO2 addition. SO2 perturbations impacted the oxidation systems of α-and β-pinene, leading to an ensemble of products with a lesser degree of oxygenation than unperturbed systems. These changes may be due to shifts in the OH:HO2 ratio from SO2 oxidation and/or to SO3 reacting directly with organic molecules. Van Krevelen diagrams suggest a shift from gas-phase functionalization by alcohol/peroxide groups to functionalization by carboxylic acid or carbonyl groups, consistent with a decreased OH:HO2 ratio. Increasing relative humidity dampens the impact of the perturbation. This decrease in oxygenation may impact secondary organic aerosol formation in regions dominated by biogenic emissions with nearby SO2 sources. We observed sulfur-containing organic compounds following SO2 perturbations of monoterpene oxidation; whether these are the result of photochemistry or an instrumental artifact from ion-molecule clustering remains uncertain. However, our results demonstrate that the two monoterpene isomers produce unique suites of oxidation products.

  11. Comparison of a -pinene and myrcene on attraction of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to pheromones in stands of western white pine

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; B. Staffan Lindgren

    2000-01-01

    Multiple-funnel traps baited with exo-brevicomin and a mixture of cis- and trans-verbenol were used to test the relative attractiveness of myrcene and (-)-a -pinene to the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in a stand...

  12. How rainfall, relative humidity and temperature influence volatile emissions from apple trees in situ.

    PubMed

    Vallat, Armelle; Gu, Hainan; Dorn, Silvia

    2005-07-01

    Headspace volatiles from apple-bearing twigs were collected in the field with a Radiello sampler during three different diurnal periods over the complete fruit growing season. Analyses by thermal desorption-GC-MS identified a total of 62 compounds in changing quantities, including the terpenoids alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, limonene, beta-caryophyllene and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, the aldehydes (E)-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde and nonanal, and the alcohol (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol. The variations in emission of these plant odours were statistically related to temperature, humidity and rainfall in the field. Remarkably, rainfall had a significant positive influence on changes in volatile release during all three diurnal periods, and further factors of significance were temperature and relative humidity around noon, relative humidity in the late afternoon, and temperature and relative humidity during the night. Rainfall was associated consistently with an increase in the late afternoon in terpene and aldehyde volatiles with a known repellent effect on the codling moth, one of the key pests of apple fruit. During the summer of 2003, a season characterized by below-average rainfall, some postulated effects of drought on trees were tested by establishing correlations with rainfall. Emissions of the wood terpenes alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and limonene were negatively correlated with rainfall. Another monoterpene, camphene, was only detected in this summer but not in the previous years, and its emissions were negatively correlated with rainfall, further supporting the theory that drought can result in higher formation of secondary metabolites. Finally, the two green leaf volatiles (E)-2-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol were negatively correlated with rainfall, coinciding well with the expectation that water deficit stress increases activity of lipoxygenase. To our knowledge, this work represents the first empirical study concerning the influence of abiotic factors on volatile

  13. Attraction of Pissodes affinis and P. fasciatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to pityol and a-pinene in a Coastal Stand of Western White Pine and Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; Don Heppner

    1999-01-01

    Lindgren multiple-funnel traps, baited with (-)-a-pinene and (±)-pityol, captured significant numbers of the weevils, Pissodes affinis Randall and P. fasciatus LeConte, in a coastal stand of Douglas-fir and western white pine.

  14. Characterization of the interaction between two food aroma components, alpha-pinene and ethyl butyrate, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) packaging films as a function of environmental humidity.

    PubMed

    López-Carballo, Gracia; Cava, David; Lagarón, Jose M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2005-09-07

    The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOHs) are well-known high oxygen barrier materials that are being used successfully in the design of packaging structures for oxygen-sensitive food or pharmaceutical products. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using EVOH materials to provide a high barrier to organic compounds as a means to reduce food aroma scalping. However, the barrier function of this family of materials diminishes significantly in humid environments, and it is supposed that so does the organic vapor barrier. In this work, a new sorption-based method to characterize the interaction between food aroma and polymer films for packaging as a function of relative humidity is presented and is used to determine the barrier to ethyl butyrate and alpha-pinene of EVOH at 23 degrees C. The results show that although EVOH is an excellent barrier to food aroma when dry, a property that even improves at low relative humidity (RH), the solubility and diffusivity of the compounds tested increase dramatically with humidity at medium to high water activities. However, even in the worst case (100% RH), EVOH outperforms low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as a barrier to organic vapors at least 500,000-fold.

  15. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of the essential oils of Schinus longifolia (Lindl.) speg., Schinus fasciculata (Griseb.) I. M. Johnst., and Schinus areira L.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ana P; Frontera, María A; Tomas, María A; Mulet, María C

    2005-01-01

    The essential oil composition from the aerial parts of three Anacardiaceae growing in Bahía Blanca, Argentina was studied by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oils of S. longifolia and S. fasciculata have been studied for the first time. The major constituents were alpha-pinene (46.5%), beta-pinene (15.1%) and alpha-phellandrene (10.1%) for S. longifolia and limonene (10.9%), beta-phellandrene (6.16%) and alpha-phellandrene (5.6%) for S. fasciculata. The major components of the essential oil of S. areira were limonene (28.6%), alpha-phellandrene (10.1%), sabinene (9.2%) and camphene (9.2%) differing from the literature data. The essential oils from S. areira and S. longifolia exhibited a high biotoxicity in a brine shrimp assay with Artemia persimilis.

  16. SECONDARY ORGANIC CARBON AND AEROSOL YIELDS FROM THE IRRADIATIONS OF ISOPRENE AND á-PINENE IN THE PRESENCE OF NO X AND SO 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the secondary organic carbon (SOC) yields of a-pinene and isoprene in the presence of SO2, which produces acidic aerosol in the system. Experiments were based on irradiating each hydrocarbon (HC) with NOx in ...

  17. Seasonal cycle and temperature dependence of pinene oxidation products, dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols in fine and coarse air particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Y.; Müller, L.; Winterhalter, R.; Moortgat, G. K.; Hoffmann, T.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-08-01

    Filter samples of fine and coarse air particulate matter (PM) collected over a period of one year in central Europe (Mainz, Germany) were analyzed for water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), including the α- and β-pinene oxidation products pinic acid, pinonic acid and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA), as well as a variety of dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols. Seasonal variations and other characteristic features in fine, coarse, and total PM (TSP) are discussed with regard to aerosol sources and sinks in comparison to data from other studies and regions. The ratios of adipic acid and phthalic acid to azelaic acid indicate that the investigated aerosol samples were mainly influenced by biogenic sources. A strong Arrhenius-type correlation was found between the 3-MBTCA concentration and inverse temperature (R2 = 0.79, n = 52, Ea = 126 ± 10 kJ mol-1, temperature range 275-300 K). Model calculations suggest that the temperature dependence observed for 3-MBTCA can be explained by enhanced photochemical production due to an increase of hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration with increasing temperature, whereas the influence of gas-particle partitioning appears to play a minor role. The results indicate that the OH-initiated oxidation of pinonic acid is the rate-limiting step in the formation of 3-MBTCA, and that 3-MBTCA may be a suitable tracer for the chemical aging of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by OH radicals. An Arrhenius-type temperature dependence was also observed for the concentration of pinic acid (R2 = 0.60, n = 56, Ea = 84 ± 9 kJ mol-1); it can be tentatively explained by the temperature dependence of biogenic pinene emission as the rate-limiting step of pinic acid formation.

  18. Seasonal cycle and temperature dependence of pinene oxidation products, dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols in fine and coarse air particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Müller, L.; Winterhalter, R.; Moortgat, G. K.; Hoffmann, T.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-05-01

    Filter samples of fine and coarse air particulate matter (PM) collected over a period of one year in central Europe (Mainz, Germany) were analyzed for water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), including the α- and β-pinene oxidation products pinic acid, pinonic acid and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA), as well as a variety of dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols. Seasonal variations and other characteristic features in fine, coarse, and total PM (TSP) are discussed with regard to aerosol sources and sinks in comparison to data from other studies and regions. The ratios of adipic acid and phthalic acid to azelaic acid indicate that the investigated samples were mainly influenced by biogenic sources. A strong Arrhenius-type correlation was found between the 3-MBTCA concentration and inverse temperature (R2=0.79, n=52, Ea=126±10 kJ mol-1, temperature range 275-300 K). Model calculations suggest that the temperature dependence observed for 3-MBTCA can be explained by enhanced photochemical production due to an increase of hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration with increasing temperature, whereas the influence of gas-particle partitioning appears to play a minor role. The results indicate that the OH-initiated oxidation of pinonic acid is the rate-limiting step in the formation of 3-MBTCA, and that 3-MBTCA may be a suitable tracer for the chemical aging of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by OH radicals. An Arrhenius-type temperature dependence was also observed for the concentration of pinic acid (R2=0.60, n=56, Ea=84±9 kJ mol-1); it can be tentatively explained by the temperature dependence of biogenic pinene emission as the rate-limiting step of pinic acid formation.

  19. Influence of the ratio of amphiphilic copolymers used as emulsifiers on the microstructure, physical stability and rheology of α-pinene emulsions stabilized with gellan gum.

    PubMed

    García, Maria Carmen; Alfaro, Maria Carmen; Muñoz, José

    2015-11-01

    α-Pinene is a terpenic solvent whose use in the formulation of emulsions entails a double benefit from the environmental point of view since it is a green solvent, easily biodegradable, which also has certain antimicrobial properties. In this work a combination of Atlas™ G-5000 and Atlox™ 4913 amphiphilic copolymers was used to obtain O/W emulsions formulated with α-pinene and gellan gum. These emulsions may find applications related to the design of complex biotechnological systems with different uses. In order to investigate the microstructure and the physical stability of these emulsions, a combination of different techniques such as rheology, microscopy, laser diffraction and multiple light scattering turn out to be a useful methodology. The results demonstrated the need to include a minimum amount of Atlas™ G-5000 copolymer in the formulation of these emulsions to improve their stability. These results were supported by the information revealed by optical micrographs, according to which Atlas™ G-5000 is directed to the continuous medium to structure water (this surfactant is particularly effective at forming hydrogen bonds with water). On the other hand Atlox™ 4913 is preferentially adsorbed at the α-pinene-water interface, such that a high Atlox™ 4913/Atlas™ G-5000 mass ratio slows down the kinetics of coalescence as shown by multiple light scattering. However, a very low relative concentration of Atlas™ G-5000 causes creaming to become the dominant destabilization mechanism. Increasing the Atlas™ G-5000/Atlox™ 4913 mass ratio yields emulsions with enhanced viscosity and viscoelasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of polysaccharides on the rheology and stabilization of α-pinene emulsions.

    PubMed

    García, Ma Carmen; Alfaro, Ma Carmen; Calero, Nuria; Muñoz, José

    2014-05-25

    This work focuses on the need to include polysaccharides in a slightly concentrated O(α-pinene)/W emulsion, formulated with amphiphilic copolymers as emulsifiers. Rheology, laser diffraction and multiple light scattering were the main techniques used to assess the performance of gellan gum, xanthan gum and a mixture of both hydrocolloids as stabilizers. Small amplitude oscillatory shear results were consistent with the existence of three distinct microstructures and relaxation mechanisms, which depended on the hydrocolloid system used. The mechanical spectrum of the emulsion containing both polysaccharides signalled the occurrence of thermodynamic incompatibility between the two. Flow curves fitted to the Carreau-Yasuda model demonstrated a negative synergistic effect between gellan and xanthan gums. The droplet size distribution was similar for these systems, which highlighted the importance of the continuous phase for emulsion stability. Multiple light scattering illustrated that creaming was practically eliminated by the incorporation of polysaccharides, coalescence being the main destabilization mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Monoterpenes in Scots Pine and Norway Spruce Tissues Affect Pine Weevil Orientation.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Nordlander, Göran; Björklund, Niklas; Nordenhem, Henrik; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-12-01

    In large parts of Europe, insecticide-free measures for protecting conifer plants are desired to suppress damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.). Treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a chemical elicitor already used in crop production, may enhance expression of chemical defenses in seedlings in conifer regenerations. However, in a previous experiment, MeJA treatment resulted in substantially better field protection for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) than for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Hypothesizing that the variations may be at least due partly to volatiles released by MeJA-treated seedlings and their effects on pine weevil orientation, we examined tissue extracts of seedlings (from the same batches as previously used) by two-dimensional GC-MS. We found that the MeJA treatment increased contents of the monoterpene (-)-β-pinene in phloem (the weevil's main target tissue) of both tree species, however, the (-)-β-pinene/(-)-α-pinene ratio increased more in the phloem of P. sylvestris. We also tested the attractiveness of individual monoterpenes found in conifer tissues (needles and phloem) for pine weevils using an arena with traps baited with single-substance dispensers and pine twigs. Trap catches were reduced when the pine material was combined with a dispenser releasing (-)-β-pinene, (+)-3-carene, (-)-bornyl acetate or 1,8-cineole. However, (-)-α-pinene did not have this effect. Thus, the greater field protection of MeJA-treated P. sylvestris seedlings may be due to the selective induction of increases in contents of the deterrent (-)-β-pinene, in contrast to strong increases in both non-deterrent (-)-α-pinene and the deterrent (-)-β-pinene in P. abies seedlings.

  2. Antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted by supercritical CO₂ extraction and hydro-distillation.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Hossein; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid Bin; Solati, Zeinab

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) technique. Response surface methodology was applied using a three-factor central composite design to evaluate the effects of three independent extraction variables: pressure of 15-30 MPa, temperature of 40-50 °C and dynamic extraction time of 40-80 min. The DPPH radical scavenging method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results showed that the best antioxidant activity was achieved at 30 MPa, 40 °C and 40 min. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components extracted using SC-CO₂ extraction in optimum conditions were β-caryophyllene (25.38 ± 0.62%), limonene (15.64 ± 0.15%), sabinene (13.63 ± 0.21%), 3-carene (9.34 ± 0.04%), β-pinene (7.27 ± 0.05%), and α-pinene (4.25 ± 0.06%). The essential oil obtained through this technique was compared with the essential oil obtained using hydro-distillation. For the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation, the most abundant compounds were β-caryophyllene (18.64 ± 0.84%), limonene (14.95 ± 0.13%), sabinene (13.19 ± 0.17%), 3-carene (8.56 ± 0.11%), β-pinene (9.71 ± 0.12%), and α-pinene (7.96 ± 0.14%). Radical scavenging activity of the extracts obtained by SC-CO₂ and hydro-distillation showed an EC₅₀ of 103.28 and 316.27 µg mL(-1) respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of the Simulated Molecular Composition with the GECKO-A Modeling Tool Using Chamber Observations for α-Pinene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumont, B.; Camredon, M.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Karam, C.; Valorso, R.; Madronich, S.; Kroll, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Gas phase oxidation of VOC is a gradual process leading to the formation of multifunctional organic compounds, i.e., typically species with higher oxidation state, high water solubility and low volatility. These species contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) viamultiphase processes involving a myriad of organic species that evolve through thousands of reactions and gas/particle mass exchanges. Explicit chemical mechanisms reflect the understanding of these multigenerational oxidation steps. These mechanisms rely directly on elementary reactions to describe the chemical evolution and track the identity of organic carbon through various phases down to ultimate oxidation products. The development, assessment and improvement of such explicit schemes is a key issue, as major uncertainties remain on the chemical pathways involved during atmospheric oxidation of organic matter. An array of mass spectrometric techniques (CIMS, PTRMS, AMS) was recently used to track the composition of organic species during α-pinene oxidation in the MIT environmental chamber, providing an experimental database to evaluate and improve explicit mechanisms. In this study, the GECKO-A tool (Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere) is used to generate fully explicit oxidation schemes for α-pinene multiphase oxidation simulating the MIT experiment. The ability of the GECKO-A chemical scheme to explain the organic molecular composition in the gas and the condensed phases is explored. First results of this model/observation comparison at the molecular level will be presented.

  4. Demonstration of 3 alpha(17 beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase distinct from 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in hamster liver.

    PubMed Central

    Ohmura, M; Hara, A; Nakagawa, M; Sawada, H

    1990-01-01

    NAD(+)-linked and NADP(+)-linked 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were purified to homogeneity from hamster liver cytosol. The two monomeric enzymes, although having similar molecular masses of 38,000, differed from each other in pI values, activation energy and heat stability. The two proteins also gave different fragmentation patterns by gel electrophoresis after digestion with protease. The NADP(+)-linked enzyme catalysed the oxidoreduction of various 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids, whereas the NAD(+)-linked enzyme oxidized the 3 alpha-hydroxy group of pregnanes and some bile acids, and the 17 beta-hydroxy group of testosterone and androstanes. The thermal stabilities of the 3 alpha- and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities of the NAD(+)-linked enzyme were identical, and the two enzyme activities were inhibited by mixing 17 beta- and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid substrates, respectively. Medroxyprogesterone acetate, hexoestrol and 3 beta-hydroxysteroids competitively inhibited 3 alpha- and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities of the enzyme. These results show that hamster liver contains a 3 alpha(17 beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase structurally and functionally distinct from 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2317205

  5. MODELING THE FORMATION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL. 1. APPLICATION OF THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES TO MEASUREMENTS OBTAINED IN THE ALPHA-PINENE/, BETA-PINENE/, SABINENE/, DELTA3-CARENE/, AND CYCLOHEXENE/OZONE SYSTEMS. (R826371C003)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Chemical diversity in the genus Alpinia (Zingiberaceae): comparative composition of four Alpinia species grown in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Sundaresan, Velusamy; Chanotiya, Chandan S

    2010-08-01

    The essential-oil compositions of leaves, flowers, and rhizomes of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Alpinia calcarata Rosc., Alpinia speciosa K. Schum., and Alpinia allughas Rosc. were examined and compared by capillary GC and GC/MS. Monoterpenoids were the major oil constituents identified. 1,8-Cineole, alpha-terpineol, (E)-methyl cinnamate, camphor, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha- and beta-pinenes were the major constituents commonly distributed in leaf and flower essential oils. The presence of endo-fenchyl acetate, exo-fenchyl acetate, and endo-fenchol was the unique feature of rhizome essential oils of A. galanga, A. calcarata, and A. speciosa. On contrary, the rhizome oil of A. allughas was dominated by beta-pinene. Significant qualitative and quantitative variations were observed in essential-oil compositions of different parts of Alpinia species growing in subtemperate and subtropical regions of Northern India. Cluster analysis was performed to find similarities and differences in essential-oil compositions based on representative molecular skeletons. Monoterpenoids, viz., 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, camphor, pinenes, (E)-methyl cinnamate, and fenchyl derivatives, were used as chemotaxonomic markers.

  7. Variations in the monoterpene composition of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Smith

    1964-01-01

    A wide range in quantitative composition of the wood oleoresin monoterpenes was found among 64 ponderosa pines in the central Sierra Nevada by gas chromatographic analysis. An inverse relationship was found in the amount of β-pinene and Δ3-carene. Practically no difference in composition could be associated with (a) type of...

  8. The TF1-ATPase and ATPase activities of assembled alpha 3 beta 3 gamma, alpha 3 beta 3 gamma delta, and alpha 3 beta 3 gamma epsilon complexes are stimulated by low and inhibited by high concentrations of rhodamine 6G whereas the dye only inhibits the alpha 3 beta 3, and alpha 3 beta 3 delta complexes.

    PubMed

    Paik, S R; Yokoyama, K; Yoshida, M; Ohta, T; Kagawa, Y; Allison, W S

    1993-12-01

    The ATPase activity of the F1-ATPase from the thermophilic bacterium PS3 is stimulated at concentrations of rhodamine 6G up to about 10 microM where 70% stimulation is observed at 36 degrees C. Half maximal stimulation is observed at about 3 microM dye. At rhodamine 6G concentrations greater than 10 microM, ATPase activity declines with 50% inhibition observed at about 75 microM dye. The ATPase activities of the alpha 3 beta 3 gamma and alpha 3 beta 3 gamma delta complexes assembled from isolated subunits of TF1 expressed in E. coli deleted of the unc operon respond to increasing concentrations of rhodamine 6G nearly identically to the response of TF1. In contrast, the ATPase activities of the alpha 3 beta 3 and alpha 3 beta 3 delta complexes are only inhibited by rhodamine 6G with 50% inhibition observed, respectively, at 35 and 75 microM dye at 36 degrees C. The ATPase activity of TF1 is stimulated up to 4-fold by the neutral detergent, LDAO. In the presence of stimulating concentrations of LDAO, the ATPase activity of TF1 is no longer stimulated by rhodamine 6G, but rather, it is inhibited with 50% inhibition observed at about 30 microM dye at 30 degrees C. One interpretation of these results is that binding of rhodamine 6G to a high-affinity site on TF1 stimulates ATPase activity and unmasks a low-affinity, inhibitory site for the dye which is also exposed by LDAO.

  9. Variability of the needle essential oils of Pinus heldreichii from different populations in Montenegro and Serbia.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2007-05-01

    The essential-oil compositions of Pinus heldreichii Christ. from Montenegro and Serbia are reported at the population level. Whitebark pine is a sub-endemic high-mountain Balkan pine relict of an anthropogenically reduced area, with large morphological diversity and insufficiently clear taxonomic position. In the pine-needle terpene profile from three populations from Montenegro, and one from Serbia, 101 compounds were detected, 72 of which could be identified (Table 3). The dominant constituents are limonene (26.3%), alpha-pinene (17.5%), germacrene D (13.5%), and beta-caryophyllene (10.4%), comprising ca. 67.7% of the essential oil. Medium-to-high contents (0.5-10%) of the following 16 additional components were found: beta-pinene, beta-myrcene, alpha-humulene, delta-cadinene, alpha-muurolene, (E)-hex-2-enal, beta-gurjunene, gamma-muurolene, isopimarol, camphene, gamma-cadinene, aromadendrene, beta-bisabolene, trans-beta-farnesene, alpha-cadinene, and (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol. The similarity of the populations and the within-population variability was visualized by principle-component analysis (PCA) of eleven selected terpenes in 97 tree samples. Cluster and genetic analyses suggest closest connection between the two spatially most-distant populations I (Montenegro) and IV (Serbia). Based on the profile of the main sesquiterpene components, the studied populations from Montenegro and Serbia are more similar to the populations from Greece and the Central Balkan peninsula (Bosnia and Serbia-Kosovo) than to those on the furthest eastern margin of their natural range (Bulgaria).

  10. Dose-Dependent and Species-Specific Responses of Pine Bark Beetles (Coeoptera: Scolytidae) to Monoterpenes in Association with Phermones

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; John H. Borden

    2000-01-01

    Monoterpenes affected the attraction of three sympatric species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to pheromone-baited multiple-funnel traps in stands of lodgepole pine. Catches of Ips pini(Say) in traps baited with its pheromone, ipsdienol, were directly related to the release rates of 3-carene, ß-pphellandrene, and ß-pinene. Catches of

  11. Antifungal activity of the essential oils from some species of the genus Pinus.

    PubMed

    Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława; Mardarowicz, Marek; Wiwart, Marian; Pobłocka, Loretta; Dynowska, Maria

    2002-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils from the needles of Pinus ponderosa (north american pine), P. resinosa (red pine) and P. strobus (eastern white pine) has been determined by GC/MS (FID). The essential oils from P. resinosa and P. ponderosa in comparison to P. strobus have been characterized by the higher content of beta-pinene (42.4%, 45.7% and 7.9% respectively). On the other hand, a-pinene (17.7%) and germacrene D (12.2%) were dominant compounds of P strobus. Moreover the essential oil from P. resinosa was more rich in myrcene-15.9%. Estragole and delta-3-carene, each one in amount ca 8% were identified only in P. ponderosa. The content of essential oils in the needles slightly varied--0.65%--P. resinosa, 0.4%--P strobus, 0.3%--P. ponderosa. The antifungal activity has been investigated towards Fusarium culmorum, F solani and F. poae. The strongest activity was observed for the essential oil from P. ponderosa, which fully inhibited the growth of fungi at the following concentrations--F. culmorum, F. solani at 2% and F. poae at 5%.

  12. Imaging of alpha(v)beta(3) expression by a bifunctional chimeric RGD peptide not cross-reacting with alpha(v)beta(5).

    PubMed

    Zannetti, Antonella; Del Vecchio, Silvana; Iommelli, Francesca; Del Gatto, Annarita; De Luca, Stefania; Zaccaro, Laura; Papaccioli, Angela; Sommella, Jvana; Panico, Mariarosaria; Speranza, Antonio; Grieco, Paolo; Novellino, Ettore; Saviano, Michele; Pedone, Carlo; Salvatore, Marco

    2009-08-15

    To test whether a novel bifunctional chimeric peptide comprising a cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp pentapeptide covalently bound to an echistatin domain can discriminate alpha(v)beta(3) from alpha(v)beta(5) integrin, thus allowing the in vivo selective visualization of alpha(v)beta(3) expression by single-photon and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The chimeric peptide was preliminarily tested for inhibition of alpha(v)beta(3)-dependent cell adhesion and competition of 125I-echistatin binding to membrane of stably transfected K562 cells expressing alpha(v)beta(3) (Kalpha(v)beta(3)) or alpha(v)beta(5) (Kalpha(v)beta(5)) integrin. The chimeric peptide was then conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and labeled with 111In for single-photon imaging, whereas a one-step procedure was used for labeling the full-length peptide and a truncated derivative, lacking the last five C-terminal amino acids, with 18F for PET imaging. Nude mice bearing tumors from Kalpha(v)beta(3), Kalpha(v)beta(5), U87MG human glioblastoma, and A431 human epidermoid cells were subjected to single-photon and PET imaging. Adhesion and competitive binding assays showed that the novel chimeric peptide selectively binds to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin and does not cross-react with alpha(v)beta(5). In agreement with in vitro findings, single-photon and PET imaging studies showed that the radiolabeled chimeric peptide selectively localizes in tumor xenografts expressing alphavbeta3 and fails to accumulate in those expressing alpha(v)beta(5) integrin. When 18F-labeled truncated derivative was used for PET imaging, alphavbeta3- and alpha(v)beta(5)-expressing tumors were visualized, indicating that the five C-terminal amino acids are required to differentially bind the two integrins. Our findings indicate that the novel chimeric Arg-Gly-Asp peptide, having no cross-reaction with alphavbeta5 integrin, allows highly selective alphavbeta3 expression imaging and monitoring.

  13. Factors controlling the evaporation of secondary organic aerosol from α‐pinene ozonolysis

    PubMed Central

    Pajunoja, Aki; Tikkanen, Olli‐Pekka; Buchholz, Angela; Faiola, Celia; Väisänen, Olli; Hao, Liqing; Kari, Eetu; Peräkylä, Otso; Garmash, Olga; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Ehn, Mikael; Lehtinen, Kari; Virtanen, Annele

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) forms a major fraction of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Knowledge of SOA properties that affect their dynamics in the atmosphere is needed for improving climate models. By combining experimental and modeling techniques, we investigated the factors controlling SOA evaporation under different humidity conditions. Our experiments support the conclusion of particle phase diffusivity limiting the evaporation under dry conditions. Viscosity of particles at dry conditions was estimated to increase several orders of magnitude during evaporation, up to 109 Pa s. However, at atmospherically relevant relative humidity and time scales, our results show that diffusion limitations may have a minor effect on evaporation of the studied α‐pinene SOA particles. Based on previous studies and our model simulations, we suggest that, in warm environments dominated by biogenic emissions, the major uncertainty in models describing the SOA particle evaporation is related to the volatility of SOA constituents. PMID:28503004

  14. Dermal exposure to monoterpenes during wood work.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Kare; Wiklund, Leif

    2004-06-01

    The dermal exposure to the suspected allergenic monoterpenes [small alpha]-pinene, [small beta]-pinene and [capital Delta](3)-carene was assessed with a patch sampling technique. The patch used was made of activated charcoal sandwiched between two layers of cotton cloth. Patches were fastened at 12 different spots on a sampling overall and at the front of a cap to estimate the potential exposure of the body. Fastening two patches on a cotton glove, one patch representing the dorsal side and one patch representing the palm of the hand respectively, assessed the exposure on the hands. Sampling was carried out during collecting of pine and spruce boards in sawmills and during sawing of pine wood pieces in joinery shops respectively. The potential dermal exposure of the total body was 29.0-1 890 mg h(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 238 mg h(-1) during sawing. During collecting the GM was estimated to 100 mg h(-1) with a range of 12.2-959 mg h(-1). The hands had a mean exposure of 9.24 mg h(-1) during sawing and 3.25 mg h(-1) during collecting respectively. The good correlation between the mass of contamination on the individual body parts and the potential body exposure indicates that sampling can be performed on one body part to give a good estimation of the potential body exposure. Monoterpenes were detected at patches fastened underneath the protective clothing indicating a contamination of the skin of the worker. The patch used may overestimate the dermal exposure.

  15. Assessing the influence of NOx concentrations and relative humidity on secondary organic aerosol yields from α-pinene photo-oxidation through smog chamber experiments and modelling calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirnweis, Lisa; Marcolli, Claudia; Dommen, Josef; Barmet, Peter; Frege, Carla; Platt, Stephen M.; Bruns, Emily A.; Krapf, Manuel; Slowik, Jay G.; Wolf, Robert; Prévôt, Andre S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; El-Haddad, Imad

    2017-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from the photo-oxidation of α-pinene were investigated in smog chamber (SC) experiments at low (23-29 %) and high (60-69 %) relative humidity (RH), various NOx / VOC ratios (0.04-3.8) and with different aerosol seed chemical compositions (acidic to neutralized sulfate-containing or hydrophobic organic). A combination of a scanning mobility particle sizer and an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was used to determine SOA mass concentration and chemical composition. We used a Monte Carlo approach to parameterize smog chamber SOA yields as a function of the condensed phase absorptive mass, which includes the sum of OA and the corresponding bound liquid water content. High RH increased SOA yields by up to 6 times (1.5-6.4) compared to low RH. The yields at low NOx / VOC ratios were in general higher compared to yields at high NOx / VOC ratios. This NOx dependence follows the same trend as seen in previous studies for α-pinene SOA. A novel approach of data evaluation using volatility distributions derived from experimental data served as the basis for thermodynamic phase partitioning calculations of model mixtures in this study. These calculations predict liquid-liquid phase separation into organic-rich and electrolyte phases. At low NOx conditions, equilibrium partitioning between the gas and liquid phases can explain most of the increase in SOA yields observed at high RH, when in addition to the α-pinene photo-oxidation products described in the literature, fragmentation products are added to the model mixtures. This increase is driven by both the increase in the absorptive mass and the solution non-ideality described by the compounds' activity coefficients. In contrast, at high NOx, equilibrium partitioning alone could not explain the strong increase in the yields with RH. This suggests that other processes, e.g. reactive uptake of semi-volatile species into the liquid phase, may occur and be

  16. Comparison of FTIR and Particle Mass Spectrometry for the Measurement of Paticulate Organic Nitrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, Emily; Perraud, Veronique; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2010-02-01

    While multifunctional organic nitrates are formed during the atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds, relatively little is known about their signatures in particle mass spectrometers. High resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) was applied to NH4NO3, NaNO3 and isosorbide 5-mononitrate (IMN) particles, and to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from NO3 radical reactions at 22 C and 1 atm in air with and pinene, 3-carene, limonene and isoprene. For comparison, single particle laser ablation mass spectra (SPLAT II) were also obtained for IMN and SOA from the pinene reaction. The mass spectra of all particles exhibit significant intensity at m/z 30,more » and for the SOA, weak peaks corresponding to various organic fragments containing nitrogen [CxHyNzOa]+ were identified using HR-ToF-AMS. The NO+/NO2+ ratios from HR-ToF-AMS were 10-15 for IMN and the SOA from the and pinene, 3-carene and limonene reactions, ~5 for the isoprene reaction, 2.4 for NH4NO3 and 80 for NaNO3. The N/H ratios from HR-ToF-AMS for the SOA were smaller by a factor of 2 to 4 than the -ONO2/C-H ratios measured using FTIR on particles impacted on ZnSe windows. While the NO+/NO2+ ratio may provide a generic indication of organic nitrates under some conditions, specific identification of particulate organic nitrates awaits further development of particle mass spectrometry techniques.« less

  17. Impact of elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Li, Dewen; Chen, Ying; Shi, Yi; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Xin

    2009-04-01

    In natural environment with ambient air, ginkgo trees emitted volatile organic compounds 0.18 microg g(-1) h(-1) in July, and 0.92 microg g(-1) h(-1) in September. Isoprene and limonene were the most abundant detected compounds. In September, alpha-pinene accounted for 22.5% of the total. Elevated CO(2) concentration in OTCs increased isoprene emission significantly in July (p<0.05) and September (p<0.05), while the total monoterpenes emission was enhanced in July and decreased in September by elevated CO(2). Exposed to elevated O(3) increased the isoprene and monoterpenes emissions in July and September, and the total volatile organic compounds emission rates were 0.48 microg g(-1) h(-1) (in July) and 2.24 microg g(-1) h(-1) (in September), respectively. The combination of elevated CO(2) and O(3) did not have any effect on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions, except increases of isoprene and Delta3-carene in September.

  18. Composition of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica (Coult. and Rose) Mathias essential oils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beauchamp, Philip E.; Dev, Vasu; Munevar-Mendoza, Elsa; Moore, Peggy E.

    2000-01-01

    β-Pinene (35.0%, 53.8%) was the major component of both the aerial parts and the root oils of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica, respectively. β-Phellandrene (12.2%) was the other most abundant component of the oil from aeial parts while δ-3-carene (14.2%) was the second abundant component of the root oil.

  19. Pheromone Production by an Invasive Bark Beetle Varies with Monoterpene Composition of its Naïve Host.

    PubMed

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-06-01

    The secondary chemistry of host plants can have cascading impacts on the establishment of new insect herbivore populations, their long-term population dynamics, and their invasion potential in novel habitats. Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has recently expanded its range into forests of jack pine, Pinus banksiana Lamb., in western Canada. We investigated whether variations in jack pine monoterpenes affect beetle pheromone production, as the primary components of the beetle's aggregation pheromone, (-)-trans-verbenol and anti-aggregation pheromone (-)-verbenone, are biosynthesized from the host monoterpene α-pinene. Jack pine bolts were collected from five Canadian provinces east of the beetle's current range, live D. ponderosae were introduced into them, and their monoterpene compositions were characterized. Production of (-)-trans-verbenol and (-)-verbenone emitted by beetles was measured to determine whether pheromone production varies with monoterpene composition of jack pines. Depending on particular ratios of major monoterpenes in host phloem, jack pine could be classified into three monoterpenoid groups characterized by high amounts of (+)-α-pinene, 3-carene, or a more moderate blend of monoterpenes, and beetle pheromone production varied among these groups. Specifically, beetles reared in trees characterized by high (+)-α-pinene produced the most (-)-trans-verbenol and (-)-verbenone, while beetles in trees characterized by high 3-carene produced the least. Our results indicate that pheromone production by D. ponderosae will remain a significant aspect and important predictor of its survival and persistence in the boreal forest.

  20. Anti-Candida Activity of Bursera morelensis Ramirez Essential Oil and Two Compounds, α-Pinene and γ-Terpinene-An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Yañez, C Rebeca; Terrazas, L Ignacio; Jimenez-Estrada, Manuel; Campos, Jorge E; Flores-Ortiz, Cesar M; Hernandez, Luis B; Cruz-Sanchez, Tonatiuh; Garrido-Fariña, German I; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco A; Canales-Martinez, M Margarita

    2017-12-05

    The candidiasis caused by C. albicans is a public health problem. The abuse of antifungals has contributed to the development of resistance. B. morelensis has demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activities. In this work the activity of the essential oil of B. morelensis was evaluated and for its two pure compounds with analysis of the different mechanisms of pathogenesis important for C. albicans . The essential oil was obtained by the hydro-distillation method and analyzed using GC-MS. The anti- Candida activity was compared between to essential oil, α-Pinene and γ-Terpinene. GC-MS of the essential oil demonstrated the presence of 13 compounds. The essential oil showed antifungal activity against four C. albicans strains. The most sensitive strain was C. albicans 14065 (MFC 2.0 mg/mL and MIC 50 0.125 mg/mL) with α-Pinene and γ-Terpinene having MFCs of 4.0 and 16.0 mg/mL respectively. The essential oil inhibited the growth of the germ tube in 87.94% (8.0 mg/mL). Furthermore, it was observed that the essential oil diminishes the transcription of the gene INT1. This work provides evidence that confirms the anti- Candida activity of the B. morelensis essential oil and its effect on the growth of the germ tube and transcription of the gene INT1.

  1. 15 beta-hydroxysteroids (Part IV). Steroids of the human perinatal period: the synthesis of 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one and its A/B-ring configurational isomers.

    PubMed

    Reeder, A Y; Joannou, G E

    1995-12-01

    In recent years several 15 beta-hydroxysteroids have emerged pathognomonic of adrenal disorders in human neonates of which 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (2) was the first to be identified in the urine of newborn infants affected with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this investigation we report the synthesis of the three remaining 3 xi,5 xi-isomers, namely 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (3), 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (7) and 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (8) for their definitive identification in pathological conditions in human neonates. 3 beta,15 beta-Diacetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (11), a product of chemical synthesis was converted to the isomeric 3 and 7, while conversion of 15 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione (4), a product of microbiological transformation, resulted in the preparation of 8. In brief, selective acetate hydrolysis of 11 gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (12) which on catalytic hydrogenation gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (13) a common intermediate for the synthesis of the 3 beta(and alpha),5 alpha-isomers. Hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 7, whereas oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate gave 15 beta-acetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3,20-dione (14) which on reduction with L-Selectride and hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 3. Finally, hydrogenation of 4 gave 15 beta, 17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-3,20-dione (10) which on reduction with L-Selectride gave 8.

  2. SOA Formation Potential of Emissions from Soil and Leaf Litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, C. L.; Vanderschelden, G. S.; Wen, M.; Cobos, D. R.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from natural sources exceed all anthropogenic sources combined. VOCs participate in oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere and impact the concentrations of ozone and particulate material. The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is particularly complex and is frequently underestimated using state-of-the-art modeling techniques. We present findings that suggest emissions of important SOA precursors from soil and leaf litter are higher than current inventories would suggest, particularly under conditions typical of Fall and Spring. Soil and leaf litter samples were collected at Big Meadow Creek from the University of Idaho Experimental Forest. The dominant tree species in this area of the forest are ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch. Samples were transported to the laboratory and housed within a 0.9 cubic meter Teflon dynamic chamber where VOC emissions were continuously monitored with a GC-FID-MS and PTR-MS. Aerosol was generated from soil and leaf litter emissions by pumping the emissions into a 7 cubic meter Teflon aerosol growth chamber where they were oxidized with ozone in the absence of light. The evolution of particle microphysical and chemical characteristics was monitored over the following eight hours. Particle size distribution and chemical composition were measured with a SMPS and HR-ToF-AMS respectively. Monoterpenes dominated the emission profile with emission rates up to 283 micrograms carbon per meter squared per hour. The dominant monoterpenes emitted were beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, and delta-3-carene in descending order. The composition of the SOA produced was similar to biogenic SOA formed from oxidation of ponderosa pine emissions and alpha-pinene. Measured soil/litter monoterpene emission rates were compared with modeled canopy emissions. Results suggest that during fall and spring when tree emissions are lower, monoterpene emissions within forests may be

  3. Determination of chemical constituents of leaf and stem essential oils of Artemisia monosperma from central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Merajuddin; Mousa, Ahmad A; Syamasundar, Kodakandla V; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z

    2012-08-01

    The leaf and stem essential oils of Artemisia monosperma from the desert region of central Saudi Arabia were analysed by gas chromatography-based techniques (GC-FID, GC-MS, Co-GC, LRI determination, database and literature search) using polar as well as non-polar columns, which resulted in the identification of 130 components, of which 81 were common to both oils. In the leaf oil 120 compounds were identified, while 91 were identified in the stem oil accounting for 98.4% and 99.7% of the oil composition, respectively. The major constituents of the leaf oil were beta-pinene (50.3%), a-terpinolene (10.0%), limonene (5.4%) and a-pinene (4.6%), while the major constituents of the stem oil were beta-pinene (36.7%), a-terpinolene (6.4%), limonene (4.8%), beta-maaliene (3.7%), shyobunone (3.2%) and a-pinene (3.1%). The two oils showed an important qualitative similarity. However, some specific constituents (39 in the leaf oil and 10 in the stem oil) allow differentiation of the two essential oils.

  4. Prevalence of -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles in sickle cell trait and beta-thalassemia patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava, María Paulina; Ibarra, Bertha; Magaña, María Teresa; de la Luz Chávez, María; Perea, F Javier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of alpha-globin gene mutations in three groups of Mexican unrelated individuals. The first two groups were normal and sickle cell trait individuals from the Costa Chica region, a place with a 12.8% frequency of HbS carriers, and the third group comprised of Mexican mestizo patients with beta-thalassemia. We searched for -alpha(3.7) and -alpha(4.2) alpha(+)-thalassemia deletion alleles, as well as the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication through long-gap PCR. The alleles -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) were found in the heterozygote state only; 19% of the normal subjects had the -alpha(3.7) allele, and 2% showed the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) allele. In individuals with the sickle cell trait, 17% had the -alpha(3.7) deletion, and the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication was observed in 3% of these individuals. We revealed that 16% of the subjects with beta-thalassemia showed the -alpha(3.7) deletion and 28% the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication. The -alpha(4.2) deletion was not detected in any individual. The frequency of the -alpha(3.7) allele was roughly the same in the three groups studied; this can be explained by the fact that the three groups have common genes from Africa and the Mediterranean, where a high prevalence of alpha(+)-thalassemia has been observed. To our knowledge, the frequency of alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication observed in the Mexican beta-thalassemia patients is the highest reported. As the -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles are very common in our selected populations, we believe that there is a need to investigate systematically the alpha-globin gene mutations in all hemoglobinopathies in the Mexican population.

  5. Comparative analysis of essential oils of six Anthemis taxa from Serbia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Milica; Lakusić, Dmitar; Kovacević, Nada; Tzakou, Olga; Couladis, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The essential-oil composition of six Anthemis taxa from several populations in Serbia and Montenegro, Anthemis triumfetti (L.) DC., A. tinctoria L., A. austriaca Jacq., A. ruthenica Bieb., A. cotula L., and A. cretica ssp. carpatica (Willd.) Grierson were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents have been identified as follows: camphor (13.8-15.4%), alpha-pinene (5.2-9.3%), beta-pinene (4.9-7.8%), and (E)-caryophyllene (7.3-9.8%) in three populations, and cis-chrysanthenol (27.0%) and 1,8-cineole (8.4%) in one population of A. triumfetti; 1,8-cineole (9.0-25.8%) in the oils of five populations, and borneol (16.0%) and spatulenol (16.0%) in the oil of one population of A. tinctoria; cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (17.5-22.0%), beta-pinene (8.6-13.2%), and 1,8-cineole (7.2-10.4%) in the oils of A. austriaca; germacrene D (8.3-11.3%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.3-7.3%) in A. ruthenica oils; beta-cedrene (10.3-19.0%), (E)-beta-farnesene (7.8-13.5%), and germacrene D (5.2-9.1%) in the oils of A. cotula; cis-thujone (39.0%), trans-thujone (13.5%), and yomogi alcohol (7.1%) in the oil of A. cretica ssp. carpatica. The essential oil of A. austriaca was studied for the first time. A cluster analysis based on the relative percentages of all components of the essential oils was used to determine the distances between taxa and populations.

  6. Variability of the needle essential oils of Pinus peuce from different populations in Montenegro and Serbia.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2008-07-01

    The essential-oil composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. is reported at the population level. Macedonian pine is endemic high-mountain Balkan pine relict of an anthropogenically reduced area, with large morphological diversity and insufficiently clear taxonomic position. In the pine-needle terpene profile of two populations from Montenegro and one from Serbia, 78 compounds were detected, 56 of which are identified (Table 3). The dominant constituents were alpha-pinene (36.5%) and germacrene D (11.4%). The following 20 additional components were found to be present in medium-to-high amounts (0.5-10%): camphene (8.5%), bornyl acetate (6.8%), beta-pinene (6.8%), beta-caryophyllene (5.2%), beta-phellandrene (4.7%), terpinen-4-ol acetate (1.6%), (E)-hex-2-enal (1.5%), alpha-muurolene (1.2%), beta-gurjunene (1.1%), beta-myrcene (1.0%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (0.9%), alpha-phellandrene (0.8%), delta-cadinene (0.8%), alpha-humulene (0.8%), sabinene (0.7%), aromadendrene (0.6%), alpha-thujene (0.6%), gamma-muurolene (0.6%), gamma-cadinene (0.6%), alpha-terpinolene (0.5%), and one unknown component (0.5%). The similarity of the populations and the within-population variability were visualized by principle-component analysis (PCA) and genetic analysis of selected terpenes in 90 tree samples. Our study suggests a closer connection between populations II and III compared to population I. Based on the profile of the main terpene components, the studied populations are more similar to populations from Kosovo and Greece than to the population from Mt. Mokra (Montenegro) and the population in France.

  7. Improved synthesis of 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 24 = xi-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-26-oic acid.

    PubMed

    Batta, A K; Tint, G S; Dayal, B; Shefer, S; Salen, G

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes three simple and short methods for the conversion of cholic acid into cholylaldehyde with protected hydroxyl groups. The first method involves lithium aluminum hydride reduction of the tetrahydropyranyl ether of methyl cholate and oxidation of the resulting primary alcohol with pyridinium chlorochromate. The second method employs diborane for the reduction of the -COOH group to the -CH2OH group, while the third method involves the reduction of 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triformyloxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid (as the acid chloride) directly into 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triformyloxy-5 beta-cholan-24-al with TMA-ferride (tetramethylammonium hydridoirontetracarbonyl). The aldehyde obtained by any of the above methods underwent smooth Reformatsky reaction with ethyl alpha-bromopropionate to yield 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 24 xi-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-26-oic acid.

  8. Experimental determination of the partitioning coefficient of β-pinene oxidation products in SOAs.

    PubMed

    Hohaus, Thorsten; Gensch, Iulia; Kimmel, Joel; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid

    2015-06-14

    The composition of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed by β-pinene ozonolysis was experimentally investigated in the Juelich aerosol chamber. Partitioning of oxidation products between gas and particles was measured through concurrent concentration measurements in both phases. Partitioning coefficients (Kp) of 2.23 × 10(-5) ± 3.20 × 10(-6) m(3) μg(-1) for nopinone, 4.86 × 10(-4) ± 1.80 × 10(-4) m(3) μg(-1) for apoverbenone, 6.84 × 10(-4) ± 1.52 × 10(-4) m(3) μg(-1) for oxonopinone and 2.00 × 10(-3) ± 1.13 × 10(-3) m(3) μg(-1) for hydroxynopinone were derived, showing higher values for more oxygenated species. The observed Kp values were compared with values predicted using two different semi-empirical approaches. Both methods led to an underestimation of the partitioning coefficients with systematic differences between the methods. Assuming that the deviation between the experiment and the model is due to non-ideality of the mixed solution in particles, activity coefficients of 4.82 × 10(-2) for nopinone, 2.17 × 10(-3) for apoverbenone, 3.09 × 10(-1) for oxonopinone and 7.74 × 10(-1) for hydroxynopinone would result using the vapour pressure estimation technique that leads to higher Kp. We discuss that such large non-ideality for nopinone could arise due to particle phase processes lowering the effective nopinone vapour pressure such as diol- or dimer formation. The observed high partitioning coefficients compared to modelled results imply an underestimation of SOA mass by applying equilibrium conditions.

  9. The Economic and Environmental Benefits of Product Substitution for Organic Solvents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    ALPHA.TERPINEOL LINALOOL MENTHOL O Figure 3.1 - Molecular Structures of Selected Terpenes?3 20 Commercial grades of d-limonene can cause dermatitis due...Permitted GRAS Limited Menthol Permitted GRAS Limited a-Pinene Permitted GRAS Permitted P-Pinene Permitted GRAS Permitted u-Terpinene Permitted GRAS Not

  10. Bile alcohol metabolism in man. Conversion of 5beta-cholestane-3alpha, 7alpha,12alpha, 25-tetrol to cholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Salen, G; Shefer, S; Setoguchi, T; Mosbach, E H

    1975-01-01

    To study the role of C25-HYDROXY BILE ALCOHOLS AS PRECURSORS OF CHOlic acid, [G-3-H]5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha12alpha,25-tetrol was administered intravenously to two subjects with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) and two normal individuals. One day after pulse labeling, radioactivity was present in the cholic acid isolated from the bile and feces of the subjects with CTX and the bile of the normal individuals. In the two normal subjects, the sp act decay curves of [G-3-H]-cholic acid were exponential, and no traces of [G-3-H]-5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,25-tetrol were detected. In contrast, appreciable quantities of labeled 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,-7aopha,12alpha,25-tetrol were present in the bile and feces of the CTX subjects. The sp act vs. time curves of fecal [G-3-H]5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,25-tetrol and [G-3-H]-cholic acid showed a precursor-product relationship. Although these results suggest that 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,25-tetrol may be a precursor of cholic acid in man, the possibility that C26-hydroxy intermediates represent the normal pathway can not be excluded. PMID:1141434

  11. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Soni, Rajgovind; Sharma, Gaurav; Jasuja, Nakuleshwar Dut

    2016-01-01

    Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO) yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs) of T. ammi (1.94 ± 30 mL/100 gm) and M. fragrans (5.93 ± 90 mL/100 gm) were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (-) bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412) by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO) exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils.

  12. Inhibition of methane consumption in forest soils by monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, J.A.; Knowles, R.

    1998-04-01

    Selected monoterpenes were tested for their ability to inhibit atmospheric methane consumption by three forest soils from different vegetation types and by the cultured methanotrophic strain, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Subsurface soil from coniferous (Pinus banksiana), deciduous (Populus tremuloides), and mixed hardwood (Tsuga canadensis and Prunus pensylvanica) stands was used under field-moist and slurry conditions. Most of the hydrocarbon monoterpenes tested significantly inhibited methane consumption by soils at environmentally relevant levels, with ({minus})-{alpha}-pinene being the most effective. With the exception of {beta}-myrcene, monoterpenes also strongly inhibited methane oxidation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Carbon dioxide production was stimulated in all of themore » soils by the monoterpenes tested. In one case, methane production was stimulated by ({minus})-{alpha}-pinene in an intact, aerobic core. Oxide and alcohol monoterpenoids stimulated methane production. Thus, monoterpenes appear to be potentially important regulators of methane consumption and carbon metabolism in forest soils.« less

  13. Analysis of enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in plant emissions using portable dynamic air sampling/solid-phase microextraction (PDAS-SPME) and chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Williams, Jonathan

    A portable dynamic air sampler (PDAS) using a porous polymer solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibre has been validated for the determination of biogenic enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in air. These compounds were adsorbed in the field, and then thermally desorbed at 250 °C in a gas chromatograph injector port connected via a β-cyclodextrin capillary separating column to a mass spectrometer. The optimized method has been applied for investigating the emissions of enantiomeric monoterpenes from Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Lavandula lanata (Lavender) which were selected as representative of coniferous trees and aromatic plants, respectively. The enantiomers of α-pinene, sabinene, camphene, δ-3-carene, β-pinene, limonene, β-phellandrene, 4-carene and camphor were successfully determined in the emissions from the three plants. While Douglas-fir showed a strong predominance toward (-)-enantiomers, Rosemary and Lavender demonstrated a large variation in enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenes. The simplicity, rapidity and sensitivity of dynamic sampling with porous polymer coated SPME fibres coupled to chiral capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) makes this method potentially useful for in-field investigations of atmosphere-biosphere interactions and studies of optically explicit atmospheric chemistry.

  14. Identification of Organic Nitrates in the NO 3 Radical Initiated Oxidation of α-Pinene by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Perraud, Veronique M.; Bruns, Emily A.; Ezell, Michael J.

    2010-07-07

    The gas-phase reactions of nitrate radicals (NO 3) with biogenic organic compounds are a major sink for these organics during night-time. These reactions form secondary organic aerosols, including organic nitrates that can undergo long-range transport, releasing NO x downwind. We report here studies of the reaction of NO 3 with R-pinene at 1 atm in dry synthetic air(relative humidity ~3%) and at 298K using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) to identify gaseous and particulate products. The emphasis is on the identification of individual organic nitrates in the particle phase that were obtained by passing the productmore » mixture through a denuder to remove gas-phase reactants and products prior to entering the source region of the mass spectrometer. Filter extracts were also analyzed by GCMS and by APCI time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APCI-ToFMS) with methanol as the proton source. In addition to pinonaldehyde and pinonic acid, five organic nitrates were identified in the particles as well as in the gas phase: 3-oxopinane- 2-nitrate, 2-hydroxypinane-3-nitrate, pinonaldehyde-PAN, norpinonaldehyde-PAN, and (3-acetyl-2,2-dimethyl-3-nitrooxycyclobutyl) acetaldehyde. Furthermore, there was an additional first generation organic nitrate product tentatively identified as a carbonyl hydroxynitrate with a molecular mass of 229. These studies suggest that a variety of organic nitrates would partition between the gas phase and particles in the atmosphere, and serve as a reservoir for NO x.« less

  15. NMR study on (1alpha, 2beta, 4beta, 5alpha, 7beta)-7-[(hydroxydi-2-thienylacetyl) oxy]-9,9-dimethyl-3-oxa-9-azoniatricyclo [3.3.1.0(2,4)] nonane bromide monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhenguang; Mu, Yingdi; Liu, Yihui; Ren, Yeming; Lin, Jimao

    2010-03-01

    The structure of (1alpha, 2beta, 4beta, 5alpha, 7beta)-7-[(hydroxydi-2-thienylacetyl) oxy]-9,9-dimethyl-3-oxa-9-azoniatricyclo [3.3.1.0(2,4)] nonane bromide monohydrate was studied using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Complete NMR assignments of the compound were obtained using DEPT, H-H COSY, as well as HMQC and HMBC heteronuclear correlation techniques. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of NOx on the molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol formed by the ozonolysis and photooxidation of α-pinene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Hyun; Babar, Zaeem Bin; Baek, Sun Jong; Kim, Hyun Sik; Lim, Ho-Jin

    2017-10-01

    The molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), obtained from the ozonolysis and photooxidation of α-pinene, was investigated using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in negative ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI). SOA formation was performed in an indoor smog chamber. The molecular formulae of individual species were identified on the basis of the measured ionic mass using guidelines, such as number of atoms, elemental ratios, and the nitrogen rule. In each of the SOAs obtained, 815-3501 monomeric and oligomeric (mainly dimeric) species were identified below m/z 800. From ozonolysis, mainly 95% of the typical oxygenated species (CHO) were detected, whereas from photooxidation under high NOx conditions, 32% of nitrogen-containing species (CHON) were detected. Several common intense species (e.g., C9H14O6, C10H14O6, C10H16O5, C17H26O7, C19H28O9, C10H15NO8, and C10H15NO9) could be listed as candidate tracers for the conventional tracers for α-pinene SOA. The increased percentage of CHON as a primary effect of NOx on the SOA composition evidently affected other physicochemical parameters, such as elemental ratios (i.e., O/C, H/C, and N/C), the double-bond equivalent (DBE), the carbon oxidation state (OSC), and the organic-mass-to-carbon ratio (OM/OC). The O/C and OM/OC for CHON were greater than those observed for CHO, indicating that nitrogen preferentially exists in the oxidized form (e.g., -ONO2). The complexity of oligomerization was observed in DBE and OM/OC according to the number of carbon atoms.

  17. Both gas chromatography and an electronic nose reflect chemical polymorphism of juniper shrubs browsed or avoided by sheep.

    PubMed

    Markó, Gábor; Novák, Ildikó; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2011-07-01

    Chemical polymorphism may contribute to variation in browsing damage by mammalian herbivores. Earlier, we demonstrated that essential oil concentration in juniper, Juniperus communis, was negatively associated with herbivore browsing. The aim of the present study was to characterize the volatile chemical composition of browsed and non-browsed J. communis. By using either gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) or an electronic nose device, we could separate sheep-browsed or non-browsed juniper shrubs by their essential oil pattern and complex odor matrix. The main components of the essential oil from J. communis were monoterpenes. We distinguished three chemotypes, dominated either by α-pinene, sabinene, or δ-3-carene. Shrubs belonging to the α-pinene- or sabinene-dominated groups were browsed, whereas all individuals with the δ-3-carene chemotype were unused by the local herbivores. The electronic nose also separated the browsed and non-browsed shrubs indicating that their odor matrix could guide sheep browsing. Responses of sheep could integrate the post-ingestive effects of plant secondary metabolites with sensory experience that stems from odor-phytotoxin interactions. Chemotype diversity could increase the survival rate in the present population of J. communis as certain shrubs could benefit from relatively better chemical protection against the herbivores.

  18. Insecticidal properties of essential plant oils against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Abdallah F; Taoubi, K; el-Haj, Samih; Bessiere, J M; Rammal, Salma

    2002-05-01

    The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves and flowers of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus Forskal were determined. Extracts of Myrtus communis L were found to be the most toxic, followed by those of Origanum syriacum L, Mentha microcorphylla Koch, Pistacia lentiscus L and Lavandula stoechas L with LC50 values of 16, 36, 39, 70 and 89 mg litre-1, respectively. Over 20 major components were identified in extracts from each plant species. Eight pure components (1,8-cineole, menthone, linalool, terpineol, carvacrol, thymol, (1S)-(-)-alpha-pinene and (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene) were tested against the larvae. Thymol, carvacrol, (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene and (1S)-(-)-alpha-pinene were the most toxic (LC50 = 36-49 mg litre-1), while menthone, 1,8-cineole, linalool and terpineol (LC50 = 156-194 mg litre-1) were less toxic.

  19. Quantification of Terpenes by 1DGC-MS and 2DGC-TOF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, R. M.; Perlinger, J. A.; Doskey, P. V.

    2009-12-01

    Biogenic emissions are the primary source of volatile organic compounds in the global troposphere. Deciduous and coniferous forests are the principal emitters of a complex mixture of isoprene (C5H8), monoterpenes (C10H16), and sesquiterpenes (C15H24). Sesquiterpenes are readily oxidized in the atmosphere producing secondary organic aerosols (SOA) with 100% yields. The SOA are hydrophilic and scatter light, and thus, increase albedo and lead to a cooling effect. In addition, both monoterpene and sesquiterpene generated SOA are effective cloud condensation nuclei leading to an increase in the particle number concentration and to the formation of clouds that also increase albedo. To quantify the complex mixture of terpenes and their oxidation products requires development of on-line extraction and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic techniques. One objective of this work was to compare one-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (1DGC-MS) and two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (2DGC-TOFMS) for quantifying eight monoterpenes (alpha- and beta-pinene, limonene, 3-carene, linalool, terpinolene, myrcene and ocimene) and eight sesquiterpenes (beta-caryophyllene, humulene, alpha-cedrene, cis-nerolidol, trans-nerolidol, cedrol, camphene and farnesene) in air samples collected in Northern Michigan. Future research involves coupling thermal desorption and supercritical fluid extraction devices to a GC×2GC for routine quantification of the complex mixture of terpenes and their oxidation products in rural and urban air.

  20. Real time in situ detection of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Andrew W; Smith, Jared D; Wilson, Kevin R; Cohen, Ronald C

    2010-07-15

    A novel instrument is described that quantifies total particle-phase organic nitrates in real time with a detection limit of 0.11 microg m(-3) min(-1), 45 ppt min(-1) (-ONO(2)). Aerosol nitrates are separated from gas-phase nitrates with a short residence time activated carbon denuder. Detection of organic molecules containing -ONO(2) subunits is accomplished using thermal dissociation coupled to laser induced fluorescence detection of NO(2). This instrument is capable of high time resolution (seconds) measurements of particle-phase organic nitrates, without interference from inorganic nitrate. Here we use it to quantify organic nitrates in secondary organic aerosol generated from high-NO(x) photooxidation of limonene, alpha-pinene, Delta-3-carene, and tridecane. In these experiments the organic nitrate moiety is observed to be 6-15% of the total SOA mass.

  1. Products and Mechanism of Aerosol Formation from the Reaction of β-Pinene with NO3 Radicals: Role of Oligomer Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claflin, M. S.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Large amounts of organic nitrates have been reported in aerosol analyzed during field studies conducted around the world. Although organic nitrates can be formed in daytime from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds in the presence of NOx, it has recently been proposed that the nighttime reaction of monoterpenes with NO3 radicals may account for a substantial fraction of these compounds. While past studies have made progress quantifying the aerosol forming potential of these reactions, relatively little is known about the gas-phase oxidation mechanism, the identities of stable products, and their fate after they partition into aerosol. In an effort to better understand these reactions, we conducted environmental chamber experiments in which β-pinene was reacted with NO3 radicals and the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that formed was analyzed online using a thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer and offline using a variety of methods. SOA was collected on filters, extracted, and analyzed using derivatization-spectrophotometric methods to quantify carbonyl, hydroxyl, carboxyl, nitrate, peroxide, and ester functional groups; and molecular products were identified and quantified by coupling high performance liquid chromatography with UV-Vis detection and mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization, electron ionization, and chemical ionization. We identified and quantified >98% of the products in the SOA and found that 95% were oligomers formed through hemiacetal and acetal reactions. This information was used to determine the yields of monomer building blocks, which in turn were combined with modeling to estimate branching ratios in the gas-phase oxidation reaction and timescales of oligomer formation within the aerosol. The results of this study highlight several key processes in the formation of SOA from reactions of monoterpenes with NO3 radicals: (1) alkoxy radical chemistry, including the role of ring opening through decomposition (2

  2. Assessment of sensitization potential of monoterpenes using the rat popliteal lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Karen; Delgado, Isabella F; Santos, Laísa M F; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2007-08-01

    The popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) has been proposed as a screening test for detecting chemicals with potential of inducing allergic and auto-immune-like reactions in humans. In the present study, we used the rat PLNA to evaluate the immuno-sensitizing potential of 10 monoterpenes found in the essential oils of a variety of aromatic, edible and medicinal plants. The primary or direct PLNA was performed with the monoterpenes, and chlorpromazine (CPZ) and barbital were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Female, 7-8 week-old Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously (50 microL) with the test substance (0.5, 2.5 or 5mg) into the right hind footpad while the contralateral footpad was injected with the vehicle (DMSO) alone. Weight (WI) and cellularity (CI) indices for draining PLNs were determined 7 days after treatment. PLNA was positive (WI >or= 2 and CI >or= 5) for CPZ, citral, alpha-terpinene, beta-myrcene and (-)-alpha-pinene, and negative for barbital, DMSO, (-)-menthol, 1,8-cineole, (+/-) citronellal, (+)-limonene, (+/-) camphor and terpineol. A secondary PLNA, a T-cell priming test, was carried out with the four substances that had been positive in the primary assay. Six weeks after being locally primed with 5 mg/paw, rats were sc injected into the same footpad with a dose (0.5 mg/paw) of the substance that had been previously found to be insufficient to cause a positive response. WI and CI were then calculated 4 and 7 days after the second injection. CPZ was also positive in the secondary assay thereby confirming that it is a sensitizing agent. Citral, alpha-terpinene, beta-myrcene and (-)-alpha-pinene, however, were negative in the secondary assay. In summary, citral, alpha-terpinene, beta-myrcene and (-)-alpha-pinene induced a clear immuno-stimulatory response due to their irritant properties but no monoterpene proved to be a sensitizing agent in the PLNA.

  3. Antibacterial properties of (2,3)-alpha- and (2,3)-beta-methylene analogs of penicillin G.

    PubMed Central

    Christenson, J G; Pruess, D L; Talbot, M K; Keith, D D

    1988-01-01

    The penam nucleus can assume two conformations; these are designated open and closed. The synthetic (2,3)-alpha- and (2,3)-beta-methylenepenams can be regarded as analogs of the open and closed conformations, respectively. It has been shown that the beta-methylenepenams are essentially inactive, suggesting that the closed conformation of penams is also inactive. In this study, we investigated a series of beta-lactams, all of which contained phenylacetamido side chains: penicillin G, the (2,3)-alpha- and (2,3)-beta-methylenepenams, and the 3-acetoxymethyl- and 3-methylcephalosporins. The alpha-methylenepenam and penicillin G were the most active compounds, while the beta-methylene isomer was only poorly active. Results with permeability mutants suggested that the alpha-methylene compound penetrated the outer membrane somewhat more readily than penicillin G did. The intrinsic potency of the alpha-methylenepenam appeared to be similar to that of penicillin G, on the basis of their affinities for penicillin-binding proteins and their abilities to inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis in ether-permeabilized Escherichia coli, while the beta-methylene analog had very poor intrinsic potency. The alpha-methylene analog was about 10-fold more efficient (Vmax/Km) than penicillin G as a substrate for the cephalosporinases from Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris, but it was about 40-fold less efficient with penicillinase from Staphylococcus aureus. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the active conformation of penams is the open conformation and suggest that the position in space of the carboxyl group relative to the beta-lactam carbonyl is an important determinant of cephalosporinlike character, as distinct from penicillinlike character. Images PMID:3190190

  4. Viscosity of α-pinene secondary organic material and implications for particle growth and reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Grayson, James W.; Bateman, Adam P.

    Particles composed of secondary organic material (SOM) are abundant in the lower troposphere and play important roles in climate, air quality, and health. The viscosity of these particles is a fundamental property that is presently poorly quantified for conditions relevant to the lower troposphere. Using two new techniques, namely a bead-mobility technique and a poke-flow technique, in conjunction with simulations of fluid flow, we measure the viscosity of the watersoluble component of SOM produced by α-pinene ozonolysis. The viscosity is comparable to that of honey at 90% relative humidity (RH), comparable to that of peanut butter at 70% RH andmore » greater than or comparable to that of bitumen for ≤ 30% RH, implying that the studied SOM ranges from liquid to semisolid/solid at ambient relative humidities. With the Stokes-Einstein relation, the measured viscosities further imply that the growth and evaporation of SOM by the exchange of organic molecules between the gas and condensed phases may be confined to the surface region when RH ≤ 30%, suggesting the importance of an adsorption-type mechanism for partitioning in this regime. By comparison, for RH ≥ 70% partitioning of organic molecules may effectively occur by an absorption mechanism throughout the bulk of the particle. Finally, the net uptake rates of semi-reactive atmospheric oxidants such as O3 are expected to decrease by two to five orders of magnitude for a change in RH from 90% to ≤ 30% RH, with possible implications for the rates of chemical aging of SOM particles in the atmosphere.« less

  5. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial A549 cells caused by airborne volatile organic compounds emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards.

    PubMed

    Gminski, Richard; Tang, Tao; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2010-06-16

    Due to the massive reduction of air-change rates in modern, energy-saving houses and dwellings, the contribution of volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions from wood-based materials to indoor air quality has become increasingly important. To evaluate toxicity of VOC mixtures typically emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards (OSB) and their main constituents (selected terpenes and aldehydes), cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were investigated in human A549 lung cells. To facilitate exposure directly via gas phase, a 250 L emission chamber was combined with a Vitrocell exposure system. VOC exposure concentrations were measured by GC/MSD. Biological effects were determined after an exposure time of 1h by measuring cytotoxicity (erythrosine B staining) and genotoxicity (comet assay). Neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic effects were observed for VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood or OSB at loading factors of approximately 13 m(2)/m(3) (worst case conditions) of the panels (with maximum VOC levels of about 80 mg/m(3)) in comparison to clean air. While alpha-pinene and Delta(3)-carene did not induce toxic effects even at exposure concentrations of up to 1800 mg/m(3) and 600 mg/m(3), respectively, hexanal showed a cytotoxic effect at 2000 mg/m(3). The alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes 2-heptenal and 2-octenal caused genotoxic effects in concentrations exceeding 100mg/m(3) and 40 mg/m(3), respectively. In conclusion, high concentrations of VOCs and VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood and OSB did not lead to adverse effects in A549 human lung cells even at concentrations 10(2) to 10(5)-fold higher than those found in normal indoor air. Attention must be paid to mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cloning and expression of a novel UDP-GlcNAc:alpha-D-mannoside beta1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase homologous to UDP-GlcNAc:alpha-3-D-mannoside beta1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenli; Betel, Doron; Schachter, Harry

    2002-01-01

    A TBLASTN search with human UDP-GlcNAc:alpha-3-d-mannoside beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnT I; EC 2.4.1.101) as a probe identified human and mouse Unigenes encoding a protein similar to human GnT I (34% identity over 340 amino acids). The recombinant protein converted Man(alpha1-6)[Man(alpha1-3)]Man(beta1-)O-octyl to Man(alpha1-6)[GlcNAc(beta1-2)Man(alpha1-3)]Man(beta1-)O-octyl, the reaction catalysed by GnT I. The enzyme also added GlcNAc to Man(alpha1-6)[GlcNAc(beta1-2)Man(alpha1-3)]Man(beta1-)O-octyl (the substrate for beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II), Man(alpha1-)O-benzyl [with K(m) values of approximately 0.3 and >30 mM for UDP-GlcNAc and Man(alpha1-)O-benzyl respectively] and the glycopeptide CYA[Man(alpha1-)O-T]AV (K(m) approximately 12 mM). The product formed with Man(alpha1-)O-benzyl was identified as GlcNAc(beta1-2)Man(alpha1-)O-benzyl by proton NMR spectroscopy. The enzyme was named UDP-GlcNAc:alpha-d-mannoside beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I.2 (GnT I.2). The human gene mapped to chromosome 1. Northern-blot analysis showed a 3.3 kb message with a wide tissue distribution. The cDNA has a 1980 bp open reading frame encoding a 660 amino acid protein with a type-2 domain structure typical of glycosyltransferases. Man(beta1-)O-octyl, Man(beta1-)O-p-nitrophenyl and GlcNAc(beta1-2)Man(alpha1-6)[GlcNAc(beta1-2)Man(alpha1-3)]Man(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-)O-Asn were not acceptors, indicating that GnT I.2 is specific for alpha-linked terminal Man and does not have N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III, IV, V, VII or VIII activities. CYA[Man(alpha1-)O-T]AV was between three and seven times more effective as an acceptor than the other substrates, suggesting that GnT I.2 may be responsible for the synthesis of the GlcNAc(beta1-2)Man(alpha1-)O-Ser/Thr moiety on alpha-dystroglycan and other O-mannosylated proteins. PMID:11742540

  7. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Annette; Rychlik, Michael

    2006-05-17

    The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, the odorants showing higher FD factors were quantified in tea as well as in fruits, and odor activity values (OAV) in tea were calculated by dividing the concentration of the compound by its recognition threshold in water. The highest OAV was found for trans-anethole, followed by estragole, fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and anisaldehyde. From a comparison of the concentrations of odorants in fruits and tea, trans-anethole and estragole showed similar extraction rates of approximately 10-15%, whereas the extraction rates for (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and limonene were below 2%. In contrast to this, fenchone, camphor, linalool, and carvone showed higher extraction rates (26-50%), whereas the high apparent extraction rates of anisalcohol (393%) and vanilline (480%) were attributed to the formation from precursors. Sensory studies of aqueous models containing odorants in the amounts quantified in fennel teas revealed high similarity of the models with the tea and proved that all impact odorants had been identified in their correct concentrations. Further sensory experiments showed that estragole had no odor impact on the overall flavor of fennel tea, and, therefore, a reduction of estragole in fennel products would have no negative impact on their sensoric quality. In contrast to this, trans-anethole and fenchone were found to be character impact compounds of fennel.

  8. Volatile chemical constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rali, Topul; Wossa, Stewart W; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2007-03-09

    Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae) afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3%), beta-caryophyllene (8.2%), piperitione (6.7%) and alpha-humulene (5.1%), whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2%), with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6%) and alpha-pinene (6.5%).

  9. Effects of NOx and SO2 on the secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation of α-pinene and limonene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Defeng; Schmitt, Sebastian H.; Wang, Mingjin; Acir, Ismail-Hakki; Tillmann, Ralf; Tan, Zhaofeng; Novelli, Anna; Fuchs, Hendrik; Pullinen, Iida; Wegener, Robert; Rohrer, Franz; Wildt, Jürgen; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas; Mentel, Thomas F.

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions such as NOx and SO2 influence the biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but detailed mechanisms and effects are still elusive. We studied the effects of NOx and SO2 on the SOA formation from the photooxidation of α-pinene and limonene at ambient relevant NOx and SO2 concentrations (NOx: < 1to 20 ppb, SO2: < 0.05 to 15 ppb). In these experiments, monoterpene oxidation was dominated by OH oxidation. We found that SO2 induced nucleation and enhanced SOA mass formation. NOx strongly suppressed not only new particle formation but also SOA mass yield. However, in the presence of SO2 which induced a high number concentration of particles after oxidation to H2SO4, the suppression of the mass yield of SOA by NOx was completely or partly compensated for. This indicates that the suppression of SOA yield by NOx was largely due to the suppressed new particle formation, leading to a lack of particle surface for the organics to condense on and thus a significant influence of vapor wall loss on SOA mass yield. By compensating for the suppressing effect on nucleation of NOx, SO2 also compensated for the suppressing effect on SOA yield. Aerosol mass spectrometer data show that increasing NOx enhanced nitrate formation. The majority of the nitrate was organic nitrate (57-77 %), even in low-NOx conditions (< ˜ 1 ppb). Organic nitrate contributed 7-26 % of total organics assuming a molecular weight of 200 g mol-1. SOA from α-pinene photooxidation at high NOx had a generally lower hydrogen to carbon ratio (H / C), compared to low NOx. The NOx dependence of the chemical composition can be attributed to the NOx dependence of the branching ratio of the RO2 loss reactions, leading to a lower fraction of organic hydroperoxides and higher fractions of organic nitrates at high NOx. While NOx suppressed new particle formation and SOA mass formation, SO2 can compensate for such effects, and the combining effect of SO2 and NOx may have an important

  10. Dissecting the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and integrin alpha(v)beta3 in angiogenesis in vitro: absence of hemopexin C domain bioactivity, but membrane-Type 1-MMP and alpha(v)beta3 are critical.

    PubMed

    Nisato, Riccardo E; Hosseini, Ghamartaj; Sirrenberg, Christian; Butler, Georgina S; Crabbe, Thomas; Docherty, Andrew J P; Wiesner, Matthias; Murphy, Gillian; Overall, Christopher M; Goodman, Simon L; Pepper, Michael S

    2005-10-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and its hemopexin C domain autolytic fragment (also called PEX) have been proposed to be crucial for angiogenesis. Here, we have investigated the dependency of in vitro angiogenesis on MMP-mediated extracellular proteolysis and integrin alpha(v)beta3-mediated cell adhesion in a three-dimensional collagen I model. The hydroxamate-based synthetic inhibitors BB94, CT1399, and CT1847 inhibited endothelial cell invasion, as did neutralizing anti-membrane-type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) antibodies and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-2 and TIMP-3 but not TIMP-1. This confirmed the pivotal importance of MT1-MMP over other MMPs in this model. Invasion was also inhibited by a nonpeptidic antagonist of integrin alpha(v)beta3, EMD 361276. Although PEX strongly inhibited pro-MMP-2 activation, when contaminating lipopolysaccharide was neutralized, PEX neither affected angiogenesis nor bound integrin alpha(v)beta(3). Moreover, no specific binding of pro-MMP-2 to integrin alpha(v)beta3 was found, whereas only one out of four independently prepared enzymatically active MMP-2 preparations could bind integrin alpha(v)beta3 , and this in a PEX-independent manner. Likewise, integrin alpha(v)beta3 -expressing cells did not bind MMP-2-coated surfaces. Hence, these findings show that endothelial cell invasion of collagen I gels is MT1-MMP and alpha(v)beta3 - dependent but MMP-2 independent and does not support a role for PEX in alpha(v)beta3 integrin binding or in modulating angiogenesis in this system.

  11. Synthesis of 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,25-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-24-one, an intermediate in the 25-hydroxylation pathway of cholic acid biosynthesis from cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Dayal, B; Tint, G S; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G; Bose, A K; Pramanik, B N

    1983-02-01

    This paper describes the chemical synthesis of 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,25-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-24-one via selective oxidation of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha, 24 xi,25-pentol with silver carbonate on celite. The structure of this 24-keto bile alcohol was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Synthesis of this compound via pyridinium chlorochromate oxidation of the triacetoxy derivative of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,24 xi,25-pentol followed by saponification further established its structure. 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,25-Tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-24-one was required for the in vivo and in vitro studies of side-chain oxidation and cleavage in the 25-hydroxylation pathway of cholic acid biosynthesis.

  12. Integrins beta 5, beta 3 and alpha v are apically distributed in endometrial epithelium.

    PubMed

    Aplin, J D; Spanswick, C; Behzad, F; Kimber, S J; Vićovac, L

    1996-07-01

    Several adhesion molecules have been shown to occur at the surface of endometrial cells. One of these is the integrin alpha v subunit which associates with various beta chains including beta 5. We demonstrate the presence of integrin beta 5 polypeptide in human endometrial epithelial cells throughout the menstrual cycle using immunocytochemistry with monospecific antibodies, and at the mRNA level by thermal amplification from endometrial cDNA. Integrin beta 5 is also found in a population of bone marrow-derived cells. A notable feature of the distribution of the beta 5 subunit in the glandular and luminal epithelium is its apical localization, which may suggest an involvement in implantation. However, no evidence was found for regulated expression of epithelial beta 5. In mouse, the beta 5 subunit is found at both the apical and basal surface of epithelial cells and expression is essentially oestrous cycle-independent. Comparisons are made in both species with the distribution of the alpha v and beta 3 subunits which also localize to the apical epithelium.

  13. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Santiria trimera bark.

    PubMed

    Martins, A P; Salgueiro, L R; Gonçalves, M J; Proença da Cunha, A; Vila, R; Cañigueral, S

    2003-01-01

    The composition and the antimicrobial activity of the bark oil of Santiria trimera (Oliv.) Aubrév., a plant widely used by the traditional healers in S. Tomé and Príncipe, especially for wound healing, are reported for the first time. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC and GC-MS. The oil contains a high content of monoterpenes, alpha-pinene (66.6 %) being the major constituent, followed by beta-pinene (20.0 %). The essential oil was active against both bacteria and fungi strains, except Staphylococcus epidermidis and Aspergillus niger. It exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Proteus vulgaris and Cryptococcus neoformans with MICs values of 1.11 microl/ml and lower than 0.71 microl/ml, respectively.

  14. The indoor volatile organic compound (VOC) characteristics and source identification in a new university campus in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jian; Liu, Junjie; Pei, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    Chinese college students. The main detected substances α-pinene, β-pinene, and 3-carene originated from solid wood bed boards and should be seriously considered. In addition, the contribution rates of building structure materials and furniture to specific VOCs constituents are quantitative calculated. Also, the decay rates of these specific constituents within 1 year are also quantitative calculated in this paper. This study can help us to better understand the sources and concentration levels of VOC contaminants in campus buildings, and to help select appropriate materials in buildings.

  15. Annual cycle and temperature dependence of pinene oxidation products and other water-soluble organic compounds in coarse and fine aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Müller, L.; Winterhalter, R.; Moortgat, G. K.; Hoffmann, T.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-05-01

    Filter samples of fine and coarse particulate matter were collected over a period of one year and analyzed for water-soluble organic compounds, including the pinene oxidation products pinic acid, pinonic acid, 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA) and a variety of dicarboxylic acids (C5-C16) and nitrophenols. Seasonal variations and other characteristic features are discussed with regard to aerosol sources and sinks and data from other studies and regions. The ratios of adipic acid (C6) and phthalic acid (Ph) to azelaic acid (C9) indicate that the investigated aerosols samples were mainly influenced by biogenic sources. An Arrhenius-type correlation was found between the 3-MBTCA concentration and inverse temperature. Model calculations suggest that the temperature dependence is largely due to enhanced emissions and OH radical concentrations at elevated temperatures, whereas the influence of gas-particle partitioning appears to play a minor role. Enhanced ratios of pinic acid to 3-MBTCA indicate strong chemical aging of the investigated aerosols in summer and spring. Acknowledgment: The authors would like to thank M. Claeys for providing synthetic 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid standards for LC-MS analysis and J. Fröhlich for providing filter samples and related information.

  16. Identification of a novel bile acid in swans, tree ducks, and geese: 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid.

    PubMed

    Kakiyama, Genta; Iida, Takashi; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Nambara, Toshio; Hagey, Lee R; Schteingart, Claudio D; Hofmann, Alan F

    2006-07-01

    By HPLC, a taurine-conjugated bile acid with a retention time different from that of taurocholate was found to be present in the bile of the black-necked swan, Cygnus melanocoryphus. The bile acid was isolated and its structure, established by (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry, was that of the taurine N-acyl amidate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. The compound was shown to have chromatographic and spectroscopic properties that were identical to those of the taurine conjugate of authentic 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid, previously synthesized by us from ursodeoxycholic acid. By HPLC, the taurine conjugate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid was found to be present in 6 of 6 species in the subfamily Dendrocygninae (tree ducks) and in 10 of 13 species in the subfamily Anserinae (swans and geese) but not in other subfamilies in the Anatidae family. It was also not present in species from the other two families of the order Anseriformes. 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid is a new primary bile acid that is present in the biliary bile acids of swans, tree ducks, and geese and may be termed 15alpha-hydroxy-chenodeoxycholic acid.

  17. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Amal A.; Ali, Sami I.; El-Baz, Farouk K.

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

  18. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts and essential oils of Syzygium cumini leaves.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amal A; Ali, Sami I; El-Baz, Farouk K

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries.

  19. Isolation and functional characterization of a methyl jasmonate-responsive 3-carene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia.

    PubMed

    Adal, Ayelign M; Sarker, Lukman S; Lemke, Ashley D; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2017-04-01

    A methyl jasmonate responsive 3-carene synthase (Li3CARS) gene was isolated from Lavandula x intermedia and functionally characterized in vitro. Lavenders produce essential oils consisting mainly of monoterpenes, including the potent antimicrobial and insecticidal monoterpene 3-carene. In this study we isolated and functionally characterized a leaf-specific, methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-responsive monoterpene synthase (Li3CARS) from Lavandula x intermedia. The ORF excluding transit peptides encoded a 64.9 kDa protein that was expressed in E. coli, and purified with Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The recombinant Li3CARS converted GPP into 3-carene as the major product, with K m and k cat of 3.69 ± 1.17 µM and 2.01 s -1 respectively. Li3CARS also accepted NPP as a substrate to produce multiple products including a small amount of 3-carene. The catalytic efficiency of Li3CARS to produce 3-carene was over ten fold higher for GPP (k cat /K m = 0.56 µM -1 s -1 ) than NPP (k cat /K m = 0.044 µM -1 s -1 ). Production of distinct end product profiles from different substrates (GPP versus NPP) by Li3CARS indicates that monoterpene metabolism may be controlled in part through substrate availability. Li3CARS transcripts were found to be highly abundant in leaves (16-fold) as compared to flower tissues. The transcriptional activity of Li3CARS correlated with 3-carene production, and was up-regulated (1.18- to 3.8-fold) with MeJA 8-72 h post-treatment. The results suggest that Li3CARS may have a defensive role in Lavandula.

  20. Integrating phase and composition of secondary organic aerosol from the ozonolysis of α-pinene

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Carla; Perraud, Véronique; Wingen, Lisa M.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Airborne particles are important for public health, visibility, and climate. Predicting their concentrations, effects, and responses to control strategies requires accurate models of their formation and growth in air. This is challenging, as a large fraction is formed by complex reactions of volatile organic compounds, generating secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which grows to sizes important for visibility, climate, and deposition in the lung. Growth of SOA is particularly sensitive to the phase/viscosity of the particles and remains poorly understood. We report studies using a custom-designed impactor with a germanium crystal as the impaction surface to study SOA formed from the ozonolysis of α-pinene at relative humidities (RHs) up to 87% at 297 ± 2 K (which corresponds to a maximum RH of 70–86% inside the impactor). The impaction patterns provide insight into changes in phase/viscosity as a function of RH. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and aerosol mass spectrometry provide simultaneous information on composition changes with RH. The results show that as the RH at which the SOA is formed increases, there is a decrease in viscosity, accompanied by an increasing contribution from carboxylic acids and a decreasing contribution from higher molecular mass products. In contrast, SOA that is formed dry and subsequently humidified remains solid to high RH. The results of these studies have significant implications for modeling the growth, aging, and ultimately, lifetime of SOA in the atmosphere. PMID:24821796

  1. Integrin alpha 3 beta 1 participates in the phagocytosis of extracellular matrix molecules by human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Coopman, P J; Thomas, D M; Gehlsen, K R; Mueller, S C

    1996-11-01

    The mechanisms and receptors involved in phagocytosis by nonhematopoietic cells are not well understood. The involvement of the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin in phagocytosis of the extracellular matrix by human breast cancer cells was studied. The possible role of this integrin was suggested since alpha 3 and beta 1 but not alpha 2 subunits are concentrated at membrane sites where local degradation of fluorescently labeled gelatin occurs. Strikingly, anti-alpha 3 integrin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) stimulate the phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled gelatin films, gelatin beads, and Matrigel films in a quantitative phagocytosis assay. Stimulation of the gelatin uptake by the anti-alpha 3 mAb is dose responsive, saturable, and time dependent. Antibodies against other integrin subunits have a lower stimulatory effect (anti-beta 1) or no significant effect (anti-alpha 2, -alpha 5, -alpha 6, and -alpha v) on gelatin phagocytosis. The synthetic HGD-6 human laminin peptide that binds specifically the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin, but not the scrambled HSGD-6 control peptide, also markedly stimulates gelatin uptake in a dose-responsive way. Furthermore, the stimulatory effects of the HGD-6 peptide and the anti-alpha 3 mAb are additive, suggesting that they might promote phagocytosis in different ways. Other laminin (YIGSR, IKVAV) and fibronectin (GRGDS) peptides have no effect on gelatin phagocytosis. Immunofluorescence shows that the alpha 3 and the beta 1, but not the alpha 2 integrin subunit, concentrate into patches on the cell surface after treatment with their respective mAbs. And, both gelatin and the alpha 3 beta 1 but not the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin are cointernalized and routed to acidic vesicles such as lysosomes. In conclusion, we demonstrate that human breast cancer cells locally degrade and phagocytose the extracellular matrix and show for the first time that the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin participates in this phagocytosis. We hypothesize that the anti-alpha 3

  2. 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid: An atmospheric tracer for terpene secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmigielski, Rafal; Surratt, Jason D.; Gómez-González, Yadian; Van der Veken, Pieter; Kourtchev, Ivan; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Blockhuys, Frank; Jaoui, Mohammed; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E.; Lewandowski, Michael; Offenberg, John H.; Edney, Edward O.; Seinfeld, John H.; Maenhaut, Willy; Claeys, Magda

    2007-12-01

    Highly oxygenated compounds assigned to be oxidation products of α-pinene have recently been observed in substantial concentrations in ambient aerosols. Here, we confirm the unknown α-pinene tracer compound with molecular weight (MW) 204 as the C8-tricarboxylic acid 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid. Its gas and liquid chromatographic behaviors and its mass spectral characteristics in electron ionization and negative ion electrospray ionization perfectly agree with those of a synthesized reference compound. The formation of this compound is explained by further reaction of cis-pinonic acid involving participation of the OH radical. This study illustrates that complex, multi-generation chemistry holds for the photooxidation of α-pinene in the presence of NOx.

  3. Urocortin 3 Marks Mature Human Primary and Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Alpha and Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    van der Meulen, Talitha; Xie, Ruiyu; Kelly, Olivia G.; Vale, Wylie W.; Sander, Maike; Huising, Mark O.

    2012-01-01

    The peptide hormone Urocortin 3 (Ucn 3) is abundantly and exclusively expressed in mouse pancreatic beta cells where it regulates insulin secretion. Here we demonstrate that Ucn 3 first appears at embryonic day (E) 17.5 and, from approximately postnatal day (p) 7 and onwards throughout adult life, becomes a unifying and exclusive feature of mouse beta cells. These observations identify Ucn 3 as a potential beta cell maturation marker. To determine whether Ucn 3 is similarly restricted to beta cells in humans, we conducted comprehensive immunohistochemistry and gene expression experiments on macaque and human pancreas and sorted primary human islet cells. This revealed that Ucn 3 is not restricted to the beta cell lineage in primates, but is also expressed in alpha cells. To substantiate these findings, we analyzed human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic endoderm that differentiates into mature endocrine cells upon engraftment in mice. Ucn 3 expression in hESC-derived grafts increased robustly upon differentiation into mature endocrine cells and localized to both alpha and beta cells. Collectively, these observations confirm that Ucn 3 is expressed in adult beta cells in both mouse and human and appears late in beta cell differentiation. Expression of Pdx1, Nkx6.1 and PC1/3 in hESC-derived Ucn 3+ beta cells supports this. However, the expression of Ucn 3 in primary and hESC-derived alpha cells demonstrates that human Ucn 3 is not exclusive to the beta cell lineage but is a general marker for both the alpha and beta cell lineages. Ucn 3+ hESC-derived alpha cells do not express Nkx6.1, Pdx1 or PC1/3 in agreement with the presence of a separate population of Ucn 3+ alpha cells. Our study highlights important species differences in Ucn 3 expression, which have implications for its utility as a marker to identify mature beta cells in (re)programming strategies. PMID:23251699

  4. Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Horgan, Thomas; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used.

  5. Inhibitors of sterol synthesis. Synthesis and spectral properties of 3 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-cholestan-15-one and its 17 beta-epimer and their effects on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, A U; Wilson, W K; Parish, E J; Gerst, N; Pinkerton, F D; Schroepfer, G J

    1994-10-20

    3 beta-Hydroxy-5 alpha-cholestan-15-one (2a) and its 14 beta-epimer 2b were prepared from 3 beta-acetoxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-ene (3). Hydroboration of 3 at 45-50 degrees C gave a mixture of 5 alpha,14 alpha-cholestane-3 beta,15 alpha-diol and 5 alpha,14 beta-cholestane-3 beta,15 beta-diol, which were separated on silica gel as their 3 beta-tert-butyldimethylsilyl ethers 5a and 5b. Oxidation of 5a with pyridinium chlorochromate, followed by desilylation with tetrabutylammonium fluoride gave 2a. Analogous transformations of 5b gave 2b contaminated with 2a. Desilylation of 5b followed by oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate resulted in a mixture composed mainly of 5 alpha,14 beta-cholestane-3,15-dione and 2b. Successive chromatographic separations on silica gel and reversed phase media gave 2b of high purity. Compound 2a was also prepared by lithium-ammonia reduction of 3 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one (96% yield) and by selective reduction of 5 alpha-cholestane-3,15-dione with lithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminum hydride (90% yield). Isomers 2a and 2b were readily epimerized under acidic or basic conditions or under conditions used for gas chromatographic analysis. The purities of 2a and 2b were measured from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra; chromatographic methods gave less reliable estimates of purity. NMR data also showed that ring C of the 14 beta sterols is predominantly in a chair conformation. The effects of 2a and 2b on the levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase have been studied in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  6. Antimicrobial synergism and cytotoxic properties of Citrus limon L., Piper nigrum L. and Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden and Betche) Cheel essential oils.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Miloš M; Jovanović, Katarina K; Marković, Tatjana Lj; Marković, Dejan Lj; Gligorijević, Nevenka N; Radulović, Siniša S; Kostić, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina M; Soković, Marina D

    2017-11-01

    The chemical composition, antimicrobial and synergistic effect, and cytotoxic activity of Citrus limon (lemon), Piper nigrum (green pepper) and Melaleuca alternifoila (tea tree) essential oils (EOs) were investigated. Chemical analyses of essential oils were tested by GC-FID and GC-MS spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity assay was conducted using microdilution method against several oral bacteria and Candida spp. originating from the humans with oral disorders. The synergistic antimicrobial activity was evaluated using checkerboard method. The cytotoxicity evaluation of EOs was assessed using MTT test. Limonene (37.5%) and β-pinene (17.9%) were the major compounds in C. limon oil, β-pinene (34.4%), δ-3-carene (19.7%), limonene (18.7%) and α-pinene (10.4%) in P. nigrum oil and terpinen-4-ol (38.6%) and γ-terpinene (21.7%) in M. alternifolia oil. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was achieved by tested three EOs, with C. limon oil being the strongest against bacteria and M. alternifolia oil strongest against fungi. The EOs demonstrated synergism; their combined application revealed an increase in antimicrobial activity. All tested essential oils showed lower cytotoxic activity in comparison with the positive control, and the obtained results confirmed a dose-dependent activity. The results of this study encourage use of tested EOs in development of a novel agent intended for prevention or therapy of corresponding oral disorders. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Chemical characterization and biological activity of essential oils from Daucus carota L. subsp. carota growing wild on the Mediterranean coast and on the Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Maxia, Andrea; Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2009-01-01

    The essential oils and supercritical CO(2) extracts of wild Daucus carota L. subsp. carota growing spontaneously in Sardinia and in Portugal were investigated. The main components in the Sardinian essential oil of flowering and mature umbels with seeds are beta-bisabolene (17.6-51.0%) and 11-alpha-(H)-himachal-4-en-1-beta-ol (9.0-21.6%); instead, the oils from Portuguese samples are predominantly composed of geranyl acetate (5.2-65.0%) and alpha-pinene (3.5-37.9%). Supercritical extracts contain lower amounts of monoterpenes and higher amounts of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Antifungal activities of the Sardinian oils were the highest, particularly for dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values of 0.16-0.64 microL mL(-1).

  8. Real refractive indices and formation yields of secondary organic aerosol generated from photooxidation of limonene and α-pinene: the effect of the HC/NO(x) ratio.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwajin; Barkey, Brian; Paulson, Suzanne E

    2012-06-21

    The refractive index is an important property affecting aerosol optical properties, which in turn help determine the aerosol direct effect and satellite retrieval results. Here, we investigate the real refractive indices (m(r)) of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from the photooxidation of limonene and α-pinene with different HC/NO(x) ratios. Refractive indices were obtained from polar nephelometer data using parallel and perpendicular polarized 532 nm light combined with measured size distributions, and retrievals were performed using a genetic algorithm and Mie-Lorenz scattering theory. The absolute error associated with the m(r) retrieval is ±0.03, and reliable retrievals are possible for mass concentrations above 5-20 μg/m(3) depending on particle size. The limonene SOA data suggest the most important factor controlling the refractive index is the HC/NO(x) ratio; the refractive index is much less sensitive to the aerosol age or mass concentration. The refractive index ranges from about 1.34 to 1.56 for limonene and from 1.36 to 1.52 for α-pinene, and generally decreases as the HC/NO(x) ratio increases. Especially for limonene, the particle diameter is also inversely related to the HC/NO(x) ratio; the final size mode increases from 220 to 330 nm as the HC/NO(x) ratio decreases from 33 to 6. In an effort to explore the ability of models from the literature to explain the observed refractive indices, a recent limonene oxidation mechanism was combined with SOA partitioning and a structure-property relationship for estimating refractive indices of condensing species. The resulting refractive indices fell in a much narrower range (1.475 ± 0.02) of m(r) than observed experimentally. We hypothesize the experimentally observed high m(r) values are due to oligomerization and the low values to water uptake, small soluble molecules such as glyoxal and other factors, each of which is not included in the oxidation mechanism. Aerosol formation yields were

  9. Variation in monoterpene content among geographic sources of eastern white pine

    Treesearch

    A.R. Gilmore; J.J. Jokela

    1977-01-01

    Variations of monoterpenes in cortical oleoresins and foliar samples were determined for seed from 16 provenances of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). The experiment was analyzed using the "raw" and the arcsine "transformed" data. Alpha-pinene, camphene, and β-pinene varied between seed sources when "raw" data were analyzed...

  10. 40 CFR 180.157 - Methyl 3-[(dimethoxyphos-phinyl) oxy]butenoate, alpha and beta isomers; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...]butenoate, alpha and beta isomers; tolerances for residues. 180.157 Section 180.157 Protection of...]butenoate, alpha and beta isomers; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide methyl 3-[(dimethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]butenoate, alpha and beta isomers, in or on...

  11. 40 CFR 180.157 - Methyl 3-[(dimethoxyphos-phinyl) oxy]butenoate, alpha and beta isomers; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...]butenoate, alpha and beta isomers; tolerances for residues. 180.157 Section 180.157 Protection of...]butenoate, alpha and beta isomers; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide methyl 3-[(dimethoxyphosphinyl)oxy]butenoate, alpha and beta isomers, in or on...

  12. Invasive bark beetle-associated microbes degrade a host defensive monoterpene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Le-Tian; Lu, Min; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Conifers respond to herbivore attack with defensive chemicals, which are toxic to both insects and their associated microorganisms. Microorganisms associated with insects have been widely reported to metabolize toxic chemicals, which may help both microorganisms and host insects overcome host conifer defense. Dendroctonus valens LeConte, an introduced exotic pest from North America to China, has killed millions of healthy pines. Alpha-pinene is the most abundant defensive monoterpene in Chinese Pinus tabuliformis. Although microorganisms associated with D. valens have already been investigated, little is known about their bioactivities when encountering host defensive monoterpenes. In this study, we evaluated the influences of different concentrations of α-pinene to D. valens and the three most frequently isolated yeasts and bacteria of D. valens, and further assayed microorganisms' capabilities to degrade α-pinene. Results showed that the gallery lengths and body weight changes of bark beetles were significantly affected by 6 mg/mL and 12 mg/mL of α-pinene applied in media compared to controls. The tolerance of experimental microorganisms to α-pinene varied depending on the microbial species. Two out of three yeast strains and all three bacterial strains degraded 20%-50% of α-pinene compared to controls in 24 h in vitro. The microorganisms capable of α-pinene degradation in vitro and their tolerance to high levels of α-pinene suggested that D. valens-associated microorganisms may help both microorganisms and the bark beetle overcome host α-pinene defense. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Influence of metal-mediated aerosol-phase oxidation on secondary organic aerosol formation from the ozonolysis and OH-oxidation of α-pinene

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Biwu; Liggio, John; Liu, Yongchun; He, Hong; Takekawa, Hideto; Li, Shao-Meng; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The organic component is the most abundant fraction of atmospheric submicron particles, while the formation mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are not fully understood. The effects of sulfate seed aerosols on SOA formation were investigated with a series of experiments carried out using a 9 m3 smog chamber. The presence of FeSO4 or Fe2(SO4)3 seed aerosols decreased SOA yields and increased oxidation levels in both ozonolysis and OH-oxidation of α-pinene compared to that in the presence of ZnSO4 or (NH4)2SO4. These findings were explained by metal-mediated aerosol-phase oxidation of organics: reactive radicals were generated on FeSO4 or Fe2(SO4)3 seed aerosols and reacted further with the organic mass. This effect would help to explain the high O/C ratios of organics in ambient particles that thus far cannot be reproduced in laboratory and model studies. In addition, the gap in the SOA yields between experiments with different seed aerosols was more significant in OH-oxidation experiments compared to ozonolysis experiments, while the gap in estimated O/C ratios was less obvious. This may have resulted from the different chemical compositions and oxidation levels of the SOA generated in the two systems, which affect the branching ratio of functionalization and fragmentation during aerosol oxidation. PMID:28059151

  14. Influence of metal-mediated aerosol-phase oxidation on secondary organic aerosol formation from the ozonolysis and OH-oxidation of α-pinene.

    PubMed

    Chu, Biwu; Liggio, John; Liu, Yongchun; He, Hong; Takekawa, Hideto; Li, Shao-Meng; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-06

    The organic component is the most abundant fraction of atmospheric submicron particles, while the formation mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are not fully understood. The effects of sulfate seed aerosols on SOA formation were investigated with a series of experiments carried out using a 9 m 3 smog chamber. The presence of FeSO 4 or Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 seed aerosols decreased SOA yields and increased oxidation levels in both ozonolysis and OH-oxidation of α-pinene compared to that in the presence of ZnSO 4 or (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . These findings were explained by metal-mediated aerosol-phase oxidation of organics: reactive radicals were generated on FeSO 4 or Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 seed aerosols and reacted further with the organic mass. This effect would help to explain the high O/C ratios of organics in ambient particles that thus far cannot be reproduced in laboratory and model studies. In addition, the gap in the SOA yields between experiments with different seed aerosols was more significant in OH-oxidation experiments compared to ozonolysis experiments, while the gap in estimated O/C ratios was less obvious. This may have resulted from the different chemical compositions and oxidation levels of the SOA generated in the two systems, which affect the branching ratio of functionalization and fragmentation during aerosol oxidation.

  15. Comparing the variation of needle and wood terpenoids in Scots pine provenances.

    PubMed

    Manninen, A M; Tarhanen, S; Vuorinen, M; Kainulaine, P

    2002-01-01

    We determined variation in both the concentration and composition of terpenoids in needles and wood within nine Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) provenances. Seedlings of different provenances representing a 1200-km N-S transect from Estonia to northern Finland were cultivated in Suonenjoki nursery field, central Finland, for seven years. Growth of seedlings and the number of vertical resin ducts in wood were also determined. alpha-Pinene and 3-carene were the major monoterpenes both in the needles and wood. The total monoterpene concentration was about five times higher in the needles than in the wood. A strong positive correlation was found between proportional quantities of several terpenes of the needles and wood, particularly for 3-carene, sabinene, and terpinolene. The needles contained both labdane-type and tricyclic resin acids, whereas the wood contained only tricyclic ones. The wood had a four times higher tricyclic resin acid concentration than the needles. The highest total monoterpene concentration in the needles and in the wood occurred in the most northern Muonio provenance and in the most southern Saaremaa provenance plants, respectively. The amount of high 3-carene genotype trees decreased among the northern provenances. The wood of the most northern Muonio provenance showed the lowest total resin acid concentration, but provenance did not affect total tricyclic resin acids in the needles. Korpilahti provenance trees from central Finland had the best growth in height. In addition, Korpilahti and Ruokolahti provenance trees showed largest radial growth of stem and smallest number of vertical resin ducts. The results suggest that especially the proportional quantity of 3-carene in the needles could be used in estimating the amount of this compound in the wood and vice versa.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of juniper berry essential oil (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae).

    PubMed

    Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Kosalec, Ivan; Kalodera, Zdenka; Blazević, Nikola

    2005-12-01

    Juniper essential oil (Juniperi aetheroleum) was obtained from the juniper berry, and the GC/MS analysis showed that the main compounds in the oil were alpha-pinene (29.17%) and beta-pinene (17.84%), sabinene (13.55%), limonene (5.52%), and mircene (0.33%). Juniper essential oil was evaluated for the antimicrobial activity against sixteen bacterial species, seven yeast-like fungi, three yeast and four dermatophyte strains. Juniper essential oil showed similar bactericidal activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species, with MIC values between 8 and 70% (V/V), as well as a strong fungicidal activity against yeasts, yeast-like fungi and dermatophytes, with MIC values below 10% (V/V). The strongest fungicidal activity was recorded against Candida spp. (MIC from 0.78 to 2%, V/V) and dermatophytes (from 0.39 to 2%, V/V).

  17. Effect of varying experimental conditions on the viscosity of α-pinene derived secondary organic material

    DOE PAGES

    Grayson, James W.; Zhang, Yue; Mutzel, Anke; ...

    2016-05-18

    Knowledge of the viscosity of particles containing secondary organic material (SOM) is useful for predicting reaction rates and diffusion in SOM particles. In this study we investigate the viscosity of SOM particles as a function of relative humidity and SOM particle mass concentration, during SOM synthesis. The SOM was generated via the ozonolysis of α-pinene at < 5 % relative humidity (RH). Experiments were carried out using the poke-and-flow technique, which measures the experimental flow time ( τ exp, flow) of SOM after poking the material with a needle. In the first set of experiments, we show that τ exp,more » flow increased by a factor of 3600 as the RH increased from < 0.5 RH to 50 % RH, for SOM with a production mass concentration of 121 µg m -3. Based on simulations, the viscosities of the particles were between 6 × 10 5 and 5 × 10 7 Pa s at < 0.5 % RH and between 3 × 10 2 and 9 × 10 3 Pa s at 50 % RH. In the second set of experiments we show that under dry conditions τ exp, flow decreased by a factor of 45 as the production mass concentration increased from 121 to 14 000 µg m -3. From simulations of the poke-and-flow experiments, the viscosity of SOM with a production mass concentration of 14 000 µg m -3 was determined to be between 4 × 10 4 and 1.5 × 10 6 Pa s compared to between 6 × 10 5 and 5 × 10 7 Pa s for SOM with a production mass concentration of 121 µg m -3. The results can be rationalized by a dependence of the chemical composition of SOM on production conditions. Lastly, these results emphasize the shifting characteristics of SOM, not just with RH and precursor type, but also with the production conditions, and suggest that production mass concentration and the RH at which the viscosity was determined should be considered both when comparing laboratory results and when extrapolating these results to the atmosphere.« less

  18. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil and the gum of Pistacia lentiscus Var. chia.

    PubMed

    Koutsoudaki, Christina; Krsek, Martin; Rodger, Alison

    2005-10-05

    The essential oil and gum of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, commonly known as the mastic tree, are natural antimicrobial agents that have found extensive uses in medicine in recent years. In this work, the chemical composition of mastic oil and gum was studied by GC-MS, and the majority of their components was identified. alpha-Pinene, beta-myrcene, beta-pinene, limonene, and beta-caryophyllene were found to be the major components. The antibacterial activity of 12 components of mastic oil and the oil itself was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Furthermore, attempts were made to separate the essential oil into different fractions in order to have a better picture of the components responsible for its antibacterial activity. Several trace components that appear to contribute significantly to the antibacterial activity of mastic oil have been identified: verbenone, alpha-terpineol, and linalool. The sensitivity to these compounds was different for different bacteria tested (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis), which suggests that the antibacterial efficacy of mastic oil is due to a number of its components working synergistically. The establishment of a correlation between the antibacterial activity of mastic oil and its components was the main purpose of this research. Mastic gum was also examined, but it proved to be more difficult to handle compared to the essential oil.

  19. Viscosity of α-pinene secondary organic material and implications for particle growth and reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Grayson, James W.; Bateman, Adam P.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Sellier, Mathieu; Murray, Benjamin J.; Shilling, John E.; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2013-01-01

    Particles composed of secondary organic material (SOM) are abundant in the lower troposphere. The viscosity of these particles is a fundamental property that is presently poorly quantified yet required for accurate modeling of their formation, growth, evaporation, and environmental impacts. Using two unique techniques, namely a “bead-mobility” technique and a “poke-flow” technique, in conjunction with simulations of fluid flow, the viscosity of the water-soluble component of SOM produced by α-pinene ozonolysis is quantified for 20- to 50-μm particles at 293–295 K. The viscosity is comparable to that of honey at 90% relative humidity (RH), similar to that of peanut butter at 70% RH, and at least as viscous as bitumen at ≤30% RH, implying that the studied SOM ranges from liquid to semisolid or solid across the range of atmospheric RH. These data combined with simple calculations or previous modeling studies are used to show the following: (i) the growth of SOM by the exchange of organic molecules between gas and particle may be confined to the surface region of the particles for RH ≤ 30%; (ii) at ≤30% RH, the particle-mass concentrations of semivolatile and low-volatility organic compounds may be overpredicted by an order of magnitude if instantaneous equilibrium partitioning is assumed in the bulk of SOM particles; and (iii) the diffusivity of semireactive atmospheric oxidants such as ozone may decrease by two to five orders of magnitude for a drop in RH from 90% to 30%. These findings have possible consequences for predictions of air quality, visibility, and climate. PMID:23620520

  20. Distillation time alters essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of male Juniperus scopulorum trees.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Schlegel, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 15 distillation times (DT), ranging from 1.25 to 960 min, on oil yield, essential oil profiles, and antioxidant capacity of male J. scopulorum trees. Essential oil yields were 0.07% at 1.25 min DT and reached a maximum of 1.48% at 840 min DT. The concentrations of alpha-thujene (1.76-2.75%), alpha-pinene (2.9-8.7%), sabinene (45-74.7%), myrcene (2.4-3.4%), and para-cymene (0.8-3.1%) were highest at the shortest DT (1.5 to 5 min) and decreased with increasing DT. Cis-sabinene hydrate (0.5-0.97%) and linalool plus trans-sabinene (0.56-1.6%) reached maximum levels at 40 min DT. Maximum concentrations of limonene (2.3-2.8%) and pregeijerene-B (0.06-1.4%) were obtained at 360-480 min DT, and 4-terpinenol (0.7-5.7%) at 480 min DT. Alpha-terpinene (0.16-2.9%), gamma-terpinene (0.3-4.9%) and terpinolene (0.3-1.4%) reached maximum at 720 min DT. The concentrations of delta-cadinene (0.06-1.65%), elemol (0-6.0%), and 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol (0-4.4%) reached maximum at 840 min DT. The yield of the essential oil constituents increased with increasing DT. Only linalool/transsabinene hydrate reached a maximum yield at 360 min DT. Maximum yields of the following constituents were obtained at 720 min DT: alpha-thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, alpha-terpinene, para-cimene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, and 4-terpinenol. At 840 min DT, cis-sabinene hydrate, prejeijerene-B, gamma muurolene, delta-cadinene, reached maximum. At 960 min DT, maximum yields of beta-pinene, elemol, alphaeudesmol/betaeudesmol, 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol were reached. These changes were adequately modeled by either the Michaelis-Menten or the Power (Convex) nonlinear regression models. Oils from the 480 min DT showed higher antioxidant activity compared to samples collected at 40, 160, or 960 min DT. These results show the potential for obtaining essential oils with various compositions and antioxidant capacity from male J

  1. Chemical composition and anticancer and antioxidant activities of Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi berries essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bendaoud, Houcine; Romdhane, Mehrez; Souchard, Jean Pierre; Cazaux, Sylvie; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2010-08-01

    Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation from berries of Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi originating from southern of Tunisia and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Among 57 and 62 compounds (%[mg/100 g dry matter]) identified in these oils, the main were alpha-phellandrene (46.52%[1256.15] and 34.38%[859.60]), beta-phellandrene (20.81%[561.74] and 10.61%[265.15]), alpha-terpineol (8.38%[226.26] and 5.60%[140.03]), alpha-pinene (4.34%[117.29] and 6.49%[162.25]), beta-pinene (4.96%[133.81] and 3.09%[77.30]) and p-cymene (2.49%[67.28] and 7.34%[183.40]), respectively. A marked quantity of gamma-cadinene (18.04%[451.05]) was also identified in the S. terebinthifolius essential oil whereas only traces (0.07%[1.81]) were detected in the essential oil of S. molle. The in vitro antioxidant and antiradical scavenging properties of the investigated essential oils were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Essential oil of S. terebinthifolius expressed stronger antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay, with an IC(50) of 24 +/- 0.8 mg/L, compared to S. molle (IC(50)= 257 +/- 10.3 mg/L). Essential oils were also evaluated for their anticancer activities against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). S. terebinthifolius essential oil was more effective against tested cell lines (IC(50)= 47 +/- 9 mg/L) than that from S. molle (IC(50)= 54 +/- 10 mg/L). Suggestions on relationships between chemical composition and biological activities are outlined.

  2. Chiral ligands derived from monoterpenes: application in the synthesis of optically pure secondary alcohols via asymmetric catalysis.

    PubMed

    El Alami, Mohammed Samir Ibn; El Amrani, Mohamed Amin; Agbossou-Niedercorn, Francine; Suisse, Isabelle; Mortreux, André

    2015-01-19

    The preparation of optically pure secondary alcohols in the presence of catalysts based on chiral ligands derived from monoterpenes, such as pinenes, limonenes and carenes, is reviewed. A wide variety of these ligands has been synthesized and used in several catalytic reactions, including hydrogen transfer, C-C bond formation via addition of organozinc compounds to aldehydes, hydrosilylation, and oxazaborolidine reduction, leading to high activities and enantioselectivities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Impacts of simulated herbivory on VOC emission profiles from coniferous plants

    SciTech Connect

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine ( Pinus aristata), blue spruce ( Picea pungens), western redcedar ( Thuja plicata), grand fir ( Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsugas menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate, an herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measuredmore » continuously with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.« less

  4. Impacts of simulated herbivory on volatile organic compound emission profiles from coniferous plants

    SciTech Connect

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine ( Pinus aristata), blue spruce ( Picea pungens), western redcedar ( Thuja plicata), grand fir ( Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species weremore » measured continuously with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC–MS–FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. Here, the compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.« less

  5. Impacts of simulated herbivory on VOC emission profiles from coniferous plants

    DOE PAGES

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-09-18

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine ( Pinus aristata), blue spruce ( Picea pungens), western redcedar ( Thuja plicata), grand fir ( Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsugas menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate, an herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measuredmore » continuously with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.« less

  6. Impacts of simulated herbivory on volatile organic compound emission profiles from coniferous plants

    DOE PAGES

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-01-28

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine ( Pinus aristata), blue spruce ( Picea pungens), western redcedar ( Thuja plicata), grand fir ( Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species weremore » measured continuously with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC–MS–FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. Here, the compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.« less

  7. Ex vivo skin absorption of terpenes from Vicks VapoRub ointment.

    PubMed

    Cal, Krzysztof; Sopala, Monika

    2008-08-01

    The pharmaceutical market offers a wide range of inhalant drug products applied on the skin that contain essential oils and/or their isolated compounds, i.e. terpenes. Because there are few data concerning the skin penetration of terpenes, especially from complex carriers, the goal of this study was to determine the ex vivo skin absorption kinetics of chosen terpenes, namely eucalyptol, menthol, camphor, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene, from the product Vicks VapoRub. Human cadaver skin was placed in a flow-through diffusion chamber and the product was applied for 15, 30, and 60 min. After the application time the skin was separated into layers using a tape-stripping technique: three fractions of stratum corneum and epidermis with dermis, and terpenes amounts in the samples were determined by gas-chromatography. The investigated terpenes showed different absorption characteristics related to their physicochemical properties and did not permeate through the skin into the acceptor fluid. Eucalyptol had the largest total accumulation in the stratum corneum and in the epidermis with dermis, while alpha-pinene penetrated into the skin in the smallest amount. The short time in which saturation of the stratum corneum with the terpenes occurred and the high accumulation of most of the investigated terpenes in the skin layers proved that these compounds easily penetrate and permeate the stratum corneum and that in vivo they may easily penetrate into the blood circulation.

  8. In vitro biosynthesis of 17 alpha,20 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pegnen-3-one by the ovaries, testes, and head kidneys of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    SciTech Connect

    Sangalang, G.B.; Freeman, H.C.

    Ovaries, testes, and head kidneys of sexually mature Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, biosynthesized 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17 alpha,20 beta-diOHP) from equimolar amounts of (/sup 3/H)pregnenolone plus (4-/sup 14/C)progesterone in vitro. The /sup 3/H:/sup 14/C isotope ratios of steroid metabolites indicated that the biosynthetic pathways to 17 alpha,20 beta-diOHP in the testes differed from those observed in the ovaries and head kidneys. (4-/sup 14/C)progesterone appeared to be the principal precursor of 17 alpha,20 beta-diOHP in the testes, whereas both precursors were efficiently biotransformed to 17 alpha,20 beta-diOPH in the ovaries and head kidneys. 17 alpha-Hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17 alpha-OHP) was the immediate precursormore » to 17 alpha,20 beta-diOHP in all tissues. However, appreciable amounts of 17 alpha,20 beta-diOHP accumulated in vitro in the testes only in the presence of exogenous (/sup 14/C)progesterone. Incubation of the testes, ovaries, and head kidneys with (/sup 14/C)pregnenolone resulted in high yields of 17 alpha,20 beta-diOHP in the ovaries and head kidneys but no detectable amounts of the steroid in the testes. The results confirm that progesterone is the favored precursor to 17 alpha,20 beta-diOHP in the testes. The results also suggest that the head kidneys may be an excellent cellular source of 17 alpha,20 beta-diOHP in both male and female. Atlantic salmon and may play an important role in the sexual maturation process in this fish. It is suggested that biosynthetic control mechanism affecting 17 alpha,20 beta-diOHP synthesis and/or spermiation and ovulation may differ in male and female Atlantic salmon.« less

  9. Southern pine beetle: Olfactory receptor and behavior discrimination of enantiomers of the attractant pheromone frontalin

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, T.L.; Berisford, C.W.; Blum, M.S.

    1982-05-01

    In a laboratory and field bioassays, the response of Dendroctonus frontalis was significantly greater to the mixture of (1S,55R)-(-)-frontalin and alpha-pinene than to (1R,5S)-(+)-frontalin and alpha-pinene. Electrophysiologrical studies revealed that antennal olfactory receptor cells were significantly more responsive to (1S,5R)-(-)-frontalin than to 1R,5S)-(+) -frontalin. Both enanitiomers stimulated the same olfactory cells which suggests that each cell possesses at least two types of enanitomer-specific acceptors.

  10. Identification of functional domains within the alpha and beta subunits of beta-hexosaminidase A through the expression of alpha-beta fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Tse, R; Wu, Y J; Vavougios, G; Hou, Y; Hinek, A; Mahuran, D J

    1996-08-20

    There are three human beta-hexosaminidase isozymes which are composed of all possible dimeric combinations of an alpha and/or a beta subunit; A (alpha beta), and B (beta beta), and S (alpha alpha). The amino acid sequences of the two subunits are 60% identical. The homology between the two chains varies with the middle > the carboxy-terminal > > the amino-terminal portions. Although dimerization is required for activity, each subunit contains its own active site and differs in its substrate specificity and thermal stability. The presence of the beta subunit in hexosaminidase A also influences the substrate specificity of the alpha subunit; e.g., in vivo only the A heterodimer can hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. In this report, we localize functional regions in the two subunits by cellular expression of alpha/beta fusion proteins joined at adjacently aligned residues. First, a chimeric alpha/beta chain was made by replacing the least well-conserved amino-terminal section of the beta chain with the corresponding alpha section. The biochemical characteristics of this protein were nearly identical to hexosaminidase B. Therefore, the most dissimilar regions in the subunits are not responsible for their dissimilar biochemical properties. A second fusion protein was made that also included the more homologous middle section of the alpha chain. This protein expressed the substrate specificity unique to isozymes containing an alpha subunit (A and S). We conclude that the region responsible for the ability of the alpha subunit to bind negatively charged substrates is located within residues alpha 132-283. Interestingly, the remaining carboxy-terminal section from the beta chain, beta 316-556, was sufficient to allow this chimera to hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside with 10% the specific activity of heterodimeric hexosaminidase A. Thus, the carboxy-terminal section of each subunit is likely involved in subunit-subunit interactions.

  11. A male-produced aggregation pheromone of Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a major vector of pine wood nematode.

    PubMed

    Teale, Stephen A; Wickham, Jacob D; Zhang, Feiping; Su, Jun; Chen, Yi; Xiao, Wei; Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2011-10-01

    The beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is an efficient vector of pine wood nematode, the causal pathogen of pine wilt disease, that has resulted in devastating losses of pines in much of Asia. We assessed the response of adult M. alternatus to 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol, the male-produced pheromone of the congeneric M. galloprovincialis Dejean, in field experiments in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. Both sexes of M. alternatus were attracted to lures consisting of 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol combined with the host plant volatiles alpha-pinene and ethanol. A follow-up experiment showed that 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol was synergized by both ethanol and alpha-pinene. Coupled gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry analyses of volatiles sampled from field-collected beetles of both sexes revealed that 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol was a sex-specific pheromone component produced only by males. The combination of 2- (undecyloxy) -ethanol with ethanol and/or alpha-pinene will provide a valuable and badly needed tool for quarantine detection, monitoring, and management of M. alternatus.

  12. Antifungal activity of Juniperus essential oils against dermatophyte, Aspergillus and Candida strains.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, C; Pinto, E; Gonçalves, M J; Salgueiro, L

    2006-06-01

    The increasing resistance to antifungal compounds and the reduced number of available drugs led us to search therapeutic alternatives among aromatic plants and their essential oils, empirically used by antifungal proprieties. In this work the authors report on the antifungal activity of Juniperus essential oils (Juniperus communis ssp. alpina, J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus and J. turbinata). Antifungal activity was evaluated by determination of MIC and MLC values, using a macrodilution method (NCCLS protocols), on clinical and type strains of Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophytes. The composition of the oils was ascertained by GC and GC/MS analysis. All essential oils inhibited test dermatophyte strains. The oil from leaves of J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus is the most active, with MIC and MLC values ranging from 0.08-0.16 microl ml(-1) to 0.08-0.32 microl ml(-1), respectively. This oil is mainly composed of alpha-pinene (65.5%) and delta-3-carene (5.7%). J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus leaf oil proved to be an emergent alternative as antifungal agent against dermatophyte strains. delta-3-Carene, was shown to be a fundamental compound for this activity. Results support that essential oils or some of their constituents may be useful in the clinical management of fungal infections, justifying future clinical trials to validate their use as therapeutic alternatives for dermatophytosis.

  13. Traps and attractants for wood-boring insects in ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Costello, Sheryl L; Negrón, José F; Jacobi, William R

    2008-04-01

    Recent large-scale wildfires have increased populations of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Because little is known about possible impacts of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills, land managers are interested in developing monitoring techniques such as flight trapping with semiochemical baits. Two trap designs and four semiochemical attractants were tested in a recently burned ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in the Black Hills. Modified panel and funnel traps were tested in combination with the attractants, which included a woodborer standard (ethanol and alpha-pinene), standard plus 3-carene, standard plus ipsenol, and standard plus ipsdienol. We found that funnel traps were equally efficient or more efficient in capturing wood-boring insects than modified panel traps. Trap catches of cerambycids increased when we added the Ips spp. pheromone components (ipsenol or ipsdienol) or the host monoterpene (3-carene) to the woodborer standard. During the summers of 2003 and 2004, 18 cerambycid, 14 buprestid, and five siricid species were collected. One species of cerambycid, Monochamus clamator (LeConte), composed 49 and 40% of the 2003 and 2004 trap catches, respectively. Two other cerambycids, Acanthocinus obliquus (LeConte) and Acmaeops proteus (Kirby), also were frequently collected. Flight trap data indicated that some species were present throughout the summer, whereas others were caught only at the beginning or end of the summer.

  14. Ozone and OH-induced oxidation of monoterpenes: Changes in the thermal properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watne, Ågot K.; Westerlund, Jonathan; Hallquist, Åsa M.; Brune, William H.; Hallquist, Mattias

    2017-12-01

    The behaviour of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere is highly dependent on their thermal properties. Here we investigate the volatility of SOA formed from alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and limonene upon ozone- and OH-induced oxidation, and the effect of OH-induced ageing on the initially produced SOA. For all three terpenes, the ozone-induced SOA was less volatile than the OH-induced SOA. The thermal properties of the SOA were described using three parameters extracted from the volatility measurements: the temperature at which 50 per cent of the volume has evaporated (TVFR0.5), which is used as a general volatility indicator; a slope factor (SVFR), which describes the volatility distribution; and TVFR0.1, which measures the volatility of the least volatile particle fraction. Limonene-derived SOA generally had higher TVFR0.5 values and shallower slopes than SOA derived from alpha- and beta-pinene. This was especially true for the ozone-induced SOA, partially because the ozonolysis of limonene has a strong tendency to cause SOA formation and to produce extremely low volatility VOCs (ELVOCs). Ageing by OH exposure did not reduce TVFR0.5 for any of the studied terpenes but did increase the breadth of the volatility distribution by increasing the aerosols heterogeneity and contents of substances with different vapour pressures, also leading to increases in TVFR0.1. This stands in contrast to previously reported results from smog chamber experiments, in which TVFR0.5 always increased with ageing. These results demonstrate that there are two opposing processes that influence the evolution of SOAs thermal properties as they age, and that results from both flow reactors and static chambers are needed to fully understand the temporal evolution of atmospheric SOA thermal properties.

  15. Synthesis of 3 alpha, 5 alpha-tetrahydroaldosterone.

    PubMed

    Harnik, M; Kashman, Y; Morris, D J

    1984-06-01

    3 alpha, 5 alpha-Tetrahydroaldosterone (12a), a metabolite of aldosterone, has been synthesized from the lactone 2a or, preferably 11 beta, 21-dihydroxy-5-pregnene-3,20-dione-18-oic acid 3,20-di-(ethylene glycol)-ketal (18----11) lactone 21-acetate (6b), via 11 beta, 21-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione-18-oic acid 3,20-di-(ethylene glycol) ketal (18----11) lactone 21-acetate (4b). Selective hydrolysis of the latter at C-3 furnished the monoketal 5 which, on reduction with potassium tri-sec-butylborohydride, yielded predominantly 3 alpha, 11 beta, 21-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one-18-oic acid 20-(ethylene glycol)-ketal (18----11) lactone (8a) and its acetate 8b. Further reduction with diisobutylaluminum hydride afforded 3 alpha, 5 alpha-tetrahydroaldosterone-20-ketal (10a), which was directly hydrolyzed to 12a with dilute acid in tetrahydrofuran-dioxan. Periodate oxidation led to the gamma-etiolactone 14a, which was then further converted into 5 alpha-dihydroaldosterone-gamma-etiolactone (14c).

  16. Chemical conversion of corticosteroids to 3 alpha,5 alpha-tetrahydro derivatives. Synthesis of 5 alpha-cortol 3-glucuronides and 5 alpha-cortolone 3-glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, H; Osanai, K; Nambara, T

    1991-12-01

    The synthesis of the 3-glucuronides of 5 alpha-cortol-20 alpha, 5 alpha-cortolone-20 alpha and their 20 beta-epimers is described. The 5 alpha-cortol 20,21-diacetates (12, 17) and 5 alpha-cortolone 20,21-diacetates (14, 19) were the key intermediates. Sodium borohydride reduction of the carbonyl group at C-20 in 5 alpha-tetrahydrocortisol 3-tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether 17,21-acetonide (8) gave the 20 alpha-hydroxy-acetonide (9). Selective removal of the acetonide ring was successful when the 20 alpha-acetoxy-17 alpha,21-acetonide (10) was treated with 50% acetic acid. Subsequent acetylation with acetic anhydride in pyridine, followed by removal of the protecting group at C-3 in the silyl ether-acetate (11) gave the desired 20 alpha-intermediate (12). The 11-ketone (14) was prepared from 11 by oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate, followed by desilylation. The 20 beta-acetates (17, 19) were synthesized from 21-acetoxy-3 alpha,11 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one 3-tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether (15). Introduction of the glucuronyl residue at C-3 was carried out by means of the Koenigs-Knorr reaction.

  17. Essential oils from Schinus species of northwest Argentina: Composition and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Sampietro, Diego A; Belizana, Maria Melina E; Baptista, Zareath P Terán; Vattuone, Marta A; Catalán, Cesar A N

    2014-07-01

    The composition of the essential oils from leaves (Sal) and fruits of S. areira (Saf), and fruits of S. fasciculatus (Sff) and S. gracilipes (Sgf) were analyzed by GC/MS. The major compounds identified were sabinene (26.0 +/- 0.5%), bicyclogermacrene (14.5 +/- 0.4%), and E-citral (6.7+/- 0.2%) in Sal oil, limonene (27.7 +/- 0.7%), sabinene (16.0+/- 0.5%), beta-phellandrene (14.6 +/- 0.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (8.1 +/- 0.2%) in Saf oil, sabinene (22.7 +/- 0.6%), alpha-phellandrene (18.7 +/- 0.3%), beta-phellandrene (15.7 +/- 0.4%), and bicyclogermacrene (8.1 +/- 0.2%) in Sff oil and beta-pinene (25.4 +/- 0.8%), alpha-pinene (24.7 +/- 0.7%), and sabinene (13.6 +/- 0.4%) in Sgf oil.The antifungal activity of the four oils was evaluated on strains of Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum, and the results compared with the effect of epoxyconazole, pyraclostrobin and thyme oil. The Sff oil had the highest antifungal activity among the Schinus oils tested, with MIC100 (F. graminearum) = 6 per thousand and MIC100 (F. verticillioides) = 12 per thousand. A principal component analysis suggests that 9 constituents (alpha-thujene, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, 1-terpineol, alpha-calacorene, alpha-phellandrene, and terpinen-4-ol) explain the higher antifungal effect of Sff. The MIC100s of Schinus oils were on average 30-60 and 8.5-17 fold lower than those obtained for thyme oil on F. verticillioides and F. graminearum, respectively. In the case of commercial fungicides, their MIC100s were three orders of magnitude lower than those of Schinus oils. The last ones showed an additive interaction when assayed in mixtures with the commecial fungicides and thyme oil. The results suggest that the doses of fungicides required for control of the Fusarium species can be reduced when they are assayed in mixtures with the Schinus oils.

  18. Influence of light and temperature on monoterpene emission rates from slash pine.

    PubMed

    Tingey, D T; Manning, M; Grothaus, L C; Burns, W F

    1980-05-01

    There is a growing awareness of vegetation's role as a source of potentially reactive hydrocarbons that may serve as photochemical oxidant precursors. This study assessed the influence of light and temperature, independently, on monoterpene emissions from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.). Plants were preconditioned in a growth chamber, then transferred to an environmentally controlled gas exchange chamber. Samples of the chamber atmosphere were collected; the monoterpenes were concentrated cryogenically and measured by gas chromatography. Five monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, limonene, and beta-phellandrene) were present in the vapor phase surrounding the plants in sufficient quantity for reliable measurement. Light did not directly influence monoterpene emission rates since the emissions were similar in both the dark and at various light intensities. Monoterpene emission rates increased exponentially with temperature (i. e. emissions depend on temperature in a log-linear manner). The summed emissions of the five monoterpenes ranged from 3 to 21 micrograms C per gram dry weight per hour as temperature was increased from 20 to 46 C. Initially, emission rates from heat-stressed needles were similar to healthy needles, but rates decreased 11% per day. Daily carbon loss through monoterpene emissions accounted for approximately 0.4% of the carbon fixed during photosynthesis.

  19. Organocatalysed asymmetric beta-amination and multicomponent syn-selective diamination of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Nielsen, Johanne B; Nielsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Karl Anker

    2007-01-01

    An easy and affordable route for obtaining chiral beta-aminated- and alpha,beta-diaminated aldehydes, 1,3-aminoalcohols, and related compounds by using organocatalysis is presented. The chiral secondary amine (S)-2-[bis(3,5-bistrifluoromethylphenyl)trimethylsilanyloxymethyl]pyrrolidine is used as the catalyst to activate alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, which allows succinimide to add in a 1,4-regio- and stereoselective fashion thereby forming N-protected 1,3-aminoaldehydes in good yields and enantioselectivities. This is followed by two easy transformations giving rise to optically active 1,3-aminoalcohols, a common motif in many biologically active compounds, for example, fibrinogen receptor antagonists. Furthermore, optically active alpha,beta-syn-diaminated aldehydes were obtained by the addition of diethyl azodicarboxylate in a one-pot reaction.

  20. Monoterpene SOA - Contribution of first-generation oxidation products to formation and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutzel, Anke; Rodigast, Maria; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Böge, Olaf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of the consecutive reactions of first-generation terpene oxidation products provides insight into the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). To this end, OH radical reactions with α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene were examined along with the OH-oxidation of nopinone as a β-pinene oxidation product and pinonaldehyde and myrtenal as α-pinene oxidation products. The SOA yield of β-pinene (0.50) was much higher than that of α-pinene (0.35) and the limonene/OH system (0.30). This is opposite to the ozonolysis SOA yields described in the literature. The growth curve of SOA from β-pinene shows the contribution of secondary reactions, such as further reaction of nopinone. This contribution (17%) and the high SOA yield of nopinone (0.24) might lead to the high SOA formation potential observed for β-pinene. The majority of the C9 oxidation products observed from β-pinene can be attributed to the consecutive reaction of nopinone, whereas in the case of pinonaldehyde, only a few α-pinene oxidation products were identified. Nopinone contributes significantly to the formation of pinic acid (51%), homoterpenylic acid (74%), and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butane-tricarboxylic acid (MBTCA, 88%) during β-pinene oxidation. The oxidation of pinonaldehyde was expected to produce important SOA markers, but only negligible amounts were identified. This indicates that their formation by oxidation of α-pinene must proceed via different pathways from the further oxidation of pinonaldehyde. Only pinonic acid and MBTCA were found in considerable amounts and were formed in α-pinene oxidation with 57% yield, while that for the pinonaldehyde/OH reaction was 33%. The lack of important SOA marker compounds might cause the low SOA yield (0.07) observed for pinonaldehyde. Based on the low SOA yield, pinonaldehyde contributes only 4.5% to α-pinene SOA. Myrtenal was identified among the gas-phase products of α-pinene oxidation. A majority of α-pinene SOA marker compounds was

  1. Plasticity and evolution of (+)-3-carene synthase and (-)-sabinene synthase functions of a sitka spruce monoterpene synthase gene family associated with weevil resistance.

    PubMed

    Roach, Christopher R; Hall, Dawn E; Zerbe, Philipp; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2014-08-22

    The monoterpene (+)-3-carene is associated with resistance of Sitka spruce against white pine weevil, a major North American forest insect pest of pine and spruce. High and low levels of (+)-3-carene in, respectively, resistant and susceptible Sitka spruce genotypes are due to variation of (+)-3-carene synthase gene copy number, transcript and protein expression levels, enzyme product profiles, and enzyme catalytic efficiency. A family of multiproduct (+)-3-carene synthase-like genes of Sitka spruce include the three (+)-3-carene synthases, PsTPS-3car1, PsTPS-3car2, PsTPS-3car3, and the (-)-sabinene synthase PsTPS-sab. Of these, PsTPS-3car2 is responsible for the relatively higher levels of (+)-3-carene in weevil-resistant trees. Here, we identified features of the PsTPS-3car1, PsTPS-3car2, PsTPS-3car3, and PsTPS-sab proteins that determine different product profiles. A series of domain swap and site-directed mutations, supported by structural comparisons, identified the amino acid in position 596 as critical for product profiles dominated by (+)-3-carene in PsTPS-3car1, PsTPS-3car2, and PsTPS-3car3, or (-)-sabinene in PsTPS-sab. A leucine in this position promotes formation of (+)-3-carene, whereas phenylalanine promotes (-)-sabinene. Homology modeling predicts that position 596 directs product profiles through differential stabilization of the reaction intermediate. Kinetic analysis revealed position 596 also plays a role in catalytic efficiency. Mutations of position 596 with different side chain properties resulted in a series of enzymes with different product profiles, further highlighting the inherent plasticity and potential for evolution of alternative product profiles of these monoterpene synthases of conifer defense against insects. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Different susceptibility of rat pancreatic alpha and beta cells to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Konstantin; Vennäng, Julia; Lazard, Daniel; Vardi, Pnina

    2012-06-01

    Insulin-producing beta cells are known to be highly susceptible to hypoxia, which is a major factor in their destruction after pancreatic islet transplantation. However, whether the glucagon-producing pancreatic islet alpha cells are sensitive to hypoxia is not known. Our objective was to compare the sensitivity of alpha and beta cells to hypoxia. Isolated rat pancreatic islets were exposed to hypoxia (1% oxygen, 94% N(2), 5% CO(2)) for 3 days. The viability of the alpha and beta cells, as well as the stimulus-specific secretion of glucagon and insulin, was evaluated. A quantitative analysis of the proportion of beta to alpha cells indicated that, under normoxic conditions, islet cells were composed mainly of beta cells (87 ± 3%) with only 13 ± 3% alpha cells. Instead, hypoxia treatment significantly increased the proportion of alpha cells (40 ± 13%) and decreased the proportion of beta cells to 60 ± 13%. Using the fluorescent TUNEL assay we found that only a few percent of beta cells and alpha cells were apoptotic in normoxia. In contrast, hypoxia induced an abundance of apoptotic beta cells (61 ± 22%) and had no effect on the level of apoptosis in alpha cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that hypoxia results in severe functional abnormality in both beta and alpha cells while alpha cells display significantly decreased rate of apoptosis compared to intensive apoptotic injury of beta cells. These findings have implications for the understanding of the possible role of hypoxia in the pathophysiology of diabetes.

  3. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Jessen, Holly Jean [Chanhassen, MN; Liao, Hans H [Eden Prairie, MN; Gort, Steven John [Apple Valley, MN; Selifonova, Olga V [Plymouth, MN

    2011-10-04

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  4. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Jessen, Holly Jean; Liao, Hans H; Gort, Steven John; Selifonova, Olga V

    2014-11-18

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  5. Functional characterization of nine Norway Spruce TPS genes and evolution of gymnosperm terpene synthases of the TPS-d subfamily.

    PubMed

    Martin, Diane M; Fäldt, Jenny; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-08-01

    Constitutive and induced terpenoids are important defense compounds for many plants against potential herbivores and pathogens. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), treatment with methyl jasmonate induces complex chemical and biochemical terpenoid defense responses associated with traumatic resin duct development in stems and volatile terpenoid emissions in needles. The cloning of (+)-3-carene synthase was the first step in characterizing this system at the molecular genetic level. Here we report the isolation and functional characterization of nine additional terpene synthase (TPS) cDNAs from Norway spruce. These cDNAs encode four monoterpene synthases, myrcene synthase, (-)-limonene synthase, (-)-alpha/beta-pinene synthase, and (-)-linalool synthase; three sesquiterpene synthases, longifolene synthase, E,E-alpha-farnesene synthase, and E-alpha-bisabolene synthase; and two diterpene synthases, isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase, each with a unique product profile. To our knowledge, genes encoding isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and longifolene synthase have not been previously described, and this linalool synthase is the first described from a gymnosperm. These functionally diverse TPS account for much of the structural diversity of constitutive and methyl jasmonate-induced terpenoids in foliage, xylem, bark, and volatile emissions from needles of Norway spruce. Phylogenetic analyses based on the inclusion of these TPS into the TPS-d subfamily revealed that functional specialization of conifer TPS occurred before speciation of Pinaceae. Furthermore, based on TPS enclaves created by distinct branching patterns, the TPS-d subfamily is divided into three groups according to sequence similarities and functional assessment. Similarities of TPS evolution in angiosperms and modeling of TPS protein structures are discussed.

  6. Beta3 subunits promote expression and nicotine-induced up-regulation of human nicotinic alpha6* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in transfected cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tumkosit, Prem; Kuryatov, Alexander; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2006-10-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) containing alpha6 subunits are typically found at aminergic nerve endings where they play important roles in nicotine addiction and Parkinson's disease. alpha6* AChRs usually contain beta3 subunits. beta3 subunits are presumed to assemble only in the accessory subunit position within AChRs where they do not participate in forming acetylcholine binding sites. Assembly of subunits in the accessory position may be a critical final step in assembly of mature AChRs. Human alpha6 AChRs subtypes were permanently transfected into human tsA201 human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. alpha6beta2beta3 and alpha6beta4beta3 cell lines were found to express much larger amounts of AChRs and were more sensitive to nicotine-induced increase in the amount of AChRs than were alpha6beta2 or alpha6beta4 cell lines. The increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced up-regulation was due not to a beta3-induced increase in affinity for nicotine but probably to a direct effect on assembly of AChR subunits. HEK cells express only a small amount of mature alpha6beta2 AChRs, but many of these subunits are on the cell surface. This contrasts with Xenopus laevis oocytes, which express a large amount of incorrectly assembled alpha6beta2 subunits that bind cholinergic ligands but form large amorphous intracellular aggregates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were made to the alpha6 and beta3 subunits to aid in the characterization of these AChRs. The alpha6 mAbs bind to epitopes C-terminal of the extracellular domain. These data demonstrate that both cell type and the accessory subunit beta3 can play important roles in alpha6* AChR expression, stability, and up-regulation by nicotine.

  7. Aqueous Photochemistry of Secondary Organic Aerosol of α-Pinene and α-Humulene Oxidized with Ozone, Hydroxyl Radical, and Nitrate Radical

    SciTech Connect

    Romonosky, Dian E.; Li, Ying; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    Formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from biogenic volatile organic compounds 13 (BVOC) occurs via O 3 - and OH-initiated reactions during the day and reactions with NO 3 during the 14 night. We explored the effect of these three oxidation conditions on the molecular composition and 15 aqueous photochemistry of model SOA prepared from two common BVOC. A common monoterpene, α- 16 pinene, and sesquiterpene, α-humulene, were used to form SOA in a smog chamber via BVOC + O3, 17 BVOC + NO3, and BVOC + OH + NOx oxidation. Samples of SOA were collected, extracted in water,more » 18 and photolyzed in an aqueous solution in order to simulate the photochemical cloud processing of SOA. 19 The extent of change in the molecular level composition of SOA over 4 hours of photolysis (roughly 20 equivalent to 64 hours of photolysis under ambient conditions) was assessed with high-resolution 21 electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The analysis revealed significant differences in the molecular 22 composition between monoterpene and sesquiterpene SOA formed by the different oxidation pathways. 23 The composition further evolved during photolysis with the most notable change corresponding to the 24 nearly-complete removal of nitrogen-containing organic compounds. Hydrolysis of SOA compounds also 25 occurred in parallel with photolysis. The preferential loss of larger SOA compounds during photolysis 26 and hydrolysis made the SOA compounds more volatile on average. This study suggests that cloud- and 27 fog-processing may under certain conditions lead to a reduction in the SOA loading as opposed to an 28 increase in SOA loading commonly assumed in the literature.« less

  8. Monoterpene emissions from needles of hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × Larix kaempferi) grown under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Watanabe, Makoto; Koike, Takayoshi; Tani, Akira

    2017-01-01

    We measured monoterpene emissions from needles of hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × Larix kaempferi) to evaluate the response of monoterpene emission rates and their composition to elevated CO2 (600 μmol mol-1) and O3 (60 nmol mol-1) conditions. The dominant monoterpenes were α-pinene and β-pinene. The emission rate of total monoterpenes significantly decreased under elevated CO2 conditions (P < 0.05). The ratio of carbon emission in the form of monoterpenes to photosynthetically fixed carbon also significantly decreased under elevated CO2 conditions. By contrast, elevated O3 did not significantly affect the emission rate of total monoterpenes. The ratios of α-pinene/β-pinene, limonene/β-pinene, and myrcene/β-pinene were all significantly decreased by O3 exposure (P < 0.05). High reactivity of α-pinene, limonene, and myrcene when combining with O3 may be able to mitigate oxidative damage inside the larch needles. No significant combined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on individual or total monoterpene emissions were detected.

  9. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the gum of Turkish pistachio (Pistacia vera L.).

    PubMed

    Alma, Mehmet Hakki; Nitz, Siegfried; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Digrak, Metin; Efe, Fatih Tuncay; Yilmaz, Necmettin

    2004-06-16

    The essential oil from the gum of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae)) grown in Turkey was obtained by the hydro-distillation method, and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Moreover, the antimicrobial activities of the oil against the growth of 13 bacteria and 3 pathogenic yeasts were evaluated using the agar-disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. The results showed that the essential oil contained about 89.67% monoterpenes, 8.1% oxygenated monoterpenes and 1.2% diterpenes. alpha-Pinene (75.6%), beta-pinene (9.5%), trans-verbenol (3.0%), camphene (1.4%), trans-pinocarveol (about 1.20%), and limonene (1.0%) were the major components. The antimicrobial results showed that the oil inhibited nine bacteria and all the yeasts studied, and the activities were considerably dependent upon concentration and its bioactive compounds such as carvacrol, camphene, and limonene. Moreover, the essential oil of the gum was found to be more effective yeastcide than Nystatin, synthetic yeastcide. Furthermore, the antibacterial activities of the oil were lower than those of standard antibiotics, ampicillin sodium, and streptomycine sulfate under the conditions studied.

  10. Interaction of ibogaine with human alpha3beta4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different conformational states.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Rosenberg, Avraham; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Feuerbach, Dominik; Yuan, Xiao Juan; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Moaddel, Ruin; Wainer, Irving W

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of ibogaine and phencyclidine (PCP) with human (h) alpha3beta4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in different conformational states was determined by functional and structural approaches including, radioligand binding assays, Ca2+ influx detections, and thermodynamic and kinetics measurements. The results established that (a) ibogaine inhibits (+/-)-epibatidine-induced Ca2+ influx in h(alpha)3beta4 AChRs with approximately 9-fold higher potency than that for PCP, (b) [3H]ibogaine binds to a single site in the h(alpha)3beta4 AChR ion channel with relatively high affinity (Kd = 0.46 +/- 0.06 microM), and ibogaine inhibits [3H]ibogaine binding to the desensitized h(alpha)3beta4 AChR with slightly higher affinity compared to the resting AChR. This is explained by a slower dissociation rate from the desensitized ion channel compared to the resting ion channel, and (c) PCP inhibits [3H]ibogaine binding to the h(alpha)3beta4 AChR, suggesting overlapping sites. The experimental results correlate with the docking simulations suggesting that ibogaine and PCP interact with a binding domain located between the serine (position 6') and valine/phenylalanine (position 13') rings. This interaction is mediated mainly by van der Waals contacts, which is in agreement with the observed enthalpic contribution determined by non-linear chromatography. However, the calculated entropic contribution also indicates local conformational changes. Collectively our data suggest that ibogaine and PCP bind to overlapping sites located between the serine and valine/phenylalanine rings, to finally block the AChR ion channel, and in the case of ibogaine, to probably maintain the AChR in the desensitized state for longer time.

  11. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Arnica longifolia, Aster hesperius, and Chrysothamnus nauseosus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Crockett, Sara L; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Wedge, David E

    2007-10-17

    Essential oils from three different Asteraceae obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Main compounds obtained from each taxon were found as follows: Arnica longifolia carvacrol 37.3%, alpha-bisabolol 8.2%; Aster hesperius hexadecanoic acid 29.6%, carvacrol 15.2%; and Chrysothamnus nauseosus var. nauseosus beta-phellandrene 22.8% and beta-pinene 19.8%. Essential oils were also evaluated for their antimalarial and antimicrobial activity against human pathogens, and antifungal activities against plant pathogens. No antimalarial and antimicrobial activities against human pathogens were observed. Direct bioautography demonstrated antifungal activity of the essential oils obtained from three Asteraceae taxa and two pure compounds, carvacrol and beta-bisabolol, to the plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Subsequent evaluation of antifungal compounds using a 96-well micro-dilution broth assay indicated that alpha-bisabolol showed weak growth inhibition of the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea after 72 h.

  12. Catalytic performance of Metal-Organic-Frameworks vs. extra-large pore zeolite UTL in condensation reactions

    PubMed Central

    Shamzhy, Mariya; Opanasenko, Maksym; Shvets, Oleksiy; Čejka, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic behavior of isomorphously substituted B-, Al-, Ga-, and Fe-containing extra-large pore UTL zeolites was investigated in Knoevenagel condensation involving aldehydes, Pechmann condensation of 1-naphthol with ethylacetoacetate, and Prins reaction of β-pinene with formaldehyde and compared with large-pore aluminosilicate zeolite beta and representative Metal-Organic-Frameworks Cu3(BTC)2 and Fe(BTC). The yield of the target product over the investigated catalysts in Knoevenagel condensation increases in the following sequence: (Al)beta < (Al)UTL < (Ga)UTL < (Fe)UTL < Fe(BTC) < (B)UTL < Cu3(BTC)2 being mainly related to the improving selectivity with decreasing strength of active sites of the individual catalysts. The catalytic performance of Fe(BTC), containing the highest concentration of Lewis acid sites of the appropriate strength is superior over large-pore zeolite (Al)beta and B-, Al-, Ga-, Fe-substituted extra-large pore zeolites UTL in Prins reaction of β-pinene with formaldehyde and Pechmann condensation of 1-naphthol with ethylacetoacetate. PMID:24790940

  13. Bacteria isolated from roots and rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera retard water losses, induce abscisic acid accumulation and synthesis of defense-related terpenes in in vitro cultured grapevine.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Bottini, Rubén; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo Apolinário; Cohen, Ana Carmen; Moreno, Daniela; Gil, Mariana; Piccoli, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Eleven bacterial strains were isolated at different soil depths from roots and rhizosphere of grapevines from a commercial vineyard. By 16S rRNA gene sequencing 10 different genera and 8 possible at species level were identified. From them, Bacillus licheniformis Rt4M10 and Pseudomonas fluorescens Rt6M10 were selected according to their characteristics as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Both produced abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellins A1 and A3 in chemically-defined medium. They also colonized roots of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants. As result of bacterization ABA levels in 45 days-old in vitro plants were increased 76-fold by B. licheniformis and 40-fold by P. fluorescens as compared to controls. Both bacteria diminished plant water loss rate in correlation with increments of ABA. Twenty and 30 days post bacterization the plants incremented terpenes. The monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene, 4-carene, limonene, eucalyptol and lilac aldehyde A, and the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, α-farnesene, nerolidol and farnesol were assessed by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. α-Pinene and nerolidol were the most abundant (µg per g of tissue in plants bacterized with P. fluorescens). Only α-pinene, eucalyptol and farnesol were identified at low concentration in non-bacterized plants treated with ABA, while no terpenes were detected in controls. The results obtained along with others from literature suggest that B. licheniformis and P. fluorescens act as stress alleviators by inducing ABA synthesis so diminishing water losses. These bacteria also elicit synthesis of compounds of plant defense via an ABA independent mechanism. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.

    1989-01-01

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.

  15. Partitioning diversity into independent alpha and beta components.

    PubMed

    Jost, Lou

    2007-10-01

    Existing general definitions of beta diversity often produce a beta with a hidden dependence on alpha. Such a beta cannot be used to compare regions that differ in alpha diversity. To avoid misinterpretation, existing definitions of alpha and beta must be replaced by a definition that partitions diversity into independent alpha and beta components. Such a unique definition is derived here. When these new alpha and beta components are transformed into their numbers equivalents (effective numbers of elements), Whittaker's multiplicative law (alpha x beta = gamma) is necessarily true for all indices. The new beta gives the effective number of distinct communities. The most popular similarity and overlap measures of ecology (Jaccard, Sorensen, Horn, and Morisita-Horn indices) are monotonic transformations of the new beta diversity. Shannon measures follow deductively from this formalism and do not need to be borrowed from information theory; they are shown to be the only standard diversity measures which can be decomposed into meaningful independent alpha and beta components when community weights are unequal.

  16. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  17. Stereospecific 1,4-addition to an alpha,beta-unsaturated steroidal epoxide: syntheses of new 15-oxygenated sterols.

    PubMed

    Parish, E J; Tsuda, M; Schroepfer, G J

    1988-11-01

    3 beta-Benzoyloxy-14 alpha,15 alpha-epoxy-5 alpha-cholest-7-ene (1) is a key intermediate in the synthesis of C-7 and C-15 oxygenated sterols. Treatment of 1 with benzoyl chloride resulted in the formation of 3 beta,15 alpha-bis-benzoyloxy-7 alpha-chloro-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-ene (2). Reaction of 2 with LiAlH4 or LiAlD4 resulted in the formation of 5 alpha-cholest-7-ene-3 beta,15 alpha-diol (3a) or [14 alpha-2H]5 alpha-cholest-7-ene-3 beta,15 alpha-diol (3b). Diol 3b was selectively oxidized by Ag2CO3/celite to [14 alpha-2H]5 alpha-cholest-7-en-15 alpha-ol-3-one (4). Treatment of 1 with MeMgI/CuI gave 7 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-ene-3 beta,15 alpha-diol (5). Selective oxidation of 5 with pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC)/pyridine or oxidation with PCC resulted in the formation of 7 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one (6) and 7 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-ene-3,15-dione, respectively. Reduction of 6 with LiAlH4 yielded 5 and 7 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-ene-3 beta,15 beta-diol (6). Reaction of 1 with benzoic acid/pyridine gave 3 beta,7 alpha-bis-benzoyloxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15 alpha-ol (9). Treatment of 9 with LiAlH4 or ethanolic KOH resulted in the formation of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-ene-3 beta,7 alpha,15 alpha-triol (10). Dibenzoate 9, upon brief treatment with mineral acid, gave 3 beta-benzoyloxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-ene-15-one (11). Oxidation of 9 with PCC yielded 3 beta,7 alpha-bis-benzoyloxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-ene-15-one (12). Ketone 12 was also prepared by the selective hydride reduction of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-7 alpha-ol-3,15-dione (13) to give 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-ene-3 beta,7 alpha-diol-15-one (14), which was then treated with benzoyl chloride to produce 12.

  18. Consideration of HOMs in α- and β-pinene SOA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatzsche, Kathrin; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Mutzel, Anke; Berndt, Torsten; Wolke, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is the major burden of the atmospheric organic particulate matter with 140 - 910 TgC yr-1 (Hallquist et al., 2009). SOA particles are formed via the oxidation of volatile organic carbons (VOCs), where the volatility of the VOCs is lowered due to the increase in their functionalization as well as their binding ability. Therefore, gaseous compounds can either nucleate to form new particles or condense on existing particles. The framework of SOA formation under natural conditions is very complex, because there are a multitude of gas-phase precursors, atmospheric degradation processes and products after oxidation. A lacking understanding about chemical and physical processes associated with SOA formation makes modeling of SOA processes difficult, leading to discrepancy between measured and modeled global SOA burdens. The present study utilizes a parcel model SPACCIM (SPectral Aerosol Cloud Chemistry Interaction Model, Wolke et al., 2005) that couples a multiphase chemical model with a microphysical model. For SOA modeling a further development of SPACCIM was necessary. Therefore, two components are added (i) a gas-phase chemistry mechanism for the VOC oxidation and (ii) a partitioning approach for the gas-to-particle phase transfer. An aggregated gas-phase chemistry mechanism for α- and β-pinene was adapted from Chen and Griffin (2005). For the phase transfer an absorptive partitioning approach (Pankow, 1994) and a kinetic approach (Zaveri et al., 2014) are implemented. Whereby the kinetic approach serves some advantages. The organic aerosol can be resolved in different size sections, whereby the particle radius is involved in the partitioning equations. The phase state of the organic material and the reactivity of the organic compounds in the particle-phase directly influence the modeled SOA yields. Recently, highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) were found in the gas phase from lab and field studies. They are also

  19. Fumigant toxicity of basil oil compounds and related compounds to Thrips palmi and Orius strigicollis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Ho; Yi, Chang-Geun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Soon Il; Lee, Sang-Guei; Kim, Jun-Ran

    2015-09-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the fumigant toxicity to adult Thrips palmi (a serious insect pest) and Orius strigicollis (a beneficial predator insect) of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil compounds and structurally related compounds using vapour-phase toxicity bioassays. Against adult T. palmi, linalool (LD50 0.0055 mg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic fumigant and was 15.2-fold more effective than dichlorvos (0.0837 mg cm(-3) ). Strong fumigant toxicity was also observed in pulegone (0.0095 mg cm(-3) ), (±)-camphor (0.0097 mg cm(-3) ) and 1,8-cineole (0.0167 mg cm(-3) ). Moderate toxicity was produced by camphene, 3-carene, (-)-menthone, (+)-α-pinene, (+)-β-pinene, α-terpineol and (-)-α-thujone (0.0215-0.0388 mg cm(-3) ). Against adult O. strigicollis, dichlorvos (LD50 9.0 × 10(-10) mg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic fumigant, whereas the LD50 values of these compounds ranged from 0.0127 to >0.23 mg cm(-3) . Based upon the selective toxicity ratio, the compounds described are more selective than dichlorvos. The basil oil compounds described merit further study as potential insecticides for control of T. palmi in greenhouses because of their generally lower toxicity to O. strigicollis and their greater activity as a fumigant than dichlorvos. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Laboratory studies of monoterpene secondary organic aerosol formation and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, J. A.; D'Ambro, E.; Zhao, Y.; Lee, B. H.; Pye, H. O. T.; Schobesberger, S.; Shilling, J.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    We have conducted a series of chamber experiments to study the molecular composition and properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from monoterpenes under a range of photochemical and dark conditions. We connect variations in the SOA mass yield to molecular composition and volatility, and use a detailed Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) based chemical box model with dynamic gas-particle partitioning to examine the importance of various peroxy radical reaction mechanisms in setting the SOA yield and properties. We compare the volatility distribution predicted by the model to that inferred from isothermal room-temperature evaporation experiments using the FIGAERO-CIMS where SOA particles collected on a filter are allowed to evaporate under humidified pure nitrogen flow stream for up to 24 hours. We show that the combination of results requires prompt formation of low volatility SOA from predominantly gas-phase mechanisms, with important differences between monoterpenes (alpha-Pinene and delta-3-Carene) followed by slower non-radical particle phase chemistry that modulates both the chemical and physical properties of the SOA. Implications for the regional evolution of atmospheric monoterpene SOA are also discussed.

  1. Integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} effectors p130Cas, Src and talin regulate carcinoma invasion and chemoresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Sansing, Hope A.; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Proteomics of clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinoma. {yields} p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin regulate oral carcinoma invasion. {yields} p130Cas, talin, Src and zyxin regulate oral carcinoma resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Ligand engagement by integrins induces receptor clustering and formation of complexes at the integrin cytoplasmic face that controls cell signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics critical for adhesion-dependent processes. This study searches for a subset of integrin effectors that coordinates both tumor cell invasion and resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in oral carcinomas. Candidate integrin effectors were identified in a proteomicsmore » screen of proteins recruited to clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta} or {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinomas. Proteins with diverse functions including microtubule and actin binding proteins, and factors involved in trafficking, transcription and translation were identified in oral carcinoma integrin complexes. Knockdown of effectors in the oral carcinoma HN12 cells revealed that p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin were required for invasion through Matrigel. Disruption of talin or p130Cas by RNA interference increased resistance to cisplatin, whereas targeting Dek, Src or zyxin reduced HN12 resistance to cisplatin. Analysis of the spreading of HN12 cells on collagen I and laminin I revealed that a decrease in p130Cas or talin expression inhibited spreading on both matrices. Interestingly, a reduction in zyxin expression enhanced spreading on laminin I and inhibited spreading on collagen I. Reduction of Dek, Src, talin or zyxin expression reduced HN12 proliferation by 30%. Proliferation was not affected by a reduction in p130Cas expression. We conclude that p130Cas, Src and talin function in both oral carcinoma invasion and resistance to cisplatin.« less

  2. Blockade of rat alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptor function by methadone, its metabolites, and structural analogs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; Smith, R D; Caruso, F S; Kellar, K J

    2001-10-01

    The opioid agonist properties of (+/-)-methadone are ascribed almost entirely to the (-)-methadone enantiomer. To extend our knowledge of the pharmacological actions of methadone at ligand-gated ion channels, we investigated the effects of the two enantiomers of methadone and its metabolites R-(+)-2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolinium perchlorate (EDDP) and R-(+)-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenyl-1-pyrroline hydrochloride (EMDP), as well as structural analogs of methadone, including (-)-alpha-acetylmethadol hydrochloride (LAAM) and (+)-alpha-propoxyphene, on rat alpha3beta4 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) stably expressed in a human embryonic kidney 293 cell line, designated KXalpha3beta4R2. (+/-)-methadone inhibited nicotine-stimulated 86Rb+ efflux from the cells in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 1.9 +/- 0.2 microM, indicating that it is a potent nAChR antagonist. The (-)- and (+)-enantiomers of methadone have similar inhibitory potencies on nicotine-stimulated 86Rb+ efflux, with IC50 values of approximately 2 microM. EDDP, the major metabolite of methadone, is even more potent, with an IC50 value of approximately 0.5 microM, making it one of the most potent nicotinic receptor blockers reported. In the presence of (+/-)-methadone, EDDP, or LAAM, the maximum nicotine-stimulated 86Rb+ efflux was markedly decreased, but the EC50 value for nicotine stimulation was altered only slightly, if at all, indicating that these compounds block alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptor function by a noncompetitive mechanism. Consistent with a noncompetitive mechanism, (+/-)-methadone, its metabolites, and structural analogs have very low affinity for nicotinic receptor agonist binding sites in membrane homogenates from KXalpha3beta4R2 cells. We conclude that both enantiomers of methadone and its metabolites as well as LAAM and (+)-alpha-propoxyphene are potent noncompetitive antagonists of alpha3beta4 nAChRs.

  3. Integrin alphaIIb-subunit cytoplasmic domain mutations demonstrate a requirement for tyrosine phosphorylation of beta3-subunits in actin cytoskeletal organization.

    PubMed

    Yamodo, Innocent H; Blystone, Scott D

    2004-01-01

    Using truncated or mutated alphaIIb integrin cytoplasmic domains fused to the alphaV extracellular domain and expressed with the beta3 integrin subunit, we demonstrate that the double mutation of proline residues 998 and 999 to alanine (PP998/999AA), previously shown to disturb the C-terminal conformation of the alphaIIb integrin cytoplasmic domain, prevents tyrosine phosphorylation of beta3 integrin induced by Arg-Gly-Asp peptide ligation. This mutation also inhibits integrin mediated actin assembly and cell adhesion to vitronectin. In contrast, progressive truncation of the alphaIIb-subunit cytoplasmic domain did not reproduce these effects. Interestingly, the PP998/999AA mutations of alphaIIb did not affect beta3 tyrosine phosphorylation, cell adhesion, or actin polymerization induced by manganese. Exogenous addition of manganese was sufficient to rescue beta3 phosphorylation, cell adhesion, and actin assembly in cells expressing the PP998/999AA mutation when presented with a vitronectin substrate. Further, induction of the high affinity conformation of this mutant beta3 integrin by incubation with either Arg-Gly-Asp peptide or exogenous manganese was equivalent. These results suggest that the extracellular structure of beta3 integrins in the high affinity conformation is not directly related to the structure of the cytoplasmic face of the integrin. Moreover, the requirement for beta3 phosphorylation is demonstrated without mutation of the beta3 subunit. In support of our previous hypothesis of a role for beta3 phosphorylation in adhesion, these studies demonstrate a strong correlation between beta3 tyrosine phosphorylation and assembly of a cytoskeleton competent to support firm cell adhesion.

  4. Predictors of monoterpene exposure in the Danish furniture industry.

    PubMed

    Hagström, Katja; Jacobsen, Gitte; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schaumburg, Inger; Erlandsen, Mogens; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2012-04-01

    Individuals who work with pine in the furniture industry may be exposed to monoterpenes, the most abundant of which are α-pinene, β-pinene, and Δ(3)-carene. Monoterpenes are suspected to cause dermatitis and to harm the respiratory system. An understanding of the predictors of monoterpene exposure is therefore important in preventing these adverse effects. These predictors may include general characteristics of the work environment and specific work operations. We sought to assess the extent to which workers are exposed to monoterpenes and to identify possible predictors of monoterpene exposure in the pine furniture industry in Denmark. Passive measurements of the levels of selected monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, and Δ(3)-carene) were performed on 161 subjects from 17 pine furniture factories in Viborg County, Denmark; one sample was acquired from each worker. Additionally, wood dust samples were collected from 145 workers. Data on potential predictors of exposure were acquired over the course of the day on which the exposure measurements were recorded and could be assigned to one of four hierarchic ordered levels: worker, machine, department, and factory. In addition to univariate analyses, a mixed model was used to account for imbalances within the data and random variation with each of the hierarchically ordered levels. The geometric mean (GM) monoterpene content observed over the 161 measurements was 7.8 mg m(-3) [geometric standard deviation (GSD): 2.4]; the GM wood dust level over 145 measurements was 0.58 mg m(-3) (GSD: 1.49). None of the measured samples exceeded the occupational exposure limit for terpenes in Denmark (25 ppm, 150 mg m(-3)). In the univariate analyses, half of the predictors tested were found to be significant; the multivariate model indicated that only three of the potential predictors were significant. These were the recirculation of air in rooms used for the processing of wood (a factory level predictor), the presence of a

  5. Receptor protection studies comparing recombinant and native nicotinic receptors: Evidence for a subpopulation of mecamylamine-sensitive native alpha3beta4* nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Free, R Benjamin; Kaser, Daniel J; Boyd, R Thomas; McKay, Dennis B

    2006-01-09

    Studies involving receptor protection have been used to define the functional involvement of specific receptor subtypes in tissues expressing multiple receptor subtypes. Previous functional studies from our laboratory demonstrate the feasibility of this approach when applied to neuronal tissues expressing multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In the current studies, the ability of a variety of nAChR agonists and antagonists to protect native and recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs from alkylation were investigated using nAChR binding techniques. Alkylation of native alpha3beta4* nAChRs from membrane preparations of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells resulted in a complete loss of specific [(3)H]epibatidine binding. This loss of binding to native nAChRs was preventable by pretreatment with the agonists, carbachol or nicotine. The partial agonist, cytisine, produced partial protection. Several nAChR antagonists were also tested for their ability to protect. Hexamethonium and decamethonium were without protective activity while mecamylamine and tubocurarine were partially effective. Addition protection studies were performed on recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs. As with native alpha3beta4* nAChRs, alkylation produced a complete loss of specific [(3)H]epibatidine binding to recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs which was preventable by pretreatment with nicotine. However, unlike native alpha3beta4* nAChRs, cytisine and mecamylamine, provide no protection for alkylation. These results highlight the differences between native alpha3beta4* nAChRs and recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs and support the use of protection assays to characterize native nAChR subpopulations.

  6. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m-2 s-1), whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or

  7. Alpha-beta coordination method for collective search

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention comprises a decentralized coordination strategy called alpha-beta coordination. The alpha-beta coordination strategy is a family of collective search methods that allow teams of communicating agents to implicitly coordinate their search activities through a division of labor based on self-selected roles and self-determined status. An agent can play one of two complementary roles. An agent in the alpha role is motivated to improve its status by exploring new regions of the search space. An agent in the beta role is also motivated to improve its status, but is conservative and tends to remain aggregated with other agents until alpha agents have clearly identified and communicated better regions of the search space. An agent can select its role dynamically based on its current status value relative to the status values of neighboring team members. Status can be determined by a function of the agent's sensor readings, and can generally be a measurement of source intensity at the agent's current location. An agent's decision cycle can comprise three sequential decision rules: (1) selection of a current role based on the evaluation of the current status data, (2) selection of a specific subset of the current data, and (3) determination of the next heading using the selected data. Variations of the decision rules produce different versions of alpha and beta behaviors that lead to different collective behavior properties.

  8. Chemical variability of the needle oil of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Ottavioli, Josephine; Gonny, Marcelle; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2009-12-01

    The composition of 109 samples of essential oil isolated from the needles of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina growing wild in Corsica was investigated by GC (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and 13C-NMR. Forty-four compounds accounting for 86.7-96.7% of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, in particular, limonene (9.2-53.9%), beta-phellandrene (3.7-25.2%), alpha-pinene (1.4-33.7%), and sabinene (0.1-33.6%). The 109 oil compositions were submitted to k-means partitioning and principal component analysis, which allowed the distinction of two groups within the oil samples. The composition of the major group (92% of the samples) was dominated by limonene and beta-phellandrene, while the second group contained mainly sabinene beside limonene and beta-phellandrene.

  9. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  10. Principles of gross alpha and beta radioactivity detection in water.

    PubMed

    Semkow, T M; Parekh, P P

    2001-11-01

    A simultaneous detection of gross alpha and beta radioactivity was studied using gas proportional counting. This measurement is a part of a method mandated by US Environmental Protection Agency to screen for alpha and beta radioactivity in drinking water. Responses of a gas proportional detector to alpha and beta particles from several radionuclides were determined in drop and electroplated geometries. It is shown that, while the alpha radioactivity can be measured accurately in the presence of beta radioactivity, the opposite is not typically true due to alpha-to-beta crosstalk. The crosstalk, originating from the emission of conversion and Auger electrons as well as x rays, is shown to be dependent primarily on the particular alpha-decay scheme while the dependence on alpha energy is small but negligible. It was measured at 28-35% for 241Am, 22-24% for 230Th, and 4.9-6.5% for 239Pu. For 210Po, the crosstalk of 1.2-1.6% was observed mostly due to energy retardation. A method of reducing the crosstalk to a <3% level is proposed by absorbing the atomic electrons in a 6.2 mg cm(-2) Al absorber, at the same time decreasing the beta efficiency by 16-31%.

  11. Chemical composition and biological activities of Tunisian Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil: a high effectiveness against Vibrio spp. strains.

    PubMed

    Hajlaoui, Hafedh; Mighri, Hedi; Noumi, Emira; Snoussi, Mejdi; Trabelsi, Najla; Ksouri, Riadh; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2010-01-01

    Essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from Tunisian variety of Cuminumcyminum was characterized by means of GC and GC-MS. Twenty-one components were identified and C. cyminum contained cuminlaldehyde (39.48%), gamma-terpinene (15.21%), O-cymene (11.82%), beta-pinene (11.13%), 2-caren-10-al (7.93%), trans-carveol (4.49%) and myrtenal (3.5%) as a major components. Moreover, C. cyminum oil exhibited higher antibacterial and antifungal activities with a high effectiveness against Vibrio spp. strains with a diameter of inhibition zones growth ranging from 11 to 23 mm and MIC and MBC values ranging from (0.078-0.31 mg/ml) to (0.31-1.25mg/ml), respectively. On the other hand, the cumin oil was investigated for its antioxidant activities using four different tests then compared with BHT. Results showed that cumin oil exhibit a higher activity in each antioxidant system with a special attention for beta-carotene bleaching test (IC(50): 20 microg/ml) and reducing power (EC(50): 11 microg/ml). In the light of these findings, we suggested that C. cyminum essential oil may be considered as an interesting source of antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidants components used as potent agents in food preservation and for therapeutic or nutraceutical industries. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Analysis of antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of Juniperus excelsa M. B subsp. Polycarpos (K. Koch) Takhtajan essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Moein, M. R.; Ghasemi, Y.; Moein, S.; Nejati, M.

    2010-01-01

    Juniperus excelsa M.B subsp. Polycarpos (K.Koch), collected from south of Iran, was subjected to hydrodistillation using clevenger apparatus to obtain essential oil. The essential was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and studied for antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant activities. The results indicated α-pinene (67.71%) as the major compound and α-cedral (11.5%), δ3-carene (5.19%) and limonene (4.41%) in moderate amounts. Antimicrobial tests were carried out using disk diffusion method, followed by the measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were susceptible to essential oil. The oil showed radical scavenging and antioxidant effects. PMID:21808554

  13. Real time in situ detection of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Rollins, Andrew W.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-06-11

    A new field instrument is described that quantifies total particle phase organic nitrates. The instrument is based on the thermal dissociation laser induced fluorescence (TD-LIF) method that thermally converts nitrates to NO2 which is then detected by LIF. This instrument is unique in its ability to provide fast sensitive measurements of particle phase organic nitrates, without interference from inorganic nitrate. Here we use it to quantify organic nitrates in SOA generated from high-NOx photooxidation of limonene, a-pinene, D-3-carene, and tridecane. In these experiments the organic nitrate moiety is observed to be 6-15percent of the total SOA mass, depending on themore » organic precursor.« less

  14. BVOC emissions from 2 Asian Eucalyptus species,E.camadulensis and E.robusta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Chan, C. K.; Lau, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    Eucalyptus species dominate native forests in Australia and are planted over vast regions in Asia and other continents for afforestation and for pulp due to their fast growth rates. However, they have also been identified as high emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). BVOCs, when emitted to the atmosphere, react to form air pollutants such as ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The large areas of Eucalyptus forests in Australia and Asia, and high BVOC emission rates of Eucalyptus species, imply a potential significant effect of BVOC emissions from Eucalyptus on the air quality of these regions. A better understanding of BVOC emissions from this genus is thus needed. Here we present data of BVOC measurements from E.camadulensis and E.robusta. BVOC emissions of the 2 Eucalyptus species were measured by a branch enclosure approach in an environmental chamber, in which light and temperature were carefully controlled to mimic their changes throughout the day under natural conditions. E. camadulensis was found to emit isoprene, α-pinene, camphene and limonene, while E. robusta was found to emit isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene, 3-carene and ocimene. Diurnal variations in BVOC emissions from the 2 species were observed. The 2 Eucalyptus species were also treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a plant hormone which has found to induce elevated BVOC emissions similar to response to insect attacks in other plant species. The emission profiles of the 2 species before and after MeJA treatment were contrasted to examine the effects of the MeJA on their BVOC emissions. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the General Research Fund of the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. 610909).

  15. Tetraspanin CD151 regulates alpha6beta1 integrin adhesion strengthening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammerding, Jan; Kazarov, Alexander R.; Huang, Hayden; Lee, Richard T.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2003-01-01

    The tetraspanin CD151 molecule associates specifically with laminin-binding integrins, including alpha6beta1. To probe strength of alpha6beta1-dependent adhesion to laminin-1, defined forces (0-1.5 nN) were applied to magnetic laminin-coated microbeads bound to NIH 3T3 cells. For NIH 3T3 cells bearing wild-type CD151, adhesion strengthening was observed, as bead detachment became more difficult over time. In contrast, mutant CD151 (with the C-terminal region replaced) showed impaired adhesion strengthening. Static cell adhesion to laminin-1, and detachment of beads coated with fibronectin or anti-alpha6 antibody were all unaffected by CD151 mutation. Hence, CD151 plays a key role in selectively strengthening alpha6beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to laminin-1.

  16. A kinetic comparison of the processing and secretion of the alpha beta dimer and the uncombined alpha and beta subunits of chorionic gonadotropin synthesized by human choriocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, B P; Krzesicki, R F; Hartle, R J; Perini, F; Ruddon, R W

    1984-12-25

    Human choriocarcinoma cells (JAR) synthesize the alpha and beta subunits of the glycoprotein hormone chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (R.W. Ruddon, C.A. Hanson, A. H. Bryan, G.J. Putterman, E.L. White, F. Perini, K. S. Meade, and P.H. Aldenderfer (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 1000-1007). In addition to the hCG dimer (alpha beta), JAR cells secrete uncombined alpha and beta subunits into the culture medium (L.A. Cole, R.J. Hartle, J.A. Laferla, and R.W. Ruddon (1983) Endocrinology 113, 1176-1178). Pulse-chase studies with [35S]methionine or [3H]mannose were carried out in order to compare free alpha, free beta, and the alpha beta dimer with regard to the kinetics of synthesis, N-linked oligosaccharide processing, and secretion and to determine the kinetics of alpha-beta subunit combination. A panel of three antisera was used to immunoprecipitate directly the free subunits and the alpha beta dimer sequentially from the same cell lysates and culture media. The alpha subunit of hCG was synthesized in a slight molar excess (1.2-1.5-fold) over the beta subunit, and alpha beta dimer was rapidly formed by combination of the intracellular alpha and beta precursors. Dimer formation was already apparent in JAR cells following a 10-min biosynthetic labeling incubation with [35S]methionine. The combination of subunits ceased by 30 min of chase even though 51% of alpha and 44% of beta remained free within the cells. Combination of the alpha and beta precursors had occurred before their N-linked oligosaccharides were processed beyond the Man8GlcNAc2 structure. The initial trimming of glucosyl and mannosyl units from the high-mannose oligosaccharides of the hCG precursors occurred more rapidly for free alpha and CG-alpha than for free beta and CG-beta. JAR cells accumulated alpha precursors bearing mostly Man8GlcNAc2 units and beta precursors bearing Man8GlcNAc2 units that represent the substrates of the rate-limiting step in the secretory pathway. In spite of the fact that their N

  17. Toxic effects of two essential oils and their constituents on the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Martínez, L C; Plata-Rueda, A; Colares, H C; Campos, J M; Dos Santos, M H; Fernandes, F L; Serrão, J E; Zanuncio, J C

    2017-12-14

    The study identified insecticidal effects from the cinnamon and clove essential oils in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90), lethal time, and repellent effect on larvae, pupae, and adults of T. molitor after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and toxic compounds were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.19%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (9.92%), benzyl benzoate (9.68%), caryophyllene (9.05%), eugenyl acetate (7.47%), α-phellandrene (7.18%), and α-pinene (6.92%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (26.64%), caryophyllene (23.73%), caryophyllene oxide (17.74%), 2-propenoic acid (11.84%), α-humulene (10.48%), γ-cadinene (4.85%), and humulene oxide (4.69%). Cinnamon and clove essential oils were toxic to T. molitor. In toxic chemical compounds, eugenol have stronger contact toxicity in larvae, pupae, and adult than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-humulene. In general, the two essential oils were toxic and repellent to adult T. molitor. Cinnamon and clove essential oils and their compounds caused higher mortality and repellency on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for integrated management programs of this insect.

  18. Essential oil from leaves of Liquidambar formosana ameliorates inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kuo-Feng; Yang, Tzu-Jung; Chiu, Huan-Wen; Ho, Chen-Lung

    2014-06-01

    The essential oil from Liquidambar formosana leaves (EOLF) was demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in mouse macrophages. EOLF reduced nitrite oxide generation, secretion levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and expression levels of prointerleukin-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophages. EOLF also reduced NLRP3 inflammasome-derived interleukin-1beta secretion. The underlying mechanisms for the EOLF-mediated anti-inflammatory activity were (1) reduction of LPS-induced reactive oxygen species generation; (2) reduction of LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 MAP kinase; (3) reduction of LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaBeta activation. Furthermore, 25 compounds were identified in the EOLF using GC-FID and GC-MS and the major compounds were terpinen-4-ol (32.0%), beta-pinene (18.0%), gamma-terpinene (13.8%), and alpha-terpinene (9.7%). We found that LPS-induced nitrite oxide generation was inhibited significantly by terpinen-4-ol. Our results indicated that EOLF has anti-inflammatory activity and may provide a molecular rationale for future therapeutic interventions in immune modulation.

  19. ASYMMETRIC ABSORPTION PROFILES OF Ly{alpha} AND Ly{beta} IN DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hee-Won, E-mail: hwlee@sejong.ac.kr

    2013-08-01

    Damped Ly{alpha} systems observed in the quasar spectra are characterized by a high neutral hydrogen column density, N{sub HI} > 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}. The absorption wing profiles are often fitted using the Voigt function due to the fact that the scattering cross section near the resonant line center is approximately described by the Lorentzian function. Since a hydrogen atom has infinitely many p states that participate in the electric dipole interaction, the cross section starts to deviate from the Lorentzian in an asymmetric way in the line wing regions. We investigate this asymmetry in the absorption linemore » profiles around Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} as a function of the neutral hydrogen column density N{sub HI}. In terms of {Delta}{lambda} {identical_to} {lambda} - {lambda}{sub {alpha}}, we expand the Kramers-Heisenberg formula around Ly{alpha} to find {sigma}({lambda}) {approx_equal} (0.5f{sub 12}){sup 2}{sigma}{sub T}({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{sub {alpha}}){sup -2}[1 + 3.792({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{sub {alpha}})], where f{sub 12} and {sigma}{sub T} are the oscillator strength of Ly{alpha} and the Thomson scattering cross section, respectively. In terms of {Delta}{lambda}{sub 2} {identical_to} {lambda} - {lambda}{sub {beta}} in the vicinity of Ly{beta}, the total scattering cross section, given as the sum of cross sections for Rayleigh and Raman scattering, is shown to be {sigma}({lambda}) {approx_equal} {sigma}{sub T}(0.5f{sub 13}){sup 2}(1 + R{sub 0})({Delta}{lambda}{sub 2}/{lambda}{sub {beta}}){sup -2}[1 - 24.68({Delta}{lambda}{sub 2}/{lambda}{sub {beta}})] with f{sub 13} and the factor R{sub 0} = 0.1342 being the oscillator strength for Ly{beta} and the ratio of the Raman cross section to Rayleigh cross section, respectively. A redward asymmetry develops around Ly{alpha}, whereas a blue asymmetry is obtained for Ly{beta}. The absorption center shifts are found to be almost proportional to the neutral hydrogen column density.« less

  20. [Prevalence survey and molecular characterization of alpha and beta thalassemia in Liuzhou city of Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Cai, Ren; Li, Liyan; Liang, Xin; Liu, Zhongying; Su, Liu; Li, Wenjun; Zhu, Qiangui; Mo, Qiuhua; Pan, Lizhen; Ouyang, Hong; Huang, Lihua; Xu, Xiangmin

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the gene frequencies and mutation patterns of alpha thalassemia (alpha-thal) and beta thalassemia (beta-thal) in Liuzhou city of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Cluster sampling was used. A total of 1 028 of umbilical blood samples were collected for a prevalence study of alpha-thal and a total of 1 312 healthy young people when receiving pre-marriage consultation were recruited for a beta-thal prevalence survey. Individuals live in city or town area of Liuzhou. A complete blood count as well as hemoglobin electrophoresis analysis were done in all of samples for phenotyping of alpha and beta-thals. Those with Hb Bart's for alpha-thal indicator and those with both microcytosis (MCV < 85 fl) and elevated levels of Hb A(2) (>/=4.0%) for beta-thal were further studied by DNA analysis. PCR-based methodologies were used to characterize the mutation contributions of alpha and beta-thals. All the subjects were tested for the state of carrying beta-thala alleles for evaluating the situation of the compound heterozygotes of alpha-thal with beta-thal. Of 1 028 random samples of umbilical blood screened, 112 of subjects were defined to be the gene carriers of alpha-thal. The alpha-thal carrier rate was as high as 11.19% including 3 compound heterozygotes. Five well-known types of alpha-thal alleles were detected with gene contributions of 37.4% (--(SEA) deletion), 31.3% (-alpha(3.7) deletion), 17.4% (-alpha(4.2) deletion), 12.1% (alpha(CS)alpha mutation), and 0.9% (alpha(QS)alpha mutation), successively. Of the 1 312 adult specimens studied, 89 with beta-thal including 14 of the compound higher Hb F subjects were detected. All of the 89 phenotypic beta-thal carriers had the mutations in the beta-globin gene, making the overall prevalence 6.78%. The commonly seen three mutations, beta CD41 - 42 (-CTTT) frameshift, beta CD17 (T-A) nonsense mutation and beta-28 (A-G) promoter variation were accounted for 90% of the beta-thal alleles in Liuzhou. Of these beta

  1. Chemical composition, larvicidal action, and adult repellency of Thymus magnus against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Uk; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2012-09-01

    Thymus magnus, an endemic species, is found in the Republic of Korea. The volatile compounds extracted by SPME from T. magnus were investigated for their chemical composition and electrophysiological response against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The volatile compounds of T. magnus as determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were gamma-terpinene (33.0%), thymol (29.9%), beta-bisabolene (8.9%), p-cymene (8.3%), alpha-terpinene (5.0%), myrcene (4.7%), beta-caryophyllene (4.0%), alpha-thujene (2.7%), camphene (1.3%), carvacrol (1.2%), and alpha-pinene (1.1%). Among these candidates, thymol exhibited complete (100%) repellent activity against female Ae. albopictus, an effect that was confirmed through evaluating the electrophysiological response on the antenna of Ae. albopictus. The effectiveness of a binary 1:2 mixture of thymol and vanillin (0.05:0.1 microl per cm2) was found to be significantly more effective than thymol alone for a period of 120 min. In addition, thymol, alpha-terpinene, and carvacrol showed high larvicidal activity against on the third-stage larvae with LC50 values of 0.9 microl per 100 ml.

  2. Inactivation of chloroplast H(+)-ATPase by modification of Lys beta 359, Lys alpha 176 and Lys alpha 266.

    PubMed

    Horbach, M; Meyer, H E; Bickel-Sandkötter, S

    1991-09-01

    Treatment of isolated, latent chloroplast ATPase with pyridoxal-5-phosphate (pyridoxal-P) in presence of Mg2+ causes inhibition of dithiothreitol-activated plus heat-activated ATP hydrolysis. The amount of [3H]pyridoxal-P bound to chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1) was estimated to run up to 6 +/- 1 pyridoxal-P/enzyme, almost equally distributed between the alpha- and beta-subunits. Inactivation, however, is complete after binding of 1.5-2 pyridoxal-P/CF1, suggesting that two covalently modified lysines prevent the activation of the enzyme. ADP as well as ATP in presence of Mg2+ protects the enzyme against inactivation and concomittantly prevents incorporation of a part of the 3H-labeled pyridoxal-P into beta- and alpha-subunits. Phosphate prevents labeling of the alpha-subunit, but has only a minor effect on protection against inactivation. The data indicate a binding site at the interface between the alpha- and beta-subunits. Cleavage of the pyridoxal-P-labeled subunits with cyanogen bromide followed by sequence analysis of the labeled peptides led to the detection of Lys beta 359, Lys alpha 176 and Lys alpha 266, which are closely related to proposed nucleotide-binding regions of the alpha- and beta-subunits.

  3. Probing conformational changes in the I-like domain and the cysteine-rich repeat of human beta 3 integrins following disulfide bond disruption by cysteine mutations: identification of cysteine 598 involved in alphaIIbbeta3 activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, P; Melchior, C; Brons, N H; Schlegel, N; Caen, J; Kieffer, N

    2001-10-19

    We have investigated receptor function and epitope expression of recombinant alpha(IIb)beta(3) mutated at Cys(177) or Cys(273) in the I-like domain as well as Cys(598), located in the fourth repeat of the membrane-proximal cysteine-rich region and mutated in a Glanzmann's thrombasthenia type II patient. The beta(3) mutants beta(3)C177A, beta(3)C273A, and beta(3)C598Y exhibited a decreased electrophoretic mobility in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nonreducing conditions, confirming the disruption of the respective disulfide loops. Despite reduced surface expression, the alpha(IIb)beta(3)C177A, alpha(IIb)beta(3)C273A, and alpha(IIb)beta(3)C598Y receptors mediated cell adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen and translocated into focal adhesion plaques. The beta(3)C598Y mutation, but not the beta(3)C177A or beta(3)C273A mutations, induced spontaneous binding of the ligand mimetic monoclonal antibody PAC-1, while the beta(3)C177A and beta(3)C273A mutants exhibited reduced complex stability in the absence of Ca(2+). Epitope mapping of function-blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) allowed the identification of two distinct subgroups; mAbs A2A9, pl2-46, 10E5, and P256 did not interact with alpha(IIb)beta(3)C273A and bound only weakly to alpha(IIb)beta(3)C177A, while mAbs AP2, LM609 and 7E3 bound normally to mutant alpha(IIb)beta(3)C273A, but interacted only weakly with mutant alpha(IIb)beta(3)C177A. Furthermore, a cryptic epitope recognized by mAb 4D10G3 and not exposed on wild type alpha(IIb)beta(3) became accessible only on mutant alpha(IIb)beta(3)C177A and was mapped to the 60-kDa chymotrypsin fragment of beta(3). Finally, the ligand-induced binding site (LIBS) epitopes AP5, D3, LIBS1, and LIBS2 were spontaneously expressed on all three mutants independent of RGDS or dithiothreitol treatment. Our results provide evidence that disruption of a single cysteine disulfide bond in the cysteine-rich repeat domain, but not in the I-like domain, activates integrin

  4. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, -beta2 and -beta3 in normal and diseased canine mitral valves.

    PubMed

    Aupperle, H; März, I; Thielebein, J; Schoon, H-A

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic valvular disease (CVD) in dogs remains unclear, but activation and proliferation of valvular stromal cells (VSC) and their transdifferentiation into myofibroblast-like cells has been described. These alterations may be influenced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a cytokine involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation and mesenchymal cell differentiation. The present study investigates immunohistochemically the expression of TGF-beta1, -beta2, -beta3 and smooth muscle alpha actin (alpha-SMA) in normal canine mitral valves (MVs) (n=10) and in the valves of dogs with mild (n=7), moderate (n=14) and severe (n=9) CVD. In normal mitral valves there was no expression of alpha-SMA but VSC displayed variable expression of TGF-beta1 (10% of VSC labelled), TGF-beta2 (1-5% labelled) and TGF-beta3 (50% labelled). In mild CVD the affected atrialis contain activated and proliferating alpha-SMA-positive VSC, which strongly expressed TGF-beta1 and -beta3, but only 10% of these cells expressed TGF-beta2. In unaffected areas of the leaflet there was selective increase in expression of TGF-beta1 and -beta3. In advanced CVD the activated subendothelial VSC strongly expressed alpha-SMA, TGF-beta1 and -beta3. Inactive VSC within the centre of the nodules had much less labelling for TGF-beta1 and -beta3. TGF-beta1 labelling was strong within the ECM. These data suggest that TGF-beta plays a role in the pathogenesis of CVD by inducing myofibroblast-like differentiation of VSC and ECM secretion. Changed haemodynamic forces and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may in turn regulate TGF-beta expression.

  5. alpha1B-Adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and desensitization induced by transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Avila, M Teresa; Flores-Jasso, C Fabián; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2002-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induced alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation in Rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing these adrenoceptors. This effect of TGF-beta was rapid, reaching a maximum within 30 min and decreasing thereafter, and concentration-dependent (EC(50) 0.3 pM). The phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002, and the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine, Ro 318220 and bisindolylmaleimide, blocked the effect of this growth factor. alpha(1B)-Adrenergic receptor phosphorylation was associated with desensitization, as indicated by a reduction in the adrenergic-mediated production of [(3)H]inositol phosphates. Phosphorylation of alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptors by TGF-beta was also observed in Cos-1 cells transfected with the receptor. Co-transfection of the dominant-negative mutant of the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (Deltap85) inhibited the phosphorylation of alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptors induced by TGF-beta. Our results indicate that activation of TGF-beta receptors induces alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and desensitization. The data suggest that phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase C play key roles in this effect of TGF-beta. PMID:12234252

  6. alpha1B-Adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and desensitization induced by transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Romero-Avila, M Teresa; Flores-Jasso, C Fabián; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2002-12-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induced alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation in Rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing these adrenoceptors. This effect of TGF-beta was rapid, reaching a maximum within 30 min and decreasing thereafter, and concentration-dependent (EC(50) 0.3 pM). The phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002, and the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine, Ro 318220 and bisindolylmaleimide, blocked the effect of this growth factor. alpha(1B)-Adrenergic receptor phosphorylation was associated with desensitization, as indicated by a reduction in the adrenergic-mediated production of [(3)H]inositol phosphates. Phosphorylation of alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptors by TGF-beta was also observed in Cos-1 cells transfected with the receptor. Co-transfection of the dominant-negative mutant of the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (Deltap85) inhibited the phosphorylation of alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptors induced by TGF-beta. Our results indicate that activation of TGF-beta receptors induces alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and desensitization. The data suggest that phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase C play key roles in this effect of TGF-beta.

  7. The characteristics of the (alpha V371C)3(beta R337C)3 gamma double mutant subcomplex of the TF1-ATPase indicate that the catalytic site at the alpha TP-beta TP interface with bound MgADP in crystal structures of MF1 represents a catalytic site containing inhibitory MgADP.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanjay; Muneyuki, Eiro; Allison, William S

    2005-02-22

    In the MF(1) crystal structure with the MgADP-fluoroaluminate complex bound to two catalytic sites [Menz, R. I., Walker, J. E., and Leslie, A. G. W. (2001) Cell 106, 331-341], the guanidinium of betaR(337) is within 2.9 A of the alpha-oxygen of alphaS(370) and 3.7 A of a methyl group of alphaV(371) at the alpha(E)-beta(HC) interface. To examine the functional role of this contact, the (alphaV(371)C)(3)(betaR(337)C)(3)gamma subcomplex of the TF(1)-ATPase was prepared and characterized. Steady state ATPase activity of the reduced double-mutant is 30% of that of the wild type. Inactivation of the double mutant containing empty catalytic sites or MgADP bound to one catalytic site with CuCl(2) cross-linked two alpha-beta pairs, whereas a single alpha-beta pair cross-linked when at least two catalytic sites contained MgADP. The reduced double mutant hydrolyzed substoichiometric ATP 100-fold more rapidly than the enzyme containing two cross-linked alpha-beta pairs. Addition of AlCl(3) and NaF to the reduced double mutant after incubation with stoichiometric MgADP or 200 microM MgADP irreversibly inactivated the steady state ATPase activity with rate constants of 1.5 x10(-2) and 4.1 x 10(-2) min(-1), respectively. In contrast, addition of AlCl(3) and NaF to the cross-linked enzyme after incubation with stoichiometric or 200 microM MgADP irreversibly inactivated ATPase activity with a common rate constant of approximately 10(-4) min(-1). Correlation of these results with crystal structures of MF(1) suggests that the catalytic site at the alpha(TP)-beta(TP) interface is loaded first upon addition of nucleotides to nucleotide-depleted F(1)-ATPases and that the catalytic site at the alpha(TP)-beta(TP) interface with bound MgADP in crystal structures represents a catalytic site containing inhibitory MgADP.

  8. The storage stability of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Deep, Akash; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the sorptive loss properties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags were investigated as a function of storage duration. To this end, the relative recovery of gas phase standards of BVOCs, obtained via vaporization of liquid phase standards, was computed by calibrating their standards (response factors: RF) represnting each phase. Accordingly, the results indicated either slight loss (-5.59% (isoprene), -2.39% (camphene), -1.69% ((R)-(+)-limonene), -0.88% (p-cymene)) or gain (1.47% (γ-terpinene), 2.27% (α-terpinene), 2.63% (α-phellandrene), 2.73% ((+)-3-carene), 3.93% ((+)-β-pinene), and 5.98% ((+)-α-pinene)). Through comparison of the calibration results across storage time, the temporal stability of BVOCs was assessed. Longer BVOC storage time in polyester aluminum (PEA) bags lowered the relative recovery of BVOCs. The relative loss of BVOCs, if calculated in terms of mean bag standard RF ratios (relative to liquid standard) across elapsed time, decreased systematically: 0.99 ± 0.05 (0 h), 0.88 ± 0.06 (24 h), 0.66 ± 0.11 (72 h), and 0.62 ± 0.14 (120 h). It is thus recommended to complete the analysis of BVOC in PEA bags within 24 h of sample acquisition. As such, it is important to apply appropriate sampling approaches with a proper storage plan when measuring ambient BVOCs collected by bag sampling methods.

  9. Volatile composition and sensory quality of Spanish pomegranates (Punica granatum L.).

    PubMed

    Calín-Sánchez, Angel; Martínez, Juan J; Vázquez-Araújo, Laura; Burló, Francisco; Melgarejo, Pablo; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A

    2011-02-01

    Pomegranate is highly valued for its health-promoting effects. Fruits of nine pomegranate cultivars were analysed for volatile compounds, antioxidant activity and quality parameters, including maturity index and CIEL*a*b* colour. Volatile compounds were isolated from fresh juices using hydrodistillation; extracts were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Fruit colour was influenced by cultivar and grouping of cultivars according to their taste (sweet, sour-sweet or sour), with sweet fruits having more intense red colour and higher lightness values. A total of 18 compounds were found in pomegranate aroma profiles, including monoterpenes, aldehydes, alcohols, monoterpenoids and linear hydrocarbons. The most abundant compound were trans-2-hexenal, 3-carene, α-terpinene and α-terpineol. The total concentration of volatiles ranged from 1.7 to 10.9 g kg(-1) . Overall consumer liking of pomegranate juices was associated with the presence of monoterpenes such as α-pinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene and γ-terpinene. The presence of aldehydes such as hexanol, hexanal and cis-3-hexenol was correlated with poor overall consumer liking. Fruits from the cultivar Mollar de Elche 2 were those most suited for juice processing because they had the highest total concentration of volatiles, which was related to high overall consumer liking, intense and acceptable fresh pomegranate odour and flavour (high scores of satisfaction degree), medium intensity of red colour and low sourness. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Meprin A and meprin {alpha} generate biologically functional IL-1{beta} from pro-IL-1{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, Christian; University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Medicine, Little Rock, AR 72205; Haun, Randy S.

    The present study demonstrates that both oligomeric metalloendopeptidase meprin A purified from kidney cortex and recombinant meprin {alpha} are capable of generating biologically active IL-1{beta} from its precursor pro-IL-1{beta}. Amino-acid sequencing analysis reveals that meprin A and meprin {alpha} cleave pro-IL-1{beta} at the His{sup 115}-Asp{sup 116} bond, which is one amino acid N-terminal to the caspase-1 cleavage site and five amino acids C-terminal to the meprin {beta} site. The biological activity of the pro-IL-1{beta} cleaved product produced by meprin A, determined by proliferative response of helper T-cells, was 3-fold higher to that of the IL-1{beta} product produced by meprin {beta}more » or caspase-1. In a mouse model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation puncture that results in elevated levels of serum IL-1{beta}, meprin inhibitor actinonin significantly reduces levels of serum IL-1{beta}. Meprin A and meprin {alpha} may therefore play a critical role in the production of active IL-1{beta} during inflammation and tissue injury.« less

  11. Synthesis of plastic scintillation microspheres: alpha/beta discrimination.

    PubMed

    Santiago, L M; Bagán, H; Tarancón, A; Garcia, J F

    2014-11-01

    Plastic scintillation microspheres (PSm) have been developed as an alternative for liquid scintillation cocktails due to their ability to avoid the mixed waste, besides other strengths in which the possibility for alpha/beta discrimination is included. The aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of PSm containing two combinations of fluorescence solutes (PPO/POPOP and pT/Bis-MSB) and variable amounts of a second organic solvent (naphthalene) to enhance the alpha/beta discrimination. Two commercial detectors with different Pulse Shape Discrimination performances (Quantulus and Triathler) were used to evaluate the alpha/beta discrimination. An optimal discrimination of alpha/beta particles was reached, with very low misclassification values (2% for beta particles and 0.5% for alpha particles), when PSm containing PPO/POPOP and between 0.6 and 2.0 g of naphthalene were evaluated using Triathler and the appropriate programme for data processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteopedia: Rossmann Fold: A Beta-Alpha-Beta Fold at Dinucleotide Binding Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The Rossmann fold is one of the most common and widely distributed super-secondary structures. It is composed of a series of alternating beta strand (ß) and alpha helical (a) segments wherein the ß-strands are hydrogen bonded forming a ß-sheet. The initial beta-alpha-beta (ßaß) fold is the most conserved segment of Rossmann folds. As this segment…

  13. (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Dharmaratne, H Ranjith; Nanayakkara, N P; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2002-07-01

    Chemical investigation of the root extract of Valeriana officinalis afforded a new bicyclic sesquiterpene acid, (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid together with valerenic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data and confirmed by partial synthesis of its methyl ester from valerenic acid. Methyl (-)-3 alpha,4 alpha-epoxyvalerenate was obtained as a minor product from the above reaction.

  14. Detection of alpha radiation in a beta radiation field

    DOEpatents

    Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Reese, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting alpha particles in the presence of high activities of beta particles utilizing an alpha spectrometer. The apparatus of the present invention utilizes a magnetic field applied around the sample in an alpha spectrometer to deflect the beta particles from the sample prior to reaching the detector, thus permitting detection of low concentrations of alpha particles. In the method of the invention, the strength of magnetic field required to adequately deflect the beta particles and permit alpha particle detection is given by an algorithm that controls the field strength as a function of sample beta energy and the distance of the sample to the detector.

  15. Mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} identified in MODY3 and MODY5 downregulate DPP-IV gene expression in Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Ning; Laboratory of Neurochemistry, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto; Adachi, Tetsuya

    2006-08-04

    Dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a well-documented drug target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF)-1{alpha} and HNF-1{beta}, known as the causal genes of MODY3 and MODY5, respectively, have been reported to be involved in regulation of DPP-IV gene expression. But, it is not completely clear (i) that they play roles in regulation of DPP-IV gene expression, and (ii) whether DPP-IV gene activity is changed by mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} in MODY3 and MODY5. To explore these questions, we investigated transactivation effects of wild HNF-1{alpha} and 13 mutant HNF-1{alpha}, as well as wild HNF-1{beta} and 2more » mutant HNF-1{beta}, on DPP-IV promoter luciferase gene in Caco-2 cells by means of a transient experiment. Both wild HNF-1{alpha} and wild HNF-1{beta} significantly transactivated DPP-IV promoter, but mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} exhibited low transactivation activity. Moreover, to study whether mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} change endogenous DPP-IV enzyme activity, we produced four stable cell lines from Caco-2 cells, in which wild HNF-1{alpha} or wild HNF-1{beta}, or else respective dominant-negative mutant HNF-1{alpha}T539fsdelC or dominant-negative mutant HNF-1{beta}R177X, was stably expressed. We found that DPP-IV gene expression and enzyme activity were significantly increased in wild HNF-1{alpha} cells and wild HNF-1{beta} cells, whereas they decreased in HNF-1{alpha}T539fsdelC cells and HNF-1{beta}R177X cells, compared with DPP-IV gene expression and enzyme activity in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that both wild HNF-1{alpha} and wild HNF-1{beta} have a stimulatory effect on DPP-IV gene expression, but that mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} attenuate the stimulatory effect.« less

  16. Chemistry of α-pinene and naphthalene oxidation products generated in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber as measured by acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Chhabra, P. S.; Lambe, A. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; ...

    2014-07-01

    Recent developments in high resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) have made possible the direct detection of atmospheric organic compounds in real-time with high sensitivity and with little or no fragmentation, including low volatility, highly oxygenated organic vapors that are precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, for the first time, we examine gas-phase O 3 and OH oxidation products of α-pinene and naphthalene formed in the PAM flow reactor with an HR-ToF-CIMS using acetate reagent ion chemistry. Integrated OH exposures ranged from 1.2 × 10 11 to 9.7 × 10 11 molec cm −3 s, corresponding to approximatelymore » 1.0 to 7.5 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Measured gas-phase organic acids are similar to those previously observed in environmental chamber studies. For both precursors, we find that acetate-CIMS spectra capture both functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) as a function of OH exposure. The level of fragmentation is observed to increase with increased oxidation. We present a method that estimates vapor pressures of organic molecules using the measured O/C ratio, H/C ratio, and carbon number for each compound detected by the CIMS. The predicted condensed-phase SOA average acid yields and O/C and H/C ratios agree within uncertainties with previous AMS measurements and ambient CIMS results. While acetate reagent ion chemistry is used to selectively measure organic acids, in principle this method can be applied to additional reagent ion chemistries depending on the application.« less

  17. Folding anomalies of neuroligin3 caused by a mutation in the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold domain.

    PubMed

    De Jaco, Antonella; Dubi, Noga; Comoletti, Davide; Taylor, Palmer

    2010-09-06

    Proteins of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold family share a common structural fold, but perform a diverse set of functions. We have been studying natural mutations occurring in association with congenital disorders in the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold domain of neuroligin (NLGN), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Starting from the autism-related R451C mutation in the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold domain of NLGN3, we had previously shown that the Arg to Cys substitution is responsible for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of the mutant protein and that a similar trafficking defect is observed when the mutation is inserted at the homologous positions in AChE and BChE. Herein we show further characterization of the R451C mutation in NLGN3 when expressed in HEK-293, and by protease digestion sensitivity, we reveal that the phenotype results from protein misfolding. However, the presence of an extra Cys does not interfere with the formation of disulfide bonds as shown by reaction with PEG-maleimide and estimation of the molecular mass changes. These findings highlight the role of proper protein folding in protein processing and localization. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds at the French Guiana Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corain Lopes, P.; Guenther, A. B.; Turnipseed, A.; Burban, B.; Bonal, D.; Serca, D.; Emmons, L. K.; Bustillos, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) emissions play an important role in regional air quality and global atmospheric chemistry. In addition, these natural VOC emissions serve important biological functions including attracting and repelling pollinators and herbivores. Some biological organisms use ambient air as a communication medium and the oxidation of these compounds brings about the concentration gradients sensed by insects and other organisms. Isoprene is the predominant BVOC emitted by vegetation and tropical forests are the dominant global source. This compound is very reactive in the atmosphere and contributes to the reactions that control tropospheric oxidant concentrations and thus the concentrations and lifetimes of longer-lived species. This paper presents a study of isoprene and some other significant BVOCs such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-β ocimene and longifolene, measured at the Paracou Tower located in a wet tropical forest in Cayenne, French Guiana, during the year of 2011, using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique at 30 meters high above the canopy. The results show a lower concentration of isoprene during the month of February and March which correspond to the wet season with an average of 0,545 μg/m3 and 0,341 μg/m3, respectively with a slight increase in middle April which is a period of transition between wet and dry and a higher concentration later in mid-June which corresponds to the transition from wet to dry season (Figure 1). The same behavior was observed for α-pinene with higher concentrations for the same periods as isoprene however with a smaller increase. All the other compounds had concentrations below 1 μg/m3 during the whole year. The monoterpene, e-β ocimene, was observed and is known as a stress compound but the vegetation at the site did not face any known severe stress condition such as excessive drought or flooding. Concerning the fluxes, the results showed that just a small amount of BVOCs were

  19. Antioxidative properties of the essential oil from Pinus mugo.

    PubMed

    Grassmann, Johanna; Hippeli, Susanne; Vollmann, Renate; Elstner, Erich F

    2003-12-17

    The essential oil from Pinus mugo (PMEO) was tested on its antioxidative capacity. For this purpose, several biochemical test systems were chosen (e.g., the Fenton System, the xanthine oxidase assay, or the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)). The results show that there is moderate or weak antioxidative activity when tested in aqueous environments, like in the Fenton system, xanthine oxidase induced superoxide radical formation, or in the HOCl driven fragmentation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In contrast, when tested in more lipophilic environments (e.g., the ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood) the PMEO exhibits good antioxidative activity. PMEO does also show good antioxidative capacity in another lipophilic test system (i.e., the copper induced oxidation of LDL). Some components of PMEO (i.e., Delta(3)-carene, camphene, alpha-pinene, (+)-limonene and terpinolene) were also tested. As the PMEO, they showed weak or no antioxidant activity in aqueous environments, but some of them were effective antioxidants regarding ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood or copper-induced LDL-oxidation. Terpinolene, a minor component of PMEO, exhibited remarkable protection against LDL-oxidation.

  20. Composition of the essential oil of leaves, galls, and ripe and unripe fruits of Jordanian Pistacia palaestina Boiss.

    PubMed

    Flamini, Guido; Bader, Ammar; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Katbeh-Bader, Ahmad; Morelli, Ivano

    2004-02-11

    Pistacia palaestina Boiss. (Pistacia terebinthus L. var. palaestina (Boiss.) Engl.) is a medicinal and foodstuff plant. The ripe fruits are used largely in the Middle East as a component of the so-called Zaatar, a mix of aromatic and food plants. Results of GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oils of leaves, galls produced by Baizongia pistaciae (L.), and ripe and unripe fruits of Pistacia palaestinaBoiss. collected in Jordan are reported. Both qualitative and quantitative differences between different parts of the plant were observed. The oil was rich in monoterpenes, and the main constituents were alpha-pinene (63.1%) and myrcene (13.3%) in the leaves and alpha-pinene (49.4%), sabinene (22.8%), and limonene (8.1%) in the galls. (E)-Ocimene (33.8-41.3%), sabinene (20.3-24.1%), and (Z)-ocimene (3.8-13.0%) were the main ones in both unripe and ripe fruits. Sesquiterpenes have been detected in small quantities in leaves and fruits and in trace amounts in galls.

  1. Essential oil from the leaves of Annona vepretorum: chemical composition and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Dutra, Lívia Macedo; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valéria Regina de Souza; Salvador, Marcos José; Ribeiro, Luis Henrique Gonzaga; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos

    2012-02-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Annona vepretorun was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Eighteen compounds representing 98.1% of the crude essential oil were identified. The major compounds identified were bicyclogermacrene (43.7%), spathulenol (11.4%), alpha-felandrene (10.0%), alpha-pinene (7.1%), (E)-beta-ocimene (6.8%), germacrene D (5.8%), and p-cymene (4.2%). The trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms, as well as, the antimicrobial and antioxidant proprieties was investigated. The essential oil showed a potent trypanocidal activity with IC50 value of 31.9 +/-1.3 microg x mL(-1). For antimicrobial activity, the best result was observed against Candida tropicalis with a MIC value of 100 microg x mL(-1). For antioxidant capacity the essential oil showed weak activity.

  2. Oxygen binding by alpha(Fe2+)2beta(Ni2+)2 hemoglobin crystals.

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, S.; Bettati, S.; Manfredini, M.; Mozzarelli, A.; Bolognesi, M.; Deriu, D.; Rosano, C.; Tsuneshige, A.; Yonetani, T.; Henry, E. R.

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen binding by hemoglobin fixed in the T state either by crystallization or by encapsulation in silica gels is apparently noncooperative. However, cooperativity might be masked by different oxygen affinities of alpha and beta subunits. Metal hybrid hemoglobins, where the noniron metal does not bind oxygen, provide the opportunity to determine the oxygen affinities of alpha and beta hemes separately. Previous studies have characterized the oxygen binding by alpha(Ni2+)2beta(Fe2+)2 crystals. Here, we have determined the three-dimensional (3D) structure and oxygen binding of alpha(Fe2+)2beta(Ni2+)2 crystals grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. Polarized absorption spectra were recorded at different oxygen pressures with light polarized parallel either to the b or c crystal axis by single crystal microspectrophotometry. The oxygen pressures at 50% saturation (p50s) are 95 +/- 3 and 87 +/- 4 Torr along the b and c crystal axes, respectively, and the corresponding Hill coefficients are 0.96 +/- 0.06 and 0.90 +/- 0.03. Analysis of the binding curves, taking into account the different projections of the alpha hemes along the optical directions, indicates that the oxygen affinity of alpha1 hemes is 1.3-fold lower than alpha2 hemes. Inspection of the 3D structure suggests that this inequivalence may arise from packing interactions of the Hb tetramer within the monoclinic crystal lattice. A similar inequivalence was found for the beta subunits of alpha(Ni2+)2beta(Fe2+)2 crystals. The average oxygen affinity of the alpha subunits (p50 = 91 Torr) is about 1.2-fold higher than the beta subunits (p50 = 110 Torr). In the absence of cooperativity, this heterogeneity yields an oxygen binding curve of Hb A with a Hill coefficient of 0.999. Since the binding curves of Hb A crystals exhibit a Hill coefficient very close to unity, these findings indicate that oxygen binding by T-state hemoglobin is noncooperative, in keeping with the Monod, Wyman, and Changeux model. PMID

  3. Functional characterization of transcription factor binding sites for HNF1-alpha, HNF3-beta (FOXA2), HNF4-alpha, Sp1 and Sp3 in the human prothrombin gene enhancer.

    PubMed

    Ceelie, H; Spaargaren-Van Riel, C C; De Jong, M; Bertina, R M; Vos, H L

    2003-08-01

    Prothrombin is a key component in blood coagulation. Overexpression of prothrombin leads to an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Therefore, the study of the transcriptional regulation of the prothrombin gene may help to identify mechanisms of overexpression. The aim of our study was to localize the regions within the prothrombin enhancer responsible for its activity, to identify the proteins binding to these regions, and to establish their functional importance. We constructed a set of prothrombin promoter 5' deletion constructs containing the firefly luciferase reporter gene, which were transiently transfected in HepG2, HuH7 and HeLa cells. Putative transcription factor (TF) binding sites were evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The functional importance of each TF binding site was evaluated by site directed mutagenesis and transient transfection of the mutant constructs. We confirmed the major contribution of the enhancer region to the transcriptional activity of the prothrombin promoter. Analysis of this region revealed putative binding sites for hepatocyte nuclear factor HNF4, HNF3-beta and specificity protein(Sp)1. We identified six different TFs binding to three evolutionary conserved sites in the enhancer: HNF4-alpha (site 1), HNF1-alpha, HNF3-beta and an as yet unidentified TF (site 2) and the ubiquitously expressed TFs Sp1 and Sp3 (site 3). Mutagenesis studies showed that loss of binding of HNF3-beta resulted in a considerable decrease of enhancer activity, whereas loss of HNF4-alpha or Sp1/Sp3 resulted in milder reductions. The prothrombin enhancer plays a major role in regulation of prothrombin expression. Six different TFs are able to bind to this region. At least three of these TFs, HNF4-alpha, HNF3-beta and Sp1/Sp3, are important in regulation of prothrombin expression.

  4. Rab-coupling protein coordinates recycling of alpha5beta1 integrin and EGFR1 to promote cell migration in 3D microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Patrick T; Chan, May; Lindsay, Andrew J; McCaffrey, Mary W; Boettiger, David; Norman, Jim C

    2008-10-06

    Here we show that blocking the adhesive function of alphavbeta3 integrin with soluble RGD ligands, such as osteopontin or cilengitide, promoted association of Rab-coupling protein (RCP) with alpha5beta1 integrin and drove RCP-dependent recycling of alpha5beta1 to the plasma membrane and its mobilization to dynamic ruffling protrusions at the cell front. These RCP-driven changes in alpha5beta1 trafficking led to acquisition of rapid/random movement on two-dimensional substrates and to a marked increase in fibronectin-dependent migration of tumor cells into three-dimensional matrices. Recycling of alpha5beta1 integrin did not affect its regulation or ability to form adhesive bonds with substrate fibronectin. Instead, alpha5beta1 controlled the association of EGFR1 with RCP to promote the coordinate recycling of these two receptors. This modified signaling downstream of EGFR1 to increase its autophosphorylation and activation of the proinvasive kinase PKB/Akt. We conclude that RCP provides a scaffold that promotes the physical association and coordinate trafficking of alpha5beta1 and EGFR1 and that this drives migration of tumor cells into three-dimensional matrices.

  5. Field Bioassays of Synthetic Pheromones and Host Monoterpenes for Conophthorus coniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Peter de Groot; Gary L. DeBarr; Goran Birgersson

    1998-01-01

    Four major monoterpenes, (±)-a-pinene,1 (S)-(-)-ß-pinene,(R)-(+)-limonene, and myrcene are found in the cones of eastern white pines, Pinus strobus L. Mixtures ofthese, as well as. a-pinene or ß-pinene alone. increased catches of male white pine cone...

  6. Elemental Composition Analysis to Investigate NOx Effects on Secondary Organic Aerosol from α-Pinene Using Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. J.; Park, J. H.; Babar, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for 20-70% of atmospheric fine aerosol. NOx plays crucial roles in SOA formation and consequently affects the composition and yield of SOA. SOA component speciation is incomplete due to its complex composition of polar oxygenated and multifunctional species. In this study, ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (UHR MS) was applied to improve the understanding of NOx effects on biogenic SOA formation by identifying the elemental composition of SOA. Additional research aim was to investigate oligomer components that are considered as a driving force for SOA formation and growth. In this study α-pinene SOA from photochemical reaction was examined. SOA formation was performed in the absence and presence of NOx at dry condition (<5% RH) of room temperature (~25oC) in ~8 m3 KNU smog chamber. SOA was collected on Teflon-coated glass fiber filter, which was extracted using acetonitrile and analyzed by ultrahigh resolution 15T FT-ICR MS. UHR MS data were interpreted in various ways including molecular formula, Kendrick diagram, van Krevelen diagram, and double bond equivalent values. Substantially large fractions of them are nitrogen containing species. Thousands of individual species of SOA were identified. For SOA in the absence of NOx. intensity normalized mean O/C, H/C, N/C, OM/OC ratios were 0.43, 1.52, 0.02, and 1.68, respectively. For SOA in the presence of NOx, those ratios were 0.52, 0.95, 0.08, and 1.48, respectively. 4 different oligomer formation mechanisms (addition, H abstraction, hydrolysis and de-hydrolysis reaction) were examined on the basis of SOA compositions. Detailed discussion will be presented on the molecular structure and building block of oligomers in SOA as well as the evolution of individual elemental composition by multi-generation reactions. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2011-01350000).

  7. Reduced Fragment Diversity for Alpha and Alpha-Beta Protein Structure Prediction using Rosetta.

    PubMed

    Abbass, Jad; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Protein structure prediction is considered a main challenge in computational biology. The biannual international competition, Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP), has shown in its eleventh experiment that free modelling target predictions are still beyond reliable accuracy, therefore, much effort should be made to improve ab initio methods. Arguably, Rosetta is considered as the most competitive method when it comes to targets with no homologues. Relying on fragments of length 9 and 3 from known structures, Rosetta creates putative structures by assembling candidate fragments. Generally, the structure with the lowest energy score, also known as first model, is chosen to be the "predicted one". A thorough study has been conducted on the role and diversity of 3-mers involved in Rosetta's model "refinement" phase. Usage of the standard number of 3-mers - i.e. 200 - has been shown to degrade alpha and alpha-beta protein conformations initially achieved by assembling 9-mers. Therefore, a new prediction pipeline is proposed for Rosetta where the "refinement" phase is customised according to a target's structural class prediction. Over 8% improvement in terms of first model structure accuracy is reported for alpha and alpha-beta classes when decreasing the number of 3- mers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Comparison of chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from three conifer trees; Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2009-04-01

    The chemical compositions, and antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from three coniferous species, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, were investigated. Gas chromatography mass analysis of the essential oils revealed that the major components and the percentage of each essential oil were 16.66% beta-phellandrene and 14.85% alpha-pinene in P. densiflora; 31.45% kaur-16-ene and 11.06% sabinene in C. japonica; and 18.75% bicyclo [2, 2, 1] heptan-2-ol and 17.41% 2-carene in Ch. obtusa. The antimicrobial assay by agar disc diffusion method showed that 2.2 microg of Ch. obtusa oil inhibited most effectively the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 33312 and Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 10031, whereas the C. japonica oil gave weak antimicrobial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for bacterial strains were in the range of 5.45-21.8 mg/ml depending on essential oils, but most Gram-negative bacteria were resistant even at 21.8 mg oil/ml. P. densiflora oil showed the most effective antifungal activity and the MIC values for Cryptococcus neoformans B42419 and Candida glabrata YFCC 062CCM 11658 were as low as 0.545 and 2.18 mg/ml, respectively. Cryp. neoformans B42419 was the most sensitive to all essential oils in the range of 0.545-2.18 mg/ml. Our data clearly showed that the essential oils from the three conifers had effective antimicrobial activity, especially against fungi.

  9. Gene encoding the human. beta. -hexosaminidase. beta. chain: Extensive homology of intron placement in the. alpha. - and. beta. -chain genes

    SciTech Connect

    Proia, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    Lysosomal {beta}-hexosaminidase is composed of two structurally similar chains, {alpha} and {beta}, that are the products of different genes. Mutations in either gene causing {beta}-hexosaminidase deficiency result in the lysosomal storage disease GM2-gangliosidosis. To enable the investigation of the molecular lesions in this disorder and to study the evolutionary relationship between the {alpha} and {beta} chains, the {beta}-chain gene was isolated, and its organization was characterized. The {beta}-chain coding region is divided into 14 exons distributed over {approx}40 kilobases of DNA. Comparison with the {alpha}-chain gene revealed that 12 of the 13 introns interrupt the coding regions at homologous positions.more » This extensive sharing of intron placement demonstrates that the {alpha} and {beta} chains evolved by way of the duplication of a common ancestor.« less

  10. Do multiple herbivores maintain chemical diversity of Scots pine monoterpenes?

    PubMed Central

    Iason, Glenn R.; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M.; Brewer, Mark J.; Summers, Ron W.; Moore, Ben D.

    2011-01-01

    A central issue in our understanding of the evolution of the diversity of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) is whether or not compounds are functional, conferring an advantage to the plant, or non-functional. We examine the hypothesis that the diversity of monoterpene PSMs within a plant species (Scots pine Pinus sylvestris) may be explained by different compounds acting as defences against high-impact herbivores operating at different life stages. We also hypothesize that pairwise coevolution, with uncorrelated interactions, is more likely to result in greater PSM diversity, than diffuse coevolution. We tested whether up to 13 different monoterpenes in Scots pine were inhibitory to herbivory by slugs (Arion ater), bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), each of which attack trees at a different life stage. Plants containing more α-pinene were avoided by both slugs and capercaillie, which may act as reinforcing selective agents for this dominant defensive compound. Herbivory by red deer and capercaillie were, respectively, weakly negatively associated with δ3-carene, and strongly negatively correlated with the minor compound β-ocimene. Three of the four herbivores are probably contributory selective agents on some of the terpenes, and thus maintain some, but by no means all, of the phytochemical diversity in the species. The correlated defensive function of α-pinene against slugs and capercaillie is consistent with diffuse coevolutionary processes. PMID:21444308

  11. The 2.0-A resolution structure of soybean beta-amylase complexed with alpha-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Mikami, B; Hehre, E J; Sato, M; Katsube, Y; Hirose, M; Morita, Y; Sacchettini, J C

    1993-07-13

    New crystallographic findings are presented which offer a deeper understanding of the structure and functioning of beta-amylase, the first known exo-type starch-hydrolyzing enzyme. A refined three-dimensional structure of soybean beta-amylase, complexed with the inhibitor alpha-cyclodextrin, has been determined at 2.0-A resolution with a conventional R-value of 17.5%. The model contains 491 amino acid residues, 319 water molecules, 1 sulfate ion, and 1 alpha-cyclodextrin molecule. The protein consists of a core with an (alpha/beta)8 supersecondary structure, plus a smaller globular region formed by long loops (L3, L4, and L5) extending from beta-strands beta 3, beta 4, and beta 5. Between the two regions is a cleft that opens into a pocket whose floor contains the postulated catalytic center near the carboxyl group of Glu 186. The annular alpha-cyclodextrin binds in (and partly projects from) the cleft with its glucosyl O-2/O-3 face abutting the (alpha/beta)8 side and with its alpha-D(1 --> 4) glucosidic linkage progression running clockwise as viewed from that side. The ligand does not bind deeply enough to interact with the carboxyl group of Glu 186. Rather, it occupies most of the cleft entrance, strongly suggesting that alpha-cyclodextrin inhibits catalysis by blocking substrate access to the more deeply located reaction center. Of the various alpha-cyclodextrin interactions with protein residues in loops L4, L5, L6, and L7, most notable is the shallow inclusion complex formed with Leu 383 (in L7, on the core side of the cleft) through contacts of its methyl groups with the C-3 atoms of four of the ligand's D-glucopyranosyl residues. All six residues of the bound alpha-cyclodextrin are of 4C1 conformation and are joined by alpha-1,4 linkages with similar torsional angles to form a nearly symmetrical torus as reported for crystalline inclusion complexes with alpha-cyclodextrin. We envision a significant role for the methyl groups of Leu 383 at the cleft entrance

  12. Elucidation of the opening of the epoxidic ring of the 3beta-acetoxy-14alpha,15alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholest-8-en-7-one by methanol, using NMR techniques assisted by a conformational study through theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Anastasia, Mario; Allevi, Pietro; Colombo, Raffaele; Giannini, Elios

    2007-10-01

    This paper demonstrates that the crystallization of 3beta-acetoxy-14alpha,15alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholest-8-en-7-one from methanol affords the 3beta-acetoxy-9alpha-methoxy-15alpha-hydroxycholest-8(14)-en-7-one. The structure of this steroid, which shows an apparently anomalous UV absorption maximum, is determined by high field NMR experiments, supporting the coupling constant values assignments and the NOE contacts by a conformational study through theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. The computational study also justifies the observed UV absorption of the steroid, thus demonstrating the usefulness of computer chemistry in providing support for the identification of unknown compounds.

  13. Identification of Volatile Flavor Components by Headspace Analysis: A Quick and Easy Experiment for Introducing GC/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjonaas, Richard; Soller, Jean L.; McCoy, Leslee A.

    1997-09-01

    By placing a piece of chewing gum (Wrigley's) or a crushed piece of hard candy (LifeSavers or Runts) into a vial, followed by GC/MS analysis of a five microliter sample of the headspace, students are able to identify several of the volatile flavoring components which are present. The experiment has been used successfully with sophomore organic chemistry students, and with visiting groups of talented high school students over a three year period. Identification is simplified by handing out a list of the structural formulas of some likely candidates. Some of the components that these students easily identity include ethyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, limonene, and cinnamaldehyde. Some of the more difficult to identify components include menthol, menthone, carvone, cineole, myrcene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, para-cymene, and gama-terpinene. Most of the major headspace components give signals whose size is comparable to that of the carbon dioxide which is present in each injection. Even with split injection, the background noise is trivial compared to the signals from the major components. The experiments were carried out with a commercially available tabletop GC/MS (Varian 3400 with Saturn MS).

  14. Three-dimensional structure of holo 3 alpha,20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: a member of a short-chain dehydrogenase family.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, D; Weeks, C M; Grochulski, P; Duax, W L; Erman, M; Rimsay, R L; Orr, J C

    1991-01-01

    The x-ray structure of a short-chain dehydrogenase, the bacterial holo 3 alpha,20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.53), is described at 2.6 A resolution. This enzyme is active as a tetramer and crystallizes with four identical subunits in the asymmetric unit. It has the alpha/beta fold characteristic of the dinucleotide binding region. The fold of the rest of the subunit, the quaternary structure, and the nature of the cofactor-enzyme interactions are, however, significantly different from those observed in the long-chain dehydrogenases. The architecture of the postulated active site is consistent with the observed stereospecificity of the enzyme and the fact that the tetramer is the active form. There is only one cofactor and one substrate-binding site per subunit; the specificity for both 3 alpha- and 20 beta-ends of the steroid results from the binding of the steroid in two orientations near the same cofactor at the same catalytic site. Images PMID:1946424

  15. Induction of experimental bone metastasis in mice by transfection of integrin alpha 4 beta 1 into tumor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, N.; Puzon-McLaughlin, W.; Irie, A.; Morikawa, Y.; Kakudo, K.; Takada, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Cell adhesion receptors (eg, integrins and CD44) play an important role in invasion and metastasis during tumor progression. The increase in integrin alpha 4 beta 1 expression on primary melanomas has been reported to significantly correlate with the development of metastases. alpha 4 beta 1 is a cell surface heterodimer that mediates cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions through adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and to the IIICS region of fibronectin. To test the effects of alpha 4 beta 1 expression on tumor cell metastasis, Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with human alpha 4 cDNA. Whereas alpha 4-negative Chinese hamster ovary cells developed only pulmonary metastasis, alpha 4-positive Chinese hamster ovary cells developed bone and pulmonary metastasis in 3 to 4 weeks when injected intravenously into nude mice. Bone metastasis was inhibited by antibody against alpha 4 or VCAM-1. Expression of alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 1, or alpha V beta 1 did not induce bone metastasis. Expression of alpha 4 beta 1 also induced bone metastasis in K562 human erythroleukemia cells injected into SCID mice. These results demonstrate that alpha 4 beta 1 can induce tumor cell trafficking to bone, probably via interaction with VCAM-1 that is constitutively expressed on bone marrow stromal cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8546226

  16. Development of an alpha/beta/gamma detector for radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2011-11-01

    For radiation monitoring at the site of nuclear power plant accidents such as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles are needed because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. We developed a radiation detector that can simultaneously monitor alpha and beta particles and gamma photons for radiation monitoring. The detector consists of three-layered scintillators optically coupled to each other and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: 2.4 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd2SiO5 (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol.% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol.% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. By using pulse shape discrimination, the count rates of these layers can be separated. With individual irradiation of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons, the count rate of the first layer represented the alpha particles, the second layer represented the beta particles, and the third layer represented the gamma photons. Even with simultaneous irradiation of the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons, these three types of radiation can be individually monitored using correction for the gamma detection efficiency of the second and third layers. Our developed alpha, beta, and gamma detector is simple and will be useful for radiation monitoring, especially at nuclear power plant accident sites or other applications where the simultaneous measurements of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons are required.

  17. Development of an alpha/beta/gamma detector for radiation monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2011-11-01

    For radiation monitoring at the site of nuclear power plant accidents such as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles are needed because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. We developed a radiation detector that can simultaneously monitor alpha and beta particles and gamma photons for radiation monitoring. The detector consists of three-layered scintillators optically coupled to each other and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: 2.4 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd(2)SiO(5) (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol.% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol.% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. By using pulse shape discrimination, the count rates of these layers can be separated. With individual irradiation of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons, the count rate of the first layer represented the alpha particles, the second layer represented the beta particles, and the third layer represented the gamma photons. Even with simultaneous irradiation of the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons, these three types of radiation can be individually monitored using correction for the gamma detection efficiency of the second and third layers. Our developed alpha, beta, and gamma detector is simple and will be useful for radiation monitoring, especially at nuclear power plant accident sites or other applications where the simultaneous measurements of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons are required. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  18. Agglucetin, a tetrameric C-type lectin-like venom protein, regulates endothelial cell survival and promotes angiogenesis by activating integrin {alpha}v{beta}3 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.-J.

    2008-05-02

    Agglucetin, a platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ib binding protein from Formosan Agkistrodon acutus (A. acutus) venom, could sustain human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and HUVEC adhering to immobilized agglucetin showed extensive spreading, which was strongly abrogated by integrin antagonists 7E3 and triflavin. Flow cytometric analyses confirmed the expression of GPIb complex on HUVEC is absent and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-agglucetin binds to HUVEC in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. Furthermore, native agglucetin specifically and dose-dependently inhibited the binding of FITC-23C6, an anti-{alpha}v{beta}3 monoclonal antibody (mAb), but not antibodies against {alpha}2 and {alpha}5, toward HUVEC and purified {alpha}v{beta}3 also bound to immobilizedmore » agglucetin-{beta} in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, agglucetin exhibited a pro-angiogenic effect in vitro, as well as the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-associated signaling molecules responsible for HUVEC activation were initiated by agglucetin. In conclusion, agglucetin, acting as a survival factor, promotes endothelial adhesion and angiogenesis by triggering {alpha}v{beta}3 signaling through FAK/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway.« less

  19. [Analysis of the chemical constituents of volatile oils of Metasequoia glyptostroboides leave].

    PubMed

    Shong, E; Lui, R

    1997-10-01

    The chemical constituents of volatile oils of Metasequoia glyptostroboides leave were analyzed by GC-MS-DS. 27 constituents were identified, alpha-pinene (70.65%) and caryophyllene (10.38%) of them are main components.

  20. Application of high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry measurements to estimate volatility distributions of α-pinene and naphthalene oxidation products

    DOE PAGES

    Chhabra, P. S.; Lambe, A. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; ...

    2015-01-05

    Recent developments in high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) have made it possible to directly detect atmospheric organic compounds in real time with high sensitivity and with little or no fragmentation, including low-volatility, highly oxygenated organic vapors that are precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, using ions identified by high-resolution spectra from an HR-ToF-CIMS with acetate reagent ion chemistry, we develop an algorithm to estimate the vapor pressures of measured organic acids. The algorithm uses identified ion formulas and calculated double bond equivalencies, information unavailable in quadrupole CIMS technology, as constraints for the number of possible oxygen-containing functionalmore » groups. The algorithm is tested with acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry (acetate-CIMS) spectra of O 3 and OH oxidation products of α-pinene and naphthalene formed in a flow reactor with integrated OH exposures ranged from 1.2 × 10 11 to 9.7 × 10 11 molec s cm −3, corresponding to approximately 1.0 to 7.5 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Measured gas-phase organic acids are similar to those previously observed in environmental chamber studies. For both precursors, we find that acetate-CIMS spectra capture both functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) as a function of OH exposure. The level of fragmentation is observed to increase with increased oxidation. The predicted condensed-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) average acid yields and O/C and H/C ratios agree within uncertainties with previous chamber and flow reactor measurements and ambient CIMS results. Furthermore, while acetate reagent ion chemistry is used to selectively measure organic acids, in principle this method can be applied to additional reagent ion chemistries depending on the application.« less

  1. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Pinus patula.

    PubMed

    Amri, Ismail; Lamia, Hamrouni; Gargouri, Samia; Hanana, Mohsen; Mahfoudhia, Mariem; Fezzani, Tarek; Ezzeddine, Ferjani; Jamoussi, Bassem

    2011-10-01

    Essential oils isolated from needles of Pinus patula by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty-eight compounds were identified, representing 98.3% of the total oil. The oil was rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons (62.4%), particularly alpha-pinene (35.2%) and beta-phellandrene (19.5%). The in vitro antifungal assay showed that P. patula oil significantly inhibited the growth of 9 plant pathogenic fungi. The oil, when tested on Sinapis arvensis, Lolium rigidum, Phalaris canariensis and Trifolium campestre, completely inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of all species. Our preliminary results showed that P. patula essential oil could be valorized for the control of weeds and fungal plant diseases.

  2. The role of alpha3beta1 integrin in determining the supramolecular organization of laminin-5 in the extracellular matrix of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    deHart, Gregory W; Healy, Kevin E; Jones, Jonathan C R

    2003-02-01

    Analyses of mice with targeted deletions in the genes for alpha3 and beta1 integrin suggest that the alpha3beta1 integrin heterodimer likely determines the organization of the extracellular matrix within the basement membrane of skin. Here we tested this hypothesis using keratinocytes derived from alpha3 integrin-null mice. We have compared the organizational state of laminin-5, a ligand of alpha3beta1 integrin, in the matrix of wild-type keratinocytes with that of laminin-5 in the matrix of alpha3 integrin-null cells. Laminin-5 distributes diffusely in arc structures in the matrix of wild-type mouse keratinocytes, whereas laminin-5 is organized into linear, spike-like arrays by the alpha3 integrin-null cells. The fact that alpha3 integrin-null cells are deficient in their ability to assemble a proper laminin-5 matrix is also shown by their failure to remodel laminin-5 when plated onto surfaces coated with purified laminin-5 protein. In sharp contrast, wild-type keratinocytes organize exogenously added laminin-5 into discrete ring-like organizations. These findings led us next to assess whether differences in laminin-5 organization in the matrix of the wild-type and alpha3 integrin-null cells impact cell behavior. Our results indicate that alpha3 integrin-null cells are more motile than their wild-type counterparts and leave extensive trails of laminin-5 over the surface on which they move. Moreover, HEK 293 cells migrate significantly more on the laminin-5-rich matrix derived from the alpha3 integrin-null cells than on the wild-type keratinocyte laminin-5 matrix. In addition, alpha3 integrin-null cells show low strength of adhesion to surfaces coated with purified laminin-5 compared to wild-type cells although both the wild type and the alpha3 integrin-null keratinocytes adhere equally strongly to laminin-5 that has been organized into arrays by other epithelial cells. These data suggest: (1) that alpha3beta1 integrin plays an important role in determining the

  3. Generation of sub-ppb level vapor phase mixtures of biogenic volatile organic compounds from liquid phase standards and stepwise characterization of their volatilization properties by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mohammad Asif; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-12-19

    In the analysis of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in ambient air, preparation of a sub-ppb level standard is an important factor. This task is very challenging as most BVOCs (e.g., monoterpenes) are highly volatile and reactive in nature. As a means to produce sub-ppb gaseous standards for BVOCs, we investigated the dynamic headspace (HS) extraction technique through which their vapors are generated from a liquid standard (mixture of 10 BVOCs: (1) α-pinene, (2) β-pinene, (3) 3-carene, (4) myrcene, (5) α-phellandrene, (6) α-terpinene, (7) R-limonene, (8) γ-terpinene, (9) p-cymene, and (10) Camphene) spiked into a chamber-style impinger. The quantification of BVOCs was made by collection on multiple-bed sorbent tubes (STs) and subsequent analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Using this approach, sub-ppb level mixtures of gaseous BVOCs were generated at different sweep cycles. The mean concentrations of 10 BVOCs generated from the most stable conditions (i.e., in the third sweep cycle) varied in the range of 0.37±0.05 to 7.27±0.86ppb depending on the initial concentration of liquid standard spiked into the system. The reproducibility of the gaseous BVOCs generated as mixture standards, if expressed in terms of relative standard error using the concentration datasets acquired under stable conditions, ranged from 1.64 (α-phellandrene) to 9.67% (R-limonene). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Terpenoid constituents of cinnamon and clove essential oils cause toxic effects and behavior repellency response on granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius.

    PubMed

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Campos, Juliana Mendonça; da Silva Rolim, Gabriela; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2018-07-30

    This study evaluated toxic effects, repellency and respiration rate caused by terpenoid constituents of cinnamon and clove essential oils and against Sitophilus granarius L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 ), repellent effect, and behavior repellency response on adults of S. granarius after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and terpenoids were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.5%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (10.2%), benzyl benzoate (9.99%), caryophyllene (9.34%), eugenyl acetate (7.71%), α-phellandrene (7.41%), and α-pinene (7.14%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (27.1%), caryophyllene (24.5%), caryophyllene oxide (18.3%), 2-propenoic acid (12.2%), α-humulene (10.8%), γ-cadinene (5.01%), and humulene oxide (4.84%). Cinnamon and clove essential oil was toxic to S. granarius. In toxic terpenoids compounds, eugenol has stronger contact toxicity in S. granarius than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-humulene, and α-phellandrene. Insects reduced their respiratory rates after being exposed to essential oil terpenoids and avoided or reduced their mobility on terpenoid-treated surfaces. Cinnamon and clove essential oil, and their terpenoid constituents were toxic and repellent to adult S. granarius and, therefore, have the potential to prevent or retard the development of insecticide resistance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of quench on alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination of liquid scintillation cocktails.

    PubMed

    DeVol, Timothy A; Theisen, Christopher D; DiPrete, David P

    2007-05-01

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to illustrate that knowledge of the external quench parameter is insufficient to properly setup a pulse shape discriminating liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for quantitative measurement, (2) to illustrate dependence on pulse shape discrimination on the radionuclide (more than just radiation and energy), and (3) to compare the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) of two commercial instruments. The effects various quenching agents, liquid scintillation cocktails, radionuclides, and LSCs have on alpha/beta pulse shape discriminating liquid scintillation counting were quantified. Alpha emitting radionuclides (239)Pu and (241)Am and beta emitter (90)Sr/(90)Y were investigated to quantify the nuclide dependence on alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination. Also, chemical and color quenching agents, nitromethane, nitric acid, and yellow dye impact on alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination using PerkinElmer Optiphase "HiSafe" 2 and 3, and Ultima Gold AB liquid scintillation cocktails were determined. The prepared samples were counted on the PerkinElmer Wallac WinSpectral 1414 alpha/beta pulse shape discriminating LSC. It was found that for the same level of quench, as measured by the external quench parameter, different quench agents influenced the pulse shape discrimination and the pulse shape discrimination parameters differently. The radionuclide also affects alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination. By comparison with the PerkinElmer Tri-carb 3150 TR/AB, the Wallac 1414 exhibited better pulse shape discrimination capability under the same experimental conditions.

  6. Influence of humidity, temperature, and radicals on the formation and thermal properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from ozonolysis of β-pinene.

    PubMed

    Emanuelsson, Eva U; Watne, Ågot K; Lutz, Anna; Ljungström, Evert; Hallquist, Mattias

    2013-10-10

    The influence of water and radicals on SOAs produced by β-pinene ozonolysis was investigated at 298 and 288 K using a laminar flow reactor. A volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) was used to measure the evaporation of the SOA, enabling the parametrization of its volatility properties. The parameters extracted included the temperature at which 50% of the aerosol had evaporated (T(VFR0.5)) and the slope factor (S(VFR)). An increase in S(VFR) indicates a broader distribution of vapor pressures for the aerosol constituents. Reducing the reaction temperature increased S(VFR) and decreased T(VFR0.5) under humid conditions but had less effect on T(VFR0.5) under dry conditions. In general, higher water concentrations gave lower T(VFR0.5) values, more negative S(VFR) values, and a reduction in total SOA production. The radical conditions were changed by introducing OH scavengers to generate systems with and without OH radicals and with different [HO2]/[RO2] ratios. The presence of a scavenger and lower [HO2]/[RO2] ratio reduced SOA production. Observed changes in S(VFR) values could be linked to the more complex chemistry that occurs in the absence of a scavenger and indicated that additional HO2 chemistry gives products with a wider range of vapor pressures. Updates to existing ozonolysis mechanisms with routes that describe the observed responses to water and radical conditions for monoterpenes with endocyclic and exocyclic double bonds are discussed.

  7. Analysis of volatile secondary metabolites from Colombian Xylopia aromatica (Lamarck) by different extraction and headspace methods and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stashenko, Elena E; Jaramillo, Beatriz E; Martínez, Jairo René

    2004-01-30

    Hydrodistillation (HD), simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction (SDE), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD), and supercritical fluid (CO2) extraction (SFE), were employed to isolate volatile secondary metabolites from Colombian Xylopia aromatica (Lamarck) fruits. Static headspace (S-HS), simultaneous purge and trap (P&T) in solvent (CH2Cl2), and headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) were utilised to obtain volatile fractions from fruits of X. aromatica trees, which grow wild in Central and South America, and are abundant in Colombia. Kováts indices, mass spectra or standard compounds, were used to identify more than 50 individual components in the various volatile fractions. beta-Phellandrene was the main component found in the HD and MWHD essential oils, SDE and SFE extracts (61, 65, 57, and ca. 40%, respectively), followed by beta-myrcene (9.1, 9.3, 8.2 and 5.1%), and alpha-pinene (8.1, 7.3, 8.1 and 5.9%). The main components present in the volatile fractions of the X. aromatica fruits, isolated by S-HS, P&T and HS-SPME were beta-phellandrene (53.8, 35.7 and 39%), beta-myrcene (13.3, 12.3 and 10.1%), p-mentha-1(7),8-diene (7.1, 10.6 and 10.4%), alpha-phellandrene (2.2, 5.0 and 6.4%), and p-cymene (2.2,4.7 and 4.4%), respectively.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of the 6 alpha- and 6 beta-hydroxylated derivatives of corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, and 11-deoxycortisol.

    PubMed

    Kraan, G P; van Wee, K T; Wolthers, B G; van der Molen, J C; Nagel, G T; Drayer, N M; van Leusen, D

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the synthesis of 6 alpha, 17,21- and 6 beta, 17,21-trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, 6 alpha, 7,21- and 6 beta, 11 beta, 21-trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, and--for the first time--that of 6 alpha, 21- and 6 beta, 21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione. The former four compounds were prepared by 6-hydroxylation of 17,21-trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione and 11 beta, 21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, respectively. This was achieved by autoxidation or by oxidation with 3-chloroperbenzoic acid, of the 3-methoxy-pregna-3,5-dienes of the latter two steroids. The yield of the 6 beta-hydroxylated steroids, but not of their corresponding 6 alpha-epimers, was higher using autoxidation than the peracid. The two 6-hydroxylated pregnenetriones were prepared from 6 alpha, 21-diacetoxy-11 beta-hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione and 6 beta, 21-diacetoxy-11 beta-hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, respectively, by oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate. The above-mentioned six steroids were identified and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, ultraviolet, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry.

  9. Parallel beta/alpha-barrels of alpha-amylase, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase versus the barrel of beta-amylase: evolutionary distance is a reflection of unrelated sequences.

    PubMed

    Janecek, S

    1994-10-17

    The structures of functionally related beta/alpha-barrel starch hydrolases, alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase, are discussed, their mutual sequence similarities being emphasized. Since these enzymes (except for beta-amylase) along with the predicted set of more than ten beta/alpha-barrels from the alpha-amylase enzyme superfamily fulfil the criteria characteristic of the products of divergent evolution, their unrooted distance tree is presented.

  10. Antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities of the volatile oil from the wild pepper Piper capense used in Cameroon as a culinary spice.

    PubMed

    Woguem, Verlaine; Maggi, Filippo; Fogang, Hervet P D; Tapondjoua, Léon A; Womeni, Hilaire M; Luana, Quassinti; Bramuccic, Massimo; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Lupidi, Giulio; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Barboni, Luciano

    2013-12-01

    Wild pepper (Piper capense L.f., Piperaceae) is a spice traditionally used in western Cameroon to make soups called 'Nkui' and 'Nah poh'. In the present work, the essential oil hydrodistilled from fruits was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS, and for in vitro biological activities, namely cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial, by MTT, DPPH, ABTS and agar disc diffusion methods. The oil composition was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (56.5%) responsible for the pepper odor, such as (beta-pinene (33.2%), sabinene (10.0%) and alpha-pinene (8.9%). The oil induced a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on human tumor cells MDA-MB 231 (breast adenocarcinoma), A375 (malignant melanoma) and HCT116 (colon carcinoma), showing IC50 values of 26.3, 76.0 and 22.7 microg/ml, respectively. The oil showed total antioxidant activity with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant concentration (TEAC) value of 140 micromol/g. The essential oil of P. capense proved to be an effective scavenger of the ABTS+ radical, with an activity only about 30 times lower than that of Trolox. Moderate activity was observed against the Gram-positive species Staphylococcos aureus and Enterococcusfaecalis, and the yeast Candida albicans. The notable inhibition of some human tumor cells is worthy of further investigation to discover the possible mechanisms of action responsible for the observed cytotoxic effect of this essential oil.

  11. Chemical composition of Schinus molle essential oil and its cytotoxic activity on tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Cecilia; Quesada, Silvia; Brenes, Oscar; Aguilar, Gilda; Cicció, José F

    2008-01-01

    The leaf essential oil hydrodistilled from Schinus molle grown in Costa Rica was characterised in terms of its chemical composition, antioxidant activity, ability to induce cytotoxicity and the mechanism of cell death involved in the process. As a result, 42 constituents, accounting for 97.2% of the total oil, were identified. The major constituents of the oil were beta-pinene and alpha-pinene. The antioxidant activity showed an IC(50) of 36.3 microg mL(-1). The essential oil was cytotoxic in several cell lines, showing that it is more effective on breast carcinoma and leukemic cell lines. The LD(50) for cytotoxicity at 48 h in K562 corresponded to 78.7 microg mL(-1), which was very similar to the LD(50) obtained when apoptosis was measured. The essential oil did not induce significant necrosis up to 200 microg mL(-1), which together with the former results indicate that apoptosis is the main mechanism of toxicity induced by S. molle essential oil in this cell line. In conclusion, the essential oil tested was weak antioxidant and induced cytotoxicity in different cell types by a mechanism related to apoptosis. It would be interesting to elucidate the role that different components of the oil play in the effect observed here, since some of them could have potential anti-tumoural effects, either alone or in combination.

  12. Inhibition of HIF-2.alpha. heterodimerization with HIF1.beta. (ARNT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bruick, Richard K.; Caldwell, Charles G.; Frantz, Doug E.

    2017-09-12

    Provided is a method of inhibiting heterodimerization of HIF-2.alpha. to HIF1.beta. (ARNT) comprising binding certain small molecules to the HIF-2.alpha. PAS-B domain cavity but not to HIF1.alpha. and inhibiting HIF-2.alpha. heterodimerization to HIF1.beta. (ARNT) but not inhibiting HIF1.alpha. heterodimerization to HIF1.beta. (ARNT). Those certain small molecules are also referenced synonymously as HIF2-HDI and HIF2.alpha. heterodimerization inhibitors and also simply as certain small molecules.

  13. Invariant glycines and prolines flanking in loops the strand beta 2 of various (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes: a hidden homology?

    PubMed Central

    Janecek, S.

    1996-01-01

    The question of parallel (alpha/beta)8-barrel fold evolution remains unclear, owing mainly to the lack of sequence homology throughout the amino acid sequences of (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes. The "classical" approaches used in the search for homologies among (alpha/beta)8-barrels (e.g., production of structurally based alignments) have yielded alignments perfect from the structural point of view, but the approaches have been unable to reveal the homologies. These are proposed to be "hidden" in (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes. The term "hidden homology" means that the alignment of sequence stretches proposed to be homologous need not be structurally fully satisfactory. This is due to the very long evolutionary history of all (alpha/beta)8-barrels. This work identifies so-called hidden homology around the strand beta 2 that is flanked by loops containing invariant glycines and prolines in 17 different (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes, i.e., roughly in half of all currently known (alpha/beta)8-barrel proteins. The search was based on the idea that a conserved sequence region of an (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzyme should be more or less conserved also in the equivalent part of the structure of the other enzymes with this folding motif, given their mutual evolutionary relatedness. For this purpose, the sequence region around the well-conserved second beta-strand of alpha-amylase flanked by the invariant glycine and proline (56_GFTAIWITP, Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase numbering), was used as the sequence-structural template. The proposal that the second beta-strand of (alpha/beta)8-barrel fold is important from the evolutionary point of view is strongly supported by the increasing trend of the observed beta 2-strand structural similarity for the pairs of (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes: alpha-amylase and the alpha-subunit of tryptophan synthase, alpha-amylase and mandelate racemase, and alpha-amylase and cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase. This trend is also in agreement with the

  14. Invariant glycines and prolines flanking in loops the strand beta 2 of various (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes: a hidden homology?

    PubMed

    Janecek, S

    1996-06-01

    The question of parallel (alpha/beta)8-barrel fold evolution remains unclear, owing mainly to the lack of sequence homology throughout the amino acid sequences of (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes. The "classical" approaches used in the search for homologies among (alpha/beta)8-barrels (e.g., production of structurally based alignments) have yielded alignments perfect from the structural point of view, but the approaches have been unable to reveal the homologies. These are proposed to be "hidden" in (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes. The term "hidden homology" means that the alignment of sequence stretches proposed to be homologous need not be structurally fully satisfactory. This is due to the very long evolutionary history of all (alpha/beta)8-barrels. This work identifies so-called hidden homology around the strand beta 2 that is flanked by loops containing invariant glycines and prolines in 17 different (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes, i.e., roughly in half of all currently known (alpha/beta)8-barrel proteins. The search was based on the idea that a conserved sequence region of an (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzyme should be more or less conserved also in the equivalent part of the structure of the other enzymes with this folding motif, given their mutual evolutionary relatedness. For this purpose, the sequence region around the well-conserved second beta-strand of alpha-amylase flanked by the invariant glycine and proline (56_GFTAIWITP, Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase numbering), was used as the sequence-structural template. The proposal that the second beta-strand of (alpha/beta)8-barrel fold is important from the evolutionary point of view is strongly supported by the increasing trend of the observed beta 2-strand structural similarity for the pairs of (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes: alpha-amylase and the alpha-subunit of tryptophan synthase, alpha-amylase and mandelate racemase, and alpha-amylase and cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase. This trend is also in agreement with the

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Denis, F; Archambault, D

    2001-01-01

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are cytokines produced primarily by monocytes and macrophages with regulatory effects in inflammation and multiple aspects of the immune response. As yet, no molecular data have been reported for IL-1beta and TNF-alpha of the beluga whale. In this study, we cloned and determined the entire cDNA sequence encoding beluga whale IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. The genetic relationship of the cytokine sequences was then analyzed with those from several mammalian species, including the human and the pig. The homology of beluga whale IL-1beta nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences with those from these mammalian species ranged from 74.6 to 86.0% and 62.7 to 77.1%, respectively, whereas that of TNF-alpha varied from 79.3 to 90.8% and 75.3 to 87.7%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences showed that the beluga whale IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were most closely related to those of the ruminant species (cattle, sheep, and deer). The beluga whale IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-encoding sequences were thereafter successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins by using procaryotic expression vectors. The fusion proteins were used to produce beluga whale IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-specific rabbit antisera. Images Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:11768130

  16. Beta/gamma and alpha backgrounds in CRESST-II Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, R.; Angloher, G.; Ferreiro Iachellini, N.

    2015-06-01

    The experiment CRESST-II aims at the detection of dark matter with scintillating CaWO{sub 4} crystals operated as cryogenic detectors. Recent results on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering from the CRESST-II Phase 2 allowed to probe a new region of parameter space for WIMP masses below 3 GeV/c{sup 2}. This sensitivity was achieved after background levels were reduced significantly. We present extensive background studies of a CaWO{sub 4} crystal, called TUM40, grown at the Technische Universität München. The average beta/gamma rate of 3.51/[kg keV day] (1-40 keV) and the total intrinsic alpha activity from natural decay chains of 3.08±0.04 mBq/kg are the lowestmore » reported for CaWO{sub 4} detectors. Contributions from cosmogenic activation, surface-alpha decays, external radiation and intrinsic alpha/beta emitters are investigated in detail. A Monte-Carlo based background decomposition allows to identify the origin of the majority of beta/gamma events in the energy region relevant for dark matter search.« less

  17. Catalytic asymmetric epoxidation of alpha,beta-unsaturated amides: efficient synthesis of beta-aryl alpha-hydroxy amides using a one-pot tandem catalytic asymmetric epoxidation-Pd-catalyzed epoxide opening process.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Tetsuhiro; Kakei, Hiroyuki; Gnanadesikan, Vijay; Tosaki, Shin-Ya; Ohshima, Takashi; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2002-12-11

    The catalytic asymmetric epoxidation of alpha,beta-unsaturated amides using Sm-BINOL-Ph3As=O complex was succeeded. Using 5-10 mol % of the asymmetric catalyst, a variety of amides were epoxidized efficiently, yielding the corresponding alpha,beta-epoxy amides in up to 99% yield and in more than 99% ee. Moreover, the novel one-pot tandem process, one-pot tandem catalytic asymmetric epoxidation-Pd-catalyzed epoxide opening process, was developed. This method was successfully utilized for the efficient synthesis of beta-aryl alpha-hydroxy amides, including beta-aryllactyl-leucine methyl esters. Interestingly, it was found that beneficial modifications on the Pd catalyst were achieved by the constituents of the first epoxidation, producing a more suitable catalyst for the Pd-catalyzed epoxide opening reaction in terms of chemoselectivity.

  18. Catfish (Clarias batrachus) serum lectin recognizes polyvalent Tn [alpha-D-GalpNAc1-Ser/Thr], Talpha [beta-D-Galp-(1-->3)-alpha-D-GalpNAc1-Ser/Thr], and II [beta-D-Galp(1-->4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc1-] mammalian glycotopes.

    PubMed

    Singha, Biswajit; Adhya, Mausumi; Chatterjee, Bishnu P

    2008-09-22

    A new calcium dependent GalNAc/Gal specific lectin was isolated from the serum of Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus and designated as C. batrachus lectin (CBL). It is a disulfide-linked homodecameric lectin of 74.65kDa subunits and the oligomeric form is essential for its activity. Binding specificity of CBL was investigated by enzyme-linked lectin-sorbent assay using a series of simple sugars, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins. GalNAc was more potent inhibitor than Gal; and alpha glycosides of both were more inhibitory than their beta counterparts. CBL showed maximum affinity for human tumor-associated Tn-antigens (GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr) at the molecular level and was 3.5 times higher than GalNAc. CBL interacted strongly with polyvalent Tn and Talpha (Galbeta1,3GalNAcalpha1-) as well as multivalent-II (Galbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1-) antigens containing glycoproteins and intensity of inhibition was 10(3)-10(5) times more than monovalent ones. The overall specificity of CBL lies in the order of polyvalent Tn, Talpha and II>monovalent Tn > or = Me-alphaGalNAc>monovalent Talpha> Me-betaGalNAc>Me-alphaGal>monovalent T>GalNAc>monovalent F>monovalent II>Me-betaGal>Gal.

  19. RACK1 binds to Smad3 to modulate transforming growth factor-beta1-stimulated alpha2(I) collagen transcription in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kazuhiro; Schnaper, H William; Bomsztyk, Karol; Hayashida, Tomoko

    2006-09-08

    Although it is clear that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is critical for renal fibrogenesis, the complexity of the involved mechanisms is increasingly apparent. TGF-beta1 stimulates phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and activates other signaling molecules as well. The molecular link between these other kinases and Smads is not known. We sought new binding partners for Smad3 in renal cells and identified receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1) as a novel binding partner of Smad3. The linker region of Smad3 and the tryptophan-aspartic acid repeat 6 and 7 of RACK1 are sufficient for the association. RACK1 also interacts with Smad3 in the human kidney epithelial cell line, HKC. Silencing RACK1 increases transcriptional activity of TGF-beta1-responsive promoter sequences of the Smad binding element (SBE), p3TP-Lux, and alpha2(I) collagen. Conversely, overexpressed RACK1 negatively modulates alpha2(I) collagen transcriptional activity in TGF-beta1-stimulated cells. RACK1 did not affect phosphorylation of Smad3 at the C terminus or in the linker region. However, RACK1 reduced direct binding of Smad3 to the SBE motif. Mutating a RACK1 tyrosine at residue 246, but not at 228, decreased the inhibitory effect of RACK1 on both alpha2(I) collagen promoter activity and Smad binding to SBE induced by TGF-beta1. These results suggest that RACK1 modulates transcription of alpha2(I) collagen by TGF-beta1 through interference with Smad3 binding to the gene promoter.

  20. Chemical constituents of essential oils from the leaves, stems, roots and fruits of Alpinia polyantha.

    PubMed

    Huong, Le T; Thang, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-02-01

    The essential oils obtained from the leaves, stems, roots and fruits of Alpinia polyantha D. Fang (Zingiberaceae) have been studied. The leaf oil was comprised mainly of camphor (16.1%), α-pinene (15.2%) and β-agarofuran (12.9%), while the major constituents of the stem oil were α-pinene (12.4%), β-cubebene (10.6%), β-agarofuran (10.3%) and globulol (8.8%). However, β-cubebene (12.6%), fenchyl acetate (10.8%), β-maaliene (9.0%), aristolone (8.8%) and α-pinene (8.2%) were the compounds occurring in higher amounts in the root oil. The quantitatively significant compounds of the fruit oil were δ-cadinene (10.9%), β-caryophyllene (9.1%), β-pinene (8.7%) and α-muurolene (7.7%).

  1. C/EBP beta regulation of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, R M; Leutz, A; Ness, S A

    1994-01-01

    Activated macrophages contribute to chronic inflammation by the secretion of cytokines and proteinases. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) is particularly important in this process because of its ability to regulate other inflammatory mediators in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. The mechanism(s) responsible for the cell type-specific regulation of TNF alpha is not known. We present data to show that the expression of TNF alpha is regulated by the transcription factor C/EBP beta (NF-IL6). C/EBP beta activated the TNF alpha gene promoter in cotransfection assays and bound to it at a site which failed to bind the closely related protein C/EBP alpha. Finally, a dominant-negative version of C/EBP beta blocked TNF alpha promoter activation in myeloid cells. Our results implicate C/EBP beta as an important regulator of TNF alpha by myelomonocytic cells. Images PMID:7929820

  2. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES✩

    PubMed Central

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2013-01-01

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5–10 mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2− interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:22732654

  3. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES.

    PubMed

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2014-06-05

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5-10mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2- interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alpha- and beta-keratins of the snake epidermis.

    PubMed

    Toni, Mattia; Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Snake scales contain specialized hard keratins (beta-keratins) and alpha- or cyto-keratins in their epidermis. The number, isoelectric point, and the evolution of these proteins in snakes and their similarity with those of other vertebrates are not known. In the present study, alpha- and beta-keratins of snake molts and of the whole epidermis have been studied by using two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunocytochemistry. Specific keratins in snake epidermis have been identified by using antibodies that recognize acidic and basic cytokeratins and avian or lizard scale beta-keratin. Alpha keratins of 40-70 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) at 4.5-7.0 are present in molts. The study suggests that cytokeratins in snakes are acidic or neutral, in contrast to mammals and birds where basic keratins are also present. Beta keratins of 10-15 kDa and a pI of 6.5-8.5 are found in molts. Some beta-keratins appear as basic proteins (pI 8.2) comparable to those present in the epidermis of other reptiles. Some basic "beta-keratins" associate with cytokeratins as matrix proteins and replace cytokeratins forming the corneous material of the mature beta-layer of snake scales, as in other reptiles. The study also suggests that more forms of beta-keratins (more than three different types) are present in the epidermis of snakes.

  5. An endocrine pathway in the prostate, ERbeta, AR, 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol, and CYP7B1, regulates prostate growth.

    PubMed

    Weihua, Zhang; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2002-10-15

    Epithelial proliferation of the ventral prostate in rodents peaks between 2 and 4 weeks of age, and by week 8, proliferating cells are rare. We have used ERbeta(-/-) and CYP7B1(-/-) mice to investigate the role of ERbeta and one of its ligands, 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3betaAdiol), in growth of the ventral prostate. Before puberty, ERbeta was found in quiescent but not in proliferating cells, and proliferating cells occurred more frequently in ventral prostates of ERbeta(-/-) mice than in wild-type littermates. Treatment with 3betaAdiol decreased proliferation in wild-type but not in ERbeta(-/-) mice. In rats, treatment with 3betaAdiol from postnatal day 2 to 28 resulted in reduction in growth of ventral prostates. The prostates of CYP7B1(-/-) mice were hypoproliferative before puberty and smaller than those of their wild-type littermates after puberty. Because CYP7B1 represents the major pathway for inactivating 3betaAdiol in the prostate, we suggest that ERbeta, 3betaAdiol, and CYP7B1 are the components of a pathway that regulates growth of the rodent ventral prostate. In this pathway, ERbeta is an antiproliferative receptor, 3betaAdiol is an ERbeta ligand, and CYP7B1 is the enzyme that regulates ERbeta function by regulating the level of 3betaAdiol.

  6. Synthetic mucin fragments: synthesis of O-sulfo and O-methyl derivatives of allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D- galactopyranoside as potential compounds for sulfotransferases.

    PubMed

    Jain, R K; Piskorz, C F; Matta, K L

    1995-10-02

    Allyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galact opy ranoside (1) was condensed with either 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (2) or 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-6-O-bromoacetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (14) in the presence of mercuric cyanide. Selective substitution with methyl, sulfo or both at desired positions, followed by the removal of protecting groups, afforded allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-methyl-alpha -D- galactopyranoside (5), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6- O-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (10), allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-sulfo-alpha- D- galactopyranoside sodium salt (13), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (17) and allyl O-(3-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (22). The structures of compounds 5, 10, 13, 17 and 22 were established by 13C NMR and FAB mass spectroscopy.

  7. Simultaneous measurements of the hydrogen airglow emissions of Lyman alpha, Lyman beta, and Balmer alpha.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, C. S.; Meier, R. R.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1971-01-01

    Comparison of Lyman-alpha, 740- to 1050-A, and Balmer-alpha airglow measurements made at 134 deg solar-zenith angle on Oct. 13, 1969, with resonance-scattering models of solar radiation. Model comparison with Lyman-alpha data fixes the hydrogen column abundance over 215 km to 2 x 10 to the 13th per cu cm within a factor of 2. Differences between the Lyman-alpha model and data indicate a polar-equatorial departure from spherical symmetry in the hydrogen distribution. A Lyman-beta model based on the hydrogen distribution found to fit the Lyman-alpha data fits the spatial variation of the 740- to 1050-A data well from 100 to 130 km, but it does not fit the data well at higher altitudes; thus the presence of more rapidly absorbed shorter-wavelength radiation is indicated. This same resonance-scattering model yields Balmer-alpha intensities that result in good spatial agreement with the Balmer-alpha measurements, but a fivefold increase in the measured solar line center Lyman-beta flux is required (as required for the Lyman-beta measurement). The intensity ratio of Lyman-beta and Balmer-alpha at night is found to be a simple measure of the hydrogen optical depth if measurements with good accuracy can be made in the visible and ultraviolet spectrum.

  8. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (-):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  9. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions from Abies alba in a French forest.

    PubMed

    Moukhtar, S; Couret, C; Rouil, L; Simon, V

    2006-02-01

    methods, simulation results and observations agreed fairly well. The standard emission rate (303 K) and beta-coefficient averaged for limonene, camphene and alpha-pinene were respectively of 0.63 microg gdw-1 h-1 and 0.06 K-1. For eucalyptol, the standard emission rate (T=303 K and PAR=1000 micromol m-2 s-1) was 0.26 microg gdw-1 h-1. This classified A. alba as a weak monoterpenes emitter.

  10. Toxicity of Monoterpene Structure, Diversity and Concentration to Mountain Pine Beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae: Beetle Traits Matter More.

    PubMed

    Reid, Mary L; Sekhon, Jagdeep K; LaFramboise, Lanielle M

    2017-04-01

    A high diversity of plant defenses may be a response to herbivore diversity or may be collectively more toxic than single compounds, either of which may be important for understanding insect-plant associations. Monoterpenes in conifers are particularly diverse. We tested the fumigant toxicity of four monoterpenes, alone and in combination, to mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae, in the context of the beetles' individual body traits. Chemical structures of tested monoterpene hydrocarbons had modest effects on beetle survival, mass loss, water content and fat content, with (R)-(+)-limonene tending to be more toxic than (-)-α-pinene, (-)-β-pinene, and (+)-3-carene. Monoterpene diversity (all qualitative combinations of one to four monoterpenes) did not affect toxicity. Concentration (0 to 1200 ppm) of individual monoterpenes was a strong determinant of toxicity. Beetle body size and body condition index strongly and positively affected survival during monoterpene treatments. Larger beetles in better condition lost proportionally less mass during exposure, where proportion mass loss negatively affected survivorship. Toxicity was much more associated with water loss than with fat loss, suggesting that a main cost of detoxification is excretion, a process that has received little attention. These results provide insight into the determinants of beetle success in historic and novel hosts that differ in monoterpene composition and concentration. We also suggest that water availability will affect beetle success directly through their ability to tolerate detoxification as well as indirectly through host responses to drought.

  11. Computational study on the aminolysis of beta-hydroxy-alpha,beta-unsaturated ester via the favorable path including the formation of alpha-oxo ketene intermediate.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lu; Xue, Ying; Zhang, Hui; Kim, Chan Kyung; Xie, Dai Qian; Yan, Guo Sen

    2008-05-15

    The possible mechanisms of the aminolysis of N-methyl-3-(methoxycarbonyl)-4-hydroxy-2-pyridone (beta-hydroxy-alpha,beta-unsaturated ester) with dimethylamine are investigated at the hybrid density functional theory B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level in the gas phase. Single-point computations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and the Becke88-Becke95 1-parameter model BB1K/6-311++G(d,p) levels are performed for more precise energy predictions. Solvent effects are also assessed by single-point calculations at the integral equation formalism polarized continuum model IEFPCM-B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and IEFPCM-BB1K/6-311++G(d,p) levels on the gas-phase optimized geometries. Three possible pathways, the concerted pathway (path A), the stepwise pathway involving tetrahedral intermediates (path B), and the stepwise pathway via alpha-oxo ketene intermediate due to the participation of beta-hydroxy (path C), are taken into account for the title reaction. Moreover, path C includes two sequential processes. The first process is to generate alpha-oxo ketene intermediate via the decomposition of N-methyl-3-(methoxycarbonyl)-4-hydroxy-2-pyridone; the second process is the addition of dimethylamine to alpha-oxo ketene intermediate. Our results indicate that path C is more favorable than paths A and B both in the gas phase and in solvent (heptane). In path C, the first process is the rate-determining step, and the second process is revealed to be a [4+2] pseudopericyclic reaction without the energy barrier. Being independent of the concentration of amine, the first process obeys the first-order rate law.

  12. Development of a three-layer phoswich alpha-beta-gamma imaging detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    For radiation monitoring at the sites of such nuclear power plant accidents as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors are needed not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. In some applications, imaging detectors are required to detect the distribution of plutonium particles that emit alpha particles and radiocesium in foods that emits beta particles and gamma photons. To solve these requirements, we developed an imaging detector that can measure the distribution of alpha and beta particles as well as gamma photons. The imaging detector consists of three-layer scintillators optically coupled to each other and to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: 5 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd2SiO5 (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. Using pulse shape discrimination, the images of these layers can be separated. The position information is calculated by the Anger principle from 8×8 anode signals from the PSPMT. The images for the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons are individually formed by the pulse shape discriminations for each layer. We detected alpha particle images in the first layer and beta particle images in the second layer. Gamma photon images were detected in the second and third layers. The spatial resolution for the alpha and beta particles was 1.25 mm FWHM and less than 2 mm FWHM for the gamma photons. We conclude that our developed alpha-beta-gamma imaging detector is promising for imaging applications not only for the environmental monitoring of radionuclides but also for medical and molecular imaging.

  13. Influence of beta instabilities on the early stages of nucleation and growth of alpha in beta titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Soumya

    Microstructural evolution in beta Titanium alloys is an important factor that governs the properties exhibited by them. Intricate understanding of complex phase transformations in these alloys is vital to tailor their microstructures and in turn their properties to our advantage. One such important subject of study is the nucleation and growth of alpha precipitates triggered by the compositional instabilities in the beta matrix, instilled in them during non equilibrium heat treatments. The present work is an effort to investigate such a phenomenon. Here studies have been conducted primarily on two different beta-Titanium alloys of commercial relevance- Ti5553 (Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-0.5Fe), an alloy used in the aerospace industry for landing gear applications and, TNZT (Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta), a potential load bearing orthopedic implant alloy. Apart from the effect of thermal treatment on these alloys, the focus of this work is to study the interplay between different alpha and beta stabilizers present in them. For this, advanced nano-scale characterization tools such as High Resolution STEM, High Resolution TEM, EFTEM and 3D Atom Probe have been used to determine the structure, distribution and composition of the non equilibrium instabilities such as beta' and o, and also to investigate the subsequent nucleation of stable alpha. Thus in this work, very early stages of phase separation via spinodal decomposition and second phase nucleation in titanium alloys are successfully probed at an atomic resolution. For the first time, atomically resolved HRSTEM 'Z'-contrast image is recorded showing modulated structures within the as-quenched beta matrix. Also in the same condition HRTEM results showed the presence of nanoscale alpha regions. These studies are revalidated by conventional selected area diffraction and 3D atom probe reconstruction results. Also TEM dark field and selected are diffraction studies are conducted to understand the effect of quenching and subsequent aging of

  14. Synthesis and cytotoxic analysis of some disodium 3beta,6beta-dihydroxysterol disulfates.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianguo; Wang, Hui; Huang, Yanmin; Xin, Yi; Zhou, Aimin

    2009-01-01

    Disodium 3beta,6beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-cholestane disulfate (1) was synthesized in 4 steps with a high overall yield from cholesterol. First, cholesterol (4a) was converted to cholest-4-en-3,6-dione (5a) via oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) and then 5a was reduced by NaBH(4) in the presence of NiCl(2) to produce cholest-3beta,6beta-diol (6a). The reaction of 6a with the triethylamine-sulfur trioxide complex generated diammonium 3beta,6beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-cholestane disulfate (7a) and the treatment of 7a by cation exchange resin 732 (sodium form)(Na(+)) yielded the target steroid 1. Disodium 24-ethyl-3beta,6beta-dihydroxycholest-22-ene disulfate (2) and disodium 24-ethyl-3beta,6beta-dihydroxycholestane disulfate (3) were synthesized using a similar method. The cytotoxicity of these compounds against Sk-Hep-1 (human liver carcinoma cell line), H-292 (human lung carcinoma cell line), PC-3 (human prostate carcinoma cell line) and Hey-1B (human ovarian carcinoma cell line) cells was investigated. Our results indicate that presence of a cholesterol-type side chain at position 17 is necessary for their biological activity.

  15. Production of mice deficient in genes for interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-1alpha/beta, and IL-1 receptor antagonist shows that IL-1beta is crucial in turpentine-induced fever development and glucocorticoid secretion.

    PubMed

    Horai, R; Asano, M; Sudo, K; Kanuka, H; Suzuki, M; Nishihara, M; Takahashi, M; Iwakura, Y

    1998-05-04

    Interleukin (IL)-1 is a major mediator of inflammation and exerts pleiotropic effects on the neuro-immuno-endocrine system. To elucidate pathophysiological roles of IL-1, we have first produced IL-1alpha/beta doubly deficient (KO) mice together with mice deficient in either the IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, or IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) genes. These mice were born healthy, and their growth was normal except for IL-1ra KO mice, which showed growth retardation after weaning. Fever development upon injection with turpentine was suppressed in IL-1beta as well as IL-1alpha/beta KO mice, but not in IL-1alpha KO mice, whereas IL-1ra KO mice showed an elevated response. At this time, expression of IL-1beta mRNA in the diencephalon decreased 1.5-fold in IL-1alpha KO mice, whereas expression of IL-1alpha mRNA decreased >30-fold in IL-1beta KO mice, suggesting mutual induction between IL-1alpha and IL-1beta. This mutual induction was also suggested in peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide in vitro. In IL-1beta KO mice treated with turpentine, the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (EC 1.14.99.1) in the diencephalon was suppressed, whereas it was enhanced in IL-1ra KO mice. We also found that glucocorticoid induction 8 h after turpentine treatment was suppressed in IL-1beta but not IL-1alpha KO mice. These observations suggest that IL-1beta but not IL-1alpha is crucial in febrile and neuro-immuno-endocrine responses, and that this is because IL-1alpha expression in the brain is dependent on IL-1beta. The importance of IL-1ra both in normal physiology and under stress is also suggested.

  16. Labeled ALPHA4BETA2 ligands and methods therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Pichika, Ramaiah; Potkin, Steven; Leslie, Frances; Chattopadhyay, Sankha

    2013-02-19

    Contemplated compositions and methods are employed to bind in vitro and in vivo to an .alpha.4.beta.2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in a highly selective manner. Where such compounds are labeled, compositions and methods employing such compounds can be used for PET and SPECT analysis. Alternatively, and/or additionally contemplated compounds can be used as antagonists, partial agonists or agonists in the treatment of diseases or conditions associated with .alpha.4.beta..beta.2 dysfunction.

  17. Similarity of different beta-strands flanked in loops by glycines and prolines from distinct (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes: chance or a homology?

    PubMed Central

    Janecek, S.

    1995-01-01

    Many (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes contain their conserved sequence regions at or around the beta-strand segments that are often preceded and succeeded by glycines and prolines, respectively. alpha-Amylase is one of these enzymes. Its sequences exhibit a very low degree of similarity, but strong conservation is seen around its beta-strands. These conserved regions were used in the search for similarities with beta-strands of other (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes. The analysis revealed an interesting similarity between the segment around the beta 2-strand of alpha-amylase and the one around the beta 4-strand of glycolate oxidase that are flanked in loops by glycines and prolines. The similarity can be further extended on other members of the alpha-amylase and glycolate oxidase subfamilies, i.e., cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase, and flavocytochrome b2, respectively. Moreover, the alpha-subunit of tryptophan synthase, the (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzyme belonging to the other subfamily of (alpha/beta)8-barrels, has both investigated strands, beta 2 and beta 4, similar to beta 2 of alpha-amylase and beta 4 of glycolate oxidase. The possibilities of whether this similarity exists only by chance or is a consequence of some processes during the evolution of (alpha/beta)8-barrel proteins are briefly discussed. PMID:7549888

  18. Similarity of different beta-strands flanked in loops by glycines and prolines from distinct (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes: chance or a homology?

    PubMed

    Janecek, S

    1995-06-01

    Many (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes contain their conserved sequence regions at or around the beta-strand segments that are often preceded and succeeded by glycines and prolines, respectively. alpha-Amylase is one of these enzymes. Its sequences exhibit a very low degree of similarity, but strong conservation is seen around its beta-strands. These conserved regions were used in the search for similarities with beta-strands of other (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzymes. The analysis revealed an interesting similarity between the segment around the beta 2-strand of alpha-amylase and the one around the beta 4-strand of glycolate oxidase that are flanked in loops by glycines and prolines. The similarity can be further extended on other members of the alpha-amylase and glycolate oxidase subfamilies, i.e., cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase, and flavocytochrome b2, respectively. Moreover, the alpha-subunit of tryptophan synthase, the (alpha/beta)8-barrel enzyme belonging to the other subfamily of (alpha/beta)8-barrels, has both investigated strands, beta 2 and beta 4, similar to beta 2 of alpha-amylase and beta 4 of glycolate oxidase. The possibilities of whether this similarity exists only by chance or is a consequence of some processes during the evolution of (alpha/beta)8-barrel proteins are briefly discussed.

  19. All-transglycolytic synthesis and characterization of sialyl(alpha2-3)galactosyl(beta1-4)xylosyl-p-nitrophenyl(beta1-), an oligosaccharide derivative related to glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Vetere, A; Ferro, S; Bosco, M; Cescutti, P; Paoletti, S

    1997-08-01

    Beta-D-Xylopyranosides, such as p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside (Xyl-Np) or 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside (Xyl-MeUmb), when added to the culture medium of human skin fibroblasts have previously been shown to produce some Np- or MeUmb-oligosaccharides related to the regulation of glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis. Among these oligosaccharide derivatives, we synthesized the trisaccharide derivative NeuAc(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Xyl-Np(beta1- as a potential inhibitor of human skin fibroblast glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis. This synthesis was achieved by sequential use of transglycosylating activities of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase and Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase. The structure of the oligosaccharide obtained was determined by HPLC, ion-spray mass spectrometry, and NMR.

  20. Synergism of turpentine and ethanol as attractants for certain pine-infesting beetles (Coleoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.W.; Wilkening, A.J.; Atkinson, T.H.

    1988-06-01

    Responses of seven species of pine-infesting beetles to traps baited with either turpentine, ethanol, turpentine and ethanol released from separate dispensers, or a 1:1 solution of turpentine and ethanol released from one dispenser were assessed in three field experiments. The weevil species, Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and the cerambycid pine sawyer, Monochamus carolinenis (Olivier), were attracted to turpentine and were unaffected by the addition of ethanol. The ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, responded to ethanol alone but was not attracted to turpentine, nor did the presence of turpentine significantly affects its response to ethanol. The remaining four species) hylobius pales, M.more » titillator, Dendroctonus terebrans and x. pubescens) displayed responses to turpentine that were enhanced by the addition of ethanol, but in different ways according to the method of deployment. Reasons for increased responses by some species to a solution of turpentine and ethanol over the two released separately are not clear; they may lie in different dosages of evaporation rates of volatiles in the field. Laboratory analyses of trapped headspace volatiles from dispensers containing only turpentine and those containing a solution of turpentine and ethanol revealed no differences in the amounts of four principal monoterpene hydrocarbons (..cap alpha..-pinene, camphene, ..beta..-pinene, and limonene) released over time.« less

  1. The effect of selected monoterpenoids on the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum NC4.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J Y; Kim, J H; Yun, K W

    2004-06-01

    We tested the activity of 11 main compounds identified from Pinus plants on the growth of Dictyostelium discoideum NC4. Four concentrations (1, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 microg/microl) of each compound were tested using a disk volatilization technique following germination of D. discoideum NC4 spores. Photographs of D. discoideum NC4 fruiting bodies were taken 2 days after treatment. Fenchone (at 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 microg/microl) and camphene (at 0.01 microg/microl) stimulated growth of D. discoideum NC4. (1S)-(-)-verbenone, (1S)-(-)-alpha-pinene, (+)-beta-pinene, myrcene, (-)-menthone, (-)-bornyl acetate, (S)-(+)-carvone, (-)-camphene, and (R)-(+)-limonene inhibit its growth. All of the compounds at 1 microg/microl had a strong inhibitory effect on cell growth of D. discoideum NC4. Microscopic observation of the fruiting bodies matched the results of growth rate analysis. Most of the inhibitory effects were represented by changes in the shapes of the fruiting bodies. These changes include short sorophores, smaller sized sori, and sori without spores. Our results suggest that inhibition of growth is the most common effect of monoterpenoids on D. discoideum NC4. Nevertheless, some of them, like fenchone and camphene, seem to enhance its growth.

  2. Chemical Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution, and Antifungal Activity of the Oleoresin Essential Oil of Protium amazonicum from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Powers, Chelsea N; Parducci V, Rafael; McFeeters, Robert L; Setzer, William N

    2017-09-23

    Background: Protium species (Burseraceae) have been used in the treatment of various diseases and conditions such as ulcers and wounds. Methods: The essential oil from the oleoresin of Protium amazonicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS, GC-FID, and chiral GC-MS. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil was screened for antifungal activity against Candida albicans , Aspergillus niger , and Cryptococcus neoformans . Results: A total of 54 components representing 99.6% of the composition were identified in the oil. The essential oil was dominated by δ-3-carene (47.9%) with lesser quantities of other monoterpenoids α-pinene (4.0%), p -cymene (4.1%), limonene (5.1%), α-terpineol (5.5%) and p -cymen-8-ol (4.8%). Chiral GC-MS revealed most of the monoterpenoids to have a majority of levo enantiomers present with the exceptions of limonene and α-terpineol, which showed a dextro majority. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil showed promising activity against Cryptococcus neoformans , with MIC = 156 μg/mL. Conclusions: This account is the first reporting of both the chemical composition and enantiomeric distribution of the oleoresin essential oil of P. amazonicum from Ecuador. The oil was dominated by (-)-δ-3-carene, and this compound, along with other monoterpenoids, likely accounts for the observed antifungal activity of the oil.

  3. N-substituted imidazolines and ethylenediamines and their action on alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Hamada, A; Yaden, E L; Horng, J S; Ruffolo, R R; Patil, P N; Miller, D D

    1985-09-01

    A series of N-substituted imidazolines and ethylenediamines were synthesized and examined for their activity in alpha- and beta-adrenergic systems. The length of the intermediate side chain between the catechol and imidazoline ring or the amine of the ethylenediamine segment was shown to affect the adrenergic activity. N-[2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]imidazoline hydrochloride (2) and N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (4), both with two methylene groups between the catechol and amine segment, were found to be somewhat selective for alpha 2-adrenergic receptors while 1-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)imidazoline hydrochloride (1) and N-2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (3), both with one methylene group between the catechol and amine segment, were more selective for alpha1-adrenergic receptors in a pithed rat model. Of the four compounds examined, only compound 2 showed significant direct activity on beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors.

  4. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry differentiation of N-phosphoryl-[alpha]-, [beta]- and [gamma]-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Liming; Cao, Shuxia; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Mao, Xiangju; Guo, Yanchun; Liao, Xincheng; Zhao, Yufen

    2007-10-01

    The fragmentation patterns of N-diisopropyloxyphosphoryl-l-[alpha]-Ala (DIPP-l-[alpha]-Ala), N-diisopropyloxyphosphoryl-d-[alpha]-Ala (DIPP-d-[alpha]-Ala), N-diisopropyloxyphosphoryl-[beta]-Ala (DIPP-[beta]-Ala) and N-diisopropyloxyphosphoryl-[gamma]-amino butyric acid (DIPP-[gamma]-Aba) were investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). DIPP-d-[alpha]-Ala showed the same fragmentation pathways as DIPP-l-[alpha]-Ala. In the fragmentation of protonated DIPP-[beta]-Ala, the characteristic fragment ion [M + H - 2C3H6 - H2O - CH2CO]+ appeared and could be used to distinguish [beta]-Ala from l-[alpha]-Ala and d-[alpha]-Ala through tandem mass spectra, even though they possess the same molecular weight. In the fragmentation of protonated DIPP-[gamma]-Aba, the break of PN bond occurred and an interesting protonated lactam ion with five-membered ring was generated. Furthermore, in the MS3 spectrum of [M + Na - 2C3H6]+ ion of DIPP-[gamma]-Aba, a strong intensity of unique fragment ion, namely lactam-sodium adduct with five-membered ring, was observed, which could be considered as a mark for [gamma]-amino acids. The stepwise fragmentations of their [M + Na]+ ions and [M - H]- ions showed that they all underwent a PN to PO bond migration through a five-membered or six-membered or even seven-membered ring transition state, respectively, which supported the great affinity of hydroxyl for phosphoryl group.

  5. Biodegradable Chitosan Coating Incorporated with Black Pepper Essential Oil for Shelf Life Extension of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Moosavi-Nasab, Marzieh; Shad, Ehsan; Ziaee, Esmaeil; Yousefabad, Seyyed Hossein Asadi; Golmakani, Mohammad Taghi; Azizinia, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    Chitosan (Ch) coating incorporated with black pepper essential oil (Ch+BPEO) was studied to extend the shelf life of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during refrigerated storage at 4 ± 1°C. The chemical composition of BPEO was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antibacterial properties of BPEO were determined by disk diffusion agar, MIC, and MBC. Ch (2% [wt/vol]) and Ch+BPEO (2% [wt/vol] Ch with 1.5% [vol/vol] BPEO) were used for common carp fillet coating. The samples were analyzed periodically for chemical (pH, total volatile basic nitrogen) and microbiological (aerobic plate count, psychrophilic bacteria count, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae bacterial counts) characteristics during 16 days. The GC-MS results indicated that main components in BPEO were carene, caryophyllene, limonene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The samples coated with Ch and Ch+BPEO resulted in lower pH and total volatile basic nitrogen values in comparison with the control. The microbiological analysis of fish fillets during refrigerated storage clearly indicated that Ch+BPEO coating significantly reduced the fish fillet microbial load. The aerobic plate count, psychrophilic bacteria count, lactic acid bacteria count, and Enterobacteriaceae bacterial count of samples coated with Ch+BPEO were reduced approximately 4.1, 3.9, 2.3, and 2.8 log CFU/g, respectively, at the end of the storage period. Finally, Ch and Ch+BPEO effectively improved the quality of fish fillet during refrigerated storage and extended the shelf life of fish fillets from 8 to 16 days. Black pepper; Chitosan; Common carp; Essential oil.

  6. Alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination in plastic scintillation using commercial scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Bagán, H; Tarancón, A; Rauret, G; García, J F

    2010-06-18

    Activity determination in different types of samples is a current need in many different fields. Simultaneously analysing alpha and beta emitters is now a routine option when using liquid scintillation (LS) and pulse shape discrimination. However, LS has an important drawback, the generation of mixed waste. Recently, several studies have shown the capability of plastic scintillation (PS) as an alternative to LS, but no research has been carried out to determine its capability for alpha/beta discrimination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of PS to discriminate alpha/beta emitters on the basis of pulse shape analysis (PSA). The results obtained show that PS pulses had lower energy than LS pulses. As a consequence, a lower detection efficiency, a shift to lower energies and a better discrimination of beta and a worst discrimination of alpha disintegrations was observed for PS. Colour quenching also produced a decrease in the energy of the particles, as well as the effects described above. It is clear that in PS, the discrimination capability was correlated with the energy of the particles detected. Taking into account the discrimination capabilities of PS, a protocol for the measurement and the calculation of alpha and beta activities in mixtures using PS and commercial scintillation detectors has been proposed. The new protocol was applied to the quantification of spiked river water samples containing a pair of radionuclides ((3)H-(241)Am or (90)Sr/(90)Y-(241)Am) in different activity proportions. The relative errors in all determinations were lower than 7%. These results demonstrate the capability of PS to discriminate alpha/beta emitters on the basis of pulse shape and to quantify mixtures without generating mixed waste. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. New lure for the larger pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda - attractant/trap design combinations tested in North America and Europe

    Treesearch

    D. Czokajlo; B. Hrasovec; M. Pernek; J. Hilszczanski; A. Kolk; S. Teale; J. Wickham; P. Kirsch

    2003-01-01

    An optimized, patented lure for the larger pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda has been developed and tested in the United States, Poland, and Croatia. Seven different beetle attractants were tested: α-pinene, α-pinene oxide, ethanol, nonanal, myrtenal, myrtenol, and trans-verbenol. α-pinene was tested...

  8. Highly diastereoselective reductive coupling of 2-bromo-2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropanamide with aldehydes promoted by triphenylphosphine-titanium(IV) isopropoxide. An efficient route to the synthesis of erythro-alpha-fluoro-alpha-(trifluoromethyl)-beta-hydroxy amides.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kei; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Ishihara, Takashi; Konno, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hiroki

    2004-07-23

    The reductive coupling reaction of N-methoxy-N-methyl-2-bromo-2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropanamide (Weinreb amide) with various aldehydes under the influence of the combined reagent, 1.2 equiv each of triphenylphosphine and titanium(IV) isopropoxide, took place smoothly at ambient temperature to give the corresponding alpha-fluoro-alpha-(trifluoromethyl)-beta-hydroxy amides in a highly erythro-selective manner. The high erythro selectivity was also obtained even by employing a combination of triphenylphosphine (1.2 equiv) and a catalytic amount of titanium(IV) isopropoxide.

  9. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  10. THERMODYNAMIC MODELING OF LIQUID AEROSOLS CONTAINING DISSOLVED ORGANICS AND ELECTROLYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many tropospheric aerosols contain large fractions of soluble organic material, believed to derive from the oxidation of precursors such alpha-pinene. The chemical composition of aerosol organic matter is complex and not yet fully understood.

    The key properties of solu...

  11. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  12. Molecular imaging of alpha v beta3 integrin expression in atherosclerotic plaques with a mimetic of RGD peptide grafted to Gd-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Burtea, Carmen; Laurent, Sophie; Murariu, Oltea; Rattat, Dirk; Toubeau, Gérard; Verbruggen, Alfons; Vansthertem, David; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N

    2008-04-01

    The integrin alpha v beta3 is highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques by medial and intimal smooth muscle cells and by endothelial cells of angiogenic microvessels. In this study, we have assessed non-invasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of plaque-associated alpha v beta3 integrin expression on transgenic ApoE-/- mice with a low molecular weight peptidomimetic of Arg-Gly-Asp (mimRGD) grafted to gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD). The analogous compound Eu-DTPA-g-mimRGD was employed for an in vivo competition experiment and to confirm the molecular targeting. The specific interaction of mimRGD conjugated to Gd-DTPA or to 99mTc-DTPA with alpha v beta3 integrin was furthermore confirmed on Jurkat T lymphocytes. The mimRGD was synthesized and conjugated to DTPA. DTPA-g-mimRGD was complexed with GdCl3.6H2O, EuCl3.6H2O, or with [99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+. MRI evaluation was performed on a 4.7 T Bruker imaging system. Blood pharmacokinetics of Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD were assessed in Wistar rats and in c57bl/6j mice. The presence of angiogenic blood vessels and the expression of alpha v beta3 integrin were confirmed in aorta specimens by immunohistochemistry. Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD produced a strong enhancement of the external structures of the aortic wall and of the more profound layers (possibly tunica media and intima). The aortic lumen seemed to be restrained and distorted. Pre-injection of Eu-DTPA-g-mimRGD diminished the Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD binding to atherosclerotic plaque and confirmed the specific molecular targeting. A slower blood clearance was observed for Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD, as indicated by a prolonged elimination half-life and a diminished total clearance. The new compound is potentially useful for the diagnosis of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and of other pathologies characterized by alpha v beta3 integrin expression, such as cancer and inflammation. The delayed blood clearance, the significant enhancement of the signal

  13. Genome-Wide Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with the High Yielding of Oleoresin in Secondary Xylem of Masson Pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb) by Transcriptomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qinghua; Zhou, Zhichun; Wei, Yongcheng; Shen, Danyu; Feng, Zhongping; Hong, Shanping

    2015-01-01

    Masson pine is an important timber and resource for oleoresin in South China. Increasing yield of oleoresin in stems can raise economic benefits and enhance the resistance to bark beetles. However, the genetic mechanisms for regulating the yield of oleoresin were still unknown. Here, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome and compare the gene expression profiles of high and low oleoresin-yielding genotypes. A total of 40,690,540 reads were obtained and assembled into 137,499 transcripts from the secondary xylem tissues. We identified 84,842 candidate unigenes based on sequence annotation using various databases and 96 unigenes were candidates for terpenoid backbone biosynthesis in pine. By comparing the expression profiles of high and low oleoresin-yielding genotypes, 649 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. GO enrichment analysis of DEGs revealed that multiple pathways were related to high yield of oleoresin. Nine candidate genes were validated by QPCR analysis. Among them, the candidate genes encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPS) and (-)-alpha/beta-pinene synthase were up-regulated in the high oleoresin-yielding genotype, while tricyclene synthase revealed lower expression level, which was in good agreement with the GC/MS result. In addition, DEG encoding ABC transporters, pathogenesis-related proteins (PR5 and PR9), phosphomethylpyrimidine synthase, non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein and ethylene responsive transcription factors (ERFs) were also confirmed to be critical for the biosynthesis of oleoresin. The next-generation sequencing strategy used in this study has proven to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to the yield of oleoresin in masson pine. The candidate genes encoding GGPS, (-)-alpha/beta-pinene, tricyclene synthase, ABC transporters, non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein, phosphomethylpyrimidine synthase, ERFs and pathogen

  14. Relating hygroscopicity and optical properties to chemical composition and structure of secondary organic aerosol particles generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, C.; Formenti, P.; Picquet-Varrault, B.; Pangui, E.; Zapf, P.; Katrib, Y.; Giorio, C.; Tapparo, A.; Monod, A.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Decorse, P.; Mangeney, C.; Doussin, J. F.

    2014-04-01

    Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) were generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene in the CESAM simulation chamber. The formation and ageing of the SOA were studied by following their optical, hygroscopic and chemical properties. The optical properties investigated by determining the particle Complex Refractive Index (CRI). The hygroscopicity was quantified by measuring the effect of RH on particle size (Growth Factor, GF) and scattering coefficient (f(RH)). The oxygen to carbon (O : C) atomic ratio of the particle surface and bulk were used as a sensitive parameter to correlate the changes in hygroscopic and optical properties of the SOA composition in CESAM. The real CRI at 525 nm wavelength decreased from 1.43-1.60 (±0.02) to 1.32-1.38 (±0.02) during the SOA formation. The decrease in real CRI correlates with a decrease in the O : C ratio of SOA from 0.68 (±0.20) to 0.55 (±0.16). In contrast, the GF stayed roughly constant over the reaction time, with values of 1.02-1.07 (±0.02) at 90% (±4.2) RH. Simultaneous measurements of O : C ratio of the particle surface revealed that the SOA was not composed of a homogeneous mixture, but with less oxidised species at the surface which would limit the water adsorption onto particle. In addition, an apparent change of both mobility diameter and scattering coefficient with increasing RH from 0 to 30% was observed for SOA after 16 h reaction. We postulate that this change could be due to a change in the viscosity of the SOA from a predominantly glassy state to a predominantly liquid state.

  15. Stability and structure in [alpha]- and [beta]-keggin heteropolytungstates, [Xn+W12O40](8-n)-, X = p-block cation

    Treesearch

    Wade A. Neiwert; Jennifer J. Cowan; Kenneth I. Hardcastle; Craig L. Hill; Ira A. Weinstock

    2002-01-01

    [Beta]-[SiW12O40]4- (C3v symmetry) is sufficiently higher in energy than its [alpha]-isomer analogue that effectively complete conversion to [alpha]-[SiW12O40]4- (Td) is observed. By contrast, [beta]- and [alpha]-[AlW12O40]5- ([beta]- and [alpha]-1; C3v and Td, respectively) are sufficiently close in energy that both isomers are readily seen in 27Al NMR spectra of...

  16. Solution conformation of a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA that discriminates {alpha}3 vs. {alpha}6 nAChR subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2006-06-23

    {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA from Conus omaria is the only {alpha}-conotoxin that shows a {approx}20-fold higher affinity to the {alpha}3{beta}2 over the {alpha}6{beta}2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We have determined a three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology with His{sup 5}-Asn{sup 12} forming an {alpha}-helix. Structural features of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA responsible for its selectivity are suggested by comparing its surface characteristics with other functionally related {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Reduced size of the hydrophilic area in {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA seems to be associated with the reduced affinity towards the {alpha}6{beta}2 nAChR subtype.

  17. Synthesis of polyhydroxysterols (III): synthesis and structural elucidation of 24-methylenecholest-4-en-3beta,6 alpha-diol.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian Guo; Lin, Cui Wu; Zeng, Long Mei; Su, Jing Yu

    2002-12-01

    Using stigmasterol as the starting material, 24-methylenecholest-4-en-3beta,6 alpha-diol (2) was synthesized in eight steps in 13% overall yield. The introduction of the sterol side-chain was carried out using (3-methyl-2-oxobutyl)-triphenylarsonium bromide (11) and K(2)CO(3) in a solid-liquid phase-transfer Wittig reaction. Construction of the steroidal nucleus was finished by oxidation of 24-methylenecholest-5-en-3beta-ol (9) with pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) in dichloromethane at ambient temperature and by reduction of 24-methylenecholest-4-en-3,6-dione (10) with NaBH(4) in the presence of CeCl(3).7H(2)O.

  18. Anti-inflammation activity of fruit essential oil from Cinnamomum insularimontanum Hayata.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Tsong; Chen, Chi-Jung; Lin, Ting-Yu; Tung, Judia Chen; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the fruit essential oil of Cinnamomum insularimontanum was prepared by using water distillation. Followed by GC-MS analysis, the composition of fruit essential oil was characterized. The main constituents of essential oil were alpha-pinene (9.45%), camphene (1.70%), beta-pinene (4.30%), limonene (1.76%), citronellal (24.64%), citronellol (16.78%), and citral (35.89%). According to the results obtained from nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity assay, crude essential oil and its dominant compound (citral) presented the significant NO production inhibitory activity, IC(50) of crude essential oil and citral were 18.68 and 13.18microg/mL, respectively. Moreover, based on the results obtained from the protein expression assay, the expression of IKK, iNOS, and nuclear NF-kappaB was decreased and IkappaBalpha was increased in dose-dependent manners, it proved that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of citral was blocked via the NF-kappaB pathway, but it could not efficiently suppress the activity on COX-2. In addition, citral exhibited a potent anti-inflammatory activity in the assay of croton oil-induced mice ear edema, when the dosage was 0.1 and 0.3mg per ear, the inflammation would reduce to 22% and 83%, respectively. The results presented that the fruit essential oil of C. insularimontanum and/or citral may have a great potential to develop the anti-inflammatory medicine in the future.

  19. A single mutation at the catalytic site of TF1-alpha3beta3gamma complex switches the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis from negative to positive cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Muneyuki, E; Odaka, M; Yoshida, M

    1997-08-11

    Previously, we reported the substitution of Tyr341 of the F1-ATPase beta subunit from a thermophilic Bacillus strain PS3 with leucine, cysteine, or alanine (M. Odaka et al. J. Biochem., 115 (1994) 789-796). These mutations resulted in a great decrease in the affinity of the isolated beta subunit for ATP-Mg and an increase in the apparent Km of the alpha3beta3gamma complex in ATP hydrolysis when examined above 0.1 mM ATP. Here, we examined the ATPase activity of the mutant complexes in a wide range of ATP concentration and found that the mutants exhibited apparent positive cooperativity in ATP hydrolysis. This is the first clear demonstration that a single mutation in the catalytic sites converts the kinetics from apparent negative cooperativity in the wild-type alpha3beta3gamma complex to apparent positive cooperativity. The conversion of apparent cooperativity could be explained in terms of a simple kinetic scheme based on the binding change model proposed by Boyer.

  20. Quartz Crystal Microbalance: Aerosol Viscoelastic Measurement Calibration and Subsiquent H2O Uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farland, D. R., Jr.; Gilles, M. K.; Harder, T.; Weis, J.; Mueller, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol particles exposed to various atmospheric relative humidity (RH) levels exhibit hygroscopic properties which are not fully understood. Water adsorption or diffusion depends on particle viscosity in semi-solid to liquid states. This relationship between particle viscosity as a function of RH and the corresponding hygroscopic behavioral response is the purpose of this study. However, reliable techniques for viscosity quantification have been limited. A Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) was used for viscosity measurements and to determine phase changes. Prior to studies on field samples, microscope immersion/viscosity standard oils, salt crystals, sugars and alpha-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) surrogates are used for viscosity, RH calibrations, water uptake and phase change measurements. RH was controlled by flowing N2 gas saturated with H2O for RH's between 0-75% RH. For higher RH values, (75-100% RH range) saturated salt solutions were flowed over a gore membrane to protect the QCM sensor from direct contact with the solutions. The viscosity calibration constructed via QTools fitting software illustrates the limitations as well as the ranges of reliability of the QCM viscosity measurements. Deliquescing salt crystals of differing deliquescence relative humidity's (DRH), sugars and alpha-pinene SOA's provided insight into the detection of various phase change behaviors. Water uptake experiments performed on alpha-pinene SOA and sucrose sugar yielded significantly different frequency and dissipation responses than the deliquescing salts. Future work will apply these experimental methods and analysis on aerosol particles collected during the GoAmazon field campaign.

  1. Self absorption of alpha and beta particles in a fiberglass filter.

    PubMed

    Luetzelschwab, J W; Storey, C; Zraly, K; Dussinger, D

    2000-10-01

    Environmental air sampling uses fiberglass filters to collect particulate matter from the air and then a gas flow detector to measure the alpha and beta activity on the filter. When counted, the filter is located close to the detector so the alpha and beta particles emerging from the filter travel toward the detector at angles ranging from zero to nearly 90 degrees to the normal to the filter surface. The particles at small angles can readily pass through the filter, but particles at large angles pass through a significant amount of filter material and can be totally absorbed. As a result, counting losses can be great. For 4 MeV alpha particles, the filter used in this experiment absorbs 43% of the alpha particles; for 7.5 MeV alphas, the absorption is 13%. The measured beta activities also can have significant counting losses. Beta particles with maximum energies of 0.2 and 2.0 MeV have absorptions of 44 and 2%, respectively.

  2. Spectral and Temporal Properties of the Alpha and Beta Subunits and (alpha Beta) Monomer Isolated from Nostoc SP. Using Picosecond Laser Spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagen, Aaron J.

    1985-12-01

    The fluorescence decay profiles, relative quantum yield and transmission of the (alpha), (beta) and ((alpha)(beta)) complexes from phycoerythrin isolated from the photosynthetic antenna system of Nostoc sp. and measured by single picosecond laser spectroscopic techniques is studied. The fluorescence decay profiles of all three complexes are found to be intensity independent for the intensity range investigated ((TURN)4 x 10('13) to (TURN)4 x 10('15) photons-cm('-2) per pulse). The apparent decrease in the relative quantum yield of all three complexes as intensity increases is offset by a corresponding increase in the relative transmission. This evidence, along with the intensity independent fluorescence kinetics, suggests that exciton annihilation is absent in these complexes. The decay profiles are fit to models assuming energy transfer amongst fluorescing chromophores. The intraprotein transfer rate is found to be 100 ps in the (alpha) subunit, 666 ps in the (beta) subunit. Constraining these rates to be identical in the monomer results in explaining the monomer kinetics by an increase in the nonradiative rate of the f(,(beta)) chromophore, an apparent result of aggregation effects.

  3. The three-dimensional structure of a T-cell antigen receptor V alpha V beta heterodimer reveals a novel arrangement of the V beta domain.

    PubMed Central

    Housset, D; Mazza, G; Grégoire, C; Piras, C; Malissen, B; Fontecilla-Camps, J C

    1997-01-01

    The crystal structure of a mouse T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) Fv fragment complexed to the Fab fragment of a specific anti-clonotypic antibody has been determined to 2.6 A resolution. The polypeptide backbone of the TCR V alpha domain is very similar to those of other crystallographically determined V alphas, whereas the V beta structure is so far unique among TCR V beta domains in that it displays a switch of the c" strand from the inner to the outer beta-sheet. The beta chain variable region of this TCR antigen-binding site is characterized by a rather elongated third complementarity-determining region (CDR3beta) that packs tightly against the CDR3 loop of the alpha chain, without leaving any intervening hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the conformation of the CDR loops with the highest potential diversity distinguishes the structure of this TCR antigen-binding site from those for which crystallographic data are available. On the basis of all these results, we infer that a significant conformational change of the CDR3beta loop found in our TCR is required for binding to its cognate peptide-MHC ligand. PMID:9250664

  4. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity, and Mode of Action of Essential Oils against Paenibacillus larvae, Etiological Agent of American Foulbrood on Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, María C; Alonso-Salces, Rosa M; Umpierrez, María L; Rossini, Carmen; Fuselli, Sandra R

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of Aloysia polystachia, Acantholippia seriphioides, Schinus molle, Solidago chilensis, Lippia turbinata, Minthostachys mollis, Buddleja globosa, and Baccharis latifolia essential oils (EOs), and to evaluate their antibacterial activities and their capacity to provoke membrane disruption in Paenibacillus larvae, the bacteria that causes the American Foulbrood (AFB) disease on honey bee larvae. The relationship between the composition of the EOs and these activities on P. larvae was also analyzed. Monoterpenes were the most abundant compounds in all EOs. All EOs showed antimicrobial activity against P. larvae and disrupted the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of P. larvae provoking the leakage of cytoplasmic constituents (with the exception of B. latifolia EO). While, the EOs' antimicrobial activity was correlated most strongly to the content of pulegone, carvone, (Z)-β-ocimene, δ-cadinene, camphene, terpinen-4-ol, elemol, β-pinene, β-elemene, γ-cadinene, α-terpineol, and bornyl acetate; the volatiles that better explained the membrane disruption were carvone, limonene, cis-carvone oxide, pentadecane, trans-carvyl acetate, trans-carvone oxide, trans-limonene oxide, artemisia ketone, trans-carveol, thymol, and γ-terpinene (positively correlated) and biciclogermacrene, δ-2-carene, verbenol, α-pinene, and α-thujene (negatively correlated). The studied EOs are proposed as natural alternative means of control for the AFB disease. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  5. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 can function through a G alpha q/11-beta-arrestin-1 signaling complex.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Yuji; Imamura, Takeshi; Babendure, Jennie L; Lu, Juu-Chin; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Olefsky, Jerrold M

    2007-09-28

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine secreted from macrophages and adipocytes. It is well known that chronic TNFalpha exposure can lead to insulin resistance both in vitro and in vivo and that elevated blood levels of TNFalpha are observed in obese and/or diabetic individuals. TNFalpha has many acute biologic effects, mediated by a complex intracellular signaling pathway. In these studies we have identified new G-protein signaling components to this pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that beta-arrestin-1 is associated with TRAF2 (TNF receptor-associated factor 2), an adaptor protein of TNF receptors, and that TNFalpha acutely stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of G alpha(q/11) with an increase in G alpha(q/11) activity. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of beta-arrestin-1 inhibits TNFalpha-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of G alpha(q/11) by interruption of Src kinase activation. TNFalpha stimulates lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and beta-arrestin-1 knockdown blocks the effects of TNFalpha to stimulate ERK activation and glycerol release. TNFalpha also led to activation of JNK with increased expression of the proinflammatory gene, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and matrix metalloproteinase 3, and beta-arrestin-1 knockdown inhibited both of these effects. Taken together these results reveal novel elements of TNFalpha action; 1) the trimeric G-protein component G alpha(q/11) and the adapter protein beta-arrestin-1 can function as signaling molecules in the TNFalpha action cascade; 2) beta-arrestin-1 can couple TNFalpha stimulation to ERK activation and lipolysis; 3) beta-arrestin-1 and G alpha(q/11) can mediate TNFalpha-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation and inflammatory gene expression.

  6. Chemical Components of Four Essential Oils in Aromatherapy Recipe.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Kamkaen, Narisa; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on characterization of the chemical components of an aromatherapy recipe. The formulation consisted of four blended essential oils; rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, pine oil and lime oil (volume ratio 6 : 2 : 1 : 1). The single and combination essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that several components exist in the mixture. The five most important components of the blended essential oils were 1,8-cineole (35.6 %), α-pinene (11.1%), limonene (9.6%), camphor (8.4%), and camphene (6.6%). The main components of rosemary oil were 1,8-cineole (37.3%), α-pinene (19.3%), camphor (14.7%), camphene (8.8%), and β-pinene (5.5%); of eucalyptus oil 1,8-cineole (82.6%) followed by limonene (7.4%), o-cymene (4.3%), γ-terpinene (2.7%), and α-pinene (1.5%); of pine oil terpinolene (26.7%), α-terpineol (20.50%), 1-terpineol (10.8%), α-pinene (6.0%), and γ-terpineol (5.3%); and of lime oil limonene (62.9%), γ-terpinene (11.5%), α-terpineol (7.6%), terpinolene (6.0%), and α-terpinene (2.8%). The present study provided a theoretical basis for the potential application of blended essential oils to be used as an aromatherapy essential oil recipe. GC-MS serves as a suitable and reliable method for the quality control of the chemical markers.

  7. Phytochemical Investigation of Male and Female Hedyosmum scabrum (Ruiz & Pav.) Solms Leaves from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Claudia; Morocho, Vladimir; Vidari, Giovanni; Bicchi, Carlo; Gilardoni, Gianluca

    2018-02-01

    This article reports the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of male and female H. scabrum fresh leaves. The essential oils, HSMO and HSFO, respectively, were analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. A total of 93 components were detected, accounting for 94.8% and 95.3% of HSMO and HSFO, respectively. The prevalent constituents of HSMO were pinocarvone (13.1%), d-germacren-4-ol (12.6%), 1,8-cineole (10.8%), α-pinene (6.4%), and β-pinene (4.8%), whereas the major components of HSFO were 1,8-cineole (20.5%), linalool (16.5%), α-pinene (15.0%), β-pinene (6.4%), and sabinene (6.3%). The different enantiomeric distribution of β-pinene, sabinene, limonene, linalool in the two oils, was determined. The non-volatile esters of p-coumaric and ferulic acids with borneol (1 and 4), cis-chrysanthenol (2 and 5), and cis-pinocarveol (3 and 6) were identified in the leaves after basic hydrolysis and analysis of the NMR spectra of the free acids, and GC/MS spectra of the monoterpene alcohols, respectively. Compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 have been found in nature for the first time. These findings demonstrated that, from a chemical point of view, male and female individuals of H. scabrum collected in Ecuador seem quite differentiated between each other and from samples of the same species growing in Bolivia and in Peru. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Chemical variability of the leaf essential oil of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich. from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yapi, Thierry Acafou; Boti, Jean Brice; Ahibo, Coffy Antoine; Bighelli, Ange; Castola, Vincent; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of 48 essential-oil samples isolated from the leaves of Xylopia aethiopica harvested in six Ivoirian forests was investigated by GC-FID and (13) C-NMR analyses. In total, 23 components accounting for 82.5-96.1% of the oil composition were identified. The composition was dominated by the monoterpene hydrocarbons β-pinene (up to 61.1%) and α-pinene (up to 18.6%) and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon germacrene D (up to 28.7%). Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses allowed the distinction of two groups on the basis of the β-pinene and germacrene D contents. The chemical composition of the oils of Group I (38 oil samples) was clearly dominated by β-pinene, while those of Group II (10 samples) were characterized by the association of β-pinene and germacrene D. The leaves collected in the four inland forests produced β-pinene-rich oils (Group I), while the oil samples belonging to Group II were isolated from leaves harvested in forests located near the littoral. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. Essential oil composition from two species of Piperaceae family grown in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pino Benitez, Nayive; Meléndez León, Erika M; Stashenko, Elena E

    2009-10-01

    Essential oil compositions of aerial parts from two species in the Piper (Piperaceae family) genera: Piper lanceaefolium Kunth and Piper hispidum Sw., frequently called deflated (for the anti-inflammatory activity) or cord. Piperaceae leaves were collected in different regions of the Chocó department in northwestern Colombia and identified by botanists from Colombian National Herbarium, where a voucher of each specimen were deposited (No- COL 519993 and No- COL 519969, respectively). The essential oils were obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The P. lanceaefolium essential oil was sesquiterpenoid type (71.7%). This composition was represented by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (58.5%) and by their oxygenated derivates (13.2%); the main compounds were, trans-beta-caryophyllene (11.6%) and germacrene D (10.7%) followed by alpha-selinene (7.8%), beta-pinene (5.4%), beta-selinene (4.8%), and alpha-cubebene (4.3%). The Piper hispidum essential oil also was sesquiterpene type (74.4%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (46.4%) followed by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (28.0%). The main compounds were trans-nerolidol (23.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.4%) followed by beta-elemene (5.1%), trans-beta-caryophyllene (5.1%), curzerene (4.9%), and germacrene B (4.5%). Trans-beta-caryophyllene presents the higher percentage of the common compounds in the two species' essential oil (11.6% and 5.1% in P. lanceaefolium and P. hispidum, respectively).

  10. Structural and biological mimicry of protein surface recognition by [alpha/beta]-peptide foldamers

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, W. Seth; Johnson, Lisa M.; Ketas, Thomas J.

    Unnatural oligomers that can mimic protein surfaces offer a potentially useful strategy for blocking biomedically important protein-protein interactions. Here we evaluate an approach based on combining {alpha}- and {beta}-amino acid residues in the context of a polypeptide sequence from the HIV protein gp41, which represents an excellent testbed because of the wealth of available structural and biological information. We show that {alpha}/{beta}-peptides can mimic structural and functional properties of a critical gp41 subunit. Physical studies in solution, crystallographic data, and results from cell-fusion and virus-infectivity assays collectively indicate that the gp41-mimetic {alpha}/{beta}-peptides effectively block HIV-cell fusion via a mechanism comparablemore » to that of gp41-derived {alpha}-peptides. An optimized {alpha}/{beta}-peptide is far less susceptible to proteolytic degradation than is an analogous {alpha}-peptide. Our findings show how a two-stage design approach, in which sequence-based {alpha} {yields} {beta} replacements are followed by site-specific backbone rigidification, can lead to physical and biological mimicry of a natural biorecognition process.« less

  11. alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate attenuates glutamate-induced caspase-3 cleavage via regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Takaaki; Kihara, Takeshi; Akaike, Akinori; Niidome, Tetsuhiro; Sugimoto, Hachiro

    2008-04-01

    Preconditioning of sublethal ischemia exhibits neuroprotection against subsequent ischemia-induced neuronal death. It has been indicated that glutamate, an excitatory amino acid, is involved in the pathogenesis of ischemia-induced neuronal death or neurodegeneration. To elucidate whether prestimulation of glutamate receptor could counter ischemia-induced neuronal death or neurodegeneration, we examined the effect of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), an ionotropic subtype of glutamate receptor, on excess glutamate-induced excitotoxicity using primary cortical neuronal cultures. We found that AMPA exerted a neuroprotective effect in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. A blocker of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), LY294002 (10 microM), significantly attenuated AMPA-induced protection. In addition, Ser473 of Akt/PKB, a downstream target of PI3K, was phosphorylated by AMPA administration (10 microM). Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta), which has been reported to be inactivated by Akt, was phosphorylated at Ser9 by AMPA. Ser9-phosphorylated GSK3beta or inactivated form would be a key molecule for neuroprotection, insofar as lithium chloride (100 microM) and SB216763 (10 microM), inhibitors of GSK3beta, also induced phosphorylation of GSK3beta at Ser9 and exerted neuroprotection, respectively. Glutamate (100 microM) increased cleaved caspase-3, an apoptosis-related cysteine protease, and caspase-3 inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO; 1 microM) blocked glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in our culture. AMPA (10 microM, 24 hr) and SB216763 (10 microM) prominently decreased glutamate-induced caspase-3 cleavage. These findings suggest that AMPA activates PI3K-Akt and subsequently inhibits GSK3beta and that inactivated GSK3beta attenuates glutamate-induced caspase-3 cleavage and neurotoxicity.

  12. Significance of wood terpenoids in the resistance of Scots pine provenances against the old house borer, Hylotrupes bajulus, and brown-rot fungus, Coniophora puteana.

    PubMed

    Nerg, A M; Heijari, J; Noldt, U; Viitanen, H; Vuorinen, M; Kainulainen, P; Holopainen, J K

    2004-01-01

    We tested how terpenoid (i.e., monoterpenes and resin acids) composition and concentration in wood affects resistance against wood-borers and decaying fungi. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood from nine provenances having variable terpenoid profiles was studied against the old house borer, Hylotrupes bajulus, and the decay fungus, Coniophora puteana. Provenances represented a 1200-km N-S transect from Estonia to northern Finland, but they were all cultivated for 7 years in the same nursery field, in central Finland. Mean relative growth rate (MRGR) of small H. hajulus larvae positively correlated with the total monoterpene concentration of wood, and feeding was associated with high proportion of levopimaric+palustric acid in wood. Provenance did not affect the MRGR of small or big larvae, but big larvae consumed more wood and produced more frass on the northern Ylitornio trees than on the southern Rakvere and Ruokolahti trees. Low beta-pinene and total monoterpene concentration and low beta: alpha-pinene ratio in wood were all associated with a high number of eggs. The most northern Muonio provenance was the most favored as an oviposition site, differing significantly from Saaremaa, Tenhola, and Suomussalmi. Wood from Saaremaa, Tenhola, Ruokolahti, and Suomussalmi provenance was most resistant against decay fungus, differing significantly from that of Kinnula provenance. However, decay resistance was not clearly associated with the concentrations of wood terpenoids. These results suggest that monoterpene composition of wood affects resistance against wood-boring Cerambycid beetles, but resistance against wood-decaying fungi is not as clearly associated with wood terpenoids.

  13. Molecular transformations accompanying the aging of laboratory secondary organic aerosol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aging of fresh secondary organic aerosol, generated by alpha-pinene ozonolysis in a flow tube reactor, was studied by passing it through a second reaction chamber where hydroxyl radicals were generated. Two types of experiments were performed: plug injection experiments where the particle mass a...

  14. Transgenic Over Expression of Nicotinic Receptor Alpha 5, Alpha 3, and Beta 4 Subunit Genes Reduces Ethanol Intake in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Xavier; Ruiz, Jessica; Valverde, Olga; Molas, Susanna; Robles, Noemí; Sabrià, Josefa; Crabbe, John C.; Dierssen, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were previously shown to have increased nicotine self-administration, for several responses to ethanol. Transgenic and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to several acute behavioral responses to ethanol. However, transgenic mice drank less ethanol than wild-type in a two-bottle (ethanol vs. water) preference test. These results suggest a complex role for this receptor subunit gene cluster in the modulation of ethanol’s as well as nicotine’s effects. PMID:22459873

  15. Transgenic over expression of nicotinic receptor alpha 5, alpha 3, and beta 4 subunit genes reduces ethanol intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Xavier; Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Valverde, Olga; Molas, Susanna; Robles, Noemí; Sabrià, Josefa; Crabbe, John C; Dierssen, Mara

    2012-05-01

    Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were previously shown to have increased nicotine self-administration, for several responses to ethanol. Transgenic and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to several acute behavioral responses to ethanol. However, transgenic mice drank less ethanol than wild-type in a two-bottle (ethanol vs. water) preference test. These results suggest a complex role for this receptor subunit gene cluster in the modulation of ethanol's as well as nicotine's effects. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Anchorage mediated by integrin alpha6beta4 to laminin 5 (epiligrin) regulates tyrosine phosphorylation of a membrane-associated 80-kD protein

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Detachment of basal keratinocytes from basement membrane signals a differentiation cascade. Two integrin receptors alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 mediate adhesion to laminin 5 (epiligrin), a major extracellular matrix protein in the basement membrane of epidermis. By establishing a low temperature adhesion system at 4 degrees C, we were able to examine the exclusive role of alpha6beta4 in adhesion of human foreskin keratinocyte (HFK) and the colon carcinoma cell LS123. We identified a novel 80-kD membrane-associated protein (p80) that is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to dissociation of alpha6beta4 from laminin 5. The specificity of p80 phosphorylation for laminin 5 and alpha6beta4 was illustrated by the lack of regulation of p80 phosphorylation on collagen, fibronectin, or poly-L-lysine surfaces. We showed that blocking of alpha3beta1 function using inhibitory mAbs, low temperature, or cytochalasin D diminished tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase but not p80 phosphorylation. Therefore, under our assay conditions, p80 phosphorylation is regulated by alpha6beta4, while motility via alpha3beta1 causes phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. Consistent with a linkage between p80 dephosphorylation and alpha6beta4 anchorage to laminin 5, we found that phosphatase inhibitor sodium vanadate, which blocked the p80 dephosphorylation, prevented the alpha6beta4-dependent cell anchorage to laminin 5 at 4degreesC. In contrast, adhesion at 37 degrees C via alpha3beta1 was unaffected. Furthermore, by in vitro kinase assay, we identified a kinase activity for p80 phosphorylation in suspended HFKs but not in attached cells. The kinase activity, alpha6beta4, and its associated adhesion structure stable anchoring contacts were all cofractionated in the Triton- insoluble cell fraction that lacks alpha3beta1. Thus, regulation of p80 phosphorylation, through the activities of p80 kinase and phosphatase, correlates with alpha6beta4-SAC anchorage to laminin 5 at 4

  17. Disruption by conophthorin of the kairomonal response of sawyer beetles to bark beetle pheromones.

    PubMed

    Morewood, W D; Simmonds, K E; Gries, R; Allison, J D; Borden, J H

    2003-09-01

    Antennally active nonhost angiosperm bark volatiles were tested for their ability to reduce the response of three common species of coniferophagous wood-boring Cerambycidae to attractant-baited multiple funnel traps in the southern interior of British Columbia. Of the nonhost volatiles tested, only conophthorin was behaviorally active, disrupting the attraction of sawyer beetles, Monochamus spp., to traps baited with the host volatiles alpha-pinene and ethanol and the bark beetle pheromones ipsenol and ipsdienol. Conophthorin did not affect the attraction of sawyer beetles to the host kairomones alpha-pinene and ethanol in the absence of bark beetle pheromones, nor did it have any behavioral effect on adults of Xylotrechus longitarsis, which were not attracted to bark beetle pheromones. These results indicate that conophthorin does not act as a general repellent for coniferophagous Cerambycidae, as it seems to do for many species of Scolytidae, but has the specific activity of disrupting the kairomonal response of sawyer beetles to bark beetle pheromones.

  18. Synthesis and $gamma$-irradiation of verbenone and verbenol

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesza, J.; Tsankova, E.; Gora, J.

    1972-01-01

    Verbenone and verbenol which can be obtained by catalytic oxidation of $alpha$-pinene, are very useful for the perfumery industry. They can be used directly in perfume compositions or for the production of a number of other perfumery synthetics. The authors have attempted to transform verbenol and verbenone into other compounds by gamma irradiation. It was found, that verbenone exhibits resistance to the gamma irradiation and even at the doses of 500 Mrad it was only with small yield transformed in chrysantenone. The gamma irradiation of cis and trans verbenol by the doses of 220 Mrad has showed no change inmore » the case of trans isomer, and on the other hand the cis isomer was transformed mainly into trans verbenol and verbenone. The results of the investigation of the conditions having influence on the yield and the composition of the reaction products in the process of the catalytic oxidizing of $alpha$- pinene are given. (auth)« less

  19. Relating hygroscopicity and optical properties to chemical composition and structure of secondary organic aerosol particles generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, C.; Formenti, P.; Picquet-Varrault, B.; Pangui, E.; Zapf, P.; Katrib, Y.; Giorio, C.; Tapparo, A.; Monod, A.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Decorse, P.; Mangeney, C.; Doussin, J. F.

    2015-03-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene in the CESAM (French acronym for Experimental Multiphasic Atmospheric Simulation Chamber) simulation chamber. The SOA formation and aging were studied by following their optical, hygroscopic and chemical properties. The optical properties were investigated by determining the particle complex refractive index (CRI). The hygroscopicity was quantified by measuring the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the particle size (size growth factor, GF) and on the scattering coefficient (scattering growth factor, f(RH)). The oxygen to carbon atomic ratios (O : C) of the particle surface and bulk were used as a sensitive parameter to correlate the changes in hygroscopic and optical properties of the SOA composition during their formation and aging in CESAM. The real CRI at 525 nm wavelength decreased from 1.43-1.60 (±0.02) to 1.32-1.38 (±0.02) during the SOA formation. The decrease in the real CRI correlated to the O : C decrease from 0.68 (±0.20) to 0.55 (±0.16). In contrast, the GF remained roughly constant over the reaction time, with values of 1.02-1.07 (±0.02) at 90% (±4.2%) RH. Simultaneous measurements of O : C of the particle surface revealed that the SOA was not composed of a homogeneous mixture, but contained less oxidised species at the surface which may limit water absorption. In addition, an apparent change in both mobility diameter and scattering coefficient with increasing RH from 0 to 30% was observed for SOA after 14 h of reaction. We postulate that this change could be due to a change in the viscosity of the SOA from a predominantly glassy state to a predominantly liquid state.

  20. Inhibitors of sterol synthesis. Chemical syntheses and spectral properties of 26-oxygenated derivatives of 3 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one and their effects on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in CHO-K1 cells.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, A U; Wilson, W K; Ruecker, K E; Pinkerton, F D; Schroepfer, G J

    1992-11-01

    26-Oxygenated derivatives of delta 8(14)-15-ketosterols have been synthesized from (25R)-3 beta,26-diacetoxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one (IX) as part of a program to prepare potential metabolites and analogs of 3 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one (I), a potent regulator of cholesterol metabolism. Partial hydrolysis of IX gave a mixture, from which the 3 beta,26-diol II and the 26-acetate (XI) and 3 beta-acetate (X) monoesters were isolated. Mitsunobu reaction of XI followed by hydrolysis gave (25R)-3 alpha,26-dihydroxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one (VI). Oxidation of XI with pyridinium chlorochromate followed by hydrolysis of the acetate gave (25R)-26-hydroxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-ene-3,15-dione (VII). Oxidation of X with Jones reagent followed by hydrolysis of the acetate gave (25R)-3 beta-hydroxy-15-keto-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-26-oic acid (IVa). Jones oxidation of II gave (25R)-3,15-diketo-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-26-oic acid (VII). 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance assignments and analyses of mass spectral fragmentation data are presented for each of the new compounds and their derivatives. The 3,15-diketone VII was found to be highly active in lowering the levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in CHO-K1 cells, with a potency comparable to that of I. In contrast, 3 alpha,26-diol VI was less potent than I or VII. The two carboxylic acid analogs IVa and VIII were considerably less potent than VI in lowering the levels of HMG-CoA reductase activity.

  1. Spectral and temporal properties of the alpha and beta subunits and (alpha beta) monomer isolated from Nostoc sp. using picosecond laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagen, A. J.

    1985-12-01

    The fluorescence decay profiles, relative quantum yield and transmission of the alpha, beta and (alpha beta) complexes from phycoerythrin isolated from the photosynthetic antenna system of Nostoc sp. and measured by single picosecond laser spectroscopic techniques is studied. The fluorescence decay profiles of all three complexes are found to be intensity independent for the intensity range investigated (approx. 4x10 to the 13th power to 4x10 to the 15th power photons/sq cm per pulse). The apparent decrease in the relative quantum yield of all three complexes as intensity increases is offset by a corresponding increase in the relative transmission. This evidence, along with the intensity independent fluorescence kinetics, suggests that exciton annihilation is absent in these complexes. The decay profiles are fit to models assuming energy transfer amongst fluorescing chromophores. The intraprotein transfer rate is found to be 100 ps in the alpha subunit, 666 ps in the beta subunit. Constraining these rates to be identical in the monomer results in explaining the monomer kinetics by an increase in the nonradiative rate of the f beta chromophore, an apparent result of aggregation effects.

  2. Evaluating the Potential Importance of Monoterpene Degradation for Global Acetone Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelp, M. M.; Brewer, J.; Keller, C. A.; Fischer, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, but estimates of the global source of acetone vary widely. A better understanding of acetone sources is essential because acetone serves as a source of HOx in the upper troposphere and as a precursor to the NOx reservoir species peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Although there are primary anthropogenic and pyrogenic sources of acetone, the dominant acetone sources are thought to be from direct biogenic emissions and photochemical production, particularly from the oxidation of iso-alkanes. Recent work suggests that the photochemical degradation of monoterpenes may also represent a significant contribution to global acetone production. We investigate that hypothesis using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. In this work, we calculate the emissions of eight terpene species (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, Δ3-carene, myrcene, sabinene, trans-β-ocimene, and an 'other monoterpenes' category which contains 34 other trace species) and couple these with upper and lower bound literature yields from species-specific chamber studies. We compare the simulated acetone distributions against in situ acetone measurements from a global suite of NASA aircraft campaigns. When simulating an upper bound on yields, the model-to-measurement comparison improves for North America at both the surface and in the upper troposphere. The inclusion of acetone production from monoterpene degradation also improves the ability of the model to reproduce observations of acetone in East Asian outflow. However, in general the addition of monoterpenes degrades the model comparison for the Southern Hemisphere.

  3. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Different Morphological Parts of Pinus cembra L.

    PubMed

    Lis, Anna; Kalinowska, Aleksandra; Krajewska, Agnieszka; Mellor, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    The essential oils from needles, twigs, bark, wood, and cones of Pinus cembra were analyzed by GC-FID, GC/MS, and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. More than 130 compounds were identified. The oils differed in the quantitative composition. The principal components of the oil from twigs with needles were α-pinene (36.3%), limonene (22.7%) and β-phellandrene (12.0%). The needle oil was dominated by α-pinene (48.4%), whereas in the oil from bark and in the oil from twigs without needles there were limonene (36.2% and 33.6%, resp.) and β-phellandrene (18.8% and 17.1%, resp.). The main constituents of the wood oil as well as cone oil were α-pinene (35.2% and 39.0%, resp.) and β-pinene (10.4% and 18.9%, resp.). The wood oil and the cone oil contained large amounts of oxygenated diterpenes in comparison with needle, twig, and bark oils. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. IGF-1-dependent subunit communication of the IGF-1 holoreceptor: Interactions between. alpha. beta. heterodimeric receptor halves

    SciTech Connect

    Wilden, P.A.; Treadway, J.L.; Morrison, B.D.

    1989-12-12

    Examination of {sup 125}I-IGF-1 affinity cross-linking and {beta}-subunit autophosphorylation has indicated that IGF-1 induces a covalent association of isolated {alpha}{beta} heterodimeric IGF-1 receptors into an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric state, in a similar manner to that observed for the insulin receptor. The formation of the {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric IGF-1 receptor complex from the partially purified {alpha}{beta} heterodimers was time dependent with half-maximal formation in approximately 30 min at saturating IGF-1 concentrations. The IGF-1-dependent association of the partially purified {alpha}{beta} heterodimers into an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric state was specific for the IGF-1 receptors since IGF-1 was unable to stimulatemore » the protein kinase activity of the purified {alpha}{beta} heterodimeric insulin receptor complex. Incubation of the {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric IGF-1 holoreceptor with the specific sulfhydryl agent iodoacetamide (IAN) did not alter {sup 125}I-IGF-1 binding or IGF-1 stimulation of protein kinase activity. However, IAN treatment of the {alpha}{beta} heterodimeric IGF-1 receptors inhibited the IGF-1 dependent covalent formation of the disulfide-linked {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric complex. These data indicate that IGF-1 induces the covalent association of isolated {alpha}{beta} heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complexes into a disulfide-linked {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric state whereas Mn/MgATP induces a noncovalent association. Therefore, unlike the insulin receptor in which noncovalent association is sufficient for kinase activation, only the covalent assembly of the IGF-1 receptor {alpha}{beta} heterodimers into the {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetrameric holoreceptor complex is associated with ligand-stimulated protein kinase activation.« less

  5. Type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) rescues B-lymphocytes from apoptosis via PI3Kdelta/Akt, Rho-A, NFkappaB and Bcl-2/Bcl(XL).

    PubMed

    Badr, Gamal; Saad, Heba; Waly, Hanan; Hassan, Khadega; Abdel-Tawab, Hanem; Alhazza, Ibrahim M; Ahmed, Emad A

    2010-01-01

    Although IFN-alpha was reported to promote the survival of peripheral B-lymphocytes via the PI3-kinase-Akt pathway, the triggered signalling pathways involved in the protection of B cell from apoptosis need to be clarified. Using flow cytometry and western blot analysis, we have found that type 1 IFNs (IFN-alpha/beta) protect human B cells in culture from spontaneous apoptosis and from apoptosis mediated by anti-CD95 agonist, in a dose- and time-dependant manner. IFN-alpha/beta-mediated anti-apoptotic effect on human B cells was totally abrogated by blockade of IFNR1 chain. Our data indicate that PI3Kdelta, Rho-A, NFkappaB and Bcl-2/Bcl(XL) are active downstream of IFN receptors and are the major effectors of IFN-alpha/beta-rescued B cells from apoptosis. Furthermore, immunohistochemical results show marked reduction in numbers of CD20 positive B cell in both spleen and Peyer's patches from mice treated with anti-IFNR1 blocking antibody compared with control group. Moreover, ultrastructural observations of these organs show an obvious increase in apoptotic cells from mice treated with anti-IFNR1 blocking antibody. Our results provide more details about the triggered signalling pathways and the phosphorylation cascade which are involved in the protection of B cell from apoptosis after treatment with IFN-alpha/beta. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrical and Nonlinear Optical Studies of Specific Organic Molecular and Nonconjugated Conductive Polymeric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ananthakrishnan

    applications in electro-optics and photonics. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on poly(beta-pinene) before and after doping with iodine are reported in this work. The EPR signal of this polymer increases proportionally with the iodine concentration due to the formation of cation radicals upon doping and charge-transfer. The results agree well with the doping mechanism of nonconjugated conducting polymers discussed earlier in literature. Hyperfine splitting in heavily doped polymers is observed due to the reduced distance between the cation radical and the iodine anion. Off-resonant electro-optic measurements in doped poly(beta-pinene) at 790nm, 800nm, 810nm and 1.55microm using field-induced birefringence technique have been studied. The results show that this material exhibits the highest cubic nonlinearities of all known materials. The Kerr coefficient measured at 1.55microm is 1.6x10-10 m/V2 which is about 30 times higher than that of conjugated polymers. Results of two photon measurements in this doped polymer using pump-probe technique with a pulsed, mode-locked (150 fs pulses) beam from a Ti-Sapphire laser are reported. The measured value of alpha2 at 790 nm and 795 nm were found to be 2.28+/-0.1 cm/MW and 2.5+/-0.1 cm/MW respectively. The data confirms that the nonlinearity in this material is ultrafast and electronic in nature. Such large nonlinearities in these materials are attributed the charge confinement in these materials in a sub-nanometer domain (upon doping) resulting in a metal-like quantum dot structure. Photovoltaic measurements in a composite involving poly(beta-pinene) and C60 are discussed. This is the first time a nonconjugated conducting polymer based photovoltaic cell has been fabricated. A composite involving 4% C60 by weight produced a photovoltage of 280mV for an incident light intensity of 6mW/sq.cm. These low cost devices have applications in solar cells, photodetectors etc. A nonlinear optical waveguide was prepared by casting a thin

  7. Constitution of pseudobinary hypoeutectic beta-NiAl + alpha-V alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, J. D.; Kaufman, M. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of pseudobinary eutectics between NiAl (beta) and V (alpha) at high temperatures was investigated as a possible way of improving the ductility and toughness of the alloy. It is found that a pseudobinary eutectic, characterized by a large beta+alpha field, is formed in the Ni-Al-V ternary system below about 1370 C. The high-temperature solubility of V in beta is about 14 percent, decreasing markedly with decreasing temperature and increasing Al content above 50 at. pct Al. The pseudobinary hypoeutectic exibits crack resistance under indentation loading.

  8. Bark Beetle pheromones and pine volatiles: Attractant Kairomone Lure Blend for Longhorn Beetles (Cerambycidae) in pine stands of the southeastern United States.

    Treesearch

    Dan Miller; Chris Asaro; Christopher Crowe; Donald Duerr

    2011-01-01

    In 2006,weexamined the ßight responses of 43 species of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with binary lure blends of 1) ipsenol + ipsdienol, 2) ethanol + α-pinene, and a quaternary lure blend of 3) ipsenol + ipsdienol + ethanol + αpinene in the southeastern United States. In addition, we monitored responses of...

  9. The Five Senses of Christmas Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Derek A.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the organic chemistry of five compounds that are directly associated with the Christmas season. These substances and related materials are presented within the framework of the five senses: silver fulminate (sound), alpha-pinene (sight), sodium acetate (touch), tryptophan (taste), and gingerol (smell). Connections with the…

  10. Experience-dependent modulation of alpha and beta during action observation and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Di Nota, Paula M; Chartrand, Julie M; Levkov, Gabriella R; Montefusco-Siegmund, Rodrigo; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2017-03-06

    EEG studies investigating the neural networks that facilitate action observation (AO) and kinaesthetic motor imagery (KMI) have shown reduced, or desynchronized, power in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) frequency bands relative to rest, reflecting efficient activation of task-relevant areas. Functional modulation of these networks through expertise in dance has been established using fMRI, with greater activation among experts during AO. While there is evidence for experience-dependent plasticity of alpha power during AO of dance, the influence of familiarity on beta power during AO, and alpha and beta activity during KMI, remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to measure the impact of familiarity on confidence ratings and EEG activity during (1) AO of a brief ballet sequence, (2) KMI of this same sequence, and (3) KMI of non-dance movements among ballet dancers, dancers from other genres, and non-dancers. Ballet dancers highly familiar with the genre of the experimental stimulus demonstrated higher individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF), greater alpha desynchronization, and greater task-related beta power during AO, as well as faster iAPF during KMI of non-dance movements. While no between-group differences in alpha or beta power were observed during KMI of dance or non-dance movements, all participants showed significant desynchronization relative to baseline, and further desynchronization during dance KMI relative to non-dance KMI indicative of greater cognitive load. These findings confirm and extend evidence for experience-dependent plasticity of alpha and beta activity during AO of dance and KMI. We also provide novel evidence for modulation of iAPF that is faster when tuned to the specific motor repertoire of the observer. By considering the multiple functional roles of these frequency bands during the same task (AO), we have disentangled the compounded contribution of familiarity and expertise to alpha desynchronization for mediating

  11. Phenotypic consequences of deletion of the {gamma}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, or {beta}{sub 3} subunit of the type A {gamma}-aminobutyric acid receptor in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Culia, C.T.; Stubbs, L.J.; Montgomery, C.S.

    1994-03-29

    Three genes (Gabrg3, Gabra5, and Gabrb3) encoding the {gamma}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, and {beta}{sub 3} subunits of the type A {gamma}-aminobutyric acid receptor, respectively, are known to map near the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus in mouse chromosome 7. This region shares homology with a segment of human chromosome 15 that is implicated in Angelman syndrome, an inherited neurobehavioral disorder. By mapping Gabrg3-Gabra5-Gabrb3-telomere. Like Gabrb3, neither the Gabra5 nor Gabrg3 gene is functionally imprinted in adult mouse brain. Mice deleted for all three subunits die at birth with a cleft palate, although there are rare survivors ({approximately} 5%) that do notmore » have a cleft palate but do exhibit a neurological abnormality characterized by tremor, jerky gait, and runtiness. The authors have previously suggested that deficiency of the {beta}{sub 3} subunit may be responsible for the clefting defect. Most notably, however, in this report they describe mice carrying two overlapping, complementing p deletions that fail to express the {gamma}{sub 3} transcript, as well as mice from another line that express neither the {gamma}{sub 3} nor {alpha}{sub 5} transcripts. Surprisingly, mice from both of these lines are phenotypically normal and do not exhibit any of the neurological symptoms characteristic of the rare survivors that are deleted for all three ({gamma}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, and {beta}{sub 3}) subunits. These mice therefore provide a whole-organism type A {gamma}-aminobutyric-acid receptor background that is devoid of any receptor subtypes that normally contain the {gamma}{sub 3} and/or {alpha}{sub 5} subunits. The absence of an overt neurological phenotype in mice lacking the {gamma}{sub 3} and/or {alpha}{sub 5} subunits also suggests that mutations in these genes are unlikely to provide useful animal models for Angelman syndrome in humans.« less

  12. Characterization of alpha(4)beta(1) (CD49d/CD29) on equine leukocytes: potential utility of a potent alpha(4)beta(1) (CD49d/CD29) receptor antagonist in the treatment of equine heaves (recurrent airway obstruction).

    PubMed

    Treonze, Kelly M; Alves, Kenneth; Fischer, Paul; Hagmann, William K; Hora, Donald; Kulick, Alison; Vakerich, Ken; Smith, Nicholas D; Lingham, Russell B; Maniar, Salony; Reger, Thomas S; Zunic, Jasmine; Munoz, Benito; Prasit, Peppi; Nicholson, Donald; Si, Qian; Judd, Keith; Nicolich, Susan; Kellerhouse, Patricia; Thompson, Donald; Mumford, Richard A

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the alpha(4)beta(1) receptor (CD49d/CD29, very late antigen-4, VLA-4) on circulating equine leukocytes and to evaluate the intrinsic potency of an alpha(4)beta(1) receptor antagonist (Compound B) in the horse. Ultimately, these studies would allow us to determine the suitability of treating recurrent airway obstruction (RAO; heaves) affected horses by blocking the cellular recruitment of lymphocytes and neutrophils into the lung. The data demonstrates the alpha(4)beta(1) integrin is present on horse lymphocytes and neutrophils (fluorescence-assisted cell sorter, FACS) and can bind low molecular weight alpha(4)beta(1) antagonists (Compounds A and B) with high affinity. K(D) values for the binding of Compound A to non-activated alpha(4)beta(1) on isolated horse PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and activated neutrophils were 17 pM and 27 pM, respectively. Compound B was identified as a suitable antagonist for performing a series of in vivo experiments. Compound B was found to possess excellent potency in horse whole blood, possessing IC(50) and IC(90) values of 39 pM and 172 pM, respectively. This represents a 3.9-fold molar excess of drug over the alpha(4)beta(1) concentration in blood. Following oral administration of Compound B (5 mg/kg) to beagle dogs and rhesus monkeys, rapid and sustained alpha(4)beta(1) receptor occupancy (>80%) was achieved and maintained for a period of 24 h. When Compound B was administered intravenously to the horse, by either a slow or rapid infusion at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg, receptor blockade of >80% was observed out to 24 h with a concomitant leukocytosis. We believe that Compound B possesses suitable intrinsic and pharmacological properties to be evaluated clinically in horses affected by RAO.

  13. [Comparison of chemical components of essential oils in needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm from Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Shen, Changmao; Duan, Wengui; Cen, Bo; Tan, Jianhui

    2006-11-01

    Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm grown in Guangxi. Various factors such as pine needle dosage and extraction time which may influence the oil yield were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pine needle dosage 700 g, extraction time 5 h. The essential oil yields from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm were 0.45% and 0.19%, respectively. Moreover, the chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty four components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus massoniana Lamb were separated and twenty of them (98.59%) were identified while seventy three components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus elliottottii Engelm were separated and twenty nine of them (94.23%) were identified. Generally, the compositions of the essential oils from needles of the two varieties were similar but the contents of some compounds differed greatly. Especially, the content of alpha-pinene in the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb needles was 2.6 times as that from Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles, but the content of beta-pinene was less than the latter. Mono- and sesquiterpenes were the main composition of the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles.

  14. Isolation and characterization of allelopathic volatiles from mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Barney, Jacob N; Hay, Anthony G; Weston, Leslie A

    2005-02-01

    Several volatile allelochemicals were identified and characterized from fresh leaf tissue of three distinct populations of the invasive perennial weed, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). A unique bioassay was used to demonstrate the release of volatile allelochemicals from leaf tissues. Leaf volatiles were trapped and analyzed via gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Some of the components identified were terpenes, including camphor, eucalyptol, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene. Those commercially available were tested individually to determine their phytotoxicity. Concentrations of detectable volatiles differed in both absolute and relative proportions among the mugwort populations. The three mugwort populations consisted of a taller, highly branched population (ITH-1); a shorter, lesser-branched population (ITH-2) (both grown from rhizome fragments from managed landscapes); and a population grown from seed with lobed leaves (VT). Considerable interspecific variation existed in leaf morphology and leaf surface chemistry. Bioassays revealed that none of the individual monoterpenes could account for the observed phytotoxicity imparted by total leaf volatiles, suggesting a synergistic effect or activity of a component not tested. Despite inability to detect a single dominant phytotoxic compound, decreases in total terpene concentration with increase in leaf age correlated with decreases in phytotoxicity. The presence of bioactive terpenoids in leaf surface chemistry of younger mugwort tissue suggests a potential role for terpenoids in mugwort establishment and proliferation in introduced habitats.

  15. Double gene deletion reveals the lack of cooperation between PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta} in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Bedu, E.; Desplanches, D.; Pequignot, J.

    2007-06-15

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in the regulation of most of the pathways linked to lipid metabolism. PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta} isotypes are known to regulate muscle fatty acid oxidation and a reciprocal compensation of their function has been proposed. Herein, we investigated muscle contractile and metabolic phenotypes in PPAR{alpha}-/-, PPAR{beta}-/-, and double PPAR{alpha}-/- {beta}-/- mice. Heart and soleus muscle analyses show that the deletion of PPAR{alpha} induces a decrease of the HAD activity ({beta}-oxidation) while soleus contractile phenotype remains unchanged. A PPAR{beta} deletion alone has no effect. However, these mild phenotypes are not due to a reciprocal compensationmore » of PPAR{beta} and PPAR{alpha} functions since double gene deletion PPAR{alpha}-PPAR{beta} mostly reproduces the null PPAR{alpha}-mediated reduced {beta}-oxidation, in addition to a shift from fast to slow fibers. In conclusion, PPAR{beta} is not required for maintaining skeletal muscle metabolic activity and does not compensate the lack of PPAR{alpha} in PPAR{alpha} null mice.« less

  16. A search for Lyman-alpha emission in beta Lyrae from Copernicus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    High-resolution (0.2 A) spectrophotometric observations of the complex eclipsing binary beta Lyrae were obtained with the Princeton Telescope Spectrometer on the Copernicus satellite. We discuss the search for L-alpha emission in beta Lyrae and compare the Copernicus results with the OAO-2 observations of the same binary system. The possible L-alpha emission features observed from OAO-2 are identified as blends of the emission lines of other elements in the vicinity of L-alpha.

  17. Chemical similarity between historical and novel host plants promotes range and host expansion of the mountain pine beetle in a naïve host ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Ma, Cary; Whitehouse, Caroline; Shan, Bin; Najar, Ahmed; Evenden, Maya

    2014-02-01

    Host plant secondary chemistry can have cascading impacts on host and range expansion of herbivorous insect populations. We investigated the role of host secondary compounds on pheromone production by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) and beetle attraction in response to a historical (lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and a novel (jack pine, Pinus banksiana) hosts, as pheromones regulate the host colonization process. Beetles emit the same pheromones from both hosts, but more trans-verbenol, the primary aggregation pheromone, was emitted by female beetles on the novel host. The phloem of the novel host contains more α-pinene, a secondary compound that is the precursor for trans-verbenol production in beetle, than the historical host. Beetle-induced emission of 3-carene, another secondary compound found in both hosts, was also higher from the novel host. Field tests showed that the addition of 3-carene to the pheromone mixture mimicking the aggregation pheromones produced from the two host species increased beetle capture. We conclude that chemical similarity between historical and novel hosts has facilitated host expansion of MPB in jack pine forests through the exploitation of common host secondary compounds for pheromone production and aggregation on the hosts. Furthermore, broods emerging from the novel host were larger in terms of body size. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Chemical Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution, and Antifungal Activity of the Oleoresin Essential Oil of Protium amazonicum from Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Satyal, Prabodh; Powers, Chelsea N.; Parducci V., Rafael; McFeeters, Robert L.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Protium species (Burseraceae) have been used in the treatment of various diseases and conditions such as ulcers and wounds. Methods: The essential oil from the oleoresin of Protium amazonicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS, GC-FID, and chiral GC-MS. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil was screened for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Cryptococcus neoformans. Results: A total of 54 components representing 99.6% of the composition were identified in the oil. The essential oil was dominated by δ-3-carene (47.9%) with lesser quantities of other monoterpenoids α-pinene (4.0%), p-cymene (4.1%), limonene (5.1%), α-terpineol (5.5%) and p-cymen-8-ol (4.8%). Chiral GC-MS revealed most of the monoterpenoids to have a majority of levo enantiomers present with the exceptions of limonene and α-terpineol, which showed a dextro majority. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil showed promising activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC = 156 μg/mL. Conclusions: This account is the first reporting of both the chemical composition and enantiomeric distribution of the oleoresin essential oil of P. amazonicum from Ecuador. The oil was dominated by (−)-δ-3-carene, and this compound, along with other monoterpenoids, likely accounts for the observed antifungal activity of the oil. PMID:28946630

  19. Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Ricardo M; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Demuner, Antonio J; Silva, Cleber J; Andrade, Nelio J; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Barbosa, Maria C A

    2012-08-14

    The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA). The major constituents in Anacardium humile leaves oil were (E)-caryophyllene (31.0%) and α-pinene (22.0%), and in Anacardium occidentale oil they were (E)-caryophyllene (15.4%) and germacrene-D (11.5%). Volatile oil from Astronium fraxinifolium leaves were dominated by (E)-β-ocimene (44.1%) and α-terpinolene (15.2%), whilst the oil from Myracrodruon urundeuva contained an abundance of δ-3-carene (78.8%). However, Schinus terebinthifolius leaves oil collected in March and J