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Sample records for altered cellular functions

  1. Structural and functional cellular alterations underlying the toxicity of methamphetamine in rat retina and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Prudêncio, Cristina; Abrantes, Bruno; Lopes, Isabel; Tavares, Maria Amélia

    2002-06-01

    The consumption of illicit drugs is an increasing problem in contemporary societies, and is one of the major causes of death and illness all over the world. Methamphetamine is among the drugs more widely used. Although evidence for a role of reactive species--especially reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic events--has been shown, the mechanism(s) underlying the cellular toxicity induced by this drug is not yet fully identified. In this context the elucidation of the cytotoxic effects induced by methamphetamine in rat frontal cortex and retina, which compromise cell viability and ultimately result in cell death, can further contribute to the understanding of its mechanism of action. This knowledge may provide new insights into the development of new therapeutic approaches to prevent or ameliorate deleterious alterations of the nervous system. The use of epifluorescence microscopy associated with different fluorescent probes, markers of structural and/or functional cell parameters, can be used as a powerful tool to carry out those studies, in particular, the viability probes propidium iodide (PI) to assess plasma membrane integrity and fluorescein diacetate (FDA), which can monitor intracellular esterase activity and/or pH. In a preliminary study, the kinetic assessment of cellular changes induced by different drug concentrations (0, 1.2, 3, and 6 mM) allowed detection of dose-dependent alterations that are observed earlier in the retina. In fact, in the retina it was possible to monitor alterations (at 4 h of incubation) both in plasma membrane integrity and in esterase activity and/or pH for the lowest drug concentration (1.2 mM). In the prefrontal cortex these changes were only visible for drug concentrations > or = 3 mM. This work is a novel approach to the mechanisms of action of illicit drugs in the central nervous system and will provide the foundations and guidelines for further investigations in the context of tolerance, dependence, and addiction.

  2. Altered lysosomal positioning affects lysosomal functions in a cellular model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Erie, Christine; Sacino, Matthew; Houle, Lauren; Lu, Michael L; Wei, Jianning

    2015-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary and devastating neurodegenerative disorder caused by a mutation in the huntingtin protein. Understanding the functions of normal and mutant huntingtin protein is the key to revealing the pathogenesis of HD and developing therapeutic targets. Huntingtin plays an important role in vesicular and organelle trafficking. Lysosomes are dynamic organelles that integrate several degradative pathways and regulate the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). In the present study, we found that the perinuclear accumulation of lysosomes was increased in a cellular model of HD derived from HD knock-in mice and primary fibroblasts from an HD patient. This perinuclear lysosomal accumulation could be reversed when normal huntingtin was overexpressed in HD cells. When we further investigated the functional significance of the increased perinuclear lysosomal accumulation in HD cells, we demonstrated that basal mTORC1 activity was increased in HD cells. In addition, autophagic influx was also increased in HD cells in response to serum deprivation, which leads to premature fusion of lysosomes with autophagosomes. Taken together, our data suggest that the increased perinuclear accumulation of lysosomes may play an important role in HD pathogenesis by altering lysosomal-dependent functions. PMID:25997742

  3. Cholesterol lowering drug may influence cellular immune response by altering MHC II function[S

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Koushik; Ghosh, Moumita; Pal, Tuhin Kumar; Chakrabarti, Saikat; Roy, Syamal

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) displays peptides to CD4+ T cells. Depletion of membrane cholesterol from APCs by methyl β-cyclodextrin treatment compromises peptide-MHC II complex formation coupled with impaired binding of conformational antibody, which binds close to the peptide binding groove of MHC II. Interestingly, the total cell surface of MHC II remains unaltered. These defects can be corrected by restoring membrane cholesterol. In silico docking studies with a three-dimensional model showed the presence of a cholesterol binding site in the transmembrane domain of MHC II (TM-MHC-II). From the binding studies it was clear that cholesterol, indeed, interacts with the TM-MHC-II and alters its conformation. Mutation of cholesterol binding residues (F240, L243, and F246) in the TM-MHC-II decreased the affinity for cholesterol. Furthermore, transfection of CHO cells with full-length mutant MHC II, but not wild-type MHC II, failed to activate antigen-specific T cells coupled with decreased binding of conformation-specific antibodies. Thus, cholesterol-induced conformational change of TM-MHC-II may allosterically modulate the peptide binding groove of MHC II leading to T cell activation. PMID:24038316

  4. Anacardic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Oleic Acid Differentially Alter Cellular Bioenergetic Function in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Radde, Brandie N; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Price, Stephanie M; Schultz, David J; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2016-11-01

    Anacardic acid is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical that inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Since mitochondrial-targeted anticancer therapy (mitocans) may be useful in breast cancer, we examined the effect of anacardic acid on cellular bioenergetics and OXPHOS pathway proteins in breast cancer cells modeling progression to endocrine-independence: MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ endocrine-sensitive; LCC9 and LY2 ERα+, endocrine-resistant, and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. At concentrations similar to cell proliferation IC50 s, anacardic acid reduced ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate (OCR), mitochondrial reserve capacity, and coupling efficiency while increasing proton leak, reflecting mitochondrial toxicity which was greater in MCF-7 compared to endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells. These results suggest tolerance in endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells to mitochondrial stress induced by anacardic acid. Since anacardic acid is an alkylated 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, the effects of salicylic acid (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety) and oleic acid (OA, monounsaturated alkyl moiety) were tested. SA inhibited whereas OA stimulated cell viability. In contrast to stimulation of basal OCR by anacardic acid (uncoupling effect), neither SA nor OA altered basal OCR- except OA inhibited basal and ATP-linked OCR, and increased ECAR, in MDA-MB-231 cells. Changes in OXPHOS proteins correlated with changes in OCR. Overall, neither the 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety nor the monounsaturated alky moiety of anacardic acid is solely responsible for the observed mitochondria-targeted anticancer activity in breast cancer cells and hence both moieties are required in the same molecule for the observed effects. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2521-2532, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990649

  5. Altered T-cell function in schizophrenia: a cellular model to investigate molecular disease mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Craddock, Rachel M; Lockstone, Helen E; Rider, David A; Wayland, Matthew T; Harris, Laura J W; McKenna, Peter J; Bahn, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    may affect the ability of patient cells to respond to stimulation. Functional profiling showed prominent transcript changes in categories pertaining to cell cycle machinery, intracellular signalling, oxidative stress and metabolism. Intriguingly, chromosomal location analysis of genes significantly altered between schizophrenia and controls revealed clusters at 1p36, 1q42 and 6p22, which have previously been identified as strong susceptibility loci for schizophrenia.

  6. Lead and cadmium induced alterations of cellular functions in leaves of Alocasia macrorrhiza L. Schott.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhi-Fang; Lin, Gui-Zhu; Song, Li-Ying; Chen, Shao-Wei; Mo, Hui; Peng, Chang-Lian

    2010-09-01

    Alocasia macrorrhiza is a fast growing and propagating herbaceous species commonly found in South China. To determine its physiological responses to Pb and Cd stresses, the biochemical, histochemical and cytochemical changes under PbAC2 and CdCl2 phytotoxicity were detected using leaf discs as an experimental model. After leaf discs were infiltrated in different concentrations of PbAC2 and CdCl2 solutions (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 microM) for 72 h, the formation of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2-) in plant tissue were found to be exaggerated together with elevated OH concentration and cell death. Changes in chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm, PhiPSII, qP and NPQ) imaging colours/areas of leaf discs indicated decreased photosystem II functions by both heavy metal treatments and positive reactions of antioxidants under Pb2+ stress. Results showed that fluorescent detection of hydroxylated terephthlate using terephthalic acid as OH trap is a simple, yet valuable and specific method for monitoring OH generation in plant tissue under heavy metal stresses. As compared with Cd2+, Pb2+ was found to be less toxic, indicating that A. macrorrhiza tissue might have a potential tolerance to Pb.

  7. Defects in TRPM7 channel function deregulate thrombopoiesis through altered cellular Mg2+ homeostasis and cytoskeletal architecture

    PubMed Central

    Stritt, Simon; Nurden, Paquita; Favier, Remi; Favier, Marie; Ferioli, Silvia; Gotru, Sanjeev K.; van Eeuwijk, Judith M M.; Schulze, Harald; Nurden, Alan T.; Lambert, Michele P.; Turro, Ernest; Burger-Stritt, Stephanie; Matsushita, Masayuki; Mittermeier, Lorenz; Ballerini, Paola; Zierler, Susanna; Laffan, Michael A.; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Braun, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Mg2+ plays a vital role in platelet function, but despite implications for life-threatening conditions such as stroke or myocardial infarction, the mechanisms controlling [Mg2+]i in megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelets are largely unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin-like 7 channel (TRPM7) is a ubiquitous, constitutively active cation channel with a cytosolic α-kinase domain that is critical for embryonic development and cell survival. Here we report that impaired channel function of TRPM7 in MKs causes macrothrombocytopenia in mice (Trpm7fl/fl-Pf4Cre) and likely in several members of a human pedigree that, in addition, suffer from atrial fibrillation. The defect in platelet biogenesis is mainly caused by cytoskeletal alterations resulting in impaired proplatelet formation by Trpm7fl/fl-Pf4Cre MKs, which is rescued by Mg2+ supplementation or chemical inhibition of non-muscle myosin IIA heavy chain activity. Collectively, our findings reveal that TRPM7 dysfunction may cause macrothrombocytopenia in humans and mice. PMID:27020697

  8. The Cellular Redox Environment Alters Antigen Presentation*

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Jonathan A.; Croft, Nathan P.; Dudek, Nadine L.; Channappanavar, Rudragouda; Theodossis, Alex; Webb, Andrew I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Illing, Patricia T.; Butler, Noah S.; Fett, Craig; Tscharke, David C.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Perlman, Stanley; Purcell, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine-containing peptides represent an important class of T cell epitopes, yet their prevalence remains underestimated. We have established and interrogated a database of around 70,000 naturally processed MHC-bound peptides and demonstrate that cysteine-containing peptides are presented on the surface of cells in an MHC allomorph-dependent manner and comprise on average 5–10% of the immunopeptidome. A significant proportion of these peptides are oxidatively modified, most commonly through covalent linkage with the antioxidant glutathione. Unlike some of the previously reported cysteine-based modifications, this represents a true physiological alteration of cysteine residues. Furthermore, our results suggest that alterations in the cellular redox state induced by viral infection are communicated to the immune system through the presentation of S-glutathionylated viral peptides, resulting in altered T cell recognition. Our data provide a structural basis for how the glutathione modification alters recognition by virus-specific T cells. Collectively, these results suggest that oxidative stress represents a mechanism for modulating the virus-specific T cell response. PMID:25135637

  9. Altered cell function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    1991-01-01

    The paper overviews published results from investigations of changes in basic biological parameters taking place as a result of spaceflight exposure. These include changes in the rates of the DNA, mRNA, and protein biosyntheses; changes in the growth rate of an organism; and alterations in the cytoskeleton structure, differentiation, hormone accumulation, and collagen matrix secretion. These results, obtained both in complex biological organisms and on cultured cells, suggest that a basic cellular function is influenced and changed by microgravity. Many of the above mentioned changes are also found to take place in aging cells.

  10. Does reduced gravity alter cellular response to ionizing radiation?

    PubMed

    Manti, Lorenzo

    2006-05-01

    This review addresses the purported interplay between actual or simulated weightlessness and cellular response to ionizing radiation. Although weightlessness is known to alter several cellular functions and to affect signaling pathways implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation and death, its influence on cellular radiosensitivity has so far proven elusive. Renewed controversy as to whether reduced gravity enhances long-term radiation risk is fueled by recently published data that claim either overall enhancement of genomic damage or no increase of radiation-induced clastogenicity by modeled microgravity in irradiated human cells. In elucidating this crucial aspect of space radiation protection, ground-based experiments, such as those based on rotating-wall bioreactors, will increasingly be used and represent a more reproducible alternative to in-flight experiments. These low-shear vessels also make three-dimensional cellular co-cultures possible and thus allow to study the gravisensitivity of radioresponse in a context that better mimics cell-to-cell communication and hence in vivo cellular behavior.

  11. Regulation of cell function by the cellular hydration state.

    PubMed

    Häussinger, D; Lang, F; Gerok, W

    1994-09-01

    Cellular hydration can change within minutes under the influence of hormones, nutrients, and oxidative stress. Such short-term modulation of cell volume within a narrow range acts per se as a potent signal which modifies cellular metabolism and gene expression. It appears that cell swelling and cell shrinkage lead to certain opposite patterns of cellular metabolic function. Apparently, hormones and amino acids can trigger those patterns simply by altering cell volume. Thus alterations of cellular hydration may represent another important mechanism for metabolic control and act as another second or third messenger linking cell function to hormonal and environmental alterations.

  12. Hox Targets and Cellular Functions

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Herrero, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Hox genes are a group of genes that specify structures along the anteroposterior axis in bilaterians. Although in many cases they do so by modifying a homologous structure with a different (or no) Hox input, there are also examples of Hox genes constructing new organs with no homology in other regions of the body. Hox genes determine structures though the regulation of targets implementing cellular functions and by coordinating cell behavior. The genetic organization to construct or modify a certain organ involves both a genetic cascade through intermediate transcription factors and a direct regulation of targets carrying out cellular functions. In this review I discuss new data from genome-wide techniques, as well as previous genetic and developmental information, to describe some examples of Hox regulation of different cell functions. I also discuss the organization of genetic cascades leading to the development of new organs, mainly using Drosophila melanogaster as the model to analyze Hox function. PMID:24490109

  13. Cellular Functions of Tissue Transglutaminase

    PubMed Central

    Nurminskaya, Maria V.; Belkin, Alexey M.

    2013-01-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2 or tissue transglutaminase) is a highly complex multifunctional protein that acts as transglutaminase, GTPase/ATPase, protein disulfide isomerase, and protein kinase. Moreover, TG2 has many well-documented nonenzymatic functions that are based on its noncovalent interactions with multiple cellular proteins. A vast array of biochemical activities of TG2 accounts for its involvement in a variety of cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, growth, survival, apoptosis, differentiation, and extracellular matrix organization. In turn, the impact of TG2 on these processes implicates this protein in various physiological responses and pathological states, contributing to wound healing, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration, vascular remodeling, tumor growth and metastasis, and tissue fibrosis. TG2 is ubiquitously expressed and is particularly abundant in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, monocytes/macrophages, and smooth muscle cells. The protein is localized in multiple cellular compartments, including the nucleus, cytosol, mitochondria, endolysosomes, plasma membrane, and cell surface and extracellular matrix, where Ca2+, nucleotides, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, membrane lipids, and distinct protein–protein interactions in the local microenvironment jointly regulate its activities. In this review, we discuss the complex biochemical activities and molecular interactions of TG2 in the context of diverse subcellular compartments and evaluate its wide ranging and cell type-specific biological functions and their regulation. PMID:22364871

  14. Cellular functions of the microprocessor.

    PubMed

    Macias, Sara; Cordiner, Ross A; Cáceres, Javier F

    2013-08-01

    The microprocessor is a complex comprising the RNase III enzyme Drosha and the double-stranded RNA-binding protein DGCR8 (DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 gene) that catalyses the nuclear step of miRNA (microRNA) biogenesis. DGCR8 recognizes the RNA substrate, whereas Drosha functions as an endonuclease. Recent global analyses of microprocessor and Dicer proteins have suggested novel functions for these components independent of their role in miRNA biogenesis. A HITS-CLIP (high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation) experiment designed to identify novel substrates of the microprocessor revealed that this complex binds and regulates a large variety of cellular RNAs. The microprocessor-mediated cleavage of several classes of RNAs not only regulates transcript levels, but also modulates alternative splicing events, independently of miRNA function. Importantly, DGCR8 can also associate with other nucleases, suggesting the existence of alternative DGCR8 complexes that may regulate the fate of a subset of cellular RNAs. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of the diverse functional roles of the microprocessor.

  15. Molecular and Cellular Alterations in Down Syndrome: Toward the Identification of Targets for Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Créau, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome is a complex disease that has challenged molecular and cellular research for more than 50 years. Understanding the molecular bases of morphological, cellular, and functional alterations resulting from the presence of an additional complete chromosome 21 would aid in targeting specific genes and pathways for rescuing some phenotypes. Recently, progress has been made by characterization of brain alterations in mouse models of Down syndrome. This review will highlight the main molecular and cellular findings recently described for these models, particularly with respect to their relationship to Down syndrome phenotypes. PMID:22848846

  16. Mutations in human C2CD3 cause skeletal dysplasia and provide new insights into phenotypic and cellular consequences of altered C2CD3 function

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Claudio R.; McInerney-Leo, Aideen M.; Vogel, Ida; Rondón Galeano, Maria C.; Leo, Paul J.; Harris, Jessica E.; Anderson, Lisa K.; Keith, Patricia A.; Brown, Matthew A.; Ramsing, Mette; Duncan, Emma L.; Zankl, Andreas; Wicking, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Ciliopathies are a group of genetic disorders caused by defective assembly or dysfunction of the primary cilium, a microtubule-based cellular organelle that plays a key role in developmental signalling. Ciliopathies are clinically grouped in a large number of overlapping disorders, including the orofaciodigital syndromes (OFDS), the short rib polydactyly syndromes and Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy. Recently, mutations in the gene encoding the centriolar protein C2CD3 have been described in two families with a new sub-type of OFDS (OFD14), with microcephaly and cerebral malformations. Here we describe a third family with novel compound heterozygous C2CD3 mutations in two fetuses with a different clinical presentation, dominated by skeletal dysplasia with no microcephaly. Analysis of fibroblast cultures derived from one of these fetuses revealed a reduced ability to form cilia, consistent with previous studies in C2cd3-mutant mouse and chicken cells. More detailed analyses support a role for C2CD3 in basal body maturation; but in contrast to previous mouse studies the normal recruitment of the distal appendage protein CEP164 suggests that this protein is not sufficient for efficient basal body maturation and subsequent axonemal extension in a C2CD3-defective background. PMID:27094867

  17. Mutations in human C2CD3 cause skeletal dysplasia and provide new insights into phenotypic and cellular consequences of altered C2CD3 function.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Claudio R; McInerney-Leo, Aideen M; Vogel, Ida; Rondón Galeano, Maria C; Leo, Paul J; Harris, Jessica E; Anderson, Lisa K; Keith, Patricia A; Brown, Matthew A; Ramsing, Mette; Duncan, Emma L; Zankl, Andreas; Wicking, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Ciliopathies are a group of genetic disorders caused by defective assembly or dysfunction of the primary cilium, a microtubule-based cellular organelle that plays a key role in developmental signalling. Ciliopathies are clinically grouped in a large number of overlapping disorders, including the orofaciodigital syndromes (OFDS), the short rib polydactyly syndromes and Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy. Recently, mutations in the gene encoding the centriolar protein C2CD3 have been described in two families with a new sub-type of OFDS (OFD14), with microcephaly and cerebral malformations. Here we describe a third family with novel compound heterozygous C2CD3 mutations in two fetuses with a different clinical presentation, dominated by skeletal dysplasia with no microcephaly. Analysis of fibroblast cultures derived from one of these fetuses revealed a reduced ability to form cilia, consistent with previous studies in C2cd3-mutant mouse and chicken cells. More detailed analyses support a role for C2CD3 in basal body maturation; but in contrast to previous mouse studies the normal recruitment of the distal appendage protein CEP164 suggests that this protein is not sufficient for efficient basal body maturation and subsequent axonemal extension in a C2CD3-defective background. PMID:27094867

  18. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Gretchen; Ajioka, James W; Kelly, Krystyna A; Mui, Ernest; Roberts, Fiona; Kasza, Kristen; Mayr, Thomas; Kirisits, Michael J; Wollmann, Robert; Ferguson, David JP; Roberts, Craig W; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Trendler, Toria; Kennan, Richard P; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Reardon, Catherine; Hickey, William F; Chen, Lieping; McLeod, Rima

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or αPD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap), effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase), synapse remodeling (Complement 1q), and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection) and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease). Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus

  19. Asplatin enhances drug efficacy by altering the cellular response.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qinqin; Shi, Hongdong; Wang, Hongxia; Wang, Jun; Liu, Yangzhong

    2016-07-13

    Aspirin, a widely used anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to be effective for the prevention and remission of cancers (Science, 2012, 337(21) 1471-1473). Asplatin, a Pt(iv) prodrug of cisplatin with the ligation of aspirin (c,c,t-[PtCl2(NH3)2(OH)(aspirin)]), demonstrates significantly higher cytotoxicity than cisplatin towards tumor cells and almost fully overcomes the drug resistance of cisplatin resistant cells. In this work, we have studied the molecular mechanism of asplatin by investigating the cellular response to this compound in order to understand the prominent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of cancer cells. The apoptosis analyses and the related gene expression measurements show that aspirin released from asplatin significantly modulates the cellular response to the platinum agent. Asplatin promotes the apoptosis via the BCL-2 associated mitochondrial pathway. The down-regulation of BCL-2 along with the up-regulation of BAX and BAK enhances the mitochondrial outer membrane permeability, resulting in the cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytosol. This event promotes the apoptosis by activation of caspase processing. Consequently, the ligation of aspirin significantly enhances the drug efficacy of the platinum complex in the low micromolar range. The alteration of the cellular response is probably responsible for the circumvention of the cisplatin resistance by asplatin. These results provide an insight into the mechanism of asplatin and provide information for designing new classic platinum drugs. PMID:27125788

  20. Skeletal muscle plasticity: cellular and molecular responses to altered physical activity paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Haddad, Fadia

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine our current understanding of the chain of events known to be involved in the adaptive process whereby specific genes and their protein products undergo altered expression; specifically, skeletal muscle adaptation in response to altered loading states will be discussed, with a special focus on the regulation of the contractile protein, myosin heavy chain gene expression. This protein, which is both an important structural and regulatory protein comprising the contractile apparatus, can be expressed as different isoforms, thereby having an impact on the functional diversity of the muscle. Because the regulation of the myosin gene family is under the control of a complex set of processes including, but not limited to, activity, hormonal, and metabolic factors, this protein will serve as a cellular "marker" for studies of muscle plasticity in response to various mechanical perturbations in which the quantity and type of myosin isoform, along with other important cellular proteins, are altered in expression.

  1. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Catriona; Flatt, Peter R.; McClenaghan, Neville H.

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. {yields} Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. {yields} Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  2. Molecular kinesis in cellular function and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Tiedge, H; Bloom, F E; Richter, D

    2001-06-19

    Intracellular transport and localization of cellular components are essential for the functional organization and plasticity of eukaryotic cells. Although the elucidation of protein transport mechanisms has made impressive progress in recent years, intracellular transport of RNA remains less well understood. The National Academy of Sciences Colloquium on Molecular Kinesis in Cellular Function and Plasticity therefore was devised as an interdisciplinary platform for participants to discuss intracellular molecular transport from a variety of different perspectives. Topics covered at the meeting included RNA metabolism and transport, mechanisms of protein synthesis and localization, the formation of complex interactive protein ensembles, and the relevance of such mechanisms for activity-dependent regulation and synaptic plasticity in neurons. It was the overall objective of the colloquium to generate momentum and cohesion for the emerging research field of molecular kinesis.

  3. Functional and cellular adaptations of rodent skeletal muscle to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Haddad, Fadia; Baker, Michael J.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the affects of microgravity upon three key cellular levels (functional, protein, and mRNA) that are linked to one another. It is clear that at each of these levels, microgravity produces rapid and substantial alterations. One of the key challenges facing the life science community is the development of effective countermeasures that prevent the loss of muscle function as described in this paper. The development of optimal countermeasures, however, awaits a clearer understanding of events occurring at the levels of transcription, translation, and degradation.

  4. Cellular metabolism and macrophage functional polarization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linnan; Zhao, Qingjie; Yang, Tao; Ding, Wenjun; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are a functionally heterogeneous cell population that is mainly shaped by a variety of microenvironmental stimuli. Interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce a classical activation of macrophages (M1), whereas IL-4 and IL-13 induce an alternative activation program in macrophages (M2). Reprogramming of intracellular metabolisms is required for the proper polarization and functions of activated macrophages. Similar to the Warburg effect observed in tumor cells, M1 macrophages increase glucose consumption and lactate release and decreased oxygen consumption rate. In comparison, M2 macrophages mainly employ oxidative glucose metabolism pathways. In addition, fatty acids, vitamins, and iron metabolisms are also related to macrophage polarization. However, detailed metabolic pathways involved in macrophages have remained elusive. Understanding the bidirectional interactions between cellular metabolism and macrophage functions in physiological and pathological situations and the regulatory pathways involved may offer novel therapies for macrophage-associated diseases.

  5. Cellular responses to HSV-1 infection are linked to specific types of alterations in the host transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Benxia; Li, Xin; Huo, Yongxia; Yu, Yafen; Zhang, Qiuping; Chen, Guijun; Zhang, Yaping; Fraser, Nigel W.; Wu, Dongdong; Zhou, Jumin

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen invasion triggers a number of cellular responses and alters the host transcriptome. Here we report that the type of changes to cellular transcriptome is related to the type of cellular functions affected by lytic infection of Herpes Simplex Virus type I in Human primary fibroblasts. Specifically, genes involved in stress responses and nuclear transport exhibited mostly changes in alternative polyadenylation (APA), cell cycle genes showed mostly alternative splicing (AS) changes, while genes in neurogenesis, rarely underwent these changes. Transcriptome wide, the infection resulted in 1,032 cases of AS, 161 incidences of APA, 1,827 events of isoform changes, and up regulation of 596 genes and down regulations of 61 genes compared to uninfected cells. Thus, these findings provided important and specific links between cellular responses to HSV-1 infection and the type of alterations to the host transcriptome, highlighting important roles of RNA processing in virus-host interactions. PMID:27354008

  6. Cellular responses to HSV-1 infection are linked to specific types of alterations in the host transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Benxia; Li, Xin; Huo, Yongxia; Yu, Yafen; Zhang, Qiuping; Chen, Guijun; Zhang, Yaping; Fraser, Nigel W; Wu, Dongdong; Zhou, Jumin

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen invasion triggers a number of cellular responses and alters the host transcriptome. Here we report that the type of changes to cellular transcriptome is related to the type of cellular functions affected by lytic infection of Herpes Simplex Virus type I in Human primary fibroblasts. Specifically, genes involved in stress responses and nuclear transport exhibited mostly changes in alternative polyadenylation (APA), cell cycle genes showed mostly alternative splicing (AS) changes, while genes in neurogenesis, rarely underwent these changes. Transcriptome wide, the infection resulted in 1,032 cases of AS, 161 incidences of APA, 1,827 events of isoform changes, and up regulation of 596 genes and down regulations of 61 genes compared to uninfected cells. Thus, these findings provided important and specific links between cellular responses to HSV-1 infection and the type of alterations to the host transcriptome, highlighting important roles of RNA processing in virus-host interactions. PMID:27354008

  7. Natural Products as Tools for Defining How Cellular Metabolism Influences Cellular Immune and Inflammatory Function during Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Erica S.; Polyak, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic viral infections like those caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cause disease that establishes an ongoing state of chronic inflammation. While there have been tremendous improvements towards curing HCV with directly acting antiviral agents (DAA) and keeping HIV viral loads below detection with antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is still a need to control inflammation in these diseases. Recent studies indicate that many natural products like curcumin, resveratrol and silymarin alter cellular metabolism and signal transduction pathways via enzymes such as adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and these pathways directly influence cellular inflammatory status (such as NF-κB) and immune function. Natural products represent a vast toolkit to dissect and define how cellular metabolism controls cellular immune and inflammatory function. PMID:26633463

  8. Myosin VI: cellular functions and motor properties.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rhys; Lister, Ida; Schmitz, Stephan; Walker, Matthew; Veigel, Claudia; Trinick, John; Buss, Folma; Kendrick-Jones, John

    2004-01-01

    Myosin VI has been localized in membrane ruffles at the leading edge of cells, at the trans-Golgi network compartment of the Golgi complex and in clathrin-coated pits or vesicles, indicating that it functions in a wide variety of intracellular processes. Myosin VI moves along actin filaments towards their minus end, which is the opposite direction to all of the other myosins so far studied (to our knowledge), and is therefore thought to have unique properties and functions. To investigate the cellular roles of myosin VI, we identified various myosin VI binding partners and are currently characterizing their interactions within the cell. As an alternative approach, we have expressed and purified full-length myosin VI and studied its in vitro properties. Previous studies assumed that myosin VI was a dimer, but our biochemical, biophysical and electron microscopic studies reveal that myosin VI can exist as a stable monomer. We observed, using an optical tweezers force transducer, that monomeric myosin VI is a non-processive motor which, despite a relatively short lever arm, generates a large working stroke of 18 nm. Whether monomer and/or dimer forms of myosin VI exist in cells and their possible functions will be discussed. PMID:15647169

  9. Myosin VI: cellular functions and motor properties.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rhys; Lister, Ida; Schmitz, Stephan; Walker, Matthew; Veigel, Claudia; Trinick, John; Buss, Folma; Kendrick-Jones, John

    2004-12-29

    Myosin VI has been localized in membrane ruffles at the leading edge of cells, at the trans-Golgi network compartment of the Golgi complex and in clathrin-coated pits or vesicles, indicating that it functions in a wide variety of intracellular processes. Myosin VI moves along actin filaments towards their minus end, which is the opposite direction to all of the other myosins so far studied (to our knowledge), and is therefore thought to have unique properties and functions. To investigate the cellular roles of myosin VI, we identified various myosin VI binding partners and are currently characterizing their interactions within the cell. As an alternative approach, we have expressed and purified full-length myosin VI and studied its in vitro properties. Previous studies assumed that myosin VI was a dimer, but our biochemical, biophysical and electron microscopic studies reveal that myosin VI can exist as a stable monomer. We observed, using an optical tweezers force transducer, that monomeric myosin VI is a non-processive motor which, despite a relatively short lever arm, generates a large working stroke of 18 nm. Whether monomer and/or dimer forms of myosin VI exist in cells and their possible functions will be discussed. PMID:15647169

  10. Physical effects at the cellular level under altered gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul

    Several modifications of differentiated functions of animal cells cultivated in vitro have been reported when cultures have been exposed to increased or decreased inertial acceleration fields by centrifugation, clinorotation, and orbital space flight. Variables modified by clinorotation conditions include inertial acceleration, convection, hydrostatic pressure, sedimentation, and shear stress, which also affect transport processes in the extracellular chemical environment. Autocrine, paracrine and endocrine substances, to which cells are responsive via specific receptors, are usually transported in vitro (and possibly in certain embryos) by convection and in vivo by a circulatory system or ciliary action. Increased inertial acceleration increases convective flow, while microgravity nearly abolishes it. In the latter case the extracellular transport of macromolecules is governed by diffusion. By making certain assumptions it is possible to calculate the Peclet number, the ratio of convective transport to diffusive transport. Some, but not all, responses of cells in vitro to modified inertial environments could be manifestations of modified extracellular convective flow.

  11. Restriction of Receptor Movement Alters Cellular Response: Physical Force Sensing by EphA2

    SciTech Connect

    Salaita, Khalid; Nair, Pradeep M; Petit, Rebecca S; Neve, Richard M; Das, Debopriya; Gray, Joe W; Groves, Jay T

    2009-09-09

    Activation of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase by ephrin-A1 ligands presented on apposed cell surfaces plays important roles in development and exhibits poorly understood functional alterations in cancer. We reconstituted this intermembrane signaling geometry between live EphA2-expressing human breast cancer cells and supported membranes displaying laterally mobile ephrin-A1. Receptor-ligand binding, clustering, and subsequent lateral transport within this junction were observed. EphA2 transport can be blocked by physical barriers nanofabricated onto the underlying substrate. This physical reorganization of EphA2 alters the cellular response to ephrin-A1, as observed by changes in cytoskeleton morphology and recruitment of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10. Quantitative analysis of receptor-ligand spatial organization across a library of 26 mammary epithelial cell lines reveals characteristic differences that strongly correlate with invasion potential. These observations reveal a mechanism for spatio-mechanical regulation of EphA2 signaling pathways.

  12. Licofelone attenuates quinolinic acid induced Huntington like symptoms: possible behavioral, biochemical and cellular alterations.

    PubMed

    Kalonia, Harikesh; Kumar, Puneet; Kumar, Anil

    2011-03-30

    Cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes are involved in arachidonic acid metabolism. Emerging evidence indicates that cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors prevent neurodegenerative processes and related complications. Therefore, the present study has been designed to explore the neuroprotective potential of licofelone (dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitor) against quinolinic acid induced Huntington like symptom in rats. Intrastriatal administration of quinolinic acid significantly caused reduction in body weight and motor function (locomotor activity, rotarod performance and beam walk test), oxidative defense (as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and decreased endogenous antioxidant enzymes), alteration in mitochondrial enzyme complex (I, II and IV) activities, raised TNF-α level and striatal lesion volume as compared to sham treated animals. Licofelone (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) treatment significantly improved body weight, locomotor activity, rotarod performance, balance beam walk performance, oxidative defense, mitochondrial enzyme complex activities and attenuated TNF-α level and striatal lesion as compared to control (quinolinic acid). The present study highlights that licofelone attenuates behavioral, biochemical and cellular alterations against quinolinic acid induced neurotoxicity and this could be an important therapeutic avenue to ameliorate the Huntington like symptoms. PMID:21237233

  13. Rejuvenating cellular respiration for optimizing respiratory function: targeting mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan

    2016-01-15

    Altered bioenergetics with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and degradation of epithelial function are key aspects of pathogenesis in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This motif is not unique to obstructive airway disease, reported in related airway diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and parenchymal diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Similarly, mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular endothelium or skeletal muscles contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension and systemic manifestations of lung disease. In experimental models of COPD or asthma, the use of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, such as MitoQ, has substantially improved mitochondrial health and restored respiratory function. Modulation of noncoding RNA or protein regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, or degradation has been found to be effective in models of fibrosis, emphysema, asthma, and pulmonary hypertension. Transfer of healthy mitochondria to epithelial cells has been associated with remarkable therapeutic efficacy in models of acute lung injury and asthma. Together, these form a 3R model--repair, reprogramming, and replacement--for mitochondria-targeted therapies in lung disease. This review highlights the key role of mitochondrial function in lung health and disease, with a focus on asthma and COPD, and provides an overview of mitochondria-targeted strategies for rejuvenating cellular respiration and optimizing respiratory function in lung diseases.

  14. Alpha-Synuclein Function and Dysfunction on Cellular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Snead, David

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein is a small neuronal protein that is closely associated with the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Mutations in and alterations in expression levels of alpha-synuclein cause autosomal dominant early onset heredity forms of Parkinson's disease, and sporadic Parkinson's disease is defined in part by the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites that are composed primarily of alpha-synuclein deposited in an aggregated amyloid fibril state. The normal function of alpha-synuclein is poorly understood, and the precise mechanisms by which it leads to toxicity and cell death are also unclear. Although alpha-synuclein is a highly soluble, cytoplasmic protein, it binds to a variety of cellular membranes of different properties and compositions. These interactions are considered critical for at least some normal functions of alpha-synuclein, and may well play critical roles in both the aggregation of the protein and its mechanisms of toxicity. Here we review the known features of alpha-synuclein membrane interactions in the context of both the putative functions of the protein and of its pathological roles in disease. PMID:25548530

  15. In Absence of the Cellular Prion Protein, Alterations in Copper Metabolism and Copper-Dependent Oxidase Activity Affect Iron Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Lisa; Meneghetti, Elisa; Legname, Giuseppe; Benetti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements as copper and iron modulate a wide range of physiological functions. Their metabolism is strictly regulated by cellular pathways, since dysregulation of metal homeostasis is responsible for many detrimental effects. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and prion diseases are characterized by alterations of metal ions. These neurodegenerative maladies involve proteins that bind metals and mediate their metabolism through not well-defined mechanisms. Prion protein, for instance, interacts with divalent cations via multiple metal-binding sites and it modulates several metal-dependent physiological functions, such as S-nitrosylation of NMDA receptors. In this work we focused on the effect of prion protein absence on copper and iron metabolism during development and adulthood. In particular, we investigated copper and iron functional values in serum and several organs such as liver, spleen, total brain and isolated hippocampus. Our results show that iron content is diminished in prion protein-null mouse serum, while it accumulates in liver and spleen. Our data suggest that these alterations can be due to impairments in copper-dependent cerulopalsmin activity which is known to affect iron mobilization. In prion protein-null mouse total brain and hippocampus, metal ion content shows a fluctuating trend, suggesting the presence of homeostatic compensatory mechanisms. However, copper and iron functional values are likely altered also in these two organs, as indicated by the modulation of metal-binding protein expression levels. Altogether, these results reveal that the absence of the cellular prion protein impairs copper metabolism and copper-dependent oxidase activity, with ensuing alteration of iron mobilization from cellular storage compartments. PMID:27729845

  16. Pronounced alterations of cellular metabolism and structure due to hyper- or hypo-osmosis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lei; Hartl, Daniela; Nolden, Tobias; Koppelstätter, Andrea; Klose, Joachim; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Zabel, Claus

    2008-09-01

    Cell volume alteration represents an important factor contributing to the pathology of late-onset diseases. Previously, it was reported that protein biosynthesis and degradation are inversely (trans) regulated during cell volume regulation. Upon cell shrinkage, protein biosynthesis was up-regulated and protein degradation down-regulated. Cell swelling showed opposite regulation. Recent evidence suggests a decrease of protein biodegradation activity in many neurodegenerative diseases and even during aging; both also show prominent cell shrinkage. To clarify the effect of cell volume regulation on the overall protein turnover dynamics, we investigated mouse embryonic stem cells under hyper- and hypotonic osmotic conditions using a 2-D gel based proteomics approach. These conditions cause cell swelling and shrinkage, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the adaption to altered osmotic conditions and therefore cell volume alterations affects a broad spectrum of cellular pathways, including stress response, cytoskeleton remodeling and importantly, cellular metabolism and protein degradation. Interestingly, protein synthesis and degradation appears to be cis-regulated (same direction) on a global level. Our findings also support the hypothesis that protein alterations due to osmotic stress contribute to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases due to a 60% expression overlap with proteins found altered in Alzheimer's, Huntington's, or Parkinson's disease. Eighteen percent of the proteins altered are even shared with all three disorders. PMID:18646788

  17. Regulation of SIRT1 in cellular functions: role of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sangwoon; Yao, Hongwei; Caito, Samuel; Hwang, Jae-Woong; Arunachalam, Gnanapragasam; Rahman, Irfan

    2010-09-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is known to deacetylate histones and non-histone proteins including transcription factors thereby regulating metabolism, stress resistance, cellular survival, cellular senescence/aging, inflammation-immune function, endothelial functions, and circadian rhythms. Naturally occurring dietary polyphenols, such as resveratrol, curcumin, quercetin, and catechins, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties via modulating different pathways, such as NF-kappaB- and mitogen activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways. In addition, these polyphenols have also been shown to activate SIRT1 directly or indirectly in a variety of models. Therefore, activation of SIRT1 by polyphenols is beneficial for regulation of calorie restriction, oxidative stress, inflammation, cellular senescence, autophagy/apoptosis, autoimmunity, metabolism, adipogenesis, circadian rhythm, skeletal muscle function, mitochondria biogenesis and endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we describe the regulation of SIRT1 by dietary polyphenols in various cellular functions in response to environmental and pro-inflammatory stimuli.

  18. Modelling thymic functions in a cellular automaton.

    PubMed

    Morpurgo, D; Serenthà, R; Seiden, P E; Celada, F

    1995-04-01

    Along the lines developed by Celada and Seiden, for simulating an immune system by means of cellular automata, we have constructed a 'thymus' where T cells undergo positive and negative selection. The populations thus 'matured' have been analyzed and their performance has been tested in machina. The key feature of this thymus is to allow chance meeting and possible interaction between newly born T cells and antigen presenting cells. The latter represent both the epithelial and the dendritic cells of the biological organ and are equipped with MHC molecules that can accommodate selected self peptides. All possible specificities are represented among the virgin T cells entering the thymus, but this diversity is drastically reduced by the time they exit as mature elements. In the model organ the fate of T cells, i.e. whether they will undergo proliferation or apoptosis, is governed by their capacity to recognize MHCs and the affinity of this interaction. Crucial parameters turn out to be the concentration of presenting cells, the number of types of MHC per cell, the 'size of self' in terms of the number of different peptides and their prevalence. According to the results, events in the automaton can realize unforeseen cooperations and competitions among receptors, depending upon the interaction order and frequency, and ultimately determine the rescue or the killing of thymocytes. Thus the making of the mature T repertoire has a random component and cannot be completely predicted.

  19. Alteration of heme metabolism in a cellular model of Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Sonia; Aspesi, Anna; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Dianzani, Irma; Chiabrando, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital pure red cell aplasia often associated with skeletal malformations. Mutations in ribosomal protein coding genes, mainly in RPS19, account for the majority of DBA cases. The molecular mechanisms underlying DBA pathogenesis are still not completely understood. Alternative spliced isoforms of FLVCR1 (feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor 1) transcript coding for non-functional proteins have been reported in some DBA patients. Consistently, a phenotype very close to DBA has been described in animal models of FLVCR1 deficiency. FLVCR1 gene codes for two proteins: the plasma membrane heme exporter FLVCR1a and the mitochondrial heme exporter FLVCR1b. The coordinated expression of both FLVCR1 isoforms regulates an intracellular heme pool, necessary for proper expansion and differentiation of erythroid precursors. Here, we investigate the role of FLVCR1 isoforms in a cellular model of DBA. RPS19-downregulated TF1 cells show reduced FLVCR1a and FLVCR1b mRNA levels associated with heme overload. The downregulation of FLVCR1 isoforms affects cell cycle progression and apoptosis in differentiating K562 cells, a phenotype similar to DBA. Taken together, these data suggest that alteration of heme metabolism could play a role in the pathogenesis of DBA.

  20. Functional connectivity density alterations in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Chuanjun; Zhu, Jiajia; Qin, Wen; Qu, Hongru; Ma, Xiaolei; Tian, Hongjun; Xu, Qingying; Yu, Chunshui

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is characterized by altered resting-state functional connectivity. Most previous studies have focused on changes in connectivity strengths; however, the alterations in connectivity density in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate changes in resting-state functional connectivity density (rsFCD) in schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 95 schizophrenia patients and 93 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional MRI examinations. The rsFCD, which reflects the total number of functional connections between a given brain voxel and all other voxels in the entire brain, was calculated for each voxel of each subject. Voxel-based comparisons were performed to identify brain regions with significant rsFCD differences between patients and controls (P < 0.05, corrected). Results: Compared with HCs, patients with schizophrenia showed significantly increased rsFCD in the bilateral striatum and hippocampus and significantly decreased rsFCD in the bilateral sensorimotor cortices and right occipital cortex. However, the rsFCD values of these brain regions were not correlated with antipsychotic dosage, illness duration, or clinical symptom severity. Conclusions: The striatal and hippocampal regions and parietal-occipital regions exhibited completely different changes in rsFCD in schizophrenia, which roughly correspond to dopamine activity in these regions in schizophrenia. These findings support the connectivity disorder hypothesis of schizophrenia and increase our understanding of the neural mechanisms of schizophrenia. PMID:25477799

  1. Cellular and molecular basis of cholinergic function

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdall, M.J.; Hawthorne, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 105 selections. Some of the titles are: Functional correlates of brain nicotine receptors; Muscarinic receptor subclasses; Cholinergic innervation and levels of nerve growth factor and its mRNA in the central nervous system; Developmentally regulated neurontrophic activities of Torpedo electric organ tissue; and Association of a regulatory peptide with cholinergic neurons.

  2. When "altering brain function" becomes "mind control".

    PubMed

    Koivuniemi, Andrew; Otto, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. "Under what conditions does 'altering brain function' qualify as 'mind control'?" In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control.

  3. Microgravity and Cellular Consequences in Lymphocyte Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Sundaresan, Alamelu

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian cells adapt to the environment of low gravity and express a series of responses, some possibly from direct effects on cells and others based on environmental conditions created by microgravity. Human lymphocytes in microgravity culture are functionally diminished in activation and locomotion. Both processes are integral to optimal immune response to fight pathogens. The NASA Rotating-wall vessel (RWV) is a well-accepted analog for microgravity culture on the ground. Gene array experiments and immunoblotting identified upstream events in human lymphocytes adapting to microgravity analog culture. Microgravity induces selective changes, many of which are cell membrane related. Results showed that upstream of PKC in the T cell activation cascade, PLC-gamma and LAT are significantly diminished. ZAP 70 which controls LAT activation is also down regulated in modeled microgravity. Thus events governing cell shape might warrant attention in microgravity conditions. The goal of this study is to delineate response suites that are consequential, direct or indirect effects of the microgravity environment and which of these are essential to lymphocytes

  4. Cellular functions of TMEM16/anoctamin.

    PubMed

    Oh, Uhtaek; Jung, Jooyoung

    2016-03-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are a class of Cl(-) channels activated by intracellular Ca(2+) that are known to mediate numerous physiological functions. In 2008, the molecular identity of CaCCs was found to be anoctamin 1 (ANO1/TMEM16A). Its roles have been studied in electrophysiological, histological, and genetic aspects. ANO1 is known to mediate Cl(-) secretion in secretory epithelia such as airways, salivary glands, intestines, renal tubules, and sweat glands. ANO1 is a heat sensor activated by noxious heat in somatosensory neurons and mediates acute pain sensation as well as chronic pain. ANO1 is also observed in vascular as well as airway smooth muscles, controlling vascular tone as well as airway hypersensitivity. ANO1 is upregulated in numerous types of cancers and thus thought to be involved in tumorigenesis. ANO1 is also found in proliferating cells. In addition to ANO1, involvement of its paralogs in pathophysiological conditions was also reported. ANO2 is involved in olfaction, whereas ANO6 works as a scramblase whose mutation causes a rare bleeding disorder, the Scott syndrome. ANO5 is associated with muscle and bone diseases. Recently, an X-ray crystal structure of a fungal TMEM16 was reported, which explains a precise molecular gating mechanism as well as ion conduction or phospholipid transport across the plasma membrane. PMID:26811235

  5. Cellular function of neuropathy target esterase in lysophosphatidylcholine action

    SciTech Connect

    Vose, Sarah C.; Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Gulevich, Alex G.; Lin, Amy Y.; Holland, Nina T.; Casida, John E.

    2008-11-01

    Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) plays critical roles in embryonic development and maintenance of peripheral axons. It is a secondary target of some organophosphorus toxicants including analogs of insecticides and chemical warfare agents. Although the mechanistic role of NTE in vivo is poorly defined, it is known to hydrolyze lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in vitro and may protect cell membranes from cytotoxic accumulation of LPC. To determine the cellular function of NTE, Neuro-2a and COS-7 cells were transfected with a full-length human NTE-containing plasmid yielding recombinant NTE (rNTE). We find the same inhibitor sensitivity and specificity profiles for rNTE assayed with LPC or phenyl valerate (a standard NTE substrate) and that this correlation extends to the LPC hydrolases of human brain, lymphocytes and erythrocytes. All of these LPC hydrolases are therefore very similar to each other in respect to a conserved inhibitor binding site conformation. NTE is expressed in brain and lymphocytes and contributes to LPC hydrolase activities in these tissues. The enzyme or enzymes responsible for erythrocyte LPC hydrolase activity remain to be identified. We also show that rNTE protects Neuro-2a and COS-7 cells from exogenous LPC cytotoxicity. Expression of rNTE in Neuro-2a cells alters their phospholipid balance (analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with single ion monitoring) by lowering LPC-16:0 and LPC-18:0 and elevating glycerophosphocholine without a change in phosphatidylcholine-16:0/18:1 or 16:0/18:2. NTE therefore serves an important function in LPC homeostasis and action.

  6. Functional roles for myosin 1c in cellular signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Lisa M.; Brandstaetter, Hemma; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2013-01-01

    Cellular signaling pathways underlie the transfer of information throughout the cell and to adjoining cells and so govern most critical cellular functions. Increasing evidence points to the molecular motor myosin 1c as a prominent player in many signaling cascades, from the integrin-dependent signaling involved in cell migration to the signaling events underlying insulin resistance. Myosin 1c functions on these pathways both via an important role in regulating lipid raft recycling and also via direct involvement in signaling cascades. This review provides an overview of the functional involvement of myosin 1c in cellular signaling and discusses the possible potential for myosin 1c as a target for drug-based treatments for human diseases. PMID:23022959

  7. Alterations in macrophage functions by environmental chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D E

    1984-01-01

    The establishment of infectious diseases is rarely entirely attributed to a single entity, but instead is the result of a primary stress and one or more secondary factors that interfere with homeostasis and the ability of the host to cope with the primary etiologic assault. Any environmental chemical that can suppress the normal functioning of the host's body defenses would be expected to increase the risk of the host to such diseases. Within the lung, the alveolar macrophages are the crucial elements responsible for defending the body against such airborne viable agents. The effects of inhaled gases and particulates on these defense cells are a major concern of the environmental health scientist since such chemicals have the capability of adversely affecting the integrity and functioning of these pulmonary defense cells. The objective of this report is to provide an overview that will improve our understanding of how a variety of environmental chemicals can alter the biochemical, physiological and immunological functioning of these cells. PMID:6376106

  8. Cellular Signature of SIL1 Depletion: Disease Pathogenesis due to Alterations in Protein Composition Beyond the ER Machinery.

    PubMed

    Roos, Andreas; Kollipara, Laxmikanth; Buchkremer, Stephan; Labisch, Thomas; Brauers, Eva; Gatz, Christian; Lentz, Chris; Gerardo-Nava, José; Weis, Joachim; Zahedi, René P

    2016-10-01

    SIL1 acts as nucleotide exchange factor for the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP. Mutations of SIL1 cause Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS), a neurodegenerative disorder. Moreover, a particular function of SIL1 for etiopathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was highlighted, thus declaring the functional SIL1-BiP complex as a modifier for neurodegenerative disorders. Thereby, depletion of SIL1 was associated with an earlier manifestation and in strengthened disease progression in ALS. Owing to the absence of appropriate in vitro models, the precise cellular pathophysiological mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in MSS and triggering the same in further disorders like ALS are still elusive. We found that SIL1 depletion in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells led to structural changes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) including the nuclear envelope and mitochondrial degeneration that closely mimic pathological alterations in MSS and ALS. Functional studies revealed disturbed protein transport, cytotoxicity with reduced proliferation and viability, accompanied by activation of cellular defense mechanisms including the unfolded protein response, ER-associated degradation pathway, proteolysis, and expression of apoptotic and survival factors. Our data moreover indicated that proteins involved in cytoskeletal organization, vesicular transport, mitochondrial function, and neurological processes contribute to SIL1 pathophysiology. Altered protein expression upon SIL1 depletion in vitro could be confirmed in Sil1-deficient motoneurones for paradigmatic proteins belonging to different functional classes. Our results demonstrate that SIL1-depleted HEK293 cells are an appropriate model to identify proteins modulated by SIL1 expression level and contributing to neurodegeneration in MSS and further disorders like ALS. Thereby, our combined results point out that proteins beyond such involved ER-related protein processing are affected by SIL1 depletion.

  9. Altered Functional Connectivity in Essential Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Benito-León, Julián; Louis, Elan D.; Romero, Juan Pablo; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Manzanedo, Eva; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; Posada, Ignacio; Rocon, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Essential tremor (ET) has been associated with a spectrum of clinical features, with both motor and nonmotor elements, including cognitive deficits. We employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess whether brain networks that might be involved in the pathogenesis of nonmotor manifestations associated with ET are altered, and the relationship between abnormal connectivity and ET severity and neuropsychological function. Resting-state fMRI data in 23 ET patients (12 women and 11 men) and 22 healthy controls (HC) (12 women and 10 men) were analyzed using independent component analysis, in combination with a “dual-regression” technique, to identify the group differences of resting-state networks (RSNs) (default mode network [DMN] and executive, frontoparietal, sensorimotor, cerebellar, auditory/language, and visual networks). All participants underwent a neuropsychological and neuroimaging session, where resting-state data were collected. Relative to HC, ET patients showed increased connectivity in RSNs involved in cognitive processes (DMN and frontoparietal networks) and decreased connectivity in the cerebellum and visual networks. Changes in network integrity were associated not only with ET severity (DMN) and ET duration (DMN and left frontoparietal network), but also with cognitive ability. Moreover, in at least 3 networks (DMN and frontoparietal networks), increased connectivity was associated with worse performance on different cognitive domains (attention, executive function, visuospatial ability, verbal memory, visual memory, and language) and depressive symptoms. Further, in the visual network, decreased connectivity was associated with worse performance on visuospatial ability. ET was associated with abnormal brain connectivity in major RSNs that might be involved in both motor and nonmotor symptoms. Our findings underscore the importance of examining RSNs in this population as a biomarker of disease. PMID:26656325

  10. Identification of an mtDNA mutation hot spot in UV-induced mouse skin tumors producing altered cellular biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Jandova, Jana; Eshaghian, Alex; Shi, Mingjian; Li, Meiling; King, Lloyd E; Janda, Jaroslav; Sligh, James E

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing awareness of the role of mtDNA alterations in the development of cancer, as mtDNA point mutations are found at high frequency in a variety of human tumors. To determine the biological effects of mtDNA mutations in UV-induced skin tumors, hairless mice were irradiated to produce tumors, and the tumor mtDNAs were screened for single-nucleotide changes using temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE), followed by direct sequencing. A mutation hot spot (9821insA) in the mitochondrially encoded tRNA arginine (mt-Tr) locus (tRNA(Arg)) was discovered in approximately one-third of premalignant and malignant skin tumors. To determine the functional relevance of this particular mutation in vitro, cybrid cell lines containing different mt-Tr (tRNA(Arg)) alleles were generated. The resulting cybrid cell lines contained the same nuclear genotype and differed only in their mtDNAs. The biochemical analysis of the cybrids revealed that the mutant haplotype is associated with diminished levels of complex I protein (CI), resulting in lower levels of baseline oxygen consumption and lower cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. We hypothesize that this specific mtDNA mutation alters cellular biochemistry, supporting the development of keratinocyte neoplasia.

  11. Computer Modeling of the Earliest Cellular Structures and Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Chipot, Christophe; Schweighofer, Karl

    2000-01-01

    In the absence of extinct or extant record of protocells (the earliest ancestors of contemporary cells). the most direct way to test our understanding of the origin of cellular life is to construct laboratory models of protocells. Such efforts are currently underway in the NASA Astrobiology Program. They are accompanied by computational studies aimed at explaining self-organization of simple molecules into ordered structures and developing designs for molecules that perform proto-cellular functions. Many of these functions, such as import of nutrients, capture and storage of energy. and response to changes in the environment are carried out by proteins bound to membrane< We will discuss a series of large-scale, molecular-level computer simulations which demonstrate (a) how small proteins (peptides) organize themselves into ordered structures at water-membrane interfaces and insert into membranes, (b) how these peptides aggregate to form membrane-spanning structures (eg. channels), and (c) by what mechanisms such aggregates perform essential proto-cellular functions, such as proton transport of protons across cell walls, a key step in cellular bioenergetics. The simulations were performed using the molecular dynamics method, in which Newton's equations of motion for each item in the system are solved iteratively. The problems of interest required simulations on multi-nanosecond time scales, which corresponded to 10(exp 6)-10(exp 8) time steps.

  12. Seasonality and phenology alter functional leaf traits.

    PubMed

    McKown, Athena D; Guy, Robert D; Azam, M Shofiul; Drewes, Eric C; Quamme, Linda K

    2013-07-01

    In plant ecophysiology, functional leaf traits are generally not assessed in relation to phenological phase of the canopy. Leaf traits measured in deciduous perennial species are known to vary between spring and summer seasons, but there is a knowledge gap relating to the late-summer phase marked by growth cessation and bud set occurring well before fall leaf senescence. The effects of phenology on canopy physiology were tested using a common garden of over 2,000 black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) individuals originating from a wide geographical range (44-60ºN). Annual phenological events and 12 leaf-based functional trait measurements were collected spanning the entire summer season prior to, and following, bud set. Patterns of seasonal trait change emerged by synchronizing trees using their date of bud set. In particular, photosynthetic, mass, and N-based traits increased substantially following bud set. Most traits were significantly different between pre-bud set and post-bud set phase trees, with many traits showing at least 25% alteration in mean value. Post-bud set, both the significance and direction of trait-trait relationships could be modified, with many relating directly to changes in leaf mass. In Populus, these dynamics in leaf traits throughout the summer season reflected a shift in whole plant physiology, but occurred long before the onset of leaf senescence. The marked shifts in measured trait values following bud set underscores the necessity to include phenology in trait-based ecological studies or large-scale phenotyping efforts, both at the local level and larger geographical scale.

  13. Nanotopographical modification: a regulator of cellular function through focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Manus Jonathan Paul; Richards, R. Geoff; Dalby, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of biomedical engineering advances, the role of cellular mechanisms, in particular adhesive interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device design has evolved from the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to topographical features or chemical stimuli, a process that has led to the development of next-generation biomaterials for a wide variety of clinical disorders. In vitro studies have identified nanoscale features as potent modulators of cellular behavior through the onset of focal adhesion formation. The focus of this review is on the recent developments concerning the role of nanoscale structures on integrin-mediated adhesion and cellular function with an emphasis on the generation of medical constructs with regenerative applications. PMID:20138244

  14. Kinetic Adaptations of Myosins for Their Diverse Cellular Functions.

    PubMed

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2016-08-01

    Members of the myosin superfamily are involved in all aspects of eukaryotic life. Their function ranges from the transport of organelles and cargos to the generation of membrane tension, and the contraction of muscle. The diversity of physiological functions is remarkable, given that all enzymatically active myosins follow a conserved mechanoenzymatic cycle in which the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate is coupled to either actin-based transport or tethering of actin to defined cellular compartments. Kinetic capacities and limitations of a myosin are determined by the extent to which actin can accelerate the hydrolysis of ATP and the release of the hydrolysis products and are indispensably linked to its physiological tasks. This review focuses on kinetic competencies that - together with structural adaptations - result in myosins with unique mechanoenzymatic properties targeted to their diverse cellular functions.

  15. Methods for Determining the Cellular Functions of Vimentin Intermediate Filaments.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Karen M; Shumaker, Dale; Robert, Amélie; Hookway, Caroline; Gelfand, Vladimir I; Janmey, Paul A; Lowery, Jason; Guo, Ming; Weitz, David A; Kuczmarski, Edward; Goldman, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    The type III intermediate filament protein vimentin was once thought to function mainly as a static structural protein in the cytoskeleton of cells of mesenchymal origin. Now, however, vimentin is known to form a dynamic, flexible network that plays an important role in a number of signaling pathways. Here, we describe various methods that have been developed to investigate the cellular functions of the vimentin protein and intermediate filament network, including chemical disruption, photoactivation and photoconversion, biolayer interferometry, soluble bead binding assay, three-dimensional substrate experiments, collagen gel contraction, optical-tweezer active microrheology, and force spectrum microscopy. Using these techniques, the contributions of vimentin to essential cellular processes can be probed in ever further detail.

  16. Cellular strategies for regulating functional and nonfunctional protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gsponer, Jörg; Babu, M Madan

    2012-11-29

    Growing evidence suggests that aggregation-prone proteins are both harmful and functional for a cell. How do cellular systems balance the detrimental and beneficial effect of protein aggregation? We reveal that aggregation-prone proteins are subject to differential transcriptional, translational, and degradation control compared to nonaggregation-prone proteins, which leads to their decreased synthesis, low abundance, and high turnover. Genetic modulators that enhance the aggregation phenotype are enriched in genes that influence expression homeostasis. Moreover, genes encoding aggregation-prone proteins are more likely to be harmful when overexpressed. The trends are evolutionarily conserved and suggest a strategy whereby cellular mechanisms specifically modulate the availability of aggregation-prone proteins to (1) keep concentrations below the critical ones required for aggregation and (2) shift the equilibrium between the monomeric and oligomeric/aggregate form, as explained by Le Chatelier's principle. This strategy may prevent formation of undesirable aggregates and keep functional assemblies/aggregates under control. PMID:23168257

  17. Methods for Determining the Cellular Functions of Vimentin Intermediate Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Karen M.; Shumaker, Dale; Robert, Amélie; Hookway, Caroline; Gelfand, Vladimir I.; Janmey, Paul A.; Lowery, Jason; Guo, Ming; Weitz, David A.; Kuczmarski, Edward; Goldman, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    The type III intermediate filament protein vimentin was once thought to function mainly as a static structural protein in the cytoskeleton of cells of mesenchymal origin. Now, however, vimentin is known to form a dynamic, flexible network that plays an important role in a number of signaling pathways. Here, we describe various methods that have been developed to investigate the cellular functions of the vimentin protein and intermediate filament network, including chemical disruption, photoactivation and photoconversion, biolayer interferometry, soluble bead binding assay, three-dimensional substrate experiments, collagen gel contraction, optical-tweezer active microrheology, and force spectrum microscopy. Using these techniques, the contributions of vimentin to essential cellular processes can be probed in ever further detail. PMID:26795478

  18. Representing and analysing molecular and cellular function using the computer.

    PubMed

    van Helden, J; Naim, A; Mancuso, R; Eldridge, M; Wernisch, L; Gilbert, D; Wodak, S J

    2000-01-01

    Determining the biological function of a myriad of genes, and understanding how they interact to yield a living cell, is the major challenge of the post genome-sequencing era. The complexity of biological systems is such that this cannot be envisaged without the help of powerful computer systems capable of representing and analysing the intricate networks of physical and functional interactions between the different cellular components. In this review we try to provide the reader with an appreciation of where we stand in this regard. We discuss some of the inherent problems in describing the different facets of biological function, give an overview of how information on function is currently represented in the major biological databases, and describe different systems for organising and categorising the functions of gene products. In a second part, we present a new general data model, currently under development, which describes information on molecular function and cellular processes in a rigorous manner. The model is capable of representing a large variety of biochemical processes, including metabolic pathways, regulation of gene expression and signal transduction. It also incorporates taxonomies for categorising molecular entities, interactions and processes, and it offers means of viewing the information at different levels of resolution, and dealing with incomplete knowledge. The data model has been implemented in the database on protein function and cellular processes 'aMAZE' (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/research/pfbp/), which presently covers metabolic pathways and their regulation. Several tools for querying, displaying, and performing analyses on such pathways are briefly described in order to illustrate the practical applications enabled by the model.

  19. The phosphate makes a difference: cellular functions of NADP.

    PubMed

    Agledal, Line; Niere, Marc; Ziegler, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has unraveled a number of unexpected functions of the pyridine nucleotides. In this review, we will highlight the variety of known physiological roles of NADP. In its reduced form (NADPH), this molecule represents a universal electron donor, not only to drive biosynthetic pathways. Perhaps even more importantly, NADPH is the unique provider of reducing equivalents to maintain or regenerate the cellular detoxifying and antioxidative defense systems. The roles of NADPH in redox sensing and as substrate for NADPH oxidases to generate reactive oxygen species further extend its scope of functions. NADP(+), on the other hand, has acquired signaling functions. Its conversion to second messengers in calcium signaling may have critical impact on important cellular processes. The generation of NADP by NAD kinases is a key determinant of the cellular NADP concentration. The regulation of these enzymes may, therefore, be critical to feed the diversity of NADP-dependent processes adequately. The increasing recognition of the multiple roles of NADP has thus led to exciting new insights in this expanding field.

  20. Hexokinase cellular trafficking in ischemia-reperfusion and ischemic preconditioning is altered in type I diabetic heart.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Kapucu, Aysegul; Yilmazer, Nadim; Eerbeek, Otto; Nederlof, Rianne; Hollmann, Markus W; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan; Zuurbier, Coert J

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported to alter the cardiac response to ischemia-reperfusion (IR). In addition, cardioprotection induced by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is often impaired in diabetes. We have previously shown that the subcellular localisation of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase (HK) is causally related to IR injury and IPC protective potential. Especially the binding of HK to mitochondria and prevention of HK solubilisation (HK detachment from mitochondria) during ischemia confers cardioprotection. It is unknown whether diabetes affects HK localisation during IR and IPC as compared to non-diabetes. In this study we hypothesize that DM alters cellular trafficking of hexokinase in response to IR and IPC, possibly explaining the altered response to IR and IPC in diabetic heart. Control (CON) and type I diabetic (DM) rat hearts (65 mg/kg streptozotocin, 4 weeks) were isolated and perfused in Langendorff-mode and subjected to 35 min I and 30 min R with or without IPC (3 times 5 min I). Cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions were obtained at (1) baseline, i.e. after IPC but before I, (2) 35 min I, (3) 5 min R and (4) 30 min R. DM improved rate-pressure product recovery (RPP; 71 ± 10 % baseline (DM) versus 9 ± 1 % baseline (CON) and decreased contracture (end-diastolic pressure: 24 ± 8 mmHg (DM) vs 77 ± 4 mmHg (CON)) after IR as compared to control, and was associated with prevention of HK solubilisation at 35 min I. IPC improved cardiac function in CON but not in DM hearts. IPC in CON prevented HK solubilisation at 35 min I and at 5 min R, with a trend for increased mitochondrial HK. In contrast, the non-effective IPC in DM was associated with solubilisation of HK and decreased mitochondrial HK at early reperfusion and a reciprocal behaviour at late reperfusion. We conclude that type I DM significantly altered cellular HK translocation patterns in the heart in response to IR and IPC, possibly explaining altered response to IR and IPC in diabetes.

  1. Membrane-Based Functions in the Origin of Cellular Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipot, Christophe; New, Michael H.; Schweighofer, Karl; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Our objective is to help explain how the earliest ancestors of contemporary cells (protocells) performed their essential functions employing only the molecules available in the protobiological milieu. Our hypothesis is that vesicles, built of amphiphilic, membrane-forming materials, emerged early in protobiological evolution and served as precursors to protocells. We further assume that the cellular functions associated with contemporary membranes, such as capturing and, transducing of energy, signaling, or sequestering organic molecules and ions, evolved in these membrane environments. An alternative hypothesis is that these functions evolved in different environments and were incorporated into membrane-bound structures at some later stage of evolution. We focus on the application of the fundamental principles of physics and chemistry to determine how they apply to the formation of a primitive, functional cell. Rather than attempting to develop specific models for cellular functions and to identify the origin of the molecules which perform these functions, our goal is to define the structural and energetic conditions that any successful model must fulfill, therefore providing physico-chemical boundaries for these models. We do this by carrying out large-scale, molecular level computer simulations on systems of interest.

  2. Manipulating the Cellular Circadian Period of Arginine Vasopressin Neurons Alters the Behavioral Circadian Period.

    PubMed

    Mieda, Michihiro; Okamoto, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2016-09-26

    As the central pacemaker in mammals, the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is a heterogeneous structure consisting of multiple types of GABAergic neurons with distinct chemical identities [1, 2]. Although individual cells have a cellular clock driven by autoregulatory transcriptional/translational feedback loops of clock genes, interneuronal communication among SCN clock neurons is likely essential for the SCN to generate a highly robust, coherent circadian rhythm [1]. However, neuronal mechanisms that determine circadian period length remain unclear. The SCN is composed of two subdivisions: a ventral core region containing vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-producing neurons and a dorsal shell region characterized by arginine vasopressin (AVP)-producing neurons. Here we examined whether AVP neurons act as pacemaker cells that regulate the circadian period of behavior rhythm in mice. The deletion of casein kinase 1 delta (CK1δ) specific to AVP neurons, which was expected to lengthen the period of cellular clocks [3-6], lengthened the free-running period of circadian behavior as well. Conversely, the overexpression of CK1δ specific to SCN AVP neurons shortened the free-running period. PER2::LUC imaging in slices confirmed that cellular circadian periods of the SCN shell were lengthened in mice without CK1δ in AVP neurons. Thus, AVP neurons may be an essential component of circadian pacemaker cells in the SCN. Remarkably, the alteration of the shell-core phase relationship in the SCN of these mice did not impair the generation per se of circadian behavior rhythm, thereby underscoring the robustness of the SCN network. PMID:27568590

  3. Analysis of Functional Pathways Altered after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Redell, John B.; Moore, Anthony N.; Grill, Raymond J.; Johnson, Daniel; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Concussive injury (or mild traumatic brain injury; mTBI) can exhibit features of focal or diffuse injury patterns. We compared and contrasted the cellular and molecular responses after mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI; a focal injury) or fluid percussion injury (FPI; a diffuse injury) in rats. The rationale for this comparative analysis was to investigate the brain's response to mild diffuse versus mild focal injury to identify common molecular changes triggered by these injury modalities and to determine the functional pathways altered after injury that may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Microarrays containing probes against 21,792 unique messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were used to investigate the changes in cortical mRNA expression levels at 3 and 24 h postinjury. Of the 354 mRNAs with significantly altered expression levels after mCCI, over 89% (316 mRNAs) were also contained within the mild FPI (mFPI) data set. However, mFPI initiated a more widespread molecular response, with over 2300 mRNAs differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of annotated Gene Ontology molecular function and biological pathway terms showed a significant overrepresentation of genes belonging to inflammation, stress, and signaling categories in both data sets. We therefore examined changes in the protein levels of a panel of 23 cytokines and chemokines in cortical extracts using a Luminex-based bead immunoassay and detected significant increases in macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α (CCL3), GRO-KC (CXCL1), interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Immunohistochemical localization of MIP-1α and IL-1β showed marked increases at 3 h postinjury in the cortical vasculature and microglia, respectively, that were largely resolved by 24 h postinjury. Our findings demonstrate that both focal and diffuse mTBI trigger many shared pathobiological processes (e.g., inflammatory responses) that could be targeted for mechanism-based therapeutic interventions

  4. Modelling chronotaxicity of cellular energy metabolism to facilitate the identification of altered metabolic states.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Gemma; Suprunenko, Yevhen F; Jenkins, Kirsten; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Altered cellular energy metabolism is a hallmark of many diseases, one notable example being cancer. Here, we focus on the identification of the transition from healthy to abnormal metabolic states. To do this, we study the dynamics of energy production in a cell. Due to the thermodynamic openness of a living cell, the inability to instantaneously match fluctuating supply and demand in energy metabolism results in nonautonomous time-varying oscillatory dynamics. However, such oscillatory dynamics is often neglected and treated as stochastic. Based on experimental evidence of metabolic oscillations, we show that changes in metabolic state can be described robustly by alterations in the chronotaxicity of the corresponding metabolic oscillations, i.e. the ability of an oscillator to resist external perturbations. We also present a method for the identification of chronotaxicity, applicable to general oscillatory signals and, importantly, apply this to real experimental data. Evidence of chronotaxicity was found in glycolytic oscillations in real yeast cells, verifying that chronotaxicity could be used to study transitions between metabolic states. PMID:27483987

  5. Modelling chronotaxicity of cellular energy metabolism to facilitate the identification of altered metabolic states.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Gemma; Suprunenko, Yevhen F; Jenkins, Kirsten; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2016-08-03

    Altered cellular energy metabolism is a hallmark of many diseases, one notable example being cancer. Here, we focus on the identification of the transition from healthy to abnormal metabolic states. To do this, we study the dynamics of energy production in a cell. Due to the thermodynamic openness of a living cell, the inability to instantaneously match fluctuating supply and demand in energy metabolism results in nonautonomous time-varying oscillatory dynamics. However, such oscillatory dynamics is often neglected and treated as stochastic. Based on experimental evidence of metabolic oscillations, we show that changes in metabolic state can be described robustly by alterations in the chronotaxicity of the corresponding metabolic oscillations, i.e. the ability of an oscillator to resist external perturbations. We also present a method for the identification of chronotaxicity, applicable to general oscillatory signals and, importantly, apply this to real experimental data. Evidence of chronotaxicity was found in glycolytic oscillations in real yeast cells, verifying that chronotaxicity could be used to study transitions between metabolic states.

  6. Modelling chronotaxicity of cellular energy metabolism to facilitate the identification of altered metabolic states

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Gemma; Suprunenko, Yevhen F.; Jenkins, Kirsten; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Altered cellular energy metabolism is a hallmark of many diseases, one notable example being cancer. Here, we focus on the identification of the transition from healthy to abnormal metabolic states. To do this, we study the dynamics of energy production in a cell. Due to the thermodynamic openness of a living cell, the inability to instantaneously match fluctuating supply and demand in energy metabolism results in nonautonomous time-varying oscillatory dynamics. However, such oscillatory dynamics is often neglected and treated as stochastic. Based on experimental evidence of metabolic oscillations, we show that changes in metabolic state can be described robustly by alterations in the chronotaxicity of the corresponding metabolic oscillations, i.e. the ability of an oscillator to resist external perturbations. We also present a method for the identification of chronotaxicity, applicable to general oscillatory signals and, importantly, apply this to real experimental data. Evidence of chronotaxicity was found in glycolytic oscillations in real yeast cells, verifying that chronotaxicity could be used to study transitions between metabolic states. PMID:27483987

  7. Using RNA as Molecular Code for Programming Cellular Function.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Manish; Rostain, William; Prakash, Satya; Duncan, John N; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-08-19

    RNA is involved in a wide-range of important molecular processes in the cell, serving diverse functions: regulatory, enzymatic, and structural. Together with its ease and predictability of design, these properties can lead RNA to become a useful handle for biological engineers with which to control the cellular machinery. By modifying the many RNA links in cellular processes, it is possible to reprogram cells toward specific design goals. We propose that RNA can be viewed as a molecular programming language that, together with protein-based execution platforms, can be used to rewrite wide ranging aspects of cellular function. In this review, we catalogue developments in the use of RNA parts, methods, and associated computational models that have contributed to the programmability of biology. We discuss how RNA part repertoires have been combined to build complex genetic circuits, and review recent applications of RNA-based parts and circuitry. We explore the future potential of RNA engineering and posit that RNA programmability is an important resource for firmly establishing an era of rationally designed synthetic biology. PMID:26999422

  8. A Celiac Cellular Phenotype, with Altered LPP Sub-Cellular Distribution, Is Inducible in Controls by the Toxic Gliadin Peptide P31-43

    PubMed Central

    Nanayakkara, Merlin; Kosova, Roberta; Lania, Giuliana; Sarno, Marco; Gaito, Alessandra; Galatola, Martina; Greco, Luigi; Cuomo, Marialaura; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a frequent inflammatory intestinal disease, with a genetic background, caused by gliadin-containing food. Undigested gliadin peptides P31-43 and P57-68 induce innate and adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses, respectively. Alterations in the cell shape and actin cytoskeleton are present in celiac enterocytes, and gliadin peptides induce actin rearrangements in both the CD mucosa and cell lines. Cell shape is maintained by the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions, sites of membrane attachment to the extracellular matrix. The locus of the human Lipoma Preferred Partner (LPP) gene was identified as strongly associated with CD using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The LPP protein plays an important role in focal adhesion architecture and acts as a transcription factor in the nucleus. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that a constitutive alteration of the cell shape and the cytoskeleton, involving LPP, occurs in a cell compartment far from the main inflammation site in CD fibroblasts from skin explants. We analyzed the cell shape, actin organization, focal adhesion number, focal adhesion proteins, LPP sub-cellular distribution and adhesion to fibronectin of fibroblasts obtained from CD patients on a Gluten-Free Diet (GFD) and controls, without and with treatment with A-gliadin peptide P31-43. We observed a “CD cellular phenotype” in these fibroblasts, characterized by an altered cell shape and actin organization, increased number of focal adhesions, and altered intracellular LPP protein distribution. The treatment of controls fibroblasts with gliadin peptide P31-43 mimics the CD cellular phenotype regarding the cell shape, adhesion capacity, focal adhesion number and LPP sub-cellular distribution, suggesting a close association between these alterations and CD pathogenesis. PMID:24278174

  9. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Updates News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men ... Using functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in ...

  10. Role of XPD in cellular functions: To TFIIH and beyond.

    PubMed

    Houten, Bennett Van; Kuper, Jochen; Kisker, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    XPD, as part of the TFIIH complex, has classically been linked to the damage verification step of nucleotide excision repair (NER). However, recent data indicate that XPD, due to its iron-sulfur center interacts with the iron sulfur cluster assembly proteins, and may interact with other proteins in the cell to mediate a diverse set of biological functions including cell cycle regulation, mitosis, and mitochondrial function. In this perspective, after first reviewing the function and some of the key disease causing variants that affect XPD's interaction with TFIIH and the CDK-activating kinase complex (CAK), we investigate these intriguing cellular roles of XPD and highlight important unanswered questions that provide a fertile ground for further scientific exploration. PMID:27262611

  11. PEG functionalized luminescent lipid particles for cellular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Suman; Barick, K. C.; Shetake, Neena G.; Verma, Gunjan; Aswal, V. K.; Panicker, Lata; Pandey, B. N.; Hassan, P. A.

    2016-08-01

    We report here the synthesis, characterization and cellular uptake of luminescent micelle-like particles with phospholipid core and non-ionic PEG based surfactant polysorbate 80 shell. The adsorption of polysorbate 80 at the interface of lipid containing microemulsion droplets and its solidification upon removal of solvent leads to anchoring of PEG chain to the lipid particles. Hydrophobic partitioning of luminescent molecules, sodium 3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid to the phospholipid core offers additional functionality to these particles. Thus, the cooperative assembly of lipid, non-ionic amphiphile and organic luminescent probe leads to the formation of multifunctional biocompatible particles which are useful for simultaneous imaging and therapy.

  12. Assemblages: Functional units formed by cellular phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    The partitioning of intracellular space beyond membrane-bound organelles can be achieved with collections of proteins that are multivalent or contain low-complexity, intrinsically disordered regions. These proteins can undergo a physical phase change to form functional granules or other entities within the cytoplasm or nucleoplasm that collectively we term “assemblage.” Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) play an important role in forming a subset of cellular assemblages by promoting phase separation. Recent work points to an involvement of assemblages in disease states, indicating that intrinsic disorder and phase transitions should be considered in the development of therapeutics. PMID:25179628

  13. Alterations of Cellular Immune Reactions in Crew Members Overwintering in the Antarctic Research Station Concordia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Feuerecker, Matthias; Moreels, Marjan; Crucian, Brian; Kaufmann, Ines; Salam, Alex Paddy; Rybka, Alex; Ulrike, Thieme; Quintens, Roel; Sams, Clarence F.; Schelling, Gustav; Thiel, Manfred; Baatout, Sarah; Chouker, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concordia Station is located inside Antarctica about 1000km from the coast at an altitude of 3200m (Dome C). Hence, individuals living in this harsh environment are exposed to two major conditions: 1.) hypobaric hypoxia and 2.) confinement and extreme isolation. Both hypoxia and confinement can affect human immunity and health, and are likely to be present during exploration class space missions. This study focused on immune alterations measured by a new global immunity test assay, similar to the phased out delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test. Methods: After informed written consent 14 healthy male subjects were included to the CHOICE-study (Consequences-of-longterm-Confinement-and-Hypobaric-HypOxia-on-Immunity-in-the Antarctic-Concordia-Environment). Data collection occurred during two winter-over periods lasting each one year. During the first campaign 6 healthy male were enrolled followed by a second campaign with 8 healthy males. Blood was drawn monthly and incubated for 48h with various bacterial, viral and fungal antigens followed by an analysis of plasma cytokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL2, IFN-gamma, IL10). As a control, blood was incubated without stimulation ("resting condition"). Goals: The scope of this study was to assess the consequences of hypoxia and confinement on cellular immunity as assessed by a new in vitro DTH-like test. Results: Initial results indicate that under resting conditions the in vitro DTH-like test showed low cytokine levels which remained almost unchanged during the entire observation period. However, cytokine responses to viral, bacterial and fungal antigens were remarkably reduced at the first month after arrival at Concordia when compared to levels measured in Europe prior to departure for Antarctica. With incrementing months of confinement this depressed DTH-like response tended to reverse, and in fact to show an "overshooting" immune reaction after stimulation. Conclusion: The reduced in vitro DTH-like test

  14. HIV-1 Transgenic Rats Display Alterations in Immunophenotype and Cellular Responses Associated with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Abbondanzo, Susan J.; Chang, Sulie L.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in anti-retroviral therapy over the last two decades have allowed life expectancy in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus to approach that of the general population. The process of aging in mammalian species, including rats, results in immune response changes, alterations in immunological phenotypes, and ultimately increased susceptibility to many infectious diseases. In order to investigate the immunological pathologies associated with chronic HIV-1 disease, particularly in aging individuals, the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat model was utilized. HIV-1Tg rats were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine immunological alterations during the aging process. LPS is known to cause an imbalance in cytokine and chemokine release, and provides a method to identify changes in immune responses to bacterial infection in an HIV animal model. An immune profile and accompanying cellular consequences as well as changes in inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release related to age and genotype were assessed in HIV-1Tg rats. The percentage of T cells decreased with age, particularly T cytotoxic cells, whereas T helper cells increased with age. Neutrophils and monocytes increased in HIV-1Tg rats during maturation compared to age-matched F344 control rats. Aging HIV-1Tg rats displayed a significant increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, along with an increase in the chemokine, KC/GRO, in comparison to age-matched controls. Our data indicate that immunophenotype and immune responses can change during aging in HIV-positive individuals. This information could be important in determining the most beneficial age-dependent therapeutic treatment for HIV patients. PMID:25127062

  15. Neurophysiology of HCN channels: from cellular functions to multiple regulations.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Chen, Fang; Li, Bo; Hu, Zhian

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) cation channels are encoded by HCN1-4 gene family and have four subtypes. These channels are activated upon hyperpolarization of membrane potential and conduct an inward, excitatory current Ih in the nervous system. Ih acts as pacemaker current to initiate rhythmic firing, dampen dendritic excitability and regulate presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This review summarizes recent insights into the cellular functions of Ih and associated behavior such as learning and memory, sleep and arousal. HCN channels are excellent targets of various cellular signals to finely regulate neuronal responses to external stimuli. Numerous mechanisms, including transcriptional control, trafficking, as well as channel assembly and modification, underlie HCN channel regulation. In the next section, we discuss how the intracellular signals, especially recent findings concerning protein kinases and interacting proteins such as cGKII, Ca(2+)/CaMKII and TRIP8b, regulate function and expression of HCN channels, and subsequently provide an overview of the effects of neurotransmitters on HCN channels and their corresponding intracellular mechanisms. We also discuss the dysregulation of HCN channels in pathological conditions. Finally, insight into future directions in this exciting area of ion channel research is provided.

  16. Cellular Strategies for Regulating Functional and Nonfunctional Protein Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Gsponer, Jörg; Babu, M. Madan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Growing evidence suggests that aggregation-prone proteins are both harmful and functional for a cell. How do cellular systems balance the detrimental and beneficial effect of protein aggregation? We reveal that aggregation-prone proteins are subject to differential transcriptional, translational, and degradation control compared to nonaggregation-prone proteins, which leads to their decreased synthesis, low abundance, and high turnover. Genetic modulators that enhance the aggregation phenotype are enriched in genes that influence expression homeostasis. Moreover, genes encoding aggregation-prone proteins are more likely to be harmful when overexpressed. The trends are evolutionarily conserved and suggest a strategy whereby cellular mechanisms specifically modulate the availability of aggregation-prone proteins to (1) keep concentrations below the critical ones required for aggregation and (2) shift the equilibrium between the monomeric and oligomeric/aggregate form, as explained by Le Chatelier’s principle. This strategy may prevent formation of undesirable aggregates and keep functional assemblies/aggregates under control. PMID:23168257

  17. Non-heme induction of heme oxygenase-1 does not alter cellular iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sheftel, Alex D; Kim, Sangwon F; Ponka, Prem

    2007-04-01

    The catabolism of heme is carried out by members of the heme oxygenase (HO) family. The products of heme catabolism by HO-1 are ferrous iron, biliverdin (subsequently converted to bilirubin), and carbon monoxide. In addition to its function in the recycling of hemoglobin iron, this microsomal enzyme has been shown to protect cells in various stress models. Implicit in the reports of HO-1 cytoprotection to date are its effects on the cellular handling of heme/iron. However, the limited amount of uncommitted heme in non-erythroid cells brings to question the source of substrate for this enzyme in non-hemolytic circumstances. In the present study, HO-1 was induced by either sodium arsenite (reactive oxygen species producer) or hemin or overexpressed in the murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7. Both of the inducers elicited an increase in active HO-1; however, only hemin exposure caused an increase in the synthesis rate of the iron storage protein, ferritin. This effect of hemin was the direct result of the liberation of iron from heme by HO. Cells stably overexpressing HO-1, although protected from oxidative stress, did not display elevated basal ferritin synthesis. However, these cells did exhibit an increase in ferritin synthesis, compared with untransfected controls, in response to hemin treatment, suggesting that heme levels, and not HO-1, limit cellular heme catabolism. Our results suggest that the protection of cells from oxidative insult afforded by HO-1 is not due to the catabolism of significant amounts of cellular heme as thought previously.

  18. Exome capture sequencing of adenoma reveals genetic alterations in multiple cellular pathways at the early stage of colorectal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Donger; Yang, Liu; Zheng, Liangtao; Ge, Weiting; Li, Dan; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Xueda; Gao, Zhibo; Xu, Jinghong; Huang, Yanqin; Hu, Hanguang; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Mingming; Yang, Huanming; Zheng, Lei; Zheng, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Most of colorectal adenocarcinomas are believed to arise from adenomas, which are premalignant lesions. Sequencing the whole exome of the adenoma will help identifying molecular biomarkers that can predict the occurrence of adenocarcinoma more precisely and help understanding the molecular pathways underlying the initial stage of colorectal tumorigenesis. We performed the exome capture sequencing of the normal mucosa, adenoma and adenocarcinoma tissues from the same patient and sequenced the identified mutations in additional 73 adenomas and 288 adenocarcinomas. Somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified in both the adenoma and adenocarcinoma by comparing with the normal control from the same patient. We identified 12 nonsynonymous somatic SNVs in the adenoma and 42 nonsynonymous somatic SNVs in the adenocarcinoma. Most of these mutations including OR6X1, SLC15A3, KRTHB4, RBFOX1, LAMA3, CDH20, BIRC6, NMBR, GLCCI1, EFR3A, and FTHL17 were newly reported in colorectal adenomas. Functional annotation of these mutated genes showed that multiple cellular pathways including Wnt, cell adhesion and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathways were altered genetically in the adenoma and that the genetic alterations in the same pathways persist in the adenocarcinoma. CDH20 and LAMA3 were mutated in the adenoma while NRXN3 and COL4A6 were mutated in the adenocarcinoma from the same patient, suggesting for the first time that genetic alterations in the cell adhesion pathway occur as early as in the adenoma. Thus, the comparison of genomic mutations between adenoma and adenocarcinoma provides us a new insight into the molecular events governing the early step of colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:23301059

  19. Erythrocyte adhesion is modified by alterations in cellular tonicity and volume.

    PubMed

    Wandersee, Nancy J; Punzalan, Rowena C; Rettig, Michael P; Kennedy, Michael D; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Sabina, Richard L; Paul Scott, J; Low, Philip S; Hillery, Cheryl A

    2005-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dehydration-induced alterations in red blood cell (RBC) membrane organisation or composition contribute to sickle cell adhesion in sickle cell disease (SCD). To examine the role of RBC hydration in adhesion to the subendothelial matrix protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP), normal and sickle RBCs were incubated in buffers of varying tonicity and tested for adhesion to immobilised TSP under flow conditions. Sickle RBCs exhibited a decrease in TSP binding with increasing cell hydration (P<0.005), suggesting that cellular dehydration may contribute to TSP adhesion. Consistent with this hypothesis, normal RBCs showed an increase in TSP adhesion with increasing dehydration (P<0.01). Furthermore, increased TSP adhesion of normal RBCs could also be induced by isotonic dehydration using nystatin-sucrose buffers. Finally, TSP adhesion of both sickle RBCs and dehydrated normal RBCs was inhibited by the anionic polysaccharides, chondroitin sulphate A and high molecular weight dextran sulphate, but not by competitors of CD47-, band 3-, or RBC phosphatidylserine-mediated adhesion. More importantly, we found increased adhesion of nystatin-sucrose dehydrated normal mouse RBCs to kidney capillaries following re-infusion in vivo. In summary, these findings demonstrate that changes in hydration can significantly impact adhesion, causing normal erythrocytes to display adhesive properties similar to those of sickle cells and vice versa. PMID:16225657

  20. Alterations in phosphate metabolism during cellular recovery of radiation damage in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Holahan, P.K.; Knizner, S.A.; Gabriel, C.M.; Swenberg, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Alterations were examined in phosphate pools during cellular recovery from radiation damage in intact, wild-type diploid yeast cells using phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Concurrent cell survival analysis was determined following exposure to cobalt 60 gamma radiation. Cells held in citrate-buffered saline (CBS) showed increased survival with increasing time after irradiation (liquid holding recovery, LHR) with no further recovery beyond 48 h. Addition of 100 mmol/cu. dm glucose to the recovery medium resulted in greater recovery. In the presence of 5 mmol/cu. dm 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), LHR was completely inhibited. ATP was observable by NMR only when glucose was present in the recovery medium. In control cells, ATP concentrations increased and plateaued with increasing recovery time. With increasing radiation dose, the increase in ATP was of lesser magnitude, and after 2000 Gy no increase was observed. The observations suggest that either the production of ATP in irradiated cells is suppressed, or there is enhanced ATP utilization for repair of radiation damage. In CBS with 100 mmol/cu. dm glucose, a dose-dependent decrease in polyphosphate (polyP) was detectable with no concurrent increase in inorganic phosphate (p sub i). When 2-DG was present in the recovery medium, polyP decreased, but there was a simultaneous increase in p sub i with increasing radiation dose and recovery time. This suggests that the polyP are hydrolyzed as a source of phosphates for repair of radiation damage.

  1. Altered functional connectivity in persistent developmental stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Jia, Fanlu; Siok, Wai Ting; Tan, Li Hai

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) is a speech disorder that impairs communication skills. Despite extensive research, the core causes of PDS are elusive. Converging evidence from task-induced neuroimaging methods has demonstrated the contributions of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum to PDS, but such task-state neuroimaging findings are often confounded by behavioral performance differences between subjects who stutter and normal controls. Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated functional connectivity within cerebellar-cortical and basal ganglia-thalamocortical networks in 16 adults who stutter and 18 age-matched fluent speakers. Seed-to-voxel analysis demonstrated that, compared to controls, adults who stutter showed alternations in functional connectivity of cerebellum to motor cortex as well as connectivity among different locals within cerebellum. Additionally, we found that functional connectivity within cerebellar circuits was significantly correlated with severity of stuttering. The alternations of functional connectivity within basal ganglia-thalamocortical networks were identified as the reduced connectivity of the putamen to the superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobules in adults who stutter. The abnormalities of resting state functional connectivity are assumed to affect language planning and motor execution critical for speaking fluently. Our findings may yield neurobiological cues to the biomarkers of PDS. PMID:26743821

  2. Altered functional connectivity in persistent developmental stuttering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Jia, Fanlu; Siok, Wai Ting; Tan, Li Hai

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) is a speech disorder that impairs communication skills. Despite extensive research, the core causes of PDS are elusive. Converging evidence from task-induced neuroimaging methods has demonstrated the contributions of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum to PDS, but such task-state neuroimaging findings are often confounded by behavioral performance differences between subjects who stutter and normal controls. Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated functional connectivity within cerebellar-cortical and basal ganglia-thalamocortical networks in 16 adults who stutter and 18 age-matched fluent speakers. Seed-to-voxel analysis demonstrated that, compared to controls, adults who stutter showed alternations in functional connectivity of cerebellum to motor cortex as well as connectivity among different locals within cerebellum. Additionally, we found that functional connectivity within cerebellar circuits was significantly correlated with severity of stuttering. The alternations of functional connectivity within basal ganglia-thalamocortical networks were identified as the reduced connectivity of the putamen to the superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobules in adults who stutter. The abnormalities of resting state functional connectivity are assumed to affect language planning and motor execution critical for speaking fluently. Our findings may yield neurobiological cues to the biomarkers of PDS. PMID:26743821

  3. Modulating Cellular Recombination Potential through Alterations in RecA Structure and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bakhlanova, Irina V.; Dudkina, Alexandra V.; Baitin, Dima M.; Knight, Kendall L.; Cox, Michael M.; Lanzov, Vladislav A.

    2010-01-01

    The wild type E. coli RecA protein is a recombinase platform with unrealized recombination potential. We have explored the factors affecting recombination during conjugation with a quantitative assay. Regulatory proteins that affect RecA function have the capacity to increase or decrease recombination frequencies by factors up to 6 fold. Autoinhibition by the RecA C-terminus can affect recombination frequency by factors up to 4 fold. The greatest changes in recombination frequency measured here are brought about by point mutations in the recA gene. RecA variants can increase recombination frequencies by more than 50 fold. The RecA protein thus possesses an inherently broad functional range. The RecA protein of Escherichia coli (EcRecA) is not optimized for recombination function. Instead, much of the recombination potential of EcRecA is structurally suppressed, probably reflecting cellular requirements. One point mutation in EcRecA with a particularly dramatic effect on recombination frequency, D112R, exhibits an enhanced capacity to load onto SSB-coated ssDNA, overcome the effects of regulatory proteins such as PsiB and RecX, and to pair homologous DNAs. Comparisons of key RecA protein mutants reveal two components to RecA recombination function – filament formation and the inherent DNA pairing activity of the formed filaments. PMID:21143322

  4. Altered peripheral nerve function resulting from haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Stanley, E; Brown, J C; Pryor, J S

    1977-01-01

    The amplitudes of muscle and nerve action potentials evoked median nerve stimulation were recorded just before and immediately after haemodialysis. These revealed a growht of action potential amplitude during dialysis. It is suggested that some component of the defective peripheral nerve function that inevitably accompanies uraemia is temporarily improved during dialysis. PMID:845605

  5. Protozoa as model systems for the study of cellular responses to altered gravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Hemmersbach-Krause, R; Briegleb, W; Häder D-P; Vogel, K; Klein, S; Mulisch, M

    1994-01-01

    The orientation behavior of Paramecium changed in a similar way after transition to conditions of free-fall in a sounding rocket and after transition to conditions of simulated weightlessness on a fast rotating clinostat. After a period of residual orientation, Paramecium cells distributed themselves randomly 80 s (120 s) after onset of free-fall (simulated weightlessness). Swimming velocity increased significantly; however, the increase was transient and subsided after 3 min in the rocket experiments, while the velocity remained enhanced even during 2 h of rotation on a fast clinostat. Trichocysts were present and without morphological changes in Paramecium cells which had been exposed to a rocket flight, as well as to fast or slow rotation on a clinostat. Regeneration of the oral apparatus of Stentor and morphogenesis of Eufolliculina proceeded normally on the clinostat. The results demonstrate that the clinostat is a useful tool to simulate the conditions of weightlessness on earth and to detect gravisensitive cellular functions. PMID:11537958

  6. Protozoa as model systems for the study of cellular responses to altered gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmersbach-Krause, R.; Briegleb, W.; Häder, D.-P.; Vogel, K.; Klein, S.; Mulisch, M.

    1994-08-01

    The orientation behavior of Paramecium changed in a similar way after transition to conditions of free-fall in a sounding rocket and after transition to conditions of simulated weightlessness on a fast rotating clinostat. After a period of residual orientation, Paramecium cells distributed themselves randomly 80 s (120 s) after onset of free-fall (simulated weightlessness). Swimming velocity increased significantly; however, the increase was transient and subsided after 3 min in the rocket experiments, while the velocity remained enhanced even during 2 h of rotation on a fast clinostat. Trichocysts were present and without morphological changes in Paramecium cells which had been exposed to a rocket flight, as well as to fast or slow rotation on a clinostat. Regeneration of the oral apparatus of Stentor and morphogenesis of Eufolliculina proceeded normally on the clinostat. The results demonstrate that the clinostat is a useful tool to stimulate the conditions of weightlessness on earth and to detect gravisensitive cellular functions.

  7. Protozoa as model systems for the study of cellular responses to altered gravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Hemmersbach-Krause, R; Briegleb, W; Häder D-P; Vogel, K; Klein, S; Mulisch, M

    1994-01-01

    The orientation behavior of Paramecium changed in a similar way after transition to conditions of free-fall in a sounding rocket and after transition to conditions of simulated weightlessness on a fast rotating clinostat. After a period of residual orientation, Paramecium cells distributed themselves randomly 80 s (120 s) after onset of free-fall (simulated weightlessness). Swimming velocity increased significantly; however, the increase was transient and subsided after 3 min in the rocket experiments, while the velocity remained enhanced even during 2 h of rotation on a fast clinostat. Trichocysts were present and without morphological changes in Paramecium cells which had been exposed to a rocket flight, as well as to fast or slow rotation on a clinostat. Regeneration of the oral apparatus of Stentor and morphogenesis of Eufolliculina proceeded normally on the clinostat. The results demonstrate that the clinostat is a useful tool to simulate the conditions of weightlessness on earth and to detect gravisensitive cellular functions.

  8. Integrated Nanoplasmonic Sensing for Cellular Functional Immunoanalysis Using Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) nanoplasmonic effects allow for label-free, real-time detection of biomolecule binding events on a nanostructured metallic surface with simple optics and sensing tunability. Despite numerous reports on LSPR bionanosensing in the past, no study thus far has applied the technique for a cytokine secretion assay using clinically relevant immune cells from human blood. Cytokine secretion assays, a technique to quantify intercellular-signaling proteins secreted by blood immune cells, allow determination of the functional response of the donor’s immune cells, thus providing valuable information about the immune status of the donor. However, implementation of LSPR bionanosensing in cellular functional immunoanalysis based on a cytokine secretion assay poses major challenges primarily owing to its limited sensitivity and a lack of sufficient sample handling capability. In this paper, we have developed a label-free LSPR biosensing technique to detect cell-secreted tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokines in clinical blood samples. Our approach integrates LSPR bionanosensors in an optofluidic platform that permits trapping and stimulation of target immune cells in a microfluidic chamber with optical access for subsequent cytokine detection. The on-chip spatial confinement of the cells is the key to rapidly increasing a cytokine concentration high enough for detection by the LSPR setup, thereby allowing the assay time and sample volume to be significantly reduced. We have successfully applied this approach first to THP-1 cells and then later to CD45 cells isolated directly from human blood. Our LSPR optofluidics device allows for detection of TNF-α secreted from cells as few as 1000, which translates into a nearly 100 times decrease in sample volume than conventional cytokine secretion assay techniques require. We achieved cellular functional immunoanalysis with a minimal blood sample volume (3 μL) and a total assay time 3 times

  9. Electrostatic bio-manipulation for the modification of cellular functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washizu, Masao

    2013-03-01

    The use of electrostatic field effects, including field-induced reversible-breakdown of the membrane and dielectrophoresis (DEP), in microfabricated structures are investigated. With the use of field constriction created by a micro-orifice whose diameter is smaller than the cells, controlled magnitude of pulsed voltage can be applied across the cell membrane regardless of the cell size, shape or orientation. As a result, the breakdown occurs reproducibly and with minimal invasiveness. The breakdown is used for two purposes, electroporation by which foreign substances can be fed into cells, and electrofusion which creates genetic and/or cytoplasmic mixture among two cells. When GFP plasmid is fed into MSC cell, the gene expression started within 2 hours, and finally observed in more than 50% of cells. For cell fusion, several ten percent fusion yield is achieved for most cell types, with the colony formation in several percents. Timing-controlled feeding foreign substances or mixing cellular contents, with high-yield and low-invasiveness, is expected to bring about a new technology for both genetic and epigenetic modifications of cellular functions, in such field as regenerative medicine.

  10. p53 Cellular Localization and Function in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Tweddle, Deborah A.; Malcolm, Archie J.; Cole, Michael; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Lunec, John

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that p53 accumulation in neuroblastoma, in the absence of mutation, is associated with functional inactivation, which interferes with downstream mediators of p53 function. To test this hypothesis, p53 expression, location, and functional integrity was examined in neuroblastoma by irradiating 6 neuroblastoma cell lines and studying the effects on p53 transcriptional function, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis, together with the transcriptional function of p53 after irradiation in three ex vivo primary, untreated neuroblastoma tumors. p53 sequencing showed five neuroblastoma cell lines, two of which were MYCN-amplified, and that all of the tumors were wild-type for p53. p53 was found to be predominantly nuclear before and after irradiation and to up-regulate the p53 responsive genes WAF1 and MDM2 in wild-type p53 cell lines and a poorly-differentiated neuroblastoma, but not a differentiating neuroblastoma or the ganglioneuroblastoma part of a nodular ganglioneuroblastoma in short term culture. This suggests intact p53 transcriptional activity in proliferating neuroblastoma. Irradiation of wild-type p53 neuroblastoma cell lines led to G1 cell cycle arrest in cell lines without MYCN amplification, but not in those with MYCN amplification, despite induction of WAF1. This suggests MYCN amplification may alter downstream mediators of p53 function in neuroblastoma. PMID:11395384

  11. Dissecting the cellular functions of plant microtubules using mutant tubulins.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    α- and β-tubulins, the building blocks of the microtubule (MT) polymer, are encoded by multiple genes that are largely functionally redundant in plants. Null tubulin mutants are thus phenotypically indistinguishable from the wild type, but miss-sense or deletion mutations of critical amino acid residues that are important for the assembly, stability, or dynamics of the polymer disrupt the proper organization and function of the resultant MT arrays. Mutant tubulins co-assemble with wild-type tubulins into mutant MTs with compromised functions, and thus mechanistically act as dominant-negative MT poisons. Cortical MT arrays in interphase plant cells are most sensitive to tubulin mutations, and are transformed into helical structures or random orientation, which produce twisted or radially swollen cells. Mutant plants resistant to MT-targeted herbicides may possess tubulin mutations at the binding sites of the herbicides. Tubulin mutants are valuable tools for investigating how individual MTs are organized into particular patterns in cortical arrays, and for defining the functional contribution of MTs to various MT-dependent or -assisted cellular processes in plant cells.

  12. Cardiac function in an endothermic fish: cellular mechanisms for overcoming acute thermal challenges during diving.

    PubMed

    Shiels, H A; Galli, G L J; Block, B A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the physiology of vertebrate thermal tolerance is critical for predicting how animals respond to climate change. Pacific bluefin tuna experience a wide range of ambient sea temperatures and occupy the largest geographical niche of all tunas. Their capacity to endure thermal challenge is due in part to enhanced expression and activity of key proteins involved in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, which improve cardiomyocyte function and whole animal performance during temperature change. To define the cellular mechanisms that enable bluefin tuna hearts to function during acute temperature change, we investigated the performance of freshly isolated ventricular myocytes using confocal microscopy and electrophysiology. We demonstrate that acute cooling and warming (between 8 and 28°C) modulates the excitability of the cardiomyocyte by altering the action potential (AP) duration and the amplitude and kinetics of the cellular Ca(2+) transient. We then explored the interactions between temperature, adrenergic stimulation and contraction frequency, and show that when these stressors are combined in a physiologically relevant way, they alter AP characteristics to stabilize excitation-contraction coupling across an acute 20°C temperature range. This allows the tuna heart to maintain consistent contraction and relaxation cycles during acute thermal challenges. We hypothesize that this cardiac capacity plays a key role in the bluefin tunas' niche expansion across a broad thermal and geographical range.

  13. Cardiac function in an endothermic fish: cellular mechanisms for overcoming acute thermal challenges during diving

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, H. A.; Galli, G. L. J.; Block, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the physiology of vertebrate thermal tolerance is critical for predicting how animals respond to climate change. Pacific bluefin tuna experience a wide range of ambient sea temperatures and occupy the largest geographical niche of all tunas. Their capacity to endure thermal challenge is due in part to enhanced expression and activity of key proteins involved in cardiac excitation–contraction coupling, which improve cardiomyocyte function and whole animal performance during temperature change. To define the cellular mechanisms that enable bluefin tuna hearts to function during acute temperature change, we investigated the performance of freshly isolated ventricular myocytes using confocal microscopy and electrophysiology. We demonstrate that acute cooling and warming (between 8 and 28°C) modulates the excitability of the cardiomyocyte by altering the action potential (AP) duration and the amplitude and kinetics of the cellular Ca2+ transient. We then explored the interactions between temperature, adrenergic stimulation and contraction frequency, and show that when these stressors are combined in a physiologically relevant way, they alter AP characteristics to stabilize excitation–contraction coupling across an acute 20°C temperature range. This allows the tuna heart to maintain consistent contraction and relaxation cycles during acute thermal challenges. We hypothesize that this cardiac capacity plays a key role in the bluefin tunas' niche expansion across a broad thermal and geographical range. PMID:25540278

  14. Spaceflight alters immune cell function and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Mandel, Adrian D.; Konstantinova, Irina V.; Berry, Wallace D.; Taylor, Gerald R.; Lesniak, A. T.; Fuchs, Boris B.; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments are described which were performed onboard Cosmos 2044 to determine spaceflight effects on immunologically important cell function and distribution. Results indicate that bone marrow cells from flown and suspended rats exhibited a decreased response to a granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with the bone marrow cells from control rats. Bone marrow cells showed an increase in the percentage of cells expressing markers for helper T-cells in the myelogenous population and increased percentages of anti-asialo granulocyte/monocyte-1-bearing interleulin-2 receptor bearing pan T- and helper T-cells in the lymphocytic population.

  15. The endoplasmic reticulum: structure, function and response to cellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Dianne S; Blower, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, dynamic structure that serves many roles in the cell including calcium storage, protein synthesis and lipid metabolism. The diverse functions of the ER are performed by distinct domains; consisting of tubules, sheets and the nuclear envelope. Several proteins that contribute to the overall architecture and dynamics of the ER have been identified, but many questions remain as to how the ER changes shape in response to cellular cues, cell type, cell cycle state and during development of the organism. Here we discuss what is known about the dynamics of the ER, what questions remain, and how coordinated responses add to the layers of regulation in this dynamic organelle. PMID:26433683

  16. Estradiol-induced promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis in medaka: Relationship of foci of cellular alteration to neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, J.B.; Hinton, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    In some laboratory and field studies, female fish have higher prevalences of liver tumors than do males. The authors hypothesize gender and site-specific differences in prevalence are due to variable exposures of previously initiated fish to tumor modulating compounds. Estradiol, a growth promoter, increases incidences of hepatic tumors in carcinogen-treated rainbow trout and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Estradiol also increases incidences of hepatic foci of cellular alteration (FCA) in medaka. FCA are found in subadults of tumor-bearing feral populations. Lack of knowledge about the relationship of various phenotypes of FCA to eventual tumors, however, has prevented use of FCA as a biomarker. The authors examined fate and growth of liver FCA using a 2-step, initiation-promotion protocol. Three week old medaka were exposed to 200 ppm diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for 24 hr. and then fed 0.1 ppm 17-{beta}-estradiol (E2) continuously through sampling at weeks 4--26. Percent volume of FCA and morphometric characteristics of normal and focal hepatocytes, including numerical density and average hepatocyte volume were quantified using computer-assisted stereology. E2 increased percentage of liver occupied by DEN-initiated amphophilic, basophilic and eosinophilic FCA in both sexes. Focal parameters of young, DEN-initiated and estradiol-treated medaka were not reached until much later in fish given only DEN. Non-focal hepatocytes in estradiol-treated medaka were smaller and more numerous than in DEN-only counterparts. Morphometric analysis is quantitatively tracking the fate of specific phenotypes of FCA to determine their role in progression to cancer.

  17. Ocean warming alters cellular metabolism and induces mortality in fish early life stages: A proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Madeira, D; Araújo, J E; Vitorino, R; Capelo, J L; Vinagre, C; Diniz, M S

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has pervasive effects on marine ecosystems, altering biodiversity patterns, abundance and distribution of species, biological interactions, phenology, and organisms' physiology, performance and fitness. Fish early life stages have narrow thermal windows and are thus more vulnerable to further changes in water temperature. The aim of this study was to address the sensitivity and underlying molecular changes of larvae of a key fisheries species, the sea bream Sparus aurata, towards ocean warming. Larvae were exposed to three temperatures: 18°C (control), 24°C (warm) and 30°C (heat wave) for seven days. At the end of the assay, i) survival curves were plotted for each temperature treatment and ii) entire larvae were collected for proteomic analysis via 2D gel electrophoresis, image analysis and mass spectrometry. Survival decreased with increasing temperature, with no larvae surviving at 30°C. Therefore, proteomic analysis was only carried out for 18°C and 24°C. Larvae up-regulated protein folding and degradation, cytoskeletal re-organization, transcriptional regulation and the growth hormone while mostly down-regulating cargo transporting and porphyrin metabolism upon exposure to heat stress. No changes were detected in proteins related to energetic metabolism suggesting that larval fish may not have the energetic plasticity needed to sustain cellular protection in the long-term. These results indicate that despite proteome modulation, S. aurata larvae do not seem able to fully acclimate to higher temperatures as shown by the low survival rates. Consequently, elevated temperatures seem to have bottleneck effects during fish early life stages, and future ocean warming can potentially compromise recruitment's success of key fisheries species. PMID:27062348

  18. Comprehensive Analysis of Temporal Alterations in Cellular Proteome of Bacillus subtilis under Curcumin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Sinha, Sneha; Ray, Sandipan; Sathe, Gajanan J.; Chatterjee, Aditi; Prasad, T. S. Keshava; Dhali, Snigdha; Srikanth, Rapole; Panda, Dulal; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a natural dietary compound with antimicrobial activity against various gram positive and negative bacteria. This study aims to investigate the proteome level alterations in Bacillus subtilis due to curcumin treatment and identification of its molecular/cellular targets to understand the mechanism of action. We have performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of B. subtilis AH75 strain at different time intervals of curcumin treatment (20, 60 and 120 min after the drug exposure, three replicates) to compare the protein expression profiles using two complementary quantitative proteomic techniques, 2D-DIGE and iTRAQ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive longitudinal investigation describing the effect of curcumin treatment on B. subtilis proteome. The proteomics analysis revealed several interesting targets such UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase 1, putative septation protein SpoVG and ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit. Further, in silico pathway analysis using DAVID and KOBAS has revealed modulation of pathways related to the fatty acid metabolism and cell wall synthesis, which are crucial for cell viability. Our findings revealed that curcumin treatment lead to inhibition of the cell wall and fatty acid synthesis in addition to differential expression of many crucial proteins involved in modulation of bacterial metabolism. Findings obtained from proteomics analysis were further validated using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) assay for respiratory activity, resazurin assay for metabolic activity and membrane integrity assay by potassium and inorganic phosphate leakage measurement. The gene expression analysis of selected cell wall biosynthesis enzymes has strengthened the proteomics findings and indicated the major effect of curcumin on cell division. PMID:25874956

  19. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate: metabolism and cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Michell, Robert H; Heath, Victoria L; Lemmon, Mark A; Dove, Stephen K

    2006-01-01

    Polyphosphoinositides (PPIn) are low-abundance membrane phospholipids that each bind to a distinctive set of effector proteins and, thereby, regulate a characteristic suite of cellular processes. Major functions of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P(2)] are in membrane and protein trafficking, and in pH control in the endosome-lysosome axis. Recently identified PtdIns(3,5)P(2) effectors include a family of novel beta-propeller proteins, for which we propose the name PROPPINs [for beta-propeller(s) that binds PPIn], and possibly proteins of the epsin and CHMP (charged multi-vesicular body proteins) families. All eukaryotes, with the exception of some pathogenic protists and microsporidians, possess proteins needed for the formation, metabolism and functions of PtdIns(3,5)P(2). The importance of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) for normal cell function is underscored by recent evidence for its involvement in mammalian cell responses to insulin and for PtdIns(3,5)P(2) dysfunction in the human genetic conditions X-linked myotubular myopathy, Type-4B Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and fleck corneal dystrophy.

  20. Characterizing genomic alterations in cancer by complementary functional associations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J. W.; Botvinnik, O. B.; Abudayyeh, O.; Birger, C.; Rosenbluh, J.; Shrestha, Y.; Abazeed, M. E.; Hammerman, P. S.; DiCara, D.; Konieczkowski, D. J.; Johannessen, C. M.; Liberzon, A.; Alizad-Rahvar, A. R.; Alexe, G.; Aguirre, A.; Ghandi, M.; Greulich, H.; Vazquez, F.; Weir, B. A.; Van Allen, E. M.; Tsherniak, A.; Shao, D. D.; Zack, T. I.; Noble, M.; Getz, G.; Beroukhim, R.; Garraway, L. A.; Ardakani, M.; Romualdi, C.; Sales, G.; Barbie, D. A.; Boehm, J. S.; Hahn, W. C.; Mesirov, J. P.; Tamayo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic efforts to sequence the cancer genome have identified large numbers of relevant mutations and copy number alterations in human cancers; however, elucidating their functional consequences, and their interactions to drive or maintain oncogenic states, is still a significant challenge. Here we introduce REVEALER, a computational method that identifies combinations of mutually exclusive genomic alterations correlated with functional phenotypes, such as the activation or gene-dependency of oncogenic pathways or the sensitivity to a drug treatment. We use REVEALER to uncover complementary genomic alterations associated with the transcriptional activation of β-catenin and NRF2, MEK-inhibitor sensitivity, and KRAS dependency. REVEALER successfully identified both known and new associations demonstrating the power of combining functional profiles with extensive characterization of genomic alterations in cancer genomes. PMID:27088724

  1. Altered calmodulin activity in fluphenazine-resistant mutant strains. Pleiotropic effect on development and cellular organization in Volvox carteri.

    PubMed

    Kurn, N; Sela, B A

    1981-12-01

    Genetically altered calmodulin activity in spontaneously derived mutant strains, which were selected for resistance to the toxic effect of a specific inhibitor, the phenothiazine drug fluphenazine, is demonstrated. Partially purified calmodulin preparations from wild-type and fluphenazine-resistant strains of the multicellular alga Volvox carteri, were tested for the ability to activate Ca2+-ATPase of the erythrocyte membranes, and the inhibition of this stimulatory activity by fluphenazine. Unlike the preparation obtained from wild-type cells, mutant calmodulin is shown to be insensitive to fluphenazine inhibition, in one case, and calmodulin from another strain was found to be inactive in vitro, i.e. it did not activate Ca2+-ATPase. The pleiotropic phenotype of the spontaneously derived mutant strains involved aberrant multicellular organization and hormone-independent commitment of the multipotent asexual reproductive cells, gonodia, to sexual development. These results clearly implicate calmodulin in the control of development and morphogenesis in this simple multicellular eukaryote. In addition, intracellular inhibition of calmodulin in wild-type cells is shown to block the morphogenic process of embryo inversion and to arrest motility. The availability of mutant calmodulin will facilitate further investigation of the role of this ubiquitous regulatory protein in the control of development and differentiation in multicellular eukarytes, as well as the fine structure/function relationship with regard to calmodulin modulation of a wide variety of cellular processes. PMID:6459931

  2. Is altered behavior linked to cellular energy regulation in a freshwater mussel (Elliptio complanata) exposed to triclosan?

    PubMed

    Goodchild, Christopher G; Frederich, Markus; Zeeman, Stephan I

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress may alter the bioenergetic balance of organisms by resulting in greater energy investment into detoxification processes, which diverts energy from other biological functions. Here, we examine responses to triclosan (TCS) exposure in a freshwater mussel across multiple biological levels: behavioral (e.g., burrowing and movement activity), organismal (e.g., metabolic rate and heart rate), and subcellular (e.g., gene expression and protein abundance/activity). At the subcellular level, we employed both energetic (i.e., AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)) and traditional (i.e., heat shock protein (HSP70), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) biomarkers. We found a significant reduction in burrowing and movement behaviors, a 1.8-fold increase in total-AMPK protein abundance, and a 2.8-fold increase in AMPK activity after 21d. GST activity increased after 4d, but not after 21d. Our findings suggest that TCS exposure results in an energetic tradeoff between detoxification at the cellular level and whole-animal activity.

  3. Membrane-Based Functions in the Origin of Cellular Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    How simple membrane peptides performed such essential proto-cellular functions as transport of ions and organic matter across membranes separating the interior of the cell from the environment, capture and utilization of energy, and transduction of environmental signals, is a key question in protobiological evolution. On the basis of detailed, molecular-level computer simulations we investigate how these peptides insert into membranes, self-assemble into higher-order structures and acquire functions. We have studied the insertion of an a-helical peptide containing leucine (L) and serine (S) of the form (LSLLLSL)S into a model membrane. The transmembrane state is metastable, and approximately 15 kcal/mol is required to insert the peptide into the membrane. Investigations of dimers formed by (LSLLLSL)S and glycophorin A demonstrate how the favorable free energy of helix association can offset the unfavorable free energy of insertion, leading to self- assembly of peptide helices in the membrane. An example of a self-assembled structure is the tetrameric transmembrane pore of the influenza virus M2 protein, which is an efficient and selective voltage-gated proton channel. Our simulations explain the gating mechanism and provide guidelines how to reengineering the channel to act as a simple proton pump. In general, emergence of integral membrane proteins appears to be quite feasible and may be easier to envision than the emergence of water-soluble proteins.

  4. Compact Biocompatible Quantum Dots Functionalized for Cellular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenhao; Howarth, Mark; Greytak, Andrew B.; Zheng, Yi; Nocera, Daniel G.; Ting, Alice Y.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2009-01-01

    We present a family of water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) that exhibit low nonspecific binding to cells, small hydrodynamic diameter, tunable surface charge, high quantum yield, and good solution stability across a wide pH range. These QDs are amenable to covalent modification via simple carbodiimide coupling chemistry, which is achieved by functionalizing the surface of QDs with a new class of heterobifunctional ligands incorporating dihydrolipoic acid, a short poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer, and an amine or carboxylate terminus. The covalent attachment of molecules is demonstrated by appending a rhodamine dye to form a QD-dye conjugate exhibiting fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). High-affinity labeling is demonstrated by covalent attachment of streptavidin, thus enabling the tracking of biotinylated epidermal growth factor (EGF) bound to EGF receptor on live cells. In addition, QDs solubilized with the heterobifunctional ligands retain their metal-affinity driven conjugation chemistry with polyhistidine-tagged proteins. This dual functionality is demonstrated by simultaneous covalent attachment of a rhodamine FRET acceptor and binding of polyhistidine-tagged streptavidin on the same nanocrystal to create a targeted QD, which exhibits dual-wavelength emission. Such emission properties could serve as the basis for ratiometric sensing of the cellular receptor’s local chemical environment. PMID:18177042

  5. Experimentally induced diabetes causes glial activation, glutamate toxicity and cellular damage leading to changes in motor function

    PubMed Central

    Nagayach, Aarti; Patro, Nisha; Patro, Ishan

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral impairments are the most empirical consequence of diabetes mellitus documented in both humans and animal models, but the underlying causes are still poorly understood. As the cerebellum plays a major role in coordination and execution of the motor functions, we investigated the possible involvement of glial activation, cellular degeneration and glutamate transportation in the cerebellum of rats, rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 45 mg/kg body weight; intraperitoneally). Motor function alterations were studied using Rotarod test (motor coordination) and grip strength (muscle activity) at 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th week post-diabetic confirmation. Scenario of glial (astroglia and microglia) activation, cell death and glutamate transportation was gaged using immunohistochemistry, histological study and image analysis. Cellular degeneration was clearly demarcated in the diabetic cerebellum. Glial cells were showing sequential and marked activation following diabetes in terms of both morphology and cell number. Bergmann glial cells were hypertrophied and distorted. Active caspase-3 positive apoptotic cells were profoundly present in all three cerebellar layers. Reduced co-labeling of GLT-1 and GFAP revealed the altered glutamate transportation in cerebellum following diabetes. These results, exclusively derived from histology, immunohistochemistry and cellular quantification, provide first insight over the associative reciprocity between the glial activation, cellular degeneration and reduced glutamate transportation, which presumably lead to the behavioral alterations following STZ-induced diabetes. PMID:25400546

  6. A structural and functional homolog supports a general role for frataxin in cellular iron chemistry.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenbin; Cowan, J A

    2010-02-01

    Bacillus subtilis YdhG lacks sequence homology, but demonstrates structural and functional similarity to the frataxin family, supporting a general cellular role for frataxin-type proteins in cellular iron homeostasis.

  7. An NCAM mimetic, FGL, alters hippocampal cellular morphometry in young adult (4 month-old) rats.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Bunmi; Gabbott, Paul L; Rezaie, Payam; Corbett, Nicola; Medvedev, Nikolay I; Cowley, Thelma R; Lynch, Marina A; Stewart, Michael G

    2013-06-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is ubiquitously expressed within the CNS and has roles in development, cognition, neural plasticity and regulation of the immune system. NCAM is thus potentially an important pharmacological target for treatment of brain diseases. A cell adhesion mimetic FGL, a 15 amino-acid peptide derived from the second fibronectin type-III module of NCAM, has been shown to act as a neuroprotective agent in experimental disease and ageing models, restoring hippocampal/cognitive function and markedly alleviating deleterious changes in the CNS. However, the effects of FGL on the hippocampus of young healthy rats are unknown. The present study has examined the cellular neurobiological consequences of subcutaneous injections of FGL, on hippocampal cell morphometry in young (4 month-old) rats. We determined the effects of FGL on hippocampal volume, pyramidal neuron number/density (using unbiased quantitative stereology), and examined aspects of neurogenesis (using 2D morphometric analyses). FGL treatment reduced total volume of the dorsal hippocampus (associated with a decrease in total pyramidal neuron numbers in CA1 and CA3), and elevated the number of doublecortin immunolabeled neurons in the dentate gyrus, indicating a likely influence on neurogenesis in young healthy rats. These data indicate that FGL has a specific age dependent effect on the hippocampus, differing according to the development and maturity of the CNS.

  8. Altered Protein Networks and Cellular Pathways in Severe West Nile Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fraisier, Christophe; Camoin, Luc; Lim, Stéphanie; Bakli, Mahfoud; Belghazi, Maya; Fourquet, Patrick; Granjeaud, Samuel; Osterhaus, Ab D. M. E.; Koraka, Penelope; Martina, Byron; Almeras, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in developed countries, including Europe and the United States, have been associated with significantly higher neuropathology incidence and mortality rate than previously documented. The changing epidemiology, the constant risk of (re-)emergence of more virulent WNV strains, and the lack of effective human antiviral therapy or vaccines makes understanding the pathogenesis of severe disease a priority. Thus, to gain insight into the pathophysiological processes in severe WNV infection, a kinetic analysis of protein expression profiles in the brain of WNV-infected mice was conducted using samples prior to and after the onset of clinical symptoms. Methodology/Principal Findings To this end, 2D-DIGE and gel-free iTRAQ labeling approaches were combined, followed by protein identification by mass spectrometry. Using these quantitative proteomic approaches, a set of 148 proteins with modified abundance was identified. The bioinformatics analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) of each protein dataset originating from the different time-point comparisons revealed that four major functions were altered during the course of WNV-infection in mouse brain tissue: i) modification of cytoskeleton maintenance associated with virus circulation; ii) deregulation of the protein ubiquitination pathway; iii) modulation of the inflammatory response; and iv) alteration of neurological development and neuronal cell death. The differential regulation of selected host protein candidates as being representative of these biological processes were validated by western blotting using an original fluorescence-based method. Conclusion/Significance This study provides novel insights into the in vivo kinetic host reactions against WNV infection and the pathophysiologic processes involved, according to clinical symptoms. This work offers useful clues for anti-viral research and further evaluation of early biomarkers for the diagnosis and prevention

  9. Toxicity of cadmium in Japanese quail: Evaluation of body weight, hepatic and renal function, and cellular immune response

    SciTech Connect

    Sant'Ana, M.G.; Moraes, R.; Bernardi, M.M. . E-mail: bernarde@usp.com

    2005-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that is able to alter the immune function. Previous studies have shown that, in mammals, chronic exposure to Cd decreases the release of macrophagic cytokines such as IL1 and TN{alpha} and decreases phagocytosis activity. On the other hand contradictory results showed an increase in the humoral response. The cellular response could be decreased by exposure to Cd. These alterations were observed in mammals. The present study aimed to investigate some of the toxic effects of Cd exposure in birds. In particular, the main objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of exposure to this pollutant on the cellular immune function of the Japanese quail as a model for the study of toxicity in animals exposed in nature. The animals were exposed to the metal (100 ppm, per os) during development, i.e., from 1 to 28 days old. Body weight, biochemical parameters, and cellular immune response were measured during and at the end of treatment. The results showed that the exposure to Cd for 28 days significantly reduced the body weight and induced hepatic toxicity. The kidney function and cellular immune response were not affected by the Cd exposure.

  10. Cellular extract facilitates nuclear reprogramming by altering DNA methylation and pluripotency gene expression.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xian-Rong; Lan, Dao-Liang; Li, Jian; Zi, Xiang-Dong; Ma, Li; Wang, Yong

    2014-06-01

    The functional reprogramming of a differentiated cell to a pluripotent state presents potential beneficial applications in disease mechanisms and regenerative medicine. Epigenetic modifications enable differentiated cells to perpetuate molecular memory to retain their identity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the reprogramming modification of yak fibroblast cells that were permeabilized and incubated in the extracts of mesenchymal stem cells derived from mice adipose tissue [adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)]. According to the results, the treatment of ADSC extracts promoted colony formation. Moreover, pluripotent gene expression was associated with the loss of repressive histone modifications and increased global demethylation. The genes Col1a1 and Col1a2, which are typically found in differentiated cells only, demonstrated decreased expression and increased methylation in the 5'-flanking regulatory regions. Moreover, yak fibroblast cells that were exposed to ADSC extracts resulted in significantly different eight-cell and blastocyst formation rates of cloned embryos compared with their untreated counterparts. This investigation provides the first evidence that nuclear reprogramming of yak fibroblast cells is modified after the ADSC extract treatment. This research also presents a methodology for studying the dedifferentiation of somatic cells that can potentially lead to an efficient way of reprogramming somatic cells toward a pluripotent state without genetic alteration. PMID:24738992

  11. Ebselen alters cellular oxidative status and induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat hippocampal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Santofimia-Castaño, Patricia; Izquierdo-Alvarez, Alicia; de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Martinez-Ruiz, Antonio; Perez-Lopez, Marcos; Portilla, Juan C; Salido, Gines M; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-05-16

    Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) is an organoselenium radical scavenger compound, which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Because of its properties, it may be protective against injury to the nervous tissue. However, evidence suggests that its glutathione peroxidase activity could underlie certain deleterious actions on cell physiology. In this study we have analyzed the effect of ebselen on rat hippocampal astrocytes in culture. Cellular oxidative status, cytosolic free-Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c), setting of endoplasmic reticulum stress and phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein and major mitogen-activated protein kinases were analyzed. Our results show that ebselen induced a concentration-dependent increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria. We observed a concentration-dependent increase in global cysteine oxidation and in the level of malondialdehyde in the presence of ebselen. We also detected increases in catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activity. Ebselen also evoked a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca(2+)]c. Moreover, we observed a concentration-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of the unfolded protein response markers, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and X-box binding protein 1. Finally, ebselen also induced an increase in the phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein, SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. Our results provide strong evidence that implicate endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of crucial mitogen-activated protein kinases in an oxidative damage of cells in the presence of ebselen. The compound thus might exert deleterious actions on astrocyte physiology that could compromise their function. PMID:27282967

  12. The Yeast Actin Cytoskeleton: from Cellular Function to Biochemical Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, James B.; Goode, Bruce L.

    2006-01-01

    All cells undergo rapid remodeling of their actin networks to regulate such critical processes as endocytosis, cytokinesis, cell polarity, and cell morphogenesis. These events are driven by the coordinated activities of a set of 20 to 30 highly conserved actin-associated proteins, in addition to many cell-specific actin-associated proteins and numerous upstream signaling molecules. The combined activities of these factors control with exquisite precision the spatial and temporal assembly of actin structures and ensure dynamic turnover of actin structures such that cells can rapidly alter their cytoskeletons in response to internal and external cues. One of the most exciting principles to emerge from the last decade of research on actin is that the assembly of architecturally diverse actin structures is governed by highly conserved machinery and mechanisms. With this realization, it has become apparent that pioneering efforts in budding yeast have contributed substantially to defining the universal mechanisms regulating actin dynamics in eukaryotes. In this review, we first describe the filamentous actin structures found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (patches, cables, and rings) and their physiological functions, and then we discuss in detail the specific roles of actin-associated proteins and their biochemical mechanisms of action. PMID:16959963

  13. Altered default mode network functional connectivity in schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Shen, Jing; Wu, Jianlin; Yu, Xiao; Lou, Wutao; Fan, Hongyu; Shi, Lin; Wang, Defeng

    2014-12-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been identified to play a critical role in many mental disorders, but such abnormalities have not yet been determined in patients with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). The purpose of this study was to analyze the alteration of the DMN functional connectivity in subjects with (SPD) and compared it to healthy control subjects. Eighteen DSM-IV diagnosed SPD subjects (all male, average age: 19.7±0.9) from a pool of 3000 first year college students, and eighteen age and gender matched healthy control subjects were recruited (all male, average age: 20.3±0.9). Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to analyze the DMN functional connectivity alteration. Compared to the healthy control group, SPD subjects had significantly decreased functional connectivity in the frontal areas, including the superior and medial frontal gyrus, and greater functional connectivity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and sub-lobar regions, including the bilateral putamen and caudate. Compared to subjects with SPD, the healthy control group showed decreased functional connectivity in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, but showed greater functional connectivity in the right transverse temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus. The healthy control group also showed greater activation in the cerebellum compared to the SPD group. These findings suggest that DMN functional connectivity, particularly that involving cognitive or emotional regulation, is altered in SPD subjects, and thus may be helpful in studying schizophrenia.

  14. Production of HIV Particles Is Regulated by Altering Sub-Cellular Localization and Dynamics of Rev Induced by Double-Strand RNA Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio; Patiño, Claudia; Zapata, Ximena; García, María Patricia; Arteaga, José; Chamot, Christophe; Kumar, Ajit; Hernandez-Verdun, Danièle

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 encoded Rev is essential for export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, of unspliced and singly spliced transcripts coding for structural and nonstructural viral proteins. This process is spatially and temporally coordinated resulting from the interactions between cellular and viral proteins. Here we examined the effects of the sub-cellular localization and dynamics of Rev on the efficiency of nucleocytoplasmic transport of HIV-1 Gag transcripts and virus particle production. Using confocal microscopy and fluorescence recovery after bleaching (FRAP), we report that NF90ctv, a cellular protein involved in Rev function, alters both the sub-cellular localization and dynamics of Rev in vivo, which drastically affects the accumulation of the viral protein p24. The CRM1–dependent nuclear export of Gag mRNA linked to the Rev Response Element (RRE) is dependent on specific domains of the NF90ctv protein. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the appropriate intracellular localization and dynamics of Rev could regulate Gag assembly and HIV-1 replication. PMID:21364984

  15. Deletion or overexpression of mitochondrial NAD+ carriers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae alters cellular NAD and ATP contents and affects mitochondrial metabolism and the rate of glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Agrimi, Gennaro; Brambilla, Luca; Frascotti, Gianni; Pisano, Isabella; Porro, Danilo; Vai, Marina; Palmieri, Luigi

    2011-04-01

    The modification of enzyme cofactor concentrations can be used as a method for both studying and engineering metabolism. We varied Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial NAD levels by altering expression of its specific mitochondrial carriers. Changes in mitochondrial NAD levels affected the overall cellular concentration of this coenzyme and the cellular metabolism. In batch culture, a strain with a severe NAD depletion in mitochondria succeeded in growing, albeit at a low rate, on fully respiratory media. Although the strain increased the efficiency of its oxidative phosphorylation, the ATP concentration was low. Under the same growth conditions, a strain with a mitochondrial NAD concentration higher than that of the wild type similarly displayed a low cellular ATP level, but its growth rate was not affected. In chemostat cultures, when cellular metabolism was fully respiratory, both mutants showed low biomass yields, indicative of impaired energetic efficiency. The two mutants increased their glycolytic fluxes, and as a consequence, the Crabtree effect was triggered at lower dilution rates. Strikingly, the mutants switched from a fully respiratory metabolism to a respirofermentative one at the same specific glucose flux as that of the wild type. This result seems to indicate that the specific glucose uptake rate and/or glycolytic flux should be considered one of the most important independent variables for establishing the long-term Crabtree effect. In cells growing under oxidative conditions, bioenergetic efficiency was affected by both low and high mitochondrial NAD availability, which suggests the existence of a critical mitochondrial NAD concentration in order to achieve optimal mitochondrial functionality.

  16. Efflux Pump Control Alters Synthetic Gene Circuit Function.

    PubMed

    Diao, Junchen; Charlebois, Daniel A; Nevozhay, Dmitry; Bódi, Zoltán; Pál, Csaba; Balázsi, Gábor

    2016-07-15

    Synthetic biology aims to design new biological systems for predefined purposes, such as the controlled secretion of biofuels, pharmaceuticals, or other chemicals. Synthetic gene circuits regulating an efflux pump from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family could achieve this. However, ABC efflux pumps can also drive out intracellular inducer molecules that control the gene circuits. This will introduce an implicit feedback that could alter gene circuit function in ways that are poorly understood. Here, we used two synthetic gene circuits inducible by tetracycline family molecules to regulate the expression of a yeast ABC pump (Pdr5p) that pumps out the inducer. Pdr5p altered the dose-responses of the original gene circuits substantially in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. While one aspect of the change could be attributed to the efflux pumping function of Pdr5p, another aspect remained unexplained. Quantitative modeling indicated that reduced regulator gene expression in addition to efflux pump function could fully explain the altered dose-responses. These predictions were validated experimentally. Overall, we highlight how efflux pumps can alter gene circuit dynamics and demonstrate the utility of mathematical modeling in understanding synthetic gene circuit function in new circumstances.

  17. Marked alterations of neutrophil functions during sepsis-induced immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Demaret, Julie; Venet, Fabienne; Friggeri, Arnaud; Cazalis, Marie-Angélique; Plassais, Jonathan; Jallades, Laurent; Malcus, Christophe; Poitevin-Later, Françoise; Textoris, Julien; Lepape, Alain; Monneret, Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    Severe septic syndromes deeply impair innate and adaptive immunity and are responsible for sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Although neutrophils represent the first line of defense against infection, little is known about their phenotype and functions a few days after sepsis, when the immunosuppressive phase is maximal (i.e., between d 3 and 8). The objective of the present study was to perform, for the first time, a global evaluation of neutrophil alterations in immunosuppressed septic patients (at d 3-4 and d 6-8) using phenotypic and functional studies. In addition, the potential association of these parameters and deleterious outcomes was assessed. Peripheral blood was collected from 43 septic shock patients and compared with that of 23 healthy controls. In the septic patients, our results highlight a markedly altered neutrophil chemotaxis (functional and chemokine receptor expressions), oxidative burst, and lactoferrin content and an increased number of circulating immature granulocytes (i.e., CD10(dim)CD16(dim)). These aspects were associated with an increased risk of death after septic shock. In contrast, phagocytosis and activation capacities were conserved. To conclude, circulating neutrophils present with phenotypic, functional, and morphologic alterations a few days after sepsis onset. These dysfunctions might participate in the deleterious role of sepsis-induced immunosuppression. The present results open new perspectives in the mechanisms favoring nosocomial infections after septic shock. They deserve to be further investigated in a larger clinical study and in animal models recapitulating these alterations. PMID:26224052

  18. PHYSIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Cellular and molecular mechanisms of heat stress related to bovine ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Roth, Z

    2015-05-01

    In light of the intensive genetic selection for high milk production and the onset of global warming, it seems that the reduced fertility of lactating cows during the summer will worsen in coming years. Although not entirely clear, the mechanism appears to be multifactorial in nature. It includes alterations in follicular development, depression of follicular dominance, and impairment of steroidogenesis and gonadotropin secretion. Heat-induced perturbations in the physiology of the follicle-enclosed oocyte have also been documented, expressed by impaired cleavage rate and reduced developmental competence. With respect to the oocyte, alterations include an increase in PUFA in the membrane, reactive oxygen species, ceramide formation and caspase activity, and induction of apoptosis via the sphingomyelin and/or mitochondrial pathways. New insight into cellular and molecular alterations has revealed that heat induces perturbations in both nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation events, such as resumption of meiosis, metaphase II plate formation, cytoskeleton rearrangement, and translocation of cortical granules. Alterations in mitochondrial distribution (i.e., low proportion of category I mitochondria) and function (i.e., low membrane potential) have recently been reported for oocytes collected during the summer. These were associated with impaired expression of both nuclear (succinate dehydrogenase subunit [SDHD], adenosine triphosphate [ATP] synthase subunit beta [ATP5B]), mitochondrially NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), and mitochondiral (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II [MT-CO2] and cytochrome b [MT-CYB]) genes that are crucial in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In addition, season-induced alteration in the stored maternal mRNA has been documented, expressed by reduced transcript levels (oocyte maturation factor MOS [C-MOS], growth differentiation factor 9 [GDF9], POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1 [POU5F1], and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

  19. A priming dose of protons alters the early cardiac cellular and molecular response to 56Fe irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Samy S.; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A.; Boerma, Marjan

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence suggests that the heart may be injured by ionizing radiation at lower doses than was previously thought. This raises concerns about the cardiovascular risks from exposure to radiation during space travel. Since space travel is associated with exposure to both protons from solar particle events and heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays, we here examined the effects of a "priming" dose of protons on the cardiac cellular and molecular response to a "challenge" dose of 56Fe in a mouse model. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice at 10 weeks of age were exposed to sham-irradiation, 0.1 Gy of protons (150 MeV), 0.5 Gy of 56Fe (600 MeV/n), or 0.1 Gy of protons 24 hours prior to 0.5 Gy of 56Fe. Hearts were obtained at 7 days post-irradiation and western-blots were used to determine protein markers of cardiac remodeling, inflammatory infiltration, and cell death. Results: Exposure to 56Fe caused an increase in expression of α-smooth muscle cell actin, collagen type III, the inflammatory cell markers mast cell tryptase, CD2 and CD68, the endothelial glycoprotein thrombomodulin, and cleaved caspase 3. Of all proteins investigated, protons at a dose of 0.1 Gy induced a small increase only in cleaved caspase 3 levels. On the other hand, exposure to protons 24 hours before 56Fe prevented all of the responses to 56Fe. Conclusions: This study shows that a low dose of protons may prime the heart to respond differently to a subsequent challenge dose of heavy ions. Further investigation is required to identify responses at additional time points, consequences for cardiac function, threshold dose levels, and mechanisms by which a proton priming dose may alter the response to heavy ions.

  20. Renal function alterations during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Bryan J.

    1992-01-01

    This project was to examine the alterations in renal functions during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity. Although this area could cover a wide range of investigative efforts, the limited funding resulted in the selection of two projects. These projects would result in data contributing to an area of research deemed high priority by NASA and would address issues of the alterations in renal response to vasoactive stimuli during conditions of skeletal muscle disuse as well as investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle disuse, conditions normally found in long term human exposure to microgravity, to the balance of fluid and macromolecules within the vasculature versus the interstitium. These two projects selected are as follows: investigate the role of angiotensin 2 on renal function during periods of simulated microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse to determine if the renal response is altered to changes in circulating concentrations of angiotensin 2 compared to appropriate controls; and determine if the shift of fluid balance from vasculature to the interstitium, the two components of extracellular fluid volume, that occur during prolonged exposure to microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse is a result, in part, to alterations in the fluid and macromolecular balance in the peripheral capillary beds, of which the skeletal muscle contains the majority of recruitment capillaries. A recruitment capillary bed would be most sensitive to alterations in Starling forces and fluid and macromolecular permeability.

  1. Analyses of Dynein Heavy Chain Mutations Reveal Complex Interactions Between Dynein Motor Domains and Cellular Dynein Functions

    PubMed Central

    Sivagurunathan, Senthilkumar; Schnittker, Robert R.; Razafsky, David S.; Nandini, Swaran; Plamann, Michael D.; King, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein transports cargoes for a variety of crucial cellular functions. However, since dynein is essential in most eukaryotic organisms, the in-depth study of the cellular function of dynein via genetic analysis of dynein mutations has not been practical. Here, we identify and characterize 34 different dynein heavy chain mutations using a genetic screen of the ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa, in which dynein is nonessential. Interestingly, our studies show that these mutations segregate into five different classes based on the in vivo localization of the mutated dynein motors. Furthermore, we have determined that the different classes of dynein mutations alter vesicle trafficking, microtubule organization, and nuclear distribution in distinct ways and require dynactin to different extents. In addition, biochemical analyses of dynein from one mutant strain show a strong correlation between its in vitro biochemical properties and the aberrant intracellular function of that altered dynein. When the mutations were mapped to the published dynein crystal structure, we found that the three-dimensional structural locations of the heavy chain mutations were linked to particular classes of altered dynein functions observed in cells. Together, our data indicate that the five classes of dynein mutations represent the entrapment of dynein at five separate points in the dynein mechanochemical and transport cycles. We have developed N. crassa as a model system where we can dissect the complexities of dynein structure, function, and interaction with other proteins with genetic, biochemical, and cell biological studies. PMID:22649085

  2. Analyses of dynein heavy chain mutations reveal complex interactions between dynein motor domains and cellular dynein functions.

    PubMed

    Sivagurunathan, Senthilkumar; Schnittker, Robert R; Razafsky, David S; Nandini, Swaran; Plamann, Michael D; King, Stephen J

    2012-08-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein transports cargoes for a variety of crucial cellular functions. However, since dynein is essential in most eukaryotic organisms, the in-depth study of the cellular function of dynein via genetic analysis of dynein mutations has not been practical. Here, we identify and characterize 34 different dynein heavy chain mutations using a genetic screen of the ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa, in which dynein is nonessential. Interestingly, our studies show that these mutations segregate into five different classes based on the in vivo localization of the mutated dynein motors. Furthermore, we have determined that the different classes of dynein mutations alter vesicle trafficking, microtubule organization, and nuclear distribution in distinct ways and require dynactin to different extents. In addition, biochemical analyses of dynein from one mutant strain show a strong correlation between its in vitro biochemical properties and the aberrant intracellular function of that altered dynein. When the mutations were mapped to the published dynein crystal structure, we found that the three-dimensional structural locations of the heavy chain mutations were linked to particular classes of altered dynein functions observed in cells. Together, our data indicate that the five classes of dynein mutations represent the entrapment of dynein at five separate points in the dynein mechanochemical and transport cycles. We have developed N. crassa as a model system where we can dissect the complexities of dynein structure, function, and interaction with other proteins with genetic, biochemical, and cell biological studies.

  3. Extinction order and altered community structure rapidly disrupt ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Trond H; Williams, Neal M; Kremen, Claire

    2005-05-01

    By causing extinctions and altering community structure, anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt processes that maintain ecosystem integrity. However, the relationship between community structure and ecosystem functioning in natural systems is poorly understood. Here we show that habitat loss appeared to disrupt ecosystem functioning by affecting extinction order, species richness and abundance. We studied pollination by bees in a mosaic of agricultural and natural habitats in California and dung burial by dung beetles on recently created islands in Venezuela. We found that large-bodied bee and beetle species tended to be both most extinction-prone and most functionally efficient, contributing to rapid functional loss. Simulations confirmed that extinction order led to greater disruption of function than predicted by random species loss. Total abundance declined with richness and also appeared to contribute to loss of function. We demonstrate conceptually and empirically how the non-random response of communities to disturbance can have unexpectedly large functional consequences.

  4. Concurrent functional and structural cortical alterations in migraine

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Nasim; Becerra, Lino; Brawn, Jennifer; Bigal, Marcelo; Burstein, Rami; Borsook, David

    2013-01-01

    Aim Various animal and human studies have contributed to the idea of cortical structural–functional alterations in migraine. Defining concurrent cortical alterations may provide specific insights into the unfolding adaptive or maladaptive changes taking place in cortex in migraine. Methods From a group of 60 episodic migraineurs, 20 were recruited to the study. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, structural and functional cortical measures were compared in migraineurs who experienced increased frequency of attacks (HF; 8–14 days/month; n=10), to those who experienced less frequent migraine attacks (LF;<2 days/month; n=10), and to healthy controls (HC; n=20). Results Parallel structural and functional differences were found as follows: (i) HF patients showed higher thickness in the area representing the face in the post-central gyrus, which correlated with the observed stronger functional activation, suggesting adaptation to repeated sensory drive; (ii) smaller cortical volume was observed in the cingulate cortex that correlated with lower activation in the HF group; and (iii) similarly significant structural and functional differences (HF>LF) were observed in the insula that may reflect potential alteration in affective processing. Conclusion These results suggest differential response patterns in the sensory vs. affective processing regions in the brain that may be an adaptive response to repeated migraine attacks. PMID:22623760

  5. Molecular design and nanoparticle-mediated intracellular delivery of functional proteins to target cellular pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Dhiral Ashwin

    Intracellular delivery of specific proteins and peptides represents a novel method to influence stem cells for gain-of-function and loss-of-function. Signaling control is vital in stem cells, wherein intricate control of and interplay among critical pathways directs the fate of these cells into either self-renewal or differentiation. The most common route to manipulate cellular function involves the introduction of genetic material such as full-length genes and shRNA into the cell to generate (or prevent formation of) the target protein, and thereby ultimately alter cell function. However, viral-mediated gene delivery may result in relatively slow expression of proteins and prevalence of oncogene insertion into the cell, which can alter cell function in an unpredictable fashion, and non-viral delivery may lead to low efficiency of genetic delivery. For example, the latter case plagues the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and hinders their use for in vivo applications. Alternatively, introducing proteins into cells that specifically recognize and influence target proteins, can result in immediate deactivation or activation of key signaling pathways within the cell. In this work, we demonstrate the cellular delivery of functional proteins attached to hydrophobically modified silica (SiNP) nanoparticles to manipulate specifically targeted cell signaling proteins. In the Wnt signaling pathway, we have targeted the phosphorylation activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) by designing a chimeric protein and delivering it in neural stem cells. Confocal imaging indicates that the SiNP-chimeric protein conjugates were efficiently delivered to the cytosol of human embryonic kidney cells and rat neural stem cells, presumably via endocytosis. This uptake impacted the Wnt signaling cascade, indicated by the elevation of beta-catenin levels, and increased transcription of Wnt target genes, such as c-MYC. The results presented here suggest that

  6. Protective effect of naringin against ischemic reperfusion cerebral injury: possible neurobehavioral, biochemical and cellular alterations in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Vaibhav; Aggarwal, Aditi; Kumar, Anil

    2009-08-15

    The present study was conducted with an aim to explore the possible role of naringin against ischemia reperfusion induced-neurobehavioral alterations, oxidative damage, cellular and histopathological alterations in cortex, striatum, hippocampus areas of brain. Male Wistar rats (200-220 g) were subjected to bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h to induce reperfusion (I/R) cerebral injury. Naringin (50, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered for 7 days continuously before animals were subjected to ischemia reperfusion injury. Various behavioral tests [locomotor activity, neurological score (inclined beam test), transfer latency, resistance to lateral push] and biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, nitrite level, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity), mitochondrial enzyme dysfunctions (Complex I, II, III and IV) in cortex, striatum, hippocampus of brain and histopathological alterations were assessed subsequently. Seven days naringin (50 and 100 mg/kg) treatment significantly improved neurobehavioral alterations (improved locomotor activity, inclined beam walking and reduced resistance to lateral push, transfer latency) as compared to control ischemia reperfusion. Naringin (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) treatment significantly attenuated oxidative damage as indicated by reduced lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, restored reduced glutathione and catalase activity and mitochondrial enzyme activities in cortex, striatum, cerebellum as compared to control (ischemia reperfusion) animals. In addition, naringin treatment significantly reversed histopathological alterations in cortex, striatum, hippocampus areas as compared to control (ischemia reperfusion). Present study suggests the protective effect of naringin and its therapeutic potential against ischemia reperfusion induced and related behavioral alterations in rats. PMID:19577560

  7. S-glutathionylation uncouples eNOS and regulates its cellular and vascular function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-An; Wang, Tse-Yao; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Reyes, Levy A.; Hemann, Craig; Hassan Talukder, M. A.; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Druhan, Lawrence J.; Zweier, Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is critical in the regulation of vascular function, and can generate both nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2•−), which are key mediators of cellular signalling. In the presence of Ca2+/calmodulin, eNOS produces NO, endothelial-derived relaxing factor, from L-arginine (L-Arg) by means of electron transfer from NADPH through a flavin containing reductase domain to oxygen bound at the haem of an oxygenase domain, which also contains binding sites for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and L-Arg1–3. In the absence of BH4, NO synthesis is abrogated and instead O2•− is generated4–7. While NOS dysfunction occurs in diseases with redox stress, BH4 repletion only partly restores NOS activity and NOS-dependent vasodilation7. This suggests that there is an as yet unidentified redox-regulated mechanism controlling NOS function. Protein thiols can undergo S-glutathionylation, a reversible protein modification involved in cellular signalling and adaptation8,9. Under oxidative stress, S-glutathionylation occurs through thiol–disulphide exchange with oxidized glutathione or reaction of oxidant-induced protein thiyl radicals with reduced glutathione10,11. Cysteine residues are critical for the maintenance of eNOS function12,13; we therefore speculated that oxidative stress could alter eNOS activity through S-glutathionylation. Here we show that S-glutathionylation of eNOS reversibly decreases NOS activity with an increase in O2•− generation primarily from the reductase, in which two highly conserved cysteine residues are identified as sites of S-glutathionylation and found to be critical for redox-regulation of eNOS function. We show that eNOS S-glutathionylation in endothelial cells, with loss of NO and gain of O2•− generation, is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In hypertensive vessels, eNOS S-glutathionylation is increased with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation that is restored by thiol

  8. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p < 0.05). Similarly, when compared to extremely preterm neonates without exposure to prenatal stress, extremely preterm neonates with exposure to prenatal stress show significantly less connectivity between the left amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p < 0.05). Exploratory analysis of the combined cohorts suggests additive effects of prenatal stress on alterations in amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these

  9. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p < 0.05). Similarly, when compared to extremely preterm neonates without exposure to prenatal stress, extremely preterm neonates with exposure to prenatal stress show significantly less connectivity between the left amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p < 0.05). Exploratory analysis of the combined cohorts suggests additive effects of prenatal stress on alterations in amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these

  10. PMP22 Is Critical for Actin-Mediated Cellular Functions and for Establishing Lipid Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sooyeon; Amici, Stephanie; Tavori, Hagai; Zeng, Waylon M.; Freeland, Steven; Fazio, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Haploinsufficiency of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) causes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, a peripheral nerve lesion induced by minimal trauma or compression. As PMP22 is localized to cholesterol-enriched membrane domains that are closely linked with the underlying actin network, we asked whether the myelin instability associated with PMP22 deficiency could be mediated by involvement of the protein in actin-dependent cellular functions and/or lipid raft integrity. In peripheral nerves and cells from mice with PMP22 deletion, we assessed the organization of filamentous actin (F-actin), and actin-dependent cellular functions. Using in vitro models, we discovered that, in the absence of PMP22, the migration and adhesion capacity of Schwann cells and fibroblasts are similarly impaired. Furthermore, PMP22-deficient Schwann cells produce shortened myelin internodes, and display compressed axial cell length and collapsed lamellipodia. During early postnatal development, F-actin-enriched Schmidt-Lanterman incisures do not form properly in nerves from PMP22−/− mice, and the expression and localization of molecules associated with uncompacted myelin domains and lipid rafts, including flotillin-1, cholesterol, and GM1 ganglioside, are altered. In addition, we identified changes in the levels and distribution of cholesterol and ApoE when PMP22 is absent. Significantly, cholesterol supplementation of the culture medium corrects the elongation and migration deficits of PMP22−/− Schwann cells, suggesting that the observed functional impairments are directly linked with cholesterol deficiency of the plasma membrane. Our findings support a novel role for PMP22 in the linkage of the actin cytoskeleton with the plasma membrane, likely through regulating the cholesterol content of lipid rafts. PMID:25429154

  11. A Distinct Role for Interleukin‐6 as a Major Mediator of Cellular Adjustment to an Altered Culture Condition

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwa‐Kyung; Park, Iha; Kim, Jue Young; Kim, Do Kyeong; Illeperuma, Rasika P.; Bae, Jung Yoon; Lee, Doo Young; Oh, Eun‐Sang; Jung, Da‐Woon; Williams, Darren R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tissue microenvironment adjusts biological properties of different cells by modulating signaling pathways and cell to cell interactions. This study showed that epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)/ mesenchymal–epithelial transition (MET) can be modulated by altering culture conditions. HPV E6/E7‐transfected immortalized oral keratinocytes (IHOK) cultured in different media displayed reversible EMT/MET accompanied by changes in cell phenotype, proliferation, gene expression at transcriptional, and translational level, and migratory and invasive activities. Cholera toxin, a major supplement to culture medium, was responsible for inducing the morphological and biological changes of IHOK. Cholera toxin per se induced EMT by triggering the secretion of interleukin 6 (IL‐6) from IHOK. We found IL‐6 to be a central molecule that modulates the reversibility of EMT based not only on the mRNA level but also on the level of secretion. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IL‐6, a cytokine whose transcription is activated by alterations in culture conditions, is a key molecule for regulating reversible EMT/MET. This study will contribute to understand one way of cellular adjustment for surviving in unfamiliar conditions. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 2552–2562, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25939389

  12. Changes in gravity rapidly alter the magnitude and direction of a cellular calcium current.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mari L; ul Haque, Aeraj; Bushart, Thomas J; Stout, Stephen C; Roux, Stanley J; Porterfield, D Marshall

    2011-05-01

    In single-celled spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii, gravity directs polarity of development and induces a directional, trans-cellular calcium (Ca(2+)) current. To clarify how gravity polarizes this electrophysiological process, we measured the kinetics of the cellular response to changes in the gravity vector, which we initially estimated using the self-referencing calcium microsensor. In order to generate more precise and detailed data, we developed a silicon microfabricated sensor array which facilitated a lab-on-a-chip approach to simultaneously measure calcium currents from multiple cells in real time. These experiments revealed that the direction of the gravity-dependent polar calcium current is reversed in less than 25 s when the cells are inverted, and that changes in the magnitude of the calcium current parallel rapidly changing g-forces during parabolic flight on the NASA C-9 aircraft. The data also revealed a hysteresis in the response of cells in the transition from 2g to micro-g in comparison to cells in the micro-g to 2-g transition, a result consistent with a role for mechanosensitive ion channels in the gravity response. The calcium current is suppressed by either nifedipine (calcium-channel blocker) or eosin yellow (plasma membrane calcium pump inhibitor). Nifedipine disrupts gravity-directed cell polarity, but not spore germination. These results indicate that gravity perception in single plant cells may be mediated by mechanosensitive calcium channels, an idea consistent with some previously proposed models of plant gravity perception.

  13. Alteration in cellular and biochemical markers of pulmonary toxicity in rat lung exposed to carpet dusts.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Mohamed; Musthapa, Syed; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ansari, Furquan Ahmad; Baig, Masroor Alam; Rahman, Qamar

    2003-09-15

    Epidemiological studies of workers in weaving units in carpet industries have shown relationships between the airborne dust concentrations and pulmonary ill health. Therefore, to predict the health risk of carpet weavers, this preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carpet dust (knotted, tufted) on cellular and biochemical mediators considered as potential biological markers of lung injury. Lung cytoplasmic (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH), lysosomal (acid phosphatase, ACP), type II (alkaline phoshatase, ALP) and Clara-cell marker enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transferase, GGT) were monitored in rat cell-free lung lavage (BAL) during postexposure days 1, 4, 8, and 16. Furthermore, lung microsomal cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) and Clara-cell secretory protein (CC16) content in BAL was also evaluated. These pulmonary marker enzymes were significantly elevated during the postexposure period over the respective untreated control; however, tufted carpet dust shows more responses than knotted carpet dust. Lung CYP450 content was reduced significantly at early days; the pattern shows the reoccurrence of CYP450 content in the later stage of postexposure to carpet dust. Clara-cell secretory protein in BAL shows decline in the carpet-treated group; however, tufted carpet shows more decline than knotted carpet. Thus, reduction in CC16 level may have important implication in the development of chronic lung inflammation and diseases. Present investigation found that modulation of these cellular marker enzymes is clear evidence of pulmonary damage caused by exposure to carpet dust.

  14. The antidepressant tranylcypromine alters cellular proliferation and migration in the adult goldfish brain.

    PubMed

    Romanczyk, Tara B; Jacobowitz, David M; Pollard, Harvey B; Wu, Xingjia; Anders, Juanita J

    2014-10-01

    The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is a widely studied vertebrate model organism for studying cell proliferation in the adult brain, and provide the experimental advantage of growing their body and brain throughout their ∼30-year life time. Cell proliferation occurs in the teleost brain in widespread proliferation zones. Increased cell proliferation in the brain has been linked to the actions of certain antidepressants, including tranylcypromine (TCP), which is used in the treatment of depression. We hypothesized that proliferation zones in the adult goldfish brain can be used to determine the antidepressant effects on cellular proliferation. Here, we report that bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling over a 24-hr period can be used to rapidly identify the proliferation zones throughout the goldfish brain, including the telencephalon, diencephalon, optic tectal lobes, cerebellum, and facial and vagal lobes. In the first 24 hr of BrdU administration, TCP caused an approximate and significant doubling of labeled cells in the combined brain regions examined, as detected by BrdU immunohistochemistry. TCP caused the greatest increase in cell proliferation in the cerebellum. The normal migratory paths of the proliferating cells within the cerebellum were not affected by TCP treatment. These results indicate that the goldfish provide significant advantages as a vertebrate model for rapidly investigating the effects of antidepressant drugs on cellular proliferation and migration in the normal and injured brain.

  15. Pathophysiology of Corneal Dystrophies: From Cellular Genetic Alteration to Clinical Findings.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Marta; Macchi, Ilaria; Tiezzi, Alessandro; La Cava, Maurizio; Massaro-Giordano, Giacomina; Lambiase, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    Corneal dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of bilateral, inherited, rare diseases characterized by slowly progressive corneal opacities, that lead to visual impairment. Most of them have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with variable expressivity, but new mutations have been described. Many corneal dystrophies have been genetically characterized and the specific gene mutations identified, such as for the epithelial-stromal TGFBI dystrophies. Current classification systems identified four main groups of corneal dystrophies based on clinical, histologic, and genetic information. Diagnosis is performed during a routine ophthalmic examination that shows typical cellular abnormalities of the corneal epithelium, stroma, or endothelium. Disease progression should be carefully monitored to decide the proper clinical management. The treatment of corneal dystrophies is variable, depending on symptoms, clinical course, severity, and type of dystrophy. Management aimed to reduce symptoms and to improve vision, includes different surgical approaches. Novel cellular and genetic therapeutic approaches are under evaluation. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 261-269, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26104822

  16. JC virus induces altered patterns of cellular gene expression: Interferon-inducible genes as major transcriptional targets

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Saguna; Ziegler, Katja; Ananthula, Praveen; Co, Juliene K.G.; Frisque, Richard J.; Yanagihara, Richard; Nerurkar, Vivek R. . E-mail: nerurkar@pbrc.hawaii.edu

    2006-02-20

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects 80% of the population worldwide. Primary infection, typically occurring during childhood, is asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals and results in lifelong latency and persistent infection. However, among the severely immunocompromised, JCV may cause a fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well understood, although significant regulation of JCV activity is thought to occur at the level of transcription. Regulation of the JCV early and late promoters during the lytic cycle is a complex event that requires participation of both viral and cellular factors. We have used cDNA microarray technology to analyze global alterations in gene expression in JCV-permissive primary human fetal glial cells (PHFG). Expression of more than 400 cellular genes was altered, including many that influence cell proliferation, cell communication and interferon (IFN)-mediated host defense responses. Genes in the latter category included signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), interferon stimulating gene 56 (ISG56), myxovirus resistance 1 (MxA), 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and cig5. The expression of these genes was further confirmed in JCV-infected PHFG cells and the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG to ensure the specificity of JCV in inducing this strong antiviral response. Results obtained by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses supported the microarray data and provide temporal information related to virus-induced changes in the IFN response pathway. Our data indicate that the induction of an antiviral response may be one of the cellular factors regulating/controlling JCV replication in immunocompetent hosts and therefore constraining the development of PML.

  17. Quantification of nanoscale density fluctuations by electron microscopy: probing cellular alterations in early carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Damania, Dhwanil; Joshi, Hrushikesh M.; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Subramanian, Hariharan; Roy, Hemant K.; Taflove, Allen; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Backman, Vadim

    2011-04-01

    Most cancers are curable if they are diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Recent studies suggest that nanoarchitectural changes occur within cells during early carcinogenesis and that such changes precede microscopically evident tissue alterations. It follows that the ability to comprehensively interrogate cell nanoarchitecture (e.g., macromolecular complexes, DNA, RNA, proteins and lipid membranes) could be critical to the diagnosis of early carcinogenesis. We present a study of the nanoscale mass-density fluctuations of biological tissues by quantifying their degree of disorder at the nanoscale. Transmission electron microscopy images of human tissues are used to construct corresponding effective disordered optical lattices. The properties of nanoscale disorder are then studied by statistical analysis of the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the spatially localized eigenfunctions of these optical lattices at the nanoscale. Our results show an increase in the disorder of human colonic epithelial cells in subjects harboring early stages of colon neoplasia. Furthermore, our findings strongly suggest that increased nanoscale disorder correlates with the degree of tumorigenicity. Therefore, the IPR technique provides a practicable tool for the detection of nanoarchitectural alterations in the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. Potential applications of the technique for early cancer screening and detection are also discussed. Originally submitted for the special focus issue on physical oncology.

  18. Phytochemicals perturb membranes and promiscuously alter protein function.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Koçer, Armağan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    2014-08-15

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous modifiers of membrane protein function, suggesting that some of their actions may be due to a common, membrane bilayer-mediated mechanism. To test whether bilayer perturbation may underlie this diversity of actions, we examined five bioactive phenols reported to have medicinal value: capsaicin from chili peppers, curcumin from turmeric, EGCG from green tea, genistein from soybeans, and resveratrol from grapes. We find that each of these widely consumed phytochemicals alters lipid bilayer properties and the function of diverse membrane proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations show that these phytochemicals modify bilayer properties by localizing to the bilayer/solution interface. Bilayer-modifying propensity was verified using a gramicidin-based assay, and indiscriminate modulation of membrane protein function was demonstrated using four proteins: membrane-anchored metalloproteases, mechanosensitive ion channels, and voltage-dependent potassium and sodium channels. Each protein exhibited similar responses to multiple phytochemicals, consistent with a common, bilayer-mediated mechanism. Our results suggest that many effects of amphiphilic phytochemicals are due to cell membrane perturbations, rather than specific protein binding. PMID:24901212

  19. Phytochemicals Perturb Membranes and Promiscuously Alter Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous modifiers of membrane protein function, suggesting that some of their actions may be due to a common, membrane bilayer-mediated mechanism. To test whether bilayer perturbation may underlie this diversity of actions, we examined five bioactive phenols reported to have medicinal value: capsaicin from chili peppers, curcumin from turmeric, EGCG from green tea, genistein from soybeans, and resveratrol from grapes. We find that each of these widely consumed phytochemicals alters lipid bilayer properties and the function of diverse membrane proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations show that these phytochemicals modify bilayer properties by localizing to the bilayer/solution interface. Bilayer-modifying propensity was verified using a gramicidin-based assay, and indiscriminate modulation of membrane protein function was demonstrated using four proteins: membrane-anchored metalloproteases, mechanosensitive ion channels, and voltage-dependent potassium and sodium channels. Each protein exhibited similar responses to multiple phytochemicals, consistent with a common, bilayer-mediated mechanism. Our results suggest that many effects of amphiphilic phytochemicals are due to cell membrane perturbations, rather than specific protein binding. PMID:24901212

  20. Identification of Yeast Mutants Exhibiting Altered Sensitivity to Valinomycin and Nigericin Demonstrate Pleiotropic Effects of Ionophores on Cellular Processes

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia-Kissova, Ingrid; Valachovic, Martin; Klobucnikova, Vlasta; Zeiselova, Lucia; Griac, Peter; Nosek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Ionophores such as valinomycin and nigericin are potent tools for studying the impact of ion perturbance on cellular functions. To obtain a broader picture about molecular components involved in mediating the effects of these drugs on yeast cells under respiratory growth conditions, we performed a screening of the haploid deletion mutant library covering the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nonessential genes. We identified nearly 130 genes whose absence leads either to resistance or to hypersensitivity to valinomycin and/or nigericin. The processes affected by their protein products range from mitochondrial functions through ribosome biogenesis and telomere maintenance to vacuolar biogenesis and stress response. Comparison of the results with independent screenings performed by our and other laboratories demonstrates that although mitochondria might represent the main target for both ionophores, cellular response to the drugs is very complex and involves an intricate network of proteins connecting mitochondria, vacuoles, and other membrane compartments. PMID:27711131

  1. Photothermal cellular stimulation in functional bio-polymer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Martino, Nicola; Feyen, Paul; Porro, Matteo; Bossio, Caterina; Zucchetti, Elena; Ghezzi, Diego; Benfenati, Fabio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Antognazza, Maria Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid interfaces between organic semiconductors and living tissues represent a new tool for in-vitro and in-vivo applications, bearing a huge potential, from basic researches to clinical applications. In particular, light sensitive conjugated polymers can be exploited as a new approach for optical modulation of cellular activity. In this work we focus on light-induced changes in the membrane potential of Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cells grown on top of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin film. On top of a capacitive charging of the polymer interface, we identify and fully characterize two concomitant mechanisms, leading to membrane depolarization and hyperpolarisation, both mediated by a thermal effect. Our results can be usefully exploited in the creation of a new platform for light-controlled cell manipulation, with possible applications in neuroscience and medicine. PMID:25753132

  2. Photothermal cellular stimulation in functional bio-polymer interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Nicola; Feyen, Paul; Porro, Matteo; Bossio, Caterina; Zucchetti, Elena; Ghezzi, Diego; Benfenati, Fabio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Antognazza, Maria Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid interfaces between organic semiconductors and living tissues represent a new tool for in-vitro and in-vivo applications, bearing a huge potential, from basic researches to clinical applications. In particular, light sensitive conjugated polymers can be exploited as a new approach for optical modulation of cellular activity. In this work we focus on light-induced changes in the membrane potential of Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cells grown on top of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin film. On top of a capacitive charging of the polymer interface, we identify and fully characterize two concomitant mechanisms, leading to membrane depolarization and hyperpolarisation, both mediated by a thermal effect. Our results can be usefully exploited in the creation of a new platform for light-controlled cell manipulation, with possible applications in neuroscience and medicine. PMID:25753132

  3. EDTA treatment alters protein glycosylation in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.M.; Brownstein, S.A. )

    1988-03-01

    The authors have found that treatment of cells with EDTA resulted in the accumulation of lower molecular weight forms of two cell-type-specific glycoproteins. These new glycoproteins lacked a developmentally regulated glycoantigen defined by monoclonal antibody 54.2. Since EDTA dissociated the cells, the possible involvement of cell separation was tested by immobilizing cells in soft agarose. Glycoantigen expression on these proteins was found to be dependent on cAMP and high oxygen tension but not on cell contact, and was reversibly sensitive to EDTA regardless of the state of cell association. The EDTA effect was mimicked by other soluble, but not particulate, membrane impermeable chelators, could be completed by Zn{sup 2+} better than Mg{sup 2+}, and appeared to involve an intracellular mechanism. Studies with ({sup 14}C)EDTA showed that EDTA equilibrated with a cellular compartment in a temperature-dependent, Zn{sup 2+}-insensitive fashion with half-time kinetics of loading and unloading of 30-40 min. The data suggest that this step in glycosylation, which was found to be delayed 1 or more hours subsequent to protein synthesis, involves an intracellular, transition metal-ion-dependent process which can be modulated by chelators entering the cell through the endocytic pathway.

  4. Cellular and molecular alterations in human epithelial cells transformed by high let radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, T. K.; Piao, C. Q.; Sutter, T.; Willey, J. C.; Suzuki, K.

    An understanding of the radiobiological effects of high LET radiation is essential for human risk estimation and radiation protection. In the present study, we show that a single, 30 cGy dose of 150 keV/mum ^4He ions can malignantly transform human papillomavirus immortalized human bronchial epithelial [BEP2D] cells. Transformed cells produce progressively growing tumors in nude mice. The transformation frequency by the single dose of alpha particles is estimated to be approximately 4 x 10^-7. Based on the average cross-sectional area of BEP2D cells, it can be calculated that a mean traversal of 1.4 particles per cell is sufficient to induce tumorigenic conversion of these cells 3 to 4 months post-irradiation. Tumorigenic BEP2D cells overexpress mutated p53 tumor suppressor oncoproteins in addition to the cell cycle control gene cyclin D1 and D2. This model provides an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular changes at the various stages in radiation carcinogenesis involving human cells.

  5. Warming alters community size structure and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Dossena, Matteo; Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Grey, Jonathan; Montoya, José M; Perkins, Daniel M; Trimmer, Mark; Woodward, Guy

    2012-08-01

    Global warming can affect all levels of biological complexity, though we currently understand least about its potential impact on communities and ecosystems. At the ecosystem level, warming has the capacity to alter the structure of communities and the rates of key ecosystem processes they mediate. Here we assessed the effects of a 4°C rise in temperature on the size structure and taxonomic composition of benthic communities in aquatic mesocosms, and the rates of detrital decomposition they mediated. Warming had no effect on biodiversity, but altered community size structure in two ways. In spring, warmer systems exhibited steeper size spectra driven by declines in total community biomass and the proportion of large organisms. By contrast, in autumn, warmer systems had shallower size spectra driven by elevated total community biomass and a greater proportion of large organisms. Community-level shifts were mirrored by changes in decomposition rates. Temperature-corrected microbial and macrofaunal decomposition rates reflected the shifts in community structure and were strongly correlated with biomass across mesocosms. Our study demonstrates that the 4°C rise in temperature expected by the end of the century has the potential to alter the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems profoundly, as well as the intimate linkages between these levels of ecological organization.

  6. Warming alters community size structure and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Dossena, Matteo; Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Grey, Jonathan; Montoya, José M; Perkins, Daniel M; Trimmer, Mark; Woodward, Guy

    2012-08-01

    Global warming can affect all levels of biological complexity, though we currently understand least about its potential impact on communities and ecosystems. At the ecosystem level, warming has the capacity to alter the structure of communities and the rates of key ecosystem processes they mediate. Here we assessed the effects of a 4°C rise in temperature on the size structure and taxonomic composition of benthic communities in aquatic mesocosms, and the rates of detrital decomposition they mediated. Warming had no effect on biodiversity, but altered community size structure in two ways. In spring, warmer systems exhibited steeper size spectra driven by declines in total community biomass and the proportion of large organisms. By contrast, in autumn, warmer systems had shallower size spectra driven by elevated total community biomass and a greater proportion of large organisms. Community-level shifts were mirrored by changes in decomposition rates. Temperature-corrected microbial and macrofaunal decomposition rates reflected the shifts in community structure and were strongly correlated with biomass across mesocosms. Our study demonstrates that the 4°C rise in temperature expected by the end of the century has the potential to alter the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems profoundly, as well as the intimate linkages between these levels of ecological organization. PMID:22496185

  7. Peripheral blood leukocytes of cows with subclinical endometritis show an altered cellular composition and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Düvel, Anna; Maaß, Janine; Heppelmann, Maike; Hussen, Jamal; Koy, Mirja; Piechotta, Marion; Sandra, Olivier; Smith, David G E; Sheldon, Iain Martin; Dieuzy-Labaye, Isabelle; Zieger, Peter; Schuberth, Hans Joachim

    2014-04-15

    Subclinical endometritis (SCE) is an important postpartum disease in dairy cows, but conventional cytobrush diagnosis often gives imprecise results. The aim of this study was to analyze disease-associated changes in peripheral blood as potential diagnostic parameters. Cellular subpopulations of blood leukocytes from cows with or without SCE (45-55 days postpartum) were flow-cytometrically quantified. Gene expression of whole blood leukocytes was assessed by PAXgene analysis. Subclinical endometritis cows showed significantly higher number of blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils. Among mononuclear cells, numbers of B-cells, NK-cells, and CD172a-positive monocytes were significantly elevated. Compared with non-SCE cows, blood leukocytes of SCE cows significantly expressed higher copy numbers of CXCL8, TNF, and IL12. To test whether circulating plasma factors are responsible for these changes, leukocytes, polymorphonuclear cells, and monocyte subpopulations (classical, intermediate, nonclassical) of healthy cows were stimulated with plasma of SCE and non-SCE cows. Although gene expression of whole leukocytes and polymorphonuclear cells remained unaltered, plasma from SCE animals significantly elevated expressed messenger RNA copy numbers of CXCL8, CXCL1, and IL1B in intermediate monocytes. In conclusion, elevated number of selected mononuclear subpopulations in peripheral blood and enhanced expression of distinct genes encoding for inflammatory mediators in blood leukocytes reflect the subclinical uterine inflammatory process in cows. Whether the observed changes in the periphery of SCE cows are the consequence of the uterine inflammatory process, or whether they affect the pathogenesis of the disease is currently unknown. PMID:24560452

  8. Altered expression of key cellular gene products accompanies development of resistance to nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Santelises, Miguel; Mozart, Marlene; Scuderi, Richard; Celsing, Fredrik

    2006-12-01

    NALM-6 is a pre-B leukemia cell line sensitive to exogenous nitric oxide (NO), which enters into apoptosis during 24 h of exposure to low doses of the NO donors SNAP (100 microM) or DETA-NO (250 microM). By culturing NALM-6 with repeated and increasing concentrations of SNAP, we obtained a variant (NALM-6R) that retains >95% viability and does not enter into apoptosis during 24 h culture in the presence of up to 500 microM SNAP or 750 microM DETA-NO. A power blot screen performed with 277 antibodies on cell lysates from NALM-6 and NALM-6R cultured without NO donors served to determine the altered constitutive expression of 19 proteins in NALM-6R. Proteins affected in the less sensitive cell line NALM6-R are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, the cell cycle, cell interactions, signal transduction, cell morphology, and cell motility. This model shows that repeated exposure of tumor cells to NO may either select NO-resistant cells or contribute to NO-sensitive conversion into NO-resistant cells. The identification of the proteins that are affected during this transition may help us to define the mechanisms that are involved in cell resistance to NO-cytotoxicity which often accompany clinical progression.

  9. Altering Intracellular pH Disrupts Development and Cellular Organization in Preimplantation Hamster Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Squirrell, Jayne M.; Lane, Michelle; Bavister, Barry D.

    2016-01-01

    In early cleavage stage hamster embryos, the inability to regulate intracellular pH (pHi) properly is associated with reduced developmental competence in vitro. The disruption of mitochondrial organization is also correlated with reduced development in vitro. To determine the relationship between pHi and the disruption of cytoplasmic organization, we examined the effects of altering pHi on hamster embryo development, mitochondrial distribution, and cytoskeletal organization. The weak base trimethylamine was used to increase pHi and was found to reduce embryo development and disrupt the perinuclear organization of mitochondria. The weak acid 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolinedione was used to decrease pHi and was also found to reduce development and disrupt the perinuclear organization of mitochondria. With either treatment, the microfilament organization was perturbed, but the microtubule cytoskeleton was not. However, the temporal progression of the disruption of mitochondrial distribution was more rapid in alkalinized embryos than acidified embryos, as revealed by two-photon imaging of living embryos. Additionally, the disruption of the microfilament network by the two treatments was not identical. The cytoplasmic disruptions observed were not due to acute toxicity of the compounds because embryos recovered developmentally when the treatment compounds were removed. These observations link ionic homeostasis, structural integrity and developmental competence in preimplantation hamster embryos. PMID:11369617

  10. Injury alters intrinsic functional connectivity within the primate spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li Min; Mishra, Arabinda; Yang, Pai-Feng; Wang, Feng; Gore, John C

    2015-05-12

    Recent demonstrations of correlated low-frequency MRI signal variations between subregions of the spinal cord at rest in humans, similar to those found in the brain, suggest that such resting-state functional connectivity constitutes a common feature of the intrinsic organization of the entire central nervous system. We report our detection of functional connectivity within the spinal cords of anesthetized squirrel monkeys at rest and show that the strength of connectivity within these networks is altered by the effects of injuries. By quantifying the low-frequency MRI signal correlations between different horns within spinal cord gray matter, we found distinct functional connectivity relationships between the different sensory and motor horns, a pattern that was similar to activation patterns evoked by nociceptive heat or tactile stimulation of digits. All horns within a single spinal segment were functionally connected, with the strongest connectivity occurring between ipsilateral dorsal and ventral horns. Each horn was strongly connected to the same horn on neighboring segments, but this connectivity reduced drastically along the spinal cord. Unilateral injury to the spinal cord significantly weakened the strength of the intrasegment horn-to-horn connectivity only on the injury side and in slices below the lesion. These findings suggest resting-state functional connectivity may be a useful biomarker of functional integrity in injured and recovering spinal cords. PMID:25902510

  11. Improved cellular uptake of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, A.; Serafini, S.; Menotta, M.; Sfara, C.; Pierigé, F.; Giorgi, L.; Ambrosi, G.; Rossi, L.; Magnani, M.

    2010-10-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) due to their unique structural and physicochemical properties, have been proposed as delivery systems for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic agents. However, SWNTs have proven difficult to solubilize in aqueous solution, limiting their use in biological applications. In an attempt to improve SWNTs' solubility, biocompatibility, and to increase cell penetration we have thoroughly investigated the construction of carbon scaffolds coated with aliphatic carbon chains and phospholipids to obtain micelle-like structures. At first, oxidized SWNTs (2370 ± 30 nmol mg - 1 of SWNTs) were covalently coupled with an alcoholic chain (stearyl alcohol, C18H37OH; 816 nmol mg - 1 of SWNTs). Subsequently, SWNTs-COOC18H37 derivatives were coated with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or -serine (PS) phospholipids obtaining micelle-like structures. We found that cellular uptake of these constructs by phagocytic cells occurs via an endocytotic mechanism for constructs larger than 400 nm while occurs via diffusion through the cell membrane for constructs up to 400 nm. The material that enters the cell by phagocytosis is actively internalized by macrophages and localizes inside endocytotic vesicles. In contrast the material that enters the cells by diffusion is found in the cell cytosol. In conclusion, we have realized new biomimetic constructs based on alkylated SWNTs coated with phospholipids that are efficiently internalized by different cell types only if their size is lower than 400 nm. These constructs are not toxic to the cells and could now be explored as delivery systems for non-permeant cargoes.

  12. Altered Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Proteome As the Basis of Disruption of Mitochondrial Function in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Zabielski, Piotr; Lanza, Ian R; Gopala, Srinivas; Heppelmann, Carrie J Holtz; Bergen, H Robert; Dasari, Surendra; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2016-03-01

    Insulin plays pivotal role in cellular fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. Despite being the primary site of energy metabolism, the underlying mechanism on how insulin deficiency deranges skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology remains to be fully understood. Here we report an important link between altered skeletal muscle proteome homeostasis and mitochondrial physiology during insulin deficiency. Deprivation of insulin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice decreased mitochondrial ATP production, reduced coupling and phosphorylation efficiency, and increased oxidant emission in skeletal muscle. Proteomic survey revealed that the mitochondrial derangements during insulin deficiency were related to increased mitochondrial protein degradation and decreased protein synthesis, resulting in reduced abundance of proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration and β-oxidation. However, a paradoxical upregulation of proteins involved in cellular uptake of fatty acids triggered an accumulation of incomplete fatty acid oxidation products in skeletal muscle. These data implicate a mismatch of β-oxidation and fatty acid uptake as a mechanism leading to increased oxidative stress in diabetes. This notion was supported by elevated oxidative stress in cultured myotubes exposed to palmitate in the presence of a β-oxidation inhibitor. Together, these results indicate that insulin deficiency alters the balance of proteins involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation in skeletal muscle, leading to impaired mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress. PMID:26718503

  13. Cellular Trafficking of Phospholamban and Formation of Functional Sarcoplasmic Reticulum During Myocyte DIfferentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stenoien, David L.; Knyushko, Tatyana V.; Londono, Monica P.; Opresko, Lee; Mayer, M. Uljana; Brady, Scott T.; Squier, Thomas C.; Bigelow, Diana J.

    2007-06-01

    The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) family members are transmembrane proteins that play an essential role in regulating intracellular calcium levels. Phospholamban (PLB), a 52 amino acid phosphoprotein, regulates SERCA activity in adult heart and skeletal muscle. Using the C2C12 myocyte cell line, we find endogenous PLB constitutively expressed in both myoblasts and myotubes, whereas SERCA expression coincides with activation of the differentiation program. PLB has a punctuate distribution in myoblasts changing to a reticular distribution in myotubes where it colocalizes with SERCAs. To examine the distribution and dynamics of PLB and SERCA, we expressed fluorescent fusion proteins (GFP, CFP, and YFP) of PLB and SERCA in myoblasts. Coexpressed PLB and SERCA localize to distinct cellular compartments in myoblasts but begin to colocalize as cells differentiate. Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) studies show different recovery patterns for each protein in myoblasts confirming their localization to distinct compartments. To extend these studies, we created stable cell lines expressing O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) fusions with PLB or SERCA to track their localization as myocytes differentiate. These experiments demonstrate that PLB localizes to punctate vesicles in myoblasts and adopts a reticular distribution that coincides with SERCA distribution after differentiation. Colocalization experiments indicate that a subset of PLB in myoblasts colocalizes with endosomes, Golgi, and the plasma membrane however PLB also localizes to other, as yet unidentified vesicles. Our results indicate that differentiation plays a critical role in regulating PLB distribution to ensure its colocalization within the same cellular compartment as SERCA in differentiated cells. The presence and altered distribution of PLB in undifferentiated myoblasts raises the possibility that this protein has additional functions distinct from SERCA regulation.

  14. Cellular alterations and enhanced induction of cleft palate after coadministration of retinoic acid and TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S. )

    1989-06-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and retinoic acid (RA) are both teratogenic in mice. TCDD is a highly toxic, stable environmental contaminant, while RA is a naturally occurring form of vitamin A. Exposure to TCDD induces hydronephrosis and cleft palate, and exposure to RA induces limb defects and cleft palate. Teratology studies previously have shown that the incidence of clefting is higher after exposure to RA + TCDD than would be observed for the same doses of either compound given alone. This study examines the cellular effects which result in cleft palate, after po administration on gestation Day (GD) 10 or 12 of RA + TCDD in corn oil (10 ml/kg total volume). Exposure on GD 10 to 6 micrograms TCDD + 40 mg RA/kg inhibited early growth of the shelves and clefting was due to a failure of shelves to meet and fuse. This effect on mesenchyme was observed in previous studies to occur after exposure on GD 10 to 40 mg/kg RA alone, but not after TCDD alone. After exposure on GD 12 to 6 micrograms TCDD + 80 mg RA/kg, clefting was due to a failure of shelves to fuse after making contact, because the medial cells differentiated into an oral-like epithelium. This response was observed in previous studies to occur after exposure to TCDD alone, but RA alone on GD 12 resulted in differentiation toward nasal-like cells. The interaction between TCDD and RA results in RA-like clefting after exposure on GD 10 and TCDD-like clefting after exposure on GD 12, and this clefting occurs at higher incidences than would occur after the same levels of either agent alone. After exposure on either GD 10 or 12 to RA + TCDD, the programmed cell death of the medial cells does not occur, and these cells continue to express EGF receptors and to bind 125I-EGF. The effects of RA and TCDD may involve modulation of the cells responses to embryonic growth and differentiation factors.

  15. Altered Cardiomyocyte Function and Trypanosoma cruzi Persistence in Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jader Santos; Santos-Miranda, Artur; Sales-Junior, Policarpo Ademar; Monti-Rocha, Renata; Campos, Paula Peixoto; Machado, Fabiana Simão; Roman-Campos, Danilo

    2016-05-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the triatominae Trypanosoma cruzi, is one of the leading causes of heart malfunctioning in Latin America. The cardiac phenotype is observed in 20-30% of infected people 10-40 years after their primary infection. The cardiac complications during Chagas disease range from cardiac arrhythmias to heart failure, with important involvement of the right ventricle. Interestingly, no studies have evaluated the electrical properties of right ventricle myocytes during Chagas disease and correlated them to parasite persistence. Taking advantage of a murine model of Chagas disease, we studied the histological and electrical properties of right ventricle in acute (30 days postinfection [dpi]) and chronic phases (90 dpi) of infected mice with the Colombian strain of T. cruzi and their correlation to parasite persistence. We observed an increase in collagen deposition and inflammatory infiltrate at both 30 and 90 dpi. Furthermore, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, we detected parasites at 90 dpi in right and left ventricles. In addition, we observed action potential prolongation and reduced transient outward K(+) current and L-type Ca(2+) current at 30 and 90 dpi. Taking together, our results demonstrate that T. cruzi infection leads to important modifications in electrical properties associated with inflammatory infiltrate and parasite persistence in mice right ventricle, suggesting a causal role between inflammation, parasite persistence, and altered cardiomyocyte function in Chagas disease. Thus, arrhythmias observed in Chagas disease may be partially related to altered electrical function in right ventricle.

  16. Cellular Functions of NSF: Not Just SNAPs and SNAREs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunxia; Slevin, John T.; Whiteheart, Sidney W.

    2007-01-01

    NSF is an AAA protein, broadly required for intracellular membrane fusion. NSF functions as a SNARE chaperone which binds, through SNAPs, to SNARE complexes and utilizes the energy of ATP hydrolysis to disassemble them thus facilitating SNARE recycling. While this is a major function of NSF, it does seem to interact with other proteins, such as the AMPA receptor subunit, GluR2, and β2-AR and is thought to affect their trafficking patterns. New data suggest that NSF may be regulated by transient post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and nitrosylation. These new aspects of NSF function as well as its role in SNARE complex dynamics will be discussed. PMID:17397838

  17. Effect of Redox Balance Alterations on Cellular Localization of LAT and Downstream T-Cell Receptor Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gringhuis, Sonja I.; Papendrecht-van der Voort, Ellen A. M.; Leow, Angela; Levarht, E. W. Nivine; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Verweij, Cornelis L.

    2002-01-01

    The integral membrane protein linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a central adapter protein in the T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling pathways. The cellular localization of LAT is extremely sensitive to intracellular redox balance alterations. Reduced intracellular levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH), a hallmark of chronic oxidative stress, resulted in the membrane displacement of LAT, abrogated TCR-mediated signaling and consequently hyporesponsiveness of T lymphocytes. The membrane displacement of LAT is accompanied by a considerable difference in the mobility of LAT upon native and nonreducing denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, a finding indicative of a conformational change. Targeted mutation of redox-sensitive cysteine residues within LAT created LAT mutants which remain membrane anchored under conditions of chronic oxidative stress. The expression of redox-insensitive LAT mutants allows for restoration of TCR-mediated signal transduction, whereas CD28-mediated signaling pathways remained impaired. These results are indicative that the membrane displacement of LAT as a result of redox balance alterations is a consequence of a conformational change interfering with the insertion of LAT into the plasma membrane. Conclusively, the data suggest a role for LAT as a crucial intermediate in the sensitivity of TCR signaling and hence T lymphocytes toward chronic oxidative stress. PMID:11756537

  18. A distinct role for interleukin-6 as a major mediator of cellular adjustment to an altered culture condition.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwa-Kyung; Park, Iha; Kim, Jue Young; Kim, Do Kyeong; Illeperuma, Rasika P; Bae, Jung Yoon; Lee, Doo Young; Oh, Eun-Sang; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R; Kim, Jin

    2015-11-01

    Tissue microenvironment adjusts biological properties of different cells by modulating signaling pathways and cell to cell interactions. This study showed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)/ mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) can be modulated by altering culture conditions. HPV E6/E7-transfected immortalized oral keratinocytes (IHOK) cultured in different media displayed reversible EMT/MET accompanied by changes in cell phenotype, proliferation, gene expression at transcriptional, and translational level, and migratory and invasive activities. Cholera toxin, a major supplement to culture medium, was responsible for inducing the morphological and biological changes of IHOK. Cholera toxin per se induced EMT by triggering the secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) from IHOK. We found IL-6 to be a central molecule that modulates the reversibility of EMT based not only on the mRNA level but also on the level of secretion. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IL-6, a cytokine whose transcription is activated by alterations in culture conditions, is a key molecule for regulating reversible EMT/MET. This study will contribute to understand one way of cellular adjustment for surviving in unfamiliar conditions.

  19. Gravity-induced cellular and molecular processes in plants studied under altered gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagt, Nicole; Braun, Markus

    -rupting the actomyosin system did not impair the sedimentation of statoliths and did not prevent the activation of gravireceptors. However, experiments in microgravity and inhibitor experiments have demonstrated that the actomyosin system optimizes the statolith-receptor interactions by keeping the sedimented statoliths in motion causing a consistent activation of different gravireceptor molecules. Thereby, a triggered gravitropic signal is created which is the basis for a highly sensitive control and readjustment mechanism. In addition, the results of recent parabolic flight studies on the effects of altered gravity conditions on the gene expres-sion pattern of Arabidopsis seedlings support these findings and provide new insight into the molecular basis of the plants response to different acceleration conditions. The work was financially supported by DLR on behalf of Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (50WB0815).

  20. Altered expression of prohibitin in psoriatic lesions and its cellular implication

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon Young; Kim, Younghwa; Hwang, Ha Young; Kim, Tae-Yoon . E-mail: tykimder@catholic.ac.kr

    2007-08-31

    Psoriasis is characterized by excessive proliferation of keratinocytes accompanying acanthosis and incomplete differentiation. Prohibitin was investigated by examining its function of HaCaT as well as psoriasis. Psoriatic involved skin revealed high level of prohibitin in the basal layer. Prohibitin was analyzed by applying RNAi (PHBi) with HaCaT, which demonstrated increased S-phase. PHBi showed enhanced sensitivity to anthralin-mediated cell death due to enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting a protective role of prohibitin against apoptosis. Collectively, prohibitin plays a role both in cell cycle regulation and in maintaining mitochondrial integrity, implying its association with pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  1. Alterations to Functional Analysis Methodology to Clarify the Functions of Low Rate, High Intensity Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Barbara J; Kahng, SungWoo; Schmidt, Jonathan; Bowman, Lynn G; Boelter, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    Current research provides few suggestions for modifications to functional analysis procedures to accommodate low rate, high intensity problem behavior. This study examined the results of the extended duration functional analysis procedures of Kahng, Abt, and Schonbachler (2001) with six children admitted to an inpatient hospital for the treatment of severe problem behavior. Results of initial functional analyses (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) were inconclusive for all children because of low levels of responding. The altered functional analyses, which changed multiple variables including the duration of the functional analysis (i.e., 6 or 7 hrs), yielded clear behavioral functions for all six participants. These results add additional support for the utility of an altered analysis of low rate, high intensity problem behavior when standard functional analyses do not yield differentiated results. PMID:23326628

  2. Colonic insult impairs lymph flow, increases cellular content of the lymph, alters local lymphatic micro-environment and leads to sustained inflammation in the rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    Cromer, Walter; Wang, Wei; Zawieja, Scott D.; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves; Newell Rogers, M. Karen; Zawieja, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic dysfunction has been linked to inflammation since the 1930’s. Lymphatic function in the gut and mesentery is grossly underexplored in models of IBD despite the use of lymphatic occlusion in early models of IBD. Activation of the innate and adaptive immune system is a hallmark of TNBS-induced inflammation and is linked to disruption of the intrinsic lymph pump. Recent identification of crosstalk between lymphatic vessel resident immune cells and regulation of lymphatic vessel contractility underscore the importance of the timing of lymphatic dysfunction during tissue inflammation in response to TNBS. Methods To evaluate lymphatic function in TNBS induced inflammation, lymph was collected and flow measured from mesenteric lymphatics. Cellularity and cytokine profile of the lymph was also measured. Histopathology was performed to determine severity of injury and immunofluorescent staining of the mesentery was done to evaluate changes in the population of immune cells that reside near and on gastro-intestinal collecting lymphatics. Results Lymph transport fell 24hrs after TNBS administration and began recovering at 72hrs. Significant reduction of lymph flow preceded significant increase in histopathological score and occurred simultaneously with increased MPO activity. These changes were preceded by increased MHCII+ cells surrounding mesenteric lymphatics leading to an altered lymphatic environment that would favor dysfunction. Conclusions Alterations in environmental factors that effect lymphatic function occur before the development of gross GI inflammation. Reduced lymphatic function in TNBS-mediated inflammation is likely an early factor in the development of injury and that recovery of function is associated with resolution of inflammation. PMID:25939039

  3. Activation of Yap-Directed Transcription by Knockdown of Conserved Cellular Functions.

    PubMed

    Agarinis, C; Orsini, V; Megel, P; Abraham, Y; Yang, H; Mickanin, C; Myer, V; Bouwmeester, T; Tchorz, J S; Parker, C N

    2016-03-01

    The Yap-Hippo pathway has a significant role in regulating cell proliferation and growth, thus controlling organ size and regeneration. The Hippo pathway regulates two highly conserved, transcription coactivators, YAP and TAZ. The upstream regulators of the Yap-Hippo pathway have not been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to use a siRNA screen, in a liver biliary cell line, to identify regulators of the Yap-Hippo pathway that allow activation of the YAP transcription coactivator at high cell density. Activation of the YAP transcription coactivator was monitored using a high-content, image-based assay that measured the intracellular localization of native YAP protein. Active siRNAs were identified and further validated by quantification of CYR61 mRNA levels (a known YAP target gene). The effect of compounds targeting the putative gene targets identified as hits was also used for further validation. A number of validated hits reveal basic aspects of Yap-Hippo biology, such as components of the nuclear pore, by which YAP cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling occurs, or how proteasomal degradation regulates intracellular YAP concentrations, which then alter YAP localization and transcription. Such results highlight how targeting conserved cellular functions can lead to validated activity in phenotypic assays.

  4. Conserved cellular function and stress-mediated regulation among members of the proteolipid protein family.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María E; Alfonso, Julieta; Brocco, Marcela A; Frasch, Alberto C

    2010-05-01

    Chronic stress causes morphological alterations in the hippocampus of rodents and tree shrews, including atrophy of CA3 dendrites and loss of synapses. The molecular mechanisms underlying these structural changes remain largely unknown. We have previously identified M6a as a stress responsive gene and shown that M6a is involved in filopodium/spine outgrowth and, likely, synapse formation. M6a belongs to the proteolipid protein (PLP) family, all of their members having four transmembrane domains that allow their localization at the plasma membrane. In the present work, we analyzed other members of this family, the closely related M6b as well as PLP and its splice variant DM20. We found that chronic restraint stress in mice reduces M6b and DM20, but not PLP, mRNA levels in the hippocampus. In addition, M6b and DM20, but again not PLP, induce filopodium formation in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Several M6b protein isoforms were studied, all of them having similar effects except for the one lacking the transmembrane domains. Our results reveal a conserved cellular function and a stress-mediated regulation among members of the proteolipid protein family, suggesting an involvement of proteolipid proteins in the stress response. PMID:19937804

  5. Altered functional brain network connectivity and glutamate system function in transgenic mice expressing truncated Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, N; Kurihara, M; Thomson, D M; Winchester, C L; McVie, A; Hedde, J R; Randall, A D; Shen, S; Seymour, P A; Hughes, Z A; Dunlop, J; Brown, J T; Brandon, N J; Morris, B J; Pratt, J A

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence implicates DISC1 as a susceptibility gene for multiple psychiatric diseases. DISC1 has been intensively studied at the molecular, cellular and behavioral level, but its role in regulating brain connectivity and brain network function remains unknown. Here, we utilize a set of complementary approaches to assess the functional brain network abnormalities present in mice expressing a truncated Disc1 gene (Disc1tr Hemi mice). Disc1tr Hemi mice exhibited hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and reticular thalamus along with a reorganization of functional brain network connectivity that included compromised hippocampal–PFC connectivity. Altered hippocampal–PFC connectivity in Disc1tr Hemi mice was confirmed by electrophysiological analysis, with Disc1tr Hemi mice showing a reduced probability of presynaptic neurotransmitter release in the monosynaptic glutamatergic hippocampal CA1–PFC projection. Glutamate system dysfunction in Disc1tr Hemi mice was further supported by the attenuated cerebral metabolic response to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine and decreased hippocampal expression of NMDAR subunits 2A and 2B in these animals. These data show that the Disc1 truncation in Disc1tr Hemi mice induces a range of translationally relevant endophenotypes underpinned by glutamate system dysfunction and altered brain connectivity. PMID:25989143

  6. Anks3 alters the sub-cellular localization of the Nek7 kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, Haribaskar; Engel, Christina; Müller, Barbara; Dengjel, Jörn; Walz, Gerd; Yakulov, Toma A.

    2015-08-28

    Nephronophthisis (NPH) is an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease, and a frequent cause of end-stage renal failure in children. To date, 17 NPH-associated gene products (NPHPs) have been identified. Most NPHPs participate in large multi-protein complexes that localize to the cilium and/or basal body; however, the precise composition of these complexes and their biological function remain largely unknown. We recently observed that the ankyrin repeat protein Anks3 interacts with the NPH family member Anks6. Both Anks3 and Anks6 form complexes with multiple other NPHPs, suggesting that both proteins function in similar or overlapping signaling pathways. Here, we show that Anks3, but not Anks6 interacted with the NIMA-related kinase Nek7, and was heavily modified in the presence of Nek7, resulting in an approximately 20 kD increase in molecular weight. Although mass spectrometry revealed increased serine and threonine phosphorylation of Anks3 primarily within the N-terminal ankyrin repeats also required for Nek7 interaction, the molecular weight increase occurred even in the presence of a kinase-dead Nek7 mutant, indicating that this modification was not caused by Nek7-dependent Anks3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the Anks3 modification was specific for Nek7, and did not occur in the presence of Nek8. Importantly, Anks3 retained Nek7 in the cytoplasm, suggesting that, Nek7 triggers the modification of Anks3, which in turn prevents the nuclear localization of Nek7. - Highlights: • Anks3 interacted with Nek7 kinase, and was heavily modified in the presence of Nek7. • Anks3 N-terminal ankyrin repeats, but not SAM domain required for Nek7 interaction. • Nek7 increased Ser/Thr phosphorylation of Anks3 primarily within ankyrin domain. • Interaction with Anks3 led to cytoplasmic retention and nuclear exclusion of Nek7.

  7. Cellular functions of gamma-secretase-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Christof; Haass, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) is generated by gamma-secretase, a membrane protein complex with an unusual aspartyl protease activity consisting of the four components presenilin, nicastrin, APH-1 and PEN-2. Presenilin is considered the catalytic subunit of this complex since it represents the prototype of the new family of intramembrane-cleaving GxGD-type aspartyl proteases. Recently, five novel members of this family and a nicastrin-like protein were identified. Whereas one of the GxGD-type proteins was shown to be identical with signal peptide peptidase (SPP), the function of the others, now called SPP-like proteins (SPPLs), is not known. We therefore analyzed SPPL2b and SPPL3 and demonstrated that they localize to different subcellular compartments suggesting nonredundant functions. This was supported by different phenotypes obtained in knockdown studies in zebrafish embryos. In addition, these phenotypes could be phenocopied by ectopic expression of putative active site mutants, providing strong evidence for a proteolytic function of SPPL2b and SPPL3. We also identified and characterized the nicastrin-like protein nicalin which, together with the 130-kDa protein NOMO (Nodal modulator), forms a membrane protein complex different from gamma-secretase. We found that during zebrafish embryogenesis this complex is involved in the patterning of the axial mesendoderm, a process controlled by the Nodal signaling pathway. PMID:17047369

  8. Extracellular nucleotides regulate cellular functions of podocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K G; Saueressig, U; Jacobshagen, C; Wichelmann, A; Pavenstädt, H

    2001-12-01

    Extracellular nucleotides are assumed to be important regulators of glomerular functions. This study characterizes purinergic receptors in podocytes. The effects of purinergic agonists on electrophysiological properties and the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration of differentiated podocytes were examined with the patch-clamp and fura 2 fluorescence techniques. mRNA expression of purinergic receptors was investigated by RT-PCR. Purinergic agonists depolarized podocytes. Purinergic agonists similarly increased intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration of podocytes. The rank order of potency of various nucleotides on membrane voltage and free cytosolic calcium concentration was UTP approximately UDP > [adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP-gamma-S)] > ATP > 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-triphosphate (2-MeS-ATP) > 2'- and 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP) > ADP-beta-S. alpha,beta-Me-ATP was without effect. In the presence of UTP, BzATP did not cause an additional depolarization of podocytes. Incubation of cells with ATP or BzATP did not induce lactate dehydrogenase release. In RT-PCR studies, mRNAs of the P2Y(1), P2Y(2), P2Y(6), and P2X(7) receptors were detected within glomeruli and podocytes. The data indicate that extracellular nucleotides modulate podocyte function mainly by an activation of both P2Y(2) and P2Y(6) receptors.

  9. Cellular consequences of the microgravity environment on lymphocyte function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.

    Microgravity induces a cascade of changes in cell morphology and function. Mammalian cells adapt to the environment of low gravity and express a series of responses, some possibly from direct effects on cells and others based on environmental conditions created by microgravity. Human lymphocytes in microgravity culture are functionally diminished in activation and locomotion. Both processes are integral to optimal immune response to fight pathogens. The NASA Rotating-wall vessel (RWV) is an analog to many aspects of microgravity and is used to model microgravity for ground-based experiments. We found that lymphocyte activation and locomotion were significantly down-regulated in spaceflight and in the RWV. Using this analog culture system, we have isolated a signal transduction lesion either at the level of, or upstream from, Protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Analysis of expression and adaptation by gene array experiments and immunoblotting to identified upstream events in human lymphocytes adapting to microgravity analog culture. Microgravity induces selective changes, many of which are cell membrane related. Results showed that upstream of PKC in the T cell activation cascade, PLC-gamma and LAT are significantly diminished. ZAP 70 which controls LAT activation is also down-regulated in modeled microgravity indicating that events governing cell shape might warrant special attention in microgravity conditions. The goal of this study is to delineate response suites which are consequential, direct or indirect effects of the microgravity environment and which of these are essential to lymphocytes.

  10. Extracellular nucleotides regulate cellular functions of podocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K G; Saueressig, U; Jacobshagen, C; Wichelmann, A; Pavenstädt, H

    2001-12-01

    Extracellular nucleotides are assumed to be important regulators of glomerular functions. This study characterizes purinergic receptors in podocytes. The effects of purinergic agonists on electrophysiological properties and the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration of differentiated podocytes were examined with the patch-clamp and fura 2 fluorescence techniques. mRNA expression of purinergic receptors was investigated by RT-PCR. Purinergic agonists depolarized podocytes. Purinergic agonists similarly increased intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration of podocytes. The rank order of potency of various nucleotides on membrane voltage and free cytosolic calcium concentration was UTP approximately UDP > [adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP-gamma-S)] > ATP > 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-triphosphate (2-MeS-ATP) > 2'- and 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP) > ADP-beta-S. alpha,beta-Me-ATP was without effect. In the presence of UTP, BzATP did not cause an additional depolarization of podocytes. Incubation of cells with ATP or BzATP did not induce lactate dehydrogenase release. In RT-PCR studies, mRNAs of the P2Y(1), P2Y(2), P2Y(6), and P2X(7) receptors were detected within glomeruli and podocytes. The data indicate that extracellular nucleotides modulate podocyte function mainly by an activation of both P2Y(2) and P2Y(6) receptors. PMID:11704558

  11. Altering the cellular mechanical force balance results in integrated changes in cell, cytoskeletal and nuclear shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, J. R.; Karp, S.; Ingber, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Studies were carried out with capillary endothelial cells cultured on fibronectin (FN)-coated dishes in order to analyze the mechanism of cell and nuclear shape control by extracellular matrix (ECM). To examine the role of the cytoskeleton in shape determination independent of changes in transmembrane osmotic pressure, membranes of adherent cells were permeabilized with saponin (25 micrograms/ml) using a buffer that maintains the functional integrity of contractile microfilaments. Real-time videomicroscopic studies revealed that addition of 250 microM ATP resulted in time-dependent retraction and rounding of permeabilized cells and nuclei in a manner similar to that observed in intact living cells following detachment using trypsin-EDTA. Computerized image analysis confirmed that permeabilized cells remained essentially rigid in the absence of ATP and that retraction was stimulated in a dose-dependent manner as the concentration of ATP was raised from 10 to 250 microM. Maximal rounding occurred by 30 min with projected cell and nuclear areas being reduced by 69 and 41%, respectively. ATP-induced rounding was also accompanied by a redistribution of microfilaments resulting in formation of a dense net of F-actin surrounding retracted nuclei. Importantly, ATP-stimulated changes in cell, cytoskeletal, and nuclear form were prevented in permeabilized cells using a synthetic myosin peptide (IRICRKG) that has been previously shown to inhibit actomyosin filament sliding in muscle. In contrast, both the rate and extent of cell and nuclear rounding were increased in permeabilized cells exposed to ATP when the soluble FN peptide, GRGDSP, was used to dislodge immobilized FN from cell surface integrin receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  12. Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. )

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

  13. Prevention of shockwave induced functional and morphological alterations: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sarica, Kemal; Yencilek, Faruk

    2008-03-01

    Experimental as well as clinical findings reported in the literature suggest that treatment with shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) causes renal parenchymal damage mainly by generating free radicals through ischaemia/reperfusion injury mechanism. Although SWL-induced renal damage is well tolerated in the majority of healthy cases with no permanent functional and/or morphologic side effects, a subset of patients with certain risk factors requires close attention on this aspect among which the ones with pre-existing renal disorders, urinary tract infection, previous lithotripsy history and solitary kidneys could be mentioned. It is clear that in such patients lowering the number of shock waves (per session) could be beneficial and has been applied by the physicians as the first practical step of diminishing SWL induced parenchymal damage. On the other hand, taking the injurious effects of high energy shock wave (HESW) induced free radical formation on renal parenchyma and subsequent histopathologic alterations into account, physicians searched for some protective agents in an attempt to prevent or at least to limit the extent of the functional as well as the morphologic alterations. Among these agents calcium channel blocking agents (verapamil and nifedipine), antioxidant agents (allopurinol, vitamin E and selenium) and potassium citrate have been used to minimize these adverse effects. Additionally, therapeutic application of these agents on reducing stone recurrence particularly after SWL will gain more importance in the future in order to limit new stone formation in these cases. Lastly, as experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated, combination of anti-oxidants with free radical scavengers may provide superior renal protection against shock wave induced trauma. However, we believe that further investigations are certainly needed to determine the dose-response relationship between the damaging effects of SWL application and the protective role of these agents.

  14. Functional and Structural Mimicry of Cellular Protein Kinase A Anchoring Proteins by a Viral Oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    King, Cason R.; Cohen, Michael J.; Fonseca, Gregory J.; Dirk, Brennan S.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.; Mymryk, Joe S.

    2016-01-01

    The oncoproteins of the small DNA tumor viruses interact with a plethora of cellular regulators to commandeer control of the infected cell. During infection, adenovirus E1A deregulates cAMP signalling and repurposes it for activation of viral gene expression. We show that E1A structurally and functionally mimics a cellular A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). E1A interacts with and relocalizes protein kinase A (PKA) to the nucleus, likely to virus replication centres, via an interaction with the regulatory subunits of PKA. Binding to PKA requires the N-terminus of E1A, which bears striking similarity to the amphipathic α-helical domain present in cellular AKAPs. E1A also targets the same docking-dimerization domain of PKA normally bound by cellular AKAPs. In addition, the AKAP like motif within E1A could restore PKA interaction to a cellular AKAP in which its normal interaction motif was deleted. During infection, E1A successfully competes with endogenous cellular AKAPs for PKA interaction. E1A’s role as a viral AKAP contributes to viral transcription, protein expression and progeny production. These data establish HAdV E1A as the first known viral AKAP. This represents a unique example of viral subversion of a crucial cellular regulatory pathway via structural mimicry of the PKA interaction domain of cellular AKAPs. PMID:27137912

  15. Altered Interhemispheric Functional Coordination in Chronic Tinnitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Xia, Wenqing; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Xu; Wang, Cong-Xiao; Cai, Yu; Wang, Jian; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Recent studies suggest that tinnitus may be due in part to aberrant callosal structure and interhemispheric interaction. To explore this hypothesis we use a novel method, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), to examine the resting-state interhemispheric functional connectivity and its relationships with clinical characteristics in chronic tinnitus patients. Materials and Methods. Twenty-eight chronic tinnitus patients with normal hearing thresholds and 30 age-, sex-, education-, and hearing threshold-matched healthy controls were included in this study and underwent the resting-state fMRI scanning. We computed the VMHC to analyze the interhemispheric functional coordination between homotopic points of the brain in both groups. Results. Compared to the controls, tinnitus patients showed significantly increased VMHC in the middle temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and superior occipital gyrus. In tinnitus patients, a positive correlation was found between tinnitus duration and VMHC of the uncus. Moreover, correlations between VMHC changes and tinnitus distress were observed in the transverse temporal gyrus, superior temporal pole, precentral gyrus, and calcarine cortex. Conclusions. These results show altered interhemispheric functional connectivity linked with specific tinnitus characteristics in chronic tinnitus patients, which may be implicated in the neuropathophysiology of tinnitus. PMID:25789314

  16. Maternal obesity drives functional alterations in uterine NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Perdu, Sofie; Castellana, Barbara; Kim, Yoona; Chan, Kathy; DeLuca, Lauren; Beristain, Alexander G.

    2016-01-01

    Over one-fifth of North American women of childbearing age are obese, putting these women at risk for a variety of detrimental chronic diseases. In addition, obesity increases the risk for developing major complications during pregnancy. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to pregnancy complications and loss remain unknown. Increasing evidence indicates that obesity results in major changes to adipose tissue immune cell composition and function; whether or not obesity also affects immune function in the uterus has not been explored. Here we investigated the effect of obesity on uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, which are essential for uterine artery remodeling and placental development. Using a cohort of obese or lean women, we found that obesity led to a significant reduction in uNK cell numbers accompanied with impaired uterine artery remodeling. uNK cells isolated from obese women had altered expression of genes and pathways associated with extracellular matrix remodeling and growth factor signaling. Specifically, uNK cells were hyper-responsive to PDGF, resulting in overexpression of decorin. Functionally, decorin strongly inhibited placental development by limiting trophoblast survival. Together, these findings establish a potentially new link between obesity and poor pregnancy outcomes, and indicate that obesity-driven changes to uterine-resident immune cells critically impair placental development. PMID:27699222

  17. Maternal obesity drives functional alterations in uterine NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Perdu, Sofie; Castellana, Barbara; Kim, Yoona; Chan, Kathy; DeLuca, Lauren; Beristain, Alexander G.

    2016-01-01

    Over one-fifth of North American women of childbearing age are obese, putting these women at risk for a variety of detrimental chronic diseases. In addition, obesity increases the risk for developing major complications during pregnancy. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to pregnancy complications and loss remain unknown. Increasing evidence indicates that obesity results in major changes to adipose tissue immune cell composition and function; whether or not obesity also affects immune function in the uterus has not been explored. Here we investigated the effect of obesity on uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, which are essential for uterine artery remodeling and placental development. Using a cohort of obese or lean women, we found that obesity led to a significant reduction in uNK cell numbers accompanied with impaired uterine artery remodeling. uNK cells isolated from obese women had altered expression of genes and pathways associated with extracellular matrix remodeling and growth factor signaling. Specifically, uNK cells were hyper-responsive to PDGF, resulting in overexpression of decorin. Functionally, decorin strongly inhibited placental development by limiting trophoblast survival. Together, these findings establish a potentially new link between obesity and poor pregnancy outcomes, and indicate that obesity-driven changes to uterine-resident immune cells critically impair placental development.

  18. Ozone exposure alters tracheobronchial mucociliary function in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, W.M.; Costa, D.L.; Langenback, E.G.

    1987-09-01

    Mucociliary function is a primary defense mechanism of the tracheobronchial airways, and yet the response of this system to an inhalational hazard, such as ozone, is undefined in humans. Utilizing noninvasive techniques to measure deposition and retention of insoluble radiolabeled particles on airway mucous membranes, we studied the effect on mucus transport of 0.2 and 0.4 ppm ozone compared with filtered air (FA) in seven healthy males. During 2-h chamber exposures, subjects alternated between periods of rest and light exercise with hourly spirometric measurement of lung function. Mechanical and mucociliary function responses to ozone by lung airways appeared concentration dependent. Reduction in particle retention was significant (P less than 0.005) (i.e., transport of lung mucus was increased during exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone and was coincident with impaired lung function; e.g., forced vital capacity and midmaximal flow rate fell by 12 and 16%, respectively, and forced expiratory volume at 1 s by 5%, of preexposure values). Regional analysis indicated that mucus flow from distal airways into central bronchi was significantly increased (P less than 0.025) by 0.2 ppm ozone. This peripheral effect, however, was buffered by only a marginal influence of 0.2 ppm ozone on larger bronchi, such that the resultant mucus transport for all airways of the lung in aggregate differed only slightly from FA exposures. These data may reflect differences in regional diffusion of ozone along the respiratory tract, rather than tissue sensitivity. In conclusion, mucociliary function of humans is acutely stimulated by ozone and may result from fluid additions to the mucus layer from mucosal and submucosal secretory cells and/or alteration of epithelial permeability.

  19. Ozone exposure alters tracheobronchial mucociliary function in humans.

    PubMed

    Foster, W M; Costa, D L; Langenback, E G

    1987-09-01

    Mucociliary function is a primary defense mechanism of the tracheobronchial airways, and yet the response of this system to an inhalational hazard, such as ozone, is undefined in humans. Utilizing noninvasive techniques to measure deposition and retention of insoluble radiolabeled particles on airway mucous membranes, we studied the effect on mucus transport of 0.2 and 0.4 ppm ozone compared with filtered air (FA) in seven healthy males. During 2-h chamber exposures, subjects alternated between periods of rest and light exercise with hourly spirometric measurement of lung function. Mechanical and mucociliary function responses to ozone by lung airways appeared concentration dependent. Reduction in particle retention was significant (P less than 0.005) (i.e., transport of lung mucus was increased during exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone and was coincident with impaired lung function; e.g., forced vital capacity and midmaximal flow rate fell by 12 and 16%, respectively, and forced expiratory volume at 1 s by 5%, of preexposure values). Regional analysis indicated that mucus flow from distal airways into central bronchi was significantly increased (P less than 0.025) by 0.2 ppm ozone. This peripheral effect, however, was buffered by only a marginal influence of 0.2 ppm ozone on larger bronchi, such that the resultant mucus transport for all airways of the lung in aggregate differed only slightly from FA exposures. These data may reflect differences in regional diffusion of ozone along the respiratory tract, rather than tissue sensitivity. In conclusion, mucociliary function of humans is acutely stimulated by ozone and may result from fluid additions to the mucus layer from mucosal and submucosal secretory cells and/or alteration of epithelial permeability.

  20. [Effects of electromagnetic radiation from handsets of cellular telephone on neurobehavioral function].

    PubMed

    Cao, Z; Liu, J; Li, S; Zhao, X

    2000-03-30

    In order to study the effects of electromagnetic radiation from handsets of cellular telephone on neurobehavioral function, 81 staff with handsets of cellular telephone and 63 staff without handsets of cellular telephone from corporations were selected as the subjects. The subjects were investigated by questionnaire on their general health, lifestyle habit, suppress of spirit, handset using of cellular telephone, environmental exposure, morbidity, and the neurobehavioral core test battery(NCTB). The data was analyzed by chi-square, stepwise regression analysis and covariance statistics. The results showed that the average reaction time in user's group was longer than that in control group (P < 0.01). The time of using handset was negatively associated with corrected reaction number (P < 0.01). The fast reaction time and the slowest reaction time were positively associated with the length of handset using (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The results suggested that the handset using could cause adverse health effects in neurobehavioral function.

  1. Activin Modulates the Transcriptional Response of LβT2 Cells to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Alters Cellular Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Bailey, Janice S.; Coss, Djurdjica; Lin, Bo; Tsutsumi, Rie; Lawson, Mark A.; Mellon, Pamela L.; Webster, Nicholas J. G.

    2009-01-01

    Both GnRH and activin are crucial for the correct function of pituitary gonadotrope cells. GnRH regulates LH and FSH synthesis and secretion and gonadotrope proliferation, whereas activin is essential for expression of FSH. Little is known, however, about the interplay of signaling downstream of these two hormones. In this study, we undertook expression profiling to determine how activin pre-treatment alters the transcriptional response of LβT2 gonadotrope cells to GnRH stimulation. Activin treatment alone altered the transcriptional profile of 303 genes including inducing that of the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase B1 gene that converts estrone to 17β-estradiol, altering the sensitivity of the cells to estrone. Furthermore, activin had a dramatic effect on the response of LβT2 cells to GnRH. Hierarchical clustering of 2453 GnRH-responsive genes identified groups of genes the response of which to GnRH was either enhanced or blunted after activin treatment. Mapping of these genes to gene ontology classifications or signaling pathways highlighted significant differences in the classes of altered genes. In the presence of activin, GnRH regulates genes in pathways controlling cell energetics, cytoskeletal rearrangements, organelle organization, and mitosis in the absence of activin, but genes controlling protein processing, cell differentiation, and secretion. Therefore, we demonstrated that activin enhanced GnRH induction of p38MAPK activity, caused GnRH-dependent phosphorylation of p53, and reduced the ability of GnRH to cause G1 arrest. Thus, although activin alone changes a modest number of transcripts, activin pretreatment dramatically alters the response to GnRH from an antiproliferative response to a more differentiated, synthetic response appropriate for a secretory cell. PMID:16772531

  2. Aflatoxicosis alters avian renal function, calcium, and vitamin D metabolism.

    PubMed

    Glahn, R P; Beers, K W; Bottje, W G; Wideman, R F; Huff, W E; Thomas, W

    1991-11-01

    Experiments were designed to determine the effects of aflatoxicosis on avian renal function, calcium (CA), inorganic phosphorous (Pi), and vitamin D metabolism, and to determine if the effects of aflatoxin are reversible upon discontinuation of toxin administration. Three-week-old male broiler chickens (n = 12 per treatment) received aflatoxin (AF; 2 mg/kg po) or an equal volume of corn oil, the AF carrier vehicle, for 10 consecutive days. After 10 d of treatment, half of the birds from each treatment group were anesthetized and prepared for renal function analysis, which included a 2-h phosphate loading period. Ten days after discontinuation of AF treatment, the remaining birds in each treatment group were anesthetized and prepared for renal function analysis. AF decreased plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels after 5 d of treatment. After 10 d of treatment, urine flow rate (V), fractional sodium excretion (FENa), and fractional potassium excretion (FEK) were lower in AF-treated birds. In addition, total plasma Ca tended to be lower (p = .10) and fractional Ca excretion (FECa) tended to be higher (p = .10) in the AF-treated birds. Intravenous phosphate loading produced a sharp increase in urine hydrogen ion concentration ([H+]) in the AF-treated birds. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was reduced and plasma osmolality was increased in AF-treated birds 10 d after discontinuation of toxin administration. The results indicate that AF directly or indirectly affects Ca and Pi metabolism in avians. At the present time, the effects may be related to altered vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) metabolism. Aflatoxicosis may decrease endogenous PTH synthesis and the renal sensitivity to PTH. The AF-related increase in urine [H+] during phosphate loading is probably due to increased Na+/H+ counterport, suggesting that AF stimulates sodium reabsorption. Also, the decrease in GFR exhibited 10 d after toxin removal indicates

  3. Integrative Chemistry: Advanced functional cellular materials bearing multiscale porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depardieu, M.; Kinadjian, N.; Backov, R.

    2015-07-01

    With this mini review we show through the sol-gel and emulsion-based Integrative Chemistry how it is possible to trigger materials dimensionality and beyond their functionalities when reaching enhanced applications. In here we focus on 3D macrocellular monolithic foams bearing hierarchical porosities and applications thereof. We first depict the general background of emulsions focusing on concentrated ones, acting as soft templates for the design of PolyHIPE foams, HIPE being the acronym of High Internal Phase Emulsions while encompassing both sol-gel and polymer chemistry. Secondly we extend this approach toward the design of hybrid organic-inorganic foams, labeled Organo-Si(HIPE), where photonics and heterogeneous catalysis applications are addressed. In a third section we show how inorganic Si(HIPE) matrices can be employed as sacrificial hard templates for the generation carbonaceous foams, labeled Carbon(HIPE). These foams being conductive we show applications when employed as electrodes for Li-S battery and as hosts for Li(BH4)-based hydrogen storage.

  4. Altered mitochondrial function and metabolic inflexibility associated with loss of caveolin-1.

    PubMed

    Asterholm, Ingrid Wernstedt; Mundy, Dorothy I; Weng, Jian; Anderson, Richard G W; Scherer, Philipp E

    2012-02-01

    Caveolin-1 is a major structural component of raft structures within the plasma membrane and has been implicated as a regulator of cellular signal transduction with prominent expression in adipocytes. Here, we embarked on a comprehensive characterization of the metabolic pathways dysregulated in caveolin-1 null mice. We found that these mice display decreased circulating levels of total and high molecular weight adiponectin and a reduced ability to change substrate use in response to feeding/fasting conditions. Caveolin-1 null mice are extremely lean but retain muscle mass despite lipodystrophy and massive metabolic dysfunction. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is chronically elevated, while hepatic steatosis is reduced. Our data suggest that the complex phenotype of the caveolin-1 null mouse is caused by altered metabolic and mitochondrial function in adipose tissue with a subsequent compensatory response driven mostly by the liver. This mouse model highlights the central contributions of adipose tissue for system-wide preservation of metabolic flexibility. PMID:22326219

  5. Altered Mitochondrial Function and Metabolic Inflexibility Associated with Loss of Caveolin-1

    PubMed Central

    Asterholm, Ingrid Wernstedt; Mundy, Dorothy I.; Weng, Jian; Anderson, Richard G. W.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2012-01-01

    Caveolin-1 is a major structural component of raft structures within the plasma membrane and has been implicated as a regulator of cellular signal transduction with prominent expression in adipocytes. Here, we embarked on a comprehensive characterization of the metabolic pathways dysregulated in caveolin-1 null mice. We found that these mice display decreased circulating levels of total and high molecular weight adiponectin and a reduced ability to change substrate use in response to feeding/fasting conditions. Caveolin-1 null mice are extremely lean, but retain muscle mass despite lipodystrophy and massive metabolic dysfunction. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is chronically elevated, while hepatic steatosis is reduced. Our data suggest that the complex phenotype of the caveolin-1 null mouse is caused by altered metabolic and mitochondrial function in adipose tissue with a subsequent compensatory response driven mostly by the liver. This mouse model highlights the central contributions of adipose tissue for system-wide preservation of metabolic flexibility. PMID:22326219

  6. Multicompartmentalized polymeric systems: towards biomimetic cellular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Marguet, Maïté; Bonduelle, Colin; Lecommandoux, Sébastien

    2013-01-21

    The cell is certainly one of the most complex and exciting systems in Nature that scientists are still trying to fully understand. Such a challenge pushes material scientists to seek to reproduce its perfection by building biomimetic materials with high-added value and previously unmatched properties. Thanks to their versatility, their robustness and the current state of polymer chemistry science, we believe polymer-based materials to constitute or represent ideal candidates when addressing the challenge of biomimicry, which defines the focus of this review. The first step consists in mimicking the structure of the cell: its inner compartments, the organelles, with a multicompartmentalized structure, and the rest, i.e. the cytoplasm minus the organelles (mainly cytoskeleton/cytosol) with gels or particular solutions (highly concentrated for example) in one compartment, and finally the combination of both. Achieving this first structural step enables us to considerably widen the gap of possibilities in drug delivery systems. Another powerful property of the cell lies in its metabolic function. The second step is therefore to achieve enzymatic reactions in a compartment, as occurs in the organelles, in a highly controlled, selective and efficient manner. We classify the most exciting polymersome nanoreactors reported in our opinion into two different subsections, depending on their very final concept or purpose of design. We also highlight in a thorough table the experimental sections crucial to such work. Finally, after achieving control over these prerequisites, scientists are able to combine them and push the frontiers of biomimicry further: from cell structure mimics towards a controlled biofunctionality. Such a biomimetic approach in material design and the future research it will stimulate, are believed to bring considerable enrichments to the fields of drug delivery, (bio)sensors, (bio)catalysis and (bio)technology.

  7. Glycosaminoglycan-functionalized poly-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytocompatibility, and cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Surya P; Arya, Neha; Ojha, Nirdesh; Kohler, Esther; Shastri, V Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The efficient delivery of chemotherapeutics to the tumor via nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery systems remains a significant challenge. This is compounded by the fact that the tumor is highly dynamic and complex environment composed of a plurality of cell types and extracellular matrix. Since glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production is altered in many diseases (or pathologies), NPs bearing GAG moieties on the surface may confer some unique advantages in interrogating the tumor microenvironment. In order to explore this premise, in the study reported here poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) NPs in the range of 100-150 nm bearing various proteoglycans were synthesized by a single-step nanoprecipitation and characterized. The surface functionalization of the NPs with GAG moieties was verified using zeta potential measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To establish these GAG-bearing NPs as carriers of therapeutics, cellular toxicity assays were undertaken in lung epithelial adenocarcinoma (A549) cells, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC), and renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. In general NPs were well tolerated over a wide concentration range (100-600 μg/mL) by all cell types and were taken up to appreciable extents without any adverse cell response in A549 cells and HPMEC. Further, GAG-functionalized PLGA NPs were taken up to different extents in A459 cells and HPMEC. In both cell systems, the uptake of heparin-modified NPs was diminished by 50%-65% in comparison to that of unmodified PLGA. Interestingly, the uptake of chondroitin sulfate NPs was the highest in both cell systems with 40%-60% higher uptake when compared with that of PLGA, and this represented an almost twofold difference over heparin-modified NPs. These findings suggest that GAG modification can be explored as means of changing the uptake behavior of PLGA NPs and these NP systems have potential in cancer therapy.

  8. Glycosaminoglycan-functionalized poly-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytocompatibility, and cellular uptake

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Surya P; Arya, Neha; Ojha, Nirdesh; Kohler, Esther; Shastri, V Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The efficient delivery of chemotherapeutics to the tumor via nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery systems remains a significant challenge. This is compounded by the fact that the tumor is highly dynamic and complex environment composed of a plurality of cell types and extracellular matrix. Since glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production is altered in many diseases (or pathologies), NPs bearing GAG moieties on the surface may confer some unique advantages in interrogating the tumor microenvironment. In order to explore this premise, in the study reported here poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) NPs in the range of 100–150 nm bearing various proteoglycans were synthesized by a single-step nanoprecipitation and characterized. The surface functionalization of the NPs with GAG moieties was verified using zeta potential measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To establish these GAG-bearing NPs as carriers of therapeutics, cellular toxicity assays were undertaken in lung epithelial adenocarcinoma (A549) cells, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC), and renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. In general NPs were well tolerated over a wide concentration range (100–600 μg/mL) by all cell types and were taken up to appreciable extents without any adverse cell response in A549 cells and HPMEC. Further, GAG-functionalized PLGA NPs were taken up to different extents in A459 cells and HPMEC. In both cell systems, the uptake of heparin-modified NPs was diminished by 50%–65% in comparison to that of unmodified PLGA. Interestingly, the uptake of chondroitin sulfate NPs was the highest in both cell systems with 40%–60% higher uptake when compared with that of PLGA, and this represented an almost twofold difference over heparin-modified NPs. These findings suggest that GAG modification can be explored as means of changing the uptake behavior of PLGA NPs and these NP systems have potential in cancer therapy. PMID:25632234

  9. Perfluorinated chemicals: Differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet; Casas, Josefina; Lacorte, Sílvia; Porte, Cinta

    2014-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA > PFOS ≫ PFNA > PFOA > PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57–80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. - Highlights: • Eight perfluorinated chemicals of different chain lengths have been selected. • Long chain ones – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – were cytotoxic in placenta cells. • The uptake of long chain perfluorinated chemicals by cells was comparatively higher. • PFOS, PFOA and the short chain PFBS significantly inhibited aromatase activity. • A mixture of perfluorinated chemicals significantly altered placenta cell

  10. Hunting alters seedling functional trait composition in a Neotropical forest.

    PubMed

    Kurten, Erin L; Wright, S Joseph; Carson, Walter P

    2015-07-01

    Defaunation alters trophic interactions between plants and vertebrates, whichmay disrupt trophic cascades, thereby favoring a subset of plant species and reducing diversity. If particular functional traits characterize the favored plant species,.then defaunation may alter community-wide patterns of functional trait composition. Changes in plant functional traits occurring with defaunation may help identify the species interactions affected by defaunation and the potential for other cascading effects of defaunation. We tested the hypotheses that defaunation would (1) disrupt seed dispersal, thereby favoring species whose dispersal agents are not affected (e.g., small birds, bats, and abiotic agents), (2) reduce seed predation, thereby favoring larger-seeded species, and (3) reduce herbivory, thereby favoring species with lower leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf toughness, and wood density. We examined how these six traits responded to vertebrate defaunation caused by hunters or by experimental exclosures among more than-30 000 woody seedlings in a lowland tropical moist forest. Exclosures reduced terrestrial frugivores, granivores, and herbivores, while hunters also reduced volant and arboreal frugivores and granivores. The comparison of exclosures and hunting allowed us to parse the impacts of arboreal and volant species (reduced by hunters only) and terrestrial species (reduced by both hunters and exclosures). The loss of terrestrial vertebrates alone had limited effects on plant trait composition. The additional loss of volant and arboreal vertebrates caused significant shifts in plant species composition towards communities with more species dispersed abiotically, including lianas and low wood-density tree species, and fewer species dispersed by large vertebrates. In contrast to previous studies, community seed mass did not decline significantly in hunted sites. Our exclosure results suggest this is because reducing seed predators disproportionately benefits large

  11. How linear features alter predator movement and the functional response.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Hannah W; Merrill, Evelyn H; Spiteri, Raymond J; Lewis, Mark A

    2012-04-01

    In areas of oil and gas exploration, seismic lines have been reported to alter the movement patterns of wolves (Canis lupus). We developed a mechanistic first passage time model, based on an anisotropic elliptic partial differential equation, and used this to explore how wolf movement responses to seismic lines influence the encounter rate of the wolves with their prey. The model was parametrized using 5 min GPS location data. These data showed that wolves travelled faster on seismic lines and had a higher probability of staying on a seismic line once they were on it. We simulated wolf movement on a range of seismic line densities and drew implications for the rate of predator-prey interactions as described by the functional response. The functional response exhibited a more than linear increase with respect to prey density (type III) as well as interactions with seismic line density. Encounter rates were significantly higher in landscapes with high seismic line density and were most pronounced at low prey densities. This suggests that prey at low population densities are at higher risk in environments with a high seismic line density unless they learn to avoid them. PMID:22419990

  12. Altered balance of functional brain networks in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Todd S; Leong, KaWai; Sanford, Nicole; Tipper, Christine M; Lavigne, Katie M

    2016-02-28

    Activity in dorsal attention (DAN) and frontoparietal (FPN) functional brain networks is linked to allocation of attention to external stimuli, and activity in the default-mode network (DMN) is linked to allocation of attention to internal representations. Tasks requiring attention to external stimuli shift activity to the DAN/FPN and away from the DMN, and optimal task performance depends on balancing DAN/FPN against DMN activity. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study assessed the balance of DAN/FPN and DMN activity in 13 schizophrenia patients and 13 healthy controls while they were engaged in a task switching Stroop paradigm which demanded internally directed attention to task instructions. The typical pattern of reciprocity between the DAN/FPN and DMN was observed for healthy controls but not for patients, suggesting a reduction in the internally focussed thought important for maintenance of instructions and strategies in schizophrenia. The observed alteration in the balance between DAN/FPN and DMN in patients may reflect a general mechanism underlying multiple forms of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, including global processing deficits such as cognitive inefficiency and impaired context processing.

  13. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function.

    PubMed

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Wagner, Márcia Santos; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-11-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:20126850

  14. Altered balance of functional brain networks in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Todd S; Leong, KaWai; Sanford, Nicole; Tipper, Christine M; Lavigne, Katie M

    2016-02-28

    Activity in dorsal attention (DAN) and frontoparietal (FPN) functional brain networks is linked to allocation of attention to external stimuli, and activity in the default-mode network (DMN) is linked to allocation of attention to internal representations. Tasks requiring attention to external stimuli shift activity to the DAN/FPN and away from the DMN, and optimal task performance depends on balancing DAN/FPN against DMN activity. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study assessed the balance of DAN/FPN and DMN activity in 13 schizophrenia patients and 13 healthy controls while they were engaged in a task switching Stroop paradigm which demanded internally directed attention to task instructions. The typical pattern of reciprocity between the DAN/FPN and DMN was observed for healthy controls but not for patients, suggesting a reduction in the internally focussed thought important for maintenance of instructions and strategies in schizophrenia. The observed alteration in the balance between DAN/FPN and DMN in patients may reflect a general mechanism underlying multiple forms of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, including global processing deficits such as cognitive inefficiency and impaired context processing. PMID:26786152

  15. Platelet function alterations in dengue are associated with plasma leakage.

    PubMed

    Michels, M; Alisjahbana, B; De Groot, P G; Indrati, A R; Fijnheer, R; Puspita, M; Dewi, I M W; van de Wijer, L; de Boer, E M S; Roest, M; van der Ven, A J A M; de Mast, Q

    2014-08-01

    Severe dengue is characterised by thrombocytopenia, plasma leakage and bleeding. Platelets are important for preservation of endothelial integrity. We hypothesised that platelet activation with secondary platelet dysfunction contribute to plasma leakage. In adult Indonesian patients with acute dengue, we measured platelet activation status and the response to the platelet agonist TRAP using flow cytometer-based assays. Patients were monitored daily for plasma leakage by ultrasonography. Acute dengue was associated with platelet activation with an increased expression of the activated fibrinogen receptor (αIIbβ3), the lysosomal marker CD63 and the alpha-granule marker CD62P (P-selectin). Upon maximal platelet activation by TRAP, platelet function defects were observed with a significantly reduced maximal activated αIIbβ3 and CD63 expression and reduced platelet-monocyte and platelet-neutrophil complexes. Patients in the lowest tertile of activated αIIbβ3 and CD63 expression had an odds ratio for plasma leakage of 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-22.7) and 3.9 (95% CI 1.1-13.7), respectively, compared to the highest tertile. Platelet-derived serotonin has previously been related to plasma leakage and we found increased intra-platelet serotonin concentrations in our patients. In conclusion, platelet activation with platelet function alterations can be found in patients with acute dengue and this may contribute to dengue-associated plasma leakage.

  16. Multi-functionality Redefined with Colloidal Carotene Carbon Nanoparticles for Synchronized Chemical Imaging, Enriched Cellular Uptake and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Misra, Santosh K; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Chang, Huei-Huei; Tiwari, Saumya; Gryka, Mark; Bhargava, Rohit; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-01-01

    Typically, multiplexing high nanoparticle uptake, imaging, and therapy requires careful integration of three different functions of a multiscale molecular-particle assembly. Here, we present a simpler approach to multiplexing by utilizing one component of the system for multiple functions. Specifically, we successfully synthesized and characterized colloidal carotene carbon nanoparticle (C(3)-NP), in which a single functional molecule served a threefold purpose. First, the presence of carotene moieties promoted the passage of the particle through the cell membrane and into the cells. Second, the ligand acted as a potent detrimental moiety for cancer cells and, finally, the ligands produced optical contrast for robust microscopic detection in complex cellular environments. In comparative tests, C(3)-NP were found to provide effective intracellular delivery that enables both robust detection at cellular and tissue level and presents significant therapeutic potential without altering the mechanism of intracellular action of β-carotene. Surface coating of C(3) with phospholipid was used to generate C(3)-Lipocoat nanoparticles with further improved function and biocompatibility, paving the path to eventual in vivo studies. PMID:27405011

  17. Multi-functionality Redefined with Colloidal Carotene Carbon Nanoparticles for Synchronized Chemical Imaging, Enriched Cellular Uptake and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Santosh K.; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Chang, Huei-Huei; Tiwari, Saumya; Gryka, Mark; Bhargava, Rohit; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-01-01

    Typically, multiplexing high nanoparticle uptake, imaging, and therapy requires careful integration of three different functions of a multiscale molecular-particle assembly. Here, we present a simpler approach to multiplexing by utilizing one component of the system for multiple functions. Specifically, we successfully synthesized and characterized colloidal carotene carbon nanoparticle (C3-NP), in which a single functional molecule served a threefold purpose. First, the presence of carotene moieties promoted the passage of the particle through the cell membrane and into the cells. Second, the ligand acted as a potent detrimental moiety for cancer cells and, finally, the ligands produced optical contrast for robust microscopic detection in complex cellular environments. In comparative tests, C3-NP were found to provide effective intracellular delivery that enables both robust detection at cellular and tissue level and presents significant therapeutic potential without altering the mechanism of intracellular action of β-carotene. Surface coating of C3 with phospholipid was used to generate C3-Lipocoat nanoparticles with further improved function and biocompatibility, paving the path to eventual in vivo studies. PMID:27405011

  18. Multi-functionality Redefined with Colloidal Carotene Carbon Nanoparticles for Synchronized Chemical Imaging, Enriched Cellular Uptake and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Santosh K.; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Chang, Huei-Huei; Tiwari, Saumya; Gryka, Mark; Bhargava, Rohit; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-07-01

    Typically, multiplexing high nanoparticle uptake, imaging, and therapy requires careful integration of three different functions of a multiscale molecular-particle assembly. Here, we present a simpler approach to multiplexing by utilizing one component of the system for multiple functions. Specifically, we successfully synthesized and characterized colloidal carotene carbon nanoparticle (C3-NP), in which a single functional molecule served a threefold purpose. First, the presence of carotene moieties promoted the passage of the particle through the cell membrane and into the cells. Second, the ligand acted as a potent detrimental moiety for cancer cells and, finally, the ligands produced optical contrast for robust microscopic detection in complex cellular environments. In comparative tests, C3-NP were found to provide effective intracellular delivery that enables both robust detection at cellular and tissue level and presents significant therapeutic potential without altering the mechanism of intracellular action of β-carotene. Surface coating of C3 with phospholipid was used to generate C3-Lipocoat nanoparticles with further improved function and biocompatibility, paving the path to eventual in vivo studies.

  19. Multi-functionality Redefined with Colloidal Carotene Carbon Nanoparticles for Synchronized Chemical Imaging, Enriched Cellular Uptake and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Misra, Santosh K; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Chang, Huei-Huei; Tiwari, Saumya; Gryka, Mark; Bhargava, Rohit; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-07-11

    Typically, multiplexing high nanoparticle uptake, imaging, and therapy requires careful integration of three different functions of a multiscale molecular-particle assembly. Here, we present a simpler approach to multiplexing by utilizing one component of the system for multiple functions. Specifically, we successfully synthesized and characterized colloidal carotene carbon nanoparticle (C(3)-NP), in which a single functional molecule served a threefold purpose. First, the presence of carotene moieties promoted the passage of the particle through the cell membrane and into the cells. Second, the ligand acted as a potent detrimental moiety for cancer cells and, finally, the ligands produced optical contrast for robust microscopic detection in complex cellular environments. In comparative tests, C(3)-NP were found to provide effective intracellular delivery that enables both robust detection at cellular and tissue level and presents significant therapeutic potential without altering the mechanism of intracellular action of β-carotene. Surface coating of C(3) with phospholipid was used to generate C(3)-Lipocoat nanoparticles with further improved function and biocompatibility, paving the path to eventual in vivo studies.

  20. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy induces misfolding of alleged prion-resistant species cellular prion protein without altering its pathobiological features.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Enric; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Pintado, Belén; Ordóñez, Montserrat; Márquez, Mercedes; Fondevila, Dolors; Torres, Juan María; Pumarola, Martí; Castilla, Joaquín

    2013-05-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions were responsible for an unforeseen epizootic in cattle which had a vast social, economic, and public health impact. This was primarily because BSE prions were found to be transmissible to humans. Other species were also susceptible to BSE either by natural infection (e.g., felids, caprids) or in experimental settings (e.g., sheep, mice). However, certain species closely related to humans, such as canids and leporids, were apparently resistant to BSE. In vitro prion amplification techniques (saPMCA) were used to successfully misfold the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) of these allegedly resistant species into a BSE-type prion protein. The biochemical and biological properties of the new prions generated in vitro after seeding rabbit and dog brain homogenates with classical BSE were studied. Pathobiological features of the resultant prion strains were determined after their inoculation into transgenic mice expressing bovine and human PrP(C). Strain characteristics of the in vitro-adapted rabbit and dog BSE agent remained invariable with respect to the original cattle BSE prion, suggesting that the naturally low susceptibility of rabbits and dogs to prion infections should not alter their zoonotic potential if these animals became infected with BSE. This study provides a sound basis for risk assessment regarding prion diseases in purportedly resistant species.

  1. Altered Functional Response to Risky Choice in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Colm G.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Jordan, Stephan J.; Woods, Steven Paul; Ellis, Ronald J.; Paulus, Martin P.; Grant, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Background Risky decision-making is commonly observed in persons at risk for and infected with HIV and is associated with executive dysfunction. Yet it is currently unknown whether HIV alters brain processing of risk-taking decision-making. Methods This study examined the neural substrate of a risky decision-making task in 21 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 19 seronegative (HIV-) comparison participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while participants performed the risky-gains task, which involves choosing among safe (20 cents) and risky (40/80 cent win or loss) choices. Linear mixed effects analyses examining group and decision type were conducted. Robust regressions were performed to examine the relationship between nadir CD4 count and Kalichman sexual compulsivity and brain activation in the HIV+ group. The overlap between the task effects and robust regressions was explored. Results Although there were no serostatus effects in behavioral performance on the risky-gains task, HIV+ individuals exhibited greater activation for risky choices in the basal ganglia, i.e. the caudate nucleus, but also in the anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and insula relative to the HIV- group. The HIV+ group also demonstrated reduced functional responses to safe choices in the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to the HIV- group. HIV+ individuals with higher nadir CD4 count and greater sexual compulsivity displayed lower differential responses to safe versus risky choices in many of these regions. Conclusions This study demonstrated fronto-striatal loop dysfunction associated with HIV infection during risky decision-making. Combined with similar between-group task behavior, this suggests an adaptive functional response in regions critical to reward and behavioral control in the HIV+ group. HIV-infected individuals with higher CD4 nadirs demonstrated activation patterns more similar to seronegative individuals. This

  2. Physiological enzymology: The next frontier in understanding protein structure and function at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Lee, Irene; Berdis, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the study of proteins has relied heavily on characterizing the activity of a single purified protein isolated from other cellular components. This classic approach allowed scientists to unambiguously define the intrinsic kinetic and chemical properties of that protein. The ultimate hope was to extrapolate this information toward understanding how the enzyme or receptor behaves within its native cellular context. These types of detailed in vitro analyses were necessary to reduce the innate complexities of measuring the singular activity and biochemical properties of a specific enzyme without interference from other enzymes and potential competing substrates. However, recent developments in fields encompassing cell biology, molecular imaging, and chemical biology now provide the unique chemical tools and instrumentation to study protein structure, function, and regulation in their native cellular environment. These advancements provide the foundation for a new field, coined physiological enzymology, which quantifies the function and regulation of enzymes and proteins at the cellular level. In this Special Edition, we explore the area of Physiological Enzymology and Protein Function through a series of review articles that focus on the tools and techniques used to measure the cellular activity of proteins inside living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Physiological Enzymology and Protein Functions.

  3. Phenylpyrazole insecticides induce cytotoxicity by altering mechanisms involved in cellular energy supply in the human epithelial cell model Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Vidau, Cyril; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Badiou, Alexandra; Belzunces, Luc P

    2009-06-01

    Phenylpyrazoles are relatively new insecticides designed to manage problematic insect resistance and public health hazards encountered with older pesticide families. In vitro cytotoxicity induced by the phenylpyrazole insecticides, Ethiprol and Fipronil, and Fipronil metabolites, sulfone and sulfide, was studied in Caco-2 cells. This cellular model was chosen because it made possible to mimic the primary site of oral exposure to xenobiotics, the intestinal epithelium. Assessment of the barrier function of Caco-2 epithelium was assessed by TEER measurement and showed a major loss of barrier integrity after exposure to Fipronil and its metabolites, but not to Ethiprol. The disruption of the epithelial barrier was attributed to severe ATP depletion independent of cell viability, as revealed by LDH release. The origin of energetic metabolism failure was investigated and revealed a transient enhancement of tetrazolium salt reduction and an increase in lactate production by Caco-2 cells, suggesting an increase in glucose metabolism by pesticides. Cellular symptoms observed in these experiments lead us to hypothesize that phenylpyrazole insecticides interacted with mitochondria.

  4. Reduction of Cellular Expression Levels Is a Common Feature of Functionally Affected Pendrin (SLC26A4) Protein Variants

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Vanessa C S; Bernardinelli, Emanuele; Zocal, Nathalia; Fernandez, Jhonathan A; Nofziger, Charity; Castilho, Arthur M; Sartorato, Edi L; Paulmichl, Markus; Dossena, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Sequence alterations in the pendrin gene (SLC26A4) leading to functionally affected protein variants are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of syndromic and nonsyndromic deafness. Considering the high number of SLC26A4 sequence alterations reported to date, discriminating between functionally affected and unaffected pendrin protein variants is essential in contributing to determine the genetic cause of deafness in a given patient. In addition, identifying molecular features common to the functionally affected protein variants can be extremely useful to design future molecule-directed therapeutic approaches. Here we show the functional and molecular characterization of six previously uncharacterized pendrin protein variants found in a cohort of 58 Brazilian deaf patients. Two variants (p.T193I and p.L445W) were undetectable in the plasma membrane, completely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and showed no transport function; four (p.P142L, p.G149R, p.C282Y and p.Q413R) showed reduced function and significant, although heterogeneous, expression levels in the plasma membrane. Importantly, total expression levels of all of the functionally affected protein variants were significantly reduced with respect to the wild-type and a fully functional variant (p.R776C), regardless of their subcellular localization. Interestingly, reduction of expression may also reduce the transport activity of variants with an intrinsic gain of function (p.Q413R). As reduction of overall cellular abundance was identified as a common molecular feature of pendrin variants with affected function, the identification of strategies to prevent reduction in expression levels may represent a crucial step of potential future therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring the transport activity of dysfunctional pendrin variants. PMID:26752218

  5. Dynamic alteration in splenic function during acute falciparum malaria

    SciTech Connect

    Looareesuwan, S.; Ho, M.; Wattanagoon, Y.; White, N.J.; Warrell, D.A.; Bunnag, D.; Harinasuta, T.; Wyler, D.J.

    1987-09-10

    Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes lose their normal deformability and become susceptible to splenic filtration. In animal models, this is one mechanism of antimalarial defense. To assess the effect of acute falciparum malaria on splenic filtration, we measured the clearance of heated /sup 51/Cr-labeled autologous erythrocytes in 25 patients with acute falciparum malaria and in 10 uninfected controls. Two groups of patients could be distinguished. Sixteen patients had splenomegaly, markedly accelerated clearance of the labeled erythrocytes (clearance half-time, 8.4 +/- 4.4 minutes (mean +/- SD) vs. 62.5 +/- 36.5 minutes in controls; P less than 0.001), and a lower mean hematocrit than did the patients without splenomegaly (P less than 0.001). In the nine patients without splenomegaly, clearance was normal. After institution of antimalarial chemotherapy, however, the clearance in this group accelerated to supernormal rates similar to those in the patients with splenomegaly, but without the development of detectable splenomegaly. Clearance was not significantly altered by treatment in the group with splenomegaly. Six weeks later, normal clearance rates were reestablished in most patients in both groups. We conclude that splenic clearance of labeled erythrocytes is enhanced in patients with malaria if splenomegaly is present and is enhanced only after treatment if splenomegaly is absent. Whether this enhanced splenic function applies to parasite-infected erythrocytes in patients with malaria and has any clinical benefit will require further studies.

  6. Alterations of pulmonary function in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiao-Qing; Ji, Yan-Bo; Wang, Shan-Xin; Zhang, Cai-Qing; Lu, De-Gan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and their relationship with disease activity in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). METHODS: Sixty-four IBD patients (31 Crohn's disease [CD] and 33 ulcerative colitis [UC]) and thirty healthy individuals (controls) were studied with regard to the following parameters of PFTs: Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), their ratio, mid-forced expiratory flow of 25–75% (FEF 25–75), residual volume, total lung capacity, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). The disease activity was calculated using the Crohn's Disease Activity Index for CD and Mayo Clinic Score for UC. Correlation analysis was performed between disease activity and sputum cytology and PFTs. RESULTS: Nineteen of the 31 CD patients (61.29%) and 17 of the 33 UC patients (51.52%) but none of the controls showed at least one abnormal PFTs (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, both CD and UC patients exhibited a significant reduction in FEV1 (P < 0.05), FVC (P < 0.05), FEF 25–75 (P < 0.05), and DLCO (P < 0.05). The majority with decreased measurements of PFTs were in the active phase of diseases (P < 0.05). IBD activity scores correlated negatively with some parameters of PFTs and positively with lymphocytosis and eosinophilia of sputum (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary function disorders are significantly common in IBD patients. The impairment in active disease is significantly greater than in remission. PMID:27803750

  7. Does drought alter hydrological functions in forest soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimbel, Katharina; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Climate change will probably alter precipitation patterns across central Europe, and (summer) droughts are expected to be more frequent and severe in future. Droughts may modify soil properties, such as the pore volume distribution, soil aggregation, water repellency and rooting patterns. These changes in soil properties affect the hydrological functioning of the soil like water retention, infiltration and percolation and thereby the site conditions for plants. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of droughts on the hydrological functioning of forest soils. We conducted rainfall-reduction experiments in three woodlands (nine investigation sites) across Germany. We established adaptive roofing systems which allow a flexible reduction of the precipitation between 15 % and 65 % of the incoming precipitation depending on the actual precipitation. The impact of the imposed droughts on the soil properties was assessed by repeated analyses of soil aggregation, hydrophobicity and pore volume distribution. Hydrological functioning of the soil was assessed by means of repeated dye tracer sprinkling experiments. Comparing dye tracer images of 2011 with images taken after two years of imposed drought, we found a general shift in infiltration processes depending on the soil type. Sandy soils showed a shift from front-like infiltration towards a more fingered and scattered infiltration. Soils rich in clay tend to develop unstained (= not wetted) areas in the top layer, which might hint to evolving hydrophobicity. This was confirmed by field and laboratory hydrophobicity tests. Further, the same profiles were showing signs of lower permeability in the bottom layers. Similar to hydrophobicity, we want to link the results of soil aggregation and pore volume distribution to the changes in the infiltration pattern. Our study shows that changes in precipitation pattern can severely affect forest soil properties and their hydrological functions. The results of this

  8. Ethanol exposure alters early cardiac function in the looping heart: a mechanism for congenital heart defects?

    PubMed

    Karunamuni, Ganga; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Peterson, Lindsy M; Mai, Katherine; McHale, Quinn; Jenkins, Michael W; Linask, Kersti K; Rollins, Andrew M; Watanabe, Michiko

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol-induced congenital heart defects are frequently among the most life threatening and require surgical correction in newborns. The etiology of these defects, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome, has been the focus of much study, particularly involving cellular and molecular mechanisms. Few studies have addressed the influential role of altered cardiac function in early embryogenesis because of a lack of tools with the capability to assay tiny beating hearts. To overcome this gap in our understanding, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT), a nondestructive imaging modality capable of micrometer-scale resolution imaging, to rapidly and accurately map cardiovascular structure and hemodynamics in real time under physiological conditions. In this study, we exposed avian embryos to a single dose of alcohol/ethanol at gastrulation when the embryo is sensitive to the induction of birth defects. Late-stage hearts were analyzed using standard histological analysis with a focus on the atrio-ventricular valves. Early cardiac function was assayed using Doppler OCT, and structural analysis of the cardiac cushions was performed using OCT imaging. Our results indicated that ethanol-exposed embryos developed late-stage valvuloseptal defects. At early stages, they exhibited increased regurgitant flow and developed smaller atrio-ventricular cardiac cushions, compared with controls (uninjected and saline-injected embryos). The embryos also exhibited abnormal flexion/torsion of the body. Our evidence suggests that ethanol-induced alterations in early cardiac function have the potential to contribute to late-stage valve and septal defects, thus demonstrating that functional parameters may serve as early and sensitive gauges of cardiac normalcy and abnormalities.

  9. A loss of FUS/TLS function leads to impaired cellular proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ward, C L; Boggio, K J; Johnson, B N; Boyd, J B; Douthwright, S; Shaffer, S A; Landers, J E; Glicksman, M A; Bosco, D A

    2014-01-01

    Fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS or FUS) is a multifunctional RNA/DNA-binding protein that is pathologically associated with cancer and neurodegeneration. To gain insight into the vital functions of FUS and how a loss of FUS function impacts cellular homeostasis, FUS expression was reduced in different cellular models through RNA interference. Our results show that a loss of FUS expression severely impairs cellular proliferation and leads to an increase in phosphorylated histone H3, a marker of mitotic arrest. A quantitative proteomics analysis performed on cells undergoing various degrees of FUS knockdown revealed protein expression changes for known RNA targets of FUS, consistent with a loss of FUS function with respect to RNA processing. Proteins that changed in expression as a function of FUS knockdown were associated with multiple processes, some of which influence cell proliferation including cell cycle regulation, cytoskeletal organization, oxidative stress and energy homeostasis. FUS knockdown also correlated with increased expression of the closely related protein EWS (Ewing's sarcoma). We demonstrate that the maladaptive phenotype resulting from FUS knockdown is reversible and can be rescued by re-expression of FUS or partially rescued by the small-molecule rolipram. These results provide insight into the pathways and processes that are regulated by FUS, as well as the cellular consequences for a loss of FUS function. PMID:25501833

  10. Multiple functions of Maf in the regulation of cellular development and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cellular muscular aponeurotic fibrosarcoma (c‐Maf) is a member of the large macrophage‐activating factor family. C‐Maf plays important roles in the morphogenetic processes and cellular differentiation of the lens, kidneys, liver, T cells and nervous system, and it is particularly important in pancreatic islet and erythroblastic island formation. However, the exact role of c‐Maf remains to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the research to clarify the functions of c‐Maf in the cellular development and differentiation. The expression of c‐Maf is higher in pancreatic duct cells than in pancreatic islet cells. Therefore, we suggest that pancreatic duct cells may be converted to the functional insulin‐secreting cells by regulating c‐Maf. © 2015 National Natural Science Foundation of China. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26122665

  11. Copper transporters and chaperones: Their function on angiogenesis and cellular signalling.

    PubMed

    Bharathi Devi, S R; Dhivya M, Aloysius; Sulochana, K N

    2016-09-01

    Copper, although known as a micronutrient, has a pivotal role in modulating the cellular metabolism. Many studies have reported the role of copper in angiogenesis. Copper chaperones are intracellular proteins that mediate copper trafficking to various cell organelles. However, the role and function of copper chaperones in relation to angiogenesis has to be further explored. The intracellular copper levels when in excess are deleterious and certain mutations of copper chaperones have been shown to induce cell death and influence various cellular metabolisms. The study of these chaperones will be helpful in understanding the players in the cascade of events in angiogenesis and their role in cellular metabolic pathways. In this review we have briefly listed the copper chaperones associated with angiogenic and metabolic signalling and their function. PMID:27581939

  12. Global Functional Analyses of Cellular Responses to Pore-Forming Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Cheng-Yuan; Wachi, Shinichiro; Kloft, Nicole; Husmann, Matthias; Karabrahimi, Valbona; Schwartz, Jean-Louis; Bellier, Audrey; Ha, Christine; Sagong, Youn; Fan, Hui; Ghosh, Partho; Hsieh, Mindy; Hsu, Chih-Shen; Chen, Li; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2011-01-01

    Here we present the first global functional analysis of cellular responses to pore-forming toxins (PFTs). PFTs are uniquely important bacterial virulence factors, comprising the single largest class of bacterial protein toxins and being important for the pathogenesis in humans of many Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Their mode of action is deceptively simple, poking holes in the plasma membrane of cells. The scattered studies to date of PFT-host cell interactions indicate a handful of genes are involved in cellular defenses to PFTs. How many genes are involved in cellular defenses against PFTs and how cellular defenses are coordinated are unknown. To address these questions, we performed the first genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen for genes that, when knocked down, result in hypersensitivity to a PFT. This screen identifies 106 genes (∼0.5% of genome) in seven functional groups that protect Caenorhabditis elegans from PFT attack. Interactome analyses of these 106 genes suggest that two previously identified mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, one (p38) studied in detail and the other (JNK) not, form a core PFT defense network. Additional microarray, real-time PCR, and functional studies reveal that the JNK MAPK pathway, but not the p38 MAPK pathway, is a key central regulator of PFT-induced transcriptional and functional responses. We find C. elegans activator protein 1 (AP-1; c-jun, c-fos) is a downstream target of the JNK-mediated PFT protection pathway, protects C. elegans against both small-pore and large-pore PFTs and protects human cells against a large-pore PFT. This in vivo RNAi genomic study of PFT responses proves that cellular commitment to PFT defenses is enormous, demonstrates the JNK MAPK pathway as a key regulator of transcriptionally-induced PFT defenses, and identifies AP-1 as the first cellular component broadly important for defense against large- and small-pore PFTs. PMID:21408619

  13. Sex-related long-term behavioral and hippocampal cellular alterations after nociceptive stimulation throughout postnatal development in rats.

    PubMed

    Lima, Márcia; Malheiros, Jackeline; Negrigo, Aline; Tescarollo, Fabio; Medeiros, Magda; Suchecki, Deborah; Tannús, Alberto; Guinsburg, Ruth; Covolan, Luciene

    2014-02-01

    Early noxious stimuli may alter the neurogenesis rate in the dentate gyrus and the behavioral repertoire of adult rats. This study evaluated the long-term effects of noxious stimulation, imposed in different phases of development, on nociceptive and anxiety-like behaviors, hippocampal activation, cell proliferation, hippocampal BDNF and plasma corticosterone levels in 40 day-old male and female adolescents. Noxious stimulation was induced by intra-plantar injection of Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), on postnatal days (P) 1 (group P1), 8 (P8) or 21 (P21). Control animals were not stimulated in any way. On P21 a subset of animals from each group received BrdU and was perfused on P40 for identification of proliferating cells in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Another subset of rats was subjected to behavioral testing on P40 and one week later, to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition. Noxious stimulation evoked hypoalgesia in adolescents, mainly in females (P < 0.02), reflected by greater latency to withdraw the paw and less paw lickings in the hot plate test than controls (P < 0.001). It also resulted in more time spent in the open arms, e.g., less anxiety-like behavior than controls (P < 0.01), especially in females (P < 0.01, compared with males). Proliferative cell rate in the dentate gyrus was the highest in P8 males and females (P < 0.001), with males exhibiting more proliferation than females on P1 and P8, which was directly related to the hippocampal levels of BDNF and inversely related to plasma corticosterone. Sex differences were also detected in manganese-enhanced MRI signal, which was more prominent in P1 females than males (P < 0.01). This study represents the first step of investigation on the cellular basis of the sex-dependent long-term consequences of nociceptive stimuli in newborns. PMID:24148811

  14. Muscle fatigue in frog semitendinosus: alterations in contractile function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. V.; Balog, E. M.; Riley, D. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the contractile properties of the frog semitendinosus (ST) muscle before and during recovery from fatigue, to relate the observed functional changes to alterations in specific steps in the crossbridge model of muscle contraction, and to determine how fatigue affects the force-frequency relationship. The frog ST (22 degrees C) was fatigued by direct electrical stimulation with 100-ms 150-Hz trains at 1/s for 5 min. The fatigue protocol reduced peak twitch (Pt) and tetanic (Po) force to 32 and 8.5% of initial force, respectively. The decline in Pt was less than Po, in part due to a prolongation in the isometric contraction time (CT), which increased to 300% of the initial value. The isometric twitch duration was greatly prolonged as reflected by the lengthened CT and the 800% increase in the one-half relaxation time (1/2RT). Both Pt and Po showed a biphasic recovery, a rapid initial phase (2 min) followed by a slower (40 min) return to the prefatigue force. CT and 1/2RT also recovered in two phases, returning to 160 and 265% of control in the first 5 min. CT returned to the prefatigue value between 35 and 40 min, whereas even at 60 min 1/2RT was 133% of control. The maximal velocity of shortening, determined by the slack test, was significantly reduced [from 6.7 +/- 0.5 to 2.5 +/- 0.4 optimal muscle length/s] at fatigue. The force-frequency relationship was shifted to the left, so that optimal frequency for generating Po was reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  15. Mitochondrial (Dys)function in Adipocyte (De)differentiation and Systemic Metabolic Alterations

    PubMed Central

    De Pauw, Aurélia; Tejerina, Silvia; Raes, Martine; Keijer, Jaap; Arnould, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, adipose tissue, composed of BAT and WAT, collaborates in energy partitioning and performs metabolic regulatory functions. It is the most flexible tissue in the body, because it is remodeled in size and shape by modifications in adipocyte cell size and/or number, depending on developmental status and energy fluxes. Although numerous reviews have focused on the differentiation program of both brown and white adipocytes as well as on the pathophysiological role of white adipose tissues, the importance of mitochondrial activity in the differentiation or the dedifferentiation programs of adipose cells and in systemic metabolic alterations has not been extensively reviewed previously. Here, we address the crucial role of mitochondrial functions during adipogenesis and in mature adipocytes and discuss the cellular responses of white adipocytes to mitochondrial activity impairment. In addition, we discuss the increase in scientific knowledge regarding mitochondrial functions in the last 10 years and the recent suspicion of mitochondrial dysfunction in several 21st century epidemics (ie, obesity and diabetes), as well as in lipodystrophy found in HIV-treated patients, which can contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting adipocyte mitochondria. PMID:19700756

  16. Low-dose AgNPs reduce lung mechanical function and innate immune defense in the absence of cellular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Botelho, Danielle J.; Leo, Bey Fen; Massa, Christopher B.; Sarkar, Srijata; Tetley, Terry D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Chen, Shu; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Zhang, Junfeng; Schwander, Stephan K.; Gow, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have examined the direct cellular toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). However, the lung is a complex biological system with multiple cell types and a lipid-rich surface fluid; therefore, organ level responses may not depend on direct cellular toxicity. We hypothesized that interaction with the lung lining is a critical determinant of organ level responses. Here, we have examined the effects of low dose intratracheal instillation of AgNPs (0.05 µg/g body weight) 20 and 110nm diameter in size, and functionalized with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone. Both size and functionalization were significant factors in particle aggregation and lipid interaction in vitro. One day post-intratracheal instillation lung function was assessed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue collected. There were no signs of overt inflammation. There was no change in surfactant protein-B content in the BAL but there was loss of surfactant protein-D with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized particles. Mechanical impedance data demonstrated a significant increase in pulmonary elastance as compared to control, greatest with 110nm PVP-stabilized particles. Seven days post-instillation of PVP-stabilized particles increased BAL cell counts, and reduced lung function was observed. These changes resolved by 21 days. Hence, AgNP-mediated alterations in the lung lining and mechanical function resolve by 21 days. Larger particles and PVP stabilization produce the largest disruptions. These studies demonstrate that low dose AgNPs elicit deficits in both mechanical and innate immune defense function, suggesting that organ level toxicity should be considered. PMID:26152688

  17. Low-dose AgNPs reduce lung mechanical function and innate immune defense in the absence of cellular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Danielle J; Leo, Bey Fen; Massa, Christopher B; Sarkar, Srijata; Tetley, Terry D; Chung, Kian Fan; Chen, Shu; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Zhang, Junfeng; Schwander, Stephan K; Gow, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have examined the direct cellular toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). However, the lung is a complex biological system with multiple cell types and a lipid-rich surface fluid; therefore, organ level responses may not depend on direct cellular toxicity. We hypothesized that interaction with the lung lining is a critical determinant of organ level responses. Here, we have examined the effects of low dose intratracheal instillation of AgNPs (0.05 μg/g body weight) 20 and 110 nm diameter in size, and functionalized with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone. Both size and functionalization were significant factors in particle aggregation and lipid interaction in vitro. One day post-intratracheal instillation lung function was assessed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue collected. There were no signs of overt inflammation. There was no change in surfactant protein-B content in the BAL but there was loss of surfactant protein-D with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized particles. Mechanical impedance data demonstrated a significant increase in pulmonary elastance as compared to control, greatest with 110 nm PVP-stabilized particles. Seven days post-instillation of PVP-stabilized particles increased BAL cell counts, and reduced lung function was observed. These changes resolved by 21 days. Hence, AgNP-mediated alterations in the lung lining and mechanical function resolve by 21 days. Larger particles and PVP stabilization produce the largest disruptions. These studies demonstrate that low dose AgNPs elicit deficits in both mechanical and innate immune defense function, suggesting that organ level toxicity should be considered.

  18. Vacuole membrane contact sites and domains: emerging hubs to coordinate organelle function with cellular metabolism.

    PubMed

    Malia, Pedro Carpio; Ungermann, Christian

    2016-04-15

    Eukaryotic cells rely on a set of membrane-enclosed organelles to perform highly efficient reactions in an optimized environment. Trafficking of molecules via vesicular carriers and membrane contact sites (MCS) allow the coordination between these compartments, though the precise mechanisms are still enigmatic. Among the cellular organelles, the lysosome/vacuole stands out as a central hub, where multiple pathways merge. Importantly, the delivered material is degraded and the monomers are recycled for further usage, which explains its wide variety of roles in controlling cellular metabolism. We will highlight recent advances in the field by focusing on the yeast vacuole as a model system to understand lysosomal function in general.

  19. Quantum dots for tracking cellular transport of lectin-functionalized nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Xiaoling; Wang Tao; Wu Bingxian; Chen Jun; Chen Jiyao; Yue Yang; Dai Ning; Chen Hongzhuan Jiang Xinguo

    2008-12-05

    Successful drug delivery by functionalized nanocarriers largely depends on their efficient intracellular transport which has not yet been fully understood. We developed a new tracking technique by encapsulating quantum dots into the core of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated nanoparticles (WGA-NP) to track cellular transport of functionalized nanocarriers. The resulting nanoparticles showed no changes in particle size, zeta potential or biobinding activity, and the loaded probe presented excellent photostability and tracking ability. Taking advantage of these properties, cellular transport profiles of WGA-NP in Caco-2 cells was demonstrated. The cellular uptake begins with binding of WGA to its receptor at the cell surface. The subsequent endocytosis happened in a cytoskeleton-dependent manner and by means of clathrin and caveolae-mediated mechanisms. After endosome creating, transport occurs to both trans-Golgi and lysosome. Our study provides new evidences for quantum dots as a cellular tracking probe of nanocarriers and helps understand intracellular transport profile of lectin-functionalized nanoparticles.

  20. Disruption of Src Is Associated with Phenotypes Related to Williams-Beuren Syndrome and Altered Cellular Localization of TFII-I1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ivakine, Evgueni A.; Lam, Emily; Deurloo, Marielle; Dida, Joana; Zirngibl, Ralph A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Src is a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase that is expressed widely throughout the central nervous system and is involved in diverse biological functions. Mice homozygous for a spontaneous mutation in Src (Src thl/thl) exhibited hypersociability and hyperactivity along with impairments in visuospatial, amygdala-dependent, and motor learning as well as an increased startle response to loud tones. The phenotype of Src thl/thl mice showed significant overlap with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a disorder caused by the deletion of several genes, including General Transcription Factor 2-I (GTF2I). Src phosphorylation regulates the movement of GTF2I protein (TFII-I) between the nucleus, where it is a transcriptional activator, and the cytoplasm, where it regulates trafficking of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 3 (TRPC3) subunits to the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate altered cellular localization of both TFII-I and TRPC3 in the Src mutants, suggesting that disruption of Src can phenocopy behavioral phenotypes observed in WBS through its regulation of TFII-I. PMID:26464974

  1. Function of Membrane Rafts in Viral Lifecycles and Host Cellular Response

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tadanobu; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Membrane rafts are small (10–200 nm) sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched domains that compartmentalize cellular processes. Membrane rafts play an important role in viral infection cycles and viral virulence. Viruses are divided into four main classes, enveloped DNA virus, enveloped RNA virus, nonenveloped DNA virus, and nonenveloped RNA virus. General virus infection cycle is also classified into two sections, the early stage (entry process) and the late stage (assembly, budding, and release processes of virus particles). In the viral cycle, membrane rafts act as a scaffold of many cellular signal transductions, which are associated with symptoms caused by viral infections. In this paper, we describe the functions of membrane rafts in viral lifecycles and host cellular response according to each virus classification, each stage of the virus lifecycle, and each virus-induced signal transduction. PMID:22191032

  2. Needle puncture in rabbit functional spinal units alters rotational biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Robert A.; Bell, Kevin M.; Quan, Bichun; Nuzhao, Yao; Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Kang, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design An in vitro biomechanical study for rabbit lumbar functional spinal units (FSUs) using a robot-based spine testing system. Objective To elucidate the effect of annular puncture with a 16G needle on mechanical properties in flexion/extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending. Summary of Background Data Needle puncture of the intervertebral disc has been shown to alter mechanical properties of the disc in compression, torsion, and bending. The effect of needle puncture in FSUs, where intact spinal ligaments and facet joints may mitigate or amplify these changes in the disc, on spinal motion segment stability subject to physiological rotations remains unknown. Methods Rabbit FSUs were tested using a robot testing system whose force/moment and position precision were assessed to demonstrate system capability. Flexibility testing methods were developed by load-to-failure testing in flexion/extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending. Subsequent testing methods were used to examine a 16G needle disc puncture and No. 11 blade disc stab (positive control for mechanical disruption). Flexibility testing was used to assess segmental range-of-motion (°), neutral zone stiffness (Nm/°) and width (° and Nm), and elastic zone stiffness before and after annular injury. Results The robot-based system was capable of performing flexibility testing on FSUs—mean precision of force/moment measurements and robot system movements were less than 3% and 1%, respectively, of moment-rotation target values. Flexibility moment targets were 0.3 Nm for flexion and axial rotation and 0.15 Nm for extension and lateral bending. Needle puncture caused significant (p<0.05) changes only in flexion/extension range-of-motion and neutral zone stiffness and width (Nm) compared to pre-intervention. No.11 blade-stab significantly increased range-of-motion in all motions, decreased neutral zone stiffness and width (Nm) in flexion/extension, and increased elastic zone stiffness in

  3. Divalent metals stabilize cellular prion proteins and alter the rate of proteinase-K dependent limited proteolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The key biochemical event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases is the conversion of normal cellular prion proteins (PrP**c) to the proteinase K (PK) resistant, abnormal form (PrP**sc); however, the cellular mechanisms underlying the conversion remain enigmatic. Binding of divalent ca...

  4. Neutral genetic drift can alter promiscuous protein functions, potentially aiding functional evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Jesse D; Romero, Philip A; Lu, Zhongyi; Arnold, Frances H

    2007-01-01

    Background Many of the mutations accumulated by naturally evolving proteins are neutral in the sense that they do not significantly alter a protein's ability to perform its primary biological function. However, new protein functions evolve when selection begins to favor other, "promiscuous" functions that are incidental to a protein's original biological role. If mutations that are neutral with respect to a protein's primary biological function cause substantial changes in promiscuous functions, these mutations could enable future functional evolution. Results Here we investigate this possibility experimentally by examining how cytochrome P450 enzymes that have evolved neutrally with respect to activity on a single substrate have changed in their abilities to catalyze reactions on five other substrates. We find that the enzymes have sometimes changed as much as four-fold in the promiscuous activities. The changes in promiscuous activities tend to increase with the number of mutations, and can be largely rationalized in terms of the chemical structures of the substrates. The activities on chemically similar substrates tend to change in a coordinated fashion, potentially providing a route for systematically predicting the change in one activity based on the measurement of several others. Conclusion Our work suggests that initially neutral genetic drift can lead to substantial changes in protein functions that are not currently under selection, in effect poising the proteins to more readily undergo functional evolution should selection favor new functions in the future. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Martijn Huynen, Fyodor Kondrashov, and Dan Tawfik (nominated by Christoph Adami). PMID:17598905

  5. Intracellular survival of Staphylococcus aureus due to alteration of cellular activity in arsenic and lead intoxicated mature Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bishayi, Biswadev; Sengupta, Mahuya

    2003-02-14

    The role of heavy metals like arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) as environmental toxicants is established. However, the exact mechanism of their effect on immunocompetent cell activity is not well known. Staphylococcus aureus is a virulent pathogen that has the ability to cause a variety of potentially life-threatening infections. The objective of our study was to demonstrate in an experimental mouse model of bacteremic S. aureus infection, bacterial clearance from blood and spleen in arsenic, lead treated and control group of mice. Bacterial density was measured in blood and spleen after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection. Our findings show a significant increase in bacterial load in blood (P<0.025 for arsenic and P<0.01 for lead) and delayed bacterial clearance by spleen in both arsenic (P<0.05) and lead (P<0.025) treated groups as compared to control, thus highlighting an immuno-compromised state following heavy metal exposure. To further elucidate immunomodulatory effects of both arsenic and lead, cell function studies were performed on splenic macrophages (M(phi)) isolated from lead and arsenic treated as well as control group of mice. Our findings show a decrease in cell adhesion property (P<0.005) of splenic M(phi)s from 2.9925+/-0.053 in control to 1.395+/-0.106 in arsenic and 0.8835+/-0.0106 in lead treated mice at 60 min. Morphologic alteration of the splenic M(phi)s showed an increase (As: P<0.05, Pb: P<0.0005) in both arsenic (6.876+/-0.3287%) and lead (16.55+/-1.051%) treated mice to control (2.649+/-1.238%) which may be responsible for the formers' reduced functional status. The chemotactic index, a measure of chemotactic migration of the macrophages toward immune serum, was 16.43+/-1.007 in control cell and was reduced (P<0.0005) to 4.19+/-0.393 in arsenic and 2.92+/-0.649 in lead treated mice at 60 min. These altered cell functions could probably explain the intracellular survival of S. aureus but such a causal relationship awaits further detailed

  6. From cells to embryos: the application of femtosecond laser pulses for altering cellular material in complex biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, V.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2008-02-01

    We report the application of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses as a novel tool for manipulating biological specimens. When femtosecond laser pulses were focused to a near diffraction-limited focal spot, cellular material within the laser focal volume was surgically ablated. Several dissection cuts were made in the membrane of live mammalian cells, and membrane surgery was accomplished without inducing cell collapse or disassociation. By altering how the laser pulses were applied, focal adhesions joining live epithelial cells were surgically removed, resulting in single cell isolation. To further examine the versatility of this reported tool, cells were transiently permeabilized for introducing foreign material into the cytoplasm of live mammalian cells. Localizing focused femtosecond laser pulses on the biological membrane resulted in the formation of transient pores, which were harnessed as a pathway for the delivery of exogenous material. Individual mammalian cells were permeabilized in the presence of a hyperosmotic cryoprotective disaccharide. Material delivery was confirmed by measuring the volumetric response of cells permeabilized in 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 M cryoprotective sugar. The survival of permeabilized cells in increasing osmolarity of sugar was assessed using a membrane integrity assay. Further demonstrating the novelty of this reported tool, laser surgery of an aquatic embryo, the zebrafish (Danio rerio), was also performed. Utilizing the transient pores that were formed in the embryonic cells of the zebrafish embryo, an exogenous fluorescent probe FITC, Streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots or plasmid DNA (sCMV) encoding EGFP was introduced into the developing embryonic cells. To determine if the laser induced any short- or long-term effects on development, laser-manipulated embryos were reared to 2 and 7 days post-fertilization and compared to control embryos at the same developmental stages. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy

  7. Early Disruption of Extracellular Pleiotrophin Distribution Alters Cerebellar Neuronal Circuit Development and Function.

    PubMed

    Hamza, M M; Rey, S A; Hilber, P; Arabo, A; Collin, T; Vaudry, D; Burel, D

    2016-10-01

    The cerebellum is a structure of the central nervous system involved in balance, motor coordination, and voluntary movements. The elementary circuit implicated in the control of locomotion involves Purkinje cells, which receive excitatory inputs from parallel and climbing fibers, and are regulated by cerebellar interneurons. In mice as in human, the cerebellar cortex completes its development mainly after birth with the migration, differentiation, and synaptogenesis of granule cells. These cellular events are under the control of numerous extracellular matrix molecules including pleiotrophin (PTN). This cytokine has been shown to regulate the morphogenesis of Purkinje cells ex vivo and in vivo via its receptor PTPζ. Since Purkinje cells are the unique output of the cerebellar cortex, we explored the consequences of their PTN-induced atrophy on the function of the cerebellar neuronal circuit in mice. Behavioral experiments revealed that, despite a normal overall development, PTN-treated mice present a delay in the maturation of their flexion reflex. Moreover, patch clamp recording of Purkinje cells revealed a significant increase in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in PTN-treated mice, associated with a decrease of climbing fiber innervations and an abnormal perisomatic localization of the parallel fiber contacts. At adulthood, PTN-treated mice exhibit coordination impairment on the rotarod test associated with an alteration of the synchronization gait. Altogether these histological, electrophysiological, and behavior data reveal that an early ECM disruption of PTN composition induces short- and long-term defaults in the establishment of proper functional cerebellar circuit.

  8. Triplication of DYRK1A causes retinal structural and functional alterations in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Ariadna; Barallobre, María-José; Marchena, Miguel-Ángel; Mateus, Catarina; Ramírez, Erika; Martínez-Cue, Carmen; Delabar, Jean M; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; de la Villa, Pedro; Arbonés, Maria L

    2013-07-15

    Down syndrome (DS) results from the triplication of approximately 300 human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) genes and affects almost all body organs. Children with DS have defects in visual processing that may have a negative impact on their daily life and cognitive development. However, there is little known about the genes and pathogenesis underlying these defects. Here, we show morphometric in vivo data indicating that the neural retina is thicker in DS individuals than in the normal population. A similar thickening specifically affecting the inner part of the retina was also observed in a trisomic model of DS, the Ts65Dn mouse. Increased retinal size and cellularity in this model correlated with abnormal retinal function and resulted from an impaired caspase-9-mediated apoptosis during development. Moreover, we show that mice bearing only one additional copy of Dyrk1a have the same retinal phenotype as Ts65Dn mice and normalization of Dyrk1a gene copy number in Ts65Dn mice completely rescues both, morphological and functional phenotypes. Thus, triplication of Dyrk1a is necessary and sufficient to cause the retinal phenotype described in the trisomic model. Our data demonstrate for the first time the implication of DYRK1A overexpression in a developmental alteration of the central nervous system associated with DS, thereby providing insights into the aetiology of neurosensorial dysfunction in a complex disease. PMID:23512985

  9. Early Disruption of Extracellular Pleiotrophin Distribution Alters Cerebellar Neuronal Circuit Development and Function.

    PubMed

    Hamza, M M; Rey, S A; Hilber, P; Arabo, A; Collin, T; Vaudry, D; Burel, D

    2016-10-01

    The cerebellum is a structure of the central nervous system involved in balance, motor coordination, and voluntary movements. The elementary circuit implicated in the control of locomotion involves Purkinje cells, which receive excitatory inputs from parallel and climbing fibers, and are regulated by cerebellar interneurons. In mice as in human, the cerebellar cortex completes its development mainly after birth with the migration, differentiation, and synaptogenesis of granule cells. These cellular events are under the control of numerous extracellular matrix molecules including pleiotrophin (PTN). This cytokine has been shown to regulate the morphogenesis of Purkinje cells ex vivo and in vivo via its receptor PTPζ. Since Purkinje cells are the unique output of the cerebellar cortex, we explored the consequences of their PTN-induced atrophy on the function of the cerebellar neuronal circuit in mice. Behavioral experiments revealed that, despite a normal overall development, PTN-treated mice present a delay in the maturation of their flexion reflex. Moreover, patch clamp recording of Purkinje cells revealed a significant increase in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in PTN-treated mice, associated with a decrease of climbing fiber innervations and an abnormal perisomatic localization of the parallel fiber contacts. At adulthood, PTN-treated mice exhibit coordination impairment on the rotarod test associated with an alteration of the synchronization gait. Altogether these histological, electrophysiological, and behavior data reveal that an early ECM disruption of PTN composition induces short- and long-term defaults in the establishment of proper functional cerebellar circuit. PMID:26399645

  10. Functional insights into modulation of BKCa channel activity to alter myometrial contractility

    PubMed Central

    Lorca, Ramón A.; Prabagaran, Monali; England, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    The large-conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa) is an important regulator of membrane excitability in a wide variety of cells and tissues. In myometrial smooth muscle, activation of BKCa plays essential roles in buffering contractility to maintain uterine quiescence during pregnancy and in the transition to a more contractile state at the onset of labor. Multiple mechanisms of modulation have been described to alter BKCa channel activity, expression, and cellular localization. In the myometrium, BKCa is regulated by alternative splicing, protein targeting to the plasma membrane, compartmentation in membrane microdomains, and posttranslational modifications. In addition, interaction with auxiliary proteins (i.e., β1- and β2-subunits), association with G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathways, such as those activated by adrenergic and oxytocin receptors, and hormonal regulation provide further mechanisms of variable modulation of BKCa channel function in myometrial smooth muscle. Here, we provide an overview of these mechanisms of BKCa channel modulation and provide a context for them in relation to myometrial function. PMID:25132821

  11. Alteration of SLP2-like immunolabeling in mitochondria signifies early cellular damage in developing and adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Yury M; Sun, Yu-Yo; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Rakic, Pasko

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play a critical role in various pathways of regulated cell death. Here we propose a novel method for detection of initial derangement of mitochondria in degenerating and dying neuronal cells. The method is based on our recent finding that antibodies directed against the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) also bind the mitochondrial stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP2) that belongs to an inner mitochondrial membrane protein complex. It is well established that SLP2 regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory functions. We now show that anti-CB1 antibodies recognize conformational epitopes but not the linear amino acid sequence of SLP2. In addition we found that anti-CB1 serum mostly labels swollen mitochondria with early or advanced stages of pathology in mouse brain while other proteins of the complex may mask epitopes of SLP2 in the normal mitochondria. Although neurons and endothelial cells in healthy brains contain occasional immunopositive mitochondria detectable with anti-CB1 serum, their numbers increase significantly after hypoxic insults in parallel with signs of cellular damage. Moreover, use of electron microscopy suggests relocation of SLP2 from its normal functional position in the inner mitochondrial membrane into the mitochondrial matrix in pathological cells. Thus, SLP2-like immunolabeling serves as an in situ histochemical target detecting early derangement of mitochondria. Anti-CB1 serum is crucial for this purpose because available anti-SLP2 antibodies do not provide selective labeling of mitochondria in the fixed tissue. This new method of detecting mitochondrial dysfunction can benefit the in vitro research of human diseases and developmental disorders by enabling analysis in live animal models.

  12. Cellular senescence checkpoint function determines differential Notch1-dependent oncogenic and tumor suppressor activities

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, Shingo; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Whelan, Kelly A.; Facompre, Nicole; Naganuma, Seiji; Ohashi, Shinya; Kinugasa, Hideaki; Egloff, Ann Marie; Basu, Devraj; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Bass, Adam; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Diehl, J. Alan; Rustgi, Anil K.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Notch activity regulates tumor biology in a context-dependent and complex manner. Notch may act as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor gene even within the same tumor type. Recently, Notch signaling has been implicated in cellular senescence. Yet, it remains unclear as to how cellular senescence checkpoint functions may interact with Notch-mediated oncogenic and tumor suppressor activities. Herein, we used genetically engineered human esophageal keratinocytes and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells to delineate the functional consequences of Notch activation and inhibition along with pharmacological intervention and RNA interference (RNAi) experiments. When expressed in a tetracycline-inducible manner, the ectopically expressed activated form of Notch1 (ICN1) displayed oncogene-like characteristics inducing cellular senescence corroborated by the induction of G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest, Rb dephosphorylation, flat and enlarged cell morphology and senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Notch-induced senescence involves canonical CSL/RBPJ-dependent transcriptional activity and the p16INK4A-Rb pathway. Loss of p16INK4A or the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) E6/E7 oncogene products not only prevented ICN1 from inducing senescence, but permitted ICN1 to facilitate anchorage-independent colony formation and xenograft tumor growth with increased cell proliferation and reduced squamous-cell differentiation. Moreover, Notch1 appears to mediate replicative senescence as well as TGF-β-induced cellular senescence in non-transformed cells and that HPV E6/E7 targets Notch1 for inactivation to prevent senescence, revealing a tumor suppressor attribute of endogenous Notch1. In aggregate, cellular senescence checkpoint functions may influence dichotomous Notch activities in the neoplastic context. PMID:24931169

  13. Cellular senescence checkpoint function determines differential Notch1-dependent oncogenic and tumor-suppressor activities.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, S; Natsuizaka, M; Whelan, K A; Facompre, N; Naganuma, S; Ohashi, S; Kinugasa, H; Egloff, A M; Basu, D; Gimotty, P A; Klein-Szanto, A J; Bass, A J; Wong, K-K; Diehl, J A; Rustgi, A K; Nakagawa, H

    2015-04-30

    Notch activity regulates tumor biology in a context-dependent and complex manner. Notch may act as an oncogene or a tumor-suppressor gene even within the same tumor type. Recently, Notch signaling has been implicated in cellular senescence. Yet, it remains unclear as to how cellular senescence checkpoint functions may interact with Notch-mediated oncogenic and tumor-suppressor activities. Herein, we used genetically engineered human esophageal keratinocytes and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells to delineate the functional consequences of Notch activation and inhibition along with pharmacological intervention and RNA interference experiments. When expressed in a tetracycline-inducible manner, the ectopically expressed activated form of Notch1 (ICN1) displayed oncogene-like characteristics inducing cellular senescence corroborated by the induction of G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest, Rb dephosphorylation, flat and enlarged cell morphology and senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Notch-induced senescence involves canonical CSL/RBPJ-dependent transcriptional activity and the p16(INK4A)-Rb pathway. Loss of p16(INK4A) or the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) E6/E7 oncogene products not only prevented ICN1 from inducing senescence but permitted ICN1 to facilitate anchorage-independent colony formation and xenograft tumor growth with increased cell proliferation and reduced squamous-cell differentiation. Moreover, Notch1 appears to mediate replicative senescence as well as transforming growth factor-β-induced cellular senescence in non-transformed cells and that HPV E6/E7 targets Notch1 for inactivation to prevent senescence, revealing a tumor-suppressor attribute of endogenous Notch1. In aggregate, cellular senescence checkpoint functions may influence dichotomous Notch activities in the neoplastic context.

  14. INVASIVE PLANTS HARBOR HUNGRY DETRITIVORES THAT ALTER ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystems are expected to function more efficiently in response to a diverse community of inhabitants. However, biological invasions may change expected relationships between ecosystem function and diversity. We observed increased decomposition, a measure of ecosystem function...

  15. Chronic zinc deficiency alters chick gut microbiota composition and function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a prevalent micronutrient insufficiency. Although the gut is a vital organ for Zn utilization, and Zn deficiency is associated with impaired intestinal permeability and a global decrease in gastrointestinal health, alterations in the gut microbial ecology of the host under co...

  16. Hydrologic Alteration and Response of Ecosystem Functions to River Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, C. H.; Stanley, E. H.

    2005-12-01

    Stream ecology theory suggests that physical and hydrologic setting is often a dominant determinant of ecosystem structure in fluvial systems. Restorationist practitioners may work under the assumption that if the hydrologic parameters that control biological processes are restored, biotic components of interest should be restored as well. This method is sometimes called passive habitat restoration, or an eco-hydromorphic approach. An alternate to this hypothesis is that biological recovery is constrained by a number of other limitations such as distance to a source population, site history, and presence of invasive species. In this scenario, systems will not be restored by hydrologic alterations alone. To address the influence physical setting has on ecological process, we measured three specific ecological responses of streams to hydrologic manipulations separate restoration projects in Central Wisconsin. The projects shared the common trait of being primarily hydrologic alterations. We measured phosphorus retention capacity in a second-order stream before and after a pair of small dam removals, denitrification rates following the reflooding of a leveed floodplain and an approximately 50-year time series of vegetation recolonization on exposed mud flats following dam removal. In each case the measured responses showed unexpectedly large variability and there was not close correlation between physical and ecologic parameters. Such high variability in response to alterations also made it difficult to determine if the restorations met their goals. One conclusion of these studies may be that we need to move beyond hydrologic alterations to address additional manipulations to better meet the goals of specific projects.

  17. Simultaneous characterization of cellular RNA structure and function with in-cell SHAPE-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Watters, Kyle E.; Abbott, Timothy R.; Lucks, Julius B.

    2016-01-01

    Many non-coding RNAs form structures that interact with cellular machinery to control gene expression. A central goal of molecular and synthetic biology is to uncover design principles linking RNA structure to function to understand and engineer this relationship. Here we report a simple, high-throughput method called in-cell SHAPE-Seq that combines in-cell probing of RNA structure with a measurement of gene expression to simultaneously characterize RNA structure and function in bacterial cells. We use in-cell SHAPE-Seq to study the structure–function relationship of two RNA mechanisms that regulate translation in Escherichia coli. We find that nucleotides that participate in RNA–RNA interactions are highly accessible when their binding partner is absent and that changes in RNA structure due to RNA–RNA interactions can be quantitatively correlated to changes in gene expression. We also characterize the cellular structures of three endogenously expressed non-coding RNAs: 5S rRNA, RNase P and the btuB riboswitch. Finally, a comparison between in-cell and in vitro folded RNA structures revealed remarkable similarities for synthetic RNAs, but significant differences for RNAs that participate in complex cellular interactions. Thus, in-cell SHAPE-Seq represents an easily approachable tool for biologists and engineers to uncover relationships between sequence, structure and function of RNAs in the cell. PMID:26350218

  18. Simultaneous characterization of cellular RNA structure and function with in-cell SHAPE-Seq.

    PubMed

    Watters, Kyle E; Abbott, Timothy R; Lucks, Julius B

    2016-01-29

    Many non-coding RNAs form structures that interact with cellular machinery to control gene expression. A central goal of molecular and synthetic biology is to uncover design principles linking RNA structure to function to understand and engineer this relationship. Here we report a simple, high-throughput method called in-cell SHAPE-Seq that combines in-cell probing of RNA structure with a measurement of gene expression to simultaneously characterize RNA structure and function in bacterial cells. We use in-cell SHAPE-Seq to study the structure-function relationship of two RNA mechanisms that regulate translation in Escherichia coli. We find that nucleotides that participate in RNA-RNA interactions are highly accessible when their binding partner is absent and that changes in RNA structure due to RNA-RNA interactions can be quantitatively correlated to changes in gene expression. We also characterize the cellular structures of three endogenously expressed non-coding RNAs: 5S rRNA, RNase P and the btuB riboswitch. Finally, a comparison between in-cell and in vitro folded RNA structures revealed remarkable similarities for synthetic RNAs, but significant differences for RNAs that participate in complex cellular interactions. Thus, in-cell SHAPE-Seq represents an easily approachable tool for biologists and engineers to uncover relationships between sequence, structure and function of RNAs in the cell.

  19. Simultaneous characterization of cellular RNA structure and function with in-cell SHAPE-Seq.

    PubMed

    Watters, Kyle E; Abbott, Timothy R; Lucks, Julius B

    2016-01-29

    Many non-coding RNAs form structures that interact with cellular machinery to control gene expression. A central goal of molecular and synthetic biology is to uncover design principles linking RNA structure to function to understand and engineer this relationship. Here we report a simple, high-throughput method called in-cell SHAPE-Seq that combines in-cell probing of RNA structure with a measurement of gene expression to simultaneously characterize RNA structure and function in bacterial cells. We use in-cell SHAPE-Seq to study the structure-function relationship of two RNA mechanisms that regulate translation in Escherichia coli. We find that nucleotides that participate in RNA-RNA interactions are highly accessible when their binding partner is absent and that changes in RNA structure due to RNA-RNA interactions can be quantitatively correlated to changes in gene expression. We also characterize the cellular structures of three endogenously expressed non-coding RNAs: 5S rRNA, RNase P and the btuB riboswitch. Finally, a comparison between in-cell and in vitro folded RNA structures revealed remarkable similarities for synthetic RNAs, but significant differences for RNAs that participate in complex cellular interactions. Thus, in-cell SHAPE-Seq represents an easily approachable tool for biologists and engineers to uncover relationships between sequence, structure and function of RNAs in the cell. PMID:26350218

  20. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, romidepsin, suppresses cellular immune functions of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Sell, Michael J; Kim, Youn H; Straus, Suzanne; Benoit, Bernice; Harrison, Cameron; Sutherland, Katherine; Armstrong, Randall; Weng, Wen-Kai; Showe, Louise C; Wysocka, Maria; Rook, Alain H

    2012-04-01

    Romidepsin is the second histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) approved for the treatment of advanced stages of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Recent in vitro data suggest that HDACis suppress immune function although these findings have not been confirmed in patients. Thus, we serially examined the cellular immune function of eight CTCL patients undergoing treatment with three cycles of romidepsin. We measured the patients' natural killer (NK) and dendritic cell (DC) function and performed an in vitro terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay to measure cellular apoptosis. Patients' NK cell cytolytic activity decreased from baseline to the third cycle of treatment (P = 0.018) but stimulation with a toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist increased this activity (P = 0.018). At baseline, a TLR agonist could both activate patients' DC (P = 0.043) and stimulate interleukin-12 protein production (P = 0.043) but both were suppressed after the first cycle of romidepsin. Finally, we observed increased specificity for romidepsin-induced CD4+ tumor cell apoptosis and dose-dependent increases in cellular apoptosis of healthy cells in multiple lineages (P < 0.05). These findings raise concern that HDACis suppress immune function in CTCL patients and they support the concurrent use of multiple immune stimulatory agents to preserve the host immune response.

  1. Cellular resolution functional imaging in behaving rats using voluntary head restraint

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Benjamin B.; Brody, Carlos D.; Tank, David W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY High-throughput operant conditioning systems for rodents provide efficient training on sophisticated behavioral tasks. Combining these systems with technologies for cellular resolution functional imaging would provide a powerful approach to study neural dynamics during behavior. Here we describe an integrated two-photon microscope and behavioral apparatus that allows cellular resolution functional imaging of cortical regions during epochs of voluntary head restraint. Rats were trained to initiate periods of restraint up to 8 seconds in duration, which provided the mechanical stability necessary for in vivo imaging while allowing free movement between behavioral trials. A mechanical registration system repositioned the head to within a few microns, allowing the same neuronal populations to be imaged on each trial. In proof-of-principle experiments, calcium dependent fluorescence transients were recorded from GCaMP-labeled cortical neurons. In contrast to previous methods for head restraint, this system can also be incorporated into high-throughput operant conditioning systems. PMID:24055015

  2. PIP1 plasma membrane aquaporins in tobacco: from cellular effects to function in plants.

    PubMed

    Siefritz, Franka; Tyree, Melvin T; Lovisolo, Claudio; Schubert, Andrea; Kaldenhoff, Ralf

    2002-04-01

    The molecular functions of several aquaporins are well characterized (e.g., by analysis of aquaporin-expressing Xenopus oocytes). However, their significance in the physiology of water transport in multicellular organisms remains uncertain. The tobacco plasma membrane aquaporin NtAQP1 was used to elucidate this issue. By comparing antisense plants that were inhibited in NtAQP1 expression with control plants, we found evidence for NtAQP1 function in cellular and whole-plant water relations. The consequences of a decrease in cellular water permeability were determined by measurement of transpiration rate and stem and leaf water potential as well as growth experiments under extreme soil water depletion. Plants impaired in NtAQP1 expression showed reduced root hydraulic conductivity and lower water stress resistance. In conclusion, our results emphasize the importance of symplastic aquaporin-mediated water transport in whole-plant water relations. PMID:11971141

  3. Inhibitory effects of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 on cellular functions of sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Araki, Mutsumi; Kitayoshi, Misaho; Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Ozaki, Shuhei; Mori, Shiori; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Honoki, Kanya; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that interacts with G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA receptor-1 (LPA1) to LPA6). Here, we investigated the effects of LPA signaling via LPA5 on cellular functions of sarcoma cells by generating Lpar5 overexpressing and Lpar5 knockdown cells from rat osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma cells, respectively. The cell motility activity of Lpar5 overexpressing cells was significantly lower, while Lpar5 knockdown cells showed high cell motility, compared with respective controls. Gelatin zymography showed that LPA5 suppressed the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2. LPA5 also inhibited the cell motility activity of endothelial cells, correlating with the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor genes. These results suggest that LPA signaling via LPA5 negatively regulates the cellular functions of rat sarcoma cells. PMID:24798396

  4. Functional, biochemical and morphological alterations in the intestines of rats with an experimental blind-loop syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bloch, R; Menge, H; Lorenz-Meyer, H; Stöckert, H G; Riecken, E O

    1975-11-26

    In rat self-filling blind loops and in the contiguous regions of the intestinal tract, considerable functional impairment, accompanied by pronounced morphological transformations of the mucosa, has been observed. The histological alterations consist of mucosal hypertrophy and a reduction in the villus height: crypt length ratio, which is indicative of a hyper-regenerative change. Various enzyme activities of the epithelial cells are reduced and the absorption otinal juices is greatly altered in favour of the free acids. Two mec,anisms have 0een dicids, or meta0olites from bacterial degradation, on the absorptive epithelium; 2. Reduced cellular maturity in response to the effect of bile acids and/or bacteria on the lifespan of the cells.

  5. Prenatal ethanol consumption alters the expression of cellular retinol binding protein and retinoic acid receptor mRNA in fetal rat embryo and brain.

    PubMed

    Grummer, M A; Zachman, R D

    1995-12-01

    The mechanism by which prenatal ethanol ingestion causes fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is unknown. We hypothesize that ethanol disrupts the normal function of retinoids in embryogenesis and differentiation, resulting in FAS. The present work was designed to determine if prenatal ethanol ingestion affects the expression of cellular retinol binding protein (CRBP) and nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Paired timed pregnant rats were fed a liquid diet, one group treated with 36% of carbohydrate calories replaced with ethanol. Maternal serum retinol concentrations during pregnancy peaked on the 6th day of pregnancy, but no difference was noted between the ethanol and control group. At the 12th and 20th day of gestation, embryos or fetal brain were removed, and RNA was isolated for Northern hybridization. The abundance of CRBP mRNA was significantly elevated by ethanol consumption. In both the 12-day embryo (relative density of control: 1.00 +/- 0.10; vs. ethanol: 1.87 +/- 0.30, p < 0.05) and 20-day fetal brain (relative density of control: 1.00 +/- 0.09; vs. ethanol: 1.46 +/- 0.09, p < 0.01). In the embryo, ethanol ingestion resulted in a decrease in the level of RAR-beta mRNA (control: 1.00 +/- 0.05; vs. ethanol: 0.71 +/- 0.07, p < 0.01), but had no effect on RAR-alpha or RAR-gamma mRNA. In contrast to the embryo, the expression of both the 3.7- and 2.7-kb RAR-alpha transcripts was significantly greater in day 20 fetal brain of ethanol-treated rats (3.7-kb RAR-alpha control: 1.00 +/- 0.11; vs. ethanol: 1.65 +/- 0.06; p < 0.001; 2.7-kb RAR-alpha control: 1.00 +/- 0.14; vs. ethanol: 1.74 +/- 0.27, p < 0.05), whereas RAR-beta and RAR-gamma expression were not altered. These observations suggest that altered vitamin A function is a potential factor in the embryopathy of prenatal ethanol exposure. PMID:8749798

  6. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastida, F.; Selevsek, N.; Torres, I. F.; Hernández, T.; García, C.

    2015-10-01

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures.

  7. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Bastida, F; Selevsek, N; Torres, I F; Hernández, T; García, C

    2015-10-27

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures.

  8. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes

    PubMed Central

    Bastida, F.; Selevsek, N.; Torres, I. F.; Hernández, T.; García, C.

    2015-01-01

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures. PMID:26503516

  9. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Bastida, F; Selevsek, N; Torres, I F; Hernández, T; García, C

    2015-01-01

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures. PMID:26503516

  10. Warming Alters Expressions of Microbial Functional Genes Important to Ecosystem Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Kai; Xie, Jianping; Zhou, Aifen; Liu, Feifei; Li, Dejun; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play critical roles in ecosystem functioning and are likely altered by climate warming. However, so far, little is known about effects of warming on microbial functional gene expressions. Here, we applied functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to analyze cDNA reversely transcribed from total RNA to assess expressed functional genes in active soil microbial communities after nine years of experimental warming in a tallgrass prairie. Our results showed that warming significantly altered the community wide gene expressions. Specifically, expressed genes for degrading more recalcitrant carbon were stimulated by warming, likely linked to the plant community shift toward more C4 species under warming and to decrease the long-term soil carbon stability. In addition, warming changed expressed genes in labile C degradation and N cycling in different directions (increase and decrease), possibly reflecting the dynamics of labile C and available N pools during sampling. However, the average abundances of expressed genes in phosphorus and sulfur cycling were all increased by warming, implying a stable trend of accelerated P and S processes which might be a mechanism to sustain higher plant growth. Furthermore, the expressed gene composition was closely related to both dynamic (e.g., soil moisture) and stable environmental attributes (e.g., C4 leaf C or N content), indicating that RNA analyses could also capture certain stable trends in the long-term treatment. Overall, this study revealed the importance of elucidating functional gene expressions of soil microbial community in enhancing our understanding of ecosystem responses to warming. PMID:27199978

  11. Warming Alters Expressions of Microbial Functional Genes Important to Ecosystem Functioning.

    PubMed

    Xue, Kai; Xie, Jianping; Zhou, Aifen; Liu, Feifei; Li, Dejun; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play critical roles in ecosystem functioning and are likely altered by climate warming. However, so far, little is known about effects of warming on microbial functional gene expressions. Here, we applied functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to analyze cDNA reversely transcribed from total RNA to assess expressed functional genes in active soil microbial communities after nine years of experimental warming in a tallgrass prairie. Our results showed that warming significantly altered the community wide gene expressions. Specifically, expressed genes for degrading more recalcitrant carbon were stimulated by warming, likely linked to the plant community shift toward more C4 species under warming and to decrease the long-term soil carbon stability. In addition, warming changed expressed genes in labile C degradation and N cycling in different directions (increase and decrease), possibly reflecting the dynamics of labile C and available N pools during sampling. However, the average abundances of expressed genes in phosphorus and sulfur cycling were all increased by warming, implying a stable trend of accelerated P and S processes which might be a mechanism to sustain higher plant growth. Furthermore, the expressed gene composition was closely related to both dynamic (e.g., soil moisture) and stable environmental attributes (e.g., C4 leaf C or N content), indicating that RNA analyses could also capture certain stable trends in the long-term treatment. Overall, this study revealed the importance of elucidating functional gene expressions of soil microbial community in enhancing our understanding of ecosystem responses to warming.

  12. Functions of the cellular prion protein, the end of Moore's law, and Ockham's razor theory

    PubMed Central

    del Río, José A.; Gavín, Rosalina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since its discovery the cellular prion protein (encoded by the Prnp gene) has been associated with a large number of functions. The proposed functions rank from basic cellular processes such as cell cycle and survival to neural functions such as behavior and neuroprotection, following a pattern similar to that of Moore's law for electronics. In addition, particular interest is increasing in the participation of Prnp in neurodegeneration. However, in recent years a redefinition of these functions has begun, since examples of previously attributed functions were increasingly re-associated with other proteins. Most of these functions are linked to so-called “Prnp-flanking genes” that are close to the genomic locus of Prnp and which are present in the genome of some Prnp mouse models. In addition, their role in neuroprotection against convulsive insults has been confirmed in recent studies. Lastly, in recent years a large number of models indicating the participation of different domains of the protein in apoptosis have been uncovered. However, after more than 10 years of molecular dissection our view is that the simplest mechanistic model in PrPC-mediated cell death should be considered, as Ockham's razor theory suggested. PMID:26890218

  13. Functions of the cellular prion protein, the end of Moore's law, and Ockham's razor theory.

    PubMed

    del Río, José A; Gavín, Rosalina

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery the cellular prion protein (encoded by the Prnp gene) has been associated with a large number of functions. The proposed functions rank from basic cellular processes such as cell cycle and survival to neural functions such as behavior and neuroprotection, following a pattern similar to that of Moore's law for electronics. In addition, particular interest is increasing in the participation of Prnp in neurodegeneration. However, in recent years a redefinition of these functions has begun, since examples of previously attributed functions were increasingly re-associated with other proteins. Most of these functions are linked to so-called "Prnp-flanking genes" that are close to the genomic locus of Prnp and which are present in the genome of some Prnp mouse models. In addition, their role in neuroprotection against convulsive insults has been confirmed in recent studies. Lastly, in recent years a large number of models indicating the participation of different domains of the protein in apoptosis have been uncovered. However, after more than 10 years of molecular dissection our view is that the simplest mechanistic model in PrP(C)-mediated cell death should be considered, as Ockham's razor theory suggested.

  14. The effect of oxidant and the non-oxidant alteration of cellular thiol concentration on the formation of protein mixed-disulfides in HEK 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Gilge, Jasen Lee; Fisher, Michael; Chai, Yuh-Cherng

    2008-01-01

    Cellular molecules possess various mechanisms in responding to oxidant stress. In terms of protein responses, protein S-glutathionylation is a unique post-translational modification of protein reactive cysteines forming disulfides with glutathione molecules. This modification has been proposed to play roles in antioxidant, regulatory and signaling in cells under oxidant stress. Recently, the increased level of protein S-glutathionylation has been linked with the development of diseases. In this report, specific S-glutathionylated proteins were demonstrated in human embryonic kidney 293 cells treated with two different oxidative reagents: diamide and hydrogen peroxide. Diamide is a chemical oxidizing agent whereas hydrogen peroxide is a physiological oxidant. Under the experimental conditions, these two oxidants decreased glutathione concentration without toxicity. S-glutathionylated proteins were detected by immunoblotting and glutathione concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. We further show the effect of alteration of the cellular thiol pool on the amount of protein S-glutathionylation in oxidant-treated cells. Cellular thiol concentrations were altered either by a specific way using buthionine sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis or by a non-specific way, incubating cells in cystine-methionine deficient media. Cells only treated with either buthionine sulfoximine or cystine-methionine deficient media did not induce protein S-glutathionylation, even though both conditions decreased 65% of cellular glutathione. Moreover, the amount of protein S-glutathionylation under both conditions in the presence of oxidants was not altered when compared to the amount observed in regular media with oxidants present. Protein S-glutathionylation is a dynamic reaction which depends on the rate of adding and removing glutathione. Phenylarsine oxide, which specifically forms a covalent adduct with vicinal thiols, was used

  15. Mitochondrial function is altered in horse atypical myopathy.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Hélène; Boemer, François; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Amory, Hélène; Baise, Etienne; Cassart, Dominique; van Loon, Gunther; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel; Votion, Dominique-M

    2016-09-01

    Equine atypical myopathy in Europe is a fatal rhabdomyolysis syndrome that results from the ingestion of hypoglycin A contained in seeds and seedlings of Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple). Acylcarnitine concentrations in serum and muscle OXPHOS capacity were determined in 15 atypical myopathy cases. All but one acylcarnitine were out of reference range and mitochondrial respiratory capacity was severely decreased up to 49% as compared to 10 healthy controls. The hallmark of atypical myopathy thus consists of a severe alteration in the energy metabolism including a severe impairment in muscle mitochondrial respiration that could contribute to its high death rate. PMID:27374763

  16. PI3K-Akt pathway: its functions and alterations in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Osaki, M; Oshimura, M; Ito, H

    2004-11-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is a lipid kinase and generates phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3, 4, 5)P3). PI(3, 4, 5)P3 is a second messenger essential for the translocation of Akt to the plasma membrane where it is phosphorylated and activated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK) 1 and PDK2. Activation of Akt plays a pivotal role in fundamental cellular functions such as cell proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a variety of substrates. In recent years, it has been reported that alterations to the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway are frequent in human cancer. Constitutive activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway occurs due to amplification of the PIK3C gene encoding PI3K or the Akt gene, or as a result of mutations in components of the pathway, for example PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10), which inhibit the activation of Akt. Several small molecules designed to specifically target PI3K-Akt have been developed, and induced cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo . Moreover, the combination of an inhibitor with various cytotoxic agents enhances the anti-tumor efficacy. Therefore, specific inhibition of the activation of Akt may be a valid approach to treating human malignancies and overcoming the resistance of cancer cells to radiation or chemotherapy. PMID:15505410

  17. Overexpression of mitochondrial sirtuins alters glycolysis and mitochondrial function in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Michelle Barbi; Uppala, Radha; Zhang, Yuxun; Van Houten, Bennett; Goetzman, Eric S

    2014-01-01

    SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are mitochondrial deacylases that impact multiple facets of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. SIRT3 activates several mitochondrial enzymes, SIRT4 represses its targets, and SIRT5 has been shown to both activate and repress mitochondrial enzymes. To gain insight into the relative effects of the mitochondrial sirtuins in governing mitochondrial energy metabolism, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 overexpressing HEK293 cells were directly compared. When grown under standard cell culture conditions (25 mM glucose) all three sirtuins induced increases in mitochondrial respiration, glycolysis, and glucose oxidation, but with no change in growth rate or in steady-state ATP concentration. Increased proton leak, as evidenced by oxygen consumption in the presence of oligomycin, appeared to explain much of the increase in basal oxygen utilization. Growth in 5 mM glucose normalized the elevations in basal oxygen consumption, proton leak, and glycolysis in all sirtuin over-expressing cells. While the above effects were common to all three mitochondrial sirtuins, some differences between the SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 expressing cells were noted. Only SIRT3 overexpression affected fatty acid metabolism, and only SIRT4 overexpression altered superoxide levels and mitochondrial membrane potential. We conclude that all three mitochondrial sirtuins can promote increased mitochondrial respiration and cellular metabolism. SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 appear to respond to excess glucose by inducing a coordinated increase of glycolysis and respiration, with the excess energy dissipated via proton leak.

  18. [Monocyte functional activity and nonspecific antiviral cellular resistance in adaptation to the conditions of eastern Siberia].

    PubMed

    Zhiburt, E B; Filev, L V; Boĭchak, M P; Volchek, I V; Iakovlev, G P

    1993-01-01

    Monocyte functional activity and antiviral cellular resistance were studied in the newcomers to the Baikal region from the European Russia. A total of 105 patients with acute respiratory diseases and 30 normal subjects were examined. 46 healthy residents of St. Petersburg made up the reference group. The process of adaptation was found to be associated with changes in the functional activity of the immunocompetent cells. The authors came to a conclusion on the principal role of viral injury of the monocytes in the development of acute bronchitis or pneumonia.

  19. Functional connectivity estimation over large networks at cellular resolution based on electrophysiological recordings and structural prior

    PubMed Central

    Ullo, Simona; Nieus, Thierry R.; Sona, Diego; Maccione, Alessandro; Berdondini, Luca; Murino, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Despite many structural and functional aspects of the brain organization have been extensively studied in neuroscience, we are still far from a clear understanding of the intricate structure-function interactions occurring in the multi-layered brain architecture, where billions of different neurons are involved. Although structure and function can individually convey a large amount of information, only a combined study of these two aspects can probably shade light on how brain circuits develop and operate at the cellular scale. Here, we propose a novel approach for refining functional connectivity estimates within neuronal networks using the structural connectivity as prior. This is done at the mesoscale, dealing with thousands of neurons while reaching, at the microscale, an unprecedented cellular resolution. The High-Density Micro Electrode Array (HD-MEA) technology, combined with fluorescence microscopy, offers the unique opportunity to acquire structural and functional data from large neuronal cultures approaching the granularity of the single cell. In this work, an advanced method based on probabilistic directional features and heat propagation is introduced to estimate the structural connectivity from the fluorescence image while functional connectivity graphs are obtained from the cross-correlation analysis of the spiking activity. Structural and functional information are then integrated by reweighting the functional connectivity graph based on the structural prior. Results show that the resulting functional connectivity estimates are more coherent with the network topology, as compared to standard measures purely based on cross-correlations and spatio-temporal filters. We finally use the obtained results to gain some insights on which features of the functional activity are more relevant to characterize actual neuronal interactions. PMID:25477790

  20. Functional connectivity estimation over large networks at cellular resolution based on electrophysiological recordings and structural prior.

    PubMed

    Ullo, Simona; Nieus, Thierry R; Sona, Diego; Maccione, Alessandro; Berdondini, Luca; Murino, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Despite many structural and functional aspects of the brain organization have been extensively studied in neuroscience, we are still far from a clear understanding of the intricate structure-function interactions occurring in the multi-layered brain architecture, where billions of different neurons are involved. Although structure and function can individually convey a large amount of information, only a combined study of these two aspects can probably shade light on how brain circuits develop and operate at the cellular scale. Here, we propose a novel approach for refining functional connectivity estimates within neuronal networks using the structural connectivity as prior. This is done at the mesoscale, dealing with thousands of neurons while reaching, at the microscale, an unprecedented cellular resolution. The High-Density Micro Electrode Array (HD-MEA) technology, combined with fluorescence microscopy, offers the unique opportunity to acquire structural and functional data from large neuronal cultures approaching the granularity of the single cell. In this work, an advanced method based on probabilistic directional features and heat propagation is introduced to estimate the structural connectivity from the fluorescence image while functional connectivity graphs are obtained from the cross-correlation analysis of the spiking activity. Structural and functional information are then integrated by reweighting the functional connectivity graph based on the structural prior. Results show that the resulting functional connectivity estimates are more coherent with the network topology, as compared to standard measures purely based on cross-correlations and spatio-temporal filters. We finally use the obtained results to gain some insights on which features of the functional activity are more relevant to characterize actual neuronal interactions. PMID:25477790

  1. Chronic Zinc Deficiency Alters Chick Gut Microbiota Composition and Function.

    PubMed

    Reed, Spenser; Neuman, Hadar; Moscovich, Sharon; Glahn, Raymond P; Koren, Omry; Tako, Elad

    2015-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a prevalent micronutrient insufficiency. Although the gut is a vital organ for Zn utilization, and Zn deficiency is associated with impaired intestinal permeability and a global decrease in gastrointestinal health, alterations in the gut microbial ecology of the host under conditions of Zn deficiency have yet to be studied. Using the broiler chicken (Gallus gallus) model, the aim of this study was to characterize distinct cecal microbiota shifts induced by chronic dietary Zn depletion. We demonstrate that Zn deficiency induces significant taxonomic alterations and decreases overall species richness and diversity, establishing a microbial profile resembling that of various other pathological states. Through metagenomic analysis, we show that predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways responsible for macro- and micronutrient uptake are significantly depleted under Zn deficiency; along with concomitant decreases in beneficial short chain fatty acids, such depletions may further preclude optimal host Zn availability. We also identify several candidate microbes that may play a significant role in modulating the bioavailability and utilization of dietary Zn during prolonged deficiency. Our results are the first to characterize a unique and dysbiotic cecal microbiota during Zn deficiency, and provide evidence for such microbial perturbations as potential effectors of the Zn deficient phenotype. PMID:26633470

  2. THE MITOCHONDRIAL PARADIGM FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY AND CELLULAR FUNCTION: A COMPLEMENTARY CONCEPT TO MENDELIAN GENETICS

    PubMed Central

    Kryzwanski, David M.; Moellering, Douglas; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J.; Sammy, Melissa J.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    While there is general agreement that cardiovascular disease (CVD) development is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral contributors, the actual mechanistic basis of how these factors initiate or promote CVD development in some individuals while others with identical risk profiles do not, is not clearly understood. This review considers the potential role for mitochondrial genetics and function in determining CVD susceptibility from the standpoint that the original features that molded cellular function were based upon mitochondrial-nuclear relationships established millions of years ago and were likely refined during prehistoric environmental selection events that today, are largely absent. Consequently, contemporary risk factors that influence our susceptibility to a variety of age-related diseases, including CVD were probably not part of the dynamics that defined the processes of mitochondrial – nuclear interaction, and thus, cell function. In this regard, the selective conditions that contributed to cellular functionality and evolution should be given more consideration when interpreting and designing experimental data and strategies. Finally, future studies that probe beyond epidemiologic associations are required. These studies will serve as the initial steps for addressing the provocative concept that contemporary human disease susceptibility is the result of selection events for mitochondrial function that increased chances for prehistoric human survival and reproductive success. PMID:21647091

  3. Cellular effect evaluation of micropollutants using transporter functions of renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianghao; Lee, Yu Jin; Han, Ho Jae; Kim, In S

    2009-11-01

    Issues pertaining to the effects of micropollutants in reclaimed water are arising in terms of their effect on human health. However, current cellular methodologies face some difficulties to detect subtle effects of waterborne micropollutants at environmental concentrations (ngL(-1)-microgL(-1)) on human and animal cells. In this study, an appropriate cellular model capable of detecting the subtle effects of aquatic micropollutants at environmental concentrations using the functions of primary cultured rabbit renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs) is proposed. Tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP) was chosen as the representative micropollutant from eight typical micropollutants via lactate dehydrogenase assay. TCEP significantly decreased not only ion (sodium, calcium, and phosphate) uptake from 10(-2) mg L(-1) (64.8-82.5%, 60.4-68.8%, and 91.9-93.8% of the control, respectively), but also the expression of ion transporters (NHE-3 and L-type Ca channel) from 10(-2) mg L(-1) (53.9-87.4% and 38.6-63.6% of the control, respectively). Moreover, TCEP significantly decreased both the non-ion (glucose, fructose, and l-arginine) uptake and the expression of non-ion transporters (SGLT 1, GLUT 5, and rBAT) from 10(-2) mg L(-1). Therefore, the results demonstrated that the function of PTCs as a cellular model can be used to determine subtle effects of environmental micropollutants at low concentrations. PMID:19729184

  4. Control of leucocyte function-associated antigen-1-dependent cellular conjugation by divalent cations.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, A M; Alexandroff, A B; Lappin, M B; Esuvaranathan, K; James, K; Chisholm, G D

    1994-01-01

    The control of integrin activation is fundamental to an understanding of the integrin-dependent cellular adhesion thought to be important for a plethora of basic cellular functions. Using a cell-cell conjugation assay the role of divalent cations in leucocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1)-dependent cellular adhesion was further investigated. The conjugation of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-activated lymphocytes to tumour cells was found to be energy dependent and required the presence of various divalent cations, removal of which decreased the level of conjugation. Increased concentrations of calcium, magnesium and manganese ions resulted in a corresponding increase in levels of conjugation. This increase in conjugation was LFA-1 dependent. Interestingly, when calcium ions were first removed from LFA-1, treatment of lymphocytes with magnesium and manganese ions gave significantly higher levels of conjugation than in the presence of calcium. Using a simple displacement study, calcium ions were shown to displace magnesium ions resulting in decreased conjugation. However, calcium ions were unable to displace manganese ions for binding to LFA-1. That manganese was exerting its effect via an LFA-1-dependent mechanism was confirmed using monoclonal antibodies to CD11a which negated the increased conjugation frequency due to manganese. PMID:7907574

  5. miR clusters target cellular functional complexes by defining their degree of regulatory freedom.

    PubMed

    Haier, Jörg; Ströse, Anda; Matuszcak, Christiane; Hummel, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Using the two paralog miR-23∼27∼24 clusters as an example and combining experimental and clinical data in a systematical approach to microRNA (miR) function and dysregulation, a complex picture of their roles in cancer is drawn. Various findings appear to be contradictory to a larger extent and cannot be fully explained by the classical regulatory network models and feedback loops that are mainly considered by one-to-one regulatory interactions of the involved molecules. Here, we propose an extended model of the regulatory role of miRs that, at least, supplements the usually considered single/oligo-target regulation of certain miRs. The cellular availability of the participating miR members in this model reflects an upper hierarchy level of intracellular and extracellular environmental influences, such as neighboring cells, soluble factors, hypoxia, chemotherapeutic drugs, and irradiation, among others. The novel model is based on the understanding of cellular functional complexes, such as for apoptosis, migration, and proliferation. These complexes consist of many regulatory components that can be targeted by miR cluster members to a different extent but may affect the functional complex in different ways. We propose that the final miR-related effect is a result of the possible degree of regulatory freedom provided by the miR effects on the whole functional complex structure. This degree of regulatory freedom defines to which extent the cellular functional complex can react in response to regulatory triggers, also understood as sensitization (more regulatory response options) or de-sensitization (less regulatory response options) of the system rather than single molecules.

  6. Alteration of some cellular function in amikacin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa transfected macrophages: a time dependent approach

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; KarMahapatra, Santanu; Das, Sabyasachi; Roy, Somenath

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the free radical generation and antioxidant enzymes status in murine peritoneal macrophage during in vitro amikacin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ARPA) treatment with different time interval. Methods Peritoneal macrophages were treated with 1×108 CFU/mL ARPA cell suspension in vitro for different time interval (1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h) and super oxide anion generation, NO generation, reduced glutathione level and antioxidant enzymes status were analyzed. Results Super oxide anion generation and NO generation got peak at 12 h, indicating maximal free radical generation through activation of NADPH oxidase in murine peritoneal macrophages during ARPA transfection. Reduced glutathione level and antioxidant enzymes status were decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing time of ARPA transfection. All the changes in peritoneal macrophages after 12 h in vitro ARPA transfection had significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusions From this study, it may be summarized that in vitro ARPA infection not only generates excess free radical but also affects the antioxidant system and glutathione cycle in murine peritoneal macrophage. PMID:23569818

  7. Expression of virus-encoded proteinases: functional and structural similarities with cellular enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, W G; Semler, B L

    1993-01-01

    Many viruses express their genome, or part of their genome, initially as a polyprotein precursor that undergoes proteolytic processing. Molecular genetic analyses of viral gene expression have revealed that many of these processing events are mediated by virus-encoded proteinases. Biochemical activity studies and structural analyses of these viral enzymes reveal that they have remarkable similarities to cellular proteinases. However, the viral proteinases have evolved unique features that permit them to function in a cellular environment. In this article, the current status of plant and animal virus proteinases is described along with their role in the viral replication cycle. The reactions catalyzed by viral proteinases are not simple enzyme-substrate interactions; rather, the processing steps are highly regulated, are coordinated with other viral processes, and frequently involve the participation of other factors. Images PMID:8302216

  8. Altered adipocyte structure and function in nutritionally programmed microswine offspring

    PubMed Central

    DuPriest, E. A.; Kupfer, P.; Lin, B.; Sekiguchi, K.; Morgan, T. K.; Saunders, K. E.; Chatkupt, T. T.; Denisenko, O. N.; Purnell, J. Q.; Bagby, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction links obesity of any cause with cardiometabolic disease, but whether early-life nutritional deficiency can program adipocyte dysfunction independently of obesity is untested. In 3–5-month-old juvenile microswine offspring exposed to isocaloric perinatal maternal protein restriction (MPR) and exhibiting accelerated prepubertal fat accrual without obesity, we assessed markers of acquired obesity: adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels and adipocyte size in intra-abdominal (ABD-AT) and subcutaneous (SC-AT) adipose tissues. Plasma cortisol, leptin and insulin levels were measured in fetal, neonatal and juvenile offspring. In juvenile low-protein offspring (LPO), adipocyte size in ABD-AT was reduced 22% (P=0.011 v. controls), whereas adipocyte size in SC-AT was increased in female LPO (P=0.05) and normal in male LPO; yet, adiponectin mRNA in LPO was low in both sexes and in both depots (P<0.001). Plasma leptin (P=0.004) and cortisol (P<0.05) were reduced only in neonatal LPO during MPR. In juveniles, correlations between % body fat and adiponectin mRNA, TNF-α mRNA or plasma leptin were significant in normal-protein offspring (NPO) but absent in LPO. Plasma glucose in juvenile LPO was increased in males but decreased in females (interaction, P=0.023); plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity were unaffected. Findings support nutritional programming of adipocyte size and gene expression and subtly altered glucose homeostasis. Reduced adiponectin mRNA and adipokine dysregulation in juvenile LPO following accelerated growth occurred independently of obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy or inflammatory markers; thus, perinatal MPR and/or growth acceleration can alter adipocyte structure and disturb adipokine homeostasis in metabolically adverse patterns predictive of enhanced disease risk. PMID:25102010

  9. Understanding the Cellular Function of TRPV2 Channel through Generation of Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Matthew R.; Huynh, Kevin W.; Cawley, Daniel; Moiseenkova-Bell, Vera Y.

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) is a Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channel proposed to play a critical role in a wide array of cellular processes. Although TRPV2 surface expression was originally determined to be sensitive to growth factor signaling, regulated trafficking of TRPV2 has remained controversial. TRPV2 has proven difficult to study due to the lack of specific pharmacological tools to modulate channel activity; therefore, most studies of the cellular function of TRPV2 rely on immuno-detection techniques. Polyclonal antibodies against TRPV2 have not been properly validated and characterized, which may contribute to conflicting results regarding its function in the cell. Here, we developed monoclonal antibodies using full-length TRPV2 as an antigen. Extensive characterization of these antibodies and comparison to commonly used commercially available TRPV2 antibodies revealed that while monoclonal antibodies generated in our laboratory were suitable for detection of endogenous TRPV2 by western blot, immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry, the commercially available polyclonal antibodies we tested were not able to recognize endogenous TRPV2. We used our newly generated and validated TRPV2 antibodies to determine the effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on TRPV2 surface expression in heterologous and endogenous expression systems. We found that IGF-1 had little to no effect on trafficking and plasma membrane expression of TRPV2. Overall, these new TRPV2 monoclonal antibodies served to dispel the controversy of the effects of IGF-1 on TRPV2 plasma membrane expression and will clarify the role TRPV2 plays in cellular function. Furthermore, our strategy of using full-length tetrameric TRP channels may allow for the generation of antibodies against other TRP channels of unclear function. PMID:24392006

  10. New structural and functional defects in polyphosphate deficient bacteria: A cellular and proteomic study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polymer of tens or hundreds of phosphate residues linked by ATP-like bonds, is found in all organisms and performs a wide variety of functions. PolyP is synthesized in bacterial cells by the actions of polyphosphate kinases (PPK1 and PPK2) and degraded by exopolyphosphatase (PPX). Bacterial cells with polyP deficiencies due to knocking out the ppk1 gene are affected in many structural and important cellular functions such as motility, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence among others. The cause of this pleiotropy is not entirely understood. Results The overexpression of exopolyphosphatase in bacteria mimicked some pleitropic defects found in ppk1 mutants. By using this approach we found new structural and functional defects in the polyP-accumulating bacteria Pseudomonas sp. B4, which are most likely due to differences in the polyP-removal strategy. Colony morphology phenotype, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure changes and cellular division malfunction were observed. Finally, we used comparative proteomics in order to elucidate the cellular adjustments that occurred during polyP deficiency in this bacterium and found some clues that helped to understand the structural and functional defects observed. Conclusions The results obtained suggest that during polyP deficiency energy metabolism and particularly nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) formation were affected and that bacterial cells overcame this problem by increasing the flux of energy-generating metabolic pathways such as tricarboxilic acid (TCA) cycle, β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and by reducing energy-consuming ones such as active transporters and amino acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, our results suggest that a general stress response also took place in the cell during polyP deficiency. PMID:20067623

  11. Molecular and cellular functions of the FANCJ DNA helicase defective in cancer and in Fanconi anemia

    PubMed Central

    Brosh, Robert M.; Cantor, Sharon B.

    2014-01-01

    The FANCJ DNA helicase is mutated in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer as well as the progressive bone marrow failure disorder Fanconi anemia (FA). FANCJ is linked to cancer suppression and DNA double strand break repair through its direct interaction with the hereditary breast cancer associated gene product, BRCA1. FANCJ also operates in the FA pathway of interstrand cross-link repair and contributes to homologous recombination. FANCJ collaborates with a number of DNA metabolizing proteins implicated in DNA damage detection and repair, and plays an important role in cell cycle checkpoint control. In addition to its role in the classical FA pathway, FANCJ is believed to have other functions that are centered on alleviating replication stress. FANCJ resolves G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures that are known to affect cellular replication and transcription, and potentially play a role in the preservation and functionality of chromosomal structures such as telomeres. Recent studies suggest that FANCJ helps to maintain chromatin structure and preserve epigenetic stability by facilitating smooth progression of the replication fork when it encounters DNA damage or an alternate DNA structure such as a G4. Ongoing studies suggest a prominent but still not well-understood role of FANCJ in transcriptional regulation, chromosomal structure and function, and DNA damage repair to maintain genomic stability. This review will synthesize our current understanding of the molecular and cellular functions of FANCJ that are critical for chromosomal integrity. PMID:25374583

  12. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Elucidating Neurocognitive Basis of Functional Impairments Associated with Intellectual Disability in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachidi, Mohammed; Lopes, Carmela

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome, the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability, is associated with brain disorders due to chromosome 21 gene overdosage. Molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the neuromorphological alterations and cognitive impairments are reported herein in a global model. Recent advances in Down syndrome research have lead to…

  13. Radiation-induced functional connectivity alterations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiongmin; Wu, Donglin; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Hu, Dewen; Qiu, Shijun

    2016-07-01

    The study aims to investigate the radiation-induced brain functional alterations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who received radiotherapy (RT) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and statistic scale.The fMRI data of 35 NPC patients with RT and 24 demographically matched untreated NPC patients were acquired. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was also measured to evaluate their global cognition performance. Multivariate pattern analysis was performed to find the significantly altered functional connections between these 2 groups, while the linear correlation level was detected between the altered functional connections and the MoCA scores.Forty-five notably altered functional connections were found, which were mainly located between 3 brain networks, the cerebellum, sensorimotor, and cingulo-opercular. With strictly false discovery rate correction, 5 altered functional connections were shown to have significant linear correlations with the MoCA scores, that is, the connections between the vermis and hippocampus, cerebellum lobule VI and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus and dorsal frontal cortex, cuneus and middle occipital lobe, and insula and cuneus. Besides, the connectivity between the vermis and hippocampus was also significantly correlated with the attention score, 1 of the 7 subscores of the MoCA.The present study provides new insights into the radiation-induced functional connectivity impairments in NPC patients. The results showed that the RT may induce the cognitive impairments, especially the attention alterations. The 45 altered functional connections, especially the 5 altered functional connections that were significantly correlated to the MoCA scores, may serve as the potential biomarkers of the RT-induced brain functional impairments and provide valuable targets for further functional recovery treatment. PMID:27442663

  14. Alterations of neutrophil functions in foundry and pottery workers.

    PubMed

    Başaran, N; Undeğer, U; Shubair, M

    2002-11-01

    To assess the immune competence of workers occupationally exposed to mainly silica, neutrophil functions such as the chemotactic and oxidative burst activity in foundry and pottery workers were evaluated. The chemotactic activity was examined in 22 foundry and 10 pottery workers and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils were determined in 22 foundry and 6 pottery workers. Healthy subjects of comparable age, sex, and smoking habits and with no history of silica exposure were used as the control groups. Chemotaxis was carried out in Boyden chambers using Zymosan activated serum as chemotactic stimulus. Oxidative burst activity was measured using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye reduction test. Both neutrophil functions were significantly reduced in silica-exposed foundry and pottery workers (p < 0.001) compared to controls suggesting that human chronic exposure mainly to silica and other chemicals originated from foundry and pottery settings may diminish neutrophil functions in humans. PMID:12510795

  15. Alterations of neutrophil functions in foundry and pottery workers.

    PubMed

    Başaran, N; Undeğer, U; Shubair, M

    2002-11-01

    To assess the immune competence of workers occupationally exposed to mainly silica, neutrophil functions such as the chemotactic and oxidative burst activity in foundry and pottery workers were evaluated. The chemotactic activity was examined in 22 foundry and 10 pottery workers and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils were determined in 22 foundry and 6 pottery workers. Healthy subjects of comparable age, sex, and smoking habits and with no history of silica exposure were used as the control groups. Chemotaxis was carried out in Boyden chambers using Zymosan activated serum as chemotactic stimulus. Oxidative burst activity was measured using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye reduction test. Both neutrophil functions were significantly reduced in silica-exposed foundry and pottery workers (p < 0.001) compared to controls suggesting that human chronic exposure mainly to silica and other chemicals originated from foundry and pottery settings may diminish neutrophil functions in humans.

  16. The anti‑dengue virus properties of statins may be associated with alterations in the cellular antiviral profile expression.

    PubMed

    Bryan-Marrugo, Owen Lloyd; Arellanos-Soto, Daniel; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo; Ramos-Jimenez, Javier; Vidaltamayo, Roman; Rivas-Estilla, Ana María

    2016-09-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) susceptibility to cholesterol depleting treatments has been previously reported. There are numerous questions regarding how DENV seizes cellular machinery and cholesterol to improve viral production and the effect of cholesterol sequestering agents on the cellular antiviral response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms involved in the negative regulation of DENV replication induced by agents that diminish intracellular cholesterol levels. Cholesterol synthesis was pharmacologically (fluvastatin, atorvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin treatment) and genetically (HMGCR‑RNAi) inhibited, in uninfected and DENV2‑infected hepatoma Huh‑7 cells. The cholesterol levels, DENV titer and cellular antiviral expression profile were evaluated. A reduction in the DENV titer, measured as plaque forming units, was observed in DENV‑infected cells following 48 h treatment with 10 µM fluvastatin, 10 µM atorvastatin, 20 µM lovastatin and 20 µM simvastatin, which achieved 70, 70, 65 and 55% DENV2 inhibition, respectively, compared with the untreated cells. In addition, the cytopathic effect was reduced in the statin‑treated DENV‑infected cells. Statins simultaneously reduced cholesterol levels at 48 h, with the exception of DENV2 infected cells. Genetic inhibition of cholesterol synthesis was performed using RNA interference for 3‑hydroxy‑3‑methylglutaryl‑CoA reductase (HMGCR‑siRNA), which indicated a slight reduction in DENV2 titer at 48 h post‑infection, however, with no significant reduction in cholesterol levels. In addition, DENV2 infection was observed to augment the intracellular cholesterol levels in all experimental conditions. Comparison between the cellular antiviral response triggered by DENV2 infection, statin treatment and HMGCR‑siRNA in infected, uninfected, treated and untreated Huh7 cells, showed different expression profiles for the antiviral genes evaluated. All

  17. Kaempferol inhibits Entamoeba histolytica growth by altering cytoskeletal functions.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Verónica; Díaz-Martínez, Alfredo; Soto, Jacqueline; Marchat, Laurence A; Sanchez-Monroy, Virginia; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2015-11-01

    The flavonoid kaempferol obtained from Helianthemum glomeratum, an endemic Mexican medicinal herb used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, has been shown to inhibit growth of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in vitro; however, the mechanisms associated with this activity have not been documented. Several works reported that kaempferol affects cytoskeleton in mammalian cells. In order to gain insights into the action mechanisms involved in the anti-amoebic effect of kaempferol, here we evaluated the effect of this compound on the pathogenic events driven by the cytoskeleton during E. histolytica infection. We also carried out a two dimensional gel-based proteomic analysis to evidence modulated proteins that could explain the phenotypical changes observed in trophozoites. Our results showed that kaempferol produces a dose-dependent effect on trophozoites growth and viability with optimal concentration being 27.7 μM. Kaempferol also decreased adhesion, it increased migration and phagocytic activity, but it did not affect erythrocyte binding nor cytolytic capacity of E. histolytica. Congruently, proteomic analysis revealed that the cytoskeleton proteins actin, myosin II heavy chain and cortexillin II were up-regulated in response to kaempferol treatment. In conclusion, kaempferol anti-amoebic effects were associated with deregulation of proteins related with cytoskeleton, which altered invasion mechanisms.

  18. Endothelial and platelet function alterations in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Gresele, P; Falcinelli, E; Sebastiano, M; Baldelli, F

    2012-03-01

    The HIV epidemic has huge dimensions: in 2009, 33.3million people worldwide, including 2.5million children, were affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The introduction of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) has significantly modified the course of HIV disease, with longer survival and improved quality of life, but it has simultaneously lead to the appearance of previously unrecognized complications, such as ischemic cardiovascular events. Many studies have shown a higher rate of premature atherosclerosis in patients with HIV infection, leading to coronary, cerebrovascular, or peripheral arterial disease. However, it is still debated whether cardiovascular complications are a consequence of HIV infection itself or of the long-term use of HAART. In particular, myocardial infarction has been suggested to be associated with the use of abacavir. Endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation are markers of atherosclerosis and of increased cardiovascular risk. Here we review the evidence that endothelial dysfunction and platelet alterations are associated with chronic HIV infection, the possible role of different HAARTs, and the possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. Potential therapeutic implications are also discussed.

  19. Dynamic circadian protein-protein interaction networks predict temporal organization of cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Thomas; Schellenberg, Katja; Maier, Bert; Kalathur, Ravi Kiran Reddy; Porras, Pablo; Wanker, Erich E; Futschik, Matthias E; Kramer, Achim

    2013-03-01

    Essentially all biological processes depend on protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Timing of such interactions is crucial for regulatory function. Although circadian (~24-hour) clocks constitute fundamental cellular timing mechanisms regulating important physiological processes, PPI dynamics on this timescale are largely unknown. Here, we identified 109 novel PPIs among circadian clock proteins via a yeast-two-hybrid approach. Among them, the interaction of protein phosphatase 1 and CLOCK/BMAL1 was found to result in BMAL1 destabilization. We constructed a dynamic circadian PPI network predicting the PPI timing using circadian expression data. Systematic circadian phenotyping (RNAi and overexpression) suggests a crucial role for components involved in dynamic interactions. Systems analysis of a global dynamic network in liver revealed that interacting proteins are expressed at similar times likely to restrict regulatory interactions to specific phases. Moreover, we predict that circadian PPIs dynamically connect many important cellular processes (signal transduction, cell cycle, etc.) contributing to temporal organization of cellular physiology in an unprecedented manner. PMID:23555304

  20. Resistance Exercise Training Alters Mitochondrial Function in Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Craig; Reidy, Paul T.; Bhattarai, Nisha; Sidossis, Labros S.; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Loss of mitochondrial competency is associated with several chronic illnesses. Therefore, strategies that maintain or increase mitochondrial function will likely be of benefit in a number of clinical settings. Endurance exercise has long been known to increase mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Comparatively little is known regarding the impact of resistance exercise training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact of chronic resistance training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and function. Methods Here, we studied the impact of a 12-week resistance exercise training program on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in eleven young healthy men. Muscle biopsies were collected before and after the 12-week training program and mitochondrial respiratory capacity determined in permeabilized myofibers by high-resolution respirometry. Results Resistance exercise training increased lean body mass and quadriceps muscle strength by 4 and 15%, respectively (P<0.001). Coupled mitochondria respiration supported by complex I, and complex I and II substrates, increased by 2- and 1.4-fold, respectively (P<0.01). The ratio of coupled complex I supported respiration to maximal respiration increased with resistance exercise training (P<0.05), as did complex I protein abundance (P<0.05), while the substrate control ratio for succinate was reduced after resistance exercise training (P<0.001). Transcripts responsible for proteins critical to electron transfer and NAD+ production increased with training (P<0.05), while transcripts involved in mitochondrial biogenesis were unaltered. Conclusion Collectively, 12-weeks of resistance exercise training resulted in qualitative and quantitative changes in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. This adaptation occurs with modest changes in mitochondrial proteins and transcript expression. Resistance exercise training

  1. Manganese Upregulates Cellular Prion Protein and Contributes to Altered Stabilization and Proteolysis: Relevance to Role of Metals in Pathogenesis of Prion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Christopher J.; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Martin, Dustin P.; Nicholson, Eric M.; Richt, Jürgen A.; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases resulting from misfolding of normal cellular prion (PrPC) into an abnormal form of scrapie prion (PrPSc). The cellular mechanisms underlying the misfolding of PrPC are not well understood. Since cellular prion proteins harbor divalent metal-binding sites in the N-terminal region, we examined the effect of manganese on PrPC processing in in vitro models of prion disease. Exposure to manganese significantly increased PrPC levels both in cytosolic and in membrane-rich fractions in a time-dependent manner. Manganese-induced PrPC upregulation was independent of messenger RNA transcription or stability. Additionally, manganese treatment did not alter the PrPC degradation by either proteasomal or lysosomal pathways. Interestingly, pulse-chase analysis showed that the PrPC turnover rate was significantly altered with manganese treatment, indicating increased stability of PrPC with the metal exposure. Limited proteolysis studies with proteinase-K further supported that manganese increases the stability of PrPC. Incubation of mouse brain slice cultures with manganese also resulted in increased prion protein levels and higher intracellular manganese accumulation. Furthermore, exposure of manganese to an infectious prion cell model, mouse Rocky Mountain Laboratory–infected CAD5 cells, significantly increased prion protein levels. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that divalent metal manganese can alter the stability of prion proteins and suggest that manganese-induced stabilization of prion protein may play a role in prion protein misfolding and prion disease pathogenesis. PMID:20176619

  2. Feed intake alters immune cell functions and ovarian infiltration in broiler hens: implications for reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zu-Chen; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Su, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2014-06-01

    Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P < 0.05). Granulosa cells from F1 follicles of AL hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P < 0.05) production, suggestive of slower maturation in ovulatory process and inflamed necrosis. Interestingly, while highly infiltrated with immune cells, particularly heterophils, IL-1beta, MMP-22-like, and gelatinase A activities were reduced in AL hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P < 0.05); however, AL monocytes showed an increase in phagocytosis rate (P < 0.05). Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates was also suppressed in AL heterophils but increased in AL monocytes (P < 0.05). In contrast to leukocyte-free control, both AL and R heterophils and monocytes suppressed progesterone production and increased cell death in a dose-dependent manner when coincubated with granulosa cells at different ratios (P < 0.05). AL monocytes suppressed progesterone production more, but AL heterophils were less proapoptotic when compared to their R counterparts (P < 0.05). Alterations of cellular ceramide content (P < 0.05) corresponded to the discrepancy between heterophil and monocyte functionality. In conclusion, leukocyte dysfunction contributes to impaired ovarian activities of overfed broiler hens. PMID:24829031

  3. Impact of ultraviolet-B radiation on planktonic fish larvae: alteration of the osmoregulatory function.

    PubMed

    Sucré, Elliott; Vidussi, Francesca; Mostajir, Behzad; Charmantier, Guy; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine

    2012-03-01

    Coastal marine ecosystems are submitted to variations of several abiotic and biotic parameters, some of them related to global change. Among them the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (UVBR: 280-320 nm) may strongly impact planktonic fish larvae. The consequences of an increase of UVBR on the osmoregulatory function of Dicentrarchus labrax larvae have been investigated in this study. In young larvae of D. labrax, as in other teleosts, osmoregulation depends on tegumentary ion transporting cells, or ionocytes, mainly located on the skin of the trunk and of the yolk sac. As early D. labrax larvae passively drift in the top water column, ionocytes are exposed to solar radiation. The effect of UVBR on larval osmoregulation in seawater was evaluated through nanoosmometric measurements of the blood osmolality after exposure to different UV-B treatments. A loss of osmoregulatory capability occured in larvae after 2 days of low (50 μWcm(-2): 4 h L/20 h D) and medium (80 μWcm(-2): 4 h L/20 h D) UVBR exposure. Compared to control larvae kept in the darkness, a significant increase in blood osmolality, abnormal behavior and high mortalities were detected in larvae exposed to UVBR from 2 days on. At the cellular level, an important decrease in abundance of tegumentary ionocytes and mucous cells was observed after 2 days of exposure to UVBR. In the ionocytes, two major osmoeffectors were immunolocalized, the Na+/K(+)-ATPase and the Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter. Compared to controls, the fluorescent immunostaining was lower in UVBR-exposed larvae. We hypothesize that the impaired osmoregulation in UVBR-exposed larvae originates from the lower number of tegumentary ionocytes and mucous cells. This alteration of the osmoregulatory function could negatively impact the survival of young larvae at the surface water exposed to UVBR.

  4. Fc Engineering of Human IgG1 for Altered Binding to the Neonatal Fc Receptor Affects Fc Effector Functions.

    PubMed

    Grevys, Algirdas; Bern, Malin; Foss, Stian; Bratlie, Diane Bryant; Moen, Anders; Gunnarsen, Kristin Støen; Aase, Audun; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Sandlie, Inger; Andersen, Jan Terje

    2015-06-01

    Engineering of the constant Fc part of monoclonal human IgG1 (hIgG1) Abs is an approach to improve effector functions and clinical efficacy of next-generation IgG1-based therapeutics. A main focus in such development is tailoring of in vivo half-life and transport properties by engineering the pH-dependent interaction between IgG and the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), as FcRn is the main homeostatic regulator of hIgG1 half-life. However, whether such engineering affects binding to other Fc-binding molecules, such as the classical FcγRs and complement factor C1q, has not been studied in detail. These effector molecules bind to IgG1 in the lower hinge-CH2 region, structurally distant from the binding site for FcRn at the CH2-CH3 elbow region. However, alterations of the structural composition of the Fc may have long-distance effects. Indeed, in this study we show that Fc engineering of hIgG1 for altered binding to FcRn also influences binding to both the classical FcγRs and complement factor C1q, which ultimately results in alterations of cellular mechanisms such as Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis, and Ab-dependent complement-mediated cell lysis. Thus, engineering of the FcRn-IgG1 interaction may greatly influence effector functions, which has implications for the therapeutic efficacy and use of Fc-engineered hIgG1 variants.

  5. Fc Engineering of Human IgG1 for Altered Binding to the Neonatal Fc Receptor Affects Fc Effector Functions

    PubMed Central

    Grevys, Algirdas; Bern, Malin; Foss, Stian; Bratlie, Diane Bryant; Moen, Anders; Gunnarsen, Kristin Støen; Aase, Audun; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Sandlie, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Engineering of the constant Fc part of monoclonal human IgG1 (hIgG1) Abs is an approach to improve effector functions and clinical efficacy of next-generation IgG1-based therapeutics. A main focus in such development is tailoring of in vivo half-life and transport properties by engineering the pH-dependent interaction between IgG and the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), as FcRn is the main homeostatic regulator of hIgG1 half-life. However, whether such engineering affects binding to other Fc-binding molecules, such as the classical FcγRs and complement factor C1q, has not been studied in detail. These effector molecules bind to IgG1 in the lower hinge–CH2 region, structurally distant from the binding site for FcRn at the CH2–CH3 elbow region. However, alterations of the structural composition of the Fc may have long-distance effects. Indeed, in this study we show that Fc engineering of hIgG1 for altered binding to FcRn also influences binding to both the classical FcγRs and complement factor C1q, which ultimately results in alterations of cellular mechanisms such as Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis, and Ab-dependent complement-mediated cell lysis. Thus, engineering of the FcRn–IgG1 interaction may greatly influence effector functions, which has implications for the therapeutic efficacy and use of Fc-engineered hIgG1 variants. PMID:25904551

  6. Does Exercise Alter Immune Function and Respiratory Infections?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieman, David C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines whether physical activity influences immune function as a consequence risk of infection from the common cold and other upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and whether the immune system responds differently to moderate versus intense physical exertion. Research indicates that people who participate in regular moderate…

  7. Comprehensive interrogation of the cellular response to fluorescent, detonation and functionalized nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Moore, Laura; Grobárová, Valéria; Shen, Helen; Man, Han Bin; Míčová, Júlia; Ledvina, Miroslav; Štursa, Jan; Nesladek, Milos; Fišerová, Anna; Ho, Dean

    2014-10-21

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are versatile nanoparticles that are currently being investigated for a variety of applications in drug delivery, biomedical imaging and nanoscale sensing. Although initial studies indicate that these small gems are biocompatible, there is a great deal of variability in synthesis methods and surface functionalization that has yet to be evaluated. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the cellular compatibility of an array of nanodiamond subtypes and surface functionalization strategies. These results demonstrate that NDs are well tolerated by multiple cell types at both functional and gene expression levels. In addition, ND-mediated delivery of daunorubicin is less toxic to multiple cell types than treatment with daunorubicin alone, thus demonstrating the ability of the ND agent to improve drug tolerance and decrease therapeutic toxicity. Overall, the results here indicate that ND biocompatibility serves as a promising foundation for continued preclinical investigation. PMID:25037888

  8. Comprehensive interrogation of the cellular response to fluorescent, detonation and functionalized nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Laura; Grobárová, Valéria; Shen, Helen; Man, Han Bin; Míčová, Júlia; Ledvina, Miroslav; Štursa, Jan; Nesladek, Milos; Fišerová, Anna; Ho, Dean

    2014-09-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are versatile nanoparticles that are currently being investigated for a variety of applications in drug delivery, biomedical imaging and nanoscale sensing. Although initial studies indicate that these small gems are biocompatible, there is a great deal of variability in synthesis methods and surface functionalization that has yet to be evaluated. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the cellular compatibility of an array of nanodiamond subtypes and surface functionalization strategies. These results demonstrate that NDs are well tolerated by multiple cell types at both functional and gene expression levels. In addition, ND-mediated delivery of daunorubicin is less toxic to multiple cell types than treatment with daunorubicin alone, thus demonstrating the ability of the ND agent to improve drug tolerance and decrease therapeutic toxicity. Overall, the results here indicate that ND biocompatibility serves as a promising foundation for continued preclinical investigation.

  9. Heavy metal tolerance genes alter cellular thermodynamics in Pseudomonas putida and river Pseudomonas spp. and influence amebal predation.

    PubMed

    McTee, Michael R; Gibbons, Sean M; Feris, Kevin; Gordon, Nathan S; Gannon, James E; Ramsey, Philip W

    2013-10-01

    Predation rates were measured for two Acanthamoeba castellanii strains feeding on metal-tolerant and metal-sensitive strains of Pseudomonas putida and compared with cellular thermodynamic data. Predation rates by A. castellanii strain ATCC 30010 correlated with cell volume of the prey. To explore whether this observation could be environmentally relevant, pseudomonad species were isolated from a pristine and a metal-contaminated river and were paired based on phylogenetic and physiological relatedness. Then, cellular thermodynamics and predation rates were measured on the most similar pseudomonad pair. Under cadmium stress, the strain from contaminated river sediments, Pseudomonas sp. CF150, exited metabolic dormancy faster than its pair from pristine sediments, Pseudomonas sp. N9, but consumed available resources less efficiently (more energy was lost as heat). Predation rates by both strains of ameba were greater on Pseudomonas sp. CF150 than on Pseudomonas sp. N9 at the highest cadmium concentration. PMID:23895438

  10. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L.; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  11. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  12. Age-Related Impairment of Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function: Pathophysiological and Cellular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    De Tata, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes significantly increases with age. The relevance of this association is dramatically magnified by the concomitant global aging of the population, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here, some recent advances in this field are reviewed at the level of both the pathophysiology of glucose homeostasis and the cellular senescence of pancreatic islets. Overall, recent results highlight the crucial role of beta-cell dysfunction in the age-related impairment of pancreatic endocrine function and delineate the possibility of new original therapeutic interventions. PMID:25232350

  13. Functional recognition imaging using artificial neural networks: applications to rapid cellular identification via broadband electromechanical response.

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, M P; Reukov, V V; Thompson, G L; Vertegel, A A; Guo, S; Kalinin, S V; Jesse, S

    2009-10-01

    Functional recognition imaging in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) using artificial neural network identification is demonstrated. This approach utilizes statistical analysis of complex SPM responses at a single spatial location to identify the target behavior, which is reminiscent of associative thinking in the human brain, obviating the need for analytical models. We demonstrate, as an example of recognition imaging, rapid identification of cellular organisms using the difference in electromechanical activity over a broad frequency range. Single-pixel identification of model Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria is achieved, demonstrating the viability of the method.

  14. Short-term plasticity in thalamocortical pathways: cellular mechanisms and functional roles.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alamancos, M A

    1997-01-01

    Information reaches the neocortex through different types of thalamocortical pathways. These differ in many morphological and physiological properties. One interesting aspect in which thalamocortical pathways differ is in their temporal dynamics, such as their short-term plasticity. Primary pathways display frequency-dependent depression, while secondary pathways display frequency-dependent enhancement. The cellular mechanisms underlying these dynamic responses involve pre- and post-synaptic and circuit properties. They may serve to synchronize, amplify and/or filter neural activity in neocortex depending on behavioral demands, and thus to adapt each pathway to its specific function.

  15. Functional Recognition Imaging Using Artificial Neural Networks: Applications to Rapid Cellular Identification by Broadband Electromechanical Response

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforov, M.P.; Reukov, V.V.; Thompson, G.L.; Vertegel, A.A.; Guo, S.; Jesse, S.; Kalinin, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Functional recognition imaging in Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) using artificial neural network identification is demonstrated. This approach utilizes statistical analysis of complex SPM responses to identify the target behavior, reminiscent of associative thinking in the human brain and obviating the need for analytical models. As an example of recognition imaging, we demonstrate rapid identification of cellular organisms using difference in electromechanical activity in a broad frequency range. Single-pixel identification of model Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria is achieved, demonstrating the viability of the method. PMID:19752493

  16. Alteration of normal cellular profiles in the Scleractinian coral (Pocillopora damicornis) following laboratory exposure to fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Rougée, Luc; Downs, Craig A; Richmond, Robert H; Ostrander, Gary K

    2006-12-01

    Petroleum contamination from oil spills is a continuing threat to our ocean's fragile ecosystems. Herein, we explored the effects of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil on a stony coral, Pocillopora damicornis (Linneaeus 1758). We developed methods for exposing corals to various concentrations of crude oil and for assessing the potential molecular responses of the corals. Corals were exposed to water-accommodated fraction solutions, and appropriate cellular biomarkers were quantified. When compared to the "healthy" control specimens, exposed corals exhibited shifts in biomarker concentrations that were indicative of a shift from homeostasis. Significant changes were seen in cytochrome P450 1-class, cytochrome P450 2-class, glutathione-S-transferase-pi, and cnidarian multixenobiotic resistance protein- biomarkers, which are involved the cellular response to, and manipulation and excretion of, toxic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A shift in biomarkers necessary for porphyrin production (e.g., protoporphyrinogen oxidase IX and ferrochelatase) and porphyrin destruction (e.g., heme oxygenase-1 and invertebrate neuroglobin homologue) illustrates only one of the cellular protective mechanisms. The response to oxidative stress was evaluated through measurements of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-1 and DNA glycosylase MutY homologue-1 concentrations. Likewise, changes in heat shock protein 70 and small heat shock proteins indicated an adjustment in the cellular production of proteins. Finally, the results of this laboratory study were nearly identical to what we observed previously among corals of a different species, Porites lobata, exposed to an oil spill in the field after the grounding of the Merchant Vessel Kyowa Violet.

  17. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells.

  18. GABA FUNCTION IS ALTERED FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM: NEUROANATOMICAL AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormone deficiency during development produces changes in the structure of neurons and glial cells and alters synaptic function in the hippocampus. GABAergic interneurons comprise the bulk of local inhibitory neuronal circuitry and a subpopulation of these interneurons ...

  19. Altered auditory function in rats exposed to hypergravic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Hoffman, L.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of an orthodynamic hypergravic field of 6 G on the brainstem auditory projections was studied in rats. The brain temperature and EEG activity were recorded in the rats during 6 G orthodynamic acceleration and auditory brainstem responses were used to monitor auditory function. Results show that all animals exhibited auditory brainstem responses which indicated impaired conduction and transmission of brainstem auditory signals during the exposure to the 6 G acceleration field. Significant increases in central conduction time were observed for peaks 3N, 4P, 4N, and 5P (N = negative, P = positive), while the absolute latency values for these same peaks were also significantly increased. It is concluded that these results, along with those for fields below 4 G (Jones and Horowitz, 1981), indicate that impaired function proceeds in a rostro-caudal progression as field strength is increased.

  20. Characterizing genomic alterations in cancer by complementary functional associations | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Systematic efforts to sequence the cancer genome have identified large numbers of mutations and copy number alterations in human cancers. However, elucidating the functional consequences of these variants, and their interactions to drive or maintain oncogenic states, remains a challenge in cancer research. We developed REVEALER, a computational method that identifies combinations of mutually exclusive genomic alterations correlated with functional phenotypes, such as the activation or gene dependency of oncogenic pathways or sensitivity to a drug treatment.

  1. Investigation of Biogeochemical Functional Proxies in Headwater Streams Across a Range of Channel and Catchment Alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkowitz, Jacob F.; Summers, Elizabeth A.; Noble, Chris V.; White, John R.; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2014-03-01

    Historically, headwater streams received limited protection and were subjected to extensive alteration from logging, farming, mining, and development activities. Despite these alterations, headwater streams provide essential ecological functions. This study examines proxy measures of biogeochemical function across a range of catchment alterations by tracking nutrient cycling (i.e., inputs, processing, and stream loading) with leaf litter fall, leaf litter decomposition, and water quality parameters. Nutrient input and processing remained highest in second growth forests (the least altered areas within the region), while recently altered locations transported higher loads of nutrients, sediments, and conductivity. Biogeochemical functional proxies of C and N input and processing significantly, positively correlated with rapid assessment results (Pearson coefficient = 0.67-0.81; P = 0.002-0.016). Additionally, stream loading equations demonstrate that N and P transport, sediment, and specific conductivity negatively correlated with rapid assessment scores (Pearson coefficient = 0.56-0.81; P = 0.002-0.048). The observed increase in stream loading with lower rapid assessment scores indicates that catchment alterations impact stream chemistry and that rapid assessments provide useful proxy measures of function in headwater ecosystems. Significant differences in nutrient processing, stream loading, water quality, and rapid assessment results were also observed between recently altered (e.g., mined) headwater streams and older forested catchments (Mann-Whitney U = 24; P = 0.01-0.024). Findings demonstrate that biogeochemical function is reduced in altered catchments, and rapid assessment scores respond to a combination of alteration type and recovery time. An analysis examining time and economic requirements of proxy measurements highlights the benefits of rapid assessment methods in evaluating biogeochemical functions.

  2. Effects of altered mandibular function on mandibular growth after condylectomy.

    PubMed

    Tsolakis, A I; Spyropoulos, M N; Katsavrias, E; Alexandridis, K

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of protruded mandibular function on bilaterally condylectomized mandibles of growing rats. Sixty 4-week-old rats were divided into three experimental and two control groups each consisting of 12 animals as follows: (A) bilateral condylectomy was performed and the mandible was left to function normally; (B) the mandible was protracted forward without any condylectomy; (C) after bilateral condylectomy, the mandible was forced to function in a protruded position; (D) the animals were used as controls without any operation or appliance; and (E) a sham operation was performed in the condylar area but no appliance was used. Mandibular protraction was achieved by means of a specific appliance acting via rubber bands pulling the mandible in a straight, forward direction with a force of 25 g for 12 hours/day. The experimental period was 30 days. Lateral and dorsoventral radiographs were taken and vital dyes were administered on days 1 and 30 for all animals. Cephalometric analysis included 10 measurements. Findings resulting from statistical analysis of measurements in the five groups are summarized as follows: (i) between group A and groups D and E, less growth was found in group A; (ii) between group B and groups D and E, more growth was found in group B; (iii) between group A and group B, more growth was found in group B; (iv) between group A and group C, more growth was found in group C; and (v) between group B and group C, more growth was found in group B. These findings support the conclusion that although mandibular propulsion enhances growth even after condylectomy, the condyle seems to be an essential element for normal growth and development. PMID:9071041

  3. Alterations in cardiovascular autonomic function tests in idiopathic hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    De Marinis, Milena; Colaizzo, Elisa; Petrelli, Rosa Anna Nives; Santilli, Valter

    2012-04-01

    We performed cardiovascular autonomic function tests to assess sympathetic and parasympathetic functions in patients with idiopathic hyperhidrosis. We studied 35 patients with idiopathic hyperhidrosis and 35 age- and sex-matched controls. A thermoregulatory sweat test (TST) was performed in all subjects. Sweating was qualitatively (Minor's test at 22°C) and quantitatively (skin conductance) evaluated. Orthostatism, tilt to 65°, cold pressor test, deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver and hyperventilation were performed in patients and controls. A greater fall in blood pressure values was observed in patients than in controls in the upright tests (p<0.05). In particular, postural hypotension was present in a subgroup of patients (34%), in whom changes in lying-to-standing blood pressure and heart rate were greater (p<0.001) than those of the remaining patients. The TST revealed that the total body sweat rate (ml/cm(2)/min) was more pronounced in patients with postural hypotension (p<0.001) than in the other patients and controls. The skin conductance values of patients with postural hypotension were higher (p<0.001) than those of the remaining patients. A positive correlation was found between skin conductance values and postural hypotension. Dehydration and poor water intake may play a role in postural hypotension in patients with severe hyperhidrosis and pronounced thermoregulatory sweating. A significantly marked increase in parasympathetic function was observed in patients. Responses to deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver and hyperventilation were significantly greater in patients (p<0.001) than in controls. Idiopathic hyperhidrosis seems to be a complex dysfunction that involves autonomic pathways other than those related to sweating.

  4. CELLULAR BIOAVAILABILITY OF NATURAL HORMONES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AS A FUNCTION OF SERUM AND CYTOSOLIC BINDING FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants have been reported to function as hormone mimics in various wildlife species. To investigate a potential mechanism for the interaction of contaminants with the endocrine system, we evaluated the cellular bioavailability of numerous chemicals. Hormone bi...

  5. Alteration of renal function of rats following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Morey-Holton, E

    1998-10-01

    Following spaceflight, changes in renal function of humans have been suggested. To assess the effects of readaptation on renal function, urine was collected from male rats ( approximately 245 g) over a 2-wk period following a 14-day spaceflight. Rats were assigned to three groups: flight animals (n = 6), flight controls (n = 6) housed in the flight cages on the ground, and vivarium controls (n = 5) housed in standard shoe box cages. Animals were placed into individual metabolic cages for urine collection. Urine output was significantly increased for 3 days following flight. Excretion rates of Na+ and K+ were increased, resulting in an increased osmotic excretion rate. Creatinine excretion rate increased over the first two postflight days. Glomerular filtration rate increased immediately following spaceflight without changes in plasma creatinine, Na+, K+, or osmolality. Increased excretion of solute was thus the result of increased delivery and a decreased percent reabsorption of the filtered load. Osmolal clearance was increased immediately postflight while free water clearance was decreased. In growing rats, the diuresis after short-duration spaceflight is the result of an increase in solute excretion with an accompanying reduction in free water clearance.

  6. Alteration of renal function of rats following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Following spaceflight, changes in renal function of humans have been suggested. To assess the effects of readaptation on renal function, urine was collected from male rats ( approximately 245 g) over a 2-wk period following a 14-day spaceflight. Rats were assigned to three groups: flight animals (n = 6), flight controls (n = 6) housed in the flight cages on the ground, and vivarium controls (n = 5) housed in standard shoe box cages. Animals were placed into individual metabolic cages for urine collection. Urine output was significantly increased for 3 days following flight. Excretion rates of Na+ and K+ were increased, resulting in an increased osmotic excretion rate. Creatinine excretion rate increased over the first two postflight days. Glomerular filtration rate increased immediately following spaceflight without changes in plasma creatinine, Na+, K+, or osmolality. Increased excretion of solute was thus the result of increased delivery and a decreased percent reabsorption of the filtered load. Osmolal clearance was increased immediately postflight while free water clearance was decreased. In growing rats, the diuresis after short-duration spaceflight is the result of an increase in solute excretion with an accompanying reduction in free water clearance.

  7. Molecular, Cellular and Functional Effects of Radiation-Induced Brain Injury: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Balentova, Sona; Adamkov, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy is the most effective non-surgical treatment of primary brain tumors and metastases. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into pathogenesis of radiation-induced injury to the central nervous system. Radiation-induced brain injury can damage neuronal, glial and vascular compartments of the brain and may lead to molecular, cellular and functional changes. Given its central role in memory and adult neurogenesis, the majority of studies have focused on the hippocampus. These findings suggested that hippocampal avoidance in cranial radiotherapy prevents radiation-induced cognitive impairment of patients. However, multiple rodent studies have shown that this problem is more complex. As the radiation-induced cognitive impairment reflects hippocampal and non-hippocampal compartments, it is of critical importance to investigate molecular, cellular and functional modifications in various brain regions as well as their integration at clinically relevant doses and schedules. We here provide a literature overview, including our previously published results, in order to support the translation of preclinical findings to clinical practice, and improve the physical and mental status of patients with brain tumors. PMID:26610477

  8. Environmental factors altering thyroid function and their assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Barsano, C P

    1981-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of modest doses of dietary iodine, radiation, and polyhalogenated biphenyls (PCB's and PBB's) are environmental factors with known or suspected adverse effects on the human thyroid. Iodine consumption in the United States is approaching 1 mg daily for a large segment of the population. Data are reviewed which support the need for concern regarding the long-term adverse effects of dietary iodine on thyroid function, particularly in certain susceptible individuals. Environmental sources of radiation pose a significant risk of thyroid cancer and hypothyroidism under certain circumstances which may be intentional, inadvertent, or accidental. Exposure to polyhalogenated biphenyls during manufacture or as industrial pollutants are hazardous to man and to wildlife in moderate or large quantities and perhaps also in small amounts. The need to investigate the potential harm posed by these factors in the quantities commonly encountered is emphasized. PMID:6263611

  9. Neurotransmitter Specific, Cellular-Resolution Functional Brain Mapping Using Receptor Coated Nanoparticles: Assessment of the Possibility

    PubMed Central

    Forati, Ebrahim; Sabouni, Abas; Ray, Supriyo; Head, Brian; Schoen, Christian; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Receptor coated resonant nanoparticles and quantum dots are proposed to provide a cellular-level resolution image of neural activities inside the brain. The functionalized nanoparticles and quantum dots in this approach will selectively bind to different neurotransmitters in the extra-synaptic regions of neurons. This allows us to detect neural activities in real time by monitoring the nanoparticles and quantum dots optically. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with two different geometries (sphere and rod) and quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were studied along with three different neurotransmitters: dopamine, gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine. The absorption/emission spectra of GNPs and QDs before and after binding of neurotransmitters and their corresponding receptors are reported. The results using QDs and nanorods with diameter 25nm and aspect rations larger than three were promising for the development of the proposed functional brain mapping approach. PMID:26717196

  10. Cellular Engineering with Membrane Fusogenic Liposomes to Produce Functionalized Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junsung; Lee, Hyoungjin; Goh, Unbyeol; Kim, Jiyoung; Jeong, Moonkyoung; Lee, Jean; Park, Ji-Ho

    2016-03-23

    Engineering of extracellular vesicles (EVs) without affecting biological functions remains a challenge, limiting the broad applications of EVs in biomedicine. Here, we report a method to equip EVs with various functional agents, including fluorophores, drugs, lipids, and bio-orthogonal chemicals, in an efficient and controlled manner by engineering parental cells with membrane fusogenic liposomes, while keeping the EVs intact. As a demonstration of how this method can be applied, we prepared EVs containing azide-lipids, and conjugated them with targeting peptides using copper-free click chemistry to enhance targeting efficacy to cancer cells. We believe that this liposome-based cellular engineering method will find utility in studying the biological roles of EVs and delivering therapeutic agents through their innate pathway. PMID:26954538

  11. Intermittent hypoxia leads to functional reorganization of mitochondria and affects cellular bioenergetics in marine molluscs.

    PubMed

    Ivanina, Anna V; Nesmelova, Irina; Leamy, Larry; Sokolov, Eugene P; Sokolova, Inna M

    2016-06-01

    Fluctuations in oxygen (O2) concentrations represent a major challenge to aerobic organisms and can be extremely damaging to their mitochondria. Marine intertidal molluscs are well-adapted to frequent O2 fluctuations, yet it remains unknown how their mitochondrial functions are regulated to sustain energy metabolism and prevent cellular damage during hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R). We used metabolic control analysis to investigate the mechanisms of mitochondrial responses to H/R stress (18 h at <0.1% O2 followed by 1 h of reoxygenation) using hypoxia-tolerant intertidal clams Mercenaria mercenaria and hypoxia-sensitive subtidal scallops Argopecten irradians as models. We also assessed H/R-induced changes in cellular energy balance, oxidative damage and unfolded protein response to determine the potential links between mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular injury. Mitochondrial responses to H/R in scallops strongly resembled those in other hypoxia-sensitive organisms. Exposure to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation led to a strong decrease in the substrate oxidation (SOX) and phosphorylation (PHOS) capacities as well as partial depolarization of mitochondria of scallops. Elevated mRNA expression of a reactive oxygen species-sensitive enzyme aconitase and Lon protease (responsible for degradation of oxidized mitochondrial proteins) during H/R stress was consistent with elevated levels of oxidative stress in mitochondria of scallops. In hypoxia-tolerant clams, mitochondrial SOX capacity was enhanced during hypoxia and continued rising during the first hour of reoxygenation. In both species, the mitochondrial PHOS capacity was suppressed during hypoxia, likely to prevent ATP wastage by the reverse action of FO,F1-ATPase. The PHOS capacity recovered after 1 h of reoxygenation in clams but not in scallops. Compared with scallops, clams showed a greater suppression of energy-consuming processes (such as protein turnover and ion transport) during hypoxia, indicated

  12. Alterations in functional connectivity for language in prematurely born adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Robin J; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R; Katz, Karol H; Schneider, Karen C; Pugh, Kenneth R; Makuch, Robert W; Reiss, Allan L; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2009-03-01

    Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal cranial ultrasound, and 26 term control subjects were examined with a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) semantic association task, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF). In-magnet task accuracy and response times were calculated, and fMRI data were evaluated for the effect of group on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation, the correlation between task accuracy and activation and the functional connectivity between regions activating to task. Although there were differences in verbal IQ and CELF scores between the preterm (PT) and term control groups, there were no significant differences for either accuracy or response time for the in-magnet task. Both groups activated classic semantic processing areas including the left superior and middle temporal gyri and inferior frontal gyrus, and there was no significant difference in activation patterns between groups. Clear differences between the groups were observed in the correlation between task accuracy and activation to task at P < 0.01, corrected for multiple comparisons. Left inferior frontal gyrus correlated with accuracy only for term controls and left sensory motor areas correlated with accuracy only for PT subjects. Left middle temporal gyri correlated with task accuracy for both groups. Connectivity analyses at P < 0.001 revealed the importance of a circuit between left middle temporal gyri and inferior frontal gyrus for both groups. In addition, the PT subjects evidenced greater connectivity between traditional language areas and sensory motor areas but significantly

  13. Manipulation of cellular GSH biosynthetic capacity via TAT-mediated protein transduction of wild-type or a dominant-negative mutant of glutamate cysteine ligase alters cell sensitivity to oxidant-induced cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Backos, Donald S.; Brocker, Chad N.; Franklin, Christopher C.

    2010-02-15

    The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant defense system plays a central role in protecting mammalian cells against oxidative injury. Glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) is the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis and is a heterodimeric holoenzyme composed of catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunits. As a means of assessing the cytoprotective effects of enhanced GSH biosynthetic capacity, we have developed a protein transduction approach whereby recombinant GCL protein can be rapidly and directly transferred into cells when coupled to the HIV TAT protein transduction domain. Bacterial expression vectors encoding TAT fusion proteins of both GCL subunits were generated and recombinant fusion proteins were synthesized and purified to near homogeneity. The TAT-GCL fusion proteins were capable of heterodimerization and formation of functional GCL holoenzyme in vitro. Exposure of Hepa-1c1c7 cells to the TAT-GCL fusion proteins resulted in the time- and dose-dependent transduction of both GCL subunits and increased cellular GCL activity and GSH levels. A heterodimerization-competent, enzymatically deficient GCLC-TAT mutant was also generated in an attempt to create a dominant-negative suppressor of GCL. Transduction of cells with a catalytically inactive GCLC(E103A)-TAT mutant decreased cellular GCL activity in a dose-dependent manner. TAT-mediated manipulation of cellular GCL activity was also functionally relevant as transduction with wild-type GCLC(WT)-TAT or mutant GCLC(E103A)-TAT conferred protection or enhanced sensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death, respectively. These findings demonstrate that TAT-mediated transduction of wild-type or dominant-inhibitory mutants of the GCL subunits is a viable means of manipulating cellular GCL activity to assess the effects of altered GSH biosynthetic capacity.

  14. Free p-Cresol Alters Neutrophil Function in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Anelise Maria; Pereira, Priscila Preve; Almeida, Breno Fernando Martins; Narciso, Luis Gustavo; Dos Santos, Diego Borba; Santos-Neto, Álvaro José Dos; Ferreira, Wagner Luis; Ciarlini, Paulo César

    2016-05-01

    To achieve a clearer understanding of the mechanisms responsible for neutrophil dysfunction recently described in dogs with chronic renal failure (CRF), the plasma concentrations of free p-cresol in healthy dogs (n = 20) and those with CRF (n = 20) were compared. The degree of correlation was determined between plasma levels of p-cresol and markers of oxidative stress and function of neutrophils in these dogs. The effect of this compound on oxidative metabolism and apoptosis was assessed in neutrophils isolated from 16 healthy dogs incubated in RPMI 1640 supplemented with p-cresol (0.405 mg/L) and compared with medium supplemented with uremic plasma (50%). To achieve this, the plasma concentration of p-cresol was quantified by liquid phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The neutrophil oxidative metabolism was determined using the probes hydroethidine and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and apoptosis was measured using Annexin V-PE by capillary flow cytometry. Compared with the healthy dogs, uremic dogs presented higher concentrations of free p-cresol, greater oxidative stress, and neutrophils primed for accelerated apoptosis. The free p-cresol induced in neutrophils from healthy dogs increased apoptosis and decreased reactive oxygen species production. We conclude that the health status presented during uremia concomitant with the increase in plasma free p-cresol can contribute to the presence of immunosuppression in dogs with CRF. PMID:26496142

  15. Alterations in amygdala functional connectivity reflect early temperament.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amy Krain; Benson, Brenda E; Degnan, Kathryn A; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Ernst, Monique

    2014-12-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament identified early in life that is associated with increased risk for anxiety disorders. Amygdala hyperresponsivity, found both in behaviorally inhibited and anxious individuals, suggests that amygdala dysfunction may represent a marker of anxiety risk. However, broader amygdala networks have not been examined in individuals with a history of childhood BI. This study uses resting state fMRI to assess amygdala intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) in 38 healthy young adults (19 with a history of BI, 19 with no history of BI) selected from a longitudinal study. Centromedial, basolateral, and superficial amygdala iFCs were compared between groups and examined in relation to self-report measures of anxiety. Group differences were observed in amygdala iFC with prefrontal cortex, striatum, anterior insula, and cerebellum. Adults characterized with BI in childhood endorsed greater state anxiety prior to entering the scanner, which was associated with several of the group differences. Findings support enduring effects of BI on amygdala circuitry, even in the absence of current psychopathology. PMID:25261727

  16. Extracellular glutamate alters mature osteoclast and osteoblast functions.

    PubMed

    Seidlitz, Eric P; Sharma, Mohit K; Singh, Gurmit

    2010-09-01

    Glutamatergic intercellular communication is involved in many aspects of metabolic homeostasis in normal bone. In bone metastasis, the balance between bone formation and degradation is disrupted. Although the responsible mechanisms are not clear, we have previously identified that cancer cell lines used in bone tumour models secrete glutamate, suggesting that tumour-derived glutamate may disrupt sensitive signalling systems in bone. This study examines the role of glutamate in mature osteoclastic bone resorption, osteoblast differentiation, and bone nodule formation. Glutamate was found to have no effect on the survival or activity of mature osteoclasts, although glutamate transporter inhibition and receptor blockade increased the number of bone resorption pits. Furthermore, transporter inhibition increased the area of resorbed bone while significantly decreasing the number of osteoclasts. Alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization were used as measurements of osteoblast differentiation. Glutamate significantly increased osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, but transport inhibitors had no effect. These studies support earlier findings suggesting that glutamate may be more important for osteoclastogenesis than for osteoclast proliferation or functions. Since glutamate is capable of changing the differentiation and activities of both osteoclast and osteoblast cell types in bone, it is reasonable to postulate that tumour-derived glutamate may impact bone homeostasis in bone metastasis.

  17. Influence of D-net (European GSM-Standard) cellular phones on pacemaker function in 50 patients with permanent pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Wilke, A; Grimm, W; Funck, R; Maisch, B

    1996-10-01

    The widespread use of cellular phones in the last years has prompted some recent studies to suggest an interference of pacemaker function by cellular phone usage. To determine the risk of pacemaker patients using D-net cellular phones, we tested 50 patients with permanent pacemakers after routine pacemaker check by short phone calls using a cellular phone (Ericsson, D-net, frequency 890-915 MHz, digital information coding, equivalent to the European Groupe Systemes Mobiles standard). A six-channel surface ECG was continuously recorded from each patient to detect any interactions between pacemakers and cellular phones. Phone calls were repeated during the following pacemaker settings: (1) preexisting setting; (2) minimum ventricular rate of 90 beats/min and preexisting sensitivity; and (3) minimum ventricular rate of 90 beats/min and maximum sensitivity without T wave oversensing. Only 2 (4%) of 50 patients repeatedly showed intermittent pacemaker inhibition during calls with the cellular phone. Both pacemakers had unipolar sensing. Therefore, although interactions between cellular phone use and pacemaker function appear to be rare in our study, pacemaker dependent patients in particular should avoid the use of cellular phones.

  18. Allosteric control in a metalloprotein dramatically alters function.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Elizabeth Leigh; Zuris, John A; Wang, Charles; Vo, Phu Luong T; Axelrod, Herbert L; Cohen, Aina E; Paddock, Mark L; Nechushtai, Rachel; Onuchic, Jose N; Jennings, Patricia A

    2013-01-15

    Metalloproteins (MPs) comprise one-third of all known protein structures. This diverse set of proteins contain a plethora of unique inorganic moieties capable of performing chemistry that would otherwise be impossible using only the amino acids found in nature. Most of the well-studied MPs are generally viewed as being very rigid in structure, and it is widely thought that the properties of the metal centers are primarily determined by the small fraction of amino acids that make up the local environment. Here we examine both theoretically and experimentally whether distal regions can influence the metal center in the diabetes drug target mitoNEET. We demonstrate that a loop (L2) 20 Å away from the metal center exerts allosteric control over the cluster binding domain and regulates multiple properties of the metal center. Mutagenesis of L2 results in significant shifts in the redox potential of the [2Fe-2S] cluster and orders of magnitude effects on the rate of [2Fe-2S] cluster transfer to an apo-acceptor protein. These surprising effects occur in the absence of any structural changes. An examination of the native basin dynamics of the protein using all-atom simulations shows that twisting in L2 controls scissoring in the cluster binding domain and results in perturbations to one of the cluster-coordinating histidines. These allosteric effects are in agreement with previous folding simulations that predicted L2 could communicate with residues surrounding the metal center. Our findings suggest that long-range dynamical changes in the protein backbone can have a significant effect on the functional properties of MPs.

  19. Altering adsorbed proteins or cellular gene expression in bone-metastatic cancer cells affects PTHrP and Gli2 without altering cell growth.

    PubMed

    Page, Jonathan M; Merkel, Alyssa R; Ruppender, Nazanin S; Guo, Ruijing; Dadwal, Ushashi C; Cannonier, Shellese; Basu, Sandip; Guelcher, Scott A; Sterling, Julie A

    2015-09-01

    The contents of this data in brief are related to the article titled "Matrix Rigidity Regulates the Transition of Tumor Cells to a Bone-Destructive Phenotype through Integrin β3 and TGF-β Receptor Type II". In this DIB we will present our supplemental data investigating Integrin expression, attachment of cells to various adhesion molecules, and changes in gene expression in multiple cancer cell lines. Since the interactions of Integrins with adsorbed matrix proteins are thought to affect the ability of cancer cells to interact with their underlying substrates, we examined the expression of Integrin β1, β3, and β5 in response to matrix rigidity. We found that only Iβ3 increased with increasing substrate modulus. While it was shown that fibronectin greatly affects the expression of tumor-produced factors associated with bone destruction (parathyroid hormone-related protein, PTHrP, and Gli2), poly-l-lysine, vitronectin and type I collagen were also analyzed as potential matrix proteins. Each of the proteins was independently adsorbed on both rigid and compliant polyurethane films which were subsequently used to culture cancer cells. Poly-l-lysine, vitronectin and type I collagen all had negligible effects on PTHrP or Gli2 expression, but fibronectin was shown to have a dose dependent effect. Finally, altering the expression of Iβ3 demonstrated that it is required for tumor cells to respond to the rigidity of the matrix, but does not affect other cell growth or viability. Together these data support the data presented in our manuscript to show that the rigidity of bone drives Integrinβ3/TGF-β crosstalk, leading to increased expression of Gli2 and PTHrP.

  20. Toxics of Tobacco Smoke and Cardiovascular System: From Functional to Cellular Damage.

    PubMed

    Leone, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Manufactured tobacco contains over 4, 000 toxic substances, but only a few exert adverse cardiovascular effects. Nicotine and its metabolites, carbon monoxide, thiocyanate and some aromatic amines play a strong, although different, role to determine cardiovascular damage. Of these substances, however, nicotine, acting by the double mechanism of addiction and receptor-binding, and carbon monoxide by increasing the production of carboxyhemoglobin and hypoxia, are the main determinants of the damage. The development of the alterations of heart and blood vessels follows a typical way, initially consisting of functional responses that become irreversible pathological lesions at the time. Myocardium and endothelial cells are the targets where cigarette smoking exerts its effects. The first displays functional and pathological disorders primarily related to ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, including experimental cardiomyopathy from smoking, and heart failure, while the second should be interpreted as a structure, which shows early alterations caused by smoking as clearly evident, repeatable and typically depending on smoking toxicity. Cardiovascular damage has a functional onset, which, at the time, leads to irreversible morphological damage of myocardial and endothelial cells.

  1. Variant human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase altered in regulatory and catalytic functions.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, M A; Raivio, K O; Bakay, B; Adams, W B; Nyhan, W L

    1980-01-01

    An inherited, structurally abnormal and superactive form of the enzyme 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (PP-ribose-P) synthetase (EC 2.7.6.1) has been characterized in fibroblasts cultured from a 14-yr-old male (S.M.) with clinical manifestations of uric acid overproduction present since infancy. PP-ribose-P synthetase from the cells of this child showed four- to fivefold greater than normal resistance to purine nucleotide (ADP and GDP) feedback inhibition of enzyme activity and hyperbolic rather than sigmoidal inorganic phosphate (Pi) activation in incompletely dialyzed extracts. Excessive maximal velocity of the enzyme reaction catalyzed by the mutant enzyme was indicated by: enzyme activities twice those of normal at all concentrations of Pi in chromatographed fibroblast extracts; normal affinity constants for substrates and for the activator, Mg2+; and twofold greater than normal activity per immunoreactive enzyme molecule. The mutant enzyme thus possessed deficient regulatory and superactive catalytic properties, two mechanisms previously demonstrated individually to underlie the excessive PPRribose-P and uric acid synthesis of affected members of families with superactive PP-ribose-P synthetases. Increased PP-ribose-P concentration (4-fold) and generation (2.7-fold) and enhanced rates of PP-ribose-P dependent purine synthetic reactions, including purine synthesis de novo, in S.M. fibroblasts confirmed the functional significance of this patient's mutant enzyme. Diminished stability of the variant PP-ribose-P synthetase was manifested in vitro by increased thermal lability and in vivo by deficiency of enzyme activity at Pi concentrations greater than 0.3 mM in hemolysates and by an accelerated, age-related decrement in enzyme activity in lysates of erythrocytes separated by specific density. Despite the diminished amount of PP-ribose-P synthetase in the S.M. erythrocyte population, S.M. erythrocytes had increased PP-ribose-P concentration and increased rates

  2. Biomaterial design for specific cellular interactions: Role of surface functionalization and geometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolhar, Poornima

    The areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering have experienced extraordinary growth in recent years with the application of engineering principles and their potential to support and improve the field of medicine. The tremendous progress in nanotechnology and biotechnology has lead to this explosion of research and development in biomedical applications. Biomaterials can now be engineered at a nanoscale and their specific interactions with the biological tissues can be modulated. Various design parameters are being established and researched for design of drug-delivery carriers and scaffolds to be implanted into humans. Nanoparticles made from versatile biomaterial can deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and oligonucleotides. Similarly in the field of tissue engineering, current approaches emphasize nanoscale control of cell behavior by mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) unlike, traditional scaffolds. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely connected fields and both of these applications require materials with exceptional physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical properties to provide superior therapy. In the current study the surface functionalization and the geometric features of the biomaterials has been explored. In particular, a synthetic surface for culture of human embryonic stem cells has been developed, demonstrating the importance of surface functionalization in maintaining the pluripotency of hESCs. In the second study, the geometric features of the drug delivery carriers are investigated and the polymeric nanoneedles mediated cellular permeabilization and direct cytoplasmic delivery is reported. In the third study, the combined effect of surface functionalization and geometric modification of carriers for vascular targeting is enunciated. These studies illustrate how the biomaterials can be designed to achieve various cellular behaviors and control the

  3. Alteration of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Following Acute Ischemic Injury as a Means to Improve Cellular Energetic Status in Neuroadaptation

    PubMed Central

    Grelli, Kimberly N.; Palubinsky, Amy M.; Kale, A. Cozette; Lizama-Manibusan, Britney N.; Stankowski, Jeannette N.; Milne, Ginger L.; Singer, Robert; McLaughlin, BethAnn

    2013-01-01

    The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) enzymes were initially identified as essential components of the Krebs cycle. IDH mutations were thought to be incompatible with cell survival. However, 90% of glioblastomas were recently shown to be associated with somatic mutations in these enzymes, indicating a possible role for IDH in promoting cellular survival in hypoxic environments. Our proteomic analysis of rats given 10 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion to induce transient ischemia demonstrates a significant decrease in IDH expression. We have recapitulated this decrease in an in vitro model using primary cortical neurons exposed to acute oxygen and glucose deprivation. Given the role of IDHs in energy metabolism and antioxidant production, we hypothesize that the IDHs may serve as first-line, rapid-response enzymes that regulate survival in environments of energetic or oxidative stress. In order to identify the specific events that regulate IDH enzymes, HT-22 neural cells were subjected to either a selective energetic challenge or a pure oxidative stress. In response to the non-lethal energetic challenge induced by substituting galactose for glucose, we observed increased IDH1, 2, and 3 expression and cessation of cellular proliferation. No change in expression of any IDH isoform was observed when neural cells were subjected to subtoxic oxidative stress via glutathione depletion. Taken together, these data imply that IDH expression rapidly responds to changes in energetic status, but not to oxidative stress. These data also suggest that IDH enzymes respond not only to allosteric modulation, but can also change patterns of expression in response to moderate stress in an effort to maximize ATP production and survival. PMID:23469839

  4. Adolescence methylphenidate treatment in a rodent model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: dopamine transporter function and cellular distribution in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Somkuwar, Sucharita S; Darna, Mahesh; Kantak, Kathleen M; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2013-07-15

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is attributed to dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex. Methylphenidate, an inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters (DAT and NET, respectively), is a standard treatment for ADHD. The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) is a well-established animal model of ADHD. Our previous results showed that methylphenidate treatment in adolescent SHR enhanced cocaine self-administration during adulthood, and alterations in DAT function in prefrontal cortex play a role in this response. Importantly, prefrontal cortex subregions, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), have been shown to have distinct roles in ADHD and cocaine self-administration. In the current study, SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar (WIS) rats received a therapeutically relevant dose of methylphenidate (1.5mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle during adolescence and then OFC and mPFC DAT function and cellular expression were assessed during adulthood. In both OFC and mPFC, no strain differences in Vmax or Km for dopamine uptake into synaptosomes were found between vehicle-treated SHR, WKY and WIS. Methylphenidate increased DAT Vmax in SHR mPFC and decreased DAT Vmax in WKY OFC. Also, methylphenidate decreased DAT Km in WIS OFC. Further, methylphenidate did not alter DAT cellular localization, indicating that methylphenidate treatment during adolescence regulated DAT function in SHR mPFC in a trafficking-independent manner. Thus, the increase in mPFC DAT function was an SHR-specific long term consequence of methylphenidate treatment during adolescence, which may be responsible for the treatment-induced alterations in behavior including the observed increases in cocaine self-administration.

  5. A Current View of Functional Biomaterials for Wound Care, Molecular and Cellular Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Piraino, Francesco; Selimović, Šeila

    2015-01-01

    The intricate process of wound healing involves activation of biological pathways that work in concert to regenerate a tissue microenvironment consisting of cells and external cellular matrix (ECM) with enzymes, cytokines, and growth factors. Distinct stages characterize the mammalian response to tissue injury: hemostasis, inflammation, new tissue formation, and tissue remodeling. Hemostasis and inflammation start right after the injury, while the formation of new tissue, along with migration and proliferation of cells within the wound site, occurs during the first week to ten days after the injury. In this review paper, we discuss approaches in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to address each of these processes through the application of biomaterials, either as support to the native microenvironment or as delivery vehicles for functional hemostatic, antibacterial, or anti-inflammatory agents. Molecular therapies are also discussed with particular attention to drug delivery methods and gene therapies. Finally, cellular treatments are reviewed, and an outlook on the future of drug delivery and wound care biomaterials is provided. PMID:26509154

  6. Functional Modification of Fibrous PCL Scaffolds with Fusion Protein VEGF-HGFI Enhanced Cellularization and Vascularization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqiang; Ma, Shaoyang; Pan, Yiwa; Zhang, Qiuying; Wang, Kai; Song, Dongmin; Wang, Xiangxiang; Feng, Guowei; Liu, Ruming; Xu, Haijin; Zhang, Jun; Qiao, Mingqiang; Kong, Deling

    2016-09-01

    The lack of efficient vascularization within frequently used poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds has hindered their application in tissue engineering. Hydrophobin HGFI, an amphiphilic protein, can form a self-assembly layer on the surface of PCL scaffolds and convert their wettability. In this study, a fusion protein consisting of HGFI and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is prepared by Pichia pastoris expression system. Sodium dodecyl sulface-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting confirm that the VEGF-HGFI is successfully isolated and purified. Transmission electron microscope and water contact angle measurement demonstrate that VEGF-HGFI can form a self-assembly layer with about 25 nm in thickness on electrospun PCL fibers and increase their hydrophilicity. VEGF-HGFI modification can effectively enhance the adhesion, migration, and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging shows that the VEGF-HGFI modification on PCL scaffolds can exist at least 21 d in vitro and at least 14 d in vivo. Bioluminescence imaging shows that VEGF-HGFI can effectively activate vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 receptors. Subcutaneous implantation in mice and rats reveal that cellularization and vascularization are significantly improved in VEGF-HGFI modified PCL scaffolds. These results suggest that VEGF-HGFI is a useful molecule for functional modification of scaffolds to enhance cellularization and vascularization in tissue engineering. PMID:27391702

  7. Uniaxial cell stretching device for live-cell imaging of mechanosensitive cellular functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yue; Tan, Xinyu; Novitski, Roman; Muqaddam, Mishaal; List, Paul; Williamson, Laura; Fu, Jianping; Liu, Allen P.

    2013-11-01

    External mechanical stretch plays an important role in regulating cellular behaviors through intracellular mechanosensitive and mechanotransductive machineries such as the F-actin cytoskeleton (CSK) structures and focal adhesions (FAs) anchoring the F-actin CSK to the extracellular environment. Studying the mechanoresponsive behaviors of the F-actin CSK and FAs in response to cell stretch has great importance for further understanding mechanotransduction and mechanobiology. In this work, we developed a novel cell stretching device combining dynamic directional cell stretch with in situ subcellular live-cell imaging. Using a cam and follower mechanism and applying a standard mathematical model for cam design, we generated different dynamic stretch outputs. By examining stretch-mediated FA dynamics under step-function static stretch and the realignment of cell morphology and the F-actin CSK under cyclic stretch, we demonstrated successful applications of our cell stretching device for mechanobiology studies where external stretch plays an important role in regulating subcellular molecular dynamics and cellular phenotypes.

  8. [Effects of electromagnetic field from cellular phones on selected central nervous system functions: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Bak, Marek; Zmyślony, Marek

    2010-01-01

    In the opinion of some experts, a growing emission of man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF), also known as electromagnetic is a source of continuously increasing health hazards to the general population. Due to their large number and very close proximity to the user's head, mobile phones deserve special attention. This work is intended to give a systematic review of objective studies, assessing the effects of mobile phone EMF on the functions of the central nervous system (CNS) structures. Our review shows that short exposures to mobile phone EMF, experienced by telephone users during receiving calls, do not affect the cochlear function. Effects of GSM mobile phone EMF on the conduction of neural impulses from the inner car neurons to the brainstem auditory centres have not been detected either. If Picton's principle, saying that P300 amplitude varies with the improbability of the targets and its latency varies with difficulty of discriminating the target stimulus from standard stimuli, is true, EMF changes the improbability of the targets without hindering their discrimination. Experiments with use of indirect methods do not enable unequivocal verification of EMF effects on the cognitive functions due to the CNS anatomical and functional complexity. Thus, it seems advisable to develop a model of EMF effects on the excitable brain structures at the cellular level. PMID:21452571

  9. Enhancing Cellular Uptake and Doxorubicin Delivery of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles via Surface Functionalization: Effects of Serum.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Shakiba; Döscher, Svea; Bollhorst, Tobias; Treccani, Laura; Maas, Michael; Dringen, Ralf; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we demonstrate how functional groups on the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) can influence the encapsulation and release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin, as well as cancer cell response in the absence or presence of serum proteins. To this end, we synthesized four differently functionalized MSNPs with amine, sulfonate, polyethylene glycol, or polyethylene imine functional surface groups, as well as one type of antibody-conjugated MSNP for specific cellular targeting, and we characterized these MSNPs regarding their physicochemical properties, colloidal stability in physiological media, and uptake and release of doxorubicin in vitro. Then, the MSNPs were investigated for their cytotoxic potential on cancer cells. Cationic MSNPs could not be loaded with doxorubicin and did therefore not show any cytotoxic and antiproliferative potential on osteosarcoma cells, although they were efficiently taken up into the cells in the presence or absence of serum. In contrast, substantial amounts of doxorubicin were loaded into negatively charged and unfunctionalized MSNPs. Especially, sulfonate-functionalized doxorubicin-loaded MSNPs were efficiently taken up into the cells in the presence of serum and showed an accelerated toxic and antiproliferative potential compared to unfunctionalized MSNPs, antibody-conjugated MSNPs, and even free doxorubicin. These findings stress the high importance of the surface charge as well as of the protein corona for designing and applying nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery.

  10. Viral and cellular SOS-regulated motor proteins: dsDNA translocation mechanisms with divergent functions.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Annie; Phipps, Kara; Weitao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage attacks on bacterial cells have been known to activate the SOS response, a transcriptional response affecting chromosome replication, DNA recombination and repair, cell division and prophage induction. All these functions require double-stranded (ds) DNA translocation by ASCE hexameric motors. This review seeks to delineate the structural and functional characteristics of the SOS response and the SOS-regulated DNA translocases FtsK and RuvB with the phi29 bacteriophage packaging motor gp16 ATPase as a prototype to study bacterial motors. While gp16 ATPase, cellular FtsK and RuvB are similarly comprised of hexameric rings encircling dsDNA and functioning as ATP-driven DNA translocases, they utilize different mechanisms to accomplish separate functions, suggesting a convergent evolution of these motors. The gp16 ATPase and FtsK use a novel revolution mechanism, generating a power stroke between subunits through an entropy-DNA affinity switch and pushing dsDNA inward without rotation of DNA and the motor, whereas RuvB seems to employ a rotation mechanism that remains to be further characterized. While FtsK and RuvB perform essential tasks during the SOS response, their roles may be far more significant as SOS response is involved in antibiotic-inducible bacterial vesiculation and biofilm formation as well as the perspective of the bacteria-cancer evolutionary interaction.

  11. Altered carnitine homeostasis is associated with decreased mitochondrial function and altered nitric oxide signaling in lambs with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Sud, Neetu; Wiseman, Dean A.; Carter, A. Lee; Kumar, Sanjiv; Hou, Yali; Rau, Thomas; Wilham, Jason; Harmon, Cynthia; Oishi, Peter; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Utilizing aortopulmonary vascular graft placement in the fetal lamb, we have developed a model (shunt) of pulmonary hypertension that mimics congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow. Our previous studies have identified a progressive development of endothelial dysfunction in shunt lambs that is dependent, at least in part, on decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible role of a disruption in carnitine metabolism in shunt lambs and to determine the effect on NO signaling. Our data indicate that at 2 wk of age, shunt lambs have significantly reduced expression (P < 0.05) of the key enzymes in carnitine metabolism: carnitine palmitoyltransferases 1 and 2 as well as carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT). In addition, we found that CrAT activity was inhibited due to increased nitration. Furthermore, free carnitine levels were significantly decreased whereas acylcarnitine levels were significantly higher in shunt lambs (P < 0.05). We also found that alterations in carnitine metabolism resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, since shunt lambs had significantly decreased pyruvate, increased lactate, and a reduced pyruvate/lactate ratio. In pulmonary arterial endothelial cells cultured from juvenile lambs, we found that mild uncoupling of the mitochondria led to a decrease in cellular ATP levels and a reduction in both endothelial NO synthase-heat shock protein 90 (eNOS-HSP90) interactions and NO signaling. Similarly, in shunt lambs we found a loss of eNOS-HSP90 interactions that correlated with a progressive decrease in NO signaling. Our data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension and increased pulmonary blood flow. PMID:18024721

  12. Cellular ferroelectrets for electroactive polymer hybrid systems: soft matter integrated devices with advanced functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Graz, Ingrid; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Keplinger, Christoph; Bartu, Petr; Buchberger, Gerda; Ortwein, Christoph; Bauer, Siegfried

    2008-03-01

    Thin polymer foams with a closed cell void-structure can be internally charged by silent or partial discharges within the voids. The resulting material, which carries positive and negative charges on the internal void surfaces is called a ferroelectret. Ferroelectrets behave like typical ferroelectrics, hence they provide a novel class of ferroic materials. The soft foams are strongly piezoelectric in the 3-direction, but show negligible piezoelectric response in the transverse direction. This, together with a very low pyroelectric coefficient, make ferroelectrets highly suitable for flexible electroactive transducer element which can be integrated in thin bendable organic electronic devices. Here we describe some fundamental characteristics of cellular ferroelectrets and present a number of promising examples for a possible combination with various functional polymer systems. Our examples focus on flexible ferroelectret field-effect transistor systems for large-area sensor skins and microphones, flexible large-array position detectors (touchpad), and stretchable large-array pressure sensors.

  13. Cellular prion protein ablation impairs behavior as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Coitinho, Adriana S; Roesler, Rafael; Martins, Vilma R; Brentani, Ricardo R; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2003-07-18

    Cellular prion protein (PrPc) has been associated with some physiological functions in recent reports. Here we investigate behavioral parameters in 3- and 9-month-old mice lacking PrPc protein (Prnp0/0) and in rats after intrahippocampal administration of affinity purified anti-PrPc IgG (0.09 microg/side). No differences were observed between 3-month-old animals. However, 9-month-old Prnp0/0 mice and rats infused with anti-PrPc antibody showed a clear impairment of short- and long-term memory retention of a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. A decreased locomotor activity during exploration of an open field was also observed. These results suggest that systems involved in memory formation become more susceptible to mechanisms that require PrPc between the ages of 3 and 9 months in both mice and rats.

  14. Alterations of cellular physiology in Escherichia coli in response to oxidative phosphorylation impaired by defective F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Noda, Sakiko; Takezawa, Yuji; Mizutani, Tomohiko; Asakura, Tomoaki; Nishiumi, Eiichiro; Onoe, Kazunori; Wada, Masaru; Tomita, Fusao; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Yokota, Atsushi

    2006-10-01

    The physiological changes in an F1-ATPase-defective mutant of Escherichia coli W1485 growing in a glucose-limited chemostat included a decreased growth yield (60%) and increased specific rates of both glucose consumption (168%) and respiration (171%). Flux analysis revealed that the mutant showed approximately twice as much flow in glycolysis but only an 18% increase in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, owing to the excretion of acetate, where most of the increased glycolytic flux was directed. Genetic and biochemical analyses of the mutant revealed the downregulation of many TCA cycle enzymes, including citrate synthase, and the upregulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in both transcription and enzyme activities. These changes seemed to contribute to acetate excretion in the mutant. No transcriptional changes were observed in the glycolytic enzymes, despite the enhanced glycolysis. The most significant alterations were found in the respiratory-chain components. The total activity of NADH dehydrogenases (NDHs) and terminal oxidases increased about twofold in the mutant, which accounted for its higher respiration rate. These changes arose primarily from the increased (3.7-fold) enzyme activity of NDH-2 and an increased amount of cytochrome bd in the mutant. Transcriptional upregulation appeared to be involved in these phenomena. As NDH-2 cannot generate an electrochemical gradient of protons and as cytochrome bd is inferior to cytochrome bo3 in this ability, the mutant was able to recycle NADH at a higher rate than the parent and avoid generating an excess proton-motive force. We discuss the physiological benefits of the alterations in the mutant.

  15. Flow-cytometric study of vital cellular functions in Escherichia coli during solar disinfection (SODIS).

    PubMed

    Berney, Michael; Weilenmann, Hans-Ulrich; Egli, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    The effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS), a low-cost household water treatment method for developing countries, was investigated with flow cytometry and viability stains for the enteric bacterium Escherichia coli. A better understanding of the process of injury or death of E. coli during SODIS could be gained by investigating six different cellular functions, namely: efflux pump activity (Syto 9 plus ethidium bromide), membrane potential [bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol; DiBAC4(3)], membrane integrity (LIVE/DEAD BacLight), glucose uptake activity (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose; 2-NBDG), total ATP concentration (BacTiter-Glo) and culturability (pour-plate method). These variables were measured in E. coli K-12 MG1655 cells that were exposed to either sunlight or artificial UVA light. The inactivation pattern of cellular functions was very similar for both light sources. A UVA light dose (fluence) of <500 kJ m(-2) was enough to lower the proton motive force, such that efflux pump activity and ATP synthesis decreased significantly. The loss of membrane potential, glucose uptake activity and culturability of >80 % of the cells was observed at a fluence of approximately 1500 kJ m(-2), and the cytoplasmic membrane of bacterial cells became permeable at a fluence of >2500 kJ m(-2). Culturable counts of stressed bacteria after anaerobic incubation on sodium pyruvate-supplemented tryptic soy agar closely correlated with the loss of membrane potential. The results strongly suggest that cells exposed to >1500 kJ m(-2) solar UVA (corresponding to 530 W m(-2) global sunlight intensity for 6 h) were no longer able to repair the damage and recover. Our study confirms the lethal effect of SODIS with cultivation-independent methods and gives a detailed picture of the 'agony' of E. coli when it is stressed with sunlight. PMID:16735735

  16. Studying the Effects of Matrix Stiffness on Cellular Function using Acrylamide-based Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Cretu, Alexandra; Castagnino, Paola; Assoian, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Tissue stiffness is an important determinant of cellular function, and changes in tissue stiffness are commonly associated with fibrosis, cancer and cardiovascular disease1-11. Traditional cell biological approaches to studying cellular function involve culturing cells on a rigid substratum (plastic dishes or glass coverslips) which cannot account for the effect of an elastic ECM or the variations in ECM stiffness between tissues. To model in vivo tissue compliance conditions in vitro, we and others use ECM-coated hydrogels. In our laboratory, the hydrogels are based on polyacrylamide which can mimic the range of tissue compliances seen biologically12. "Reactive" cover slips are generated by incubation with NaOH followed by addition of 3-APTMS. Glutaraldehyde is used to cross-link the 3-APTMS and the polyacrylamide gel. A solution of acrylamide (AC), bis-acrylamide (Bis-AC) and ammonium persulfate is used for the polymerization of the hydrogel. N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) is incorporated into the AC solution to crosslink ECM protein to the hydrogel. Following polymerization of the hydrogel, the gel surface is coated with an ECM protein of choice such as fibronectin, vitronectin, collagen, etc. The stiffness of a hydrogel can be determined by rheology or atomic force microscopy (AFM) and adjusted by varying the percentage of AC and/or bis-AC in the solution12. In this manner, substratum stiffness can be matched to the stiffness of biological tissues which can also be quantified using rheology or AFM. Cells can then be seeded on these hydrogels and cultured based upon the experimental conditions required. Imaging of the cells and their recovery for molecular analysis is straightforward. For this article, we define soft substrata as those having elastic moduli (E) <3000 Pascal and stiff substrata/tissues as those with E >20,000 Pascal. PMID:20736914

  17. Flow-cytometric study of vital cellular functions in Escherichia coli during solar disinfection (SODIS).

    PubMed

    Berney, Michael; Weilenmann, Hans-Ulrich; Egli, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    The effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS), a low-cost household water treatment method for developing countries, was investigated with flow cytometry and viability stains for the enteric bacterium Escherichia coli. A better understanding of the process of injury or death of E. coli during SODIS could be gained by investigating six different cellular functions, namely: efflux pump activity (Syto 9 plus ethidium bromide), membrane potential [bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol; DiBAC4(3)], membrane integrity (LIVE/DEAD BacLight), glucose uptake activity (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose; 2-NBDG), total ATP concentration (BacTiter-Glo) and culturability (pour-plate method). These variables were measured in E. coli K-12 MG1655 cells that were exposed to either sunlight or artificial UVA light. The inactivation pattern of cellular functions was very similar for both light sources. A UVA light dose (fluence) of <500 kJ m(-2) was enough to lower the proton motive force, such that efflux pump activity and ATP synthesis decreased significantly. The loss of membrane potential, glucose uptake activity and culturability of >80 % of the cells was observed at a fluence of approximately 1500 kJ m(-2), and the cytoplasmic membrane of bacterial cells became permeable at a fluence of >2500 kJ m(-2). Culturable counts of stressed bacteria after anaerobic incubation on sodium pyruvate-supplemented tryptic soy agar closely correlated with the loss of membrane potential. The results strongly suggest that cells exposed to >1500 kJ m(-2) solar UVA (corresponding to 530 W m(-2) global sunlight intensity for 6 h) were no longer able to repair the damage and recover. Our study confirms the lethal effect of SODIS with cultivation-independent methods and gives a detailed picture of the 'agony' of E. coli when it is stressed with sunlight.

  18. Epoxy-functionalized mesostructured cellular foams as effective support for covalent immobilization of penicillin G acylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ping; Xu, Fang; Xu, Lidong

    2008-12-01

    The epoxy-functionalized mesoporous cellular foams (G-MCFs) with high specific surface area (˜400 m 2/g) and large-size mesopores (˜17 nm) were obtained by condensation of 3-glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane (GPTS) and the surface silanol groups of mesoporous cellular foams (MCFs) and used as the support for immobilization of penicillin G acylase (PGA). The structural properties of G-MCF were characterized by FT-IR, N 2 adsorption, TG-DTA and 29Si MAS NMR. The studies indicated that the glycidoxypropyl groups were chemically bonded to the silicon atoms on the surface of MCF. The epoxy-functionalized mesoporous cellular foams can provide the microenvironments suitable for the immobilization of PGA, and the enzyme molecules could be immobilized covalently onto the G-MCF under mild conditions by reaction between the amino groups of the enzyme molecules and the epoxy groups on the surface of G-MCF. The PGA immobilized on G-MCF (PGA/G-MCF) exhibited the apparent activity of 1782 IU/g and 46.6% of activity recovery for hydrolyzing penicillin G potassium to produce 6-aminopenicillanic acid at 37 °C which were higher than that of PGA on pure silica MCF (1521 IU/g and 39.8%, respectively). The kinetic study also indicated that PGA immobilized on G-MCF has a Km of 2.1 × 10 -2 mol/L lower than that of PGA immobilized on the pure silica MCF (5.0 × 10 -2 mol/L). These may be attributed to the enhanced surface affinity between G-MCF support and the substrate molecules. Due to the covalent immobilization of PGA molecules on the surface of G-MCF, the immobilized PGA with considerable operational stability was achieved. The activity of PGA/G-MCF is still about 91.4% of its initial activity at the 10th cycle reuse while that of PGA/MCF only remains 41.5% of its initial activity at the same reuse numbers. In addition, the investigation results show the thermal stability and durability on acid or basic medium of PGA immobilized on G-MCF were improved remarkably.

  19. Grape seeds proanthocyanidin extract as a hepatic-reno-protective agent against gibberellic acid induced oxidative stress and cellular alterations.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Al-Rawi, Maisaa M

    2013-08-01

    The present study aims to investigate the heptonephro-protective effect of grape seeds proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against the risks induced by gibberellic acid (GA3) in male rats. The results recorded that GA3 caused a significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels in serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in serum HDL-C. A significant increase in serum AST, ALT, urea and creatinine, while, a significant decrease in total protein content in serum was observed in rats given GA3. Hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation product (MDA) was significantly increased, meanwhile, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione, and catalase levels were significantly decreased. In addition, there was a negative change in liver structure including dilatation in the central veins with degeneration of endothelium cells and cellular injury around the veins as well as in the kidney structure such as lesion in both glomeruli and tubules, detachment of the Malpighian corpuscles from the Bowman's capsule's epithelium, shrinkage in the glomerular capillary network. However, almost all of these adverse effects seemed to be ameliorated by oral administration of GSPE with GA3 to rats for 2 month indicating the protective effect of grape seeds GSPE on GA3 induced oxidative stress in rats. PMID:23135702

  20. ERα-XPO1 Cross Talk Controls Tamoxifen Sensitivity in Tumors by Altering ERK5 Cellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, Kinga; Zhao, Yiru Chen; Kulkoyluoglu, Eylem; Chen, Karen Lee Ann; Hieronymi, Kadriye; Holloway, Jamie; Li, Sarah; Ray, Tania; Ray, Partha Sarathi; Landesman, Yosef; Lipka, Alexander Edward; Smith, Rebecca Lee

    2016-01-01

    Most breast cancer deaths occur in women with recurrent, estrogen receptor (ER)-α(+), metastatic tumors. There is a critical need for therapeutic approaches that include novel, targetable mechanism-based strategies by which ERα (+) tumors can be resensitized to endocrine therapies. The objective of this study was to validate a group of nuclear transport genes as potential biomarkers to predict the risk of endocrine therapy failure and to evaluate the inhibition of XPO1, one of these genes as a novel means to enhance the effectiveness of endocrine therapies. Using advanced statistical methods, we found that expression levels of several of nuclear transport genes including XPO1 were associated with poor survival and predicted recurrence of tamoxifen-treated breast tumors in human breast cancer gene expression data sets. In mechanistic studies we showed that the expression of XPO1 determined the cellular localization of the key signaling proteins and the response to tamoxifen. We demonstrated that combined targeting of XPO1 and ERα in several tamoxifen-resistant cell lines and tumor xenografts with the XPO1 inhibitor, Selinexor, and tamoxifen restored tamoxifen sensitivity and prevented recurrence in vivo. The nuclear transport pathways have not previously been implicated in the development of endocrine resistance, and given the need for better strategies for selecting patients to receive endocrine modulatory reagents and improving therapy response of relapsed ERα(+) tumors, our findings show great promise for uncovering the role these pathways play in reducing cancer recurrences. PMID:27533791

  1. Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase, a PTEN-functional homologue in prostate epithelia, functions as a prostate-specific tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; Ingersoll, Matthew A.; Batra, Surinder K.; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2014-01-01

    The inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) plays a vital role in the progression of human cancers. Nevertheless, those ubiquitous TSGs have been shown with limited roles in various stages of diverse carcinogenesis. Investigation on identifying unique TSG, especially for early stage of carcinogenesis, is imperative. As such, the search for organ-specific TSGs has emerged as a major strategy in cancer research. Prostate cancer (PCa) has the highest incidence in solid tumors in US males. Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase (cPAcP) is a prostate-specific differentiation antigen. Despite intensive studies over the past several decades on PAcP as a PCa biomarker, the role of cPAcP as a PCa-specific tumor suppressor has only recently been emerged and validated. The mechanism underlying the pivotal role of cPAcP as a prostate-specific TSG is, in part, due to its function as a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) as well as a phosphoinositide phosphatase (PIP), an apparent functional homologue to Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in PCa cells. This review is focused on discussing the function of this authentic prostate-specific tumor suppressor and the mechanism behind the loss of cPAcP expression leading to prostate carcinogenesis. We review other phosphatases’ roles as TSGs which regulate oncogenic PI3K signaling in PCa and discuss the functional similarity between cPAcP and PTEN in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:24747769

  2. The functional micro-organization of grid cells revealed by cellular-resolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Heys, James G.; Rangarajan, Krsna V.; Dombeck, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Establishing how grid cells are anatomically arranged, on a microscopic scale, in relation to their firing patterns in the environment would facilitate a greater micro-circuit level understanding of the brain’s representation of space. However, all previous grid cell recordings used electrode techniques that provide limited descriptions of fine-scale organization. We therefore developed a technique for cellular-resolution functional imaging of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) neurons in mice navigating a virtual linear track, enabling a new experimental approach to study MEC. Using these methods, we show that grid cells are physically clustered in MEC compared to non-grid cells. Additionally, we demonstrate that grid cells are functionally micro-organized: The similarity between the environment firing locations of grid cell pairs varies as a function of the distance between them according to a “Mexican Hat” shaped profile. This suggests that, on average, nearby grid cells have more similar spatial firing phases than those further apart. PMID:25467986

  3. NFAT5 in cellular adaptation to hypertonic stress - regulations and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chris Yk; Ko, Ben Cb

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells-5 (NFAT5), also known as OREBP or TonEBP, is a member of the nuclear factors of the activated T cells family of transcription factors. It is also the only known tonicity-regulated transcription factor in mammals. NFAT5 was initially known for its role in the hypertonic kidney inner medulla for orchestrating a genetic program to restore the cellular homeostasis. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that NFAT5 might play a more diverse functional role, including a pivotal role in blood pressure regulation and the development of autoimmune diseases. Despite the growing significance of NFAT5 in physiology and diseases, our understanding of how its activity is regulated remains very limited. Furthermore, how changes in tonicities are converted into functional outputs via NFAT5 remains elusive. Therefore, this review aims to summarize our current knowledge on the functional roles of NFAT5 in osmotic stress adaptation and the signaling pathways that regulate its activity. PMID:23618372

  4. Altered Competitive Fitness, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Cellular Morphology in a Triclosan-Induced Small-Colony Variant of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Sarah; Latimer, Joe; Bazaid, Abdulrahman; McBain, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can produce small-colony variants (SCVs) that express various phenotypes. While their significance is unclear, SCV propagation may be influenced by relative fitness, antimicrobial susceptibility, and the underlying mechanism. We have investigated triclosan-induced generation of SCVs in six S. aureus strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Parent strains (P0) were repeatedly passaged on concentration gradients of triclosan using a solid-state exposure system to generate P10. P10 was subsequently passaged without triclosan to generate X10. Susceptibility to triclosan and 7 antibiotics was assessed at all stages. For S. aureus ATCC 6538, SCVs were further characterized by determining microbicide susceptibility and competitive fitness. Cellular morphology was examined using electron microscopy, and protein expression was evaluated through proteomics. Triclosan susceptibility in all SCVs (which could be generated from 4/6 strains) was markedly decreased, while antibiotic susceptibility was significantly increased in the majority of cases. An SCV of S. aureus ATCC 6538 exhibited significantly increased susceptibility to all tested microbicides. Cross-wall formation was impaired in this bacterium, while expression of FabI, a target of triclosan, and IsaA, a lytic transglycosylase involved in cell division, was increased. The P10 SCV was 49% less fit than P0. In summary, triclosan exposure of S. aureus produced SCVs in 4/6 test bacteria, with decreased triclosan susceptibility but with generally increased antibiotic susceptibility. An SCV derived from S. aureus ATCC 6538 showed reduced competitive fitness, potentially due to impaired cell division. In this SCV, increased FabI expression could account for reduced triclosan susceptibility, while IsaA may be upregulated in response to cell division defects.

  5. Functional characterization and cellular dynamics of the CDC-42 - RAC - CDC-24 module in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Palomares, Cynthia L; Richthammer, Corinna; Seiler, Stephan; Castro-Longoria, Ernestina

    2011-01-01

    Rho-type GTPases are key regulators that control eukaryotic cell polarity, but their role in fungal morphogenesis is only beginning to emerge. In this study, we investigate the role of the CDC-42 - RAC - CDC-24 module in Neurospora crassa. rac and cdc-42 deletion mutants are viable, but generate highly compact colonies with severe morphological defects. Double mutants carrying conditional and loss of function alleles of rac and cdc-42 are lethal, indicating that both GTPases share at least one common essential function. The defects of the GTPase mutants are phenocopied by deletion and conditional alleles of the guanine exchange factor (GEF) cdc-24, and in vitro GDP-GTP exchange assays identify CDC-24 as specific GEF for both CDC-42 and RAC. In vivo confocal microscopy shows that this module is organized as membrane-associated cap that covers the hyphal apex. However, the specific localization patterns of the three proteins are distinct, indicating different functions of RAC and CDC-42 within the hyphal tip. CDC-42 localized as confined apical membrane-associated crescent, while RAC labeled a membrane-associated ring excluding the region labeled by CDC42. The GEF CDC-24 occupied a strategic position, localizing as broad apical membrane-associated crescent and in the apical cytosol excluding the Spitzenkörper. RAC and CDC-42 also display distinct localization patterns during branch initiation and germ tube formation, with CDC-42 accumulating at the plasma membrane before RAC. Together with the distinct cellular defects of rac and cdc-42 mutants, these localizations suggest that CDC-42 is more important for polarity establishment, while the primary function of RAC may be maintaining polarity. In summary, this study identifies CDC-24 as essential regulator for RAC and CDC-42 that have common and distinct functions during polarity establishment and maintenance of cell polarity in N. crassa.

  6. Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency in the rat alters adult behaviour independently of HPA function.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Darryl W; Rogers, Fiona; Buller, Kathryn; McGrath, John J; Ko, Pauline; French, Kathryn; Burne, Thomas H J

    2006-09-01

    Developmental vitamin D deficiency (DVD) has been shown to alter the orderly pattern of brain development. Even though the period of vitamin D deficiency is restricted to gestation this is sufficient to induce behavioural abnormalities in the adult offspring consistent with those seen in many animal models of schizophrenia. Given that some of these behavioural alterations could also be an indirect result of either impaired maternal hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) function (which in turn could influence maternal care) or the result of a permanent alteration in HPA function in the adult offspring we have examined HPA status in both maternal animals and adult offspring. In this study we have established that HPA function is normal in the maternally vitamin D deficient rat. We replicate the behavioural phenotype of hyperlocomotion whilst establishing that HPA function is also unchanged in the adult male offspring. We conclude that the behavioural alterations induced by DVD deficiency are due to some adverse event in brain development rather than via an alteration in stress response. PMID:16890375

  7. Gentamicin differentially alters cellular metabolism of cochlear hair cells as revealed by NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zholudeva, Lyandysha V.; Ward, Kristina G.; Nichols, Michael G.; Smith, Heather Jensen

    2015-05-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are implicated as culprits of hearing loss in more than 120,000 individuals annually. Research has shown that the sensory cells, but not supporting cells, of the cochlea are readily damaged and/or lost after use of such antibiotics. High-frequency outer hair cells (OHCs) show a greater sensitivity to antibiotics than high- and low-frequency inner hair cells (IHCs). We hypothesize that variations in mitochondrial metabolism account for differences in susceptibility. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy was used to quantify changes in NAD(P)H in sensory and supporting cells from explanted murine cochleae exposed to mitochondrial uncouplers, inhibitors, and an ototoxic antibiotic, gentamicin (GM). Changes in metabolic state resulted in a redistribution of NAD(P)H between subcellular fluorescence lifetime pools. Supporting cells had a significantly longer lifetime than sensory cells. Pretreatment with GM increased NAD(P)H intensity in high-frequency sensory cells, as well as the NAD(P)H lifetime within IHCs. GM specifically increased NAD(P)H concentration in high-frequency OHCs, but not in IHCs or pillar cells. Variations in NAD(P)H intensity in response to mitochondrial toxins and GM were greatest in high-frequency OHCs. These results demonstrate that GM rapidly alters mitochondrial metabolism, differentially modulates cell metabolism, and provides evidence that GM-induced changes in metabolism are significant and greatest in high-frequency OHCs.

  8. Symptoms of Problematic Cellular Phone Use, Functional Impairment and Its Association with Depression among Adolescents in Southern Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yen, Ju-Yu; Lin, Huang-Chi; Huang, Chi-Fen; Liu, Shu-Chun; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine the prevalence of symptoms of problematic cellular phone use (CPU); (2) to examine the associations between the symptoms of problematic CPU, functional impairment caused by CPU and the characteristics of CPU; (3) to establish the optimal cut-off point of the number of symptoms for functional impairment…

  9. Altered Structural and Functional Feature of Striato-Cortical Circuit in Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cheng; Zhang, Yaodan; Cao, Weifang; Huang, Yue; Yang, Fei; Wang, Jianjun; Tu, Shipeng; Wang, Xiaoming; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-09-01

    Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECT) is the most common form of childhood idiopathic focal epilepsy syndrome. We investigated quantitative evidence regarding brain morphology and functional connectivity features to provide insight into the neuroanatomical foundation of this disorder, using high resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting state functional MRI in 21 patients with BECT and in 20 healthy children. The functional connectivity analysis, seeded at the regions with altered gray-matter (GM) volume in voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis, was further performed. Then, the observed structural and functional alteration were investigated for their association with the clinical and behavior manifestations. The increased GM volume in the striatum and fronto-temporo-parietal cortex (striato-cortical circuit) was observed in BECT. The decreased connections were found among the motor network and frontostriatal loop, and between the default mode network (DMN) and language regions. Additionally, the GM of striatum was negatively correlated with age at epilepsy onset. The current observations may contribute to the understanding of the altered structural and functional feature of striato-cortical circuit in patients with BECT. The findings also implied alterations of the motor network and DMN, which were associated with the epileptic activity in patients with BECT. This further suggested that the onset of BECT might have enduring structural and functional effects on brain maturation.

  10. In Vivo Bystander Effect: Cranial X-Irradiation Leads to Elevated DNA Damage, Altered Cellular Proliferation and Apoptosis, and Increased p53 Levels in Shielded Spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Koturbash, Igor; Loree, Jonathan; Kutanzi, Kristy; Koganow, Clayton; Pogribny, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: It is well accepted that irradiated cells may 'forward' genome instability to nonirradiated neighboring cells, giving rise to the 'bystander effect' phenomenon. Although bystander effects were well studied by using cell cultures, data for somatic bystander effects in vivo are relatively scarce. Methods and Materials: We set out to analyze the existence and molecular nature of bystander effects in a radiation target-organ spleen by using a mouse model. The animal's head was exposed to X-rays while the remainder of the body was completely protected by a medical-grade shield. Using immunohistochemistry, we addressed levels of DNA damage, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and p53 protein in the spleen of control animals and completely exposed and head-exposed/body bystander animals. Results: We found that localized head radiation exposure led to the induction of bystander effects in the lead-shielded distant spleen tissue. Namely, cranial irradiation led to increased levels of DNA damage and p53 expression and also altered levels of cellular proliferation and apoptosis in bystander spleen tissue. The observed bystander changes were not caused by radiation scattering and were observed in two different mouse strains; C57BL/6 and BALB/c. Conclusion: Our study proves that bystander effects occur in the distant somatic organs on localized exposures. Additional studies are required to characterize the nature of an enigmatic bystander signal and analyze the long-term persistence of these effects and possible contribution of radiation-induced bystander effects to secondary radiation carcinogenesis.

  11. In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, R. Clark Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka; Witten, Mark L.; Pivniouk, Vadim I.; Chen, Guan Jie

    2009-02-15

    In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

  12. Comparison of ability of protein kinase C inhibitors to arrest cell growth and to alter cellular protein kinase C localisation.

    PubMed Central

    Courage, C.; Budworth, J.; Gescher, A.

    1995-01-01

    Inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) such as the staurosporine analogues UCN-01 and CGP 41251 possess antineoplastic properties, but the mechanism of their cytostatic action is not understood. We tested the hypothesis that the ability of these compounds to arrest growth is intrinsically linked with their propensity to inhibit PKC. Compounds with varying degrees of potency and specificity for PKC were investigated in A549 and MCF-7 carcinoma cells. When the log values of drug concentration which arrested cell growth by 50% (IC50) were plotted against the logs of the IC50 values for inhibition of cytosolic PKC activity, two groups of compound could be distinguished. The group which comprised the more potent inhibitors of enzyme activity (calphostin C, staurosporine and its analogues UCN-01, RO 31-8220, CGP 41251) were the stronger growth inhibitors, whereas the weaker enzyme inhibitors (trimethylsphingosine, miltefosine, NPC-15437, H-7, H-7I) affected proliferation less potently. GF 109203X was exceptional in that it inhibited PKC with an IC50 in the 10(-8) M range, yet was only weakly cytostatic. To substantiate the role of PKC in the growth inhibition caused by these agents, cells were depleted of PKC by incubation with bryostatin 1 (1 microM). The susceptibility of these enzyme-depleted cells towards growth arrest induced by staurosporine, RO 31-8220, UCN-01 or H-7 was studied. The drug concentrations which inhibited incorporation of [3H]thymidine into PKC-depleted A549 cells by 50% were slightly, but not significantly, lower than significantly, lower than those observed in control cells. These results suggest that PKC is unlikely to play a direct role in the arrest of the growth of A549 and MCF-7 cells mediated by these agents. Staurosporine is not only a strong inhibitor of PKC but also mimics activators of this enzyme in that it elicits the cellular redistribution of certain PKC isoenzymes. The ability of kinase inhibitors other than staurosporine to exert a

  13. Tribulus terrestris (Linn.) Attenuates Cellular Alterations Induced by Ischemia in H9c2 Cells Via Antioxidant Potential.

    PubMed

    Reshma, P L; Lekshmi, V S; Sankar, Vandana; Raghu, K G

    2015-06-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. was evaluated for its cardioprotective property against myocardial ischemia in a cell line model. Initially, methanolic extract was prepared and subjected to sequential extraction with various solvents. The extract with high phenolic content (T. terrestris L. ethyl acetate extract-TTME) was further characterized for its chemical constituents and taken forward for evaluation against cardiac ischemia. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds like caffeic acid (12.41 ± 0.22 mg g(-1)), chlorogenic acid (0.52 ± 0.06 mg g(-1)) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (0.60 ± 0.08 mg g(-1)). H9c2 cells were pretreated with TTME (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) for 24 h before the induction of ischemia. Then ischemia was induced by exposing cells to ischemia buffer, in a hypoxic chamber, maintained at 0.1% O2, 95% N2 and 5% CO2, for 1 h. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species generation (56%), superoxide production (18%), loss of plasma membrane integrity, dissipation of transmembrane potential, permeability transition pore opening and apoptosis had been observed during ischemia. However, pretreatment with TTME was found to significantly (p ≤ 0.05) attenuate the alterations caused by ischemia. The overall results of this study partially reveal the scientific basis of the use of T. terrestris L. in the traditional system of medicine for heart diseases.

  14. Chlorpyrifos exposure during neurulation: cholinergic synaptic dysfunction and cellular alterations in brain regions at adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Dan; Seidler, Frederic J; Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Tate, Charlotte A; Cousins, Mandy M; Slotkin, Theodore A

    2004-01-31

    The developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) involves multiple mechanisms, thus rendering the immature brain susceptible to adverse effects over a wide window of vulnerability. Earlier work indicated that CPF exposure at the neural tube stage elicits apoptosis and disrupts mitotic patterns in the brain primordium but that rapid recovery ensues before birth. In the current study, we assessed whether defects in cholinergic synaptic activity emerge later in development. CPF was given to pregnant rats on gestational days 9-12, using regimens devoid of overt maternal or fetal toxicity. We then examined subsequent development of acetylcholine systems and compared the effects to those on general biomarkers of cell development. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a constitutive marker for cholinergic nerve terminals, was increased in the hippocampus and striatum in adolescence and adulthood. In contrast, hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) binding to the presynaptic choline transporter, an index of nerve impulse activity, was markedly subnormal. Furthermore, m2-muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding was significantly reduced, instead of showing the expected compensatory upregulation for reduced neural input. CPF also elicited delayed-onset alterations in biomarkers of cell packing density, cell number, cell size and neuritic projections, involving brain regions both with and without reductions in indices of cholinergic activity. In combination with earlier results, the current findings indicate that the developing brain, and especially the hippocampus, is adversely affected by CPF regardless of whether exposure occurs early or late in brain development, and that defects emerge in adolescence or adulthood even in situations where normative values are initially restored in the immediate post-exposure period.

  15. [Neurofibromin - protein structure and cellular functions in the context of neurofibromatosis type I pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Abramowicz, Anna; Gos, Monika

    2015-12-09

    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is multisystemic disease characterized by pigmentary skin changes, increased susceptibility to tumor formation, neurological deficits and skeletal defects. The disease is a monogenic, autosomal dominant disorder, caused by the presence of mutations in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin - a multifunctional regulatory protein. The basic function of neurofibromin protein is modulation of the RAS protein activity necessary for regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation by the RAS/MAPK and RAS/PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathways. In addition, neurofibromin is a regulator of adenylate cyclase activity and therefore may interfere with signaling by the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway that regulates cell cycle progression or learning and memory formation processes. Neurofibromin also interacts with many other proteins that are engaged in intracellular transport (tubulin, kinesin), actin cytoskeleton rearrangements (LIMK2, Rho and Rac) or morphogenesis of neural cells (syndecans, CRMP proteins). The activity of neurofibromin is strictly regulated by the expression of different NF1 mRNA isoforms depending on tissue type or period in organism development, the protein localization, posttranslational modifications (phosphorylation, ubiquitination) or interactions with other proteins (e.g. 14-3-3). The fact that neurofibromin is engaged in many cellular processes has significant consequences when the proper protein functioning is impaired due to decreased protein level or activity. It affects the normal cell function and results in disturbances of organism development that lead to the occurrence of clinical signs specific for NF1. In the article, the basic neurofibromin functions are presented in the context of the molecular pathogenesis of NF1.

  16. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and nasal cellularity in Indonesian wood workers: a dose-response analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borm, P; Jetten, M; Hidayat, S; van de Burgh, N; Leunissen, P; Kant, I; Houba, R; Soeprapto, H

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: It was hypothesised that inflammation plays a dominant part in the respiratory effects of exposure to wood dust. The purpose of this study was to relate the nasal inflammatory responses of workers exposed to meranti wood dust to (a) levels of exposure, (b) respiratory symptoms and (c) respiratory function. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in 1997 in a woodworking plant that used mainly meranti, among 982 workers exposed to different concentrations of wood dust. Personal sampling (n=243) of inhalable dust measurements indicated mean exposure in specific jobs, and enabled classification of 930 workers in three exposure classes (<2, 2–5, and >5 mg/m3) based on job title. Questionnaires were used to screen respiratory symptoms in the entire population. Lung function was measured with two different techniques, conventional flow-volume curves and the forced oscillation technique. Nasal lavage was done to assess inflammation in the upper respiratory tract. Results: A negative trend between years of employment and most flow-volume variables was found in men, but not in women workers. Current exposure, however, was not related to spirometric outcomes, respiratory symptoms, or nasal cellularity. Some impedance variables were related to current exposure but also with better function at higher exposure. Conclusions: Exposure to meranti wood dust did not cause an inflammation in the upper respiratory tract nor an increase of respiratory symptoms or decrease of lung function. These data do not corroborate the hypothesis that inflammation plays a part in airway obstruction induced by wood dust. PMID:11983850

  17. Activation Mechanism of LRRK2 and Its Cellular Functions in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenbusch, Katharina E; Kortholt, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    Human LRRK2 (Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2) has been associated with both familial and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several LRRK2 mediated pathways and interaction partners have been identified, the cellular functions of LRRK2 and LRRK2 mediated progression of PD are still only partially understood. LRRK2 belongs to the group of Roco proteins which are characterized by the presence of a Ras-like G-domain (Roc), a C-terminal of Roc domain (COR), a kinase, and several protein-protein interaction domains. Roco proteins exhibit a complex activation mechanism involving intramolecular signaling, dimerization, and substrate/effector binding. Importantly, PD mutations in LRRK2 have been linked to a decreased GTPase and impaired kinase activity, thus providing putative therapeutic targets. To fully explore these potential targets it will be crucial to understand the function and identify the pathways responsible for LRRK2-linked PD. Here, we review the recent progress in elucidating the complex LRRK2 activation mechanism, describe the accumulating evidence that link LRRK2-mediated PD to mitochondrial dysfunction and aberrant autophagy, and discuss possible ways for therapeutically targeting LRRK2.

  18. Substrate recognition and function of the R2TP complex in response to cellular stress

    PubMed Central

    von Morgen, Patrick; Hořejší, Zuzana; Macurek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    The R2TP complex is a HSP90 co-chaperone, which consists of four subunits: PIH1D1, RPAP3, RUVBL1, and RUVBL2. It is involved in the assembly of large protein or protein–RNA complexes such as RNA polymerase, small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (snoRNPs), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-related kinases (PIKKs), and their complexes. While RPAP3 has a HSP90 binding domain and the RUVBLs comprise ATPase activities important for R2TP functions, PIH1D1 contains a PIH-N domain that specifically recognizes phosphorylated substrates of the R2TP complex. In this review we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the R2TP complex with the focus on the recently identified structural and mechanistic features of the R2TP complex functions. We also discuss the way R2TP regulates cellular response to stress caused by low levels of nutrients or by DNA damage and its possible exploitation as a target for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:25767478

  19. Cellular functions of the ADF/cofilin family at a glance.

    PubMed

    Kanellos, Georgios; Frame, Margaret C

    2016-09-01

    The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin family comprises small actin-binding proteins with crucial roles in development, tissue homeostasis and disease. They are best known for their roles in regulating actin dynamics by promoting actin treadmilling and thereby driving membrane protrusion and cell motility. However, recent discoveries have increased our understanding of the functions of these proteins beyond their well-characterized roles. This Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster serve as an introduction to the diverse roles of the ADF/cofilin family in cells. The first part of the article summarizes their actions in actin treadmilling and the main mechanisms for their intracellular regulation; the second part aims to provide an outline of the emerging cellular roles attributed to the ADF/cofilin family, besides their actions in actin turnover. The latter part discusses an array of diverse processes, which include regulation of intracellular contractility, maintenance of nuclear integrity, transcriptional regulation, nuclear actin monomer transfer, apoptosis and lipid metabolism. Some of these could, of course, be indirect consequences of actin treadmilling functions, and this is discussed. PMID:27505888

  20. Much to know about proteolysis: intricate proteolytic machineries compromise essential cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Marfany, Gemma; Farràs, Rosa; Salido, Eduardo; Xirodimas, Dimitris P; Rodríguez, Manuel S

    2008-10-01

    Proteolysis has traditionally been considered as a radical way to terminate the function of a protein. However, protein destruction also is the starting point for many processes as they can only occur when the way has been cleared for the action of other proteins. Protein destruction can occur virtually in all compartments and organelles of the cell, associated with cell membranes or large protein complexes, it determines subcellular partitioning, association with positive or negative regulators which conditions the action of many critical cellular factors. The third intracellular proteolysis meeting held by the University La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain, included speakers working with some of the most important proteolytic systems present in higher eukaryotes, such as the UPS (ubiquitin-proteasome system) and autophagy. Owing to the fact that these pathways directly or indirectly regulate many cell functions, this meeting brought together an audience with a wide range of research interests, including genetic, cell biological, biochemical and structural aspects of protein degradation. Some of these topics inspired interesting discussions and a significant number of these are developed in the issues reviewed herein.

  1. Functional adaptation and phenotypic plasticity at the cellular and whole plant level.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J

    2009-10-01

    The ability to adaptively alter morphological, anatomical, or physiological functional traits to local environmental variations using external environmental cues is especially well expressed by all terrestrial and most aquatic plants. A ubiquitous cue eliciting these plastic phenotypic responses is mechanical perturbation (MP), which can evoke dramatic differences in the size, shape, or mechanical properties of conspecifics. Current thinking posits that MP is part of a very ancient "stress-perception response system" that involves receptors located at the cell membrane/cell wall interface capable of responding to a broad spectrum of stress-inducing factors. This hypothesis is explored here from the perspective of cell wall evolution and the control of cell wall architecture by unicellular and multicellular plants. Among the conclusions that emerge from this exploration is the perspective that the plant cell is phenotypically plastic. PMID:19920346

  2. Adolescent Risperidone treatment alters protein expression associated with protein trafficking and cellular metabolism in the adult rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Lorna A; Dicker, Patrick; Wynne, Kieran; English, Jane; Cagney, Gerard; Föcking, Melanie; Cotter, David R

    2014-06-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with mental health illnesses including schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. It richly expresses neuroreceptors which are the target for antipsychotics. However, as the precise mechanism of action of antipsychotic medications is not known, proteomic studies of the effects of antipsychotic drugs on the brain are warranted. In the current study, we aimed to characterize protein expression in the adult rodent PFC (n = 5 per group) following low-dose treatment with Risperidone or saline in adolescence (postnatal days 34-47). The PFC was examined by triplicate 1 h runs of label-free LC-MS/MS. The raw mass spectral data were analyzed with the MaxQuant(TM) software. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS® Version 9.1. Pathway and functional analysis was performed with IngenuityPathway Analysis and in the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), respectively, the most implicated pathways were found to be related to mitochondrial function, protein trafficking, and the cytoskeleton. This report adds to the current repertoire of data available concerning the effects of antipsychotic drugs on the brain and sheds light on their biological mechanisms. The MS data have been deposited with the ProteomeXchange Consortium with dataset identifier PXD000480. PMID:24733778

  3. Boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) functionalized carbon nano-onions for high resolution cellular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelmess, Juergen; de Luca, Elisa; Signorelli, Angelo; Baldrighi, Michele; Becce, Michele; Brescia, Rosaria; Nardone, Valentina; Parisini, Emilio; Echegoyen, Luis; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Giordani, Silvia

    2014-10-01

    Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are an exciting class of carbon nanomaterials, which have recently demonstrated a facile cell-penetration capability. In the present work, highly fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were covalently attached to the surface of CNOs. The introduction of this new carbon nanomaterial-based imaging platform, made of CNOs and BODIPY fluorophores, allows for the exploration of synergetic effects between the two building blocks and for the elucidation of its performance in biological applications. The high fluorescence intensity exhibited by the functionalized CNOs translates into an excellent in vitro probe for the high resolution imaging of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. It was also found that the CNOs, internalized by the cells by endocytosis, localized in the lysosomes and did not show any cytotoxic effects. The presented results highlight CNOs as excellent platforms for biological and biomedical studies due to their low toxicity, efficient cellular uptake and low fluorescence quenching of attached probes.Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are an exciting class of carbon nanomaterials, which have recently demonstrated a facile cell-penetration capability. In the present work, highly fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were covalently attached to the surface of CNOs. The introduction of this new carbon nanomaterial-based imaging platform, made of CNOs and BODIPY fluorophores, allows for the exploration of synergetic effects between the two building blocks and for the elucidation of its performance in biological applications. The high fluorescence intensity exhibited by the functionalized CNOs translates into an excellent in vitro probe for the high resolution imaging of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. It was also found that the CNOs, internalized by the cells by endocytosis, localized in the lysosomes and did not show any cytotoxic effects. The presented results highlight CNOs as excellent platforms for biological and biomedical

  4. Human mesenchymal stroma/stem cells exchange membrane proteins and alter functionality during interaction with different tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Otte, Anna; Hass, Ralf

    2015-05-15

    To analyze effects of cellular interaction between human mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSC) and different cancer cells, direct co-cultures were performed and revealed significant growth stimulation of the tumor populations and a variety of protein exchanges. More than 90% of MCF-7 and primary human HBCEC699 breast cancer cells as well as NIH:OVCAR-3 ovarian adenocarcinoma cells acquired CD90 proteins during MSC co-culture, respectively. Furthermore, SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells progressively elevated CD105 and CD90 proteins in co-culture with MSC. Primary small cell hypercalcemic ovarian carcinoma cells (SCCOHT-1) demonstrated undetectable levels of CD73 and CD105; however, both proteins were significantly increased in the presence of MSC. This co-culture-mediated protein induction was also observed at transcriptional levels and changed functionality of SCCOHT-1 cells by an acquired capability to metabolize 5'cAMP. Moreover, exchange between tumor cells and MSC worked bidirectional, as undetectable expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in MSC significantly increased after co-culture with SK-OV-3 or NIH:OVCAR-3 cells. In addition, a small population of chimeric/hybrid cells appeared in each MSC/tumor cell co-culture by spontaneous cell fusion. Immune fluorescence demonstrated nanotube structures and exosomes between MSC and tumor cells, whereas cytochalasin-D partially abolished the intercellular protein transfer. More detailed functional analysis of FACS-separated MSC and NIH:OVCAR-3 cells after co-culture revealed the acquisition of epithelial cell-specific properties by MSC, including increased gene expression for cytokeratins and epithelial-like differentiation factors. Vice versa, a variety of transcriptional regulatory genes were down-modulated in NIH:OVCAR-3 cells after co-culture with MSC. Together, these mutual cellular interactions contributed to functional alterations in MSC and tumor cells. PMID:25525832

  5. Human Mesenchymal Stroma/Stem Cells Exchange Membrane Proteins and Alter Functionality During Interaction with Different Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Otte, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To analyze effects of cellular interaction between human mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSC) and different cancer cells, direct co-cultures were performed and revealed significant growth stimulation of the tumor populations and a variety of protein exchanges. More than 90% of MCF-7 and primary human HBCEC699 breast cancer cells as well as NIH:OVCAR-3 ovarian adenocarcinoma cells acquired CD90 proteins during MSC co-culture, respectively. Furthermore, SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells progressively elevated CD105 and CD90 proteins in co-culture with MSC. Primary small cell hypercalcemic ovarian carcinoma cells (SCCOHT-1) demonstrated undetectable levels of CD73 and CD105; however, both proteins were significantly increased in the presence of MSC. This co-culture-mediated protein induction was also observed at transcriptional levels and changed functionality of SCCOHT-1 cells by an acquired capability to metabolize 5′cAMP. Moreover, exchange between tumor cells and MSC worked bidirectional, as undetectable expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in MSC significantly increased after co-culture with SK-OV-3 or NIH:OVCAR-3 cells. In addition, a small population of chimeric/hybrid cells appeared in each MSC/tumor cell co-culture by spontaneous cell fusion. Immune fluorescence demonstrated nanotube structures and exosomes between MSC and tumor cells, whereas cytochalasin-D partially abolished the intercellular protein transfer. More detailed functional analysis of FACS-separated MSC and NIH:OVCAR-3 cells after co-culture revealed the acquisition of epithelial cell-specific properties by MSC, including increased gene expression for cytokeratins and epithelial-like differentiation factors. Vice versa, a variety of transcriptional regulatory genes were down-modulated in NIH:OVCAR-3 cells after co-culture with MSC. Together, these mutual cellular interactions contributed to functional alterations in MSC and tumor cells. PMID:25525832

  6. Thymus-associated parathyroid hormone has two cellular origins with distinct endocrine and immunological functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijie; Farley, Alison; Chen, Lizhen; Kirby, Beth J; Kovacs, Christopher S; Blackburn, C Clare; Manley, Nancy R

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of extracellular calcium and inorganic phosphorus homeostasis. Although the parathyroid glands were thought to be the only source of PTH, extra-parathyroid PTH production in the thymus, which shares a common origin with parathyroids during organogenesis, has been proposed to provide an auxiliary source of PTH, resulting in a higher than expected survival rate for aparathyroid Gcm2⁻/⁻ mutants. However, the developmental ontogeny and cellular identity of these "thymic" PTH-expressing cells is unknown. We found that the lethality of aparathyroid Gcm2⁻/⁻ mutants was affected by genetic background without relation to serum PTH levels, suggesting a need to reconsider the physiological function of thymic PTH. We identified two sources of extra-parathyroid PTH in wild-type mice. Incomplete separation of the parathyroid and thymus organs during organogenesis resulted in misplaced, isolated parathyroid cells that were often attached to the thymus; this was the major source of thymic PTH in normal mice. Analysis of thymus and parathyroid organogenesis in human embryos showed a broadly similar result, indicating that these results may provide insight into human parathyroid development. In addition, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) express PTH in a Gcm2-independent manner that requires TEC differentiation and is consistent with expression as a self-antigen for negative selection. Genetic or surgical removal of the thymus indicated that thymus-derived PTH in Gcm2⁻/⁻ mutants did not provide auxiliary endocrine function. Our data show conclusively that the thymus does not serve as an auxiliary source of either serum PTH or parathyroid function. We further show that the normal process of parathyroid organogenesis in both mice and humans leads to the generation of multiple small parathyroid clusters in addition to the main parathyroid glands, that are the likely source of physiologically relevant "thymic

  7. Functions and Cellular Compartmentation of the Thioredoxin and Glutathione Pathways in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Delaunay-Moisan, Agnès; Outten, Caryn E.; Igbaria, Aeid

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The thioredoxin (TRX) and glutathione (GSH) pathways are universally conserved thiol-reductase systems that drive an array of cellular functions involving reversible disulfide formation. Here we consider these pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, focusing on their cell compartment-specific functions, as well as the mechanisms that explain extreme differences of redox states between compartments. Recent Advances: Recent work leads to a model in which the yeast TRX and GSH pathways are not redundant, in contrast to Escherichia coli. The cytosol possesses full sets of both pathways, of which the TRX pathway is dominant, while the GSH pathway acts as back up of the former. The mitochondrial matrix also possesses entire sets of both pathways, in which the GSH pathway has major role in redox control. In both compartments, GSH has also nonredox functions in iron metabolism, essential for viability. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) are sites of intense thiol oxidation, but except GSH lack thiol-reductase pathways. Critical Issues: What are the thiol-redox links between compartments? Mitochondria are totally independent, and insulated from the other compartments. The cytosol is also totally independent, but also provides reducing power to the ER and IMS, possibly by ways of reduced and oxidized GSH entering and exiting these compartments. Future Directions: Identifying the mechanisms regulating fluxes of GSH and oxidized glutathione between cytosol and ER, IMS, and possibly also peroxisomes, vacuole is needed to establish the proposed model of eukaryotic thiol-redox homeostasis, which should facilitate exploration of this system in mammals and plants. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1699–1711. PMID:23198979

  8. The association between alterations of eye movement control and cerebral intrinsic functional connectivity in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gorges, Martin; Müller, Hans-Peter; Lulé, Dorothée; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) present with eye movement disturbances that accompany the cardinal motor symptoms. Previous studies have consistently found evidence that large-scale functional networks are critically involved in eye movement control. We challenged the hypothesis that altered eye movement control in patients with PD is closely related to alterations of whole-brain functional connectivity in association with the neurodegenerative process. Saccadic and pursuit eye movements by video-oculography and 'resting-state' functional MRI (3 Tesla) were recorded from 53 subjects, i.e. 31 patients with PD and 22 matched healthy controls. Video-oculographically, a broad spectrum of eye movement impairments was demonstrated in PD patients vs. controls, including interrupted smooth pursuit, hypometric saccades, and a high distractibility in anti-saccades. Significant correlations between altered oculomotor parameters and functional connectivity measures were observed, i.e. the worse the oculomotor performance was, the more the regional functional connectivity in cortical, limbic, thalamic, cerebellar, and brainstem areas was decreased. Remarkably, decreased connectivity between major nodes of the default mode network was tightly correlated with the prevalence of saccadic intrusions as a measure for distractability. In conclusion, dysfunctional eye movement control in PD seems to be primarily associated with (cortical) executive deficits, rather than being related to the ponto-cerebellar circuits or the oculomotor brainstem nuclei. Worsened eye movement performance together with the potential pathophysiological substrate of decreased intrinsic functional connectivity in predominantly oculomotor-associated cerebral functional networks may constitute a behavioral marker in PD.

  9. Exploring Patterns of Alteration in Alzheimer's Disease Brain Networks: A Combined Structural and Functional Connectomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Palesi, Fulvia; Castellazzi, Gloria; Casiraghi, Letizia; Sinforiani, Elena; Vitali, Paolo; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a severe derangement of cognitive functions, primarily memory, in elderly subjects. As far as the functional impairment is concerned, growing evidence supports the "disconnection syndrome" hypothesis. Recent investigations using fMRI have revealed a generalized alteration of resting state networks (RSNs) in patients affected by AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it was unclear whether the changes in functional connectivity were accompanied by corresponding structural network changes. In this work, we have developed a novel structural/functional connectomic approach: resting state fMRI was used to identify the functional cortical network nodes and diffusion MRI to reconstruct the fiber tracts to give a weight to internodal subcortical connections. Then, local and global efficiency were determined for different networks, exploring specific alterations of integration and segregation patterns in AD and MCI patients compared to healthy controls (HC). In the default mode network (DMN), that was the most affected, axonal loss, and reduced axonal integrity appeared to compromise both local and global efficiency along posterior-anterior connections. In the basal ganglia network (BGN), disruption of white matter integrity implied that main alterations occurred in local microstructure. In the anterior insular network (AIN), neuronal loss probably subtended a compromised communication with the insular cortex. Cognitive performance, evaluated by neuropsychological examinations, revealed a dependency on integration and segregation of brain networks. These findings are indicative of the fact that cognitive deficits in AD could be associated not only with cortical alterations (revealed by fMRI) but also with subcortical alterations (revealed by diffusion MRI) that extend beyond the areas primarily damaged by neurodegeneration, toward the support of an emerging concept of AD as a "disconnection

  10. Exploring Patterns of Alteration in Alzheimer's Disease Brain Networks: A Combined Structural and Functional Connectomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Palesi, Fulvia; Castellazzi, Gloria; Casiraghi, Letizia; Sinforiani, Elena; Vitali, Paolo; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a severe derangement of cognitive functions, primarily memory, in elderly subjects. As far as the functional impairment is concerned, growing evidence supports the “disconnection syndrome” hypothesis. Recent investigations using fMRI have revealed a generalized alteration of resting state networks (RSNs) in patients affected by AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it was unclear whether the changes in functional connectivity were accompanied by corresponding structural network changes. In this work, we have developed a novel structural/functional connectomic approach: resting state fMRI was used to identify the functional cortical network nodes and diffusion MRI to reconstruct the fiber tracts to give a weight to internodal subcortical connections. Then, local and global efficiency were determined for different networks, exploring specific alterations of integration and segregation patterns in AD and MCI patients compared to healthy controls (HC). In the default mode network (DMN), that was the most affected, axonal loss, and reduced axonal integrity appeared to compromise both local and global efficiency along posterior-anterior connections. In the basal ganglia network (BGN), disruption of white matter integrity implied that main alterations occurred in local microstructure. In the anterior insular network (AIN), neuronal loss probably subtended a compromised communication with the insular cortex. Cognitive performance, evaluated by neuropsychological examinations, revealed a dependency on integration and segregation of brain networks. These findings are indicative of the fact that cognitive deficits in AD could be associated not only with cortical alterations (revealed by fMRI) but also with subcortical alterations (revealed by diffusion MRI) that extend beyond the areas primarily damaged by neurodegeneration, toward the support of an emerging concept of AD as a

  11. Exploring Patterns of Alteration in Alzheimer's Disease Brain Networks: A Combined Structural and Functional Connectomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Palesi, Fulvia; Castellazzi, Gloria; Casiraghi, Letizia; Sinforiani, Elena; Vitali, Paolo; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a severe derangement of cognitive functions, primarily memory, in elderly subjects. As far as the functional impairment is concerned, growing evidence supports the “disconnection syndrome” hypothesis. Recent investigations using fMRI have revealed a generalized alteration of resting state networks (RSNs) in patients affected by AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it was unclear whether the changes in functional connectivity were accompanied by corresponding structural network changes. In this work, we have developed a novel structural/functional connectomic approach: resting state fMRI was used to identify the functional cortical network nodes and diffusion MRI to reconstruct the fiber tracts to give a weight to internodal subcortical connections. Then, local and global efficiency were determined for different networks, exploring specific alterations of integration and segregation patterns in AD and MCI patients compared to healthy controls (HC). In the default mode network (DMN), that was the most affected, axonal loss, and reduced axonal integrity appeared to compromise both local and global efficiency along posterior-anterior connections. In the basal ganglia network (BGN), disruption of white matter integrity implied that main alterations occurred in local microstructure. In the anterior insular network (AIN), neuronal loss probably subtended a compromised communication with the insular cortex. Cognitive performance, evaluated by neuropsychological examinations, revealed a dependency on integration and segregation of brain networks. These findings are indicative of the fact that cognitive deficits in AD could be associated not only with cortical alterations (revealed by fMRI) but also with subcortical alterations (revealed by diffusion MRI) that extend beyond the areas primarily damaged by neurodegeneration, toward the support of an emerging concept of AD as a

  12. Exploring Patterns of Alteration in Alzheimer's Disease Brain Networks: A Combined Structural and Functional Connectomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Palesi, Fulvia; Castellazzi, Gloria; Casiraghi, Letizia; Sinforiani, Elena; Vitali, Paolo; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a severe derangement of cognitive functions, primarily memory, in elderly subjects. As far as the functional impairment is concerned, growing evidence supports the "disconnection syndrome" hypothesis. Recent investigations using fMRI have revealed a generalized alteration of resting state networks (RSNs) in patients affected by AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it was unclear whether the changes in functional connectivity were accompanied by corresponding structural network changes. In this work, we have developed a novel structural/functional connectomic approach: resting state fMRI was used to identify the functional cortical network nodes and diffusion MRI to reconstruct the fiber tracts to give a weight to internodal subcortical connections. Then, local and global efficiency were determined for different networks, exploring specific alterations of integration and segregation patterns in AD and MCI patients compared to healthy controls (HC). In the default mode network (DMN), that was the most affected, axonal loss, and reduced axonal integrity appeared to compromise both local and global efficiency along posterior-anterior connections. In the basal ganglia network (BGN), disruption of white matter integrity implied that main alterations occurred in local microstructure. In the anterior insular network (AIN), neuronal loss probably subtended a compromised communication with the insular cortex. Cognitive performance, evaluated by neuropsychological examinations, revealed a dependency on integration and segregation of brain networks. These findings are indicative of the fact that cognitive deficits in AD could be associated not only with cortical alterations (revealed by fMRI) but also with subcortical alterations (revealed by diffusion MRI) that extend beyond the areas primarily damaged by neurodegeneration, toward the support of an emerging concept of AD as a "disconnection

  13. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR PRODUCES ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS. R A Matulka1, AA Rooney3, W Williams2, CB Copeland2, and R J Smialowicz2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2US EPA, ITB, ETD, NHEERL, RT...

  14. [Functional alterations of the arterial vessels in experimental models of type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Boleeva, G S; Mochalov, S V; Tarasova, O S

    2014-01-01

    The review analyzws the literature on the pathological alterations of endothelium, smooth muscle and vasomotor innervation of arterial vessels in animal modes of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Particular attention is paid t the analysis of mechanisms of diabetic abnormalities in the light of modern knowledge on the functioning of the main components of the vascular wall. PMID:25707261

  15. Altered vestibular function in fetal and newborn rats gestated in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Alberts, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers evaluated vestibular development and function in rat pups flown during gestation on the NASA-NIH R1 and R2 missions. Fetal and postnatal vestibular function were examined. Altered vestibular-mediated responses in the experimental fetal pups are attributed to either direct effect of gravity on the vestibular system or indirect effects of microgravity transduced through the mother. The postnatal tests confirmed the hypothesis that the vestibular system continually adapts and responds to tonic stimulation.

  16. Afforestation alters the composition of functional genes in soil and biogeochemical processes in South American grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Berthrong, Sean T; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Pineiro, Gervasio; Jackson, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    Soil microbes are highly diverse and control most soil biogeochemical reactions. We examined how microbial functional genes and biogeochemical pools responded to the altered chemical inputs accompanying land use change. We examined paired native grasslands and adjacent Eucalyptus plantations (previously grassland) in Uruguay, a region that lacked forests before European settlement. Along with measurements of soil carbon, nitrogen, and bacterial diversity, we analyzed functional genes using the GeoChip 2.0 microarray, which simultaneously quantified several thousand genes involved in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling. Plantations and grassland differed significantly in functional gene profiles, bacterial diversity, and biogeochemical pool sizes. Most grassland profiles were similar, but plantation profiles generally differed from those of grasslands due to differences in functional gene abundance across diverse taxa. Eucalypts decreased ammonification and N fixation functional genes by 11% and 7.9% (P < 0.01), which correlated with decreased microbial biomass N and more NH{sub 4}{sup +} in plantation soils. Chitinase abundance decreased 7.8% in plantations compared to levels in grassland (P = 0.017), and C polymer-degrading genes decreased by 1.5% overall (P < 0.05), which likely contributed to 54% (P < 0.05) more C in undecomposed extractable soil pools and 27% less microbial C (P < 0.01) in plantation soils. In general, afforestation altered the abundance of many microbial functional genes, corresponding with changes in soil biogeochemistry, in part through altered abundance of overall functional gene types rather than simply through changes in specific taxa. Such changes in microbial functional genes correspond with altered C and N storage and have implications for long-term productivity in these soils.

  17. Tumor suppressor BTG1 promotes PRMT1-mediated ATF4 function in response to cellular stress

    PubMed Central

    Tijchon, Esther; van Ingen Schenau, Dorette; van Emst, Liesbeth; Levers, Marloes; Palit, Sander A.L.; Rodenbach, Caroline; Poelmans, Geert; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Shan, Jixiu; Kilberg, Michael S.; Scheijen, Blanca; van Leeuwen, Frank N.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells are frequently exposed to physiological stress conditions such as hypoxia and nutrient limitation. Escape from stress-induced apoptosis is one of the mechanisms used by malignant cells to survive unfavorable conditions. B-cell Translocation Gene 1 (BTG1) is a tumor suppressor that is frequently deleted in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and recurrently mutated in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Moreover, low BTG1 expression levels have been linked to poor outcome in several solid tumors. How loss of BTG1 function contributes to tumor progression is not well understood. Here, using Btg1 knockout mice, we demonstrate that loss of Btg1 provides a survival advantage to primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) under stress conditions. This pro-survival effect involves regulation of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4), a key mediator of cellular stress responses. We show that BTG1 interacts with ATF4 and positively modulates its activity by recruiting the protein arginine methyl transferase PRMT1 to methylate ATF4 on arginine residue 239. We further extend these findings to B-cell progenitors, by showing that loss of Btg1 expression enhances stress adaptation of mouse bone marrow-derived B cell progenitors. In conclusion, we have identified the BTG1/PRMT1 complex as a new modifier of ATF4 mediated stress responses. PMID:26657730

  18. On the Quest of Cellular Functions of PEA-15 and the Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes, 15 KDa (PEA-15), a ubiquitously expressed small protein in all mammals, is known for decades for its potent interactions with various protein partners along distinct biological pathways. Most notable interacting partners of PEA-15 include extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) protein involving in the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), and the phospholipase D1 (PLD1) affecting the insulin sensitivity. However, the actual cellular functions of PEA-15 are still mysterious, and the question why this protein is expressed in almost all cell and tissue types remains unanswered. Here we synthesize the most recent structural, biological, and clinical studies on PEA-15 with emphases on its anti-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammative properties, and propose a converged protective role of PEA-15 that maintains the balance of death and survival in different cell types. Under conditions that this delicate balance is unsustainable, PEA-15 may become pathological and lead to various diseases, including cancers and diabetes. Targeting PEA-15 interactions, or the use of PEA-15 protein as therapeutics, may provide a wider window of opportunities to treat these diseases. PMID:26263999

  19. The bacterial virulence factor NleA inhibits cellular protein secretion by disrupting mammalian COPII function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinoh; Thanabalasuriar, Ajitha; Chaworth-Musters, Tessa; Fromme, J Chris; Frey, Elizabeth A; Lario, Paula I; Metalnikov, Pavel; Rizg, Keyrillos; Thomas, Nikhil A; Lee, Sau Fung; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Hardwidge, Philip R; Pawson, Tony; Strynadka, Natalie C; Finlay, B Brett; Schekman, Randy; Gruenheid, Samantha

    2007-09-13

    Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC) maintain an extracellular lifestyle and use a type III secretion system to translocate effector proteins into the host cytosol. These effectors manipulate host pathways to favor bacterial replication and survival. NleA is an EHEC/EPEC- and related species-specific translocated effector protein that is essential for bacterial virulence. However, the mechanism by which NleA impacts virulence remains undetermined. Here we demonstrate that NleA compromises the Sec23/24 complex, a component of the mammalian COPII protein coat that shapes intracellular protein transport vesicles, by directly binding Sec24. Expression of an NleA-GFP fusion protein reduces the efficiency of cellular secretion by 50%, and secretion is inhibited in EPEC-infected cells. Direct biochemical experiments show that NleA inhibits COPII-dependent protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum. Collectively, these findings indicate that disruption of COPII function in host cells contributes to the virulence of EPEC and EHEC.

  20. Cellular and functional specificity among ferritin-like proteins in the multicellular cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Martin; Sandh, Gustaf; Nenninger, Anja; Oliveira, Paulo; Stensjö, Karin

    2014-03-01

    Ferritin-like proteins constitute a remarkably heterogeneous protein family, including ferritins, bacterioferritins and Dps proteins. The genome of the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme encodes five ferritin-like proteins. In the present paper, we report a multidimensional characterization of these proteins. Our phylogenetic and bioinformatics analyses suggest both structural and physiological differences among the ferritin-like proteins. The expression of these five genes responded differently to hydrogen peroxide treatment, with a significantly higher rise in transcript level for Npun_F3730 as compared with the other four genes. A specific role for Npun_F3730 in the cells tolerance against hydrogen peroxide was also supported by the inactivation of Npun_F3730, Npun_R5701 and Npun_R6212; among these, only the ΔNpun_F3730 strain showed an increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide compared with wild type. Analysis of promoter-GFP reporter fusions of the ferritin-like genes indicated that Npun_F3730 and Npun_R5701 were expressed in all cell types of a diazotrophic culture, while Npun_F6212 was expressed specifically in heterocysts. Our study provides the first comprehensive analysis combining functional differentiation and cellular specificity within this important group of proteins in a multicellular cyanobacterium. PMID:23992552

  1. Elucidating the Function of Penetratin and a Static Magnetic Field in Cellular Uptake of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Suman; Smith, Carol Anne; del Pino, Pablo; de la Fuente, Jesus M.; Mullin, Margaret; Hursthouse, Andrew; Stirling, David; Berry, Catherine C.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) have become important tools in molecular diagnostics, in vivo imaging and improved treatment of disease, with the ultimate aim of producing a more theranostic approach. Due to their small sizes, the nanoparticles can cross most of the biological barriers such as the blood vessels and the blood brain barrier, thus providing ubiquitous access to most tissues. In all biomedical applications maximum nanoparticle uptake into cells is required. Two promising methods employed to this end include functionalization of mNPs with cell-penetrating peptides to promote efficient translocation of cargo into the cell and the use of external magnetic fields for enhanced delivery. This study aimed to compare the effect of both penetratin and a static magnetic field with regards to the cellular uptake of 200 nm magnetic NPs and determine the route of uptake by both methods. Results demonstrated that both techniques increased particle uptake, with penetratin proving more cell specific. Clathrin- medicated endocytosis appeared to be responsible for uptake as shown via PCR and western blot, with Pitstop 2 (known to selectively block clathrin formation) blocking particle uptake. Interestingly, it was further shown that a magnetic field was able to reverse or overcome the blocking, suggesting an alternative route of uptake. PMID:24275948

  2. Cellular functions of genetically imprinted genes in human and mouse as annotated in the gene ontology.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Mohamed; Ismael, Siba; Paulsen, Martina; Helms, Volkhard

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing the cellular functions of genetically imprinted genes as annotated in the Gene Ontology for human and mouse, we found that imprinted genes are often involved in developmental, transport and regulatory processes. In the human, paternally expressed genes are enriched in GO terms related to the development of organs and of anatomical structures. In the mouse, maternally expressed genes regulate cation transport as well as G-protein signaling processes. Furthermore, we investigated if imprinted genes are regulated by common transcription factors. We identified 25 TF families that showed an enrichment of binding sites in the set of imprinted genes in human and 40 TF families in mouse. In general, maternally and paternally expressed genes are not regulated by different transcription factors. The genes Nnat, Klf14, Blcap, Gnas and Ube3a contribute most to the enrichment of TF families. In the mouse, genes that are maternally expressed in placenta are enriched for AP1 binding sites. In the human, we found that these genes possessed binding sites for both, AP1 and SP1. PMID:23226257

  3. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. PMID:25858600

  4. A genetic algorithms approach for altering the membership functions in fuzzy logic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shehadeh, Hana; Lea, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    Through previous work, a fuzzy control system was developed to perform translational and rotational control of a space vehicle. This problem was then re-examined to determine the effectiveness of genetic algorithms on fine tuning the controller. This paper explains the problems associated with the design of this fuzzy controller and offers a technique for tuning fuzzy logic controllers. A fuzzy logic controller is a rule-based system that uses fuzzy linguistic variables to model human rule-of-thumb approaches to control actions within a given system. This 'fuzzy expert system' features rules that direct the decision process and membership functions that convert the linguistic variables into the precise numeric values used for system control. Defining the fuzzy membership functions is the most time consuming aspect of the controller design. One single change in the membership functions could significantly alter the performance of the controller. This membership function definition can be accomplished by using a trial and error technique to alter the membership functions creating a highly tuned controller. This approach can be time consuming and requires a great deal of knowledge from human experts. In order to shorten development time, an iterative procedure for altering the membership functions to create a tuned set that used a minimal amount of fuel for velocity vector approach and station-keep maneuvers was developed. Genetic algorithms, search techniques used for optimization, were utilized to solve this problem.

  5. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing.

  6. Reduced Mitochondrial Function in Human Huntington Disease Lymphoblasts is Not Due to Alterations in Cardiolipin Metabolism or Mitochondrial Supercomplex Assembly.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Edgard M; Chau, Sarah; Sparagna, Genevieve C; Sipione, Simonetta; Hatch, Grant M

    2016-05-01

    Huntington's Disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disease that occurs as a result of expansion of the trinucleotide repeat CAG (glutamine) on the HTT gene. HD patients exhibit various forms of mitochondrial dysfunction within neurons and peripheral tissues. Cardiolipin (Ptd2Gro) is a polyglycerophospholipid found exclusively in mitochondria and is important for maintaining mitochondrial function. We examined if altered Ptd2Gro metabolism was involved in the mitochondrial dysfunction associated with HD. Mitochondrial basal respiration, spare respiratory capacity, ATP coupling efficiency and rate of glycolysis were markedly diminished in Epstein-Barr virus transformed HD lymphoblasts compared to controls (CTRL). Mitochondrial supercomplex formation and Complex I activity within these supercomplexes did not vary between HD patients with different length of CAG repeats and appeared unaltered compared to CTRL. In contrast, in vitro Complex I enzyme activity in mitochondrial enriched samples was reduced in HD lymphoblasts compared to CTRL. The total cellular pool size of Ptd2Gro and its synthesis/remodeling from [(3)H]acetate/[(14)C]oleate were unaltered in HD lymphoblasts compared to CTRL. In addition, the molecular species of Ptd2Gro were essentially unaltered in HD lymphoblasts compared to CTRL. We conclude that compared to CTRL lymphoblasts, HD lymphoblasts display impaired mitochondrial basal respiration, spare respiratory capacity, ATP coupling efficiency and rate of glycolysis with any pathological CAG repeat length, but this is not due to alterations in Ptd2Gro metabolism. We suggest that HD patient lymphoblasts may be a useful model to study defective energy metabolism that does not involve alterations in Ptd2Gro metabolism. PMID:26846325

  7. Functional DNA-Containing Nanomaterials: Cellular Applications in Biosensing, Imaging, and Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus DNA performs a vital function as a carrier of genetic code, but in the field of nanotechnology, DNA molecules can catalyze chemical reactions in the cell, that is, DNAzymes, or bind with target-specific ligands, that is, aptamers. These functional DNAs with different modifications have been developed for sensing, imaging, and therapeutic systems. Thus, functional DNAs hold great promise for future applications in nanotechnology and bioanalysis. However, these functional DNAs face challenges, especially in the field of biomedicine. For example, functional DNAs typically require the use of cationic transfection reagents to realize cellular uptake. Such reagents enter the cells, increasing the difficulty of performing bioassays in vivo and potentially damaging the cell’s nucleus. To address this obstacle, nanomaterials, such as metallic, carbon, silica, or magnetic materials, have been utilized as DNA carriers or assistants. In this Account, we describe selected examples of functional DNA-containing nanomaterials and their applications from our recent research and those of others. As models, we have chosen to highlight DNA/nanomaterial complexes consisting of gold nanoparticles, graphene oxides, and aptamer–micelles, and we illustrate the potential of such complexes in biosensing, imaging, and medical diagnostics. Under proper conditions, multiple ligand–receptor interactions, decreased steric hindrance, and increased surface roughness can be achieved from a high density of DNA that is bound to the surface of nanomaterials, resulting in a higher affinity for complementary DNA and other targets. In addition, this high density of DNA causes a high local salt concentration and negative charge density, which can prevent DNA degradation. For example, DNAzymes assembled on gold nanoparticles can effectively catalyze chemical reactions even in living cells. And it has been confirmed that DNA–nanomaterial complexes can enter cells more easily than free

  8. β-alanine suppresses malignant breast epithelial cell aggressiveness through alterations in metabolism and cellular acidity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Deregulated energetics is a property of most cancer cells. This phenomenon, known as the Warburg Effect or aerobic glycolysis, is characterized by increased glucose uptake, lactate export and extracellular acidification, even in the presence of oxygen. β-alanine is a non-essential amino acid that has previously been shown to be metabolized into carnosine, which functions as an intracellular buffer. Because of this buffering capacity, we investigated the effects of β-alanine on the metabolic cancerous phenotype. Methods Non-malignant MCF-10a and malignant MCF-7 breast epithelial cells were treated with β-alanine at 100 mM for 24 hours. Aerobic glycolysis was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and oxidative metabolism was quantified by measuring oxygen consumption rate (OCR). mRNA of metabolism-related genes was quantified by qRT-PCR with corresponding protein expression quantified by immunoblotting, or by flow cytometry which was verified by confocal microscopy. Mitochondrial content was quantified using a mitochondria-specific dye and measured by flow cytometry. Results Cells treated with β-alanine displayed significantly suppressed basal and peak ECAR (aerobic glycolysis), with simultaneous increase in glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Additionally, cells treated with β-alanine exhibited significantly reduced basal and peak OCR (oxidative metabolism), which was accompanied by reduction in mitochondrial content with subsequent suppression of genes which promote mitochondrial biosynthesis. Suppression of glycolytic and oxidative metabolism by β-alanine resulted in the reduction of total metabolic rate, although cell viability was not affected. Because β-alanine treatment reduces extracellular acidity, a constituent of the invasive microenvironment that promotes progression, we investigated the effect of β-alanine on breast cell viability and migration. β-alanine was shown to reduce both cell migration and proliferation

  9. Altered structural and functional connectivity between the bilateral primary motor cortex in unilateral subcortical stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Kuang-Shi; Ning, Yan-Zhe; Fu, Cai-Hong; Liu, Hong-Wei; Han, Xiao; Cui, Fang-Yuan; Ren, Yi; Zou, Yi-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A large number of functional imaging studies have focused on the understanding of motor-related neural activities after ischemic stroke. However, the knowledge is still limited in the structural and functional changes of the interhemispheric connections of the bilateral primary motor cortices (M1s) and their potential influence on motor function recovery following stroke. Twenty-four stroke patients with right hemispheric subcortical infarcts and 25 control subjects were recruited to undergo multimodal magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Structural impairments between the bilateral M1s were measured by fractional anisotropy. Functional changes of the bilateral M1s were assessed via M1-M1 resting-state functional connectivity. Task-evoked activation analysis was applied to identify the roles of the bilateral hemispheres in motor function recovery. Compared with control subjects, unilateral subcortical stroke patients revealed significantly decreased fractional anisotropy and functional connectivity between the bilateral M1s. Stroke patients also revealed higher activations in multiple brain regions in both hemispheres and that more regions were located in the contralesional hemisphere. This study increased our understanding of the structural and functional alterations between the bilateral M1s that occur in unilateral subcortical stroke and provided further evidence for the compensatory role played by the contralesional hemisphere for these alterations during motor function recovery. PMID:27495109

  10. Short Term, Low Dose Simvastatin Pretreatment Alters Memory Immune Function Following Secondary Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    PubMed

    Smelser, Lisa K; Walker, Callum; Burns, Erin M; Curry, Michael; Black, Nathanael; Metzler, Jennifer A; McDowell, Susan A; Bruns, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    Statins are potent modulators of immune responses, resulting in their ability to enhance host survival from primary bacterial infections. Alterations in primary immune responses that may be beneficial for survival following infection may also result in alterations in the generation of the immunologic memory response and subsequently affect immune responses mounted during secondary bacterial infection. In this study, we report that levels of total serum IgG2c, following primary infection, were decreased in simvastatin pretreated mice, and investigate the effect of simvastatin treatment, prior to primary infection, on immune responses activated during secondary S. aureus infection. A secondary infection model was implemented whereby simvastatin pretreated and control mice were reinfected with S. aureus 14 days after primary infection, with no additional simvastatin treatment, and assessed for survival and alterations in immune function. While survivability to secondary S. aureus infection was not different between simvastatin pretreated and control mice, memory B and T lymphocyte functions were altered. Memory B cells, isolated 14 days after secondary infection, from simvastatin pretreated mice and stimulated ex vivo produced increased levels of IgG1 compared to memory B cells isolated from control mice, while levels of IgM and IgG2c remained similar. Furthermore, memory B and T lymphocytes from simvastatin pretreated mice exhibited a decreased proliferative response when stimulated ex vivo compared to memory cells isolated from control mice. These findings demonstrate the ability of a short term, low dose simvastatin treatment to modulate memory immune function. PMID:26927218

  11. Near-future carbon dioxide levels alter fish behaviour by interfering with neurotransmitter function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Göran E.; Dixson, Danielle L.; Domenici, Paolo; McCormick, Mark I.; Sørensen, Christina; Watson, Sue-Ann; Munday, Philip L.

    2012-03-01

    Predicted future CO2 levels have been found to alter sensory responses and behaviour of marine fishes. Changes include increased boldness and activity, loss of behavioural lateralization, altered auditory preferences and impaired olfactory function. Impaired olfactory function makes larval fish attracted to odours they normally avoid, including ones from predators and unfavourable habitats. These behavioural alterations have significant effects on mortality that may have far-reaching implications for population replenishment, community structure and ecosystem function. However, the underlying mechanism linking high CO2 to these diverse responses has been unknown. Here we show that abnormal olfactory preferences and loss of behavioural lateralization exhibited by two species of larval coral reef fish exposed to high CO2 can be rapidly and effectively reversed by treatment with an antagonist of the GABA-A receptor. GABA-A is a major neurotransmitter receptor in the vertebrate brain. Thus, our results indicate that high CO2 interferes with neurotransmitter function, a hitherto unrecognized threat to marine populations and ecosystems. Given the ubiquity and conserved function of GABA-A receptors, we predict that rising CO2 levels could cause sensory and behavioural impairment in a wide range of marine species, especially those that tightly control their acid-base balance through regulatory changes in HCO3- and Cl- levels.

  12. Functional Connectivity with the Default Mode Network Is Altered in Fibromyalgia Patients.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Nicholas; Chiu, Yee; Nurmikko, Turo; Stancak, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients show altered connectivity with the network maintaining ongoing resting brain activity, known as the default mode network (DMN). The connectivity patterns of DMN with the rest of the brain in FMS patients are poorly understood. This study employed seed-based functional connectivity analysis to investigate resting-state functional connectivity with DMN structures in FMS. Sixteen female FMS patients and 15 age-matched, healthy control subjects underwent T2-weighted resting-state MRI scanning and functional connectivity analyses using DMN network seed regions. FMS patients demonstrated alterations to connectivity between DMN structures and anterior midcingulate cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule and left inferior temporal gyrus. Correlation analysis showed that reduced functional connectivity between the DMN and the right parahippocampal gyrus was associated with longer duration of symptoms in FMS patients, whereas augmented connectivity between the anterior midcingulate and posterior cingulate cortices was associated with tenderness and depression scores. Our findings demonstrate alterations to functional connectivity between DMN regions and a variety of regions which are important for pain, cognitive and emotional processing in FMS patients, and which may contribute to the development or maintenance of chronic symptoms in FMS. PMID:27442504

  13. Functional Connectivity with the Default Mode Network Is Altered in Fibromyalgia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yee; Nurmikko, Turo; Stancak, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients show altered connectivity with the network maintaining ongoing resting brain activity, known as the default mode network (DMN). The connectivity patterns of DMN with the rest of the brain in FMS patients are poorly understood. This study employed seed-based functional connectivity analysis to investigate resting-state functional connectivity with DMN structures in FMS. Sixteen female FMS patients and 15 age-matched, healthy control subjects underwent T2-weighted resting-state MRI scanning and functional connectivity analyses using DMN network seed regions. FMS patients demonstrated alterations to connectivity between DMN structures and anterior midcingulate cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule and left inferior temporal gyrus. Correlation analysis showed that reduced functional connectivity between the DMN and the right parahippocampal gyrus was associated with longer duration of symptoms in FMS patients, whereas augmented connectivity between the anterior midcingulate and posterior cingulate cortices was associated with tenderness and depression scores. Our findings demonstrate alterations to functional connectivity between DMN regions and a variety of regions which are important for pain, cognitive and emotional processing in FMS patients, and which may contribute to the development or maintenance of chronic symptoms in FMS. PMID:27442504

  14. Lysophospholipids modulate channel function by altering the mechanical properties of lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Lipid metabolites, free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, modify the function of membrane proteins including ion channels. Such alterations can occur through signal transduction pathways, but may also result from "direct" effects of the metabolite on the protein. To investigate possible mechanisms for such direct effects, we examined the alterations of gramicidin channel function by lysophospholipids (LPLs): lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), lysophosphatidylserine (LPS), and lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). The experiments were done on planar bilayers formed by diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine in n-decane a system where receptor- mediated effects can be excluded. At aqueous concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), LPLs can increase the dimerization constant for membrane-bound gramicidin up to 500-fold (at 2 microM). The relative potency increases as a function of the size of the polar head group, but does not seem to vary as a function of head group charge. The increased dimerization constant results primarily from an increase in the rate constant for channel formation, which can increase more than 100-fold (in the presence of LPC and LPI), whereas the channel dissociation rate constant decreases only about fivefold. The LPL effect cannot be ascribed to an increased membrane fluidity, which would give rise to an increased channel dissociation rate constant. The ability of LPC to decrease the channel dissociation rate constant varies as a function of channel length (which is always less than the membrane's equilibrium thickness): as the channel length is decreased, the potency of LPC is increased. LPC has no effect on membrane thickness or the surface tension of monolayers at the air/electrolyte interface. The bilayer-forming glycerolmonooleate does not decrease the channel dissociation rate constant. These results show that LPLs alter gramicidin channel function by altering the membrane deformation energy, and

  15. Wnt Signaling Alteration in the Spinal Cord of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Transgenic Mice: Special Focus on Frizzled-5 Cellular Expression Pattern

    PubMed Central

    González-Fernández, Carlos; Mancuso, Renzo; del Valle, Jaume; Navarro, Xavier; Rodríguez, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive paralysis due to degeneration of motor neurons by unknown causes. Recent evidence shows that Wnt signaling is involved in neurodegenerative processes, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. However, to date, little is known regarding the expression of Wnt signaling components in this fatal condition. In the present study we used transgenic SOD1G93A mice to evaluate the expression of several Wnt signaling components, with special focus on Frizzled-5 cellular expression alteration along disease progression. Findings Based on previous studies demonstrating the expression of Wnts and their transcriptional regulation during Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis development, we have analyzed the mRNA expression of several Wnt signaling components in the spinal cord of SOD1G93A transgenic mice at different stages of the disease by using real time quantitative PCR analysis. Strikingly, one of the molecules that seemed not to be altered at mRNA level, Frizzled-5, showed a clear up-regulation at late stages in neurons, as evidenced by immunofluorescence assays. Moreover, increased Frizzled-5 appears to correlate with a decrease in NeuN signal in these cells, suggesting a correlation between neuronal affectation and the increased expression of this receptor. Conclusions Our data suggest the involvement of Wnt signaling pathways in the pathophysiology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and, more specifically, the implication of Frizzled-5 receptor in the response of neuronal cells against neurodegeneration. Nevertheless, further experimental studies are needed to shed light on the specific role of Frizzled-5 and the emerging but increasing Wnt family of proteins research field as a potential target for this neuropathology. PMID:27192435

  16. Inhibition of Coxsackie B Virus Infection by Soluble Forms of Its Receptors: Binding Affinities, Altered Particle Formation, and Competition with Cellular Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, Ian G.; Evans, David J.; Blom, Anna M.; Kerrigan, Dave; Miners, J. Scott; Morgan, B. Paul; Spiller, O. Brad

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that soluble decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) blocked coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) myocarditis in mice, but only soluble CAR blocked CVB3-mediated pancreatitis. Here, we report that the in vitro mechanisms of viral inhibition by these soluble receptors also differ. Soluble DAF inhibited virus infection through the formation of reversible complexes with CVB3, while binding of soluble CAR to CVB induced the formation of altered (A) particles with a resultant irreversible loss of infectivity. A-particle formation was characterized by loss of VP4 from the virions and required incubation of CVB3-CAR complexes at 37°C. Dimeric soluble DAF (DAF-Fc) was found to be 125-fold-more effective at inhibiting CVB3 than monomeric DAF, which corresponded to a 100-fold increase in binding affinity as determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Soluble CAR and soluble dimeric CAR (CAR-Fc) bound to CVB3 with 5,000- and 10,000-fold-higher affinities than the equivalent forms of DAF. While DAF-Fc was 125-fold-more effective at inhibiting virus than monomeric DAF, complement regulation by DAF-Fc was decreased 4 fold. Therefore, while the virus binding was a cooperative event, complement regulation was hindered by the molecular orientation of DAF-Fc, indicating that the regions responsible for complement regulation and virus binding do not completely overlap. Relative contributions of CVB binding affinity, receptor binding footprint on the virus capsid, and induction of capsid conformation alterations for the ability of cellular DAF and CAR to act as receptors are discussed. PMID:16140777

  17. Alterations in mitochondrial respiratory functions, redox metabolism and apoptosis by oxidant 4-hydroxynonenal and antioxidants curcumin and melatonin in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, Haider John, Annie; Brown, Eric M.; Benedict, Sheela; Kambal, Amr

    2008-01-15

    Cellular oxidative stress and alterations in redox metabolisms have been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many diseases including cancer. Antioxidant treatments have been proven beneficial in controlling these diseases. We have recently shown that 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a by-product of lipid peroxidation, induces oxidative stress in PC12 cells by compromising the mitochondrial redox metabolism. In this study, we have further investigated the deleterious effects of 4-HNE on mitochondrial respiratory functions and apoptosis using the same cell line. In addition, we have also compared the effects of two antioxidants, curcumin and melatonin, used as chemopreventive agents, on mitochondrial redox metabolism and respiratory functions in these cells. 4-HNE treatment has been shown to cause a reduction in glutathione (GSH) pool, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein carbonylation and apoptosis. A marked inhibition in the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and aconitase was observed after 4-HNE treatment. Increased nuclear translocation of NF-kB/p65 protein was also observed after 4-HNE treatment. Curcumin and melatonin treatments, on the other hand, maintained the mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions without a marked effect on ROS production and cell viability. These results suggest that 4-HNE-induced cytotoxicity may be associated, at least in part, with the altered mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions. The alterations in mitochondrial energy metabolism and redox functions may therefore be critical in determining the difference between cell death and survival.

  18. Alterations in mitochondrial respiratory functions, redox metabolism and apoptosis by oxidant 4-hydroxynonenal and antioxidants curcumin and melatonin in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Brown, Eric M; Benedict, Sheela; Kambal, Amr

    2008-01-15

    Cellular oxidative stress and alterations in redox metabolisms have been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many diseases including cancer. Antioxidant treatments have been proven beneficial in controlling these diseases. We have recently shown that 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a by-product of lipid peroxidation, induces oxidative stress in PC12 cells by compromising the mitochondrial redox metabolism. In this study, we have further investigated the deleterious effects of 4-HNE on mitochondrial respiratory functions and apoptosis using the same cell line. In addition, we have also compared the effects of two antioxidants, curcumin and melatonin, used as chemopreventive agents, on mitochondrial redox metabolism and respiratory functions in these cells. 4-HNE treatment has been shown to cause a reduction in glutathione (GSH) pool, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein carbonylation and apoptosis. A marked inhibition in the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and aconitase was observed after 4-HNE treatment. Increased nuclear translocation of NF-kB/p65 protein was also observed after 4-HNE treatment. Curcumin and melatonin treatments, on the other hand, maintained the mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions without a marked effect on ROS production and cell viability. These results suggest that 4-HNE-induced cytotoxicity may be associated, at least in part, with the altered mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions. The alterations in mitochondrial energy metabolism and redox functions may therefore be critical in determining the difference between cell death and survival. PMID:17935746

  19. Effects of acamprosate on attentional set-shifting and cellular function in the prefrontal cortex of chronic alcohol-exposed mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wei

    Background: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) inhibits impulsive and compulsive behaviors that characterize drug abuse and dependence. Acamprosate is the leading medication approved for the maintenance of abstinence, shown to reduce craving and relapse in animal models and human alcoholics. Whether acamprosate can modulate executive functions that are impaired by chronic ethanol exposure is unknown. Here we explored the effects of acamprosate on an attentional set-shifting task, and tested whether these behavioral effects are correlated with modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and intrinsic excitability of mPFC neurons. Methods: We induced alcohol dependence in mice via chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure in vapor chambers and measured changes in alcohol consumption in a limited access 2-bottle choice paradigm. Impairments of executive function were assessed in an attentional set-shifting task. Acamprosate was applied subchronically for 2 days during withdrawal before the final behavioral test. Alcohol-induced changes in cellular function of layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons, and the potential modulation of these changes by acamprosate, were measured using patch clamp recordings in brain slices. Results: Chronic ethanol exposure impaired cognitive flexibility in the attentional set-shifting task. Acamprosate improved overall performance and reduced perseveration. Recordings of mPFC neurons showed that chronic ethanol exposure increased use-dependent presynaptic transmitter release and enhanced postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function. Moreover, CIE-treatment lowered input resistance, and decreased the threshold and the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) of action potentials, suggesting chronic ethanol exposure also impacted membrane excitability of mPFC neurons. However, acamprosate treatment did not reverse these ethanol-induced changes cellular function. Conclusion: Acamprosate improved attentional control of ethanol exposed animals

  20. Cellular and Behavioral Outcomes of Dorsal Striatonigral Neuron Ablation: New Insights into Striatal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Révy, Delphine; Jaouen, Florence; Salin, Pascal; Melon, Christophe; Chabbert, Dorian; Tafi, Elisiana; Concetta, Lena; Langa, Francina; Amalric, Marianne; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Marie, Hélène; Beurrier, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    The striatum is the input structure of the basal ganglia network that contains heterogeneous neuronal populations, including two populations of projecting neurons called the medium spiny neurons (MSNs), and different types of interneurons. We developed a transgenic mouse model enabling inducible ablation of the striatonigral MSNs constituting the direct pathway by expressing the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor under the control of the Slc35d3 gene promoter, a gene enriched in striatonigral MSNs. DT injection into the striatum triggered selective elimination of the majority of striatonigral MSNs. DT-mediated ablation of striatonigral MSNs caused selective loss of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum but not in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens), suggesting a region-specific critical role of the direct pathway in striatal cholinergic neuron homeostasis. Mice with DT injection into the dorsal striatum showed altered basal and cocaine-induced locomotion and dramatic reduction of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the parkinsonian condition. In addition, these mice exhibited reduced anxiety, revealing a role of the dorsal striatum in the modulation of behaviors involving an emotional component, behaviors generally associated with limbic structures. Altogether, these results highlight the implication of the direct striatonigral pathway in the regulation of heterogeneous functions from cell survival to regulation of motor and emotion-associated behaviors. PMID:24903652

  1. The role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cellular function and protection in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Andrew; Aziz, Qadeer; Thomas, Alison

    2014-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) are widely distributed and present in a number of tissues including muscle, pancreatic beta cells and the brain. Their activity is regulated by adenine nucleotides, characteristically being activated by falling ATP and rising ADP levels. Thus, they link cellular metabolism with membrane excitability. Recent studies using genetically modified mice and genomic studies in patients have implicated K(ATP) channels in a number of physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we focus on their role in cellular function and protection particularly in the cardiovascular system.

  2. Perturbing the Cellular Levels of Steroid Receptor Coactivator-2 Impairs Murine Endometrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Szwarc, Maria M.; Kommagani, Ramakrishna; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Wu, San-Pin; Tsai, Sophia Y.; Tsai, Ming-Jer; O’Malley, Bert W.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.

    2014-01-01

    As pleiotropic coregulators, members of the p160/steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family control a broad spectrum of transcriptional responses that underpin a diverse array of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Because of their potent coregulator properties, strict controls on SRC expression levels are required to maintain normal tissue functionality. Accordingly, an unwarranted increase in the cellular levels of SRC members has been causally linked to the initiation and/or progression of a number of clinical disorders. Although knockout mouse models have underscored the critical non-redundant roles for each SRC member in vivo, there are surprisingly few mouse models that have been engineered to overexpress SRCs. This deficiency is significant since SRC involvement in many of these disorders is based on unscheduled increases in the levels (rather than the absence) of SRC expression. To address this deficiency, we used recent mouse technology that allows for the targeted expression of human SRC-2 in cells which express the progesterone receptor. Through cre-loxP recombination driven by the endogenous progesterone receptor promoter, a marked elevation in expression levels of human SRC-2 was achieved in endometrial cells that are positive for the progesterone receptor. As a result of this increase in coregulator expression, female mice are severely subfertile due to a dysfunctional uterus, which exhibits a hypersensitivity to estrogen exposure. Our findings strongly support the proposal from clinical observations that increased levels of SRC-2 are causal for a number of endometrial disorders which compromise fertility. Future studies will use this mouse model to decipher the molecular mechanisms that underpin the endometrial defect. We believe such mechanistic insight may provide new molecular descriptors for diagnosis, prognosis, and/or therapy in the clinical management of female infertility. PMID:24905738

  3. AntiJen: a quantitative immunology database integrating functional, thermodynamic, kinetic, biophysical, and cellular data.

    PubMed

    Toseland, Christopher P; Clayton, Debra J; McSparron, Helen; Hemsley, Shelley L; Blythe, Martin J; Paine, Kelly; Doytchinova, Irini A; Guan, Pingping; Hattotuwagama, Channa K; Flower, Darren R

    2005-10-01

    AntiJen is a database system focused on the integration of kinetic, thermodynamic, functional, and cellular data within the context of immunology and vaccinology. Compared to its progenitor JenPep, the interface has been completely rewritten and redesigned and now offers a wider variety of search methods, including a nucleotide and a peptide BLAST search. In terms of data archived, AntiJen has a richer and more complete breadth, depth, and scope, and this has seen the database increase to over 31,000 entries. AntiJen provides the most complete and up-to-date dataset of its kind. While AntiJen v2.0 retains a focus on both T cell and B cell epitopes, its greatest novelty is the archiving of continuous quantitative data on a variety of immunological molecular interactions. This includes thermodynamic and kinetic measures of peptide binding to TAP and the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), peptide-MHC complexes binding to T cell receptors, antibodies binding to protein antigens and general immunological protein-protein interactions. The database also contains quantitative specificity data from position-specific peptide libraries and biophysical data, in the form of diffusion co-efficients and cell surface copy numbers, on MHCs and other immunological molecules. The uses of AntiJen include the design of vaccines and diagnostics, such as tetramers, and other laboratory reagents, as well as helping parameterize the bioinformatic or mathematical in silico modeling of the immune system. The database is accessible from the URL: http://www.jenner.ac.uk/antijen. PMID:16305757

  4. Functional neuroanatomy of altered states of consciousness: the transient hypofrontality hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Arne

    2003-06-01

    It is the central hypothesis of this paper that the mental states commonly referred to as altered states of consciousness are principally due to transient prefrontal cortex deregulation. Supportive evidence from psychological and neuroscientific studies of dreaming, endurance running, meditation, daydreaming, hypnosis, and various drug-induced states is presented and integrated. It is proposed that transient hypofrontality is the unifying feature of all altered states and that the phenomenological uniqueness of each state is the result of the differential viability of various frontal circuits. Using an evolutionary approach, consciousness is conceptualized as hierarchically ordered cognitive function. Higher-order structures perform increasingly integrative functions and thus contribute more sophisticated content. Although this implies a holistic approach to consciousness, such a functional hierarchy localizes the most sophisticated layers of consciousness in the zenithal higher-order structure: the prefrontal cortex. The hallmark of altered states of consciousness is the subtle modification of behavioral and cognitive functions that are typically ascribed to the prefrontal cortex. The theoretical framework presented yields a number of testable hypotheses.

  5. Impaired water maze learning performance without altered dopaminergic function in mice heterozygous for the GDNF mutation.

    PubMed

    Gerlai, R; McNamara, A; Choi-Lundberg, D L; Armanini, M; Ross, J; Powell-Braxton, L; Phillips, H S

    2001-10-01

    Exogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exhibits potent survival-promoting effects on dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway that is implicated in Parkinson's disease and also protects neurons in forebrain ischemia of animal models. However, a role for endogenous GDNF in brain function has not been established. Although mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the GDNF gene have been generated, these mice die within hours of birth because of deficits in kidney morphogenesis, and, thus, the effect of the absence of GDNF on brain function could not be studied. Herein, we sought to determine whether adult mice, heterozygous for a GDNF mutation on two different genetic backgrounds, demonstrate alterations in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system or in cognitive function. While both neurochemical and behavioural measures suggested that reduction of GDNF gene expression in the mutant mice does not alter the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, it led to a significant and selective impairment of performance in the spatial version of the Morris water maze. A standard panel of blood chemistry tests and basic pathological analyses did not reveal alterations in the mutants that could account for the observed performance deficit. These results suggest that endogenous GDNF may not be critical for the development and functioning of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system but it plays an important role in cognitive abilities. PMID:11683907

  6. Functional neuroanatomy of altered states of consciousness: the transient hypofrontality hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Arne

    2003-06-01

    It is the central hypothesis of this paper that the mental states commonly referred to as altered states of consciousness are principally due to transient prefrontal cortex deregulation. Supportive evidence from psychological and neuroscientific studies of dreaming, endurance running, meditation, daydreaming, hypnosis, and various drug-induced states is presented and integrated. It is proposed that transient hypofrontality is the unifying feature of all altered states and that the phenomenological uniqueness of each state is the result of the differential viability of various frontal circuits. Using an evolutionary approach, consciousness is conceptualized as hierarchically ordered cognitive function. Higher-order structures perform increasingly integrative functions and thus contribute more sophisticated content. Although this implies a holistic approach to consciousness, such a functional hierarchy localizes the most sophisticated layers of consciousness in the zenithal higher-order structure: the prefrontal cortex. The hallmark of altered states of consciousness is the subtle modification of behavioral and cognitive functions that are typically ascribed to the prefrontal cortex. The theoretical framework presented yields a number of testable hypotheses. PMID:12763007

  7. Early textural and functional alterations of left ventricular myocardium in mild hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Aghini-Lombardi, Fabrizio; Fabrizio, Aghini-Lombardi; Di Bello, Vitantonio; Vitantonio, Di Bello; Talini, Enrica; Enrica, Talini; Di Cori, Andrea; Andrea, Di Cori; Monzani, Fabio; Fabio, Monzani; Antonangeli, Lucia; Lucia, Antonangeli; Palagi, Caterina; Caterina, Palagi; Caraccio, Nadia; Nadia, Caraccio; Grazia Delle Donne, Maria; Grazia, Delle Donne Maria; Nardi, Carmela; Carmela, Nardi; Dardano, Angela; Angela, Dardano; Balbarini, Alberto; Alberto, Balbarini; Mariani, Mario; Mario, Mariani; Pinchera, Aldo; Aldo, Pinchera

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiac function and texture in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT) both by conventional and new ultrasonic intramyocardial tissue techniques. sHT was characterized by normal serum free tetraiodotironine and free triiodotironine levels and slightly increased serum TSH level. Twenty-four patients affected by sHT and 24 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers were studied. All subjects were submitted to conventional two-dimensional (2D)-color Doppler echocardiography, pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging (PWTDI) for the analysis of the diastolic function, color Doppler myocardial imaging (CDMI) for the analysis of regional strain and strain-rate and integrated backscatter (IBS) for the evaluation of intrinsic contractility and tissue characterization. The results of the present study were: (a) the detection in sHT subjects of a lower cyclic variation index (CVI) indicating an altered myocardial intrinsic contractility; (b) a higher ultrasonic myocardial reflectivity indicating an altered myocardial texture; (c) the detection of lower systolic strain and strain-rate indicating an alteration of myocardial regional deformability; (d) an initial impairment of left ventricular diastolic function indicated by a decrease of peak E mitral flow velocity and an increase of peak A mitral flow velocity. All parameters studied with conventional 2D-echo in sHT patients were comparable with controls, except for a mild alteration in diastolic function. A significant correlation among systo-diastolic modifications detected by CDMI and IBS and serum TSH levels were found. The CVI at septum, the PWDTI S-peak wave and the systolic strain at septum were inversely related to the serum TSH levels. In conclusion, the new intramyocardial ultrasonic techniques confirm and extend the previous knowledge on the effect of the sHT on the heart, allowing the detection of early ultrastructural and regional functional systolic and diastolic

  8. Mice lacking functional CD95-ligand display reduced proliferation of the intestinal epithelium without gross homeostatic alterations.

    PubMed

    Trumpi, Kari; Steller, Ernst J A; de Leng, Wendy W; Raats, Daniëlle A; Nijman, Isaäc J; Morsink, Folkert H M; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Kranenburg, Onno

    2016-06-01

    Homeostasis of the continuously self-renewing intestinal tract involves cell proliferation, migration, differentiation along the crypt-villus-axis and shedding of cells into the gut lumen. CD95-ligand (FAS-ligand, CD95L) is a cytokine that is known for its capacity to induce apoptosis by binding its cognate receptor, CD95 (Fas). More recently, it was discovered that CD95L can also induce other cellular responses, such as proliferation, differentiation and cell migration. CD95L is highly expressed in Paneth cells of the small intestine which are in close contact with intestinal stem cells. This suggests a potential role for CD95L in controlling stem cell function and, possibly, intestinal homeostasis. We analyzed the intestines of mice deficient for functional CD95L (gld) for potential alterations in the diversity of stem-cell-lineages and parameters of intestinal homeostasis. Stem cell diversity was assessed by analyzing methylation patterns of the non-transcribed mMYOD gene. Proliferation was analyzed by BrdU labeling and differentiation was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Of all parameters analyzed, only epithelial cell proliferation was significantly reduced in the small intestines of gld-mice, but not in their colons which lack CD95L expression. We conclude that CD95L has a proliferation-stimulating role during normal turnover of the small intestine, but has a marginal effect on overall intestinal homeostasis.

  9. Altered functional connectivity among default, attention, and control networks in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wei, H L; An, J; Zeng, L L; Shen, H; Qiu, S J; Hu, D W

    2015-05-01

    Numerous resting-state fMRI studies have demonstrated altered functional connectivity within canonical intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). It is possible that the widespread ICN abnormalities on electroencephalography in IGE derive from abnormal functional interactions between ICNs. To test this possibility, we explored the functional connectivity between the subnetworks of the default mode network (DMN), attention network (ATN), and frontoparietal control network (FPN) using independent component analysis of resting-state fMRI data collected from 27 patients with IGE characterized by generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) and 29 matched healthy controls. It was observed that the left FPN exhibited increased connectivity with the anterior DMN and ventral ATN, while the right FPN exhibited increased connectivity with the anterior and posterior DMNs in the patients with IGE-GTCS. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between the anterior DMN and ventral ATN was negative in healthy controls but positive in the patients with IGE-GTCS. In addition, the anterior DMN exhibited increased intranetwork functional connectivity in the right frontal pole in IGE-GTCS. These findings suggest that IGE-GTCS is likely associated with a disrupted brain organization probably derived from abnormal functional interactions among ICNs. Furthermore, the alterations in the functional architecture of the ICNs may be related to deficits in mentation and attention in IGE-GTCS, providing informative evidence for the understanding of the pathophysiology of IGE-GTCS.

  10. Chronic low-level domoic acid exposure alters gene transcription and impairs mitochondrial function in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Hiolski, Emma M; Kendrick, Preston S; Frame, Elizabeth R; Myers, Mark S; Bammler, Theo K; Beyer, Richard P; Farin, Federico M; Wilkerson, Hui-wen; Smith, Donald R; Marcinek, David J; Lefebvre, Kathi A

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid is an algal-derived seafood toxin that functions as a glutamate agonist and exerts excitotoxicity via overstimulation of glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA) in the central nervous system (CNS). At high (symptomatic) doses, domoic acid is well-known to cause seizures, brain lesions and memory loss; however, a significant knowledge gap exists regarding the health impacts of repeated low-level (asymptomatic) exposure. Here, we investigated the impacts of low-level repetitive domoic acid exposure on gene transcription and mitochondrial function in the vertebrate CNS using a zebrafish model in order to: 1) identify transcriptional biomarkers of exposure; and 2) examine potential pathophysiology that may occur in the absence of overt excitotoxic symptoms. We found that transcription of genes related to neurological function and development were significantly altered, and that asymptomatic exposure impaired mitochondrial function. Interestingly, the transcriptome response was highly-variable across the exposure duration (36 weeks), with little to no overlap of specific genes across the six exposure time points (2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 weeks). Moreover, there were no apparent similarities at any time point with the gene transcriptome profile exhibited by the glud1 mouse model of chronic moderate excess glutamate release. These results suggest that although the fundamental mechanisms of toxicity may be similar, gene transcriptome responses to domoic acid exposure do not extrapolate well between different exposure durations. However, the observed impairment of mitochondrial function based on respiration rates and mitochondrial protein content suggests that repetitive low-level exposure does have fundamental cellular level impacts that could contribute to chronic health consequences. PMID:25033243

  11. Chronic loss of noradrenergic tone produces β-arrestin2-mediated cocaine hypersensitivity and alters cellular D2 responses in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Gaval-Cruz, Meriem; Goertz, Richard B; Puttick, Daniel J; Bowles, Dawn E; Meyer, Rebecca C; Hall, Randy A; Ko, Daijin; Paladini, Carlos A; Weinshenker, David

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine blocks plasma membrane monoamine transporters and increases extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT). The addictive properties of cocaine are mediated primarily by DA, while NE and 5-HT play modulatory roles. Chronic inhibition of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), which converts DA to NE, increases the aversive effects of cocaine and reduces cocaine use in humans, and produces behavioral hypersensitivity to cocaine and D2 agonism in rodents, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We found a decrease in β-arrestin2 (βArr2) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition, and overexpression of βArr2 in the NAc normalized cocaine-induced locomotion in DBH knockout (Dbh -/-) mice. The D2/3 agonist quinpirole decreased excitability in NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) from control, but not Dbh -/- animals, where instead there was a trend for an excitatory effect. The Gαi inhibitor NF023 abolished the quinpirole-induced decrease in excitability in control MSNs, but had no effect in Dbh -/- MSNs, whereas the Gαs inhibitor NF449 restored the ability of quinpirole to decrease excitability in Dbh -/- MSNs, but had no effect in control MSNs. These results suggest that chronic loss of noradrenergic tone alters behavioral responses to cocaine via decreases in βArr2 and cellular responses to D2/D3 activation, potentially via changes in D2-like receptor G-protein coupling in NAc MSNs.

  12. Chronic loss of noradrenergic tone produces β-arrestin2-mediated cocaine hypersensitivity and alters cellular D2 responses in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Gaval-Cruz, Meriem; Goertz, Richard B; Puttick, Daniel J; Bowles, Dawn E; Meyer, Rebecca C; Hall, Randy A; Ko, Daijin; Paladini, Carlos A; Weinshenker, David

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine blocks plasma membrane monoamine transporters and increases extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT). The addictive properties of cocaine are mediated primarily by DA, while NE and 5-HT play modulatory roles. Chronic inhibition of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), which converts DA to NE, increases the aversive effects of cocaine and reduces cocaine use in humans, and produces behavioral hypersensitivity to cocaine and D2 agonism in rodents, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We found a decrease in β-arrestin2 (βArr2) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition, and overexpression of βArr2 in the NAc normalized cocaine-induced locomotion in DBH knockout (Dbh -/-) mice. The D2/3 agonist quinpirole decreased excitability in NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) from control, but not Dbh -/- animals, where instead there was a trend for an excitatory effect. The Gαi inhibitor NF023 abolished the quinpirole-induced decrease in excitability in control MSNs, but had no effect in Dbh -/- MSNs, whereas the Gαs inhibitor NF449 restored the ability of quinpirole to decrease excitability in Dbh -/- MSNs, but had no effect in control MSNs. These results suggest that chronic loss of noradrenergic tone alters behavioral responses to cocaine via decreases in βArr2 and cellular responses to D2/D3 activation, potentially via changes in D2-like receptor G-protein coupling in NAc MSNs. PMID:25123018

  13. Altered functional connectivity within the central reward network in overweight and obese women

    PubMed Central

    Coveleskie, K; Gupta, A; Kilpatrick, L A; Mayer, E D; Ashe-McNalley, C; Stains, J; Labus, J S; Mayer, E A

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects have identified abnormal activation of key regions of central reward circuits, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), in response to food-related stimuli. We aimed to examine whether women with elevated body mass index (BMI) show structural and resting state (RS) functional connectivity alterations within regions of the reward network. Subjects/Methods: Fifty healthy, premenopausal women, 19 overweight and obese (high BMI=26–38 kg m−2) and 31 lean (BMI=19–25 kg m−2) were selected from the University of California Los Angeles' Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress database. Structural and RS functional scans were collected. Group differences in grey matter volume (GMV) of the NAcc, oscillation dynamics of intrinsic brain activity and functional connectivity of the NAcc to regions within the reward network were examined. Results: GMV of the left NAcc was significantly greater in the high BMI group than in the lean group (P=0.031). Altered frequency distributions were observed in women with high BMI compared with lean group in the left NAcc (P=0.009) in a medium-frequency (MF) band, and in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (P=0.014, <0.001) and ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) (P=0.034, <0.001) in a high-frequency band. Subjects with high BMI had greater connectivity of the left NAcc with bilateral ACC (P=0.024) and right vmPFC (P=0.032) in a MF band and with the left ACC (P=0.03) in a high frequency band. Conclusions: Overweight and obese women in the absence of food-related stimuli show significant structural and functional alterations within regions of reward-related brain networks, which may have a role in altered ingestive behaviors. PMID:25599560

  14. Acute in vivo effect of octreotide acetate, a somatostatin analogue on the cellular function of gastric mucosa in the rat.

    PubMed

    Motegi, M; Nagamachi, Y; Kaneko, T; Matsuzaki, S

    1998-02-01

    Somatostatin is known to suppress various cellular functions of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, octreotide acetate, a synthetic long-acting somatostatin analogue was tested for its effects on some cellular functions of gastric mucosa. Octreotide raised the gastric mucosal pH within 1 h after a single subcutaneous injection to rats at doses of 1-100 microg/kg bodyweight. Serum gastrin levels increased transiently at a dose of 10 microg/kg bodyweight but not at 100 microg/kg. Basal levels of serum gastrin were not affected, while famotidine-induced gastrin secretion was suppressed by octreotide at a single dose of 100 microg/kg. The increase in the intragastric acidity and histidine decarboxylase activity following pentagastrin treatment was significantly reduced by octreotide. These results suggested that this somatostatin analogue inhibits the function of not only the parietal cell and G cell but also the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell, resulting in intraluminal hypoacidity.

  15. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion in Rats Alters Lung Metabolism, Promotes Lipid Accumulation, and Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Freddy; Shah, Dilip; Duong, Michelle; Stafstrom, William; Hoek, Jan B.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism impairs pulmonary immune homeostasis and predisposes to inflammatory lung diseases, including infectious pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although alcoholism has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism, leading to lipid accumulation, hepatitis, and, eventually, cirrhosis, the effects of alcohol on pulmonary metabolism remain largely unknown. Because both the lung and the liver actively engage in lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that chronic alcoholism would impair pulmonary metabolic homeostasis in ways similar to its effects in the liver. We reasoned that perturbations in lipid metabolism might contribute to the impaired pulmonary immunity observed in people who chronically consume alcohol. We studied the metabolic consequences of chronic alcohol consumption in rat lungs in vivo and in alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in vitro. We found that chronic alcohol ingestion significantly alters lung metabolic homeostasis, inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase, increasing lipid synthesis, and suppressing the expression of genes essential to metabolizing fatty acids (FAs). Furthermore, we show that these metabolic alterations promoted a lung phenotype that is reminiscent of alcoholic fatty liver and is characterized by marked accumulation of triglycerides and free FAs within distal airspaces, AMs, and, to a lesser extent, alveolar epithelial type II cells. We provide evidence that the metabolic alterations in alcohol-exposed rats are mechanistically linked to immune impairments in the alcoholic lung: the elevations in FAs alter AM phenotypes and suppress both phagocytic functions and agonist-induced inflammatory responses. In summary, our work demonstrates that chronic alcohol ingestion impairs lung metabolic homeostasis and promotes pulmonary immune dysfunction. These findings suggest that therapies aimed at reversing alcohol-related metabolic alterations might be effective for preventing and

  16. Embryonic Atrazine Exposure Elicits Alterations in Genes Associated with Neuroendocrine Function in Adult Male Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Weber, Gregory J; Jannasch, Amber S; Horzmann, Katharine A; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis states that exposure to environmental stressors early in life can elicit genome and epigenome changes resulting in an increased susceptibility of a disease state during adulthood. Atrazine, a common agricultural herbicide used throughout the Midwestern United States, frequently contaminates potable water supplies and is a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical. In our previous studies, zebrafish was exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 parts per billion (μg/l) atrazine through embryogenesis, rinsed, and allowed to mature to adulthood. A decrease in spawning was observed with morphological alterations in offspring. In addition, adult females displayed an increase in ovarian progesterone and follicular atresia, alterations in levels of a serotonin metabolite and serotonin turnover in brain tissue, and transcriptome changes in brain and ovarian tissue supporting neuroendocrine alterations. As reproductive dysfunction is also influenced by males, this study assessed testes histology, hormone levels, and transcriptomic profiles of testes and brain tissue in the adult males. The embryonic atrazine exposure resulted in no alterations in body or testes weight, gonadosomatic index, testes histology, or levels of 11-ketotestosterone or testosterone. To further investigate potential alterations, transcriptomic profiles of adult male testes and brain tissue was completed. This analysis demonstrated alterations in genes associated with abnormal cell and neuronal growth and morphology; molecular transport, quantity, and production of steroid hormones; and neurotransmission with an emphasis on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axes. Overall, this data indicate future studies should focus on additional neuroendocrine endpoints to determine potential functional impairments. PMID:27413107

  17. Long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment: Altered amygdala functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Jedd, Kelly; Hunt, Ruskin H; Cicchetti, Dante; Hunt, Emily; Cowell, Raquel A; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2015-11-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a serious individual, familial, and societal threat that compromises healthy development and is associated with lasting alterations to emotion perception, processing, and regulation (Cicchetti & Curtis, 2005; Pollak, Cicchetti, Hornung, & Reed, 2000; Pollak & Tolley-Schell, 2003). Individuals with a history of maltreatment show altered structural and functional brain development in both frontal and limbic structures (Hart & Rubia, 2012). In particular, previous research has identified hyperactive amygdala responsivity associated with childhood maltreatment (e.g., Dannlowski et al., 2012). However, less is known about the impact of maltreatment on the relationship between the amygdala and other brain regions. The present study employed an emotion processing functional magnetic resonance imaging task to examine task-based activation and functional connectivity in adults who experienced maltreatment as children. The sample included adults with a history of substantiated childhood maltreatment (n = 33) and comparison adults (n = 38) who were well matched on demographic variables, all of whom have been studied prospectively since childhood. The maltreated group exhibited greater activation than comparison participants in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. In addition, maltreated adults showed increased amygdala connectivity with the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The results suggest that the intense early stress of childhood maltreatment is associated with lasting alterations to frontolimbic circuitry. PMID:26535945

  18. Alterations in left ventricular diastolic function in conscious dogs with pacing-induced heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Komamura, K; Shannon, R P; Pasipoularides, A; Ihara, T; Lader, A S; Patrick, T A; Bishop, S P; Vatner, S F

    1992-01-01

    We investigated in conscious dogs (a) the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing on the sequence of development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic versus systolic dysfunction and (b) whether the changes were load dependent or secondary to alterations in structure. LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction were evident within 24 h after initiation of pacing and occurred in parallel over 3 wk. LV systolic function was reduced at 3 wk, i.e., peak LV dP/dt fell by -1,327 +/- 105 mmHg/s and ejection fraction by -22 +/- 2%. LV diastolic dysfunction also progressed over 3 wk of pacing, i.e., tau increased by +14.0 +/- 2.8 ms and the myocardial stiffness constant by +6.5 +/- 1.4, whereas LV chamber stiffness did not change. These alterations were associated with increases in LV end-systolic (+28.6 +/- 5.7 g/cm2) and LV end-diastolic stresses (+40.4 +/- 5.3 g/cm2). When stresses and heart rate were matched at the same levels in the control and failure states, the increases in tau and myocardial stiffness were no longer observed, whereas LV systolic function remained depressed. There were no increases in connective tissue content in heart failure. Thus, pacing-induced heart failure in conscious dogs is characterized by major alterations in diastolic function which are reversible with normalization of increased loading condition. Images PMID:1601992

  19. Changes in stomatal function and water use efficiency in potato plants with altered sucrolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Werner C; Provart, Nicholas J; Williams, Thomas C R; Loureiro, Marcelo E

    2012-04-01

    As water availability for agriculture decreases, breeding or engineering of crops with improved water use efficiency (WUE) will be necessary. As stomata are responsible for controlling gas exchange across the plant epidermis, metabolic processes influencing solute accumulation in guard cells are potential targets for engineering. In addition to its role as an osmoticum, sucrose breakdown may be required for synthesis of other osmotica or generation of the ATP needed for solute uptake. Thus, alterations in partitioning of sucrose between storage and breakdown may affect stomatal function. In agreement with this hypothesis, potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants expressing an antisense construct targeted against sucrose synthase 3 (SuSy3) exhibited decreased stomatal conductance, a slight reduction in CO(2) fixation and increased WUE. Conversely, plants with increased guard cell acid invertase activity caused by the introduction of the SUC2 gene from yeast had increased stomatal conductance, increased CO(2) fixation and decreased WUE. (14)CO(2) feeding experiments indicated that these effects cannot be attributed to alterations in photosynthetic capacity, and most likely reflect alterations in stomatal function. These results highlight the important role that sucrose breakdown may play in guard cell function and indicate the feasibility of manipulating plant WUE through engineering of guard cell sucrose metabolism.

  20. Thermal discharge-created increasing temperatures alter the bacterioplankton composition and functional redundancy.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinbo; Xiong, Shangling; Qian, Peng; Zhang, Demin; Liu, Lian; Fei, Yuejun

    2016-12-01

    Elevated seawater temperature has altered the coupling between coastal primary production and heterotrophic bacterioplankton respiration. This shift, in turn, could influence the feedback of ocean ecosystem to climate warming. However, little is known about how natural bacterioplankton community responds to increasing seawater temperature. To investigate warming effects on the bacterioplankton community, we collected water samples from temperature gradients (ranged from 15.0 to 18.6 °C) created by a thermal flume of a coal power plant. The results showed that increasing temperatures significantly stimulated bacterial abundance, grazing rate, and altered bacterioplankton community compositions (BCCs). The spatial distribution of bacterioplankton community followed a distance similarity decay relationship, with a turnover of 0.005. A variance partitioning analysis showed that temperature directly constrained 2.01 % variation in BCCs, while temperature-induced changes in water geochemical and grazing rate indirectly accounted for 4.03 and 12.8 % of the community variance, respectively. Furthermore, the relative abundances of 24 bacterial families were linearly increased or decreased (P < 0.05 in all cases) with increasing temperatures. Notably, the change pattern for a given bacterial family was in concert with its known functions. In addition, community functional redundancy consistently decreased along the temperature gradient. This study demonstrates that elevated temperature, combined with substrate supply and trophic interactions, dramatically alters BCCs, concomitant with decreases in functional redundancy. The responses of sensitive assemblages are temperature dependent, which could indicate temperature departures. PMID:27620732

  1. Antenatal Maternal Stress Alters Functional Brain Responses In Adult Offspring During Conditioned Fear

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Theodore R.; Nguyen, Peter T.; Yang, Jun; Givrad, Tina K.; Mayer, Emeran A.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Hinton, David R.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Antenatal maternal stress has been shown in rodent models and in humans to result in altered behavioral and neuroendocrine responses, yet little is known about its effects on functional brain activation. Pregnant female rats received a daily foot-shock stress or sham-stress two days after testing plug-positive and continuing for the duration of their pregnancy. Adult male offspring (age 14 weeks) with and without prior maternal stress (MS) were exposed to an auditory fear conditioning (CF) paradigm. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed during recall of the tone cue in the nonsedated, nontethered animal using the 14C-iodoantipyrine method, in which the tracer was administered intravenously by remote activation of an implantable minipump. Regional CBF distribution was examined by autoradiography and analyzed by statistical parametric mapping in the three-dimensionally reconstructed brains. Presence of fear memory was confirmed by behavioral immobility (‘freezing’). Corticosterone plasma levels during the CF paradigm were measured by ELISA in a separate group of rats. Antenatal MS exposure altered functional brain responses to the fear conditioned cue in adult offspring. Rats with prior MS exposure compared to those without demonstrated heightened fear responsivity, exaggerated and prolonged corticosterone release, increased functional cerebral activation of limbic/paralimbic regions (amygdala, ventral hippocampus, insula, ventral striatum, nucleus acumbens), the locus coeruleus, and white matter, and deactivation of medial prefrontal cortical regions. Dysregulation of corticolimbic circuits may represent risk factors in the future development of anxiety disorders and associated alterations in emotional regulation. PMID:21300034

  2. Perfusion deficits and functional connectivity alterations in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Baojuan; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Linchuan; Li, Liang; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    To explore the alteration in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity between survivors with recent onset post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and without PTSD, survived from the same coal mine flood disaster. In this study, a processing pipeline using arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence was proposed. Considering low spatial resolution of ASL sequence, a linear regression method was firstly used to correct the partial volume (PV) effect for better CBF estimation. Then the alterations of CBF between two groups were analyzed using both uncorrected and PV-corrected CBF maps. Based on altered CBF regions detected from the CBF analysis as seed regions, the functional connectivity abnormities in PTSD patients was investigated. The CBF analysis using PV-corrected maps indicates CBF deficits in the bilateral frontal lobe, right superior frontal gyrus and right corpus callosum of PTSD patients, while only right corpus callosum was identified in uncorrected CBF analysis. Furthermore, the regional CBF of the right superior frontal gyrus exhibits significantly negative correlation with the symptom severity in PTSD patients. The resting-state functional connectivity indicates increased connectivity between left frontal lobe and right parietal lobe. These results indicate that PV-corrected CBF exhibits more subtle perfusion changes and may benefit further perfusion and connectivity analysis. The symptom-specific perfusion deficits and aberrant connectivity in above memory-related regions may be putative biomarkers for recent onset PTSD induced by a single prolonged trauma exposure and help predict the severity of PTSD.

  3. Structural and Functional Alterations of Skeletal Muscle Microvasculature in Dystrophin-Deficient mdx Mice.

    PubMed

    Latroche, Claire; Matot, Béatrice; Martins-Bach, Aurea; Briand, David; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Wary, Claire; Carlier, Pierre G; Chrétien, Fabrice; Jouvion, Grégory

    2015-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive neuromuscular disease, caused by an absence of dystrophin, inevitably leading to death. Although muscle lesions are well characterized, blood vessel alterations that may have a major impact on muscle regeneration remain poorly understood. Our aim was to elucidate alterations of the vascular network organization, taking advantage of Flk1(GFP/+) crossed with mdx mice (model for human DMD where all blood vessels express green fluorescent protein) and functional repercussions using in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance, combining arterial spin-labeling imaging of perfusion, and (31)P-spectroscopy of phosphocreatine kinetics. For the first time, our study focused on old (12-month-old) mdx mice, displaying marked chronic muscle lesions, similar to the lesions observed in human DMD, in comparison to young-adult (3-month-old) mdx mice displaying only mild muscle lesions with no fibrosis. By using an original approach combining a specific animal model, state-of-the-art histology/morphometry techniques, and functional nuclear magnetic resonance, we demonstrated that the microvascular system is almost normal in young-adult in contrast to old mdx mice, displaying marked microvessel alterations, and the functional repercussions on muscle perfusion and bioenergetics after a hypoxic stress vary depending on stage of pathology. This original approach clarifies disease evolution and paves the way for setting up new diagnostic markers or therapeutic strategies. PMID:26193666

  4. Alterations in left ventricular diastolic function in conscious dogs with pacing-induced heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komamura, K.; Shannon, R. P.; Pasipoularides, A.; Ihara, T.; Lader, A. S.; Patrick, T. A.; Bishop, S. P.; Vatner, S. F.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated in conscious dogs (a) the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing on the sequence of development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic versus systolic dysfunction and (b) whether the changes were load dependent or secondary to alterations in structure. LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction were evident within 24 h after initiation of pacing and occurred in parallel over 3 wk. LV systolic function was reduced at 3 wk, i.e., peak LV dP/dt fell by -1,327 +/- 105 mmHg/s and ejection fraction by -22 +/- 2%. LV diastolic dysfunction also progressed over 3 wk of pacing, i.e., tau increased by +14.0 +/- 2.8 ms and the myocardial stiffness constant by +6.5 +/- 1.4, whereas LV chamber stiffness did not change. These alterations were associated with increases in LV end-systolic (+28.6 +/- 5.7 g/cm2) and LV end-diastolic stresses (+40.4 +/- 5.3 g/cm2). When stresses and heart rate were matched at the same levels in the control and failure states, the increases in tau and myocardial stiffness were no longer observed, whereas LV systolic function remained depressed. There were no increases in connective tissue content in heart failure. Thus, pacing-induced heart failure in conscious dogs is characterized by major alterations in diastolic function which are reversible with normalization of increased loading condition.

  5. Alterations in Cochlear Function after Exposure to Short Term Broad Band Noise Assessed by Otoacoustic Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Prasen; M M, Kavitha; Khavasi, Prabhu; Doddamani, S S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sudden or chronic exposure to sound alters the functioning of cochlea. This results in temporary or permanent alteration of functioning of cochlear cells. Alteration of functioning of outer hair cells (OHC) of cochlea following exposure to noise can be assessed by measurement of transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE). Such a measurement is of great clinical importance in early detection of the damage to the OHC. Aim: In this study we aim to study effect of noise on outer hair cell function by studying the changes in TEOAE’s amplitude following exposure to short term broad band noise in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Twenty volunteers’ ten males and ten females participated in the study. They underwent pure tone and impedance audiometry to rule out ear pathology. Then pre-exposure TEOAE’s were recorded. After that they were exposed to broad band noise for two minutes. After gap of five minutes again TEOAE’s were recorded. Pre and post exposure amplitude of TEOAE’s was analysed statistically.s Results: There was statistically significant difference between pre exposure and post-exposure amplitude of TEOAE’s. Pre and post exposure values for A & B amplitudes showed p-value of 0.0001 whereas values for A-B amplitude showed p-value of 0.0001. Conclusion: Measurement of TEOAE’s can detect early changes in the functioning of outer hair cells which cannot be picked by routine pure tone audiometry. Thus they can be used in assessing early changes in cochlear function following exposure to noise in individuals exposed to sudden noise or working in noisy environments. Thus preventive methods to reduce the noise induced hearing loss in such individuals can be implemented. PMID:25386468

  6. Quantitative assessment of multiscale structural and functional alterations in asthmatic populations

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Eric A.; Wenzel, Sally E.; Castro, Mario; Fain, Sean B.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Schiebler, Mark L.; Chen, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between structural and functional variables in asthmatic lungs at local and global (or lobar) levels remain to be discovered. This study aims to investigate local alterations of structural variables [bifurcation angle, circularity, airway wall thickness (WT), and hydraulic diameter (Dh)] in asthmatic subjects, and their correlations with other imaging and pulmonary function test-based global and lobar metrics, including lung shape, air-trapping, regional volume change, and more. Sixty-one healthy subjects, and 67 nonsevere and 67 severe asthmatic subjects were studied. The structural variables were derived from computed tomography images at total lung capacity (TLC). Air-trapping was measured at functional residual capacity, and regional volume change (derived from image registration) was measured between functional residual capacity and TLC. The tracheal diameter and WT predicted by 61 healthy subjects were used to normalize the Dh and WT. New normalization schemes allowed for the dissociation of luminal narrowing and wall thickening effects. In severe asthmatic subjects, the alteration of bifurcation angle was found to be correlated with a global lung shape at TLC, and circularity was significantly decreased in the right main bronchus. While normalized WT increased especially in the upper lobes of severe asthmatic subjects, normalized Dh decreased in the lower lobes. Among local structural variables, normalized Dh was the most representative variable, because it was significantly correlated with alterations of functional variables, including pulmonary function test's data. In conclusion, understanding multiscale phenomena may help to provide guidance in the search for potential imaging-based phenotypes for the development and outcomes assessment of therapeutic intervention. PMID:25814641

  7. Pathogen virulence factors as molecular probes of basic plant cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Speth, Elena Bray; Lee, Young Nam; He, Sheng Yang

    2007-12-01

    To successfully colonize plants, pathogens have evolved a myriad of virulence factors that allow them to manipulate host cellular pathways in order to gain entry into, multiply and move within, and eventually exit the host for a new infection cycle. In the past few years, substantial progress has been made in characterizing the host targets of viral and bacterial virulence factors, providing unique insights into basic plant cellular processes such as gene silencing, vesicle trafficking, hormone signaling, and innate immunity. Identification of the host targets of additional pathogen virulence factors promises to continue shedding light on fundamental cellular mechanisms in plants, thus enhancing our understanding of plant signaling, metabolism, and cell biology. PMID:17884715

  8. Structural and functional alterations of spinal cord axons in adult Long Evans Shaker (LES) dysmyelinated rats.

    PubMed

    Eftekharpour, Eftekhar; Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Soheila; Sinha, Kusum; Velumian, Alexander A; Kwiecien, Jacek M; Fehlings, Michael G

    2005-06-01

    Abnormal formation or loss of myelin is a distinguishing feature of many neurological disorders and contributes to the pathobiology of neurotrauma. In this study we characterize the functional and molecular changes in CNS white matter in Long Evans Shaker (LES) rats. These rats have a spontaneous mutation of the gene encoding myelin basic protein which results in severe dysmyelination of the central nervous system (CNS), providing a unique model for demyelinating/dysmyelinating disorders. To date, the functional and molecular changes in CNS white matter in this model are not well understood. We have used in vivo somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP), in vitro compound action potential (CAP) recording in isolated dorsal columns, confocal immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and real-time PCR to examine the electrophysiological, molecular and cellular changes in spinal cord white matter in LES rats. We observed that dysmyelination is associated with dispersed labeling of Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 K+ channel subunits, as well as Caspr, a protein normally confined to paranodes, along the LES rat spinal cord axons. Abnormal electrophysiological properties including attenuation of CAP amplitude and conduction velocity, high frequency conduction failure and enhanced sensitivity to K+ channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and dendrotoxin-I were observed in spinal cord axons from LES rats. Our results in LES rats clarify some of the key molecular, cellular and functional consequences of dysmyelination and myelin-axon interactions. Further understanding of these issues in this model could provide critical insights for neurological disorders characterized by demyelination. PMID:15869936

  9. Pioglitazone ameliorates behavioral, biochemical and cellular alterations in quinolinic acid induced neurotoxicity: possible role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-Upsilon (PPARUpsilon) in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Kalonia, Harikesh; Kumar, Puneet; Kumar, Anil

    2010-08-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that PPARUpsilon activators attenuate neurodegeneration and related complications. Therefore, the present study focused on the neuroprotective potential of pioglitazone against quinolinic acid (QUIN) induced neurotoxicity. Intrastriatal (unilaterally) administration of QUIN significantly altered body weight and motor function (locomotor activity, rotarod and beam walk performance). Further, QUIN treatment significantly caused oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and depleted endogenous antioxidant defense enzymes), altered mitochondrial enzyme complex (I, II and IV) activities and TNF-alpha level as compared to sham treated animals. Pioglitazone (10, 20 and 40mg/kg, p.o.) treatment significantly improved body weight and motor functions, oxidative defense. Further, pioglitazone treatment restored mitochondrial enzyme complex activity as well as TNF-alpha level as compared to QUIN treated group. While Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) (15mg/kg), PPARUpsilon antagonist significantly reversed the protective effect of the pioglitazone (40mg/kg) in the QUIN treated animals. Further, pioglitazone treatment significantly attenuated the striatal lesion volume in QUIN treated animals, suggesting a role for the PPARUpsilon pathway in QUIN induced neurotoxicity. Altogether, this evidence indicates that PPARUpsilon activation by pioglitazone attenuated QUIN induced neurotoxicity in animals and which could be an important therapeutic avenue to ameliorate Huntington like symptoms. PMID:20450929

  10. Optical system module having zooming function and image quality of mega pixel for a cellular phone camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seong Jong; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, Chang Sub

    2009-08-01

    We designed and developed a cellular phone camera like HD digital still camera having zooming function. To design an optical system module having the auto-zooming and the image quality of 2M mega pixel using Code V, we considered 6 lenses which were four aspheric plastic lenses and two glass lenses. The specifications of designed optical system module for a cellular phone camera were the focal length of 4.29mm at wide position to 10.55mm at tele position, fnumber of 3.2 at wide position to 5.3 at tele position, and field of view of 27.4 degree at tele position to 65.8 degree at wide position. Its zoom ratio was 2.5. The values of modulation transfer function (MTF) at 200lp/mm of the designed optical system module were over 21% at zoom position. We applied the design results of optical system module to the fabrication of a cellular phone camera having the zoom ratio of 2.5 and the image quality of 2M mega pixel, and adopted the aspheric glass lens having higher abbe number to compensate chromatic aberration and the VCM (Voice Coil Motor) as sub-miniature motor. We fabricated the optical module system having zoom ratio of 2.5 and image quality of 2M mega pixel in order to apply to a HD cellular phone camera.

  11. Surviving Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Is Coupled to Altered Chondrocyte Differentiation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Cheslett, Deborah; Chan, Wilson C. W; So, Chi Leong; Melhado, Ian G; Chan, Tori W. Y; Kwan, Kin Ming; Hunziker, Ernst B; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Bateman, John F; Cheung, Kenneth M. C; Cheah, Kathryn S. E

    2007-01-01

    In protein folding and secretion disorders, activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling (ERSS) protects cells, alleviating stress that would otherwise trigger apoptosis. Whether the stress-surviving cells resume normal function is not known. We studied the in vivo impact of ER stress in terminally differentiating hypertrophic chondrocytes (HCs) during endochondral bone formation. In transgenic mice expressing mutant collagen X as a consequence of a 13-base pair deletion in Col10a1 (13del), misfolded α1(X) chains accumulate in HCs and elicit ERSS. Histological and gene expression analyses showed that these chondrocytes survived ER stress, but terminal differentiation is interrupted, and endochondral bone formation is delayed, producing a chondrodysplasia phenotype. This altered differentiation involves cell-cycle re-entry, the re-expression of genes characteristic of a prehypertrophic-like state, and is cell-autonomous. Concomitantly, expression of Col10a1 and 13del mRNAs are reduced, and ER stress is alleviated. ERSS, abnormal chondrocyte differentiation, and altered growth plate architecture also occur in mice expressing mutant collagen II and aggrecan. Alteration of the differentiation program in chondrocytes expressing unfolded or misfolded proteins may be part of an adaptive response that facilitates survival and recovery from the ensuing ER stress. However, the altered differentiation disrupts the highly coordinated events of endochondral ossification culminating in chondrodysplasia. PMID:17298185

  12. Altered mechanical state in the embryonic heart results in time-dependent decreases in cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brennan; Bark, David; Van Herck, Ilse; Garrity, Deborah; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Proper blood flow patterns are critical for normal cardiac morphogenesis, a process that occurs rapidly in order to support further development of all tissue and organs. Previously, intracardiac fluid forces have been shown to play a critical role in cardiac morphogenesis. Altered blood flow in early development can result in an array of cardiac defects including ventricular septal defects, valve malformations, and impaired cardiac looping. However, given the dynamic and highly transient nature of cardiac morphogenesis, time dependency of the mechanical environment as an epigenetic factor in relation to intracardiac forces must be significant. Here, we show that abnormal cardiac loading adversely influences cardiac morphology only during certain time windows, thus confirming that mechanical factors are a time-dependent epigenetic factor. To illustrate this, groups of zebrafish embryos were spaced at 6-h increments from 24 to 48 h post-fertilization (hpf) in which embryos were centrifuged to generate a noninvasive alteration of cardiac preload in addition to an overall hypergravity environment. We found that earlier and later treatment groups responded with altered morphology and function, while the group with altered preload from 30 to 36 hpf had no effect. These results demonstrate the inherently time-dependent nature of epigenetic factors as pertaining to intracardiac forces and external mechanical factors. Further, it underscores the highly coupled nature of programmed biology and mechanical forces during cardiac morphogenesis. Future studies with respect to surgical correction during cardiac morphogenesis must consider timing to optimize therapeutic impact. PMID:25976479

  13. Altered Neural Activity Associated with Mindfulness during Nociception: A Systematic Review of Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bilevicius, Elena; Kolesar, Tiffany A.; Kornelsen, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the neural activity associated with mindfulness-based alterations of pain perception. Methods: The Cochrane Central, EMBASE, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched on 2 February 2016. Titles, abstracts, and full-text articles were independently screened by two reviewers. Data were independently extracted from records that included topics of functional neuroimaging, pain, and mindfulness interventions. Results: The literature search produced 946 total records, of which five met the inclusion criteria. Records reported pain in terms of anticipation (n = 2), unpleasantness (n = 5), and intensity (n = 5), and how mindfulness conditions altered the neural activity during noxious stimulation accordingly. Conclusions: Although the studies were inconsistent in relating pain components to neural activity, in general, mindfulness was able to reduce pain anticipation and unpleasantness ratings, as well as alter the corresponding neural activity. The major neural underpinnings of mindfulness-based pain reduction consisted of altered activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. PMID:27104572

  14. Altered Intranetwork and Internetwork Functional Connectivity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With and Without Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Xiong, Ying; Zhan, Ya-Feng; Guo, Lin-Ying; Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Ri-Feng; Yao, Yi-Hao; Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wen-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment. We investigated whether alterations of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity with T2DM progression exist, by using resting-state functional MRI. MRI data were analysed from 19 T2DM patients with normal cognition (DMCN) and 19 T2DM patients with cognitive impairment (DMCI), 19 healthy controls (HC). Functional connectivity among 36 previously well-defined brain regions which consisted of 5 resting-state network (RSN) systems [default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), control network (CON), salience network (SAL) and sensorimotor network (SMN)] was investigated at 3 levels (integrity, network and connectivity). Impaired intranetwork and internetwork connectivity were found in T2DM, especially in DMCI, on the basis of the three levels of analysis. The bilateral posterior cerebellum, the right insula, the DMN and the CON were mainly involved in these changes. The functional connectivity strength of specific brain architectures in T2DM was found to be associated with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), cognitive score and illness duration. These network alterations in intergroup differences, which were associated with brain functional impairment due to T2DM, indicate that network organizations might be potential biomarkers for predicting the clinical progression, evaluating the cognitive impairment, and further understanding the pathophysiology of T2DM. PMID:27622870

  15. Altered Intranetwork and Internetwork Functional Connectivity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With and Without Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Xiong, Ying; Zhan, Ya-Feng; Guo, Lin-Ying; Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Ri-Feng; Yao, Yi-Hao; Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wen-Zhen

    2016-09-13

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment. We investigated whether alterations of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity with T2DM progression exist, by using resting-state functional MRI. MRI data were analysed from 19 T2DM patients with normal cognition (DMCN) and 19 T2DM patients with cognitive impairment (DMCI), 19 healthy controls (HC). Functional connectivity among 36 previously well-defined brain regions which consisted of 5 resting-state network (RSN) systems [default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), control network (CON), salience network (SAL) and sensorimotor network (SMN)] was investigated at 3 levels (integrity, network and connectivity). Impaired intranetwork and internetwork connectivity were found in T2DM, especially in DMCI, on the basis of the three levels of analysis. The bilateral posterior cerebellum, the right insula, the DMN and the CON were mainly involved in these changes. The functional connectivity strength of specific brain architectures in T2DM was found to be associated with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), cognitive score and illness duration. These network alterations in intergroup differences, which were associated with brain functional impairment due to T2DM, indicate that network organizations might be potential biomarkers for predicting the clinical progression, evaluating the cognitive impairment, and further understanding the pathophysiology of T2DM.

  16. Liver disease alters high-density lipoprotein composition, metabolism and function.

    PubMed

    Trieb, Markus; Horvath, Angela; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Spindelboeck, Walter; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Taschler, Ulrike; Curcic, Sanja; Stauber, Rudolf E; Holzer, Michael; Pasterk, Lisa; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2016-07-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are important endogenous inhibitors of inflammatory responses. Functional impairment of HDL might contribute to the excess mortality experienced by patients with liver disease, but the effect of cirrhosis on HDL metabolism and function remain elusive. To get an integrated measure of HDL quantity and quality, we assessed several metrics of HDL function using apolipoprotein (apo) B-depleted sera from patients with compensated cirrhosis, patients with acutely decompensated cirrhosis and healthy controls. We observed that sera of cirrhotic patients showed reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol and profoundly suppressed activities of several enzymes involved in HDL maturation and metabolism. Native gel electrophoresis analyses revealed that cirrhotic serum HDL shifts towards the larger HDL2 subclass. Proteomic assessment of isolated HDL identified several proteins, including apoA-I, apoC-III, apoE, paraoxonase 1 and acute phase serum amyloid A to be significantly altered in cirrhotic patients. With regard to function, these alterations in levels, composition and structure of HDL were strongly associated with metrics of function of apoB-depleted sera, including cholesterol efflux capability, paraoxonase activity, the ability to inhibit monocyte production of cytokines and endothelial regenerative activities. Of particular interest, cholesterol efflux capacity appeared to be strongly associated with liver disease mortality. Our findings may be clinically relevant and improve our ability to monitor cirrhotic patients at high risk. PMID:27106140

  17. Altered Intranetwork and Internetwork Functional Connectivity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With and Without Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Xiong, Ying; Zhan, Ya-Feng; Guo, Lin-Ying; Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Ri-Feng; Yao, Yi-Hao; Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wen-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment. We investigated whether alterations of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity with T2DM progression exist, by using resting-state functional MRI. MRI data were analysed from 19 T2DM patients with normal cognition (DMCN) and 19 T2DM patients with cognitive impairment (DMCI), 19 healthy controls (HC). Functional connectivity among 36 previously well-defined brain regions which consisted of 5 resting-state network (RSN) systems [default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), control network (CON), salience network (SAL) and sensorimotor network (SMN)] was investigated at 3 levels (integrity, network and connectivity). Impaired intranetwork and internetwork connectivity were found in T2DM, especially in DMCI, on the basis of the three levels of analysis. The bilateral posterior cerebellum, the right insula, the DMN and the CON were mainly involved in these changes. The functional connectivity strength of specific brain architectures in T2DM was found to be associated with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), cognitive score and illness duration. These network alterations in intergroup differences, which were associated with brain functional impairment due to T2DM, indicate that network organizations might be potential biomarkers for predicting the clinical progression, evaluating the cognitive impairment, and further understanding the pathophysiology of T2DM. PMID:27622870

  18. Liver disease alters high-density lipoprotein composition, metabolism and function.

    PubMed

    Trieb, Markus; Horvath, Angela; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Spindelboeck, Walter; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Taschler, Ulrike; Curcic, Sanja; Stauber, Rudolf E; Holzer, Michael; Pasterk, Lisa; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2016-07-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are important endogenous inhibitors of inflammatory responses. Functional impairment of HDL might contribute to the excess mortality experienced by patients with liver disease, but the effect of cirrhosis on HDL metabolism and function remain elusive. To get an integrated measure of HDL quantity and quality, we assessed several metrics of HDL function using apolipoprotein (apo) B-depleted sera from patients with compensated cirrhosis, patients with acutely decompensated cirrhosis and healthy controls. We observed that sera of cirrhotic patients showed reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol and profoundly suppressed activities of several enzymes involved in HDL maturation and metabolism. Native gel electrophoresis analyses revealed that cirrhotic serum HDL shifts towards the larger HDL2 subclass. Proteomic assessment of isolated HDL identified several proteins, including apoA-I, apoC-III, apoE, paraoxonase 1 and acute phase serum amyloid A to be significantly altered in cirrhotic patients. With regard to function, these alterations in levels, composition and structure of HDL were strongly associated with metrics of function of apoB-depleted sera, including cholesterol efflux capability, paraoxonase activity, the ability to inhibit monocyte production of cytokines and endothelial regenerative activities. Of particular interest, cholesterol efflux capacity appeared to be strongly associated with liver disease mortality. Our findings may be clinically relevant and improve our ability to monitor cirrhotic patients at high risk.

  19. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sophia; Keeser, Daniel; Samson, Andrea C; Kirsch, Valerie; Blautzik, Janusch; Grothe, Michel; Erat, Okan; Hegenloh, Michael; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian F; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA). We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male) and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male). Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration.

  20. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Andrea C.; Kirsch, Valerie; Blautzik, Janusch; Grothe, Michel; Erat, Okan; Hegenloh, Michael; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA). We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male) and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male). Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration. PMID:23825652

  1. Exposure to N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea in Adult Mice Alters Structural and Functional Integrity of Neurogenic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Gil-Perotin, Sara; Ferragud, Antonio; Bonet-Ponce, Luis; Canales, Juan Jose; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that prenatal exposure to the mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), a N-nitroso compound (NOC) found in the environment, disrupts developmental neurogenesis and alters memory formation. Previously, we showed that postnatal ENU treatment induced lasting deficits in proliferation of neural progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ), the main neurogenic region in the adult mouse brain. The present study is aimed to examine, in mice exposed to ENU, both the structural features of adult neurogenic sites, incorporating the dentate gyrus (DG), and the behavioral performance in tasks sensitive to manipulations of adult neurogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings 2-month old mice received 5 doses of ENU and were sacrificed 45 days after treatment. Then, an ultrastructural analysis of the SVZ and DG was performed to determine cellular composition in these regions, confirming a significant alteration. After bromodeoxyuridine injections, an S-phase exogenous marker, the immunohistochemical analysis revealed a deficit in proliferation and a decreased recruitment of newly generated cells in neurogenic areas of ENU-treated animals. Behavioral effects were also detected after ENU-exposure, observing impairment in odor discrimination task (habituation-dishabituation test) and a deficit in spatial memory (Barnes maze performance), two functions primarily related to the SVZ and the DG regions, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that postnatal exposure to ENU produces severe disruption of adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and DG, as well as strong behavioral impairments. These findings highlight the potential risk of environmental NOC-exposure for the development of neural and behavioral deficits. PMID:22238669

  2. Multiscale design and multiobjective optimization of orthopedic hip implants with functionally graded cellular material.

    PubMed

    Arabnejad Khanoki, Sajad; Pasini, Damiano

    2012-03-01

    Revision surgeries of total hip arthroplasty are often caused by a deficient structural compatibility of the implant. Two main culprits, among others, are bone-implant interface instability and bone resorption. To address these issues, in this paper we propose a novel type of implant, which, in contrast to current hip replacement implants made of either a fully solid or a foam material, consists of a lattice microstructure with nonhomogeneous distribution of material properties. A methodology based on multiscale mechanics and design optimization is introduced to synthesize a graded cellular implant that can minimize concurrently bone resorption and implant interface failure. The procedure is applied to the design of a 2D left implanted femur with optimized gradients of relative density. To assess the manufacturability of the graded cellular microstructure, a proof-of-concept is fabricated by using rapid prototyping. The results from the analysis are used to compare the optimized cellular implant with a fully dense titanium implant and a homogeneous foam implant with a relative density of 50%. The bone resorption and the maximum value of interface stress of the cellular implant are found to be over 70% and 50% less than the titanium implant while being 53% and 65% less than the foam implant.

  3. Ageing and gastrointestinal sensory function: altered colonic mechanosensory and chemosensory function in the aged mouse

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Christopher; Nocchi, Linda; Yu, Yang; Donovan, Jemma; Grundy, David

    2016-01-01

    Key points Remarkably little is known about how age affects the sensory signalling pathways in the gastrointestinal tract despite age‐related gastrointestinal dysfunction being a prime cause of morbidity amongst the elderly populationHigh‐threshold gastrointestinal sensory nerves play a key role in signalling distressing information from the gut to the brain.We found that ageing is associated with attenuated high‐threshold afferent mechanosensitivity in the murine colon, and associated loss of TRPV1 channel function.These units have the capacity to sensitise in response to injurious events, and their loss in ageing may predispose the elderly to lower awareness of GI injury or disease. Abstract Ageing has a profound effect upon gastrointestinal function through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of age upon gastrointestinal sensory signalling pathways in order to address the mechanisms underlying these changes. In vitro mouse colonic and jejunal preparations with attached splanchnic and mesenteric nerves were used to study mechanosensory and chemosensory afferent function in 3‐, 12‐ and 24‐month‐old C57BL/6 animals. Quantitative RT‐PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression in colonic tissue and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells isolated from 3‐ and 24‐month animals, and immunohistochemistry was used to quantify the number of 5‐HT‐expressing enterochromaffin (EC) cells. Colonic and jejunal afferent mechanosensory function was attenuated with age and these effects appeared earlier in the colon compared to the jejunum. Colonic age‐related loss of mechanosensory function was more pronounced in high‐threshold afferents compared to low‐threshold afferents. Chemosensory function was attenuated in the 24‐month colon, affecting TRPV1 and serotonergic signalling pathways. High‐threshold mechanosensory afferent fibres and small‐diameter DRG neurons possessed lower functional TRPV1 receptor responses

  4. Forest to reclaimed mine land use change leads to altered ecosystem structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.A.; Currie, W.S.; Eshleman, K.N.; Kuers, K.; Monteleone, S.; Negley, T.L.; Pohlad, B.R.; Thomas, C.L.

    2008-01-15

    The United States' use of coal results in many environmental alterations. In the Appalachian coal belt region, one widespread alteration is conversion of forest to reclaimed mineland. The goal of this study was to quantify the changes to ecosystem structure and function associated with a conversion from forest to reclaimed mine grassland by comparing a small watershed containing a 15-year-old reclaimed mine with a forested, reference watershed in western Maryland. Major differences were apparent between the two watersheds in terms of biogeochemistry. Total C, N, and P pools were all substantially lower at the mined site, mainly due to the removal of woody biomass but also, in the case of P, to reductions in soil pools. Mineral soil C, N, and P pools were 96%, 79%, and 69% of native soils, respectively. Although annual runoff from the watersheds was similar, the mined watershed exhibited taller, narrower storm peaks as a result of a higher soil bulk density and decreased infiltration rates. Stream export of N was much lower in the mined watershed due to lower net nitrification rates and nitrate concentrations in soil. However, stream export of sediment and P and summer stream temperature were much higher. Stream leaf decomposition was reduced and macroinvertebrate community structure was altered as a result of these changes to the stream environment. This land use change leads to substantial, long-term changes in ecosystem capital and function.

  5. Altered brain iron homeostasis and dopaminergic function in Restless Legs Syndrome (Willis-Ekbom Disease).

    PubMed

    Earley, Christopher J; Connor, James; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Jenner, Peter; Winkelman, John; Zee, Phyllis C; Allen, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom Disease (WED), is a sensorimotor disorder for which the exact pathophysiology remains unclear. Brain iron insufficiency and altered dopaminergic function appear to play important roles in the etiology of the disorder. This concept is based partly on extensive research studies using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), autopsy material, and brain imaging indicating reduced regional brain iron and on the clinical efficacy of dopamine receptor agonists for alleviating RLS symptoms. Finding causal relations, linking low brain iron to altered dopaminergic function in RLS, has required however the use of animal models. These models have provided insights into how alterations in brain iron homeostasis and dopaminergic system may be involved in RLS. The results of animal models of RLS and biochemical, postmortem, and imaging studies in patients with the disease suggest that disruptions in brain iron trafficking lead to disturbances in striatal dopamine neurotransmission for at least some patients with RLS. This review examines the data supporting an iron deficiency-dopamine metabolic theory of RLS by relating the results from animal model investigations of the influence of brain iron deficiency on dopaminergic systems to data from clinical studies in patients with RLS.

  6. Prenatal maternal depression alters amygdala functional connectivity in 6-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, A; Anh, T T; Li, Y; Chen, H; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Broekman, B F P; Kwek, K; Saw, S-M; Chong, Y-S; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal depression is associated with alterations in the neonatal amygdala microstructure, shedding light on the timing for the influence of prenatal maternal depression on the brain structure of the offspring. This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology and infant amygdala functional connectivity and to thus establish the neural functional basis for the transgenerational transmission of vulnerability for affective disorders during prenatal development. Twenty-four infants were included in this study with both structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) at 6 months of age. Maternal depression was assessed at 26 weeks of gestation and 3 months after delivery using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Linear regression was used to identify the amygdala functional networks and to examine the associations between prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and amygdala functional connectivity. Our results showed that at 6 months of age, the amygdala is functionally connected to widespread brain regions, forming the emotional regulation, sensory and perceptual, and emotional memory networks. After controlling for postnatal maternal depressive symptoms, infants born to mothers with higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms showed greater functional connectivity of the amygdala with the left temporal cortex and insula, as well as the bilateral anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, which are largely consistent with patterns of connectivity observed in adolescents and adults with major depressive disorder. Our study provides novel evidence that prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology alters the amygdala's functional connectivity in early postnatal life, which reveals that the neuroimaging correlates of the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with maternal mood are apparent in infants at 6 months of age. PMID:25689569

  7. Structural and functional alterations of catalase induced by acriflavine, a compound causing apoptosis and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Attar, Farnoosh; Khavari-Nejad, Sarah; Keyhani, Jacqueline; Keyhani, Ezzatollah

    2009-08-01

    Acriflavine is an antiseptic agent causing both apoptosis and necrosis in yeast. In this work, its effect on the structure and function of catalase, a vital enzyme actively involved in protection against oxidative stress, was investigated. In vitro kinetic studies showed that acriflavine inhibited the enzymatic activity in a competitive manner. The residual activity detectable after preincubation of catalase (1.5 nmol/L) with various concentrations of acriflavine went from 50% to 20% of the control value as the acriflavine concentration increased from 30 to 90 micromol/L. Correlatively with the decrease in activity, alterations in the enzyme's conformation were observed as indicated by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and electronic absorption spectroscopy. The enzyme's intrinsic fluorescence obtained upon excitation at either 297 nm (tryptophan residues) or 280 nm (tyrosine and tryptophan residues) decreased as a function of acriflavine concentration. Circular dichroism studies showed alterations of the protein structure by acriflavine with up to 13% decrease in alpha helix, 16% increase in beta-sheet content, 17% increase in random coil, and 4% increase in beta turns. Spectrophotometric studies showed a blueshift and modifications in the chromicity of catalase at 405 nm, corresponding to an absorbance band due to the enzyme's prosthetic group. Thus, acriflavine induced in vitro a profound change in the structure of catalase so that the enzyme could no longer function. Our results showed that acriflavine, a compound producing apoptosis and necrosis, can have a direct effect on vital functions in cells by disabling key enzymes.

  8. PPAR-γ Impairment Alters Peroxisome Functionality in Primary Astrocyte Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Zanardelli, Matteo; Micheli, Laura; Ghelardini, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisomes provide glial cells with protective functions against the harmful effects of H2O2 on neurons and peroxisome impairment results in nervous lesions. Agonists of the γ-subtype of the Peroxisome-Proliferator-Activated-Receptors (PPAR) have been proposed as neuroprotective agents in neurodegenerative disorders. Nevertheless, the role of PPAR-γ alterations in pathophysiological mechanisms and the relevance of peroxisome functions in the PPAR-γ effects are not yet clear. In a primary cell culture of rat astrocytes, the irreversible PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 concentration-dependently decreased the activity of catalase, the most important antioxidant defense enzyme in peroxisomes. Catalase functionality recovered in a few days and the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone promoted reversal of enzymatic damage. The reversible antagonist G3335 reduced both the activity and expression of catalase in a rosiglitazone-prevented manner. G3335 reduced also the glutathione reductase expression, indicating that enzyme involved in glutathione regeneration was compromised. Neither the PPAR-α target gene Acyl-Coenzyme-A-oxidase-1 nor the mitochondrial detoxifying enzyme NADH:ubiquinone-oxidoreductase (NDFUS3) was altered by PPAR-γ inhibition. In conclusion, PPAR-γ inhibition induced impairment of catalase in astrocytes. A general decrease of the antioxidant defenses of the cell suggests that a PPAR-γ hypofunction could participate in neurodegenerative mechanisms through peroxisomal damage. This series of experiments could be a useful model for studying compounds able to restore peroxisome functionality. PMID:24729976

  9. Seasonal variations alter the impact of functional traits on plankton dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Marcia R; Vasseur, David A; Gaedke, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Gaining understanding of food-web processes often requires a simplified representation of natural diversity. One such simplification can be based on functional traits, as functionally similar species may provide a similar contribution to ecosystem level-processes. However, understanding how similarity in functional traits actually translates into similar contributions to ecosystem-level properties remains a challenge due to the complex ways in which traits can influence species' dynamics. Moreover, in many communities, seasonality alters the abiotic and biotic forcing regime, causing ongoing changes to patterns of species' dominance; groups of species do not stay intact but are rather continuously subjected to changes throughout the year. Using long-term high frequency measurements of phytoplankton in Lake Constance, we investigated the effect of seasonal changes on the relationship between functional similarity and temporal dynamics similarity of 36 morphotypes, and the relative contribution of different functional traits during the different parts of the year. Our results revealed seasonal differences in the overall degree of synchronization of morphotypes' temporal dynamics and how combinations of functional traits influence the relationship between functional trait similarity and temporal dynamics similarity, showing that different forcing regimes change how species cope with their environment based on their functional tra