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Sample records for altered renal expression

  1. The renal metallothionein expression profile is altered in human lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Penkowa, Milena; Andersen, Claus Bøgelund; Starklint, Henrik; Jacobsen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Metallothionein (MT) isoforms I + II are polypeptides with potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In healthy kidneys, MT-I+II have been described as intracellular proteins of proximal tubular cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the renal MT-I+II expression profile is altered during lupus nephritis. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on renal biopsies from 37 patients with lupus nephritis. Four specimens of healthy renal tissue served as controls. Clinicopathological correlation studies and renal survival analyses were performed by means of standard statistical methods. Results Proximal tubules displaying epithelial cell MT-I+II depletion in combination with luminal MT-I+II expression were observed in 31 out of 37 of the lupus nephritis specimens, but not in any of the control sections (P = 0.006). The tubular MT score, defined as the median number of proximal tubules displaying this MT expression pattern per high-power microscope field (40× magnification), was positively correlated to the creatinine clearance in the lupus nephritis cohort (P = 0.01). Furthermore, a tubular MT score below the median value of the cohort emerged as a significant predictor of a poor renal outcome in renal survival analyses. Thus, patients with a tubular MT score < 1.0 had a 6.2-times higher risk of developing end-stage renal disease than patients with a tubular MT score ≥ 1.0 (P = 0.03). Conclusion Lupus nephritis is associated with significant alterations in renal MT-I+II expression. Our data indicate that important prognostic information can be deduced from the renal MT-I+II expression profile in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with nephritis. PMID:18601746

  2. The Altered Renal and Hepatic Expression of Solute Carrier Transporters (SLCs) in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chenghao; Zhu, Ling; Chan, Ting; Lu, Xiaoxi; Shen, Weiyong; Gillies, Mark C.; Zhou, Fanfan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that significantly affects human health and well-being. The Solute carrier transporters (SLCs), particularly the Organic anion/cation transporters (Oats/Octs/Octns), Organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) and Oligopeptide transporters (Pepts) are essential membrane proteins responsible for cellular uptake of many endogenous and exogenous substances such as clinically important drugs. They are widely expressed in mammalian key organs especially the kidney and liver, in which they facilitate the influx of various drug molecules, thereby determining their distribution and elimination in body. The altered expression of SLCs in diabetes mellitus could have a profound and clinically significant influence on drug therapies. In this study, we extensively investigated the renal and hepatic expression of twenty essential SLCs in the type 1 diabetic Ins2Akita murine model that develops both hyperglycemia and diabetes-related complications using real-time PCR and immunoblotting analysis. We found that the renal expression of mOatp1a1, mOatp1a6, mOat1, mOat3, mOat5, mOct2 and mPept2 was decreased; while that of mPept1 was increased at the mRNA level in the diabetic mice compared with non-diabetic controls. We found up-regulated mRNA expression of mOatp1a4, mOatp1c1, mOctn2, mOct3 and mPept1 as well as down-regulation of mOatp1a1 in the livers of diabetic mice. We confirmed the altered protein expression of several SLCs in diabetic mice, especially the decreased renal and hepatic expression of mOatp1a1. We also found down-regulated protein expression of mOat3 and mOctn1 in the kidneys as well as increased protein expression of mOatp1a4 and mOct3 in the livers of diabetic mice. Our findings contribute to better understanding the modulation of SLC transporters in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is likely to affect the pharmacokinetic performance of drugs that are transported by these transporters and therefore, forms the

  3. Autophagy Limits Endotoxemic Acute Kidney Injury and Alters Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Cytokine Expression.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Jeremy S; Ni, Jie; Osmond, Morgan; Lee, Kyung; Gusella, G Luca; Salem, Fadi; Ross, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis related acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common in-hospital complication with a dismal prognosis. Our incomplete understanding of disease pathogenesis has prevented the identification of hypothesis-driven preventive or therapeutic interventions. Increasing evidence in ischemia-reperfusion and nephrotoxic mouse models of AKI support the theory that autophagy protects renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) from injury. However, the role of RTEC autophagy in septic AKI remains unclear. We observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a mediator of gram-negative bacterial sepsis, induces RTEC autophagy in vivo and in vitro through TLR4-initiated signaling. We modeled septic AKI through intraperitoneal LPS injection in mice in which autophagy-related protein 7 was specifically knocked out in the renal proximal tubules (ATG7KO). Compared to control littermates, ATG7KO mice developed more severe renal dysfunction (24hr BUN 100.1mg/dl +/- 14.8 vs 54.6mg/dl +/- 11.3) and parenchymal injury. After injection with LPS, analysis of kidney lysates identified higher IL-6 expression and increased STAT3 activation in kidney lysates from ATG7KO mice compared to controls. In vitro experiments confirmed an altered response to LPS in RTEC with genetic or pharmacological impairment of autophagy. In conclusion, RTEC autophagy protects against endotoxin induced injury and regulates downstream effects of RTEC TLR4 signaling.

  4. Autophagy Limits Endotoxemic Acute Kidney Injury and Alters Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Jeremy S.; Ni, Jie; Osmond, Morgan; Lee, Kyung; Gusella, G. Luca; Salem, Fadi; Ross, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis related acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common in-hospital complication with a dismal prognosis. Our incomplete understanding of disease pathogenesis has prevented the identification of hypothesis-driven preventive or therapeutic interventions. Increasing evidence in ischemia-reperfusion and nephrotoxic mouse models of AKI support the theory that autophagy protects renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) from injury. However, the role of RTEC autophagy in septic AKI remains unclear. We observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a mediator of gram-negative bacterial sepsis, induces RTEC autophagy in vivo and in vitro through TLR4-initiated signaling. We modeled septic AKI through intraperitoneal LPS injection in mice in which autophagy-related protein 7 was specifically knocked out in the renal proximal tubules (ATG7KO). Compared to control littermates, ATG7KO mice developed more severe renal dysfunction (24hr BUN 100.1mg/dl +/- 14.8 vs 54.6mg/dl +/- 11.3) and parenchymal injury. After injection with LPS, analysis of kidney lysates identified higher IL-6 expression and increased STAT3 activation in kidney lysates from ATG7KO mice compared to controls. In vitro experiments confirmed an altered response to LPS in RTEC with genetic or pharmacological impairment of autophagy. In conclusion, RTEC autophagy protects against endotoxin induced injury and regulates downstream effects of RTEC TLR4 signaling. PMID:26990086

  5. Aromatase Deficient Female Mice Demonstrate Altered Expression of Molecules Critical for Renal Calcium Reabsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öz, Orhan K.; Hajibeigi, Asghar; Cummins, Carolyn; van Abel, Monique; Bindels, René J.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2007-04-01

    The incidence of kidney stones increases in women after the menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. In order to determine if estrogen may be exerting an effect on renal calcium reabsorption, we measured urinary calcium excretion in the aromatase-deficient female mouse (ArKO) before and following estrogen therapy. ArKO mice had hypercalciuria that corrected during estrogen administration. To evaluate the mechanism by which estrogen deficiency leads to hypercalciuria, we examined the expression of several proteins involved in distal tubule renal calcium reabsorption, both at the message and protein levels. Messenger RNA levels of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28K, the Na+/Ca++ exchanger (NCX1), and the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA1b) were significantly decreased in kidneys of ArKO mice. On the other hand, klotho mRNA levels were elevated in kidneys of ArKO mice. ArKO renal protein extracts had lower levels of calbindin-D28K but higher levels of the klotho protein. Immunochemistry demonstrated increased klotho expression in ArKO kidneys. Estradiol therapy normalized the expression of TRPV5, calbindin-D28K, PMCA1b and klotho. Taken together, these results demonstrate that estrogen deficiency produced by aromatase inactivation is sufficient to produce a renal leak of calcium and consequent hypercalciuria. This may represent one mechanism leading to the increased incidence of kidney stones following the menopause in women.

  6. Altered expression profile of renal α(1D)-adrenergic receptor in diabetes and its modulation by PPAR agonists.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xueying; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Leander, Michelle; Li, Lingyun; Wang, Guoshen; Emmett, Nerimiah

    2014-01-01

    Alpha(1D)-adrenergic receptor (α(1D)-AR) plays important roles in regulating physiological and pathological responses mediated by catecholamines, particularly in the cardiovascular and urinary systems. The present study was designed to investigate the expression profile of α(1D)-AR in the diabetic kidneys and its modulation by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). 12-week-old Zucker lean (ZL) and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZD) rats were treated with fenofibrate or rosiglitazone for 8-10 weeks. Gene microarray, real-time PCR, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy were performed to assess mRNA and protein expression of α(1D)-AR in rat kidney tissue. Using microarray, we found that α(1D)-AR gene was dramatically upregulated in 22-week-old ZD rats compared to ZL controls. Quantitative PCR analysis verified a 16-fold increase in α(1D)-AR mRNA in renal cortex from ZD animals compared to normal controls. Chronic treatment with fenofibrate or rosiglitazone reduced renal cortical α(1D)-AR gene. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed that α(1D)-AR protein was induced in the glomeruli and tubules of diabetic rats. Moreover, dual immunostaining for α(1D)-AR and kidney injury molecule-1 indicated that α(1D)-AR was expressed in dedifferentiated proximal tubules of diabetic Zucker rats. Taken together, our results show that α(1D)-AR expression is upregulated in the diabetic kidneys. PPAR activation suppressed renal expression of α(1D)-AR in diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Altered expression of renal NHE3, TSC, BSC-1, and ENaC subunits in potassium-depleted rats.

    PubMed

    Elkjaer, Marie-Louise; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Wang, Weidong; Nielsen, Jakob; Knepper, Mark A; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Nielsen, Søren

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether hypokalemia is associated with altered abundance of major renal Na+ transporters that may contribute to the development of urinary concentrating defects. We examined the changes in the abundance of the type 3 Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3), Na+ - K+-ATPase, the bumetanide-sensitive Na+ - K+ - 2Cl- cotransporter (BSC-1), the thiazide-sensitive Na+ - Cl- cotransporter (TSC), and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits in kidneys of hypokalemic rats. Semiquantitative immunoblotting revealed that the abundance of BSC-1 (57%) and TSC (46%) were profoundly decreased in the inner stripe of the outer medulla (ISOM) and cortex/outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM), respectively. These findings were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, total kidney abundance of all ENaC subunits was significantly reduced in response to the hypokalemia: alpha-subunit (61%), beta-subunit (41%), and gamma-subunit (60%), and this was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In contrast, the renal abundance of NHE3 in hypokalemic rats was dramatically increased in cortex/OSOM (736%) and ISOM (210%). Downregulation of BSC-1, TSC, and ENaC may contribute to the urinary concentrating defect, whereas upregulation of NHE3 may be compensatory to prevent urinary Na+ loss and/or to maintain intracellular pH levels.

  8. Analysis of Altered MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Proximal Renal Tubular Cells in Response to Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystal Adhesion: Implications for Kidney Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bohan; Wu, Bolin; Liu, Jun; Yao, Weimin; Xia, Ding; Li, Lu; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Zhangqun; Yu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) is the major crystalline component in kidney stones and its adhesion to renal tubular cells leads to tubular injury. However, COM-induced toxic effects in renal tubular cells remain ambiguous. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in gene regulation at the posttranscriptional levels. Objective The present study aimed to assess the potential changes in microRNAs of proximal renal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Methodology Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and DAPI staining were used to measure the toxic effects of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. MicroRNA microarray and mRNA microarray were applied to evaluate the expression of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technology was used to validate the microarray results. Target prediction, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and pathway analysis were applied to predict the potential roles of microRNAs in biological processes. Principal Findings Our study showed that COM crystals significantly altered the global expression profile of miRNAs in vitro. After 24 h treatment with a dose (1 mmol/L), 25 miRNAs were differentially expressed with a more than 1.5-fold change, of these miRNAs, 16 were up-regulated and 9 were down-regulated. A majority of these differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with cell death, mitochondrion and metabolic process. Target prediction and GO analysis suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs potentially targeted many genes which were related to apoptosis, regulation of metabolic process, intracellular signaling cascade, insulin signaling pathway and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion Our study provides new insights into the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis associated with nephrolithiasis. PMID:24983625

  9. Sirolimus and cyclosporine A alter barrier function in renal proximal tubular cells through stimulation of ERK1/2 signaling and claudin-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Martin, Natalia; Ryan, Gavin; McMorrow, Tara; Ryan, Michael P

    2010-03-01

    Alteration of the tight junction complex in renal epithelial cells can affect renal barrier function and perturb normal kidney homeostasis. The immunosuppressant drugs cyclosporine A (CsA) and sirolimus (SRL) used in combination demonstrated beneficial effects in organ transplantation but this combination can also result in increased adverse effects. We previously showed that CsA treatment alone caused an alteration of the tight junction complex, resulting in changes in transepithelial permeability in Madin-Darby canine kidney distal tubular/collecting duct cells. The potential effect of SRL on transepithelial permeability in kidney cells is unknown. In this study, subcytotoxic doses of SRL or CsA were found to decrease the paracellular permeability of the porcine proximal tubular epithelial cells, LLC-PK1 cell monolayers, which was detected as an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). The cotreatment with SRL and CsA was found to increase TER in a synergistic manner. CsA treatment increased total cellular expression and membrane localization of the tight junction protein claudin-1 and this further increased with the combination of SRL/CsA. SRL and CsA treatment alone or in combination stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. The MEK-ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor, U0126, reduced the SRL, CsA, and CsA/SRL-induced increase in TER. U0126 also reduced the CsA and CsA/SRL-induced increase in the membrane localization of claudin-1. Alterations in claudin-2 and claudin-4 were also detected. However, the results suggest that the modulation in expression and localization of claudin-1 appears to be pivotal in the SRL- and CsA-induced modulation of the epithelial barrier function and that modulation is regulated by ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:19955189

  10. Mouse model of type II Bartter's syndrome. II. Altered expression of renal sodium- and water-transporting proteins.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Carsten A; Loffing-Cueni, Dominique; Yan, Qingshang; Schulz, Nicole; Fakitsas, Panagiotis; Carrel, Monique; Wang, Tong; Verrey, Francois; Geibel, John P; Giebisch, Gerhard; Hebert, Steven C; Loffing, Johannes

    2008-06-01

    Bartter's syndrome represents a group of hereditary salt- and water-losing renal tubulopathies caused by loss-of-function mutations in proteins mediating or regulating salt transport in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop. Mutations in the ROMK channel cause type II antenatal Bartter's syndrome that presents with maternal polyhydramnios and postnatal life-threatening volume depletion. We have developed a colony of Romk null mice showing a Bartter-like phenotype and with increased survival to adulthood, suggesting the activation of compensatory mechanisms. To test the hypothesis that upregulation of Na(+)-transporting proteins in segments distal to the TAL contributes to compensation, we studied expression of salt-transporting proteins in ROMK-deficient (Romk(-/-)) mice. Plasma aldosterone was 40% higher and urinary PGE(2) excretion was 1.5-fold higher in Romk(-/-) compared with wild-type littermates. Semiquantitative immunoblotting of kidney homogenates revealed decreased abundances of proximal tubule Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3) and Na(+)-P(i) cotransporter (NaPi-IIa) and TAL-specific Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-)-cotransporter (NKCC2/BSC1) in Romk(-/-) mice, while the distal convoluted tubule (DCT)-specific Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC/TSC) was markedly increased. The abundance of the alpha-,beta-, and gamma-subunits of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) was slightly increased, although only differences for gamma-ENaC reached statistical significance. Morphometry revealed a fourfold increase in the fractional volume of DCT but not of connecting tubule (CNT) and collecting duct (CCD). Consistently, CNT and CD of Romk(-/-) mice revealed no apparent increase in the luminal abundance of the ENaC compared with those of wild-type mice. These data suggest that the loss of ROMK-dependent Na(+) absorption in the TAL is compensated predominately by upregulation of Na(+) transport in downstream DCT cells. These adaptive changes in Romk(-/-) mice may help to limit renal Na

  11. Genome-wide screening of copy number alterations and LOH events in renal cell carcinomas and integration with gene expression profile

    PubMed Central

    Cifola, Ingrid; Spinelli, Roberta; Beltrame, Luca; Peano, Clelia; Fasoli, Ester; Ferrero, Stefano; Bosari, Silvano; Signorini, Stefano; Rocco, Francesco; Perego, Roberto; Proserpio, Vanessa; Raimondo, Francesca; Mocarelli, Paolo; Battaglia, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Background Clear cell renal carcinoma (RCC) is the most common and invasive adult renal cancer. For the purpose of identifying RCC biomarkers, we investigated chromosomal regions and individual genes modulated in RCC pathology. We applied the dual strategy of assessing and integrating genomic and transcriptomic data, today considered the most effective approach for understanding genetic mechanisms of cancer and the most sensitive for identifying cancer-related genes. Results We performed the first integrated analysis of DNA and RNA profiles of RCC samples using Affymetrix technology. Using 100K SNP mapping arrays, we assembled a genome-wide map of DNA copy number alterations and LOH areas. We thus confirmed the typical genetic signature of RCC but also identified other amplified regions (e.g. on chr. 4, 11, 12), deleted regions (chr. 1, 9, 22) and LOH areas (chr. 1, 2, 9, 13). Simultaneously, using HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in tumor vs. normal samples. Combining genomic and transcriptomic data, we identified 71 DEGs in aberrant chromosomal regions and observed, in amplified regions, a predominance of up-regulated genes (27 of 37 DEGs) and a trend to clustering. Functional annotation of these genes revealed some already implicated in RCC pathology and other cancers, as well as others that may be novel tumor biomarkers. Conclusion By combining genomic and transcriptomic profiles from a collection of RCC samples, we identified specific genomic regions with concordant alterations in DNA and RNA profiles and focused on regions with increased DNA copy number. Since the transcriptional modulation of up-regulated genes in amplified regions may be attributed to the genomic alterations characteristic of RCC, these genes may encode novel RCC biomarkers actively involved in tumor initiation and progression and useful in clinical applications. PMID:18194544

  12. Boldine Prevents Renal Alterations in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Salinas, Romina; Vielma, Alejandra Z.; Arismendi, Marlene N.; Boric, Mauricio P.; Sáez, Juan C.; Velarde, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy alters both structure and function of the kidney. These alterations are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, matrix proteins, and proinflammatory molecules. Inflammation decreases gap junctional communication and increases hemichannel activity leading to increased membrane permeability and altering tissue homeostasis. Since current treatments for diabetic nephropathy do not prevent renal damage, we postulated an alternative treatment with boldine, an alkaloid obtained from boldo with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated or not treated with boldine (50 mg/Kg/day) for ten weeks. In addition, mesangial cells were cultured under control conditions or in high glucose concentration plus proinflammatory cytokines, with or without boldine (100 µmol/L). Boldine treatment in diabetic animals prevented the increase in glycemia, blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Boldine also reduced alterations in matrix proteins and markers of renal damage. In mesangial cells, boldine prevented the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in gap junctional communication, and the increase in cell permeability due to connexin hemichannel activity induced by high glucose and proinflammatory cytokines but did not block gap junction channels. Thus boldine prevented both renal and cellular alterations and could be useful for preventing tissue damage in diabetic subjects. PMID:24416726

  13. Renal cortex taurine content regulates renal adaptive response to altered dietary intake of sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Dabbagh, S

    1985-01-01

    Rats fed a reduced sulfur amino acid diet (LTD) or a high-taurine diet (HTD) demonstrate a renal adaptive response. The LTD results in hypotaurinuria and enhanced brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) accumulation of taurine. The HTD causes hypertaurinuria and reduced BBMV uptake. This adaptation may relate to changes in plasma or renal cortex taurine concentration. Rats were fed a normal-taurine diet (NTD), LTD, or HTD for 14 d or they underwent: (a) 3% beta-alanine for the last 8 d of each diet; (b) 3 d of fasting; or (c) a combination of 3% beta-alanine added for 8 d and 3 d of fasting. Each maneuver lowered the cortex taurine concentration, but did not significantly lower plasma taurine values compared with controls. Increased BBMV taurine uptake occurred after each manipulation. Feeding 3% glycine did not alter the plasma, renal cortex, or urinary taurine concentrations, or BBMV uptake of taurine. Feeding 3% methionine raised plasma and urinary taurine excretion but renal tissue taurine was unchanged, as was initial BBMV uptake. Hence, nonsulfur-containing alpha-amino acids did not change beta-amino acid transport. The increase in BBMV uptake correlates with the decline in renal cortex and plasma taurine content. However, since 3% methionine changed plasma taurine without altering BBMV uptake, it is more likely that the change in BBMV uptake and the adaptive response expressed at the brush border surface relate to changes in renal cortex taurine concentrations. Finally, despite changes in urine and renal cortex taurine content, brain taurine values were unchanged, which suggests that this renal adaptive response maintains stable taurine concentrations where taurine serves as a neuromodulator. PMID:3935668

  14. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies.

  15. Altered renal lipid metabolism and renal lipid accumulation in human diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Herman-Edelstein, Michal; Scherzer, Pnina; Tobar, Ana; Levi, Moshe; Gafter, Uzi

    2014-01-01

    Animal models link ectopic lipid accumulation to renal dysfunction, but whether this process occurs in the human kidney is uncertain. To this end, we investigated whether altered renal TG and cholesterol metabolism results in lipid accumulation in human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Lipid staining and the expression of lipid metabolism genes were studied in kidney biopsies of patients with diagnosed DN (n = 34), and compared with normal kidneys (n = 12). We observed heavy lipid deposition and increased intracellular lipid droplets. Lipid deposition was associated with dysregulation of lipid metabolism genes. Fatty acid β-oxidation pathways including PPAR-α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, acyl-CoA oxidase, and L-FABP were downregulated. Downregulation of renal lipoprotein lipase, which hydrolyzes circulating TGs, was associated with increased expression of angiopoietin-like protein 4. Cholesterol uptake receptor expression, including LDL receptors, oxidized LDL receptors, and acetylated LDL receptors, was significantly increased, while there was downregulation of genes effecting cholesterol efflux, including ABCA1, ABCG1, and apoE. There was a highly significant correlation between glomerular filtration rate, inflammation, and lipid metabolism genes, supporting a possible role of abnormal lipid metabolism in the pathogenesis of DN. These data suggest that renal lipid metabolism may serve as a target for specific therapies aimed at slowing the progression of glomerulosclerosis. PMID:24371263

  16. Renal extracellular matrix alterations in lead-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, S; Pérez Aguilar, R; Genta, S; Aybar, M; Villecco, E; Sánchez Riera, A

    2001-01-01

    Although the nephrotoxic effects of lead are well documented, the subcellular mechanisms of its action on the kidney remain unclear. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of chronic lead exposure on the expression of laminin-1 and fibronectin in the kidney of lead-treated rats. Western immunoblotting of the kidney extracts revealed that experimental exposure to lead resulted in a marked decrease in the intensity of the bands corresponding to laminin-1 and an increase in the intensity of the band corresponding to fibronectin. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated a weak labelling to laminin-1 and a strong labelling to fibronectin in all renal basement membranes together with a decrease in their thickness. Other ultrastructural alterations found were a diminution in the amount of endothelial fenestrae, an increased fusion of foot processes in epithelial cells of the glomerulus and the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in the proximal tubule cells. Lead intoxication might be responsible for the above alterations in the renal extracellular matrix that could play an important role in the pathogenesis of lead nephropathy. PMID:11746185

  17. Reduced uteroplacental blood flow alters renal arterial reactivity and glomerular properties in the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Marijke W; Fazzi, Gregorio E; Janssen, Ger M J; de Leeuw, Peter W; Blanco, Carlos E; De Mey, Jo G R

    2004-06-01

    Fetal malnutrition and hypoxia may modify organ system maturation and result in cardiovascular diseases in the adult. We tested whether intrauterine stress (IUS) leads to persistent alterations of renal biology. In rats, intrauterine stress was induced by ligation of the uterine arteries at day 17 of pregnancy. Renal arteries of the 21-day-old male offspring were isolated to study pharmacological reactivity. Kidneys were dissected to analyze renal structure and beta-adrenoceptor expression. At 21 days of age, half of the animals underwent unilateral left nephrectomy. At the age of 12 weeks, rats were instrumented for blood pressure monitoring, blood sampling, and renal function measurements. After IUS, litter size and birth weight were reduced, whereas the hematocrit was increased. Renal arterial responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation and sensitivity to adenylyl cyclase activation were increased, along with the renal expression of beta2-adrenoceptors. At 21 days and at 6 months of age, the number and density of the glomeruli were reduced, whereas their size was increased. The filtration fraction and urinary albumin concentration were increased 12 weeks after intrauterine stress. In control rats, removal of the left kidney at 21 days of age did not affect kidney function and blood pressure. However, after IUS, the remaining right kidney failed to compensate for the loss of the left kidney, and blood pressure was increased. In conclusion, prenatal stress transiently modifies renal arterial reactivity and results in long-lasting adverse effects on renal structure and function and on renal compensatory mechanisms. PMID:15117909

  18. Alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and caspase 8 expression in cobalt chloride-induced cardio-renal dysfunction are reversed by Ocimum gratissimum and gallic acid in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinrinde, A S; Oyagbemi, A A; Omobowale, T O; Asenuga, E R; Ajibade, T O

    2016-07-01

    The protective abilities of the chloroform extract of Ocimum gratissimum (COG) and gallic acid against cobalt chloride (CoCl2) - induced cardiac and renal toxicity were evaluated. Rats were exposed to CoCl2 (350ppm) for 7 days, either alone, or in combination with COG (100 and 200mg/kg) or gallic acid (120mg/kg). CoCl2 given alone, caused significant increases (p<0.05) in oxidative stress parameters (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 and malondialdehyde, MDA) and increased expression of the apoptotic initiator caspase 8 in the heart and kidneys. There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in reduced glutathione (GSH) in cardiac and renal tissues; reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the kidneys and adaptive increases in Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT). CoCl2 also produced significant reduction (p<0.05) in systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressures. Oral COG and gallic acid treatment significantly reduced (p<0.05) the levels of H2O2 and MDA; with reduced expression of caspase 8 and restoration of GSH levels, GPx, SOD and CAT activities, howbeit, to varying degrees in the heart and kidneys. COG (200mg/kg) was most effective in restoring the blood pressures in the rats to near control levels. CoCl2-induced histopathological lesions including myocardial infarction and inflammation and renal tubular necrosis and inflammation were effectively ameliorated by the treatments administered. This study provides evidence for the protective roles of O. gratissimum and gallic acid by modulation of CoCl2-induced alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and pro-apoptotic caspase 8 in Wistar rats.

  19. Alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and caspase 8 expression in cobalt chloride-induced cardio-renal dysfunction are reversed by Ocimum gratissimum and gallic acid in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinrinde, A S; Oyagbemi, A A; Omobowale, T O; Asenuga, E R; Ajibade, T O

    2016-07-01

    The protective abilities of the chloroform extract of Ocimum gratissimum (COG) and gallic acid against cobalt chloride (CoCl2) - induced cardiac and renal toxicity were evaluated. Rats were exposed to CoCl2 (350ppm) for 7 days, either alone, or in combination with COG (100 and 200mg/kg) or gallic acid (120mg/kg). CoCl2 given alone, caused significant increases (p<0.05) in oxidative stress parameters (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 and malondialdehyde, MDA) and increased expression of the apoptotic initiator caspase 8 in the heart and kidneys. There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in reduced glutathione (GSH) in cardiac and renal tissues; reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the kidneys and adaptive increases in Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT). CoCl2 also produced significant reduction (p<0.05) in systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressures. Oral COG and gallic acid treatment significantly reduced (p<0.05) the levels of H2O2 and MDA; with reduced expression of caspase 8 and restoration of GSH levels, GPx, SOD and CAT activities, howbeit, to varying degrees in the heart and kidneys. COG (200mg/kg) was most effective in restoring the blood pressures in the rats to near control levels. CoCl2-induced histopathological lesions including myocardial infarction and inflammation and renal tubular necrosis and inflammation were effectively ameliorated by the treatments administered. This study provides evidence for the protective roles of O. gratissimum and gallic acid by modulation of CoCl2-induced alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and pro-apoptotic caspase 8 in Wistar rats. PMID:27259349

  20. Renal function alterations during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Bryan J.

    1992-01-01

    This project was to examine the alterations in renal functions during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity. Although this area could cover a wide range of investigative efforts, the limited funding resulted in the selection of two projects. These projects would result in data contributing to an area of research deemed high priority by NASA and would address issues of the alterations in renal response to vasoactive stimuli during conditions of skeletal muscle disuse as well as investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle disuse, conditions normally found in long term human exposure to microgravity, to the balance of fluid and macromolecules within the vasculature versus the interstitium. These two projects selected are as follows: investigate the role of angiotensin 2 on renal function during periods of simulated microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse to determine if the renal response is altered to changes in circulating concentrations of angiotensin 2 compared to appropriate controls; and determine if the shift of fluid balance from vasculature to the interstitium, the two components of extracellular fluid volume, that occur during prolonged exposure to microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse is a result, in part, to alterations in the fluid and macromolecular balance in the peripheral capillary beds, of which the skeletal muscle contains the majority of recruitment capillaries. A recruitment capillary bed would be most sensitive to alterations in Starling forces and fluid and macromolecular permeability.

  1. Alterations in enhancer of zeste homolog 2, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 expression are associated with ex vivo and in vitro bone metastasis in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang; Ren, Ye; Guo, Xin; Cheng, Hao; Ye, Yaping; Qi, Jun; Yang, Caihong; You, Hongbo

    2015-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a high potential for bone metastasis; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this metastasis have remained to be elucidated. The present study aimed to explore the expression levels of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2) as determinants of RCC-associated bone metastasis. Their expression was evaluated in a newly generated RCC cell subline that has a high potential for bone metastasis, in tissue specimens from metastasized bone tissues from patients with RCC and in RCC tissues without metastasis. A total of 25 RCC tissue specimens without metastasis and 13 RCC tissue specimens with bone metastasis were acquired for immunohistochemical analysis of EZH2, MMP2 and TIMP2 protein expression. The expression levels of EZH2, MMP2 and TIMP2 mRNA and protein were analyzed in the ACHN and ACHN-BO5 cell lines using western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. Methylation-specific PCR was also used to analyze TIMP2 promoter methylation. EZH2 and MMP2 proteins were found to be expressed at higher levels in tissues from patients where RCC had metastasized to the bone as compared with those in RCC patients without metastasis, whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of TIMP2 protein between the two tissues. Furthermore, the expression of EZH2 protein was correlated with MMP2 expression, but there was no significant correlation between the expression of EZH2 and TIMP2 proteins. The in vitro results using cell lines confirmed the ex vivo findings, indicating that the expression levels of EZH2 and MMP2 protein and mRNA were higher in ACHN-BO5 cells than those in ACHN cells. By contrast, TIMP2 protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in ACHN-BO5 cells than those in the parental ACHN cells. The TIMP2 promoter was highly methylated in ACHN-BO5 cells compared with that in ACHN cells. Upregulation of EZH2

  2. Epigenetic alterations of Krüppel-like factor 4 and its tumor suppressor function in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Wang, Ji; Xiao, Wei; Xia, Ding; Lang, Bin; Yu, Gan; Guo, Xiaolin; Guan, Wei; Wang, Zhihua; Hu, Zhiquan; Liu, Jihong; Ye, Zhangqun; Xu, Hua

    2013-10-01

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor that can have divergent functions in different malignancies. The expression and role of KLF4 in renal cell cancer remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine epigenetic alterations and possible roles of KLF4 in renal cell carcinoma. The KLF4 expression in primary renal cell cancer tissues and case-matched normal renal tissues was determined by protein and messenger RNA analyses. The epigenetic alterations were detected by methylation-specific PCR and Sequenom MassARRAY. Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test were used for the survival analysis. The effects of KLF4 on cell growth and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were determined in renal cancer cell lines after viral-based and RNA activation-mediated overexpression of KLF4. In vivo antitumor activity of KLF4 was evaluated by using stably KLF4-transfected renal cancer cells. KLF4 expression was dramatically decreased in various pathological types of renal cancer and associated with poor survival after nephrectomy. Hypermethylation of KLF4 promoter mainly contributed to its expression suppression. In vitro assays indicated that KLF4 overexpression inhibited renal cancer cell growth and survival. KLF4 overexpression also suppressed renal cancer cell migration and invasion by altering the EMT-related factors. In vivo assay showed that ectopic expression of KLF4 also inhibited tumorigenicity and metastasis of renal cancer. Our results suggest that KLF4 is a putative tumor suppressor gene epigenetically silenced in renal cell cancers by promoter CpG methylation and that it has prognostic value for renal cell progression. PMID:23722653

  3. Diabetes-Induced Decrease in Renal Oxygen Tension: Effects of an Altered Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Fredrik; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Fasching, Angelica; Hansell, Peter; Liss, Per

    During conditions with experimental diabetes mellitus, it is evident that several alterations in renal oxygen metabolism occur, including increased mitochondrial respiration and increased lactate accumulation in the renal tissue. Consequently, these alterations will contribute to decrease the interstitial pO2, preferentially in the renal medulla of animals with sustained long-term hyperglycemia.

  4. Aflatoxicosis alters avian renal function, calcium, and vitamin D metabolism.

    PubMed

    Glahn, R P; Beers, K W; Bottje, W G; Wideman, R F; Huff, W E; Thomas, W

    1991-11-01

    Experiments were designed to determine the effects of aflatoxicosis on avian renal function, calcium (CA), inorganic phosphorous (Pi), and vitamin D metabolism, and to determine if the effects of aflatoxin are reversible upon discontinuation of toxin administration. Three-week-old male broiler chickens (n = 12 per treatment) received aflatoxin (AF; 2 mg/kg po) or an equal volume of corn oil, the AF carrier vehicle, for 10 consecutive days. After 10 d of treatment, half of the birds from each treatment group were anesthetized and prepared for renal function analysis, which included a 2-h phosphate loading period. Ten days after discontinuation of AF treatment, the remaining birds in each treatment group were anesthetized and prepared for renal function analysis. AF decreased plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels after 5 d of treatment. After 10 d of treatment, urine flow rate (V), fractional sodium excretion (FENa), and fractional potassium excretion (FEK) were lower in AF-treated birds. In addition, total plasma Ca tended to be lower (p = .10) and fractional Ca excretion (FECa) tended to be higher (p = .10) in the AF-treated birds. Intravenous phosphate loading produced a sharp increase in urine hydrogen ion concentration ([H+]) in the AF-treated birds. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was reduced and plasma osmolality was increased in AF-treated birds 10 d after discontinuation of toxin administration. The results indicate that AF directly or indirectly affects Ca and Pi metabolism in avians. At the present time, the effects may be related to altered vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) metabolism. Aflatoxicosis may decrease endogenous PTH synthesis and the renal sensitivity to PTH. The AF-related increase in urine [H+] during phosphate loading is probably due to increased Na+/H+ counterport, suggesting that AF stimulates sodium reabsorption. Also, the decrease in GFR exhibited 10 d after toxin removal indicates

  5. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    PubMed

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  6. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  7. Alterations in circadian rhythmicity in calcium oxalate renal stone formers.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Y; Touitou, C; Charransol, G; Reinberg, A; Thomas, J; Bogdan, A; Barthelemy, C; Desgrez, P

    1983-01-01

    The circadian (circannual for oxalic acid) variations of 13 urinary variables (volume, creatinine, calcium, oxalic acid, glycolic acid, 17-ketosteroids, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, phosphates, urea, uric acid, chloride, sodium, and potassium) have been documented in 7 calcium oxalate renal stone formers and 7 healthy men (control group). Urine was collected every 4 h over a period of 24 h. All subjects had the same synchronization: diurnal activity from 07(00) to 23(00) +/- 1 h and nocturnal rest; meals were given at fixed clock hours (08(00), 12(30) and 20(00) +/- 1 h). A statistically-significant rhythm (p less than 0.05) was validated for all variables except urea and calcium in healthy men. In renal stone formers, 6 variables (calcium, oxalic acid, and glycolic acid in particular) had no detectable circadian rhythm. However, a periodicity of c. 8 h (ultradian rhythm) was demonstrated for calcium and oxalic acid with peaks being located around 02(00), 10(00), and 18(00). No circannual variations in oxalic acid output could be observed. The present study shows an alteration of the periodicity of calcium and oxalic metabolisms, i.e. the loss of a circadian (24-h) rhythm and the occurrence of an ultradian rhythm of 8 h. The risk of calcium-oxalate crystallisation appears thus greater at 02(00), 10(00), and 18(00). Furthermore, any study dealing with oxalic acid excretion should state the season of urine collection when comparing renal stone formers and healthy subjects, as significant differences in oxaluria may appear during the summer months and not during the rest of the year. PMID:6862698

  8. Spectrum of diverse genomic alterations define non–clear cell renal carcinoma subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Bijay S; Zhang, Na; Toffessi-Tcheuyap, Vanina; Nguyen, Thong T; Pahuja, Kanika Bajaj; Chen, Ying-Jiun; Saleem, Sadia; Chaudhuri, Subhra; Heldens, Sherry; Jackson, Marlena; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Guillory, Joseph; Toy, Karen; Ha, Connie; Harris, Corissa J; Holloman, Eboni; Hill, Haley M; Stinson, Jeremy; Rivers, Celina Sanchez; Janakiraman, Vasantharajan; Wang, Weiru; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V; Haverty, Peter M; Chow, Bernard; Gehring, Julian S; Reeder, Jens; Pau, Gregoire; Wu, Thomas D; Margulis, Vitaly; Lotan, Yair; Sagalowsky, Arthur; Pedrosa, Ivan; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Brugarolas, James; Seshagiri, Somasekar

    2015-01-01

    To further understand the molecular distinctions between kidney cancer subtypes, we analyzed exome, transcriptome and copy number alteration data from 167 primary human tumors that included renal oncocytomas and non–clear cell renal cell carcinomas (nccRCCs), consisting of papillary (pRCC), chromophobe (chRCC) and translocation (tRCC) subtypes. We identified ten significantly mutated genes in pRCC, including MET, NF2, SLC5A3, PNKD and CPQ. MET mutations occurred in 15% (10/65) of pRCC samples and included previously unreported recurrent activating mutations. In chRCC, we found TP53, PTEN, FAAH2, PDHB, PDXDC1 and ZNF765 to be significantly mutated. Gene expression analysis identified a five-gene set that enabled the molecular classification of chRCC, renal oncocytoma and pRCC. Using RNA sequencing, we identified previously unreported gene fusions, including ACTG1-MITF fusion. Ectopic expression of the ACTG1-MITF fusion led to cellular transformation and induced the expression of downstream target genes. Finally, we observed upregulation of the anti-apoptotic factor BIRC7 in MiTF-high RCC tumors, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for BIRC7 inhibitors. PMID:25401301

  9. Parvalbumin is constantly expressed in chromophobe renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Martignoni, G; Pea, M; Chilosi, M; Brunelli, M; Scarpa, A; Colato, C; Tardanico, R; Zamboni, G; Bonetti, F

    2001-08-01

    Chromophobe renal carcinoma is composed of neoplastic cell showing several features similar to those found in the intercalated cells of the collecting ducts. Because the distal nephron expresses calcium-binding proteins playing a role in calcium homeostasis, we reasoned that these proteins could be expressed by chromophobe carcinoma and therefore represent a diagnostic marker. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of different calcium-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and calretinin) in 140 renal tumors, including 75 conventional (clear cell) carcinomas, 32 chromophobe carcinomas, 17 papillary renal cell carcinomas, and 16 oncocytomas. Parvalbumin was strongly positive in all primary chromophobe carcinomas and in one pancreatic metastasis; it was positive in 11 of 16 oncocytomas and absent in conventional (clear cell) and papillary renal cell carcinomas, either primary or metastatic. Calbindin-D28K and calretinin were negative in all tumors, with the exception of two chromophobe carcinomas, four oncocytomas, and two papillary renal cell carcinomas showing inconspicuous calretinin expression. Our data demonstrate that parvalbumin may be a suitable marker for distinguishing primary and metastatic chromophobe carcinoma from conventional (clear cell) and papillary renal cell carcinoma. Moreover, they suggest a relationship between chromophobe renal carcinoma and renal oncocytoma and indicate that chromophobe carcinoma exhibits differentiation toward the collecting-duct phenotype.

  10. Increased hexokinase II expression in the renal glomerulus of mice in response to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Pysher, Michele D.; Sollome, James J.; Regan, Suzanne; Cardinal, Trevor R.; Hoying, James B.; Brooks, Heddwen L.; Vaillancourt, Richard R.

    2007-10-01

    Epidemiological studies link arsenic exposure to increased risks of cancers of the skin, kidney, lung, bladder and liver. Additionally, a variety of non-cancerous conditions such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease have been associated with chronic ingestion of low levels of arsenic. However, the biological and molecular mechanisms by which arsenic exerts its effects remain elusive. Here we report increased renal hexokinase II (HKII) expression in response to arsenic exposure both in vivo and in vitro. In our model, HKII was up-regulated in the renal glomeruli of mice exposed to low levels of arsenic (10 ppb or 50 ppb) via their drinking water for up to 21 days. Additionally, a similar effect was observed in cultured renal mesangial cells exposed to arsenic. This correlation between our in vivo and in vitro data provides further evidence for a direct link between altered renal HKII expression and arsenic exposure. Thus, our data suggest that alterations in renal HKII expression may be involved in arsenic-induced pathological conditions involving the kidney. More importantly, these results were obtained using environmentally relevant arsenic concentrations.

  11. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Klimas, Jan; Olvedy, Michael; Ochodnicka-Mackovicova, Katarina; Kruzliak, Peter; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Krenek, Peter; Ochodnicky, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P < 0.05 versus SHR) but did not influence altered cardiac RAS expression. Increased blood pressure in SHR (149 ± 2 in SHR versus 109 ± 2 mmHg in Wistar; P < 0.05) was associated with a lower renal expressions of renin, Agtr1a and Mas and with an increase in ACE2. Continuous losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05 versus SHR), however, only renal renin and ACE2 were significantly up-regulated (for both P < 0.05 versus SHR). Conclusively, prevention of hypertension and LV hypertrophy development by losartan was unrelated to cardiac or renal expression of Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs.

  12. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; García-Arroyo, Fernando E.; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S.; Madero, Magdalena; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Zazueta, Cecilia; Johnson, Richard J.; Sánchez Lozada, Laura-Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks) and short-term (3 weeks) effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW), OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water), OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW), or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase) and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation) along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident. PMID:25918583

  13. Renal oxidative stress induced by long-term hyperuricemia alters mitochondrial function and maintains systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; García-Arroyo, Fernando E; Tapia, Edilia; Osorio, Horacio; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S; Madero, Magdalena; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Correa, Francisco; Zazueta, Cecilia; Johnson, Richard J; Lozada, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks) and short-term (3 weeks) effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW), OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water), OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW), or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase) and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation) along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  14. Renal and hepatic transporter expression in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Michael T; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Sawant, Sharmilee P; Dnyanmote, Ankur V; Mehendale, Harihara M; Manautou, José E

    2008-01-01

    Membrane transporters are critical for the uptake as well as elimination of chemicals and by-products of metabolism from the liver and kidneys. Since these proteins are important determinants of chemical disposition, changes in their expression in different disease states can modulate drug pharmacokinetics. The present study investigated alterations in the renal and hepatic expression of organic anion and cation transporters (Oats/Octs), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), and hepatic Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) in type 2 diabetic rats. For this purpose, type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats a high fat diet followed by a single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.p., in 0.01 M citrate buffer pH 4.3) on day 14. Controls received normal diet and vehicle. Kidney and liver samples were collected on day 24 for generation of crude plasma membrane fractions and Western blot analysis of Oat, Oct, Mrp, Bcrp, Pgp, and Ntcp proteins. With regards to renal uptake transporters, type 2 diabetes increased levels of Oat2 (2.3-fold) and decreased levels of Oct2 to 50% of control kidneys. Conversely, efflux transporters Mrp2, Mrp4, and Bcrp were increased 5.4-fold, 2-fold, and 1.6-fold, respectively in type 2 diabetic kidneys with no change in levels of Mrp1, Mrp5, or Pgp. Studies of hepatic transporters in type 2 diabetic rats reveal that the protein level of Mrp5 was reduced to 4% of control livers with no change in levels of Bcrp, Mrp1, Mrp2, Mrp4, Ntcp, or Pgp. The changes reported in this study may have implications in type 2 diabetic patients.

  15. Hypergravity upregulates renal inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Gun; Oh, Choong Sik; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to hypergravity severely decreases renal blood flow, potentially causing renal dysfunction. Nitric oxide (NO), which is endogenously synthesized by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), plays an important role in the regulation of renal function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of hypergravity exposure on the production of NO in kidneys. To determine whether hypergravity induces renal hypoxia and alters renal iNOS expression and NO production, mice were exposed to short-term hypergravity at +3Gz for 1 h. The time course of iNOS mRNA expression, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression, and NO production was examined. Renal HIF-1α levels were significantly elevated immediately after centrifugation, and this increase was sustained for 3 h post-exposure. iNOS mRNA levels were also significantly increased immediately after exposure and were maintained during the reoxygenation period. Immunohistochemical staining for iNOS revealed that the cortical tubular epithelium exhibited moderate to strong cytoplasmic iNOS immunoreactivity immediately after hypergravity exposure and during the reoxygenation period. The time course of NO production was similar to that of iNOS expression. Our results suggest that both hypoxia and reoxygenation might be involved in the upregulation of HIF-1α in the kidneys of mice exposed to hypergravity. Significant increases in renocortical iNOS expression immediately after centrifugation and during the reoxygenation period suggest that iNOS expression induced by hypergravity exposure might play a protective role against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in the renal cortex. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the role of iNOS and NO in kidneys exposed to hypergravity. PMID:27174912

  16. Knowledge of renal histology alters patient management in over 40% of cases.

    PubMed

    Richards, N T; Darby, S; Howie, A J; Adu, D; Michael, J

    1994-01-01

    There is great debate as to whether the benefit gained from the knowledge of renal histology outweighs the risk to the patient from the biopsy procedure. We conducted a prospective study of 276 native renal biopsies performed on 266 patients from a single centre in 1991 to assess the effect of the knowledge of renal histology on patient management. Biopsies were performed under ultrasound guidance using the Trucut biopsy needle. The indications for biopsy were: non-nephrotic proteinuria alone (25), haematuria and proteinuria (28), nephrotic range proteinuria (28), acute renal failure (31), haematuria alone (36), and chronic renal failure (128). Two hundred and sixty-three biopsies were successful. The mean number of glomeruli obtained was 23, range 0-115. Eight patients developed macroscopic haematuria of which two required blood transfusion. The result of the biopsy altered management in 24/28 (86%) of cases of nephrotic range proteinuria, 22/31 (71%) of cases of acute renal failure, 58/128 (45%) of cases of chronic renal failure, 9/28 (32%) of cases with haematuria and proteinuria, 3/25 (12%) of cases with non-nephrotic proteinuria alone, and 1/36 (3%) of cases with haematuria alone. management was altered in 42% of cases overall. These data suggest that knowledge of renal histology is essential in the management of patients with renal disease.

  17. Heparanase expression and glycosaminoglycans profile in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Batista, Lucas Teixeira E Aguiar; Matos, Leandro Luongo; Machado, Leopoldo Ruiz; Suarez, Eloah Rabello; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Martins, João Roberto Maciel; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2012-11-01

    A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of renal cell carcinogenesis could contribute to a decrease in the mortality rate of this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and heparanase expression in renal cell carcinoma. The study included 24 patients submitted to nephrectomy with confirmed pathological diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. The majority of the samples (87.5%) were classified in the initial stage of renal cell carcinoma (clinical stages I and II). Heparanase messenger ribonucleic acid expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans were identified and quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis of renal cell carcinoma samples or non-neoplastic tissues obtained from the same patients (control group). The sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid were analyzed in urine samples of the patients before and after surgery. The data showed a significant statistical increase in chondroitin sulfate, and a decrease in heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate present in neoplastic tissues compared with non-neoplastic tissues. Higher heparanase messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the neoplastic tissues was also shown, compared with the non-neoplastic tissues. The urine glycosaminoglycans profile showed no significant difference between renal cell carcinoma and control samples. Extracellular matrix changes observed in the present study clarify that heparanase is possibly involved with heparan sulfate turnover, and that heparanase and the glycosaminoglycans can modulate initial events of renal cell carcinoma development.

  18. Renal molecular mechanisms underlying altered Na+ handling and genesis of hypertension during adulthood in prenatally undernourished rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Filho, Leucio D; Cabral, Edjair V; Farias, Juliane S; Silva, Paulo A; Muzi-Filho, Humberto; Vieyra, Adalberto; Paixão, Ana D O

    2014-06-14

    In the present study, we investigated the development of hypertension in prenatally undernourished adult rats, including the mechanisms that culminate in dysfunctions of molecular signalling in the kidney. Dams were fed a low-protein multideficient diet throughout gestation with or without α-tocopherol during lactation. The time course of hypertension development followed in male offspring was correlated with alterations in proximal tubule Na+-ATPase activity, expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors, and activity of protein kinases C and A. After the establishment of hypertension, Ang II levels, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) and NADPH oxidase subunit expression, lipid peroxidation and macrophage infiltration were examined in renal tissue. Lipid peroxidation in undernourished rats, which was very intense at 60 d, decreased at 90 d and returned to control values by 150 d. During the prehypertensive phase, prenatally undernourished rats exhibited elevated renal Na+-ATPase activity, type 2 Ang II receptor down-regulation and altered protein kinase A:protein kinase C ratio. Stable late hypertension coexisted with highly elevated levels of Ang II-positive cells in the cortical tubulointerstitium, enhanced increase in the expression of p47phox (NADPH oxidase regulatory subunit), marked down-regulation of COX-2 expression, expanded plasma volume and decreased creatinine clearance. These alterations were reduced when the dams were given α-tocopherol during lactation. The offspring of well-nourished dams treated with α-tocopherol exhibited most of the alterations encountered in the offspring of undernourished dams not treated with α-tocopherol. Thus, alterations in proximal tubule Na+ transport, subcellular signalling pathways and reactive oxygen species handling in renal tissue underpin the development of hypertension. PMID:24661554

  19. Hypertension and Hyperglycemia Synergize to Cause Incipient Renal Tubular Alterations Resulting in Increased NGAL Urinary Excretion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; García-Sánchez, Omar; Blanco-Gozalo, Víctor; Quiros, Yaremi; Montero, María J.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; López-Novoa, José M.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension and diabetes are the two leading causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) eventually leading to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and the need of renal replacement therapy. Mortality among CKD and ESRD patients is high, mostly due to cardiovascular events. New early markers of risk are necessary to better anticipate the course of the disease, to detect the renal affection of additive risk factors, and to appropriately handle patients in a pre-emptive and personalized manner. Methods Renal function and NGAL urinary excretion was monitored in rats with spontaneous (SHR) or L-NAME induced hypertension rendered hyperglycemic (or not as controls). Results Combination of hypertension and hyperglycemia (but not each of these factors independently) causes an increased urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the rat, in the absence of signs of renal damage. Increased NGAL excretion is observed in diabetic animals with two independent models of hypertension. Elevated urinary NGAL results from a specific alteration in its tubular handling, rather than from an increase in its renal expression. In fact, when kidneys of hyperglycaemic-hypertensive rats are perfused in situ with Krebs-dextran solution containing exogenous NGAL, they excrete more NGAL in the urine than hypertensive rats. We also show that albuminuria is not capable of detecting the additive effect posed by the coexistence of these two risk factors. Conclusions Our results suggest that accumulation of hypertension and hyperglycemia induces an incipient and quite specific alteration in the tubular handling of NGAL resulting in its increased urinary excretion. PMID:25148248

  20. Alterations in renal stone risk factors after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.; Cintron, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity environment of space produces a number of physiological changes of metabolic and environmental origin that could increase the potential for renal stone formation. Metabolic, environmental and physicochemical factors that influence renal stone risk potential were examined in 24-hour urine samples from astronauts 10 days before launch and on landing day to provide an immediate postflight assessment of these factors. In addition, comparisons were made between male and female crewmembers, and between crewmembers on missions of less than 6 days and those on 6 to 10-day missions. Results suggest that immediately after space flight the risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation is increased as a result of metabolic (hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, pH) and environmental (lower urine volume) derangements, some of which could reflect residual effects of having been exposed to microgravity.

  1. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth.

  2. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

  3. Metformin Ameliorates Podocyte Damage by Restoring Renal Tissue Podocalyxin Expression in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Limin; Gu, Junfei; Yang, Di; Wang, Wei; Ye, Shandong

    2015-01-01

    Podocalyxin (PCX) is a signature molecule of the glomerular podocyte and of maintaining integrity of filtration function of glomerulus. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of different doses of metformin on renal tissue PCX expression in type 2 diabetic rats and clarify its protection on glomerular podocytes. Type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in which diabetes was induced by high-fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) were treated with different doses of metformin (150, 300, and 500 mg/kg per day, resp.) for 8 weeks. Various biochemical parameters, kidney histopathology, and renal tissue PCX expression levels were examined. In type 2 diabetic rats, severe hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia were developed. Urinary albumin and PCX were markedly increased. Diabetes induced significant alterations in renal glomerular structure. In addition, protein and mRNA expression of renal tissue PCX were highly decreased. However, treatment of rats with different doses of metformin restored all these changes to a varying degree. These results suggested that metformin can ameliorate glomerular podocyte damage in type 2 diabetic rats, which may be partly associated with its role in restoring PCX expression and inhibiting urinary excretion of PCX with dose dependence. PMID:26075281

  4. Shear Stress-Induced Alteration of Epithelial Organization in Human Renal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belloy, Marcy; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Casemayou, Audrey; Ducasse, Laure; Grès, Sandra; Bellière, Julie; Caubet, Cécile; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P.; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    Tubular epithelial cells in the kidney are continuously exposed to urinary fluid shear stress (FSS) generated by urine movement and recent in vitro studies suggest that changes of FSS could contribute to kidney injury. However it is unclear whether FSS alters the epithelial characteristics of the renal tubule. Here, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the influence of FSS on epithelial characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells taking the organization of junctional complexes and the presence of the primary cilium as markers of epithelial phenotype. Human tubular cells (HK-2) were subjected to FSS (0.5 Pa) for 48h. Control cells were maintained under static conditions. Markers of tight junctions (Claudin-2, ZO-1), Par polarity complex (Pard6), adherens junctions (E-Cadherin, β-Catenin) and the primary cilium (α-acetylated Tubulin) were analysed by quantitative PCR, Western blot or immunocytochemistry. In response to FSS, Claudin-2 disappeared and ZO-1 displayed punctuated and discontinuous staining in the plasma membrane. Expression of Pard6 was also decreased. Moreover, E-Cadherin abundance was decreased, while its major repressors Snail1 and Snail2 were overexpressed, and β-Catenin staining was disrupted along the cell periphery. Finally, FSS subjected-cells exhibited disappeared primary cilium. Results were confirmed in vivo in a uninephrectomy (8 months) mouse model where increased FSS induced by adaptive hyperfiltration in remnant kidney was accompanied by both decreased epithelial gene expression including ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-Catenin and disappearance of tubular cilia. In conclusion, these results show that proximal tubular cells lose an important number of their epithelial characteristics after long term exposure to FSS both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the changes in urinary FSS associated with nephropathies should be considered as potential insults for tubular cells leading to disorganization of the tubular epithelium. PMID:26146837

  5. Altered CD45 expression and disease.

    PubMed

    Tchilian, Elma Z; Beverley, Peter C L

    2006-03-01

    CD45, the leucocyte common antigen, is a haemopoietic cell-specific tyrosine phosphatase. Many isoforms are generated by alternative splicing, but their function remains obscure. The extracellular domain of CD45 is highly polymorphic in all vertebrates. Importantly, human polymorphic variants that alter CD45 isoform expression are associated with autoimmune and infectious diseases, establishing CD45 as an important immunomodulator with a significant influence on disease burden. Here, we discuss the new opportunities provided by the human variants for investigating and understanding how CD45 regulates antigen receptor signalling, cytokine responses and apoptosis. PMID:16423560

  6. Alteration of renal function of rats following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Morey-Holton, E

    1998-10-01

    Following spaceflight, changes in renal function of humans have been suggested. To assess the effects of readaptation on renal function, urine was collected from male rats ( approximately 245 g) over a 2-wk period following a 14-day spaceflight. Rats were assigned to three groups: flight animals (n = 6), flight controls (n = 6) housed in the flight cages on the ground, and vivarium controls (n = 5) housed in standard shoe box cages. Animals were placed into individual metabolic cages for urine collection. Urine output was significantly increased for 3 days following flight. Excretion rates of Na+ and K+ were increased, resulting in an increased osmotic excretion rate. Creatinine excretion rate increased over the first two postflight days. Glomerular filtration rate increased immediately following spaceflight without changes in plasma creatinine, Na+, K+, or osmolality. Increased excretion of solute was thus the result of increased delivery and a decreased percent reabsorption of the filtered load. Osmolal clearance was increased immediately postflight while free water clearance was decreased. In growing rats, the diuresis after short-duration spaceflight is the result of an increase in solute excretion with an accompanying reduction in free water clearance.

  7. Alteration of renal function of rats following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Following spaceflight, changes in renal function of humans have been suggested. To assess the effects of readaptation on renal function, urine was collected from male rats ( approximately 245 g) over a 2-wk period following a 14-day spaceflight. Rats were assigned to three groups: flight animals (n = 6), flight controls (n = 6) housed in the flight cages on the ground, and vivarium controls (n = 5) housed in standard shoe box cages. Animals were placed into individual metabolic cages for urine collection. Urine output was significantly increased for 3 days following flight. Excretion rates of Na+ and K+ were increased, resulting in an increased osmotic excretion rate. Creatinine excretion rate increased over the first two postflight days. Glomerular filtration rate increased immediately following spaceflight without changes in plasma creatinine, Na+, K+, or osmolality. Increased excretion of solute was thus the result of increased delivery and a decreased percent reabsorption of the filtered load. Osmolal clearance was increased immediately postflight while free water clearance was decreased. In growing rats, the diuresis after short-duration spaceflight is the result of an increase in solute excretion with an accompanying reduction in free water clearance.

  8. Shadows Alter Facial Expressions of Noh Masks

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Background A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers’ recognition of the emotional expressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. Conclusions/Significance Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa’s smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art “yugen (profound grace and subtlety)”, which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness. PMID:23940748

  9. Epigenetic Changes in p21 Expression in Renal Cells after Exposure to Bromate

    PubMed Central

    Scholpa, N.E.; Zhang, X.; Kolli, R.T.; Cummings, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that bromate (KBrO3)-induced renal cell death is mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Global DNA methylation, as assessed by 5-methylcytosine staining, was not changed in normal rat kidney cells treated with acute cytotoxic doses of KBrO3 (100 and 200 ppm), as compared with controls. However, KBrO3 treatment did increase p38, p53 and histone 2AX (H2AX) phosphorylation, and p21 expression. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase (5-azacytidine or 5-Aza) and histone deacetylase (trichostatin A or TSA) in addition to KBrO3 increased cytotoxicity, as compared with cells exposed to KBrO3 alone. 5-Aza and TSA co-treatment did not alter p38 or p53 phosphorylation, but slightly decreased H2AX phosphorylation and significantly decreased p21 expression. We also assessed epigenetic changes in cells treated under sub-chronic conditions with environmentally relevant concentrations of KBrO3. Under these conditions (0–10ppm KBrO3 for up to 18 days), we detected no increases in cell death or DNA damage. In contrast, slight alterations were detected in the phosphorylation of H2AX, p38, and p53. Sub-chronic low-dose KBrO3 treatment also induced a biphasic response in p21 expression, with lower concentrations increasing expression, but higher concentrations decreasing expression. Methylation-specific PCR demonstrated that sub-chronic KBrO3 treatment altered the methylation of cytosine bases in the p21 gene, as compared with controls, correlating to alterations in p21 protein expression. Collectively, these data show the novel finding that KBrO3-induced renal cell death is altered by inhibitors of epigenetic modifying enzymes and that KBrO3 itself induces epigenetic changes in the p21 gene. PMID:25015661

  10. Expression and function of renal and hepatic organic anion transporters in extrahepatic cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Brandoni, Anabel; Hazelhoff, María Herminia; Bulacio, Romina Paula; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice occurs in patients suffering from cholelithiasis and from neoplasms affecting the pancreas and the common bile duct. The absorption, distribution and elimination of drugs are impaired during this pathology. Prolonged cholestasis may alter both liver and kidney function. Lactam antibiotics, diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, several antiviral drugs as well as endogenous compounds are classified as organic anions. The hepatic and renal organic anion transport pathways play a key role in the pharmacokinetics of these compounds. It has been demonstrated that acute extrahepatic cholestasis is associated with increased renal elimination of organic anions. The present work describes the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of the expression and function of the renal and hepatic organic anion transporters in extrahepatic cholestasis, such as multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1, organic anion transporter 3, bilitranslocase, bromosulfophthalein/bilirubin binding protein, organic anion transporter 1 and sodium dependent bile salt transporter. The modulation in the expression of renal organic anion transporters constitutes a compensatory mechanism to overcome the hepatic dysfunction in the elimination of organic anions. PMID:23197884

  11. Novel SLC5A2 mutation contributes to familial renal glucosuria: Abnormal expression in renal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Hou, Ping; Liu, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Familial renal glucosuria (FRG) is characterized by persistent glucosuria in the presence of normal serum glucose concentrations, while other impairments of tubular function are absent. Mutations in the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SLC5A2) gene have been found to be responsible for FRG. However, direct evidence for the presence of SLC5A2 mutant in renal tissues is very rare. In previous studies, a non-sense mutation (c.1320 G>A:p.W440X) that would cause premature termination of the protein was found. However, the effects in the renal tissues were not reported. In the current study, a patient with FRG and a urinary glucose excretion rate of 8.3 g/day is described, for whom a novel missense mutation (c.1319G>A:p.W440X) was revealed by sequencing. Furthermore, in the immunofluorescence examination of a renal biopsy specimen, SLC5A2 was detected in the apical side of the proximal convoluted tubule, discontinuously decreased in comparison with that in normal and disease controls. The results imply that both wild-type SLC5A2 and mutant SLC5A2 with abnormal distribution were expressed in the renal tissues, and that the reduction of SLC5A2 expression and function were due to the c.1319G>A:p.W440X mutation. The current study provides valuable clues regarding the SLC5A2 molecule from genotype to phenotype in families affected by FRG. PMID:27446256

  12. Reduced expression of Slit2 in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Jie; Zhou, Yu; Lu, Dan; Dong, Dong; Tian, Xiao-Jun; Wen, Jie-Xi; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Slit2, initially identified as an important axon guidance molecule in the nervous system, was suggested to be involved in multiple cellular processes. Recently, Slit2 was reported to function as a potential tumor suppressor in diverse tumors. In this study, we systematically analyzed the expression level of Slit2 in renal cell carcinoma. Compared to paired adjacent non-malignant tissues, both Slit2 mRNA and protein expression were significantly down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methylation-specific PCR showed that Slit2 promoter was methylated in two renal carcinoma cell lines. Pharmacologic demethylation dramatically induced Slit2 expression in cancer cell lines with weak expression of Slit2. Besides, bisulfite genomic sequencing confirmed that dense methylation existed in Slit2 promoter. Furthermore, in paired RCC samples, Slit2 methylation was observed in 8 out of 38 patients (21.1 %), which was well correlated with the down-regulation of Slit2 in RCC. Therefore, Slit2 may also be a potential tumor suppressor in RCC, which is down-regulated in RCC partially due to promoter methylation.

  13. Mizoribine Ameliorates Renal Injury and Hypertension along with the Attenuation of Renal Caspase-1 Expression in Aldosterone-Salt-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Toshiki; Doi, Shigehiro; Nakashima, Ayumu; Ueno, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Yukio; Kohno, Nobuoki; Masaki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone-salt treatment induces not only hypertension but also extensive inflammation that contributes to fibrosis in the rat kidney. However, the mechanism underlying aldosterone-salt-induced renal inflammation remains unclear. Pyroptosis has recently been identified as a new type of cell death that is accompanied by the activation of inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that aldosterone-salt treatment could induce inflammation through pyroptosis and that mizoribine, an effective immunosuppressant, would ameliorate the renal inflammation that would otherwise cause renal fibrosis. Ten days after recovery from left uninephrectomy, rats were given drinking water with 1% sodium chloride. The animals were divided into three groups (n = 7 per group): (1) vehicle infusion group, (2) aldosterone infusion group, or (3) aldosterone infusion plus oral mizoribine group. Aldosterone-salt treatment increased the expression of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing 3 and caspase-1, and also increased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells. However, the oral administration of mizoribine attenuated these alterations. Furthermore, mizoribine inhibited hypertension and renal fibrosis, and also attenuated the aldosterone-induced expression of serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase and α epithelial sodium channel. These results suggest that caspase-1 activation plays an important role in the development of inflammation induced by aldosterone-salt treatment and that it functions as an anti-inflammatory strategy that protects against renal injury and hypertension. PMID:24695748

  14. Perinatal taurine exposure alters renal potassium excretion mechanisms in adult conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Malila, Pisamai; Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J Michael

    2010-08-24

    Perinatal taurine exposure has long-term effects on the arterial pressure and renal function. This study tests its influence on renal potassium excretion in young adult, conscious rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow and given water alone (C), 3% beta-alanine in water (taurine depletion, TD) or 3% taurine in water (taurine supplementation, TS), either from conception until delivery (fetal period; TDF or TSF) or from delivery until weaning (lactation period; TDL or TSL). In Experiment 1, male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water, while in Experiment 2, beta-alanine and taurine were treated from conception until weaning and then female pups were fed normal rat chow and 5% glucose in drinking water (CG, TDG or TSG) or water alone (CW, TDW or TSW). At 7-8 weeks of age, renal potassium excretion was measured at rest and after an acute saline load (5% of body weight) in conscious, restrained rats. Although all male groups displayed similar renal potassium excretion, TSF rats slightly increased fractional potassium excretion at rest but not in response to saline load, whereas TDF did the opposite. Plasma potassium concentration was only slightly altered by the diet manipulations. In female offspring, none of the perinatal treatments significantly altered renal potassium excretion at rest or after saline load. High sugar intake slightly decreased potassium excretion at rest in TDG and TSG, but only the TDG group displayed a decreased response to saline load. The present data indicates that perinatal taurine exposure only mildly influences renal potassium excretion in adult male and female rats.

  15. Altered Nitric Oxide System in Cardiovascular and Renal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by a family of NO synthases (NOS), including neuronal, inducible, and endothelial NOS (n/i/eNOS). NO-mediated effects can be beneficial or harmful depending on the specific risk factors affecting the disease. In hypertension, the vascular relaxation response to acetylcholine is blunted, and that to direct NO donors is maintained. A reduction in the activity of eNOS is mainly responsible for the elevation of blood pressure, and an abnormal expression of iNOS is likely to be related to the progression of vascular dysfunction. While eNOS/nNOS-derived NO is protective against the development of atherosclerosis, iNOS-derived NO may be proatherogenic. eNOS-derived NO may prevent the progression of myocardial infarction. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury is significantly enhanced in eNOS-deficient animals. An important component of heart failure is the loss of coronary vascular eNOS activity. A pressure-overload may cause severer left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in eNOS null mice than in wild-type mice. iNOS-derived NO has detrimental effects on the myocardium. NO plays an important role in regulating the angiogenesis and slowing the interstitial fibrosis of the obstructed kidney. In unilateral ureteral obstruction, the expression of eNOS was decreased in the affected kidney. In triply n/i/eNOS null mice, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus developed along with reduced aquaporin-2 abundance. In chronic kidney disease model of subtotal-nephrectomized rats, treatment with NOS inhibitors decreased systemic NO production and induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction (renocardiac syndrome). PMID:27231671

  16. Effects of moderate global maternal nutrient reduction on fetal baboon renal mitochondrial gene expression at 0.9 gestation

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Susana P.; Tavares, Ludgero C.; Moreno, António J.; Cox, Laura A.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Nijland, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Early life malnutrition results in structural alterations in the kidney, predisposing offspring to later life renal dysfunction. Kidneys of adults who were growth restricted at birth have substantial variations in nephron endowment. Animal models have indicated renal structural and functional consequences in offspring exposed to suboptimal intrauterine nutrition. Mitochondrial bioenergetics play a key role in renal energy metabolism, growth, and function. We hypothesized that moderate maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) would adversely impact fetal renal mitochondrial expression in a well-established nonhuman primate model that produces intrauterine growth reduction at term. Female baboons were fed normal chow diet or 70% of control diet (MNR). Fetal kidneys were harvested at cesarean section at 0.9 gestation (165 days gestation). Human Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism and Human Mitochondria Pathway PCR Arrays were used to analyze mitochondrially relevant mRNA expression. In situ protein content was detected by immunohistochemistry. Despite the smaller overall size, the fetal kidney weight-to-body weight ratio was not affected. We demonstrated fetal sex-specific differential mRNA expression encoding mitochondrial metabolite transport and dynamics proteins. MNR-related differential gene expression was more evident in female fetuses, with 16 transcripts significantly altered, including 14 downregulated and 2 upregulated transcripts. MNR impacted 10 transcripts in male fetuses, with 7 downregulated and 3 upregulated transcripts. The alteration in mRNA levels was accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc. In conclusion, transcripts encoding fetal renal mitochondrial energy metabolism proteins are nutrition sensitive in a sex-dependent manner. We speculate that these differences lead to decreased mitochondrial fitness that contributes to renal dysfunction in later life. PMID:25761880

  17. Doppler assessment of renal hemodynamic alterations in homozygous sickle cell disease and sickle Beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Saif, Aasem; Soliman, Neveen; Abdelhamid, Alaa

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the renal vascular indices in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) using Doppler ultrasonography. We also assessed the renal hemodynamics alterations in patients with homozygous SCD and sickle beta-thalassemia (sickle β-thalassemia). We studied 75 patients (age range = 3-20 years; M = 9.95 ± 4.15) with SCD: 42 patients suffering from homozygous SCD and 33 patients diagnosed with sickle β-thalassemia. Thirty, age- and sex-matched, normal subjects were also included as a control group. Both patients and control groups had Doppler assessment of pulsatility (PI) and resistivity (RI) indices of main renal, segmental, interlobar, and arcuate arteries. Both PIs and RIs were significantly higher in SCD patients, compared with the control group. Among patients, PIs and RIs in the main renal, segmental, interlobar, and arcuate arteries were significantly higher in patients with homozygous SCD as compared with those with sickle β-thalassemia (p values <0.01, <0.001, <0.001, and <0.001 for PIs and <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, and <0.01 for RIs, respectively). We concluded that renal vascular resistance is raised in children and adolescents with SCD. This is more pronounced in patients with homozygous SCD as compared with those with sickle β-thalassemia.

  18. Renal

    MedlinePlus

    ... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant

  19. NBCe1 expression is required for normal renal ammonia metabolism.

    PubMed

    Handlogten, Mary E; Osis, Gunars; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Romero, Michael F; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms regulating proximal tubule ammonia metabolism are incompletely understood. The present study addressed the role of the proximal tubule basolateral electrogenic Na(+)-coupled bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1; Slc4a4) in renal ammonia metabolism. We used mice with heterozygous and homozygous NBCe1 gene deletion and compared these mice with their wild-type littermates. Because homozygous NBCe1 gene deletion causes 100% mortality before day 25, we studied mice at day 8 (±1 day). Both heterozygous and homozygous gene deletion caused a gene dose-related decrease in serum bicarbonate. The ability to lower urinary pH was intact, and even accentuated, with NBCe1 deletion. However, in contrast to the well-known effect of metabolic acidosis to increase urinary ammonia excretion, NBCe1 deletion caused a gene dose-related decrease in ammonia excretion. There was no identifiable change in proximal tubule structure by light microscopy. Examination of proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism showed decreased expression of phosphate-dependent glutaminase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, key enzymes in proximal tubule ammonia generation, and increased expression of glutamine synthetase, which recycles intrarenal ammonia and regenerates glutamine. Expression of key proteins involved in ammonia transport outside of the proximal tubule (rhesus B glycoprotein and rhesus C glycoprotein) was not significantly changed by NBCe1 deletion. We conclude from these findings that NBCe1 expression is necessary for normal proximal tubule ammonia metabolism.

  20. Expression profiles of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition in human renal tissues and renal cell models

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Hauwaert, Cynthia; Savary, Grégoire; Buob, David; Leroy, Xavier; Aubert, Sébastien; Flamand, Vincent; Hennino, Marie-Flore; Perrais, Michaël; and others

    2014-09-15

    Numerous xenobiotics have been shown to be harmful for the kidney. Thus, to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these nephrotoxic compounds, we evaluated, by real-time PCR, the mRNA expression level of 377 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), transporters, as well as nuclear receptors and transcription factors that coordinate their expression in eight normal human renal cortical tissues. Additionally, since several renal in vitro models are commonly used in pharmacological and toxicological studies, we investigated their metabolic capacities and compared them with those of renal tissues. The same set of genes was thus investigated in HEK293 and HK2 immortalized cell lines in commercial primary cultures of epithelial renal cells and in proximal tubular cell primary cultures. Altogether, our data offers a comprehensive description of kidney ability to process xenobiotics. Moreover, by hierarchical clustering, we observed large variations in gene expression profiles between renal cell lines and renal tissues. Primary cultures of proximal tubular epithelial cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue in terms of transcript profiling. Moreover, compared to other renal cell models, Tacrolimus dose dependent toxic effects were lower in proximal tubular cell primary cultures that display the highest metabolism and disposition capacity. Therefore, primary cultures appear to be the most relevant in vitro model for investigating the metabolism and bioactivation of nephrotoxic compounds and for toxicological and pharmacological studies. - Highlights: • Renal proximal tubular (PT) cells are highly sensitive to xenobiotics. • Expression of genes involved in xenobiotic disposition was measured. • PT cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue.

  1. Alterations in renal cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenases in polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Aukema, Harold M; Adolphe, Jennifer; Mishra, Suparna; Jiang, Jieyuan; Cuozzo, Francis P; Ogborn, Malcolm R

    2003-02-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) regulate the formation of physiologically active prostaglandins, the production of which is known to be elevated in several renal disorders. We studied the relevance of these enzymes in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) by using two models of the disease: a model in which decline in renal function begins in adulthood (CD1-pcy/pcy mouse) and one in which it occurs early, during growth (Han:SPRD-cy rat). Immunoblotting analyses of cytosolic and particulate kidney fractions revealed that cPLA2 levels are significantly higher (by 34-131%) in the latter stages of the disease in both models. Renal COX enzymes were found only in the particulate fractions, with COX-1 87% higher in 6-month-old CD1-pcy/pcy mice compared with normal controls, and 110% higher in male 70-day-old Han:SPRD-cy rats with cystic kidneys compared with controls. Renal COX-2 was detected only in the rats and was 58% lower in diseased kidneys of 70-day-old male Han:SPRD-cy rats, indicating that cPLA2 is coupled to COX-1 in the kidney. The altered levels of these eicosanoid-regulating enzymes has implications for the use of NSAIDS and specific COX inhibitors in individuals with this disorder. PMID:12490538

  2. Increased Klk9 Urinary Excretion Is Associated to Hypertension-Induced Cardiovascular Damage and Renal Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; García-Sánchez, Omar; Quirós, Yaremi; Blanco-Gozalo, Victor; Prieto-García, Laura; Sancho-Martínez, Sandra M.; Romero, Miguel; Duarte, Juan M.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.; López-Novoa, José M.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early detection of hypertensive end-organ damage and secondary diseases are key determinants of cardiovascular prognosis in patients suffering from arterial hypertension. Presently, there are no biomarkers for the detection of hypertensive target organ damage, most outstandingly including blood vessels, the heart, and the kidneys. We aimed to validate the usefulness of the urinary excretion of the serine protease kallikrein-related peptidase 9 (KLK9) as a biomarker of hypertension-induced target organ damage. Urinary, plasma, and renal tissue levels of KLK9 were measured by the Western blot in different rat models of hypertension, including angiotensin-II infusion, DOCA-salt, L-NAME administration, and spontaneous hypertension. Urinary levels were associated to cardiovascular and renal injury, assessed by histopathology. The origin of urinary KLK9 was investigated through in situ renal perfusion experiments. The urinary excretion of KLK9 is increased in different experimental models of hypertension in rats. The ACE inhibitor trandolapril significantly reduced arterial pressure and the urinary level of KLK9. Hypertension did not increase kidney, heart, liver, lung, or plasma KLK9 levels. Hypertension-induced increased urinary excretion of KLK9 results from specific alterations in its tubular reabsorption, even in the absence of overt nephropathy. KLK9 urinary excretion strongly correlates with cardiac hypertrophy and aortic wall thickening. KLK9 appears in the urine in the presence of hypertension as a result of subtle renal handling alterations. Urinary KLK9 might be potentially used as an indicator of hypertensive cardiac and vascular damage. PMID:26469898

  3. Chronic noradrenaline increases renal expression of NHE-3, NBC-1, BSC-1 and aquaporin-2.

    PubMed

    Sonalker, Prajakta A; Tofovic, Stevan P; Bastacky, Sheldon I; Jackson, Edwin K

    2008-05-01

    1. Because chronic activation of the renal sympathetic nervous system promotes sodium and water retention, it is conceivable that long-term exposure of the kidney to the sympathetic neurotransmitter noradrenaline upregulates the expression of key renal epithelial transport systems. 2. To test this hypothesis, we used immunoblotting of renal cortical and medullary tissue to investigate the abundance of major transport systems expressed along the renal tubule in response to long-term (15 days) infusions of noradrenaline (600 ng/min) in rats. 3. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were significantly elevated in rats receiving chronic infusions of noradrenaline (128 +/- 10 mmHg and 492 +/- 16 b.p.m., respectively) compared with animals treated with saline only (89 +/- 3 mmHg and 376 +/- 14 b.p.m., respectively). 4. Chronic infusions of noradrenaline also increased the protein abundance of the cortical Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE-3; 2.5-fold; P = 0.0142), the cortical sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBC-1 (2.5-fold; P = 0.0067), the bumetanide-sensitive sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter BSC-1/NKCC2 in the inner stripe of outer medulla (threefold; P = 0.0020) and aquaporin-2 in the inner medulla (twofold; P = 0.0039). 5. In contrast, noradrenaline did not significantly affect expression of the thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter in the cortex, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-alpha(1) in the cortex and inner stripe of the outer or inner medulla, the inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (ROMK-1) in the inner stripe of the outer medulla or aquaporin-1 in the cortex or inner medulla. Noradrenaline did significantly, but modestly (less than twofold), increase aquaporin-1 in the inner stripe of the outer medulla. 6. We conclude that noradrenaline-induced increases in the expression of NHE-3, NBC-1, BSC-1 and aquaporin-2 are likely to play an important role in the regulation of salt and water transport by noradrenaline in the kidney and may explain, at least in

  4. Effects of dietary K on cell-surface expression of renal ion channels and transporters.

    PubMed

    Frindt, Gustavo; Palmer, Lawrence G

    2010-10-01

    Changes in apical surface expression of ion channels and transporters in the superficial rat renal cortex were assessed using biotinylation and immunoblotting during alterations in dietary K intake. A high-K diet increased, and a low-K diet decreased, both the overall and surface abundance of the β- and γ-subunits of the epithelial Na channel (ENaC). In the case of γ-ENaC, the effect was specific for the 65-kDa cleaved form of the protein. The overall amount of α-ENAC was also increased with increasing K intake. The total expression of the secretory K(+) channels (ROMK) increased with a high-K diet and decreased with a low-K diet. The surface expression of ROMK increased with high K intake but was not significantly altered by a low-K diet. In contrast, the amounts of total and surface protein representing the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) decreased with increasing K intake. We conclude that modulation of K(+) secretion in response to changes in dietary K intake involves changes in apical K(+) permeability through regulation of K(+) channels and in driving force subsequent to alterations in both Na delivery to the distal nephron and Na(+) uptake across the apical membrane of the K(+) secretory cells. PMID:20702602

  5. Renal tubular HIF-2α expression requires VHL inactivation and causes fibrosis and cysts.

    PubMed

    Schietke, Ruth E; Hackenbeck, Thomas; Tran, Maxine; Günther, Regina; Klanke, Bernd; Warnecke, Christina L; Knaup, Karl X; Shukla, Deepa; Rosenberger, Christian; Koesters, Robert; Bachmann, Sebastian; Betz, Peter; Schley, Gunnar; Schödel, Johannes; Willam, Carsten; Winkler, Thomas; Amann, Kerstin; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Maxwell, Patrick; Wiesener, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    The Hypoxia-inducible transcription Factor (HIF) represents an important adaptive mechanism under hypoxia, whereas sustained activation may also have deleterious effects. HIF activity is determined by the oxygen regulated α-subunits HIF-1α or HIF-2α. Both are regulated by oxygen dependent degradation, which is controlled by the tumor suppressor "von Hippel-Lindau" (VHL), the gatekeeper of renal tubular growth control. HIF appears to play a particular role for the kidney, where renal EPO production, organ preservation from ischemia-reperfusion injury and renal tumorigenesis are prominent examples. Whereas HIF-1α is inducible in physiological renal mouse, rat and human tubular epithelia, HIF-2α is never detected in these cells, in any species. In contrast, distinct early lesions of biallelic VHL inactivation in kidneys of the hereditary VHL syndrome show strong HIF-2α expression. Furthermore, knockout of VHL in the mouse tubular apparatus enables HIF-2α expression. Continuous transgenic expression of HIF-2α by the Ksp-Cadherin promotor leads to renal fibrosis and insufficiency, next to multiple renal cysts. In conclusion, VHL appears to specifically repress HIF-2α in renal epithelia. Unphysiological expression of HIF-2α in tubular epithelia has deleterious effects. Our data are compatible with dedifferentiation of renal epithelial cells by sustained HIF-2α expression. However, HIF-2α overexpression alone is insufficient to induce tumors. Thus, our data bear implications for renal tumorigenesis, epithelial differentiation and renal repair mechanisms. PMID:22299048

  6. Increased expression of transglutaminase 2 drives glycolytic metabolism in renal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ku, Bo Mi; Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Seon-Hyeong; Kim, Soo-Youl

    2014-06-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) expression and glycolysis are increased in most renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines compared to the HEK293 kidney cell line. Although increased glycolysis and altered tricarboxylic acid cycle are common in RCC, the detailed mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs remains to be elucidated. In the present study, TGase 2 siRNA treatment lowered glucose consumption and lactate levels by about 20-30 % in RCC cells; conversely, high expression of TGase 2 increased glucose consumption and lactate production together with decreased mitochondrial aconitase (Aco 2) levels. In addition, TGase 2 siRNA increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels by about 20-30 % and restored Aco 2 levels in RCC cells. Similarly, Aco 2 levels and ATP production decreased significantly upon TGase 2 overexpression in HEK293 cells. Therefore, TGase 2 leads to depletion of Aco 2, which promotes glycolytic metabolism in RCC cells. PMID:24643363

  7. Association of renal injury with increased oxygen free radical activity and altered nitric oxide metabolism in chronic experimental hemosiderosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X J; Laszik, Z; Wang, X Q; Silva, F G; Vaziri, N D

    2000-12-01

    Chronic iron (Fe) overload is associated with a marked increase in renal tissue iron content and injury. It is estimated that 10% of the American population carry the gene for hemochromatosis and 1% actually suffer from iron overload. The mechanism of iron overload-associated renal damage has not been fully elucidated. Iron can accelerate lipid peroxidation leading to organelle membrane dysfunction and subsequent cell injury/death. Iron-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is responsible for initiating the peroxidatic reaction. We investigated the possible association of oxidative stress and its impact on nitric oxide (NO) metabolism in iron-overload-associated renal injury. Rats were randomized into Fe-loaded (given 0.5 g elemental iron/kg body weight as iron dextran; i.v.), Fe-depleted (given an iron-free diet for 20 weeks), and control groups. Renal histology, tissue expression of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases (eNOS and iNOS), renal tissue expression of nitrotyrosine, plasma, and renal tissue lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA), and plasma and urinary NO metabolites (NOx) were examined. Iron overload was associated with mild proteinuria, tissue iron deposition together with significant glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Rare focal glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial changes were noted in normal controls. No renal lesions were observed in Fe-depleted rats. Iron deposits were seen in glomeruli, proximal tubules, and interstitium. The iron staining in the distal tubules was negligible. Both plasma and renal tissue MDA and renal tissue nitrotyrosine were increased significantly in Fe-loaded rats compared with control rats. In contrast, Fe-depleted animals showed a marked reduction in plasma and renal tissue MDA and nitrotyrosine together with significant elevation of urinary NOx excretion. In addition, iron-overload was associated with up-regulation of renal eNOS and i

  8. Alterations of the spindle checkpoint pathway in clinicopathologically aggressive CpG island methylator phenotype clear cell renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Eri; Gotoh, Masahiro; Tian, Ying; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Ono, Masaya; Matsuda, Akio; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Totsuka, Hirohiko; Chiku, Suenori; Komiyama, Motokiyo; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yamada, Tesshi; Yoshida, Teruhiko

    2015-01-01

    CpG‐island methylator phenotype (CIMP)‐positive clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are characterized by accumulation of DNA hypermethylation of CpG islands, clinicopathological aggressiveness and poor patient outcome. The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular pathways participating in CIMP‐positive renal carcinogenesis. Genome (whole‐exome and copy number), transcriptome and proteome (two‐dimensional image converted analysis of liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry) analyses were performed using tissue specimens of 87 CIMP‐negative and 14 CIMP‐positive clear cell RCCs and corresponding specimens of non‐cancerous renal cortex. Genes encoding microtubule‐associated proteins, such as DNAH2, DNAH5, DNAH10, RP1 and HAUS8, showed a 10% or higher incidence of genetic aberrations (non‐synonymous single‐nucleotide mutations and insertions/deletions) in CIMP‐positive RCCs, whereas CIMP‐negative RCCs lacked distinct genetic characteristics. MetaCore pathway analysis of CIMP‐positive RCCs revealed that alterations of mRNA or protein expression were significantly accumulated in six pathways, all participating in the spindle checkpoint, including the “The metaphase checkpoint (p = 1.427 × 10−6),” “Role of Anaphase Promoting Complex in cell cycle regulation (p = 7.444 × 10−6)” and “Spindle assembly and chromosome separation (p = 9.260 × 10−6)” pathways. Quantitative RT‐PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression levels for genes included in such pathways, i.e., AURKA, AURKB, BIRC5, BUB1, CDC20, NEK2 and SPC25, were significantly higher in CIMP‐positive than in CIMP‐negative RCCs. All CIMP‐positive RCCs showed overexpression of Aurora kinases, AURKA and AURKB, and this overexpression was mainly attributable to increased copy number. These data suggest that abnormalities of the spindle checkpoint pathway participate in CIMP‐positive renal carcinogenesis, and that AURKA and AURKB may be potential

  9. Role of Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Alteration in Human Renal Cell Carcinoma †

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen-Sung; Lee, Hui-Ting; Lee, Ming-Huei; Pan, Siao-Cian; Ke, Chen-Yeh; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number alteration in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The mtDNA copy numbers of paired cancer and non-cancer parts from five resected RCC kidneys after radical nephrectomy were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). An RCC cell line, 786-O, was infected by lentiviral particles to knock down mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM). Null target (NT) and TFAM-knockdown (TFAM-KD) represented the control and knockdown 786-O clones, respectively. Protein or mRNA expression levels of TFAM; mtDNA-encoded NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), ND6 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (COX-2); nuclear DNA (nDNA)-encoded succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA); v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 gene (AKT)-encoded AKT and v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog gene (c-MYC)-encoded MYC; glycolytic enzymes including hexokinase II (HK-II), glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and lactate dehydrogenase subunit A (LDHA); and hypoxia-inducible factors the HIF-1α and HIF-2α, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component α subunit (PDHA1) were analyzed by Western blot or Q-PCR. Bioenergetic parameters of cellular metabolism, basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (mOCRB) and basal extracellular acidification rate (ECARB), were measured by a Seahorse XFe-24 analyzer. Cell invasiveness was evaluated by a trans-well migration assay and vimentin expression. Doxorubicin was used as a chemotherapeutic agent. The results showed a decrease of mtDNA copy numbers in resected RCC tissues (p = 0.043). The TFAM-KD clone expressed lower mtDNA copy number (p = 0.034), lower mRNA levels of TFAM (p = 0.008), ND1 (p = 0.007), and ND6 (p = 0.017), and lower protein levels of TFAM and COX-2 than did the NT clone. By contrast, the protein levels of HIF-2α, HK-II, PFK, LDHA, AKT, MYC and vimentin; trans-well migration activity (p = 0

  10. Role of Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Alteration in Human Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Sung; Lee, Hui-Ting; Lee, Ming-Huei; Pan, Siao-Cian; Ke, Chen-Yeh; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number alteration in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The mtDNA copy numbers of paired cancer and non-cancer parts from five resected RCC kidneys after radical nephrectomy were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). An RCC cell line, 786-O, was infected by lentiviral particles to knock down mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM). Null target (NT) and TFAM-knockdown (TFAM-KD) represented the control and knockdown 786-O clones, respectively. Protein or mRNA expression levels of TFAM; mtDNA-encoded NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), ND6 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (COX-2); nuclear DNA (nDNA)-encoded succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA); v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 gene (AKT)-encoded AKT and v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog gene (c-MYC)-encoded MYC; glycolytic enzymes including hexokinase II (HK-II), glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and lactate dehydrogenase subunit A (LDHA); and hypoxia-inducible factors the HIF-1α and HIF-2α, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component α subunit (PDHA1) were analyzed by Western blot or Q-PCR. Bioenergetic parameters of cellular metabolism, basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (mOCRB) and basal extracellular acidification rate (ECARB), were measured by a Seahorse XF(e)-24 analyzer. Cell invasiveness was evaluated by a trans-well migration assay and vimentin expression. Doxorubicin was used as a chemotherapeutic agent. The results showed a decrease of mtDNA copy numbers in resected RCC tissues (p = 0.043). The TFAM-KD clone expressed lower mtDNA copy number (p = 0.034), lower mRNA levels of TFAM (p = 0.008), ND1 (p = 0.007), and ND6 (p = 0.017), and lower protein levels of TFAM and COX-2 than did the NT clone. By contrast, the protein levels of HIF-2α, HK-II, PFK, LDHA, AKT, MYC and vimentin; trans-well migration activity (p = 0

  11. Insights into the renal pathogenesis in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia: A renal histological characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Sanjay; Javidan, Ashkan; Boivin, Felix; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Lukic, Dusan; Svajger, Bruno; Chu, Stephanie; Baradaran-Heravi, Alireza; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Rosenblum, Norman D; Bridgewater, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a pleiotropic disorder caused by mutations in the SWI/SNF2-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like-1 (SMARCAL1) gene, with multiple clinical features, notably end-stage renal disease. Here we characterize the renal pathology in SIOD patients. Our analysis of SIOD patient renal biopsies demonstrates the tip and collapsing variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Additionally, electron microscopy revealed numerous glomerular abnormalities most notably in the podocyte and Bowman's capsule. To better understand the role of SMARCAL1 in the pathogenesis of FSGS, we defined SMARCAL1 expression in the developing and mature kidney. In the developing fetal kidney, SMARCAL1 is expressed in the ureteric epithelium, stroma, metanephric mesenchyme, and in all stages of the developing nephron, including the maturing glomerulus. In postnatal kidneys, SMARCAL1 expression is localized to epithelial tubules of the nephron, collecting ducts, and glomerulus (podocytes and endothelial cells). Interestingly, not all cells within the same lineage expressed SMARCAL1. In renal biopsies from SIOD patients, TUNEL analysis detected marked increases in DNA fragmentation. Our results highlight the cells that may contribute to the renal pathogenesis in SIOD. Further, we suggest that disruptions in genomic integrity during fetal kidney development contribute to the pathogenesis of FSGS in SIOD patients.

  12. Carbon Nanomaterials Alter Global Gene Expression Profiles.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Sara; Short, John C W; McDermott, Hyoeun; Linan, Alexander; Bartlett, Katelyn; Gadila, Shiva Kumar Goud; Schmelzle, Katie; Wanekaya, Adam; Kim, Kyoungtae

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), which include carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their derivatives, have diverse technological and biomedical applications. The potential toxicity of CNMs to cells and tissues has become an important emerging question in nanotechnology. To assess the toxicity of CNTs and fullerenol C60(OH)24, we in the present work used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the simplest eukaryotic organisms that share fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. We found that treatment with CNMs, regardless of their physical shape, negatively affected the growth rates, end-point cell densities and doubling times of CNM-exposed yeast cells when compared to unexposed cells. To investigate potential mechanisms behind the CNMs-induced growth defects, we performed RNA-Seq dependent transcriptional analysis and constructed global gene expression profiles of fullerenol C60(OH)24- and CNT-treated cells. When compared to non-treated control cells, CNM-treated cells displayed differential expression of genes whose functions are implicated in membrane transporters and stress response, although differentially expressed genes were not consistent between CNT- and fullerenol C60(OH)24-treated groups, leading to our conclusion that CNMs could serve as environmental toxic factors to eukaryotic cells. PMID:27483901

  13. Organic Anion Transporter 5 Renal Expression and Urinary Excretion in Rats with Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Hazelhoff, María Herminia; Bulacio, Romina Paula; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2013-01-01

    It has been described renal damage in rats with vascular calcification. The organic anion transporter 5 (Oat5) is only expressed in kidney, and its urinary excretion was proposed as potential early biomarker of renal injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Oat5 renal expression and its urinary excretion in an experimental model of vascular calcification in comparison with traditional markers of renal injury. Vascular calcification was obtained by the administration of an overdose of vitamin D3 (300,000 IU/kg, b.w., i.m.) to male Wistar rats. Oat5 urinary abundance was evaluated by Western blotting. Traditional markers of renal injury, such as creatinine and urea plasma levels, urinary protein levels, and urinary alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, were determined using commercial kits. Histology was assessed by hematoxylin/eosin staining. Oat5 renal expression was evaluated by Western blotting and by immunohistochemistry. An increased expression of Oat5 in renal homogenates, in apical membranes, and in its urinary excretion was observed in rats with vascular calcification. The traditional parameters used to evaluate renal function were not modified, with the exception of histology. It is possible to postulate the urinary excretion of Oat5 as a potential noninvasive biomarker of renal injury associated with vascular calcification. PMID:24199190

  14. Autonomic and Renal Alterations in the Offspring of Sleep-Restricted Mothers During Late Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Raimundo, Joyce R S; Bergamaschi, Cassia T; Campos, Ruy R; Palma, Beatriz D; Tufik, Sergio; Gomes, Guiomar N

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Considering that changes in the maternal environment may result in changes in progeny, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sleep restriction during the last week of pregnancy on renal function and autonomic responses in male descendants at an adult age. METHODS: After confirmation of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control or a sleep restriction group. The sleep-restricted rats were subjected to sleep restriction using the multiple platforms method for over 20 hours per day between the 14th and 20th day of pregnancy. After delivery, the litters were limited to 6 offspring that were designated as offspring from control and offspring from sleep-restricted mothers. Indirect measurements of systolic blood pressure (BPi), renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, glomerular area and number of glomeruli per field were evaluated at three months of age. Direct measurements of cardiovascular function (heart rate and mean arterial pressure), cardiac sympathetic tone, cardiac parasympathetic tone, and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated at four months of age. RESULTS: The sleep-restricted offspring presented increases in BPi, glomerular filtration rate and glomerular area compared with the control offspring. The sleep-restricted offspring also showed higher basal heart rate, increased mean arterial pressure, increased sympathetic cardiac tone, decreased parasympathetic cardiac tone and reduced baroreflex sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that reductions in sleep during the last week of pregnancy lead to alterations in cardiovascular autonomic regulation and renal morpho-functional changes in offspring, triggering increases in blood pressure. PMID:27652834

  15. Autonomic and Renal Alterations in the Offspring of Sleep-Restricted Mothers During Late Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Raimundo, Joyce R S; Bergamaschi, Cassia T; Campos, Ruy R; Palma, Beatriz D; Tufik, Sergio; Gomes, Guiomar N

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Considering that changes in the maternal environment may result in changes in progeny, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sleep restriction during the last week of pregnancy on renal function and autonomic responses in male descendants at an adult age. METHODS: After confirmation of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control or a sleep restriction group. The sleep-restricted rats were subjected to sleep restriction using the multiple platforms method for over 20 hours per day between the 14th and 20th day of pregnancy. After delivery, the litters were limited to 6 offspring that were designated as offspring from control and offspring from sleep-restricted mothers. Indirect measurements of systolic blood pressure (BPi), renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, glomerular area and number of glomeruli per field were evaluated at three months of age. Direct measurements of cardiovascular function (heart rate and mean arterial pressure), cardiac sympathetic tone, cardiac parasympathetic tone, and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated at four months of age. RESULTS: The sleep-restricted offspring presented increases in BPi, glomerular filtration rate and glomerular area compared with the control offspring. The sleep-restricted offspring also showed higher basal heart rate, increased mean arterial pressure, increased sympathetic cardiac tone, decreased parasympathetic cardiac tone and reduced baroreflex sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that reductions in sleep during the last week of pregnancy lead to alterations in cardiovascular autonomic regulation and renal morpho-functional changes in offspring, triggering increases in blood pressure.

  16. Alterations in cathepsin L expression in lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Okudela, Koji; Mitsui, Hideaki; Woo, Tetsukan; Arai, Hiromasa; Suzuki, Takehisa; Matsumura, Mai; Kojima, Yoko; Umeda, Shigeaki; Tateishi, Yoko; Masuda, Munetaka; Ohashi, Kenichi

    2016-07-01

    We herein investigated the potential role of cathepsin L in lung carcinogenesis. Lung cancer cell lines and surgically resected tumors were examined for the expression of the cathepsin L protein and copy number alterations in its gene locus. Cathepsin L was stably expressed in bronchiolar epithelial cells. Neoplastic cells expressed cathepsin L at various levels, whereas its expression was completely lost in most of the lung cancer cell lines (63.6%, 7/11) examined. Furthermore, expression levels were lower in a large fraction of lung tumors (69.5%, 139/200) than in bronchiolar epithelia. The expression of cathepsin L was lost in some tumors (16.0%, 32/200). In adenocarcinomas, expression levels were significantly lower in high-grade tumors than in low-grade tumors (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.0500). Copy number alterations were found in 18.0% (36 [32 gain + 4 loss] /200) of lung tumors. No relationship existed between cathepsin L protein expression levels and the copy number of its gene locus (Spearman's rank-order correlation, P = 0.3096). Collectively, these results suggest that the down-regulated expression of cathepsin L, which is caused by an undefined mechanism other than copy number alterations, is involved in the progression of lung adenocarcinomas.

  17. Renal and hepatotoxic alterations in adult mice on inhalation of specific mixture of organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Ketan, Vaghasia K; Bhavyata, Kalariya; Linzbuoy, George; Hyacinth, Highland N

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at investigating alterations in renal and hepatic toxicity induced by exposing to a combination of three solvents, namely, benzene, toluene and xylene in adult mice. The mice were divided into three groups (control, low-dose-treated (450 ppm) and high-dose (675 ppm) groups) using randomization methods. The treated groups were exposed to vapours of a mixture of benzene, toluene and xylene at doses of 450 and 675 ppm, for 6 h day(-1) for a short-term of 7-day exposure period. The study revealed that the solvent exposure resulted in an increase in the weight of liver and kidney as compared to the control. Biochemical analyses indicated a significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in both the treated groups, with concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation. Liver aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) were elevated with significant alterations in the levels of protein, creatinine and cholesterol in these tissues upon solvent exposure. Correlated with these changes, serum thyroid hormones T3 and T4 were also significantly altered. This study, therefore, demonstrates that inhalation of vapours from the solvent mixture resulted in significant dose-dependent biochemical and functional changes in the vital tissues (liver and kidney) studied. The study has specific relevance since humans are increasingly being exposed to such solvents due to increased industrial use in such combinations.

  18. Glomerular alterations in uranyl acetate-induced acute renal failure in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, S.; Nagase, M.; Honda, N.; Hishida, A.

    1984-12-01

    The study was performed to elucidate the progression and regression of superficial and inner glomerular alterations in uranyl acetate-induced renal failure in rabbits. Fifteen hours after the drug injection, creatinine clearance (CCr) decreased to 55% of controls with slightly elevated plasma creatinine concentration (initiation stage). After 5 days, urine flow and CCr decreased to approximately zero, with severe azotemia (maintenance stage). Scanning electron microscopic observations in these stages revealed a flattening and spreading of podocyte cell bodies associated with loss of epithelial foot processes, and reduction in the density of endothelial fenestrae. These changes were more advanced in the maintenance stage. Glomerular and fenestral diameters did not significantly change in the initiation stage but increased in the maintenance stage. There was no significant difference in these morphologic alterations, however, between the superficial and inner glomeruli. Glomerular alterations reverted to normal within 14 days, with good recovery of glomerular function. The findings show no significant difference in the progression or regression of the glomerular changes between the superficial and deep cortex. These morphologic changes may play a role in the reduction of CCr observed in this model.

  19. Expression of apoptotic regulatory molecules in renal cell carcinoma: elevated expression of Fas ligand.

    PubMed

    Olive, C; Cheung, C; Nicol, D; Falk, M C

    1999-02-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common renal neoplasm. Despite being infiltrated by tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), these TIL are unable to control tumour growth in vivo, suggesting that the cytotoxic capacity of TIL against RCC is impaired, or that the tumour cells are resistant to killing and therefore escape detection by the immune system. It is postulated that the expression of apoptotic regulatory molecules in RCC favours tumour cell survival. The present study has therefore determined the expression of Fas (APO-1/CD95), Fas ligand (Fas L) and bcl-2 in these tumours. The expression of Fas, Fas L and bcl-2 mRNA transcripts was determined in RCC, normal kidney and peripheral blood by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), following RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis from tissues and cell samples. Transcript levels were measured by densitometry after Southern blot hybridization of PCR products with internal radio-labelled oligonucleotide probes; a densitometry score was assigned to each hybridizing DNA band and expressed as a ratio of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase content. In peripheral blood, the expression of Fas L and bcl-2 transcripts was similar between patients and normal healthy individuals; however, Fas transcript expression was significantly down-regulated in the patients' versus normal peripheral blood (P = 0.026). Most interestingly, significantly up-regulated Fas L expression was observed in RCC compared to normal kidney (P = 0.041). In contrast, bcl-2 transcripts were well represented in normal kidney but markedly decreased in RCC (P = 0.021). The expression of Fas transcripts in normal kidney and RCC was variable. These data demonstrate elevated expression of Fas L transcripts in RCC, but the functional relevance of this remains to be investigated. PMID:10101681

  20. Kidney injury molecule-1 expression is closely associated with renal allograft damage.

    PubMed

    Song, Lianlian; Xue, Lijuan; Yu, Jinyu; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Wenlan; Fu, Yaowen

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in renal allograft biopsy samples and assess the clinical significance of its use as a biomarker for tissue damage. A total of 69 renal allograft biopsy samples from 17 patients with normal serum creatinine and 52 cases of increased serum creatinine were collected. They were divided into different groups according to the Banff 2007 diagnostic criteria. KIM-1 expression was detected by immunohistochemical methods and the association of KIM-1 and blood biochemical indexes was analyzed. KIM-1 expression increased as Banff 2007 classification grade increased and was positively correlated with tubular inflammation severity in the acute T-cell rejection group. Moreover, KIM-1 expression was strongly positive in the chronic active antibody-mediated rejection group. Interestingly, KIM-1 was weakly positive in the normal group without obvious acute rejection and injury of immunosuppressant toxicity. In this group, 27.3% (3/11) of the cases with normal serum creatinine level showed weakly positive KIM-1 expression in their renal tissues. KIM-1 expression level is positively correlated with renal allograft damage and tubular cell injury. KIM-1 is expressed in tubular epithelial cells before blood biochemical indexes become elevated and morphological changes occur. KIM-1 expression is an early, sensitive, and specific biomarker to determine renal tubular epithelial cell injury in renal allograft tissue.

  1. Differential expression of a new isoform of DLG2 in renal oncocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Stupar, Zorica; Kovacs, Gyula

    2006-01-01

    Background Renal oncocytoma, a benign tumour of the kidney, may pose a differential diagnostic problem due to overlapping phenotype with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma or other types of renal cell tumours. Therefore, identification of molecular markers would be of great value for molecular diagnostics of this tumour type. Methods In the current study we applied various techniques, including Affymetrix microarray hybridization and semiquantitative RT-PCR, to identify genes expressed differentially in renal oncocytomas. Subsequently, we used RACE and Northern blot hybridization to characterize the potential candidates for molecular diagnosis. Results We have identified new isoform of DLG2 gene, which contains 3'-end exons of the known DLG2 gene along with the hypothetical gene FLJ37266. The new isoform is specifically upregulated in renal oncocytoma, whereas the known DLG2 gene is downregulated in this type of kidney tumour. Conclusion The new isoform of DLG2 is the promising candidate gene for molecular differential diagnostics of renal oncocytoma. PMID:16640776

  2. Increased renal versican expression is associated with progression of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Michael; Perco, Paul; Neuwirt, Hannes; Noppert, Susie-Jane; Leierer, Johannes; Sunzenauer, Judith; Eder, Susanne; Zoja, Carlamaria; Eller, Kathrin; Rosenkranz, Alexander R; Müller, Gerhard A; Mayer, Bernd; Mayer, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Novel prognostic markers for progression of kidney disease are needed to distinguish patients who might benefit from a more aggressive nephroprotective therapy. Expression of the proteoglycan versican was evaluated in renal transcriptomics profiles and in an independent set of 74 renal biopsies. Versican levels were correlated to histologic damage scores and to renal outcome, and versican expression and regulation was evaluated in vitro. In transcriptomics profiles of renal tissue versican was positively correlated with (i) histological parameters in kidney biopsies, (ii) progressive decline of renal function in proteinuric kidney diseases, and (iii) impaired renal function and histology scores in diabetic nephropathy. In an independent cohort of 74 biopsies of glomerular diseases renal RNA levels of versican isoforms V0 and V1, but not V2 and V3 correlated significantly with creatinine after a mean follow up time of 53 months. Versican isoforms V0 and V1 together with serum creatinine at time of biopsy and the degree of glomerulosclerosis predicted 20% and 24% of the variability of creatinine at follow up, which was significantly more than serum creatinine and histological parameters alone (16%). However, when patients with acute kidney failure at time of biopsy (n = 5) were excluded, the additive predictive value of versican V1 was only marginally higher (35%) than creatinine and glomerulosclerosis alone (34%). Versican isoforms V0 and V1 were primarily expressed in vitro in proximal tubule cells and in fibroblasts. The results in humans were confirmed in three rodent models of kidney disease, in which renal versican expression was significantly upregulated as compared to corresponding controls. These data show for the first time an association of renal versican isoform V0 and V1 expression with progressive renal disease.

  3. Caffeine exposure alters cardiac gene expression in embryonic cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiefan; Mei, Wenbin; Barbazuk, William B; Rivkees, Scott A; Wendler, Christopher C

    2014-12-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that in utero caffeine treatment at embryonic day (E) 8.5 alters DNA methylation patterns, gene expression, and cardiac function in adult mice. To provide insight into the mechanisms, we examined cardiac gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression in cardiomyocytes shortly after exposure to physiologically relevant doses of caffeine. In HL-1 and primary embryonic cardiomyocytes, caffeine treatment for 48 h significantly altered the expression of cardiac structural genes (Myh6, Myh7, Myh7b, Tnni3), hormonal genes (Anp and BnP), cardiac transcription factors (Gata4, Mef2c, Mef2d, Nfatc1), and microRNAs (miRNAs; miR208a, miR208b, miR499). In addition, expressions of these genes were significantly altered in embryonic hearts exposed to in utero caffeine. For in utero experiments, pregnant CD-1 dams were treated with 20-60 mg/kg of caffeine, which resulted in maternal circulation levels of 37.3-65.3 μM 2 h after treatment. RNA sequencing was performed on embryonic ventricles treated with vehicle or 20 mg/kg of caffeine daily from E6.5-9.5. Differential expression (DE) analysis revealed that 124 genes and 849 transcripts were significantly altered, and differential exon usage (DEU) analysis identified 597 exons that were changed in response to prenatal caffeine exposure. Among the DE genes identified by RNA sequencing were several cardiac structural genes and genes that control DNA methylation and histone modification. Pathway analysis revealed that pathways related to cardiovascular development and diseases were significantly affected by caffeine. In addition, global cardiac DNA methylation was reduced in caffeine-treated cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that caffeine exposure alters gene expression and DNA methylation in embryonic cardiomyocytes.

  4. Altering sensorimotor feedback disrupts visual discrimination of facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Adrienne; Lupyan, Gary; Sherrin, Steven; Niedenthal, Paula

    2016-08-01

    Looking at another person's facial expression of emotion can trigger the same neural processes involved in producing the expression, and such responses play a functional role in emotion recognition. Disrupting individuals' facial action, for example, interferes with verbal emotion recognition tasks. We tested the hypothesis that facial responses also play a functional role in the perceptual processing of emotional expressions. We altered the facial action of participants with a gel facemask while they performed a task that involved distinguishing target expressions from highly similar distractors. Relative to control participants, participants in the facemask condition demonstrated inferior perceptual discrimination of facial expressions, but not of nonface stimuli. The findings suggest that somatosensory/motor processes involving the face contribute to the visual perceptual-and not just conceptual-processing of facial expressions. More broadly, our study contributes to growing evidence for the fundamentally interactive nature of the perceptual inputs from different sensory modalities.

  5. Altered expression of Ano1 variants in human diabetic gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Amelia; Bernard, Cheryl E; Strege, Peter R; Beyder, Arthur; Galietta, Luis J V; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Rae, James L; Parkman, Henry P; Linden, David R; Szurszewski, Joseph H; Ördög, Tamas; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2011-04-15

    Diabetes affects many organs including the stomach. Altered number and function of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the gastrointestinal pacemaker cells, underlie a number of gastrointestinal motility disorders, including diabetic gastroparesis. In the muscle layers, ICC selectively express Ano1, thought to underlie classical Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents. Mice homozygous for Ano1 knock-out exhibit abnormal ICC function and motility. Several transcripts for Ano1 are generated by alternative splicing of four exons. Here, we report expression levels of transcripts encoded by alternative splicing of Ano1 gene in gastric muscles of patients with diabetic gastroparesis and nondiabetic control tissues. Expression of mRNA from two alternatively transcribed exons are significantly different between patients and controls. Furthermore, patients with diabetic gastroparesis express mRNA for a previously unknown variant of Ano1. The 5' end of this novel variant lacks exons 1 and 2 and part of exon 3. Expression of this variant in HEK cells produces a decreased density of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents that exhibit slower kinetics compared with the full-length Ano1. These results identify important changes in expression and splicing of Ano1 in patients with diabetic gastroparesis that alter the electrophysiological properties of the channel. Changes in Ano1 expression in ICC may directly contribute to diabetic gastroparesis. PMID:21349842

  6. Alterations in peripheral blood lymphocyte cytokine expression in obesity

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, R W; Kay, T; Lyle, E A; Traxler, S A; Deveney, C W; Jobe, B A; Roberts, C T; Marks, D; Rosenbaum, J T

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by alterations in immune and inflammatory function. In order to evaluate the potential role of cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in obesity-associated inflammation, we studied serum protein levels and mRNA levels in PBMC of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1Ra in nine lean and 10 obese subjects. Serum IL-1β was undetectable, IL-1Ra serum levels were elevated, serum levels of TNF-α were decreased and serum levels of IL-6 were similar in obese subjects compared to lean subjects, while transcript levels of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α, but not IL-1Ra, were decreased in PBMC from obese subjects. PBMC from obese subjects did, however, up-regulate cytokine expression in response to leptin. Thus, obesity-associated changes in IL-1Ra serum levels and IL-6 mRNA levels were not correlated with changes in cognate mRNA and serum levels, respectively, while TNF-α serum levels and PBMC mRNA levels were both decreased in obese patients. While immune alterations in obesity are manifest in peripheral blood lymphocytes, the general lack of correlation between altered serum levels and altered PBMC gene expression suggests that PBMC may not be the source of aberrant serum cytokine levels in obesity. PMID:16968396

  7. GSTA3 Attenuates Renal Interstitial Fibrosis by Inhibiting TGF-Beta-Induced Tubular Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Fibronectin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yun; Liu, Jishi; Peng, Yu; Xiong, Xuan; Huang, Ling; Yang, Huixiang; Zhang, Jian; Tao, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been widely accepted as the underlying mechanisms of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a vital role in tubular EMT process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involved molecular mechanisms in TGF-beta-induced EMT and identify the potential role of glutathione S-transferase alpha 3 (GSTA3) in this process. The iTRAQ screening was performed to identify protein alterations of the rats underwent unilateral-ureteral obstruction (UUO). Protein expression of GSTA3 in patients with obstructive nephropathy and UUO rats was detected by immunohistochemistry. Protein and mRNA expression of GSTA3 in UUO rats and NRK-52E cells were determined by Western blot and RT-PCR. siRNA and overexpression plasmid were transfected specifically to assess the role of GSTA3 in RIF. The generation of ROS was measured by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence analysis. GSTA3 protein and mRNA expression was significantly reduced in UUO rats. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that GSTA3 expression was reduced in renal cortex in UUO rats and patients with obstructive nephropathy. Treating with TGF-β1 down-regulated GSTA3 expression in NRK-52E cells, which have been found to be correlated with the decreased expression in E-cadherin and megalin and increased expression in α-smooth muscle actin. Furthermore, knocking down GSTA3 in NRK-52 cells led to increased production of ROS and tubular EMT, whereas overexpressing GSTA3 ameliorated ROS production and prevented the occurrence of tubular EMT. GSTA3 plays a protective role against tubular EMT in renal fibrosis, suggesting GSTA3 is a potential therapeutic target for RIF. PMID:27602565

  8. GSTA3 Attenuates Renal Interstitial Fibrosis by Inhibiting TGF-Beta-Induced Tubular Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Fibronectin Expression.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yun; Liu, Jishi; Peng, Yu; Xiong, Xuan; Huang, Ling; Yang, Huixiang; Zhang, Jian; Tao, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been widely accepted as the underlying mechanisms of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a vital role in tubular EMT process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involved molecular mechanisms in TGF-beta-induced EMT and identify the potential role of glutathione S-transferase alpha 3 (GSTA3) in this process. The iTRAQ screening was performed to identify protein alterations of the rats underwent unilateral-ureteral obstruction (UUO). Protein expression of GSTA3 in patients with obstructive nephropathy and UUO rats was detected by immunohistochemistry. Protein and mRNA expression of GSTA3 in UUO rats and NRK-52E cells were determined by Western blot and RT-PCR. siRNA and overexpression plasmid were transfected specifically to assess the role of GSTA3 in RIF. The generation of ROS was measured by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence analysis. GSTA3 protein and mRNA expression was significantly reduced in UUO rats. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that GSTA3 expression was reduced in renal cortex in UUO rats and patients with obstructive nephropathy. Treating with TGF-β1 down-regulated GSTA3 expression in NRK-52E cells, which have been found to be correlated with the decreased expression in E-cadherin and megalin and increased expression in α-smooth muscle actin. Furthermore, knocking down GSTA3 in NRK-52 cells led to increased production of ROS and tubular EMT, whereas overexpressing GSTA3 ameliorated ROS production and prevented the occurrence of tubular EMT. GSTA3 plays a protective role against tubular EMT in renal fibrosis, suggesting GSTA3 is a potential therapeutic target for RIF. PMID:27602565

  9. Simvastatin ameliorates renal lipidosis through the suppression of renal CXCL16 expression in mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong; Li, Qian; Zhen, Junhui; Xu, Yihuai; Sun, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the roles of CXCL16 and ox-LDL in adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy mice and to explore the mechanism of simvastatin on the renal protective effects of ADR nephropathy. Methods: Fifteen male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into normal control (NC), ADR nephropathy and simvastatin-treated ADR nephropathy (ADR-SIM) groups. ADR nephropathy was induced by a single intravenous injection of ADR into the tail vein. All mice were sacrificed at the end of the 7th week, with the blood, 24-h urine and kidneys collected. The levels of ox-LDL and total cholesterol in the serum, the serum CXCL16, ox-LDL and NF-κB expression were detected. Results: Compared with the NC group, the levels of serum total cholesterol and ox-LDL in the ADR and ADR-SIM groups were significantly higher, the level of serum albumin was significantly lower and the expression of CXCL16, ox-LDL and NF-κB in the renal tissue of ADR and ADR-SIM groups was significantly increased. Compared with the ADR group, the expressions of renal CXCL16, ox-LDL and NF-κB in the ADR-SIM group were significantly decreased. Levels of serum total cholesterol and ox-LDL were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions: Simvastatin exerts a protective effect on renal function and structure in mice with ADR nephropathy. The beneficial effects of simvastatin might be related to the decreasing expression of CXCL16 in glomerular podocytes followed by the decreasing endocytosis of ox-LDL in podocytes and inhibition of NF-κB pathway activation. PMID:26884839

  10. The sero-conversion and evaluation of renal alterations in dogs infected by Leishmania (Infantum) chagasi.

    PubMed

    Alves, Georgia Brenda Barros; Silva, Lucilene dos Santos; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Campos, Angela Piauilino; Prianti, Maria das Graças; Costa, Francisco Assis Lima

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the sero-conversion period in which dogs from endemic areas test positive for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) as well as the early post-infection period in which renal alterations are observed. Dogs that were initially negative for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) were clinically evaluated every three months by serological, parasitological and biochemical tests until sero-conversion was confirmed, and six months later a subsequent evaluation was performed. Samples of kidney tissues were processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Masson's trichrome stain and lesions were classified based on the WHO criteria. Of the 40 dogs that initially tested negative for VL, 25 (62.5%) exhibited positive serological tests during the study period. Of these 25 dogs, 15 (60%) tested positive within three months, five (20%) tested positive within six months and five (20%) tested positive within nine months. The dogs exhibited antibody titers between 1:40 and 1:80 and 72% of the dogs exhibited clinical symptoms. The Leishmania antigen was present in the kidneys of recently infected dogs. We found higher levels of total protein and globulin as well as lower levels of albumin in the infected dogs when compared to the control dogs. Additionally, infected dogs presented levels of urea and creatinine that were higher than those of the uninfected dogs. Glomerulonephritis was detected in some of the dogs examined in this study. These data suggest that in Teresina, the sero-conversion for VL occurs quickly and showed that the infected dogs presented abnormal serum proteins, as well as structural and functional alterations in the kidneys during the early post-infection period.

  11. Altered gravity downregulates aquaporin-1 protein expression in choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Masseguin, C; Corcoran, M; Carcenac, C; Daunton, N G; Güell, A; Verkman, A S; Gabrion, J

    2000-03-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a water channel expressed abundantly at the apical pole of choroidal epithelial cells. The protein expression was quantified by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy in adult rats adapted to altered gravity. AQP1 expression was decreased by 64% at the apical pole of choroidal cells in rats dissected 5.5-8 h after a 14-day spaceflight. AQP1 was significantly overexpressed in rats readapted for 2 days to Earth's gravity after an 11-day flight (48% overshoot, when compared with the value measured in control rats). In a ground-based model that simulates some effects of weightlessness and alters choroidal structures and functions, apical AQP1 expression was reduced by 44% in choroid plexus from rats suspended head down for 14 days and by 69% in rats suspended for 28 days. Apical AQP1 was rapidly enhanced in choroid plexus of rats dissected 6 h after a 14-day suspension (57% overshoot, in comparison with control rats) and restored to the control level when rats were dissected 2 days after the end of a 14-day suspension. Decreases in the apical expression of choroidal AQP1 were also noted in rats adapted to hypergravity in the NASA 24-ft centrifuge: AQP1 expression was reduced by 47% and 85% in rats adapted for 14 days to 2 G and 3 G, respectively. AQP1 is downregulated in the apical membrane of choroidal cells in response to altered gravity and is rapidly restored after readaptation to normal gravity. This suggests that water transport, which is partly involved in the choroidal production of cerebrospinal fluid, might be decreased during spaceflight and after chronic hypergravity.

  12. Genetic alteration and gene expression modulation during cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Garnis, Cathie; Buys, Timon PH; Lam, Wan L

    2004-01-01

    Cancer progresses through a series of histopathological stages. Progression is thought to be driven by the accumulation of genetic alterations and consequently gene expression pattern changes. The identification of genes and pathways involved will not only enhance our understanding of the biology of this process, it will also provide new targets for early diagnosis and facilitate treatment design. Genomic approaches have proven to be effective in detecting chromosomal alterations and identifying genes disrupted in cancer. Gene expression profiling has led to the subclassification of tumors. In this article, we will describe the current technologies used in cancer gene discovery, the model systems used to validate the significance of the genes and pathways, and some of the genes and pathways implicated in the progression of preneoplastic and early stage cancer. PMID:15035667

  13. Metabolism-related enzyme alterations identified by proteomic analysis in human renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zejun; Yao, Yuqin; Song, Qi; Yang, Jinliang; Zhao, Xiangfei; Yang, Ping; Kang, Jingbo

    2016-01-01

    The renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common types of kidney neoplasia in Western countries; it is relatively resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Metabolic disorders have a profound effect on the degree of malignancy and treatment resistance of the tumor. However, the molecular characteristics related to impaired metabolism leading to the initiation of RCC are still not very clear. In this study, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectra (MS) technologies were utilized to identify the proteins involved in energy metabolism of RCC. A total of 73 proteins that were differentially expressed in conventional RCC, in comparison with the corresponding normal kidney tissues, were identified. Bioinformatics analysis has shown that these proteins are involved in glycolysis, urea cycle, and the metabolic pathways of pyruvate, propanoate, and arginine/proline. In addition, some were also involved in the signaling network of p53 and FAS. These results provide some clues for new therapeutic targets and treatment strategies of RCC. PMID:27022288

  14. Altered choroid plexus gene expression in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Cortney A.; Thompson, Robert C.; Bunney, William E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Barchas, Jack D.; Myers, Richard M.; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Given the emergent interest in biomarkers for mood disorders, we assessed gene expression in the choroid plexus (CP), the region that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genes that are expressed in the CP can be secreted into the CSF and may be potential biomarker candidates. Given that we have previously shown that fibroblast growth factor family members are differentially expressed in post-mortem brain of subjects with MDD and the CP is a known source of growth factors in the brain, we posed the question whether growth factor dysregulation would be found in the CP of subjects with MDD. We performed laser capture microscopy of the CP at the level of the hippocampus in subjects with MDD and psychiatrically normal controls. We then extracted, amplified, labeled, and hybridized the cRNA to Illumina BeadChips to assess gene expression. In controls, the most highly abundant known transcript was transthyretin. Moreover, half of the 14 most highly expressed transcripts in controls encode ribosomal proteins. Using BeadStudio software, we identified 169 transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05) between control and MDD samples. Using pathway analysis we noted that the top network altered in subjects with MDD included multiple members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed downregulation of several transcripts that interact with the extracellular matrix in subjects with MDD. These results suggest that there may be an altered cytoskeleton in the CP in MDD subjects that may lead to a disrupted blood-CSF-brain barrier. PMID:24795602

  15. Altered MENIN expression disrupts the MAFA differentiation pathway in insulinoma.

    PubMed

    Hamze, Z; Vercherat, C; Bernigaud-Lacheretz, A; Bazzi, W; Bonnavion, R; Lu, J; Calender, A; Pouponnot, C; Bertolino, P; Roche, C; Stein, R; Scoazec, J Y; Zhang, C X; Cordier-Bussat, M

    2013-12-01

    The protein MENIN is the product of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1) gene. Altered MENIN expression is one of the few events that are clearly associated with foregut neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), classical oncogenes or tumour suppressors being not involved. One of the current challenges is to understand how alteration of MENIN expression contributes to the development of these tumours. We hypothesised that MENIN might regulate factors maintaining endocrine-differentiated functions. We chose the insulinoma model, a paradigmatic example of well-differentiated pancreatic NETs, to study whether MENIN interferes with the expression of v-MAF musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A (MAFA), a master glucose-dependent transcription factor in differentiated β-cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of a series of human insulinomas revealed a correlated decrease in both MENIN and MAFA. Decreased MAFA expression resulting from targeted Men1 ablation was also consistently observed in mouse insulinomas. In vitro analyses using insulinoma cell lines showed that MENIN regulated MAFA protein and mRNA levels, and bound to Mafa promoter sequences. MENIN knockdown concomitantly decreased mRNA expression of both Mafa and β-cell differentiation markers (Ins1/2, Gck, Slc2a2 and Pdx1) and, in parallel, increased the proliferation rate of tumours as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Interestingly, MAFA knockdown alone also increased proliferation rate but did not affect the expression of candidate proliferation genes regulated by MENIN. Finally, MENIN variants with missense mutations detected in patients with MEN1 lost the WT MENIN properties to regulate MAFA. Together, our findings unveil a previously unsuspected MENIN/MAFA connection regarding control of the β-cell differentiation/proliferation balance, which could contribute to tumorigenesis.

  16. Altered gene expression in conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mahale, Alka; Alkatan, Hind; Alwadani, Saeed; Othman, Maha; Suarez, Maria J; Price, Antoinette; Al-Hussain, Hailah; Jastaneiah, Sabah; Yu, Wayne; Maktabi, Azza; Deepak, Edward P; Eberhart, Charles G; Asnaghi, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma is a malignancy of the ocular surface. The molecular drivers responsible for the development and progression of this disease are not well understood. We therefore compared the transcriptional profiles of eight snap-frozen conjunctival squamous cell carcinomas and one in situ lesion with normal conjunctival specimens in order to identify diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. RNA was analyzed using oligonucleotide microarrays, and a wide range of transcripts with altered expression identified, including many dysregulated in carcinomas arising at other sites. Among the upregulated genes, we observed more than 30-fold induction of the matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-9 and MMP-11, as well as a prominent increase in the mRNA level of a calcium-binding protein important for the intracellular calcium signaling, S100A2, which was induced over 20-fold in the tumor cohort. Clusterin was the most downregulated gene, with an approximately 180-fold reduction in the mRNA expression. These alterations were all confirmed by qPCR in the samples used for initial microarray analysis. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the overexpression of MMP-11 and S100A2, as well as reductions in clusterin, in several independent in situ carcinomas of conjunctiva. These data identify a number of alterations, including upregulation of MMP-9, MMP-11, and S100A2, as well as downregulation of clusterin, associated with epithelial tumorigenesis in the ocular surface. PMID:26916071

  17. Apoptosis and expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte effector molecules in renal allografts.

    PubMed

    Olive, C; Cheung, C; Falk, M C

    1999-03-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) mediated apoptosis is thought to play a major role in the rejection of renal allografts following transplantation, however, the CTL effector mechanism that is primarily responsible for immunological rejection is unknown. The two major effector pathways of CTL killing which lead to apoptosis involve the Fas/Fas ligand (Fas L) lytic pathway, and the perforin/granzyme degranulation pathway. The expression of CTL effector molecules which influence these pathways include Fas, Fas L and TiA-1 (cytotoxic granule protein). This study has investigated apoptosis by in situ terminal deoxytransferase-catalysed DNA nick end labelling (TUNEL), and the expression of CTL effector molecules by immunohistochemistry, in renal allograft biopsies obtained from patients following kidney transplantation. Renal biopsies were classified into three histological groups; acute cellular rejection, chronic rejection, or no rejection. The extent of T-cell infiltration of renal tissues was assessed by immunohistochemical staining with an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. Numerous TUNEL positive cells were detected in all transplant biopsies examined; these consisted mainly of renal tubular cells and infiltrating cells, with some TUNEL positive cells also detected in the glomeruli. In the case of normal kidney tissue, renal cells also stained positive for TUNEL but there was no lymphocytic infiltration. There was significantly more T-cell infiltration observed in acute rejection biopsies compared to the no rejection biopsies. In the case of Fas L expression, there was little expression in all three biopsy groups, apart from one case of chronic rejection. Conversely, although there were no significant differences in TiA-1 expression between the three biopsy groups, TiA-1 expression was more prominent in acute rejection biopsies. Furthermore, Fas expression was significantly decreased in acute rejection biopsies when compared to those of chronic and no rejection in which Fas

  18. H-ras-transformed NRK-52E renal epithelial cells have altered growth, morphology, and cytoskeletal structure that correlates with renal cell carcinoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Best, C J; Tanzer, L R; Phelps, P C; Merriman, R L; Boder, G G; Trump, B F; Elliget, K A

    1999-04-01

    We studied the effect of the ras oncogene on the growth kinetics, morphology, cytoskeletal structure, and tumorigenicity of the widely used NRK-52E rat kidney epithelial cell line and two H-ras oncogene-transformed cell lines, H/1.2-NRK-52E (H/1.2) and H/6.1-NRK-52E (H/6.1). Population doubling times of NRK-52E, H/1.2, and H/6.1 cells were 28, 26, and 24 h, respectively, with the transformed cells reaching higher saturation densities than the parent cells. NRK-52E cells had typical epithelial morphology with growth in colonies. H/1.2 and H/6.1 cell colonies were more closely packed, highly condensed, and had increased plasma membrane ruffling compared to parent cell colonies. NRK-52E cells showed microfilament, microtubule, and intermediate filament networks typical of epithelial cells, while H/1.2 and H/6.1 cells showed altered cytoskeleton architecture, with decreased stress fibers and increased microtubule and intermediate filament staining at the microtubule organizing center. H/1.2 and H/6.1 cells proliferated in an in vitro soft agar transformation assay, indicating anchorage-independence, and rapidly formed tumors in vivo with characteristics of renal cell carcinoma, including mixed populations of sarcomatoid, granular, and clear cells. H/6.1 cells consistently showed more extensive alterations of growth kinetics, morphology, and cytoskeleton than H/1.2 cells, and formed tumors of a more aggressive phenotype. These data suggest that analysis of renal cell characteristics in vitro may have potential in predicting tumor behavior in vivo, and significantly contribute to the utility of these cell lines as in vitro models for examining renal epithelial cell biology and the role of the ras proto-oncogene in signal transduction involving the cytoskeleton.

  19. ADAM9 is highly expressed in renal cell cancer and is associated with tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsche, Florian R; Wassermann, Kirsten; Jung, Monika; Tölle, Angelika; Kristiansen, Ilka; Lein, Michael; Johannsen, Manfred; Dietel, Manfred; Jung, Klaus; Kristiansen, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Background A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM) 9 has been implicated in tumour progression of various solid tumours, however, little is known about its role in renal cell carcinoma. We evaluated the expression of ADAM9 on protein and transcript level in a clinico-pathologically characterized renal cell cancer cohort. Methods 108 renal cancer cases were immunostained for ADAM9 on a tissue-micro-array. For 30 additional cases, ADAM9 mRNA of microdissected tumour and normal tissue was analyzed via quantitative RT-PCR. SPSS 14.0 was used to apply crosstables (Fisher's exact test and χ2-test), correlations and univariate as well as multivariate survival analyses. Results ADAM9 was significantly up-regulated in renal cancer in comparison to the adjacent normal tissue on mRNA level. On protein level, ADAM9 was significantly associated with higher tumour grade, positive nodal status and distant metastasis. Furthermore, ADAM9 protein expression was significantly associated with shortened patient survival in the univariate analysis. Conclusion ADAM9 is strongly expressed in a large proportion of renal cell cancers, concordant with findings in other tumour entities. Additionally, ADAM9 expression is significantly associated with markers of unfavourable prognosis. Whether the demonstrated prognostic value of ADAM9 is independent from other tumour parameters will have to be verified in larger study cohorts. PMID:18582378

  20. Expression of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Human Kidney and in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Maria R; Rocca, Bruno J; Barone, Aurora; Onorati, Monica; Mundo, Lucia; Crivelli, Filippo; Di Nuovo, Franca; De Falco, Giulia; del Vecchio, Maria T; Tripodi, Sergio A; Tosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein is a multifaceted protein involved in several physiological and biological functions. Its expression in normal kidney and in renal carcinomas, once corroborated by functional data, may add elements to elucidate renal physiology and carcinogenesis. In this study, translationally controlled tumor protein expression was evaluated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and its localization was examined by immunohistochemistry on 84 nephrectomies for cancer. In normal kidney protein expression was found in the cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubular cells, in cells of the thick segment of the loop of Henle, and in urothelial cells of the pelvis. It was also detectable in cells of renal carcinoma with different pattern of localization (membranous and cytoplasmic) depending on tumor histotype. Our data may suggest an involvement of translationally controlled tumor protein in normal physiology and carcinogenesis. However, functional in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to verify this hypothesis. PMID:26425551

  1. Expression of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Human Kidney and in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Maria R.; Rocca, Bruno J.; Barone, Aurora; Onorati, Monica; Mundo, Lucia; Crivelli, Filippo; Di Nuovo, Franca; De Falco, Giulia; del Vecchio, Maria T.; Tripodi, Sergio A.; Tosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein is a multifaceted protein involved in several physiological and biological functions. Its expression in normal kidney and in renal carcinomas, once corroborated by functional data, may add elements to elucidate renal physiology and carcinogenesis. In this study, translationally controlled tumor protein expression was evaluated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and its localization was examined by immunohistochemistry on 84 nephrectomies for cancer. In normal kidney protein expression was found in the cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubular cells, in cells of the thick segment of the loop of Henle, and in urothelial cells of the pelvis. It was also detectable in cells of renal carcinoma with different pattern of localization (membranous and cytoplasmic) depending on tumor histotype. Our data may suggest an involvement of translationally controlled tumor protein in normal physiology and carcinogenesis. However, functional in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to verify this hypothesis. PMID:26425551

  2. Methylphenidate alters NCS-1 expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Souza, Renan P; Soares, Eliane C; Rosa, Daniela V F; Souza, Bruno R; Réus, Gislaine Z; Barichello, Tatiana; Gomes, Karin M; Gomez, Marcus V; Quevedo, João; Romano-Silva, Marco A

    2008-07-01

    Methylphenidate has been used as an effective treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methylphenidate (MPH) blocks dopamine and norepinephrine transporters causing an increase in extracellular levels. The use of psychomotor stimulants continues to rise due to both the treatment of ADHD and illicit abuse. Methylphenidate sensitization mechanism has still poor knowledge. Neuronal calcium sensor 1 was identified as a dopaminergic receptor interacting protein. When expressed in mammalian cells, neuronal calcium sensor 1 attenuates dopamine-induced D2 receptor internalization by a mechanism that involves a reduction in D2 receptor phosphorylation. Neuronal calcium sensor 1 appears to play a pivotal role in regulating D2 receptor function, it will be important to determine if there are alterations in neuronal calcium sensor 1 in neuropathologies associated with deregulation in dopaminergic signaling. Then, we investigated if methylphenidate could alter neuronal calcium sensor 1 expression in five brain regions (striatum, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, cortex and cerebellum) in young and adult rats. These regions were chosen because some are located in brain circuits related with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Our results showed changes in neuronal calcium sensor 1 expression in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and cerebellum mainly in adult rats. The demonstration that methylphenidate induces changes in neuronal calcium sensor 1 levels in rat brain may help to understand sensitization mechanisms as well as methylphenidate therapeutic effects to improve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

  3. Expression alterations define unique molecular characteristics of spinal ependymomas

    PubMed Central

    Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Rahman, Ruman; Grundy, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Ependymomas are glial tumors that originate in either intracranial or spinal regions. Although tumors from different regions are histologically similar, they are biologically distinct. We therefore sought to identify molecular characteristics of spinal ependymomas (SEPN) in order to better understand the disease biology of these tumors. Using gene expression profiles of 256 tumor samples, we identified increased expression of 1,866 genes in SEPN when compared to intracranial ependymomas. These genes are mainly related to anterior/posterior pattern specification, response to oxidative stress, glial cell differentiation, DNA repair, and PPAR signalling, and also significantly enriched with cellular senescence genes (P = 5.5 × 10−03). In addition, a high number of significantly down-regulated genes in SEPN are localized to chromosome 22 (81 genes from chr22: 43,325,255 – 135,720,974; FDR = 1.77 × 10−23 and 22 genes from chr22: 324,739 – 32,822,302; FDR = 2.07 × 10−09) including BRD1, EP300, HDAC10, HIRA, HIC2, MKL1, and NF2. Evaluation of NF2 co-expressed genes further confirms the enrichment of chromosome 22 regions. Finally, systematic integration of chromosome 22 genes with interactome and NF2 co-expression data identifies key candidate genes. Our results reveal unique molecular characteristics of SEPN such as altered expression of cellular senescence and chromosome 22 genes. PMID:25909290

  4. The expression of renal Epstein-Barr virus markers in patients with lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    YU, XIAO-XIA; YAO, CUI-WEI; TAO, JING-LI; YANG, CHEN; LUO, MIAN-NA; LI, SHANG-MEI; LIU, HUA-FENG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of renal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN). A total of 58 renal tissue samples from patients with LN, seven normal renal tissue samples from patients with non-glomerular hematuria and 37 renal tissue samples from patients with minimal change nephropathy were collected. The expression of EBV-latent membrane protein-1 (EBV-LMP1) and EBV-encoded RNA 1 (EBER-1) in the renal tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH), respectively. The sera levels of anti-nuclear antibody as well as antibodies to extractable nuclear antigen in patients with LN were also measured. An equivalence test showed that the results from the IHC and the ISH analyses had strong agreement. The positive rates of renal EBER-1 and EBV-LMP1 in the LN patients were significantly higher than those of the normal and minimal change nephropathy patients (P<0.001), while no significant difference was identified between those of the normal and minimal change nephropathy groups (P>0.05). The positive rates of EBV-LMP1 and EBER-1 in the renal tissues of patients with LN were not determined to be significantly different between the relapse (immunosuppressant-treated) and initial onset (non-treated) patients, between the patients with and without concurrent infection, and among the patients with different age ranges (P>0.05). The proportion of LN patients positive for anti-Sm antibody was significantly higher in the renal EBV-positive group than in the EBV-negative group (P<0.05), while the proportions of LN patients positive for the other autoantibodies that were examined were not identified to be significantly different between these two groups (P>0.05). The present study shows that renal EBV infection may contribute to the pathogenesis of LN by inducing anti-Sm antibody production. PMID:24940399

  5. Altered metabolic pathways in clear cell renal cell carcinoma: A meta-analysis and validation study focused on the deregulated genes and their associated networks

    PubMed Central

    Zaravinos, Apostolos; Pieri, Myrtani; Mourmouras, Nikos; Anastasiadou, Natassa; Zouvani, Ioanna; Delakas, Dimitris; Deltas, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the predominant subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). It is one of the most therapy-resistant carcinomas, responding very poorly or not at all to radiotherapy, hormonal therapy and chemotherapy. A more comprehensive understanding of the deregulated pathways in ccRCC can lead to the development of new therapies and prognostic markers. We performed a meta- analysis of 5 publicly available gene expression datasets and identified a list of co- deregulated genes, for which we performed extensive bioinformatic analysis coupled with experimental validation on the mRNA level. Gene ontology enrichment showed that many proteins are involved in response to hypoxia/oxygen levels and positive regulation of the VEGFR signaling pathway. KEGG analysis revealed that metabolic pathways are mostly altered in ccRCC. Similarly, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that the antigen presentation, inositol metabolism, pentose phosphate, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and fructose/mannose metabolism pathways are altered in the disease. Cellular growth, proliferation and carbohydrate metabolism, were among the top molecular and cellular functions of the co-deregulated genes. qRT-PCR validated the deregulated expression of several genes in Caki-2 and ACHN cell lines and in a cohort of ccRCC tissues. NNMT and NR3C1 increased expression was evident in ccRCC biopsies from patients using immunohistochemistry. ROC curves evaluated the diagnostic performance of the top deregulated genes in each dataset. We show that metabolic pathways are mostly deregulated in ccRCC and we highlight those being most responsible in its formation. We suggest that these genes are candidate predictive markers of the disease. PMID:25594006

  6. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes In Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism it is important to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. This study is an effort to examine the effects of adaptive mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses. Using procedures approved by the JSC Animal Care & Use Committee, C57 male mice were exposed to Cs-137 in groups: controls, low dose (50 mGy), high dose (6Gy) and a fourth group that received both radiation doses separated by 24 hours. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed 4 hours after their last radiation exposure. Livers were removed immediately and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was homogenized, RNA extracted and purified (Absolutely RNA, Agilent). Quality of RNA samples was evaluated (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100). Complementary DNA was prepared from high-quality RNA samples, and used to run RT-qPCR screening arrays for DNA Repair and Drug Metabolism (SuperArray, SABiosciences/Qiagen; BioRad Cfx96 qPCR System). Of 91 drug metabolism genes examined, expression of 7 was altered by at least one treatment condition. Genes that had elevated expression include those that metabolize promethazine and steroids (4-8-fold), many that reduce oxidation products, and one that reduces heavy metal exposure (greater than 200-fold). Of the 91 DNA repair and general metabolism genes examined, expression of 14 was altered by at least one treatment condition. These gene expression changes are likely homeostatic and could lead to development of new radioprotective countermeasures.

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chromatographic methods identify altered lipid composition in human renal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tosi, M R; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Lercker, G; Poerio, A; Trinchero, A; Reggiani, A; Tugnoli, V

    2004-07-01

    We report on the characterization of the lipid obtained from cortical and medullary normal human kidney tissue, benign renal neoplasms (oncocytoma) and 2 different types of malignant renal neoplasms (chromophobic cell carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma). The total lipid fractions were analyzed by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography, whereas the composition of the total fatty acids and the content of total cholesterol were determined by gas chromatography. alpha-Tocopherol was detected and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis revealed significant differences in the renal tissues examined. It was confirmed that cholesteryl esters (mainly oleate) are typical of clear cell renal carcinomas. Their potential role as prognostic and diagnostic factors is discussed, with particular emphasis on its capability to indicate the tumor diffusion in healthy renal parenchyma. alpha-Tocopherol is prevalent in clear cell carcinoma and it is present in nearly the same low amounts in cortex, medulla and chromophobic cell renal carcinoma. Q10 coenzyme and dolichols were detected by thin-layer chromatography and they are present in significant amounts in the cortex and the benign oncocytoma. Great variations were found in the distribution of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, especially in the docosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids and the corresponding omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio.

  8. In vitro maturation alters gene expression in bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Adona, Paulo R; Leal, Cláudia L V; Biase, Fernando H; De Bem, Tiago H; Mesquita, Lígia G; Meirelles, Flávio V; Ferraz, André L; Furlan, Luiz R; Monzani, Paulo S; Guemra, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Gene expression profiling of in vivo- and in vitro-matured bovine oocytes can identify transcripts related to the developmental potential of oocytes. Nonetheless, the effects of in vitro culturing oocytes are yet to be fully understood. We tested the effects of in vitro maturation on the transcript profile of oocytes collected from Bos taurus indicus cows. We quantified the expression of 1488 genes in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes. Of these, 51 genes were up-regulated, whereas 56 were down-regulated (≥2-fold) in in vivo-matured oocytes in comparison with in vitro-matured oocytes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nine genes confirmed the microarray results of differential expression between in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes (EZR, EPN1, PSEN2, FST, IGFBP3, RBBP4, STAT3, FDPS and IRS1). We interrogated the results for enrichment of Gene Ontology categories and overlap with protein-protein interactions. The results revealed that the genes altered by in vitro maturation are mostly related to the regulation of oocyte metabolism. Additionally, analysis of protein-protein interactions uncovered two regulatory networks affected by the in vitro culture system. We propose that the differentially expressed genes are candidates for biomarkers of oocyte competence. In vitro oocyte maturation can affect the abundance of specific transcripts and are likely to deplete the developmental competence.

  9. Constitutive renal Rel/nuclear factor-κB expression in Lewis polycystic kidney disease rats

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Michelle H T; Schwensen, Kristina G; Liuwantara, David; Huso, David L; Watnick, Terry; Rangan, Gopala K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the temporal expression and pattern of Rel/nuclear factor (NF)-κB proteins in renal tissue in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). METHODS: The renal expression of Rel/NF-κB proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and immunoblot analysis in Lewis polycystic kidney rats (LPK, a genetic ortholog of human nephronopthsis-9) from postnatal weeks 3 to 20. At each timepoint, renal disease progression and the mRNA expression of NF-κB-dependent genes (TNFα and CCL2) were determined. NF-κB was also histologically assessed in human PKD tissue. RESULTS: Progressive kidney enlargement in LPK rats was accompanied by increased renal cell proliferation and interstitial monocyte accumulation (peaking at weeks 3 and 10 respectively), and progressive interstitial fibrosis (with α smooth muscle actin and Sirius Red deposition significantly increased compared to Lewis kidneys from weeks 3 to 6 onwards). Rel/NF-κB proteins (phosphorylated-p105, p65, p50, c-Rel and RelB) were expressed in cystic epithelial cells (CECs) of LPK kidneys as early as postnatal week 3 and sustained until late-stage disease at week 20. From weeks 10 to 20, nuclear p65, p50, RelB and cytoplasmic IκBα protein levels, and TNFα and CCL2 expression, were upregulated in LPK compared to Lewis kidneys. NF-κB proteins were consistently expressed in CECs of human PKD. The DNA damage marker γ-H2AX was also identified in the CECs of LPK and human polycystic kidneys. CONCLUSION: Several NF-κB proteins are consistently expressed in CECs in human and experimental PKD. These data suggest that the upregulation of both the canonical and non-canonical pathways of NF-κB signaling may be a constitutive and early pathological feature of cystic renal diseases. PMID:27458563

  10. Effect of carbon nanoparticles on renal epithelial cell structure, barrier function, and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Blazer-Yost, Bonnie L; Banga, Amiraj; Amos, Adam; Chernoff, Ellen; Lai, Xianyin; Li, Cheng; Mitra, Somenath; Witzmann, Frank A

    2011-09-01

    To assess effects of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) exposure on renal epithelial cells, fullerenes (C(60)), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were incubated with a confluent renal epithelial line for 48 h. At low concentrations, CNP-treated cells exhibited significant decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) but no changes in hormone-stimulated ion transport or CNP-induced toxicity or stress responses as measured by lactate dehydrogenase or cytokine release. The changes in TEER, manifested as an inverse relationship with CNP concentration, were mirrored by an inverse correlation between dose and changes in protein expression. Lower, more physiologically relevant, concentrations of CNP have the most profound effects on barrier cell function and protein expression. These results indicate an impact of CNPs on renal epithelial cells at concentrations lower than have been previously studied and suggest caution with regard to increasing CNP levels entering the food chain due to increasing environmental pollution. PMID:21067278

  11. HIV-associated mucosal gene expression: region-specific alterations

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Losurdo, John; Swanson, Garth; Siewe, Basile; Forsyth, Christopher B.; French, Audrey L.; Demarais, Patricia; Engen, Phillip; Raeisi, Shohreh; Mutlu, Ece; Landay, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite the use of HAART to control HIV, systemic immune activation and inflammation persists with the consequence of developing serious non-AIDS events. The mechanisms that contribute to persistent systemic immune activation have not been well defined. The intestine is the major source of “sterile” inflammation and plays a critical role in immune function; thus, we sought to determine whether intestinal gene expression was altered in virally controlled HIV-infected individuals. Design and methods Gene expression was compared in biopsy samples collected from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected individuals from the ileum, right colon (ascending colon), and left colon (sigmoid). Affymetrix gene arrays were performed on tissues and pathway analyses were conducted. Gene expression was correlated with systemic markers of intestinal barrier dysfunction and inflammation and intestinal microbiota composition. Results Genes involved in cellular immune response, cytokine signaling, pathogen-influenced signaling, humoral immune response, apoptosis, intracellular and second messenger signaling, cancer, organismal growth and development, and proliferation and development were upregulated in the intestine of HIV-infected individuals with differences observed in the ileum, right, and left colon. Gene expression in the ileum primarily correlated with systemic markers of inflammation (e.g., IL7R, IL2, and TLR2 with serum TNF) whereas expression in the colon correlated with the microbiota community (e.g., IFNG, IL1B, and CD3G with Bacteroides). Conclusion These data demonstrate persistent, proinflammatory changes in the intestinal mucosa of virally suppressed HIV-infected individuals. These changes in intestinal gene expression may be the consequence of or contribute to barrier dysfunction and intestinal dysbiosis observed in HIV. PMID:25587909

  12. Genome-wide analysis of differentially expressed genes and splicing isoforms in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Valletti, Alessio; Gigante, Margherita; Palumbo, Orazio; Carella, Massimo; Divella, Chiara; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Tullo, Apollonia; Picardi, Ernesto; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Battaglia, Michele; Gesualdo, Loreto; Pesole, Graziano; Ranieri, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common malignant renal epithelial tumor and also the most deadly. To identify molecular changes occurring in ccRCC, in the present study we performed a genome wide analysis of its entire complement of mRNAs. Gene and exon-level analyses were carried out by means of the Affymetrix Exon Array platform. To achieve a reliable detection of differentially expressed cassette exons we implemented a novel methodology that considered contiguous combinations of exon triplets and candidate differentially expressed cassette exons were identified when the expression level was significantly different only in the central exon of the triplet. More detailed analyses were performed for selected genes using quantitative RT-PCR and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Our analysis detected over 2,000 differentially expressed genes, and about 250 genes alternatively spliced and showed differential inclusion of specific cassette exons comparing tumor and non-tumoral tissues. We demonstrated the presence in ccRCC of an altered expression of the PTP4A3, LAMA4, KCNJ1 and TCF21 genes (at both transcript and protein level). Furthermore, we confirmed, at the mRNA level, the involvement of CAV2 and SFRP genes that have previously been identified. At exon level, among potential candidates we validated a differentially included cassette exon in DAB2 gene with a significant increase of DAB2 p96 splice variant as compared to the p67 isoform. Based on the results obtained, and their robustness according to both statistical analysis and literature surveys, we believe that a combination of gene/isoform expression signature may remarkably contribute, after suitable validation, to a more effective and reliable definition of molecular biomarkers for ccRCC early diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of therapeutic response. PMID:24194935

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Splicing Isoforms in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Orazio; Carella, Massimo; Divella, Chiara; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Tullo, Apollonia; Picardi, Ernesto; D’Erchia, Anna Maria; Battaglia, Michele; Gesualdo, Loreto; Pesole, Graziano; Ranieri, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common malignant renal epithelial tumor and also the most deadly. To identify molecular changes occurring in ccRCC, in the present study we performed a genome wide analysis of its entire complement of mRNAs. Gene and exon-level analyses were carried out by means of the Affymetrix Exon Array platform. To achieve a reliable detection of differentially expressed cassette exons we implemented a novel methodology that considered contiguous combinations of exon triplets and candidate differentially expressed cassette exons were identified when the expression level was significantly different only in the central exon of the triplet. More detailed analyses were performed for selected genes using quantitative RT-PCR and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Our analysis detected over 2,000 differentially expressed genes, and about 250 genes alternatively spliced and showed differential inclusion of specific cassette exons comparing tumor and non-tumoral tissues. We demonstrated the presence in ccRCC of an altered expression of the PTP4A3, LAMA4, KCNJ1 and TCF21 genes (at both transcript and protein level). Furthermore, we confirmed, at the mRNA level, the involvement of CAV2 and SFRP genes that have previously been identified. At exon level, among potential candidates we validated a differentially included cassette exon in DAB2 gene with a significant increase of DAB2 p96 splice variant as compared to the p67 isoform. Based on the results obtained, and their robustness according to both statistical analysis and literature surveys, we believe that a combination of gene/isoform expression signature may remarkably contribute, after suitable validation, to a more effective and reliable definition of molecular biomarkers for ccRCC early diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of therapeutic response. PMID:24194935

  14. Localization of corin and atrial natriuretic peptide expression in human renal segments.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Wang, Hao; Dong, Ningzheng; Zhang, Ce; Xue, Boxin; Wu, Qingyu

    2016-09-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-mediated natriuretic response is a well-established cardiac endocrine function. Corin is a transmembrane protease that activates ANP in the heart. Corin expression has been detected in non-cardiac tissues including the kidney. Here we examined corin, pro-ANP/ANP and natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) expression in human renal segments. By immunostaining and in situ hybridization, we found similar corin, pro-ANP/ANP and NPR-A protein and mRNA expression in human renal segments. The expression was most abundant in the proximal convoluted tubules and the medullary connecting ducts. In the proximal tubules, corin protein was present in the apical membrane region underneath the brush border where the ANP-degrading protease neprilysin was abundant. These results suggest that corin-mediated pro-ANP activation may occur in renal segments and that locally produced ANP may act in an autocrine manner to regulate sodium and water reabsorption in situ Our results also point to the proximal convoluted tubules as a major site for local ANP action. Such a renal corin/ANP autocrine mechanism may differ from the cardiac corin/ANP endocrine mechanism in regulating sodium homoeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27343265

  15. Vibrational force alters mRNA expression in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjandrawinata, R. R.; Vincent, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1997-01-01

    Serum-deprived mouse osteoblastic (MC3T3E1) cells were subjected to a vibrational force modeled by NASA to simulate a space shuttle launch (7.83 G rms). The mRNA levels for eight genes were investigated to determine the effect of vibrational force on mRNA expression. The mRNA levels of two growth-related protooncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, were up-regulated significantly within 30 min after vibration, whereas those of osteocalcin as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 were decreased significantly within 3 h after vibration. No changes were detected in the levels of beta-actin, histone H4, or cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 after vibration. No basal levels of cyclooxygenase-2 expression were detected. In addition, the extracellular concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent autocrine/paracrine growth factor in bone, were not significantly altered after vibration most likely due to the serum deprivation state of the osteoblasts. In comparison with the gravitational launch profile, vibrational-induced changes in gene expression were greater both in magnitude and number of genes activated. Taken together, these data suggest that the changes in mRNA expression are due to a direct mechanical effect of the vibrational force on the osteoblast cells and not to changes in the local PGE2 concentrations. The finding that launch forces induce gene expression is of utmost importance since many of the biological experiments do not dampen vibrational loads on experimental samples. This lack of dampening of vibrational forces may partially explain why 1-G onboard controls sometimes do not reflect 1-G ground controls. These data may also suggest that scientists use extra ground controls that are exposed to launch forces, have these forces dampened on launched samples, or use facilities such as Biorack that provide an onboard 1-G centrufuge in order to control for space shuttle launch forces.

  16. Vibrational force alters mRNA expression in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Tjandrawinata, R R; Vincent, V L; Hughes-Fulford, M

    1997-05-01

    Serum-deprived mouse osteoblastic (MC3T3E1) cells were subjected to a vibrational force modeled by NASA to simulate a space shuttle launch (7.83 G rms). The mRNA levels for eight genes were investigated to determine the effect of vibrational force on mRNA expression. The mRNA levels of two growth-related protooncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, were up-regulated significantly within 30 min after vibration, whereas those of osteocalcin as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 were decreased significantly within 3 h after vibration. No changes were detected in the levels of beta-actin, histone H4, or cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 after vibration. No basal levels of cyclooxygenase-2 expression were detected. In addition, the extracellular concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent autocrine/paracrine growth factor in bone, were not significantly altered after vibration most likely due to the serum deprivation state of the osteoblasts. In comparison with the gravitational launch profile, vibrational-induced changes in gene expression were greater both in magnitude and number of genes activated. Taken together, these data suggest that the changes in mRNA expression are due to a direct mechanical effect of the vibrational force on the osteoblast cells and not to changes in the local PGE2 concentrations. The finding that launch forces induce gene expression is of utmost importance since many of the biological experiments do not dampen vibrational loads on experimental samples. This lack of dampening of vibrational forces may partially explain why 1-G onboard controls sometimes do not reflect 1-G ground controls. These data may also suggest that scientists use extra ground controls that are exposed to launch forces, have these forces dampened on launched samples, or use facilities such as Biorack that provide an onboard 1-G centrufuge in order to control for space shuttle launch forces.

  17. Network Clustering Revealed the Systemic Alterations of Mitochondrial Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun-Jung; Park, Wook-Ha; Yang, Jae-Seong; Yu, Myeong-Hee; Kim, Sanguk; Pak, Youngmi Kim

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial protein repertoire varies depending on the cellular state. Protein component modifications caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion are related to a wide range of human diseases; however, little is known about how nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins (mt proteome) changes under such dysfunctional states. In this study, we investigated the systemic alterations of mtDNA-depleted (ρ0) mitochondria by using network analysis of gene expression data. By modularizing the quantified proteomics data into protein functional networks, systemic properties of mitochondrial dysfunction were analyzed. We discovered that up-regulated and down-regulated proteins were organized into two predominant subnetworks that exhibited distinct biological processes. The down-regulated network modules are involved in typical mitochondrial functions, while up-regulated proteins are responsible for mtDNA repair and regulation of mt protein expression and transport. Furthermore, comparisons of proteome and transcriptome data revealed that ρ0 cells attempted to compensate for mtDNA depletion by modulating the coordinated expression/transport of mt proteins. Our results demonstrate that mt protein composition changed to remodel the functional organization of mitochondrial protein networks in response to dysfunctional cellular states. Human mt protein functional networks provide a framework for understanding how cells respond to mitochondrial dysfunctions. PMID:21738461

  18. Systematic analysis of a novel human renal glomerulus-enriched gene expression dataset.

    PubMed

    Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Eichinger, Felix; Sen, Kontheari; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Edenhofer, Ilka; Mattinzoli, Deborah; Kretzler, Matthias; Rastaldi, Maria P; Cohen, Clemens D

    2010-01-01

    Glomerular diseases account for the majority of cases with chronic renal failure. Several genes have been identified with key relevance for glomerular function. Quite a few of these genes show a specific or preferential mRNA expression in the renal glomerulus. To identify additional candidate genes involved in glomerular function in humans we generated a human renal glomerulus-enriched gene expression dataset (REGGED) by comparing gene expression profiles from human glomeruli and tubulointerstitium obtained from six transplant living donors using Affymetrix HG-U133A arrays. This analysis resulted in 677 genes with prominent overrepresentation in the glomerulus. Genes with 'a priori' known prominent glomerular expression served for validation and were all found in the novel dataset (e.g. CDKN1, DAG1, DDN, EHD3, MYH9, NES, NPHS1, NPHS2, PDPN, PLA2R1, PLCE1, PODXL, PTPRO, SYNPO, TCF21, TJP1, WT1). The mRNA expression of several novel glomerulus-enriched genes in REGGED was validated by qRT-PCR. Gene ontology and pathway analysis identified biological processes previously not reported to be of relevance in glomeruli of healthy human adult kidneys including among others axon guidance. This finding was further validated by assessing the expression of the axon guidance molecules neuritin (NRN1) and roundabout receptor ROBO1 and -2. In diabetic nephropathy, a prevalent glomerulopathy, differential regulation of glomerular ROBO2 mRNA was found.In summary, novel transcripts with predominant expression in the human glomerulus could be identified using a comparative strategy on microdissected nephrons. A systematic analysis of this glomerulus-specific gene expression dataset allows the detection of target molecules and biological processes involved in glomerular biology and renal disease. PMID:20634963

  19. Expression of granzyme A and B proteins by cytotoxic lymphocytes involved in acute renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Kummer, J A; Wever, P C; Kamp, A M; ten Berge, I J; Hack, C E; Weening, J J

    1995-01-01

    Granzymes A and B are serine-proteinases stored in the granules of activated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. Expression of granzymes in tissues can be used as an activation marker for cytotoxic cells. Using mAbs specific for human granzyme A or B in immunohistochemical staining techniques we investigated expression of granzyme A and B by lymphocytes infiltrating acutely rejected renal allografts. Twelve core needle biopsies were taken from ten different patients during an episode of acute rejection. Eleven biopsies contained high numbers of granzyme A and B positive lymphocytes infiltrating tubular epithelium, and vascular and glomerular structures. In one patient infiltrating lymphocytes did not express granzyme A and only low amounts of granzyme B. No correlation was found between the number of granzyme positive cells and the severity of the rejection as classified by conventional histological criteria. In one tissue specimen from a patient with a renal allograft without signs of rejection, the number of granzyme positive cells was much lower compared to that of the transplant group. In spite of the presence of a marked inflammatory infiltrate, no granzyme positive cells were detected in renal biopsies from patients with various inflammatory, not transplant-related, renal diseases. Phenotypic analysis showed that granzymes A and B were expressed by CD56+ NK cells and CD3+ cells, representing cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Thus, this study demonstrates that granzyme A and B protein-expressing lymphocytes infiltrate the kidney allografts during an acute cellular rejection but not in several other inflammatory renal diseases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Human cone pigment expressed in transgenic mice yields altered vision.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, G H; Fenwick, J C; Calderone, J B; Deeb, S S

    1999-04-15

    Genetically driven alterations in the complement of retinal photopigments are fundamental steps in the evolution of vision. We sought to determine how a newly added photopigment might impact vision by studying a transgenic mouse that expresses a human cone photopigment. Electroretinogram (ERG) measurements indicate that the added pigment works well, significantly changing spectral sensitivity without deleteriously affecting the operation of the native cone pigments. Visual capacities of the transgenic mice were established in behavioral tests. The new pigment was found to provide a significant expansion of the spectral range over which mice can perceive light, thus underlining the immediate utility of acquiring a new photopigment. The transgenic mouse also has the receptor basis for a novel color vision capacity, but tests show that potential was not realized. This failure likely reflects limitations in the organizational arrangement of the mouse retina.

  1. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION IN CLEAR CELL RENAL CELL CARCINOMA IDENTIFIED BY GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Brian R.; Li, Jianbo; Zhou, Ming; Babineau, Denise; Faber, Pieter; Novick, Andrew C.; Williams, Bryan R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Gene expression profiling has been shown to provide prognostic information regarding patients with a solitary, sporadic RCC. There is no reliable way to differentiate synchronous renal metastases from bilateral primary tumors in patients with bilateral RCC. We present data using a custom kidney cancer cDNA array that can predict outcomes in patients with unilateral and bilateral RCC. Methods Fresh frozen tissue from 38 clear cell RCC (cRCC) was analyzed using a cancer cDNA array containing 3966 genes relevant to cancer or kidney development. Median follow-up was 5.3 years; cancer had recurred in 12 (43%) patients and 11 (39%) patients were deceased at last follow-up. Results Using a training dataset of 8 tumors, a 44-gene expression profile (GEP) distinguishing aggressive and indolent cRCC was identified. Of 29 single cRCC, 16 were predicted to be indolent and 13 aggressive by GEP. Recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 68% and 42% in these 2 groups (P=.032). cRCC classified as indolent or aggressive according to SSIGN score had 5-year recurrence-free survival of 78% and 42%, respectively (P=.021). In a cox proportional hazards analysis, GEP was not an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival after accounting for SSIGN score. GEP classification correlated with cancer-specific survival at 5 years in 4 of 4 patients with metachronous cRCC, but only 2 of 4 patients with bilateral synchronous cRCC. Conclusions GEP using a kidney cancer-relevant cDNA array can differentiate between aggressive and indolent cRCC. GEP results may be most useful in unilateral cRCC when results are discordant with predictions of tumor behavior based on standard clinicopathologic features. In addition, GEP can provide prognostic information that may help characterize tumors of unknown clinical stage, such as bilateral metachronous cRCC. PMID:19095258

  2. Expression of MLH1 and MSH2 in urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Laleh; Osunkoya, Adeboye O

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigated microsatellite instability in urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis by lack of immunohistochemical staining for MLH1 and MSH2. The study included 44 cases of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis obtained from radical nephroureterectomy specimens at our institution. We evaluated the loss of nuclear immunohistochemical staining of MLH1 and MSH2. Eight of 44 (18 %) patients had negative MLH1 expression and 25/44 (57 %) patients had negative MSH2 expression. Six of 8 (75 %) patients with negative MLH1 expression were male and 2/8 (25 %) patients were female. Nineteen of 25 (75 %) patients with negative MSH2 expression were male, and 6/25 (24 %) patients were female. Seven of 8 (88 %) cases with negative MLH1 expression were high-grade urothelial carcinoma, and 21/25 (84 %) cases with negative MSH2 expression were high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Twenty-one of 44 (48 %) cases had an inverted growth pattern, of which 3/21 (14 %) cases had negative MLH1 expression and 14/21 (67 %) cases had negative MSH2 expression. Our study showed that microsatellite instability based on negative expression of MLH1 and MSH2 was more common in male patients with high-grade urothelial carcinoma. There is a strong correlation between inverted growth pattern and negative MSH2 expression. Microsatellite instability testing should be performed in patients with upper urinary tract carcinoma and may have prognostic value. PMID:24874052

  3. Glucose Oxidase Induces Cellular Senescence in Immortal Renal Cells through ILK by Downregulating Klotho Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Troyano-Suárez, Nuria; del Nogal-Avila, María; Mora, Inés; Sosa, Patricia; López-Ongil, Susana; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Olmos, Gemma; Ruíz-Torres, María Piedad

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence can be prematurely induced by oxidative stress involved in aging. In this work, we were searching for novel intermediaries in oxidative stress-induced senescence, focusing our interest on integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a scaffold protein at cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion sites, and on the Klotho gene. Cultured renal cells were treated with glucose oxidase (GOx) for long time periods. GOx induced senescence, increasing senescence associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of p16. In parallel, GOx increased ILK protein expression and activity. Ectopic overexpression of ILK in cells increased p16 expression, even in the absence of GOx, whereas downregulation of ILK inhibited the increase in p16 due to oxidative stress. Additionally, GOx reduced Klotho gene expression and cells overexpressing Klotho protein did not undergo senescence after GOx addition. We demonstrated a direct link between ILK and Klotho since silencing ILK expression in cells and mice increases Klotho expression and reduces p53 and p16 expression in renal cortex. In conclusion, oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in kidney cells by increasing ILK protein expression and activity, which in turn reduces Klotho expression. We hereby present ILK as a novel downregulator of Klotho gene expression. PMID:26583057

  4. Gene expression of 5-lipoxygenase and LTA4 hydrolase in renal tissue of nephrotic syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Menegatti, E; Roccatello, D; Fadden, K; Piccoli, G; De Rosa, G; Sena, L M; Rifai, A

    1999-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LT) of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway constitute a class of potent biological lipid mediators of inflammation implicated in the pathogenesis of different models of experimental glomerulonephritis. The key enzyme, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), catalyses oxygenation of arachidonic acid to generate the primary leukotriene LTA4. This LT, in turn, serves as a substrate for either LTA4 hydrolase, to form the potent chemoattractant LTB4, or LTC4 synthase, to produce the powerful vasoconstrictor LTC4. To investigate the potential role of LT in the pathogenesis of human glomerulonephritis with nephrotic syndrome, we examined the gene expression of 5-LO and LTA4 hydrolase in renal tissue of 21 adult patients with nephrotic syndrome and 11 controls. The patients consisted of 11 cases of membranous nephropathy (MN), seven focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), two non-IgA mesangial glomerulonephritis and one minimal change disease. Total RNA purified from renal tissue was reverse transcribed into cDNA and amplified with specific primers in a polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Eight patients' renal tissue, four MN and four FSGS, co-expressed 5-LO and LTA4 hydrolase. In situ hybridization analysis revealed 5-LO expression and distribution limited to the interstitial cells surrounding the peritubular capillaries. Comparative clinical and immunohistological data showed that these eight patients had impaired renal function and interstitial changes that significantly correlated with 5-LO expression. These findings suggest that leukotrienes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MN and FSGS. These results are also relevant to elucidating the pathophysiologic mechanisms which underlie progression to renal failure in these diseases. PMID:10337029

  5. Renal caveolin-1 expression in children with unilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

    PubMed

    Vallés, Patricia G; Manucha, Walter; Carrizo, Liliana; Vega Perugorria, José; Seltzer, Alicia; Ruete, Celeste

    2007-02-01

    Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that contain a variety of signal transduction molecules and receptors for growth factors and cytokines. This study was performed to examine the in vivo expression and localization of caveolin-1 in kidneys from 19 children who underwent surgery release of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) in relation to renal function and degree of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Renal biopsies were carried out at the time of surgery for obstruction release. Kidney tissue from children of similar age removed because of carcinoma was used as control. Expression of caveolin-1 at the protein level in renal tissue and urine was demonstrated in patients with technetium 99 m labeled diethylene triamine pentaacetate ((99)Tc DTPA) renal scan 28.8+/-2% and increased tubular interstitial fibrosis in seven patients at the time of obstruction release. Colocalization staining of AT(1) angiotensin II receptor with caveolin-1 in basolateral membrane of epithelial tubule cells, enhanced AT(1) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), were shown in these patients. In contrast, absence of association of caveolin-1 with AT(1) receptor expression in proximal and collecting tubule membranes with AT(1) receptor mRNA and eNOS mRNA expression near control were demonstrated in 12 patients, with (99)Tc DTPA renal scan 39.7+2.1% and no evidence of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. From our results, the role of caveolin-1 as a factor contributing to the severity of the tubulointerstitial process resulting from obstructive nephropathy could be suggested.

  6. Endotoxin-induced basal respiration alterations of renal HK-2 cells: A sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Quoilin, C.; Mouithys-Mickalad, A.; Duranteau, J.; Gallez, B.; Hoebeke, M.

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A HK-2 cells model of inflammation-induced acute kidney injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two oximetry methods: high resolution respirometry and ESR spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen consumption rates of renal cells decrease when treated with LPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells do not recover normal respiration when the LPS treatment is removed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This basal respiration alteration is a sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation. -- Abstract: To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells.

  7. Molecular Sub-Classification of Renal Epithelial Tumors Using Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Thomas; Chung, Paul H.; Reinish, Ariel; Valera, Vladimir; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Linehan, W. Marston; Bratslavsky, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of the sub-classification of renal cortical neoplasms using molecular signatures. Experimental Design A search of publicly available databases was performed to identify microarray datasets with multiple histologic sub-types of renal cortical neoplasms. Meta-analytic techniques were utilized to identify differentially expressed genes for each histologic subtype. The lists of genes obtained from the meta-analysis were used to create predictive signatures through the use of a pair-based method. These signatures were organized into an algorithm to sub-classify renal neoplasms. The use of these signatures according to our algorithm was validated on several independent datasets. Results We identified three Gene Expression Omnibus datasets that fit our criteria to develop a training set. All of the datasets in our study utilized the Affymetrix platform. The final training dataset included 149 samples represented by the four most common histologic subtypes of renal cortical neoplasms: 69 clear cell, 41 papillary, 16 chromophobe, and 23 oncocytomas. When validation of our signatures was performed on external datasets, we were able to correctly classify 68 of the 72 samples (94%). The correct classification by subtype was 19/20 (95%) for clear cell, 14/14 (100%) for papillary, 17/19 (89%) for chromophobe, 18/19 (95%) for oncocytomas. Conclusions Through the use of meta-analytic techniques, we were able to create an algorithm that sub-classified renal neoplasms on a molecular level with 94% accuracy across multiple independent datasets. This algorithm may aid in selecting molecular therapies and may improve the accuracy of subtyping of renal cortical tumors. PMID:21818257

  8. Metallothionein gene expression in peripheral lymphocytes and renal dysfunction in a population environmentally exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Jian; Jin Taiyi . E-mail: tyjin@smhu.edu.cn; Nordberg, Gunnar; Nordberg, Monica . E-mail: monica.nordberg@imm.ki.se

    2005-08-07

    In order to study the validity of metallothionein (MT) gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) as a biomarker of cadmium exposure and susceptibility to renal dysfunction, MT mRNA levels were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in PBLs from residents living in a cadmium-contaminated area. MT mRNA levels were found to increase with the increase of blood cadmium (BCd) and urinary cadmium (UCd) levels. Basal MT mRNA levels were significantly correlated with the logarithm of BCd levels and the logarithm of UCd levels confirming that MT expression in PBLs is a biomarker of cadmium exposure and internal dose. An inverse relationship was observed between in vitro induced MT-mRNA level in PBLs and urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase (UNAG) suggesting that MT gene expression in PBLs may be used as a biomarker of susceptibility to renal toxicity of cadmium.

  9. Altered Gene Expression in Mice Selected for High Maternal Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Gammie, Stephen C.; Auger, Anthony P.; Jessen, Heather M.; Vanzo, Rena J.; Awad, Tarif A.; Stevenson, Sharon A.

    2007-01-01

    We previously applied selective breeding on outbred mice to increase maternal aggression (maternal defense). In this study, we compared gene expression within a continuous region of the CNS involved in maternal aggression (hypothalamus and preoptic regions) between lactating selected (S) and non-selected control (C) mice (n = 6 per group). Using microarrays representing over 40,000 genes or expressed sequence tags, two statistical algorithms were used to identify significant differences in gene expression: robust multi array and the probe logarithmic intensity error method. ∼ 200 genes were identified as significant using an intersection from both techniques. A subset of genes were examined for confirmation by real-time PCR. Significant decreases were found in S mice for neurotensin and neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 (both confirmed by PCR). Significant increases were found in S mice for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (confirmed by PCR), the K+ channel subunit, Kcna1 (confirmed by PCR), corticotrophin releasing factor binding protein (just above significance using PCR; p = 0.051), and GABA A receptor subunit 1A (not confirmed by PCR, but similar direction). S mice also exhibited significantly higher levels of the neurotransmitter receptor, adenosine A1 receptor, and the transcription factors, c-Fos, and Egr-1. Interestingly, for 24 genes related to metabolism, all were significantly elevated in S mice, suggesting altered metabolism in these mice. Together, this study provides a list of candidate genes (some previously implicated in maternal aggression and some novel) that may play an important role in the production of this behavior. PMID:16939635

  10. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na+/K+-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:27043552

  11. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:27043552

  12. Defective renal water handling in transgenic mice over-expressing human CD39/NTPDase1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Morris, Kaiya L; Sparrow, Shannon K; Dwyer, Karen M; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Robson, Simon C; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2012-08-01

    Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 hydrolyzes extracellular ATP and ADP to AMP. Previously, we showed that CD39 is expressed at several sites within the kidney and thus may impact the availability of type 2 purinergic receptor (P2-R) ligands. Because P2-Rs appear to regulate urinary concentrating ability, we have evaluated renal water handling in transgenic mice (TG) globally overexpressing hCD39. Under basal conditions, TG mice exhibited significantly impaired urinary concentration and decreased protein abundance of AQP2 in the kidney compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Urinary excretion of total nitrates/nitrites was significantly higher in TG mice, but the excretion of AVP or PGE(2) was equivalent to control WT mice. There were no significant differences in electrolyte-free water clearance or fractional excretion of sodium. Under stable hydrated conditions (gelled diet feeding), the differences between the WT and TG mice were negated, but the decrease in urine osmolality persisted. When water deprived, TG mice failed to adequately concentrate urine and exhibited impaired AVP responses. However, the increases in urinary osmolalities in response to subacute dDAVP or chronic AVP treatment were similar in TG and WT mice. These observations suggest that TG mice have impaired urinary concentrating ability despite normal AVP levels. We also note impaired AVP release in response to water deprivation but that TG kidneys are responsive to exogenous dDAVP or AVP. We infer that heightened nucleotide scavenging by increased levels of CD39 altered the release of endogenous AVP in response to dehydration. We propose that ectonucleotidases and modulated purinergic signaling impact urinary concentration and indicate potential utility of targeted therapy for the treatment of water balance disorders.

  13. Increased dietary sodium induces COX2 expression by activating NFκB in renal medullary interstitial cells.

    PubMed

    He, Wenjuan; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Min; Davis, Linda S; Blackwell, Timothy S; Yull, Fiona; Breyer, Matthew D; Hao, Chuan-Ming

    2014-02-01

    High salt diet induces renal medullary cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression. Selective blockade of renal medullary COX2 activity in rats causes salt-sensitive hypertension, suggesting a role for renal medullary COX2 in maintaining systemic sodium balance. The present study characterized the cellular location of COX2 induction in the kidney of mice following high salt diet and examined the role of NFκB in mediating this COX2 induction in response to increased dietary salt. High salt diet (8 % NaCl) for 3 days markedly increased renal medullary COX2 expression in C57Bl/6 J mice. Co-immunofluorescence using a COX2 antibody and antibodies against aquaporin-2, ClC-K, aquaporin-1, and CD31 showed that high salt diet-induced COX2 was selectively expressed in renal medullary interstitial cells. By using NFκB reporter transgenic mice, we observed a sevenfold increase of luciferase activity in the renal medulla of the NFκB-luciferase reporter mice following high salt diet, and a robust induction of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression mainly in renal medullary interstitial cells of the NFκB-EGFP reporter mice following high salt diet. Treating high salt diet-fed C57Bl/6 J mice with selective IκB kinase inhibitor IMD-0354 (8 mg/kg bw) substantially suppressed COX2 induction in renal medulla, and also significantly reduced urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). These data therefore suggest that renal medullary interstitial cell NFκB plays an important role in mediating renal medullary COX2 expression and promoting renal PGE2 synthesis in response to increased dietary sodium.

  14. Expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 in Renal Tissue of Patients with Chronic Active Antibody-mediated Renal Graft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metallopropteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in the renal allografts of patients with chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), and to explore their role in the pathogenesis of AMR. Methods Immunohistochemistry assay and computer-assisted image analysis were used to detect the expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 in the renal allografts with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) in 46 transplant recipients and 15 normal renal tissue specimens as the controls. The association of the expression level of either MMP-2 or TIMP-1 with the pathological grade of IF/TA in AMR was analyzed. Results The expression of either MMP-2 or TIMP-1 was significantly increased in the renal allografts of the recipients as compared with the normal renal tissue (P < 0.05). MMP-2 expression tended to decrease, while TIMP-1 and serum creatinine increased along with the increase of pathological grade of IF/TA (P < 0.05). In IF/TA groups, the expression of TIMP-1 was positively correlated to serum creatinine level (r = 0.718, P < 0.05). Conclusions It is suggested by the results that abnormal expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 might play roles in the development of renal fibrosis in chronic AMR. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1128474926172838 PMID:23057632

  15. Effects of tempol on altered metabolism and renal vascular responsiveness in fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Mohammed H; Sattar, Munavvar A; Johns, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of tempol (a superoxide dismutase mimetic) on renal vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic agonists in fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (a model of metabolic syndrome). Rats were fed 20% fructose in drinking water (F) for 8 weeks. One fructose-fed group received tempol (FT) at 1 mmol·L(-1) in drinking water for 8 weeks or as an infusion (1.5 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) intrarenally. At the end of the treatment regimen, the renal responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, methoxamine, and Ang II were determined. F rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia, hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. Tempol reduced blood glucose and insulin levels (all p < 0.05) in FT rats compared with their untreated counterparts. The vasoconstriction response to all agonists was lower in F rats than in control rats by about 35%-65% (all p < 0.05). Vasoconstrictor responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, and methoxamine but not Ang II were about 41%-75% higher in FT rats compared with F rats (all p < 0.05). Acute tempol infusion blunted responses to noradrenaline, methoxamine, and Ang II in control rats by 32%, 33%, and 62%, while it blunted responses to noradrenaline and Ang II in F rats by 26% and 32%, respectively (all p < 0.05), compared with their untreated counterparts. Superoxide radicals play a crucial role in controlling renal vascular responses to adrenergic agonists in insulin-resistant rats. Chronic but not acute tempol treatment enhances renal vascular responsiveness in fructose-fed rats. PMID:26789093

  16. Functions of the Renal Nerves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepke, John P.; DiBona, Gerald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses renal neuroanatomy, renal vasculature, renal tubules, renin secretion, renorenal reflexes, and hypertension as related to renal nerve functions. Indicates that high intensitites of renal nerve stimulation have produced alterations in several renal functions. (A chart with various stimulations and resultant renal functions and 10-item,…

  17. Renal Gene and Protein Expression Signatures for Prediction of Kidney Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Wenjun; Eichinger, Felix; Bitzer, Markus; Oh, Jun; McWeeney, Shannon; Berthier, Celine C.; Shedden, Kerby; Cohen, Clemens D.; Henger, Anna; Krick, Stefanie; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Dikman, Steven; Schröppel, Bernd; Thomas, David B.; Schlondorff, Detlef; Kretzler, Matthias; Böttinger, Erwin P.

    2009-01-01

    Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common, only a fraction of CKD patients progress to end-stage renal disease. Molecular predictors to stratify CKD populations according to their risk of progression remain undiscovered. Here we applied transcriptional profiling of kidneys from transforming growth factor-β1 transgenic (Tg) mice, characterized by heterogeneity of kidney disease progression, to identify 43 genes that discriminate kidneys by severity of glomerular apoptosis before the onset of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in 2-week-old animals. Among the genes examined, 19 showed significant correlation between mRNA expression in uninephrectomized left kidneys at 2 weeks of age and renal disease severity in right kidneys of Tg mice at 4 weeks of age. Gene expression profiles of human orthologs of the 43 genes in kidney biopsies were highly significantly related (R2 = 0.53; P < 0.001) to the estimated glomerular filtration rates in patients with CKD stages I to V, and discriminated groups of CKD stages I/II and III/IV/V with positive and negative predictive values of 0.8 and 0.83, respectively. Protein expression patterns for selected genes were successfully validated by immunohistochemistry in kidneys of Tg mice and kidney biopsies of patients with IgA nephropathy and CKD stages I to V, respectively. In conclusion, we developed novel mRNA and protein expression signatures that predict progressive renal fibrosis in mice and may be useful molecular predictors of CKD progression in humans. PMID:19465643

  18. Expression of dystroglycan correlates with tumor grade and predicts survival in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sgambato, Alessandro; Camerini, Andrea; Amoroso, Domenico; Genovese, Giannicola; De Luca, Filomena; Cecchi, Massimo; Migaldi, Mario; Rettino, Alessandro; Valsuani, Chiara; Tartarelli, Gianna; Donati, Sara; Siclari, Olimpia; Rossi, Giulio; Cittadini, Achille

    2007-12-01

    The dystroglycan (DG) complex is a transmembrane glycoprotein that forms a continuous link from the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. Deregulated expression of DG has been reported in a variety of human malignancies and related to tumor aggressiveness. In this study expression of the DG subunit was evaluated by immunostaining in a series of renal epithelial cancers and its relation with traditional prognostic indicators and with the clinical outcome of the patients was evaluated. alphaDG expression was undetectable in a significant fraction of tumors (54%). In renal cell carcinomas (RCC) loss of alpha-DG staining correlated with higher tumor grade (p = 0.02) but not with tumor stage nor tumor size. In clear cell RCC patients loss of alphaDG staining correlated with an increased risk of recurrence (p = 0.002 by log-rank test) and death (p = 0.004) also when patients with lower grade or stage tumors were analyzed separately. In a multivariate analysis loss of DG staining confirmed to be and independent predictor of shorter disease-free (p = 0.001; RR = 4.9) and overall (p = 0.009; RR = 4.9) survival stronger than tumor grade and size. These findings demonstrate that loss of alphaDG expression, which correspond to loss of a functional DG complex, is a frequent event in human renal tumorigenesis and is an independent predictor of early recurrence and death for patients with clear cell RCC.

  19. Inhibition of hypothalamic MCT1 expression increases food intake and alters orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide expression

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo-Vega, Roberto; Cortés-Campos, Christian; Barahona, María José; Carril, Claudio; Ordenes, Patricio; Salgado, Magdiel; Oyarce, Karina; García-Robles, María de los Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic glucosensing, which involves the detection of glucose concentration changes by brain cells and subsequent release of orexigenic or anorexigenic neuropeptides, is a crucial process that regulates feeding behavior. Arcuate nucleus (AN) neurons are classically thought to be responsible for hypothalamic glucosensing through a direct sensing mechanism; however, recent data has shown a metabolic interaction between tanycytes and AN neurons through lactate that may also be contributing to this process. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is the main isoform expressed by tanycytes, which could facilitate lactate release to hypothalamic AN neurons. We hypothesize that MCT1 inhibition could alter the metabolic coupling between tanycytes and AN neurons, altering feeding behavior. To test this, we inhibited MCT1 expression using adenovirus-mediated transfection of a shRNA into the third ventricle, transducing ependymal wall cells and tanycytes. Neuropeptide expression and feeding behavior were measured in MCT1-inhibited animals after intracerebroventricular glucose administration following a fasting period. Results showed a loss in glucose regulation of orexigenic neuropeptides and an abnormal expression of anorexigenic neuropeptides in response to fasting. This was accompanied by an increase in food intake and in body weight gain. Taken together, these results indicate that MCT1 expression in tanycytes plays a role in feeding behavior regulation. PMID:27677351

  20. Correlation between BOLD-MRI and HIF expression level in renal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Wang, Xingming; Wang, Shuai; Cheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Occupying about 2%~3% of all malignant tumors, renal carcinoma is the most common primary cancer in kidney. The oxidative level of tumor cells is of vital role for optimizing treatment plan, evaluating efficacy and predicting prognosis. This study thus investigated the R2* value in mouse renal carcinoma model and the correlation between tumor hypoxia and expression level of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). A total of 20 BALB/C nude mice (4~6 weeks old) were inoculated with human ACHN renal carcinoma cells to generate renal cancer model. After the tumor diameter reached 0.5 cm, all animals were examined by BOLD-MRI, both under normal inhalation (R2a*) and carbogen treatment (R2b*). The alternation of R2* values (ΔR2*=R2a* - R2b*) was calculated. Mice were then sacrificed for Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining targeting HIF-1α and HIF-2α. The positive score of HIF was then analyzed for its correlation with R2* value. In 18 mice finished both experiments, Pearson correlation analysis revealed significant negative correlation between R2a* and ΔR2* (r=-0.48, P<0.05) and positive relationship between ΔR2* and HIF-2α (r=0.38, P<0.05). HIF-1α level, however, did not correlated with tumor R* values. The positive correlation between ΔR2* and HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, suggested potential role of combined BOLD-MRI technique and HIF-1α staining in clinical diagnosis of renal carcinoma. HIF-2α may work as biological marker for renal cancer. PMID:26722605

  1. Expression of insulin-like growth factor family genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Białożyt, Michał; Plato, Marta; Mazurek, Urszula; Braczkowska, Bogumiła

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Despite significant progress in the pathology of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), diagnostic and predictive factors of major importance have not been discovered. Some hopes are associated with insulin-like growth factors. The aim of the study was to compare the expression of genes for insulin-like growth factor family in tumours and in tissue of kidneys without cancer. Material and methods Fifty-two patients years with clear cell renal cell cancer were qualified to the study group; patients nephrectomised because of hydronephrosis were included in the control group. Expression of genes were evaluated by RT-PCR. Results Expression of IGFR-1 gene in tumour accounts for about 60% of cases. The incidence is higher than in corresponding adjacent non-cancerous kidney tissues and higher (but with no statistical significance) than in kidney without cancer. Expression of IGFR-2 gene in tumours has not been established. The incidence of the expression in corresponding adjacent non-cancerous kidney tissues is small. Expression of this gene has been present in all specimens from kidneys without cancer. Expression of IGFBP-3 gene ascertained in all (except four) cases of ccRCC and in the majority of clippings from adjacent tissue. It was not found in kidneys from the control group. IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGFR-1 mRNA copy numbers in ccRCC were higher than in the material from the control group PMID:27358591

  2. Decreased humoral antibody episodes of acute renal allograft rejection in recipients expressing the HLA-DQβ1*0202 allele.

    PubMed

    Mannam, Venkat K R; Santos, Mark; Lewis, Robert E; Cruse, Julius M

    2012-10-01

    The present investigation was designed to show the effect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecular allelic specificities in the recipient on the induction of humoral antibody rejection, identified by C4d peritubular capillary staining, as well as specific antibody identified by Luminex technology. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed on dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes and they present antigenic peptides to CD4 positive T lymphocytes. Human renal peritubular and glomerular capillaries express class II MHC molecules upon activation. Expression of class II molecules on renal microvascular endothelial cells exposes them to possible interaction with specific circulating antibodies. We hypothesize that HLA-DQβ1*0202 expression in recipients decreases the likelihood of antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection. We found that 80% (=25) of DQ2 positive haplotype recipients failed to induce humoral antibody renal allograft rejection and 20% (n=25) of DQ2 positive haplotype recipients induced humoral antibody renal allograft rejection (p=0.008). By contrast, 48% (n=46) of DQ2 negative haplotype recipients failed to induce a humoral antibody component of renal allograft rejection and 52% (n=46) of DQ2 negative haplotype recipients induced humoral antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection. Our results suggest that recipients who express the DQβ1*0202 allele are less likely to induce a humoral antibody component of acute renal allograft rejection than are those expressing DQ1, DQ3, or DQ4 alleles. DQβ1*0202 allele expression in recipients could possibly be protective against acute humoral allograft rejection and might serve as a future criterion in recipient selection and in appropriate therapy for acute renal rejection episodes.

  3. Long-term fructose intake: biochemical consequences and altered renal histology in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Kizhner, Tali; Werman, Moshe J

    2002-12-01

    The use of fructose as a pure sugar has considerably increased in the last 3 decades, especially as a sweetener in carbonated beverages. Our previous studies showed that long-term fructose intake adversely affected several age-related metabolic parameters. The purpose of the present study was to compare the consequences of long-term fructose intake with those of glucose or sucrose on renal morphology and on several biochemical parameters used to estimate renal function. Male rats were fed a commercial diet for 16 months, and had free access either to water (control) or to 250 g/L solutions of fructose, glucose, or sucrose. Fructose-drinking rats exhibited higher liver weights compare to the other dietary groups. Control rats excreted significantly less urinary output than all sugar groups, which did not differ from each other. No differences were observed in fasting plasma fructose, glucose, and creatinine levels, or in urinary glucose levels. Fructose consumption resulted in elevated urinary fructose levels, higher creatinine clearance, and marked proteinuria. The tested sugars had influence on the molecular weight distribution of urinary proteins in the ranges of 10 to 16, 25 to 35, and 75 to 85 kd. Histological examination revealed that fructose consumption led to the formation of foci of cortical tubular necrosis with chronic inflammatory infiltrate, accumulation of tubular hyaline casts, thickening of the Bowman's capsule, mesangial thickening due to collagen deposits, and the occurrence of hemosiderin in tubular cells. These data suggest that fructose has a negative impact on kidney function and morphology. Further research is required to elucidate the precise mechanisms by which long-term fructose consumption hampers renal metabolism.

  4. Renal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lupus autoimmune mice.

    PubMed

    Zoja, C; Liu, X H; Donadelli, R; Abbate, M; Testa, D; Corna, D; Taraboletti, G; Vecchi, A; Dong, Q G; Rollins, B J; Bertani, T; Remuzzi, G

    1997-05-01

    Mononuclear cell infiltration in glomeruli and renal interstitium is a prominent feature of some types of glomerulonephritis, including lupus nephritis. The mechanism(s) underlying monocyte influx into the kidney is not fully understood. Recently, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) has been identified as a chemotactic factor involved in the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages in the glomeruli of rats with mesangioproliferative as well as anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis. In the study presented here, renal MCP-1 mRNA expression in New Zealand Black x New Zealand White (NZB/W) F1 mice, a model of genetically determined immune complex disease that mimics systemic lupus in humans, was investigated. Northern blot analysis revealed a single 0.7 kb MCP-1 transcript of very low intensity in kidneys from 2-month-old NZB/W mice that had not yet developed proteinuria nor renal damage. Message levels, which increased markedly with the progression of nephritis and in association with mononuclear cell infiltration, were 10- and 15- fold higher in 8-10-month-old mice than in 2-month-old mice. By in situ hybridization, increased expression of MCP-1 mRNA was demonstrated in glomeruli and, even more striking, in tubular epithelial cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated increased expression of MCP-1 protein in kidneys of 10-month-old NZB/W mice, consistent with MCP-1 mRNA data. When NZB/W mice were treated with cyclophosphamide up to 12 months of age, expression of MCP-1 in the renal tissue remained low, the influx of inflammatory cells did not appear, and glomerular and tubular structures remained well preserved. These data suggest that elevated MCP-1 might act as a signal for inflammatory cells to infiltrate the kidney in lupus nephritis.

  5. Ecto-5′-nucleotidase expression is associated with the progression of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    YU, YI; WANG, WEI; SONG, LEI; HU, WENTAO; DONG, CHI; PEI, HAILONG; ZHOU, GUANGMING; YUE, ZHONGJIN

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common tissue tumor that occurs across all age groups and has become one of the types of cancer with the fastest increasing incidence. Due to the resistance of RCC chemo- and radiotherapy, surgery is the only currently effective treatment. Therefore, specific markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of RCC are expected to result in novel methods of treatment. Ecto-5′-nucleotidase, also termed cluster of differentiation (CD)73, is a protein that is activated in several types of aggressive cancer and may promote cancer progression. CD73 was examined in the present study to determine the association between the protein and RCC. The expression levels of CD73 in 159 RCC tissue sections and 30 paratumorous normal renal tissue samples obtained from 235 patients that underwent nephrectomy were examined by immunohistochemical staining. By contrast, the expression level of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a potential prognostic factor in RCC, was also examined in 85 RCC and 13 normal tissue samples. Intense CD73 expression was identified in 75 out of 159 RCC cell membranes compared with normal renal tissues. In contrast, there was high P-gp expression in the blood vessels of 42 out of 85 RCC tissues and there was no significant difference between the P-gp expression identified in RCC cells (34 out of 85) and the cell membrane of normal renal cells (2 out of 13). The expression level of CD73 in RCC cells was significantly associated with tumor type, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and tumor grade. However, the expression of P-gp in RCC cells was only associated with the TNM stage and tumor grade. Using a multivariable Cox regression analysis, it was found that the median survival rate of RCC patients with intense CD73 expression in RCC cells was 62.06±5.35 months, which was drastically shorter compared with rare CD73 expression (103.72±3.67 months). In conclusion, the expression level of CD73 is significantly associated with RCC tumor progression

  6. Cytoplasmic Expression of Pontin in Renal Cell Carcinoma Correlates with Tumor Invasion, Metastasis and Patients’ Survival

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; Ren, Juchao; Yan, Lei; Tang, Yueqing; Zhang, Wenhua; Li, Dawei; Zang, Yuanwei; Kong, Feng; Xu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal of all genitourinary malignancies. Distant metastasis represents the major cause of death in patients with RCC. Recent studies have implicated the AAA+ ATPase pontin in many cellular activities that are highly relevant to carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that pontin was up-regulated in RCC, and plays a previously unknown pro-invasive role in the metastatic progression of RCC through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway. 28 pairs of freshly frozen clear cell RCC samples and the matched normal renal tissues analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting demonstrated that pontin was up-regulated in clear cell RCC tissues than in normal renal tissues. In addition, immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate subcellular pontin expression in 95 RCC patients, and found that overexpression of pontin in cytoplasm positively correlated with the metastatic features, predicting unfavorable outcomes of RCC patients. Furthermore, in vitro experiments show pontin was predominantly expressed in cytoplasm of RCC cell lines, and a significant suppression of cell migration and invasion in pontin siRNA treated RCC cell lines was observed. Mechanistic studies show that pontin depletion up-regulated the E-cadherin protein and down-regulated vimentin protein, and decreased nuclear β-catenin expression, suggesting the involvement of EMT in pontin induced metastatic progression. Together, our data suggest pontin as a potential prognostic biomarker in RCC, and provide new promising therapeutic targets for clinical intervention of kidney cancers. PMID:25751257

  7. Curcumin Ameliorates Lead (Pb(2+))-Induced Hemato-Biochemical Alterations and Renal Oxidative Damage in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M; El-Toweissy, Mona Y; Ali, Awatef M; Awad Allah, Abd Allah M; Darwish, Hanaa S; Sadek, Ismail A

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the protective role of curcumin (Curc) against hematological and biochemical changes, as well as renal pathologies induced by lead acetate [Pb (CH3COO)2·3H2O] treatment. Male albino rats were intraperitoneally treated with Pb(2+) (25 mg of lead acetate/kg b.w., once a day) alone or in combination with Curc (30 mg of Curc/kg b.w., twice a day) for 7 days. Exposure of rats to Pb(2+) caused significant decreases in hemoglobin (Hb) content, hematocrit (Ht) value, and platelet (Plt) count, while Pb(2+)-related leukocytosis was accompanied by absolute neutrophilia, monocytosis, lymphopenia, and eosinopenia. A significant rise in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a marked drop of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were evident in the kidney, liver, and serum of Pb(2+) group compared to that of control. Furthermore, significantly high levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a sharp drop in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) level were also seen in blood after injection of Pb(2+). Additionally, hepatorenal function tests were enhanced. Meanwhile, Pb(2+) produced marked histo-cytological alterations in the renal cortex. Co-administration of Curc to the Pb(2+)-treated animals restored most of the parameters mentioned above to near-normal levels/features. In conclusion, Curc appeared to be a promising agent for protection against Pb(2+)-induced toxicity.

  8. NFκB-mediated cyclin D1 expression by microRNA-21 influences renal cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bera, Amit; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Dey, Nirmalya; Das, Falguni; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Abboud, Hanna E; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2013-12-01

    MicroRNAs regulate post-transcriptomic landscape in many tumors including renal cell carcinoma. We have recently shown significantly increased expression of miR-21 in renal tumors and that this miRNA contributes to the proliferation of renal cancer cells in culture. However, the mechanism by which miR-21 regulates renal cancer cell proliferation is poorly understood. Addiction to constitutive NFκB activity is hallmark of many cancers including renal cancer. Using miR-21 Sponge in renal cancer cells to block endogenous function of miR-21, we show inhibition of phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NFκB, IKKβ and IκB, which results in attenuation of NFκB transcriptional activity. Subtle reduction in the tumor suppressor PTEN has been linked to various malignancies. We showed previously that miR-21 targeted PTEN in renal cancer cells. Inhibition of PTEN by siRNAs restored miR-21 Sponge-induced suppression of phosphorylation of p65, IKKβ, IκB and NFκB transcriptional activity along with reversal of miR-21 Sponge-reduced phosphorylation of Akt. Expression of constitutively active Akt protected against miR-21 Sponge- and PTEN-mediated decrease in p65/IKKβ/IκB phosphorylation and NFκB transcriptional activity. Furthermore, IKKβ and p65 were required for miR-21-induced renal cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, miR-21 controlled the expression of cyclin D1 through NFκB-dependent transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-21-regulated renal cancer cell proliferation is mediated by cyclin D1 and CDK4. Together, our results establish a molecular order of a phosphatase-kinase couple involving PTEN/Akt/IKKβ and NFκB-dependent cyclin D1 expression for renal carcinoma cell proliferation by increased miR-21 levels.

  9. GATA2 Regulates Body Water Homeostasis through Maintaining Aquaporin 2 Expression in Renal Collecting Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Souma, Tomokazu; Takai, Jun; Satoh, Hironori; Morito, Naoki; Engel, James Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor GATA2 plays pivotal roles in early renal development, but its distribution and physiological functions in adult kidney are largely unknown. We examined the GATA2 expression pattern in the adult kidney by tracing green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence in Gata2GFP/+ mice that recapitulate endogenous GATA2 expression and found a robust GFP expression specifically in the renal medulla. Upon purification of the GFP-positive cells, we found that collecting duct (CD)-specific markers, including aquaporin 2 (Aqp2), an important channel for water reabsorption from urine, were abundantly expressed. To address the physiological function of GATA2 in the CD cells, we generated renal tubular cell-specific Gata2-deficient mice (Gata2-CKO) by crossing Gata2 floxed mice with inducible Pax8-Cre mice. We found that the Gata2-CKO mice showed a significant decrease in Aqp2 expression. The Gata2-CKO mice exhibited high 24-h urine volume and low urine osmolality, two important signs of diabetes insipidus. We introduced biotin-tagged GATA2 into a mouse CD-derived cell line and conducted chromatin pulldown assays, which revealed direct GATA2 binding to conserved GATA motifs in the Aqp2 promoter region. A luciferase reporter assay using an Aqp2 promoter-reporter showed that GATA2 trans activates Aqp2 through the GATA motifs. These results demonstrate that GATA2 regulates the Aqp2 gene expression in CD cells and contributes to the maintenance of the body water homeostasis. PMID:24636993

  10. Potassium supplement upregulates the expression of renal kallikrein and bradykinin B2 receptor in SHR.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Chao, L; Chao, J

    1999-03-01

    High potassium intake is known to attenuate hypertension, glomerular lesion, ischemic damage, and stroke-associated death. Our recent studies showed that expression of recombinant kallikrein by somatic gene delivery reduced high blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, and renal injury in hypertensive animal models. The aim of this study is to explore the potential role of the tissue kallikrein-kinin system in blood pressure reduction and renal protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) on a high-potassium diet. Young SHR were given drinking water with or without 1% potassium chloride for 6 wk. Systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced beginning at 1 wk, and the effect lasted for 6 wk in the potassium-supplemented group compared with that in the control group. Potassium supplement induced 70 and 40% increases in urinary kallikrein levels and renal bradykinin B2 receptor density, respectively (P < 0.05), but did not change serum kininogen levels. Similarly, Northern blot analysis showed that renal kallikrein mRNA levels increased 2.7-fold, whereas hepatic kininogen mRNA levels remained unchanged in rats with high potassium intake. No difference was observed in beta-actin mRNA levels in the kidney or liver of either group. Competitive RT-PCR showed a 1.7-fold increase in renal bradykinin B2 receptor mRNA levels in rats with high potassium intake. Potassium supplement significantly increased water intake, urine excretion, urinary kinin, cAMP, and cGMP levels. This study suggests that upregulation of the tissue kallikrein-kinin system may be attributed, in part, to blood pressure-lowering and diuretic effects of high potassium intake.

  11. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on altered renal hemodynamics induced by low protein diet in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Repollet, E; Tapia, E; Martínez-Maldonado, M

    1987-01-01

    We assessed the role of angiotensin II in mediating the alterations in renal hemodynamics known to result from low protein feeding to normal rats by examining the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril. 2 wk of low protein (6% casein) diet resulted in decreased glomerular filtration rate (normal protein [NP], 1.82 +/- 0.17 vs. low protein [LP], 0.76 +/- 0.01 ml/min; P less than 0.05) and renal plasma flow (NP, 6.7 +/- 0.2 vs. LP, 3.3 +/- 0.3 ml/min; P less than 0.05); renal vascular resistance rose (NP, 8.7 +/- 0.4 vs. LP, 19.8 +/- 1.4 dyn . s per cm5; P less than 0.05). These changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in plasma renin activity (NP, 7.0 +/- 0.7 vs. LP, 4.4 +/- 0.8 ng A I/ml per h; P less than 0.05), plasma aldosterone concentration (NP, 7.0 +/- 0.6 vs. LP, 4.1 +/- 0.7 ng/dl; P less than 0.05), and urinary PGE2 excretion (NP, 3,120 +/- 511 vs. LP, 648 +/- 95 pg/mgCr; P less than 0.05); by contrast renal renin content was significantly increased (NP, 2,587 +/- 273 vs. LP, 7,032 +/- 654 ng A I/mg protein; P less than 0.05). Treatment with captopril (30 mg/kg per d) raised glomerular filtration rate (GFR; LP + capt, 1.6 +/- 0.2 ml/min) and renal plasma flow (RPF; LP + capt, 6.7 +/- 0.7 ml/min), and reduced renal vascular resistance (LP + capt, 9.2 +/- 0.5 dyn/s per cm5) in low protein-fed animals. These values were not different from those measured in untreated and captopril-treated rats fed a normal (23%) protein diet. There were no changes in systemic mean arterial pressure in any group of rats. These data provide evidence that intrarenal angiotensin II mediates the changes in intrarenal hemodynamics induced by protein deprivation. The effects of low protein feeding may be partly potentiated by the reduction in PGE2 synthesis. However, the normalization of GFR and RPF in view of only modest increases in PGE2 excretion after captopril (LP, 648 +/- 95 vs. LP + capt, 1,131 +/- 82 pg/mgCr; P less than 0.05) suggests

  12. Aliskiren restores renal AQP2 expression during unilateral ureteral obstruction by inhibiting the inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weidong; Luo, Renfei; Lin, Yu; Wang, Feifei; Zheng, Peili; Levi, Moshe; Yang, Tianxin

    2015-01-01

    Ureteral obstruction is associated with reduced expression of renal aquaporins (AQPs), urinary concentrating defects, and an enhanced inflammatory response, in which the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may play an important role. We evaluated whether RAS blockade by a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, would prevent the decreased renal protein expression of AQPs in a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model and what potential mechanisms may be involved. UUO was performed for 3 days (3UUO) and 7 days (7UUO) in C57BL/6 mice with or without aliskiren injection. In 3UUO and 7UUO mice, aliskiren abolished the reduction of AQP2 protein expression but not AQP1, AQP3, and AQP4. mRNA levels of renal AQP2 and vasopressin type 2 receptor were decreased in obstructed kidneys of 7UUO mice, which were prevented by aliskiren treatment. Aliskiren treatment was also associated with a reduced inflammatory response in obstructed kidneys of UUO mice. Aliskiren significantly decreased mRNA levels of several proinflammatory factors, such as transforming growth factor-β and tumor necrosis factor-α, seen in obstructed kidneys of UUO mice. Interestingly, mRNA and protein levels of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome components apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, caspase-1, and IL-1β were dramatically increased in obstructed kidneys of 7UUO mice, which were significantly suppressed by aliskiren. In primary cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells, IL-1β significantly decreased AQP2 expression. In conclusions, RAS blockade with the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren increased water channel AQP2 expression in obstructed kidneys of UUO mice, at least partially by preventing NLRP3 inflammasome activation in association with ureteral obstruction. PMID:25694485

  13. Effects of potassium on expression of renal sodium transporters in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats induced by uninephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Yong; Kim, Sejoong; Lee, Jay Wook; Jung, Eun Sook; Heo, Nam Ju; Son, Min-Jeong; Oh, Yun Kyu; Na, Ki Young; Han, Jin Suk; Joo, Kwon Wook

    2011-06-01

    Dietary potassium is an important modulator of systemic blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary potassium is associated with an altered abundance of major renal sodium transporters that may contribute to the modulation of systemic BP. A unilateral nephrectomy (uNx) was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and the rats were fed a normal-salt diet (0.3% NaCl) for 4 wk. Thereafter, the rats were fed a high-salt (HS) diet (3% NaCl) for the entire experimental period. The potassium-repleted (HS+KCl) group was given a mixed solution of 1% KCl as a substitute for drinking water. We examined the changes in the abundance of major renal sodium transporters and the expression of mRNA of With-No-Lysine (WNK) kinases sequentially at 1 and 3 wk. The systolic BP of the HS+KCl group was decreased compared with the HS group (140.3 ± 2.97 vs. 150.9 ± 4.04 mmHg at 1 wk; 180.3 ± 1.76 vs. 207.7 ± 6.21 mmHg at 3 wk). The protein abundances of type 3 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in the HS+KCl group were significantly decreased (53 and 45% of the HS group at 1 wk, respectively; 19 and 8% of HS group at 3 wk). WNK4 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the HS+KCl group (1.4-fold of control at 1 wk and 1.9-fold of control at 3 wk). The downregulation of NHE3 and NCC may contribute to the BP-attenuating effect of dietary potassium associated with increased urinary sodium excretion.

  14. Increased expression of metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 in renal cell carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhong; Xu, Naijin; Guo, Kai; Xu, Peng; Li, Pengju; Zhang, Yiming; Li, Xiezhao; Zheng, Shaobo; Liu, Chunxiao; Xu, Abai; Huang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) expression in tumor specimens is an independent prognostic indicator of metastasis, which has recently gained considerable attention in cancer research, due to its overexpression in several types of carcinoma. However, MACC1 expression patterns and its possible role in renal cell carcinoma remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate MACC1 expression in renal cell carcinoma via immunohistochemical analysis and determine the relationship between MACC1 expression and cancer prognosis. Positive MACC1 expression was found to significantly correlate with distant metastasis and TNM stage (P < 0.05). A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients with higher MACC1 expression had a significantly lower disease-free rate (P < 0.05). These results indicate that MACC1 expression is significantly associated with prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the significance of MACC1 as a prognostic marker in renal cell carcinoma. MACC1 expression may be a useful target for the development of new therapeutic approaches, including molecular targeted therapeutic agents, for renal cell carcinoma.

  15. Activation of PI3K-Akt-GSK3{beta} pathway mediates hepatocyte growth factor inhibition of RANTES expression in renal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Rujun . E-mail: rgong@Brown.edu; Rifai, Abdalla; Dworkin, Lance D.

    2005-04-29

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was recently reported to ameliorate renal inflammation in a rat model of chronic renal failure. HGF exerted its action through suppression of RANTES expression in renal tubules. In the present study, we utilized an in vitro model of human kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells (HKC) to elucidate the mechanisms of RANTES suppression by HGF. HGF significantly suppressed basal and TNF-{alpha}-induced mRNA and protein expression of RANTES in a time and dose dependent fashion. HGF elicited PI3K-Akt activation and inhibited GSK3, a downstream transducer of PI3K-Akt, by inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser-9. When the PI3K-Akt pathway was blocked by wortmannin, HGF inhibition of RANTES was abrogated, demonstrating that the PI3K-Akt pathway is necessary for HGF action. In addition, specific inhibition of GSK3 activity by lithium ion suppressed basal and TNF-{alpha}-induced RANTES expression, reminiscent of the action of HGF. To further investigate the role of GSK3 in modulating RANTES expression, we examined the effect of forced expression of wild type GSK3{beta} or an uninhibitable mutant GSK3{beta}, in which the regulatory Ser-9 residue is changed to alanine (S9A-GSK3{beta}) in HKC. Overexpression of wild type GSK3{beta} did not alter the inhibitory action of HGF on RANTES. In contrast, expression of S9A-GSK3{beta} abolished HGF inhibition of basal and TNF-{alpha} stimulated RANTES expression. These findings suggest that PI3K-Akt activation and subsequent inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} are required for HGF-induced suppression of RANTES in HKC.

  16. Combined Paracrine and Endocrine AAV9 mediated Expression of Hepatocyte Growth Factor for the Treatment of Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schievenbusch, Stephanie; Strack, Ingo; Scheffler, Melanie; Nischt, Roswitha; Coutelle, Oliver; Hösel, Marianna; Hallek, Michael; Fries, Jochen WU; Dienes, Hans-Peter; Odenthal, Margarete; Büning, Hildegard

    2010-01-01

    In chronic renal disease, tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a leading cause of renal failure. Here, we made use of one of the most promising gene therapy vector platforms, the adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector system, and the COL4A3-deficient mice, a genetic mouse model of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, to develop a novel bidirectional treatment strategy to prevent renal fibrosis. By comparing different AAV serotypes in reporter studies, we identified AAV9 as the most suitable delivery vector to simultaneously target liver parenchyma for endocrine and renal tubular epithelium for paracrine therapeutic expression of the antifibrogenic cytokine human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF). We used transcriptional targeting to drive hHGF expression from the newly developed CMV-enhancer-Ksp-cadherin-promoter (CMV-Ksp) in renal and hepatic tissue following tail vein injection of rAAV9-CMV-Ksp-hHGF into COL4A3-deficient mice. The therapeutic efficiency of our approach was demonstrated by a remarkable attenuation of tubulointerstitial fibrosis and repression of fibrotic markers such as collagen1α1 (Col1A1), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β), and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA). Taken together, our results show the great potential of rAAV9 as an intravenously applicable vector for the combined paracrine and endocrine expression of antifibrogenic factors in the treatment of renal failure caused by tubulointerstitial fibrosis. PMID:20424598

  17. Differential Ly6C Expression after Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Identifies Unique Macrophage Populations.

    PubMed

    Clements, Meghan; Gershenovich, Michael; Chaber, Christopher; Campos-Rivera, Juanita; Du, Pan; Zhang, Mindy; Ledbetter, Steve; Zuk, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell type implicated in injury, repair, and fibrosis after AKI, but the macrophage population associated with each phase is unclear. In this study, we used a renal bilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury mouse model to identify unique monocyte/macrophage populations by differential expression of Ly6C in CD11b(+) cells and to define the function of these cells in the pathophysiology of disease on the basis of microarray gene signatures and reduction strategies. Macrophage populations were isolated from kidney homogenates by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for whole genome microarray analysis. The CD11b(+)/Ly6C(high) population associated with the onset of renal injury and increase in proinflammatory cytokines, whereas the CD11b(+)/Ly6C(intermediate) population peaked during kidney repair. The CD11b(+)/Ly6C(low) population emerged with developing renal fibrosis. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses identified gene signatures unique to each population. The CD11b(+)/Ly6C(intermediate) population had a distinct phenotype of wound healing, confirmed by results of studies inhibiting the macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor,whereas the CD11b(+)/Ly6C(low) population had a profibrotic phenotype. All populations, including the CD11b(+)/Ly6C(high) population, carried differential inflammatory signatures. The expression of M2-specific markers was detected in both the CD11b(+)/Ly6C(intermediate) and CD11b(+)/Ly6C(low) populations, suggesting these in vivo populations do not fit into the traditional classifications defined by in vitro systems. Results of this study in a renal ischemia-reperfusion injury model allow phenotype and function to be assigned to CD11b(+)/Ly6C(+) monocyte/macrophage populations in the pathophysiology of disease after AKI. PMID:26015452

  18. The Beneficial Effects of Renal Transplantation on Altered Oxidative Status of ESRD Patients.

    PubMed

    Cerrillos-Gutiérrez, José Ignacio; Miranda-Díaz, Alejandra Guillermina; Preciado-Rojas, Priscila; Gómez-Navarro, Benjamín; Sifuentes-Franco, Sonia; Carrillo-Ibarra, Sandra; Andrade-Sierra, Jorge; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso Martín

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation (RT), has been considered the best therapeutic option for end stage renal disease (ESRD). Objective. To determine the effect of RT on the evolution of oxidative DNA status. Methods. Prospective cohort (N = 50 receptors of RT); genotoxic damage, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and DNA repair enzyme, human 8-oxoguanine-DNA-N- glycosylase-1 (hOGG1); and antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were evaluated. Results. Before RT, 8-OHdG were significantly elevated (11.04 ± 0.90 versus 4.73 ± 0.34 ng/mL) compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001), with normalization after 6 months of 4.78 ± 0.34 ng/mL (p < 0.001). The same phenomenon was observed with hOGG1 enzyme before RT with 2.14 ± 0.36 ng/mL (p = 0.01) and decreased significantly at the end of the study to 1.20 ng/mL (p < 0.001) but was higher than controls, 0.51 ± 0.07 ng/mL (p < 0.03). Antioxidant SOD was elevated at 24.09 ± 1.6 IU/mL versus healthy controls (p = 0.001) before RT; however, 6 months after RT it decreased significantly to 16.9 ± 1.6 IU/mL (p = 0.002), without achieving the levels of healthy controls (p = 0.01). The GPx, before RT, was significantly diminished with 24.09 ± 1.6 IU/mL versus healthy controls (39.0 ± 1.58) (p = 0.01), while, in the final results, levels increased significantly to 30.38 ± 3.16 IU/mL (p = 0.001). Discussion. Patients with ESRD have important oxidative damage before RT. The RT significantly reduces oxidative damage and partially regulates the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx). PMID:27547292

  19. The Beneficial Effects of Renal Transplantation on Altered Oxidative Status of ESRD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cerrillos-Gutiérrez, José Ignacio; Preciado-Rojas, Priscila; Gómez-Navarro, Benjamín; Sifuentes-Franco, Sonia; Carrillo-Ibarra, Sandra; Andrade-Sierra, Jorge; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso Martín

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation (RT), has been considered the best therapeutic option for end stage renal disease (ESRD). Objective. To determine the effect of RT on the evolution of oxidative DNA status. Methods. Prospective cohort (N = 50 receptors of RT); genotoxic damage, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and DNA repair enzyme, human 8-oxoguanine-DNA-N- glycosylase-1 (hOGG1); and antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were evaluated. Results. Before RT, 8-OHdG were significantly elevated (11.04 ± 0.90 versus 4.73 ± 0.34 ng/mL) compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001), with normalization after 6 months of 4.78 ± 0.34 ng/mL (p < 0.001). The same phenomenon was observed with hOGG1 enzyme before RT with 2.14 ± 0.36 ng/mL (p = 0.01) and decreased significantly at the end of the study to 1.20 ng/mL (p < 0.001) but was higher than controls, 0.51 ± 0.07 ng/mL (p < 0.03). Antioxidant SOD was elevated at 24.09 ± 1.6 IU/mL versus healthy controls (p = 0.001) before RT; however, 6 months after RT it decreased significantly to 16.9 ± 1.6 IU/mL (p = 0.002), without achieving the levels of healthy controls (p = 0.01). The GPx, before RT, was significantly diminished with 24.09 ± 1.6 IU/mL versus healthy controls (39.0 ± 1.58) (p = 0.01), while, in the final results, levels increased significantly to 30.38 ± 3.16 IU/mL (p = 0.001). Discussion. Patients with ESRD have important oxidative damage before RT. The RT significantly reduces oxidative damage and partially regulates the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx). PMID:27547292

  20. Combining differential expression, chromosomal and pathway analyses for the molecular characterization of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Furge, Kyle A; Dykema, Karl; Petillo, David; Westphal, Michael; Zhang, Zhongfa; Kort, Eric J; Teh, Bin Tean

    2007-01-01

    Using high-throughput gene-expression profiling technology, we can now gain a better understanding of the complex biology that is taking place in cancer cells. This complexity is largely dictated by the abnormal genetic makeup of the cancer cells. This abnormal genetic makeup can have profound effects on cellular activities such as cell growth, cell survival and other regulatory processes. Based on the pattern of gene expression, or molecular signatures of the tumours, we can distinguish or subclassify different types of cancers according to their cell of origin, behaviour, and the way they respond to therapeutic agents and radiation. These approaches will lead to better molecular subclassification of tumours, the basis of personalized medicine. We have, to date, done whole-genome microarray gene-expression profiling on several hundreds of kidney tumours. We adopt a combined bioinformatic approach, based on an integrative analysis of the gene-expression data. These data are used to identify both cytogenetic abnormalities and molecular pathways that are deregulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). For example, we have identified the deregulation of the VHL-hypoxia pathway in clear-cell RCC, as previously known, and the c-Myc pathway in aggressive papillary RCC. Besides the more common clear-cell, papillary and chromophobe RCCs, we are currently characterizing the molecular signatures of rarer forms of renal neoplasia such as carcinoma of the collecting ducts, mixed epithelial and stromal tumours, chromosome Xp11 translocations associated with papillary RCC, renal medullary carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle-cell carcinoma, and a group of unclassified tumours. Continued development and improvement in the field of molecular profiling will better characterize cancer and provide more accurate diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of drug response. PMID:18542781

  1. High-fat diet amplifies renal renin angiotensin system expression, blood pressure elevation, and renal dysfunction caused by Ceacam1 null deletion.

    PubMed

    Li, Caixia; Culver, Silas A; Quadri, Syed; Ledford, Kelly L; Al-Share, Qusai Y; Ghadieh, Hilda E; Najjar, Sonia M; Siragy, Helmy M

    2015-11-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAMl), a substrate of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, regulates insulin action by promoting insulin clearance. Global null mutation of Ceacam1 gene (Cc1(-/-)) results in features of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, visceral adiposity, elevated blood pressure, and albuminuria. It also causes activation of the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet enhances the expression of RAS components. Three-month-old wild-type (Cc1(+/+)) and Cc1(-/-) mice were fed either a regular or a high-fat diet for 8 wk. At baseline under regular feeding conditions, Cc1(-/-) mice exhibited higher blood pressure, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and renal expression of angiotensinogen, renin/prorenin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, (pro)renin receptor, angiotensin subtype AT1 receptor, angiotensin II, and elevated PI3K phosphorylation, as detected by p85α (Tyr(508)) immunostaining, inflammatory response, and the expression of collagen I and collagen III. In Cc1(+/+) mice, high-fat diet increased blood pressure, UACR, the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II, PI3K phosphorylation, inflammatory response, and the expression of collagen I and collagen III. In Cc1(-/-) mice, high-fat intake further amplified these parameters. Immunohistochemical staining showed increased p-PI3K p85α (Tyr(508)) expression in renal glomeruli, proximal, distal, and collecting tubules of Cc1(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet. Together, this demonstrates that high-fat diet amplifies the permissive effect of Ceacam1 deletion on renal expression of all RAS components, PI3K phosphorylation, inflammation, and fibrosis.

  2. PBRM1 Regulates the Expression of Genes Involved in Metabolism and Cell Adhesion in Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Basudev; Porter, Elizabeth G.; Stewart, Jane C.; Ferreira, Christina R.; Schipma, Matthew J.; Dykhuizen, Emily C.

    2016-01-01

    Polybromo-1 (PBRM1) is a component of the PBAF (Polybromo-associated-BRG1- or BRM-associated factors) chromatin remodeling complex and is the second most frequently mutated gene in clear-cell renal cell Carcinoma (ccRCC). Mutation of PBRM1 is believed to be an early event in carcinogenesis, however its function as a tumor suppressor is not understood. In this study, we have employed Next Generation Sequencing to profile the differentially expressed genes upon PBRM1 re-expression in a cellular model of ccRCC. PBRM1 re-expression led to upregulation of genes involved in cellular adhesion, carbohydrate metabolism, apoptotic process and response to hypoxia, and a downregulation of genes involved in different stages of cell division. The decrease in cellular proliferation upon PBRM1 re-expression was confirmed, validating the functional role of PBRM1 as a tumor suppressor in a cell-based model. In addition, we identified a role for PBRM1 in regulating metabolic pathways known to be important for driving ccRCC, including the regulation of hypoxia response genes, PI3K signaling, glucose uptake, and cholesterol homeostasis. Of particular novelty is the identification of cell adhesion as a major downstream process uniquely regulated by PBRM1 expression. Cytoskeletal reorganization was induced upon PBRM1 reexpression as evidenced from the increase in the number of cells displaying cortical actin, a hallmark of epithelial cells. Genes involved in cell adhesion featured prominently in our transcriptional dataset and overlapped with genes uniquely regulated by PBRM1 in clinical specimens of ccRCC. Genes involved in cell adhesion serve as tumor suppressor and maybe involved in inhibiting cell migration. Here we report for the first time genes linked to cell adhesion serve as downstream targets of PBRM1, and hope to lay the foundation of future studies focusing on the role of chromatin remodelers in bringing about these alterations during malignancies. PMID:27100670

  3. Expression of cytokine mRNA transcripts in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Olive, C; Cheung, C; Nicol, D; Falk, M C

    1998-08-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a solid tumour of the kidney and is the most common renal neoplasm. Despite the presence of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in RCC, these tumours continue to progress in vivo suggesting a poor host immune response to the tumour, and the suppression of TIL effector function. Cytokines are key molecules that modulate the function of T cells. The possibility is investigated that the local production of cytokines in RCC contributes to immunosuppression of TIL. The expression of pro-inflammatory (IFN-gamma/IL-2) and immunosuppressive (IL-10/TGF-beta) cytokine mRNA transcripts was determined in RCC, normal kidney and peripheral blood of RCC patients using a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with cytokine-specific primers. Following Southern blot hybridization of the PCR products with internal radiolabelled oligonucleotide probes, cytokine transcript levels were measured by densitometry and expressed relative to the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase densitometry score. With the exception of IL-10, there were no differences in expression of cytokine mRNA transcripts between the peripheral blood of patients and normal healthy individuals. It was found that TGF-beta transcripts were well represented in normal kidney and RCC. In contrast, the expression of IFN-gamma transcripts, while low in the majority of samples, was significantly increased in RCC when compared to normal kidney (P=0.05). The IL-2 and IL-10 transcripts showed a more variable expression in normal kidney and RCC, with no significant differences in expression between the sample groups. The data demonstrating pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine expression in RCC do not support a prominent immunosuppressive cytokine profile in these tumours. PMID:9723777

  4. Impact of bicarbonate, ammonium chloride, and acetazolamide on hepatic and renal SLC26A4 expression.

    PubMed

    Alesutan, Ioana; Daryadel, Arezoo; Mohebbi, Nilufar; Pelzl, Lisann; Leibrock, Christina; Voelkl, Jakob; Bourgeois, Soline; Dossena, Silvia; Nofziger, Charity; Paulmichl, Markus; Wagner, Carsten A; Lang, Florian

    2011-01-01

    SLC26A4 encodes pendrin, a transporter exchanging anions such as chloride, bicarbonate, and iodide. Loss of function mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome characterized by hearing loss and enlarged vestibular aqueducts as well as variable hypothyroidism and goiter. In the kidney, pendrin is expressed in the distal nephron and accomplishes HCO(3)(-) secretion and Cl(-) reabsorption. Renal pendrin expression is regulated by acid-base balance. The liver contributes to acid-base regulation by producing or consuming glutamine, which is utilized by the kidney for generation and excretion of NH(4)(+), paralleled by HCO(3)(-) formation. Little is known about the regulation of pendrin in liver. The present study thus examined the expression of Slc26a4 in liver and kidney of mice drinking tap water without or with NaHCO(3) (150 mM), NH(4)Cl (280 mM) or acetazolamide (3.6 mM) for seven days. As compared to Gapdh transcript levels, Slc26a4 transcript levels were moderately lower in liver than in renal tissue. Slc26a4 transcript levels were not significantly affected by NaHCO(3) in liver, but significantly increased by NaHCO(3) in kidney. Pendrin protein expression was significantly enhanced in kidney and reduced in liver by NaHCO(3). Slc26a4 transcript levels were significantly increased by NH(4)Cl and acetazolamide in liver, and significantly decreased by NH(4)Cl and by acetazolamide in kidney. NH(4)Cl and acetazolamide reduced pendrin protein expression significantly in kidney, but did not significantly modify pendrin protein expression in liver. The observations point to expression of pendrin in the liver and to opposite effects of acidosis on pendrin transcription in liver and kidney. PMID:22116370

  5. Canonical Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Regulates Disintegrin Metalloprotease Expression in Experimental Renal Fibrosis via miR-29

    PubMed Central

    Ramdas, Vasudev; McBride, Martin; Denby, Laura; Baker, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis pathophysiology is critically regulated by Smad 2– and Smad 3–mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. Disintegrin metalloproteases (Adam) can manipulate the signaling environment, however, the role and regulation of ADAMs in renal fibrosis remain unclear. TGF-β stimulation of renal cells results in a significant up-regulation of Adams 10, 17, 12, and 19. The selective Smad2/3 inhibitor SB 525334 reversed these TGF-β–induced changes. In vivo, using ureteral obstruction to model renal fibrosis, we observed increased Adams gene expression that was blocked by oral administration of SB 525334. Similar increases in Adam gene expression also occurred in preclinical models of hypertension-induced renal damage and glomerulonephritis. miRNAs are a recently discovered second level of regulation of gene expression. Analysis of 3′ untranslated regions of Adam12 and Adam19 mRNAs showed multiple binding sites for miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-29c. We show that miR-29 family expression is decreased after unilateral ureter obstruction and this significant decrease in miR-29 family expression was observed consistently in preclinical models of renal dysfunction and correlated with an increase in Adam12 and Adam19 expression. Exogenous overexpression of the miR-29 family blocked TGF-β–mediated up-regulation of Adam12 and Adam19 gene expression. This study shows that Adams are involved in renal fibrosis and are regulated by canonical TGF-β signaling and miR-29. Therefore, both Adams and the miR-29 family represent therapeutic targets for renal fibrosis. PMID:24103556

  6. ALTERED FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF THE RENAL GLOMERULUS IN AUTOLOGOUS IMMUNE COMPLEX NEPHRITIS

    PubMed Central

    Schneeberger, E. E.; Leber, P. D.; Karnovsky, M. J.; McCluskey, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    The altered functional properties of the glomerular capillary wall in a model of autologous immune complex disease (Heymann's nephritis) was studied by electron microscopy using intravenously injected protein tracers of varying molecular weight. There was an increase in the permeability of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) itself to large molecules; this change was focal and was found in those areas where the GBM contained immune complex deposits. Both ferritin and catalase, tracers normally restricted from passing the glomerular filter, were present in the urinary space within minutes of injection. No evidence was obtained for increased glomerular epithelial transport in this disease. Foot process swelling and "close" junction formation was moderate, even in animals with marked degrees of proteinuria. Indirect evidence, therefore, makes an alteration in the slit pore complex likely. In addition, there was immediate and selective concentration of all tracers within deposits, though ferritin was partially excluded from some deposits. This phenomenon may be of significance in the perpetuation of the disease. PMID:4132994

  7. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2-signaling in CD133-expressing cells in renal clear cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Al-Lamki, Rafia S; Wang, Jun; Yang, Jun; Burrows, Natalie; Maxwell, Patrick H; Eisen, Timothy; Warren, Anne Y; Vanharanta, Sakari; Pacey, Simon; Vandenabeele, Peter; Pober, Jordan S; Bradley, John R

    2016-01-01

    Compared to normal kidney, renal clear cell carcinomas (ccRCC) contain increased numbers of interstitial, non-hematopoietic CD133+cells that express stem cell markers and exhibit low rates of proliferation. These cells fail to form tumors upon transplantation but support tumor formation by differentiated malignant cells. We hypothesized that killing of ccRCC CD133+ (RCCCD133+) cells by cytotoxic agents might be enhanced by inducing them to divide. Since tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), signalling through TNFR2, induces proliferation of malignant renal tubular epithelial cells, we investigated whether TNFR2 might similarly affect RCCCD133+cells. We compared treating organ cultures of ccRCC vs adjacent nontumour kidney (NK) and RCCCD133+ vs NK CD133+ (NKCD133+) cell cultures with wild-type TNF (wtTNF) or TNF muteins selective for TNFR1 (R1TNF) or TNFR2 (R2TNF). In organ cultures, R2TNF increased expression of TNFR2 and promoted cell cycle entry of both RCCCD133+ and NKCD133+ but effects were greater in RCCCD133+. In contrast, R1TNF increased TNFR1 expression and promoted cell death. Importantly, cyclophosphamide triggered much more cell death in RCCCD133+ and NKCD133+cells pre-treated with R2TNF as compared to untreated controls. We conclude that selective engagement of TNFR2 by TNF can drives RCCCD133+ proliferation and thereby increase sensitivity to cell cycle-dependent cytotoxicity. PMID:26992212

  8. Biological mechanism analysis of acute renal allograft rejection: integrated of mRNA and microRNA expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shi-Ming; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Xue-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Li, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Renal transplantation is the preferred method for most patients with end-stage renal disease, however, acute renal allograft rejection is still a major risk factor for recipients leading to renal injury. To improve the early diagnosis and treatment of acute rejection, study on the molecular mechanism of it is urgent. Methods: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profile and mRNA expression profile of acute renal allograft rejection and well-functioning allograft downloaded from ArrayExpress database were applied to identify differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs and DE mRNAs. DE miRNAs targets were predicted by combining five algorithm. By overlapping the DE mRNAs and DE miRNAs targets, common genes were obtained. Differentially co-expressed genes (DCGs) were identified by differential co-expression profile (DCp) and differential co-expression enrichment (DCe) methods in Differentially Co-expressed Genes and Links (DCGL) package. Then, co-expression network of DCGs and the cluster analysis were performed. Functional enrichment analysis for DCGs was undergone. Results: A total of 1270 miRNA targets were predicted and 698 DE mRNAs were obtained. While overlapping miRNA targets and DE mRNAs, 59 common genes were gained. We obtained 103 DCGs and 5 transcription factors (TFs) based on regulatory impact factors (RIF), then built the regulation network of miRNA targets and DE mRNAs. By clustering the co-expression network, 5 modules were obtained. Thereinto, module 1 had the highest degree and module 2 showed the most number of DCGs and common genes. TF CEBPB and several common genes, such as RXRA, BASP1 and AKAP10, were mapped on the co-expression network. C1R showed the highest degree in the network. These genes might be associated with human acute renal allograft rejection. Conclusions: We conducted biological analysis on integration of DE mRNA and DE miRNA in acute renal allograft rejection, displayed gene expression patterns and screened out genes and TFs that may

  9. Changes in the gene expression programs of renal mesangial cells during diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage renal disease. All three cell types of the glomerulus, podocytes, endothelial cells and mesangial cells, play important roles in diabetic nephropathy. In this report we used Meis1-GFP transgenic mice to purify mesangial cells from normal mice and from db/db mice, which suffer diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of the study is to better define the unique character of normal mesangial cells, and to characterize their pathogenic and protective responses during diabetic nephropathy. Methods Comprehensive gene expression states of the normal and diseased mesangial cells were defined with microarrays. By comparing the gene expression profiles of mesangial cells with those of multiple other renal cell types, including podocytes, endothelial cells and renal vesicles, it was possible to better define their exceptional nature, which includes smooth muscle, phagocytic and neuronal traits. Results The complete set of mesangial cell expressed transcription factors, growth factors and receptors were identified. In addition, the analysis of the mesangial cells from diabetic nephropathy mice characterized their changes in gene expression. Molecular functions and biological processes specific to diseased mesangial cells were characterized, identifying genes involved in extracellular matrix, cell division, vasculogenesis, and growth factor modulation. Selected gene changes considered of particular importance to the disease process were validated and localized within the glomuerulus by immunostaining. For example, thrombospondin, a key mediator of TGFβ signaling, was upregulated in the diabetic nephropathy mesangial cells, likely contributing to fibrosis. On the other hand the decorin gene was also upregulated, and expression of this gene has been strongly implicated in the reduction of TGFβ induced fibrosis. Conclusions The results provide an important complement to previous studies examining mesangial cells grown in

  10. Alterations in vascular gene expression in invasive breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Parker, Belinda S; Argani, Pedram; Cook, Brian P; Liangfeng, Han; Chartrand, Scott D; Zhang, Mindy; Saha, Saurabh; Bardelli, Alberto; Jiang, Yide; St Martin, Thia B; Nacht, Mariana; Teicher, Beverly A; Klinger, Katherine W; Sukumar, Saraswati; Madden, Stephen L

    2004-11-01

    The molecular signature that defines tumor microvasculature will likely provide clues as to how vascular-dependent tumor proliferation is regulated. Using purified endothelial cells, we generated a database of gene expression changes accompanying vascular proliferation in invasive breast cancer. In contrast to normal mammary vasculature, invasive breast cancer vasculature expresses extracellular matrix and surface proteins characteristic of proliferating and migrating endothelial cells. We define and validate the up-regulated expression of VE-cadherin and osteonectin in breast tumor vasculature. In contrast to other tumor types, invasive breast cancer vasculature induced a high expression level of specific transcription factors, including SNAIL1 and HEYL, that may drive gene expression changes necessary for breast tumor neovascularization. We demonstrate the expression of HEYL in tumor endothelial cells and additionally establish the ability of HEYL to both induce proliferation and attenuate programmed cell death of primary endothelial cells in vitro. We also establish that an additional intracellular protein and previously defined metastasis-associated gene, PRL3, appears to be expressed predominately in the vasculature of invasive breast cancers and is able to enhance the migration of endothelial cells in vitro. Together, our results provide unique insights into vascular regulation in breast tumors and suggest specific roles for genes in driving tumor angiogenesis. PMID:15520192

  11. Alterations in cyclosporin A pharmacokinetics and metabolism during treatment with St John's wort in renal transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Steffen; Störmer, Elke; Johne, Andreas; Krüger, Hagen; Budde, Klemens; Neumayer, Hans-Hellmut; Roots, Ivar; Mai, Ingrid

    2003-01-01

    Aim This study investigated the effects of St John's wort extract (SJW) on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CSA). Methods In an open-label study, 11 renal transplant patients received 600 mg SJW extract daily for 14 days in addition to their regular regimen of CSA. Blood concentrations of CSA and its metabolites AM1, AM1C, AM9, AM19, and AM4N were measured by HPLC. Results After 2 weeks of SJW coadministration, dose-corrected AUC0–12, Cmax and Ctrough values for CSA decreased significantly by 46%[geometric mean ratio baseline/SJW (95% CI): 1.83 (1.63–2.05)], 42%[1.72 (1.42–2.08)], and 41%[1.70 (1.17–2.47)], respectively. CSA doses were increased from a median of 2.7 mg day−1 kg−1 at baseline to 4.2 mg day−1 kg−1 at day 15, with the first dose adjustment required only 3 days after initiation of SJW treatment. Additionally, the metabolite pattern of CSA was substantially altered during SJW treatment. Whereas dose-corrected AUC values for AM1, AM1c and AM4N significantly decreased by 59%, 61%, and 23% compared with baseline, AUC values for AM9 and AM19 were unchanged. Following the increase in CSA dose, observed AUC and Cmax values for AM9, AM19, and AM4N increased by 20–51% and 43–90%, respectively. Conclusion Administration of SJW extract to patients receiving CSA treatment resulted in a rapid and significant reduction of plasma CSA concentrations. Additionally, the substantial alterations in CSA metabolite kinetics observed may affect the toxicity profile of the drug. PMID:12580993

  12. Dietary phosphorus transcriptionally regulates 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase gene expression in the proximal renal tubule.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Martin Y H; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Jonathan T; Compagnone, Nathalie A; Mellon, Synthia H; Olson, Jean L; Tenenhouse, Harriet S; Miller, Walter L; Portale, Anthony A

    2002-02-01

    Synthesis of the hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the biologically active form of vitamin D, occurs in the kidney and is catalyzed by the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme, 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase). We sought to characterize the effects of changes in dietary phosphorus on the kinetics of renal mitochondrial 1alpha-hydroxylase activity and the renal expression of P450c1alpha and P450c24 mRNA, to localize the nephron segments involved in such regulation, and to determine whether transcriptional mechanisms are involved. In intact mice, restriction of dietary phosphorus induced rapid, sustained, approximately 6- to 8-fold increases in renal mitochondrial 1alpha-hydroxylase activity and renal P450c1alpha mRNA abundance. Immunohistochemical analysis of renal sections from mice fed the control diet revealed the expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase protein in the proximal convoluted and straight tubules, epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule, thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, distal tubule, and collecting duct. In mice fed a phosphorus-restricted diet, immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the proximal convoluted and proximal straight tubules and epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule, but not in the distal nephron. Dietary phosphorus restriction induced a 2-fold increase in P450c1alpha gene transcription, as shown by nuclear run-on assays. Thus, the increase in renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D induced in normal mice by restricting dietary phosphorus can be attributed to an increase in the renal abundance of P450c1alpha mRNA and protein. The increase in P450c1alpha gene expression, which occurs exclusively in the proximal renal tubule, is due at least in part to increased transcription of the P450c1alpha gene.

  13. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns are altered during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Popp, Michael P.; Gurley, William B.; Guy, Charles; Norwood, Kelly L.; Ferl, Robert J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments results in differential gene expression. A 5-day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β-Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on gene expression patterns initially by using the Adh/GUS transgene to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response (Paul, A.L., Daugherty, C.J., Bihn, E.A., Chapman, D.K., Norwood, K.L., Ferl, R.J., 2001. Transgene expression patterns indicate that spaceflight affects stress signal perception and transduction in arabidopsis, Plant Physiol. 126, 613-621). As a follow-on to the reporter gene analysis, we report here the evaluation of genome-wide patterns of native gene expression within Arabidopsis shoots utilizing the Agilent DNA array of 21,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - Taqman®). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays probed with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to RNA isolated from ground control plants revealed 182 genes that were differentially expressed in response to the spaceflight mission by more than 4-fold, and of those only 50 genes were expressed at levels chosen to support a conservative change call. None of the genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were induced to this level. However, genes related to heat shock were dramatically induced - but in a pattern and under growth conditions that are not easily explained by elevated temperatures. These gene expression data are discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment and with regard to potential future spaceflight experiment

  14. Altered Expression of Oxidative Metabolism Related Genes in Cholangiocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Wu, Zhiliang; Laummuanwai, Porntip; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Khuntikeo, Narong; Rattanasuwan, Panaratana

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare but highly fatal cancer for which the molecular mechanisms and diagnostic markers are obscure. We therefore investigated the kinetic expression of isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1), isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 (IDH2) and homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD) during the tumorigenesis of O. viverrini infection-associated CCA in an animal model, and confirmed down-regulation of expression in human cases of opisthorchiasis-associated CCA through real time PCR. Kinetic expression of HGD, IDH1 and IDH2 in the animal model of O. viverrini infection-induced CCA was correlated with human CCA cases. In the animal model, expression of HGD was decreased at all time points (p<0.01) and expression of both IDH1 and IDH2 was decreased in the CCA group. In human cases, expression of HGD, IDH1 and IDH2 was decreased more than 2 fold in 55 cases (70.5%), 25 cases (32.1%) and 24 cases (30.8%) respectively. The present study suggests that reduction of HGD, IDH1 and IDH2 may be involve in cholangiocarcinoma genesis and may be useful for molecular diagnosis. PMID:26320466

  15. Demeclocycline attenuates hyponatremia by reducing aquaporin-2 expression in the renal inner medulla.

    PubMed

    Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; Sinke, Anne P; Hadrup, Niels; Trimpert, Christiane; Wetzels, Jack F M; Fenton, Robert A; Deen, Peter M T

    2013-12-15

    Binding of vasopressin to its type 2 receptor in renal collecting ducts induces cAMP signaling, transcription and translocation of aquaporin (AQP)2 water channels to the plasma membrane, and water reabsorption from the prourine. Demeclocycline is currently used to treat hyponatremia in patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Demeclocycline's mechanism of action, which is poorly understood, is studied here. In mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, which exhibit deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP)-dependent expression of endogenous AQP2, demeclocycline decreased AQP2 abundance and gene transcription but not its protein stability. Demeclocycline did not affect vasopressin type 2 receptor localization but decreased dDAVP-induced cAMP generation and the abundance of adenylate cyclase 3 and 5/6. The addition of exogenous cAMP partially corrected the demeclocycline effect. As in patients, demeclocycline increased urine volume, decreased urine osmolality, and reverted hyponatremia in an SIADH rat model. AQP2 and adenylate cyclase 5/6 abundances were reduced in the inner medulla but increased in the cortex and outer medulla, in the absence of any sign of toxicity. In conclusion, our in vitro and in vivo data indicate that demeclocycline mainly attenuates hyponatremia in SIADH by reducing adenylate cyclase 5/6 expression and, consequently, cAMP generation, AQP2 gene transcription, and AQP2 abundance in the renal inner medulla, coinciding with a reduced vasopressin escape response in other collecting duct segments.

  16. Proinflammatory gene expression and renal lipogenesis are modulated by dietary protein content in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Palacio, Claudia; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe; Cruz, Cristino; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Salas-Garrido, Gerardo; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease. It is not clear whether the adoption of a high-protein diet in obese patients affects renal lipid metabolism or kidney function. Thus the aims of this study were to assess in obese Zuckerfa/fa rats the effects of different types and amounts of dietary protein on the expression of lipogenic and inflammatory genes, as well as renal lipid concentration and biochemical parameters of kidney function. Rats were fed different concentrations of soy protein or casein (20, 30, 45%) for 2 mo. Independent of the type of protein ingested, higher dietary protein intake led to higher serum triglycerides (TG) than rats fed adequate concentrations of protein. Additionally, the soy protein diet significantly increased serum TG compared with the casein diet. However, rats fed soy protein had significantly decreased serum cholesterol concentrations compared with those fed a casein diet. No significant differences in renal TG and cholesterol concentrations were observed between rats fed with either protein diets. Renal expression of sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) and its target gene HMG-CoA reductase was significantly increased as the concentration of dietary protein increased. The highest protein diets were associated with greater expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the kidney, independent of the type of dietary protein. These results indicate that high soy or casein protein diets upregulate the expression of lipogenic and proinflammatory genes in the kidney.

  17. Acute Hypertonicity Alters Aquaporin-2 Trafficking and Induces a MAPK-dependent Accumulation at the Plasma Membrane of Renal Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, Udo; Nunes, Paula; Bouley, Richard; Lu, Hua A. J.; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Brown, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    The unique phenotype of renal medullary cells allows them to survive and functionally adapt to changes of interstitial osmolality/tonicity. We investigated the effects of acute hypertonic challenge on AQP2 (aquaporin-2) water channel trafficking. In the absence of vasopressin, hypertonicity alone induced rapid (<10 min) plasma membrane accumulation of AQP2 in rat kidney collecting duct principal cells in situ, and in several kidney epithelial lines. Confocal microscopy revealed that AQP2 also accumulated in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) following hypertonic challenge. AQP2 mutants that mimic the Ser256-phosphorylated and -nonphosphorylated state accumulated at the cell surface and TGN, respectively. Hypertonicity did not induce a change in cytosolic cAMP concentration, but inhibition of either calmodulin or cAMP-dependent protein kinase A activity blunted the hypertonicity-induced increase of AQP2 cell surface expression. Hypertonicity increased p38, ERK1/2, and JNK MAPK activity. Inhibiting MAPK activity abolished hypertonicity-induced accumulation of AQP2 at the cell surface but did not affect either vasopressin-dependent AQP2 trafficking or hypertonicity-induced AQP2 accumulation in the TGN. Finally, increased AQP2 cell surface expression induced by hypertonicity largely resulted from a reduction in endocytosis but not from an increase in exocytosis. These data indicate that acute hypertonicity profoundly alters AQP2 trafficking and that hypertonicity-induced AQP2 accumulation at the cell surface depends on MAP kinase activity. This may have important implications on adaptational processes governing transcellular water flux and/or cell survival under extreme conditions of hypertonicity. PMID:18664568

  18. Immunohistochemical expression of tumor antigens MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 in renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Demirović, Alma; Džombeta, Tihana; Tomas, Davor; Spajić, Borislav; Pavić, Ivana; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Milošević, Milan; Cupić, Hrvoje; Krušlin, Božo

    2010-10-15

    The distinction between renal oncocytoma (RO) and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC), especially the eosinophilic variant, can often be difficult. Our study has documented for the first time the expression of MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 cancer testis antigens (CTAs) in these tumors. A total of 35 patients (17 ROs and 18 ChRCCs) were included in the study. Two antibodies were used for immunohistochemical staining: 57B recognizing multiple MAGE-A and D8.38 recognizing NY-ESO-1 CTAs. Fifteen (88.2%) samples of RO stained positively for both MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 antigens. Regarding ChRCC, seven (38.9%) stained positively for MAGE-A3/4 and six (33.3%) for NY-ESO-1 antigens. Median MAGE-A3/4 expression was moderately positive in RO and negative in ChRCC. The difference in MAGE-A3/4 expression between two tumor groups was significant (P=0.0013). Median NY-ESO-1 expression was strongly positive in RO and negative in ChRCC. The difference in NY-ESO-1 expression between two tumor groups was also significant (P=0.0008). Our study has shown that RO had a significantly higher expression of both CTAs. However, additional research is needed to clarify their potential diagnostic implications.

  19. Alterations of the renal function and oxidative stress in renal tissue from rats chronically treated with aluminium during the initial phase of hepatic regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Stella; Millen, Néstor; González, Marcela; Contini, María del Carmen; Elías, María Mónica

    2005-09-01

    Various indices of renal functions during the early stage of hepatic injury were studied in rats chronically treated with aluminum (Al) lactate. Tubular and hemodynamic parameters were analyzed four days after producing a 65% partial hepatectomy (PH). Water and sodium balances were also studied. Oxidative stress and the activity of Na-K-ATPase were determined in renal tissue. The rats were distributed in four groups: control, Al, PH, Al+PH. Al did not modify the hemodynamic renal functions and the PH-group reduced the glomerular filtrate rate (GFR). The Al + PH group presented a decrease in the renal blood flow and accentuated the GFR fall as compared with PH. The fractional excretion (FE) of water and sodium increased in the PH group. The rats chronically treated with Al and then submitted to the PH protocol developed a further increase in FE of water but a reduction in FE of sodium. Both PH and Al promoted an increase in the aldosterone. PH and Al induced a similar increase of the lipoperoxidation status with reduction of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The data indicated that Al is an inhibitor of catalase. The GSH and GSH-Px activity in the Al + PH group demonstrated a synergic effect of Al and PH. This work demonstrates that rats treated chronically with Al and submitted to another injury (such as hepatic damage) can aggravate renal functions, probably by increasing the oxidative state, at least in kidneys. PMID:16129492

  20. Alterations of the renal function and oxidative stress in renal tissue from rats chronically treated with aluminium during the initial phase of hepatic regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Stella; Millen, Néstor; González, Marcela; Contini, María del Carmen; Elías, María Mónica

    2005-09-01

    Various indices of renal functions during the early stage of hepatic injury were studied in rats chronically treated with aluminum (Al) lactate. Tubular and hemodynamic parameters were analyzed four days after producing a 65% partial hepatectomy (PH). Water and sodium balances were also studied. Oxidative stress and the activity of Na-K-ATPase were determined in renal tissue. The rats were distributed in four groups: control, Al, PH, Al+PH. Al did not modify the hemodynamic renal functions and the PH-group reduced the glomerular filtrate rate (GFR). The Al + PH group presented a decrease in the renal blood flow and accentuated the GFR fall as compared with PH. The fractional excretion (FE) of water and sodium increased in the PH group. The rats chronically treated with Al and then submitted to the PH protocol developed a further increase in FE of water but a reduction in FE of sodium. Both PH and Al promoted an increase in the aldosterone. PH and Al induced a similar increase of the lipoperoxidation status with reduction of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The data indicated that Al is an inhibitor of catalase. The GSH and GSH-Px activity in the Al + PH group demonstrated a synergic effect of Al and PH. This work demonstrates that rats treated chronically with Al and submitted to another injury (such as hepatic damage) can aggravate renal functions, probably by increasing the oxidative state, at least in kidneys.

  1. Expression of antioxidant genes in renal cortex of PTU-induced hypothyroid rats: effect of vitamin E and curcumin.

    PubMed

    Jena, Srikanta; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Dandapat, Jagneshwar

    2012-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of vitamin E and curcumin on the expression of antioxidant genes in 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rat renal cortex. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were increased in hypothyroid rat kidney. Co-administration of vitamin E and curcumin to hypothyroid rats resulted in amelioration of lipid peroxidation level, whereas curcumin alone alleviated the protein carbonylation level. The mRNA levels of SOD1 and SOD2 were decreased in hypothyroid rats. Decreased level of SOD1 transcripts was observed in hypothyroid rats supplemented with curcumin alone or co-administrated with vitamin E. Translated products of SOD1 and SOD2 in hypothyroid rats was elevated in response to supplementation of both the antioxidants. Decreased SOD1 and SOD2 activities in hypothyroid rats compared to control were either unaltered or further decreased in response to the antioxidants. Expressions of CAT at transcript and translate level along with its activity were down regulated in hypothyroid rats. Administration of vitamin E to hypothyroid rats resulted in elevated CAT mRNA level. In contrast, expression of CAT protein was elevated in response to both the antioxidants. However, CAT activity was unaltered in response to vitamin E and curcumin. GPx1 and GR mRNA level and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were not affected in response to induced hypothyroidism. The activity of GPx was increased in response to vitamin E treatment, whereas decreased GR activity in hypothyroid rats was further declined by the administration of antioxidants. The over all results suggest that vitamin E and curcumin differentially modulate the altered antioxidant defence mechanism of rat kidney cortex under experimental hypothyroidism.

  2. Transposon-induced nuclear mutations that alter chloroplast gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Barkan, A.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this project is to use mutant phenotypes as a guide to nuclear genes that determine the timing and localization of chloroplast development The immediate goals are to identify nuclear mutants with defects in chloroplast gene expression from maize lines harboring active Mu transposons; characterize their phenotypes to determine the precise defect in gene expression; clone several of the most interesting mutations by exploiting the transposon tag; and use the clones to further define the roles of these genes in modulating chloroplast gene expression. Three mutants were described earlier that had global defects in chloroplast gene expression. We have found that two of these mutations are allelic. Both alleles have global defects in chloroplast translation initiation, as revealed by the failure to assemble chloroplast mRNAs into polysomes. We have isolated and characterized three new mutants from Mu lines that have novel defects in chloroplast RNA metabolism. We are now ready to begin the task of cloning several of these genes, by using the Mu transposon tag.

  3. Identification of Proteins Differentially Expressed in the Conventional Renal Cell Carcinoma by Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Jin; Jung, Jae Hun; Kam, Sung Chul; Park, Hyung Chul; Kim, Choong Won; Kang, Kee Ryeon; Hyun, Jea Seog; Chung, Ky Hyun

    2005-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most malignant tumors in urology, and due to its insidious onset patients frequently have advanced disease at the time of clinical presentation. Thus, early detection is crucial in management of RCC. To identify tumor specific proteins of RCC, we employed proteomic analysis. We prepared proteins from conventional RCC and the corresponding normal kidney tissues from seven patients with conventional RCC. The expression of proteins was determined by silver stain after two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The overall protein expression patterns in the RCC and the normal kidney tissues were quite similar except some areas. Of 66 differentially expressed protein spots (p<0.05 by Student t-test), 8 different proteins from 11 spots were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. The expression of the following proteins was repressed (p<0.05); aminoacylase-1, enoyl-CoA hydratase, aldehyde reductase, tropomyosin α-4 chain, agmatinase and ketohexokinase. Two proteins, vimentin and α-1 antitrypsin precursor, were dominantly expressed in RCC (p<0.05). PMID:15953868

  4. Macrophage polarization alters the expression and sulfation pattern of glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Pierre; Denys, Agnès; Delos, Maxime; Sikora, Anne-Sophie; Carpentier, Mathieu; Julien, Sylvain; Pestel, Joël; Allain, Fabrice

    2015-05-01

    Macrophages are major cells of inflammatory process and take part in a large number of physiological and pathological processes. According to tissue environment, they can polarize into pro-inflammatory (M1) or alternative (M2) cells. Although many evidences have hinted to a potential role of cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the functions of macrophages, the effect of M1 or M2 polarization on the biosynthesis of these polysaccharides has not been investigated so far. GAGs are composed of repeat sulfated disaccharide units. Heparan (HS) and chondroitin/dermatan sulfates (CS/DS) are the major GAGs expressed at the cell membrane. They are involved in numerous biological processes, which rely on their ability to selectively interact with a large panel of proteins. More than 20 genes encoding sulfotransferases have been implicated in HS and CS/DS biosynthesis, and the functional repertoire of HS and CS/DS has been related to the expression of these isoenzymes. In this study, we analyzed the expression of sulfotransferases as a response to macrophage polarization. We found that M1 and M2 activation drastically modified the profiles of expression of numerous HS and CS/DS sulfotransferases. This was accompanied by the expression of GAGs with distinct structural features. We then demonstrated that GAGs of M2 macrophages were efficient to present fibroblast growth factor-2 in an assay of tumor cell proliferation, thus indicating that changes in GAG structure may contribute to the functions of polarized macrophages. Altogether, our findings suggest a regulatory mechanism in which fine modifications in GAG biosynthesis may participate to the plasticity of macrophage functions.

  5. Changes in expression of renal Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure after treatment of JBP485 in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tao; Meng, Qiang; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Qi; Guo, Xinjin; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong; and others

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the effect of cyclo-trans-4-L-hydroxyprolyl-L-serine (JBP485) on acute renal failure (ARF) induced by cisplatin is related to change in expression of renal Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 in rats. JBP485 reduced creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) in plasma and malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney, and recovered the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cisplatin-treated rats. The plasma concentration of PAH (para-aminohippurate) determined by LC–MS/MS was increased markedly after intravenous administration of cisplatin, whereas cumulative urinary excretion of PAH and the uptake of PAH in kidney slices were significantly decreased. qRT-PCR and Western-blot showed a decrease in mRNA and protein of Oat1 and Oat3, an increase in mRNA and protein of Mrp2 in cisplatin-treated rats, and an increase in IS (a uremic toxin) after co-treatment with JBP485. It indicated that JBP485 promoted urinary excretion of toxins by upregulating renal Mrp2. This therefore gives in part the explanation about the mechanism by which JBP485 improves ARF induced by cisplatin in rats. -- Highlights: ► Cisplatin induces acute renal failure (ARF). ► The expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 were changed during ARF. ► The regulated expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 is an adaptive protected response. ► JBP485 could facilitate the adaptive protective action.

  6. TPX2 in human clear cell renal carcinoma: Expression, function and prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, QI; CAO, BIN; NAN, NING; WANG, YU; ZHAI, XU; LI, YOUFANG; CHONG, TIE

    2016-01-01

    Targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) is a microtubule-associated protein. TPX2 is considered to be an important gene in tumorigenesis; however, the particular function of TPX2 in the development of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is unknown. In the present study, the expression, function and prognostic significance of TPX2 in human RCC was analyzed. A total of 286 tissue samples from patients with RCC who had undergone nephrectomies were utilized. Subsequently, the expression of TPX2 protein was investigated using immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and TPX2 mRNA expression was examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To establish the effect of TPX2 on the proliferation and invasion of the RCC cells, TPX2 expression was increased by stable transfection with a TPX2 vector and TPX2 expression was decreased using small interfering RNA. Proliferation of the RCC cells was analyzed using a WST-1 assay and an animal xenograft model with BALB/c nude mice, whilst invasion of the RCC cells was examined using a Matrigel-coated invasion chamber. It was demonstrated that TPX2 expression was significantly higher in the RCC tissues compared with normal kidney tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, TPX2 expression was associated with tumor size, histological grade and tumor stage (P<0.05), and was observed to markedly increase the proliferation and invasion of the RCC cells. It may be concluded that the expression of TPX2 is significantly upregulated in RCC tissue, subsequently increasing the proliferative and invasive ability of RCC cells. Therefore, the protein may serve as a therapeutic target and independent prognostic factor in the treatment of human RCC. PMID:27123144

  7. Renal NHE expression and activity in neonatal NHE3- and NHE8-null mice.

    PubMed

    Pirojsakul, Kwanchai; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Dwarakanath, Vangipuram; Baum, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE)3 is the predominant NHE on the brush-border membrane of the proximal tubule in adult animals. NHE8 has been localized to the brush-border membrane of proximal tubules and is more highly expressed in neonates than in adult animals. However, the relative role of NHE8 in neonatal renal acidification is unclear. The present study examined if there was a compensatory increase in NHE3 in NHE8-null neonatal mice and whether there was a compensatory increase in NHE8 in NHE3-null neonatal mice. In addition, we examined whether wild-type, NHE3-null, and NHE8-null mice had an increase in NHE activity in response to metabolic acidosis. We found that at baseline, there was comparable renal NHE3 mRNA, total protein, and brush-border membrane protein abundance as in neonatal control and NHE8-null mice. There was comparable renal NHE8 mRNA, total protein, and brush-border membrane protein abundance in NHE3-null neonatal and control mice. Both NHE3- and NHE8-null mice had a comparable but lower rate of NHE activity than control mice. We next imposed metabolic acidosis in wild-type, NHE3-null, and NHE8-null mice. Acidemic NHE8-null mice had an increase in brush-border membrane vesicle NHE3 protein abundance and NHE activity compared with vehicle-treated mice. Likewise, NHE3-null mice had an increase in NHE8 brush-border membrane protein abundance and NHE activity in response to metabolic acidosis. In conclusion, both NHE3 and NHE8 likely play a role in neonatal acidification.

  8. Locomotion in Lymphocytes is Altered by Differential PKC Isoform Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    1999-01-01

    Lymphocyte locomotion is critical for proper elicitation of the immune response. Locomotion of immune cells via the interstitium is essential for optimal immune function during wound healing, inflammation and infection. There are conditions which alter lymphocyte locomotion and one of them is spaceflight. Lymphocyte locomotion is severely inhibited in true spaceflight (true microgravity) and in rotating wall vessel culture (modeled microgravity). When lymphocytes are activated prior to culture in modeled microgravity, locomotion is not inhibited and the levels are comparable to those of static cultured lymphocytes. When a phorbol ester (PMA) is used in modeled microgravity, lymphocyte locomotion is restored by 87%. This occurs regardless if PMA is added after culture in the rotating wall vessel or during culture. Inhibition of DNA synthesis also does not alter restoration of lymphocyte locomotion by PMA. PMA is a direct activator of (protein kinase C) PKC . When a calcium ionophore, ionomycin is used it does not possess any restorative properties towards locomotion either alone or collectively with PMA. Since PMA brings about restoration without help from calcium ionophores (ionomycin), it is infer-red that calcium independent PKC isoforms are involved. Changes were perceived in the protein levels of PKC 6 where levels of the protein were downregulated at 24,72 and 96 hours in untreated rotated cultures (modeled microgravity) compared to untreated static (1g) cultures. At 48 hours there is an increase in the levels of PKC & in the same experimental set up. Studies on transcriptional and translational patterns of calcium independent isoforms of PKC such as 8 and E are presented in this study.

  9. Wnt-dependent beta-catenin signaling is activated after unilateral ureteral obstruction, and recombinant secreted frizzled-related protein 4 alters the progression of renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Surendran, Kameswaran; Schiavi, Susan; Hruska, Keith A

    2005-08-01

    beta-Catenin functions as a transducer of Wnt signals to the nucleus, where it interacts with the T cell factor (TCF) family of DNA binding proteins to regulate gene expression. On the basis of the genes regulated by beta-catenin and TCF in various biologic settings, two predicted functions of beta-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription are to mediate the loss of epithelial polarity and to promote fibroblast activities, such as the increased synthesis of fibronectin during chronic renal disease. These predictions were tested by determination of the expression and function of an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4), during renal tubular epithelial injury initiated by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Despite increased sFRP4 gene expression in perivascular regions of injured kidneys, total sFRP4 protein levels decreased after injury. The decreased sFRP4 protein levels after UUO accompanied increased Wnt-dependent beta-catenin signaling in tubular epithelial and interstitial cells, along with increased expression of markers of fibrosis. Administration of recombinant sFRP4 protein caused a reduction in tubular epithelial beta-catenin signaling and suppressed the progression of renal fibrosis, as evidenced by a partial maintenance of E-cadherin mRNA expression and a reduction in the amount of fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin proteins. Furthermore, recombinant sFRP4 reduced the number of myofibroblasts, a central mediator of fibrosis. It is concluded that beta-catenin signaling is activated in tubular epithelial and interstitial cells after renal injury, and recombinant sFRP4 can interfere with epithelial de-differentiation and with fibroblast differentiation and function during progression of renal fibrosis.

  10. Altered circadian clock gene expression in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anne-Sofie; Owe-Larsson, Björn; Hetta, Jerker; Lundkvist, Gabriella B

    2016-07-01

    Impaired circadian rhythmicity has been reported in several psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia is commonly associated with aberrant sleep-wake cycles and insomnia. It is not known if schizophrenia is associated with disturbances in molecular rhythmicity. We cultured fibroblasts from skin samples obtained from patients with chronic schizophrenia and from healthy controls, respectively, and analyzed the circadian expression during 48h of the clock genes CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, REV-ERBα and DBP. In fibroblasts obtained from patients with chronic schizophrenia, we found a loss of rhythmic expression of CRY1 and PER2 compared to cells from healthy controls. We also estimated the sleep quality in these patients and found that most of them suffered from poor sleep in comparison with the healthy controls. In another patient sample, we analyzed mononuclear blood cells from patients with schizophrenia experiencing their first episode of psychosis, and found decreased expression of CLOCK, PER2 and CRY1 compared to blood cells from healthy controls. These novel findings show disturbances in the molecular clock in schizophrenia and have important implications in our understanding of the aberrant rhythms reported in this disease. PMID:27132483

  11. Regulated expression of a calmodulin isoform alters growth and development in potato.

    PubMed

    Poovaiah, B W; Takezawa, D; An, G; Han, T J

    1996-01-01

    A transgene approach was taken to study the consequences of altered expression of a calmodulin isoform on plant growth and development. Eight genomic clones of potato calmodulin (PCM1 to 8) have been isolated and characterized (Takezawa et al., 1995). Among the potato calmodulin isoforms studied, PCM1 differs from the other isoforms because of its unique amino acid substitutions. Transgenic potato plants were produced carrying sense construct of PCM1 fused to the CaMV 35S promoter. Transgenic plants showing a moderate increase in PCM1 mRNA exhibited strong apical dominance, produced elongated tubers, and were taller than the controls. Interestingly, the plants expressing the highest level of PCM1 mRNA did not form underground tubers. Instead, these transgenic plants produced aerial tubers when allowed to grow for longer periods. The expression of different calmodulin isoforms (PCM1, 5, 6, and 8) was studied in transgenic plants. Among the four potato calmodulin isoforms, only the expression of PCM1 mRNA was altered in transgenic plants, while the expression of other isoforms was not significantly altered. Western analysis revealed increased PCM1 protein in transgenic plants, indicating that the expression of both mRNA and protein are altered in transgenic plants. These results suggest that increasing the expression of PCM1 alters growth and development in potato plants.

  12. Regulated Expression of a Calmodulin Isoform Alters Growth and Development in Potato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Takezawa, D.; An, G.; Han, T.-J.

    1996-01-01

    A transgene approach was taken to study the consequences of altered expression of a calmodutin iso-form on plant growth and development. Eight genomic clones of potato calmodulin (PCM 1 to 8) have been isolated and characterized. Among the potato calmodulin isoforms studied, PCM 1 differs from the other isoforms because of its unique amino acid substitutions. Transgenic potato plants were produced carrying sense construct of PCM 1 fused to the CAMV 35S promoter. Transgenic plants showing a moderate increase in PCM 1 MRNA exhibited strong apical dominance, produced elongated tubers, and were taller than the controls. Interestingly, the plants expressing the highest level of PCM 1 MRNA did not form underground tubers. Instead, these transgenic plants produced aerial tubers when allowed to grow for longer periods. The expression of different calmodulin isoforms (PCM 1, 5, 6, and 8) was studied in transgenic plants. Among the four potato calmodulin isoforms, only the expression of PCM 1 MRNA was altered in transgenic plants, while the expression of other isoforms was not significantly altered. Western analysis revealed increased PCM 1 protein in transgenic plants, indicating that the expression of both MRNA and protein are altered in transgenic plants. These results suggest that increasing the expression of PCM 1 alters growth and development in potato plants.

  13. Functional expression of pig renal organic anion transporter 3 (pOAT3).

    PubMed

    Hagos, Yohannes; Braun, Isabella M; Krick, Wolfgang; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Bahn, Andrew

    2005-05-01

    With the cloning of pig renal organic anion transporter 1 (pOAT1) (Biochimie 84 (2002) 1219) we set up a model system for comparative studies of cloned and natively isolated membrane located transport proteins. Meanwhile, another transport protein involved in p-aminohippurate (PAH) uptake on the basolateral side of the proximal tubule cells was identified, designated organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3). To explore the contribution of pOAT1 to the PAH clearance in comparison to OAT3, it was the aim of this study to extend our model by cloning of the pig ortholog of OAT3. Sequence comparisons of human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3) with the expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed a clone and partial sequence of the pig renal organic anion transporter 3 (pOAT3) ortholog. Sequencing of the entire open reading frame resulted in a protein of 543 amino acid residues encoded by 1632 base pairs (EMBL Acc. No. AJ587003). It showed high homologies of 81%, 80%, 76%, and 77% to the human, rabbit, rat, and mouse OAT3, respectively. A functional characterization of pOAT3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes yielded an apparent Km (Kt) for [3H]estrone sulfate of 7.8 +/- 1.3 microM. Moreover, pOAT3 mediated [3H]estrone sulfate uptake was almost abolished by 0.5 mM of glutarate, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate, or probenecid consistent with the hallmarks of OAT3 function.

  14. Hyperpolarization-activated cation and T-type calcium ion channel expression in porcine and human renal pacemaker tissues.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Romulo; Smith, Carl S

    2016-05-01

    Renal pacemaker activity triggers peristaltic upper urinary tract contractions that propel waste from the kidney to the bladder, a process prone to congenital defects that are the leading cause of pediatric kidney failure. Recently, studies have discovered that hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) and T-type calcium (TTC) channel conductances underlie murine renal pacemaker activity, setting the origin and frequency and coordinating upper urinary tract peristalsis. Here, we determined whether this ion channel expression is conserved in the porcine and human urinary tracts, which share a distinct multicalyceal anatomy with multiple pacemaker sites. Double chromagenic immunohistochemistry revealed that HCN isoform 3 is highly expressed at the porcine minor calyces, the renal pacemaker tissues, whereas the kidney and urinary tract smooth muscle lacked this HCN expression. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that HCN(+) cells are integrated within the porcine calyx smooth muscle, and that they co-express TTC channel isoform Cav3.2. In humans, the anatomic structure of the minor calyx pacemaker was assayed via hematoxylin and eosin analyses, and enabled the visualization of the calyx smooth muscle surrounding adjacent papillae. Strikingly, immunofluorescence revealed that HCN3(+) /Cav3.2(+) cells are also localized to the human minor calyx smooth muscle. Collectively, these data have elucidated a conserved molecular signature of HCN and TTC channel expression in porcine and human calyx pacemaker tissues. These findings provide evidence for the mechanisms that can drive renal pacemaker activity in the multi-calyceal urinary tract, and potential causes of obstructive uropathies. PMID:26805464

  15. Enhanced IMP3 Expression Activates NF-кB Pathway and Promotes Renal Cell Carcinoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Xuelian; Li, Muhan; Zhan, Jun; Yu, Yu; Wei, Xiaofan; Guan, Lizhao; Aydin, Hakan; Elson, Paul; Zhou, Ming; He, Huiying; Zhang, Hongquan

    2015-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is expressed in metastatic and a subset of primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the role of IMP3 in RCC progression was poorly understood. We aim to uncover the mechanism of IMP3 in regulating clear cell RCC (CCRCC) progression and validate the prognostic significance of IMP3 in localized CCRCC. Methods Caki-1 cells stably overexpressing IMP3 and Achn cells with knockdown of IMP3 were analyzed for cell migration and invasion by Transwell assay. RNA-seq was used to profile gene expression in IMP3-expressing Caki-1 cells. A cohort of 469 localized CCRCC patients were examined for IMP3 expression by immunohistochemistry using tumor tissue array. Results IMP3 promoted Caki-1 cell migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of IMP3 by RNAi inhibited Achn cell migration and invasion. Enhanced IMP3 expression activated NF-кB pathway and through which, it functioned in promoting the RCC cell migration. IMP3 expression in localized CCRCC was found to be associated with higher nuclear grade, higher T stage, necrosis and sarcomatoid differentiation (p< 0.001). Enhanced IMP3 expression was correlated with shorter recurrence-free and overall survivals. Multivariable analysis validated IMP3 as an independent prognostic factor for localized CCRCC patients. Conclusion IMP3 promotes RCC cell migration and invasion by activation of NF-кB pathway. IMP3 is validated to be an independent prognostic marker for localized CCRCC. PMID:25919292

  16. Decreased Expression of SRSF2 Splicing Factor Inhibits Apoptotic Pathways in Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kędzierska, Hanna; Popławski, Piotr; Hoser, Grażyna; Rybicka, Beata; Rodzik, Katarzyna; Sokół, Elżbieta; Bogusławska, Joanna; Tański, Zbigniew; Fogtman, Anna; Koblowska, Marta; Piekiełko-Witkowska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Serine and arginine rich splicing factor 2(SRSF2) belongs to the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of proteins that regulate alternative splicing. Previous studies suggested that SRSF2 can contribute to carcinogenic processes. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of kidney cancer, highly aggressive and difficult to treat, mainly due to resistance to apoptosis. In this study we hypothesized that SRSF2 contributes to the regulation of apoptosis in ccRCC. Using tissue samples obtained from ccRCC patients, as well as independent validation on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data, we demonstrate for the first time that expression of SRSF2 is decreased in ccRCC tumours when compared to non-tumorous control tissues. Furthermore, by employing a panel of ccRCC-derived cell lines with silenced SRSF2 expression and qPCR arrays we show that SRSF2 contributes not only to splicing patterns but also to expression of multiple apoptotic genes, including new SRSF2 targets: DIABLO, BIRC5/survivin, TRAIL, BIM, MCL1, TNFRSF9, TNFRSF1B, CRADD, BCL2L2, BCL2A1, and TP53. We also identified a new splice variant of CFLAR, an inhibitor of caspase activity. These changes culminate in diminished caspase-9 activity and inhibition of apoptosis. In summary, we show for the first time that decreased expression of SRSF2 in ccRCC contributes to protection of cancer cells viability. PMID:27690003

  17. COX-2 mediates angiotensin II-induced (pro)renin receptor expression in the rat renal medulla.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Lu, Xiaohan; Peng, Kexin; Zhou, Li; Li, Chunling; Wang, Weidong; Yu, Xueqing; Kohan, Donald E; Zhu, Shu-Feng; Yang, Tianxin

    2014-07-01

    (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) is predominantly expressed in the distal nephron where it is activated by angiotensin II (ANG II), resulting in increased renin activity in the renal medulla thereby amplifying the de novo generation and action of local ANG II. The goal of the present study was to test the role of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) in meditating ANG II-induced PRR expression in the renal medulla in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of primary rat inner medullary collecting duct cells to ANG II induced sequential increases in COX-2 and PRR protein expression. When the cells were pretreated with a COX-2 inhibitor NS-398, ANG II-induced upregulation of PRR protein expression was almost completely abolished, in parallel with the changes in medium active renin content. The inhibitory effect of NS-398 on the PRR expression was reversed by adding exogenous PGE2. A 14-day ANG II infusion elevated renal medullary PRR expression and active and total renin content in parallel with increased urinary renin, all of which were remarkably suppressed by the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. In contrast, plasma and renal cortical active and total renin content were suppressed by ANG II treatment, an effect that was unaffected by COX-2 inhibition. Systolic blood pressure was elevated with ANG II infusion, which was attenuated by the COX-2 inhibition. Overall, the results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies established a crucial role of COX-2 in mediating upregulation of renal medullary PRR expression and renin content during ANG II hypertension.

  18. Genomic expression of mesenchymal stem cells to altered nanoscale topographies.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Matthew J; Andar, Abhay; Nag, Abhijit; Affrossman, Stanley; Tare, Rahul; McFarlane, Sara; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2008-09-01

    The understanding of cellular response to the shape of their environment would be of benefit in the development of artificial extracellular environments for potential use in the production of biomimetic surfaces. Specifically, the understanding of how cues from the extracellular environment can be used to understand stem cell differentiation would be of special interest in regenerative medicine. In this paper, the genetic profile of mesenchymal stem cells cultured on two osteogenic nanoscale topographies (pitted surface versus raised islands) are compared with cells treated with dexamethasone, a corticosteroid routinely used to stimulate bone formation in culture from mesenchymal stem cells, using 19k gene microarrays as well as 101 gene arrays specific for osteoblast and endothelial biology. The current studies show that by altering the shape of the matrix a cell response (genomic profile) similar to that achieved with chemical stimulation can be elicited. Here, we show that bone formation can be achieved with efficiency similar to that of dexamethasone with the added benefit that endothelial cell development is not inhibited. We further show that the mechanism of action of the topographies and dexamethasone differs. This could have an implication for tissue engineering in which a simultaneous, targeted, development of a tissue, such as bone, without the suppression of angiogenesis to supply nutrients to the new tissue is required. The results further demonstrate that perhaps the shape of the extracellular matrix is critical to tissue development. PMID:18270147

  19. Neurotoxocarosis alters myelin protein gene transcription and expression.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Lea; Beyerbach, Martin; Lühder, Fred; Beineke, Andreas; Strube, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Neurotoxocarosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by migrating larvae of the common dog and cat roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati), which are zoonotic agents. As these parasites are prevalent worldwide and neuropathological and molecular investigations on neurotoxocarosis are scare, this study aims to characterise nerve fibre demyelination associated with neurotoxocarosis on a molecular level. Transcription of eight myelin-associated genes (Cnp, Mag, Mbp, Mog, Mrf-1, Nogo-A, Plp1, Olig2) was determined in the mouse model during six time points of the chronic phase of infection using qRT-PCR. Expression of selected proteins was analysed by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. Additionally, demyelination and neuronal damage were investigated histologically. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between transcription rates of T. canis-infected and uninfected control mice were detected for all analysed genes while T. cati affected five of eight investigated genes. Interestingly, 2', 3 ´-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (Cnp) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog) were upregulated in both T. canis- and T. cati-infected mice preceding demyelination. Later, CNPase expression was additionally enhanced. As expected, myelin basic protein (Mbp) was downregulated in cerebra and cerebella of T. canis-infected mice when severe demyelination was present 120 days post infectionem (dpi). The transcriptional pattern observed in the present study appears to reflect direct traumatic and hypoxic effects of larval migration as well as secondary processes including host immune reactions, demyelination and attempts to remyelinate damaged areas.

  20. Identification of reference genes in human myelomonocytic cells for gene expression studies in altered gravity.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Cora S; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Unverdorben, Felix; Buttron, Isabell; Lauber, Beatrice; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes ("housekeeping genes") are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity. PMID:25654098

  1. Identification of reference genes in human myelomonocytic cells for gene expression studies in altered gravity.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Cora S; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Unverdorben, Felix; Buttron, Isabell; Lauber, Beatrice; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes ("housekeeping genes") are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity.

  2. Identification of Reference Genes in Human Myelomonocytic Cells for Gene Expression Studies in Altered Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Cora S.; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes (“housekeeping genes”) are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity. PMID:25654098

  3. Nursing frequency alters circadian patterns of mammary gene expression in lactating mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milking frequency impacts lactation in dairy cattle and in rodent models of lactation. The role of circadian gene expression in this process is unknown. The hypothesis tested was that changing nursing frequency alters the circadian patterns of mammary gene expression. Mid-lactation CD1 mice were stu...

  4. Delayed mTOR Inhibition with Low Dose of Everolimus Reduces TGFβ Expression, Attenuates Proteinuria and Renal Damage in the Renal Mass Reduction Model

    PubMed Central

    Kurdián, Melania; Herrero-Fresneda, Inmaculada; Lloberas, Nuria; Gimenez-Bonafe, Pepita; Coria, Virginia; Grande, María T.; Boggia, José; Malacrida, Leonel; Torras, Joan; Arévalo, Miguel A.; González-Martínez, Francisco; López-Novoa, José M.; Grinyó, Josep; Noboa, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Background The immunosuppressive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are widely used in solid organ transplantation, but their effect on kidney disease progression is controversial. mTOR has emerged as one of the main pathways regulating cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed inhibition of mTOR pathway with low dose of everolimus on progression of renal disease and TGFβ expression in the 5/6 nephrectomy model in Wistar rats. Methods This study evaluated the effects of everolimus (0.3 mg/k/day) introduced 15 days after surgical procedure on renal function, proteinuria, renal histology and mechanisms of fibrosis and proliferation. Results Everolimus treated group (EveG) showed significantly less proteinuria and albuminuria, less glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis, fibroblast activation cell proliferation, when compared with control group (CG), even though the EveG remained with high blood pressure. Treatment with everolimus also diminished glomerular hypertrophy. Everolimus effectively inhibited the increase of mTOR developed in 5/6 nephrectomy animals, without changes in AKT mRNA or protein abundance, but with an increase in the pAKT/AKT ratio. Associated with this inhibition, everolimus blunted the increased expression of TGFβ observed in the remnant kidney model. Conclusion Delayed mTOR inhibition with low dose of everolimus significantly prevented progressive renal damage and protected the remnant kidney. mTOR and TGFβ mRNA reduction can partially explain this anti fibrotic effect. mTOR can be a new target to attenuate the progression of chronic kidney disease even in those nephropathies of non-immunologic origin. PMID:22427849

  5. Expression of granzyme B during primary cytomegalovirus infection after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wever, P C; Spaeny, L H; van der Vliet, H J; Rentenaar, R J; Wolbink, A M; Surachno, J; Wertheim, P M; Schellekens, P T; Hack, C E; ten Berge, I J

    1999-03-01

    CD8+ T cells employ granzyme B (GrB) to induce apoptosis in target cells. Increased expression of GrB has been put forward as a diagnostic marker in transplant rejection and viral infection. Three-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytosis during primary cytomegalovirus infection after renal transplantation resulted from expansion of a CD8+GrB+CD62L+ T cell subset that was almost absent during stable transplant function or acute rejection. This expansion coincided with a temporary increase in systemic soluble GrB (sGrB) levels. No such increase was observed during stable transplant function or acute rejection. Thus, the primary immune response to cytomegalovirus infection is accompanied by appearance of CD8+GrB+CD62L+ T cells and increased sGrB levels in the peripheral blood compartment. Determination of the latter may provide a novel approach for monitoring viral infections.

  6. Neurotoxocarosis alters myelin protein gene transcription and expression.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Lea; Beyerbach, Martin; Lühder, Fred; Beineke, Andreas; Strube, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Neurotoxocarosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by migrating larvae of the common dog and cat roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati), which are zoonotic agents. As these parasites are prevalent worldwide and neuropathological and molecular investigations on neurotoxocarosis are scare, this study aims to characterise nerve fibre demyelination associated with neurotoxocarosis on a molecular level. Transcription of eight myelin-associated genes (Cnp, Mag, Mbp, Mog, Mrf-1, Nogo-A, Plp1, Olig2) was determined in the mouse model during six time points of the chronic phase of infection using qRT-PCR. Expression of selected proteins was analysed by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. Additionally, demyelination and neuronal damage were investigated histologically. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between transcription rates of T. canis-infected and uninfected control mice were detected for all analysed genes while T. cati affected five of eight investigated genes. Interestingly, 2', 3 ´-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (Cnp) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog) were upregulated in both T. canis- and T. cati-infected mice preceding demyelination. Later, CNPase expression was additionally enhanced. As expected, myelin basic protein (Mbp) was downregulated in cerebra and cerebella of T. canis-infected mice when severe demyelination was present 120 days post infectionem (dpi). The transcriptional pattern observed in the present study appears to reflect direct traumatic and hypoxic effects of larval migration as well as secondary processes including host immune reactions, demyelination and attempts to remyelinate damaged areas. PMID:25773181

  7. Pervasive transcription read-through promotes aberrant expression of oncogenes and RNA chimeras in renal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Ana R; Leite, Ana P; Carvalho, Sílvia; Matos, Mafalda R; Martins, Filipa B; Vítor, Alexandra C; Desterro, Joana MP; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria; de Almeida, Sérgio F

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of cancer genes and non-canonical RNA species is a hallmark of cancer. However, the mechanisms driving such atypical gene expression programs are incompletely understood. Here, our transcriptional profiling of a cohort of 50 primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) reveals that transcription read-through beyond the termination site is a source of transcriptome diversity in cancer cells. Amongst the genes most frequently mutated in ccRCC, we identified SETD2 inactivation as a potent enhancer of transcription read-through. We further show that invasion of neighbouring genes and generation of RNA chimeras are functional outcomes of transcription read-through. We identified the BCL2 oncogene as one of such invaded genes and detected a novel chimera, the CTSC-RAB38, in 20% of ccRCC samples. Collectively, our data highlight a novel link between transcription read-through and aberrant expression of oncogenes and chimeric transcripts that is prevalent in cancer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09214.001 PMID:26575290

  8. Hypoxia alters MicroRNA expression in rat cortical pericytes.

    PubMed

    Truettner, Jessie S; Katyshev, Vladimir; Esen-Bilgin, Nilufer; Dietrich, W Dalton; Dore-Duffy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Microvascular adaptation to metabolic stress is important in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Nowhere is this more important than in the central nervous system (CNS) where the cellular constituents of the neurovascularture including endothelial cells, pericytes and some astroglia must make fine-tuned autoregulatory modulations that maintain the delicate balance between oxygen availability and metabolic demand. miRNAs have been reported to play an important regulatory role in many cellular functions including cell differentiation, growth and proliferation, lineage determination, and metabolism. In this study, we investigated the possible role of miRNAs in the CNS capillary pericyte response to hypoxic stress. Micro-array analysis was used to examine the expression of 388 rat miRNAs in primary rat cortical pericytes with and without exposure to low oxygen (1%) after 24 or 48 hr. Pericytes subjected to hypoxia showed 27 miRNAs that were higher than control and 31 that were lower. Validation and quantification was performed by Real Time RT-PCR on pericytes subjected to 2 hr, 24 hr, or 48 hr of hypoxia. Hypoxia induced changes included physiological pathways governing the stress response, angiogenesis, migration and cell cycle regulation. miRNAs associated with HIF-1α (miR-322[1], miR-199a [2]), TGF-β1 (miR-140[3], miR-145[4], miR-376b-3p[5]) and VEGF (miR-126a[6], miR-297[7], miR-16[8], miR-17-5p[9]) were differentially regulated. Systematic and integrative analysis of possible gene targets analyzed by DAVID bioinformatics resource (http://david.abcc.ncifcrf.gov) and MetaSearch 2.0 (GeneGo) for some of these miRNAs was conducted to determine possible gene targets and pathways that may be affected by the post-transcriptional changes after hypoxic insult.

  9. Renal expression of parvalbumin is critical for NaCl handling and response to diuretics

    PubMed Central

    Belge, Hendrica; Gailly, Philippe; Schwaller, Beat; Loffing, Johannes; Debaix, Huguette; Riveira-Munoz, Eva; Beauwens, Renaud; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre; Hoenderop, Joost G.; Bindels, René J.; Devuyst, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) plays an essential role in the reabsorption of NaCl by the kidney, a process that can be inhibited by thiazide diuretics. Parvalbumin (PV), a Ca2+-binding protein that plays a role in muscle fibers and neurons, is selectively expressed in the DCT, where its role remains unknown. We therefore investigated the renal phenotype of PV knockout mice (Pvalb−/−) vs. wild-type (Pvalb+/+) littermates. PV colocalized with the thiazide-sensitive Na+-Cl− cotransporter (NCC) in the early DCT. The Pvalb−/− mice showed increased diuresis and kaliuresis at baseline with higher aldosterone levels and lower lithium clearance. Acute furosemide administration increased diuresis and natriuresis/kaliuresis, but, surprisingly, did not increase calciuria in Pvalb−/− mice. NaCl supplementation of Pvalb−/− mice increased calciuria at baseline and after furosemide. The Pvalb−/− mice showed no significant diuretic response to hydrochlorothiazide, but an accentuated hypocalciuria. A decreased expression of NCC was detected in the early DCT of Pvalb−/− kidneys in the absence of ultrastructural and apoptotic changes. The PV-deficient mice had a positive Ca2+ balance and increased bone mineral density. Studies in mouse DCT cells showed that endogenous NCC expression is Ca2+-dependent and can be modulated by the levels of PV expression. These results suggest that PV regulates the expression of NCC by modulating intracellular Ca2+ signaling in response to ATP in DCT cells. They also provide insights into the Ca2+-sparing action of thiazides and the pathophysiology of distal tubulopathies. PMID:17804801

  10. Impact of Gender in Renal Cell Carcinoma: The Relationship of FABP7 and BRN2 Expression with Overall Survival

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheng; Takayama, Tatsuya; Takaoka, Naohisa; Fujita, Hiromi; Miyazaki, Miki; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between gender differences in fatty acid-binding protein7 (FABP7) and BRN2 (POU class 3 homeobox 2) expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the prognosis of patients with RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS immunohistochemical (IHC) staining as well as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed in renal tissues from 103 patients (83 men, mean age = 63.6 years old; 20 women, mean age = 63.1 years old) underwent radical nephrectomy from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2010. The probability of overall patient survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS FABP7 mRNA expression was more frequent in men (P = 0.07) while BRN2 protein expression was significantly more frequent in women (P = 0.029). In particular, FABP7 was expressed in 100% of G1 renal cell carcinoma both in mRNA and protein levels. In women, FABP7 (−) and BRN2 (+) groups had a worse prognosis both in mRNA level (P = 0.038) and protein level (P = 0.058). BRN2 was expressed 100% of papillary RCC both in mRNA and protein levels. CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrated that gender was a key factor in FABP7 and BRN2 expression in RCC, and the combination with FABP7 and BRN2 stratified by gender could be a new potential prognostic factor in patients with RCC. PMID:24653654

  11. Altered Expression of Diabetes-Related Genes in Alzheimer's Disease Brains: The Hisayama Study

    PubMed Central

    Hokama, Masaaki; Oka, Sugako; Leon, Julio; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Honda, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kensuke; Iwaki, Toru; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Tomio; LaFerla, Frank M.; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Nakabeppu, Yusaku

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be a risk factor for dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying this risk is not well understood. We examined gene expression profiles in postmortem human brains donated for the Hisayama study. Three-way analysis of variance of microarray data from frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and hippocampus was performed with the presence/absence of AD and vascular dementia, and sex, as factors. Comparative analyses of expression changes in the brains of AD patients and a mouse model of AD were also performed. Relevant changes in gene expression identified by microarray analysis were validated by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The hippocampi of AD brains showed the most significant alteration in gene expression profile. Genes involved in noninsulin-dependent DM and obesity were significantly altered in both AD brains and the AD mouse model, as were genes related to psychiatric disorders and AD. The alterations in the expression profiles of DM-related genes in AD brains were independent of peripheral DM-related abnormalities. These results indicate that altered expression of genes related to DM in AD brains is a result of AD pathology, which may thereby be exacerbated by peripheral insulin resistance or DM. PMID:23595620

  12. Computational identification of altered metabolism using gene expression and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hojung; Lee, Jinwon; Lee, Doheon

    2009-07-01

    Understanding altered metabolism is an important issue because altered metabolism is often revealed as a cause or an effect in pathogenesis. It has also been shown to be an important factor in the manipulation of an organism's metabolism in metabolic engineering. Unfortunately, it is not yet possible to measure the concentration levels of all metabolites in the genome-wide scale of a metabolic network; consequently, a method that infers the alteration of metabolism is beneficial. The present study proposes a computational method that identifies genome-wide altered metabolism by analyzing functional units of KEGG pathways. As control of a metabolic pathway is accomplished by altering the activity of at least one rate-determining step enzyme, not all gene expressions of enzymes in the pathway demonstrate significant changes even if the pathway is altered. Therefore, we measure the alteration levels of a metabolic pathway by selectively observing expression levels of significantly changed genes in a pathway. The proposed method was applied to two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression profiles measured in very high-gravity (VHG) fermentation. The method identified altered metabolic pathways whose properties are related to ethanol and osmotic stress responses which had been known to be observed in VHG fermentation because of the high sugar concentration in growth media and high ethanol concentration in fermentation products. With the identified altered pathways, the proposed method achieved best accuracy and sensitivity rates for the Red Star (RS) strain compared to other three related studies (gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA), significance analysis of microarray to gene set (SAM-GS), reporter metabolite), and for the CEN.PK 113-7D (CEN) strain, the proposed method and the GSEA method showed comparably similar performances.

  13. The prodromal phase of obesity-related chronic kidney disease: early alterations in cardiovascular and renal function in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Anke; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-11-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a relevant health condition with multi-organ involvement. Obesity shows significant tracking into adult life and is associated with an increased risk of serious adverse health outcomes both during childhood and later adulthood. The classical sequelae of obesity such as hypertension, metabolic syndrome and inflammation do develop at a paediatric age. Cardiovascular consequences, such as increased carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular hypertrophy, as well as functional alterations of the heart and arteries, are commonly traceable at an early age. Renal involvement can occur at a young age and is associated with a high probability of progressive chronic kidney disease. There is solid evidence suggesting that consequent treatment including both lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy can reduce cardiovascular, metabolic and renal risks in obese children and adolescents.

  14. Antipsychotic pathway genes with expression altered in opposite direction by antipsychotics and amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Ko, Françoise; Tallerico, Teresa; Seeman, Philip

    2006-08-01

    To develop a new strategy for identifying possible psychotic- or antipsychotic-related pathway genes, rats were treated with clinical doses of haloperidol and clozapine for 4 days, and the altered expression of genes was compared with the genes altered in expression after amphetamine sensitization. The objective was to identify genes with expression altered in the same direction by haloperidol and clozapine but in the opposite direction in the amphetamine-sensitized rat striatum. These criteria were met by 21 genes, consisting of 15 genes upregulated by amphetamine, and 6 genes downregulated by amphetamine. Of the 21 genes, 15 are not presently identified, and only 3 genes (cathepsin K, GRK6, and a gene with accession number AI177589) are located in chromosome regions known to be associated with schizophrenia.

  15. Expression-based network biology identifies alteration in key regulatory pathways of type 2 diabetes and associated risk/complications.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Urmi; Ukil, Sanchaita; Dimitrova, Nevenka; Agrawal, Shipra

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a multifactorial and genetically heterogeneous disease which leads to impaired glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance. The advanced form of disease causes acute cardiovascular, renal, neurological and microvascular complications. Thus there is a constant need to discover new and efficient treatment against the disease by seeking to uncover various novel alternate signalling mechanisms that can lead to diabetes and its associated complications. The present study allows detection of molecular targets by unravelling their role in altered biological pathways during diabetes and its associated risk factors and complications. We have used an integrated functional networks concept by merging co-expression network and interaction network to detect the transcriptionally altered pathways and regulations involved in the disease. Our analysis reports four novel significant networks which could lead to the development of diabetes and other associated dysfunctions. (a) The first network illustrates the up regulation of TGFBRII facilitating oxidative stress and causing the expression of early transcription genes via MAPK pathway leading to cardiovascular and kidney related complications. (b) The second network demonstrates novel interactions between GAPDH and inflammatory and proliferation candidate genes i.e., SUMO4 and EGFR indicating a new link between obesity and diabetes. (c) The third network portrays unique interactions PTPN1 with EGFR and CAV1 which could lead to an impaired vascular function in diabetic nephropathy condition. (d) Lastly, from our fourth network we have inferred that the interaction of beta-catenin with CDH5 and TGFBR1 through Smad molecules could contribute to endothelial dysfunction. A probability of emergence of kidney complication might be suggested in T2D condition. An experimental investigation on this aspect may further provide more decisive observation in drug target identification and better understanding of

  16. Glucocorticoids Suppress Renal Cell Carcinoma Progression by Enhancing Na,K-ATPase Beta-1 Subunit Expression

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Thu P.; Barwe, Sonali P.; Lee, Seung J.; McSpadden, Ryan; Franco, Omar E.; Hayward, Simon W.; Damoiseaux, Robert; Grubbs, Stephen S.; Petrelli, Nicholas J.; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are commonly used as palliative or chemotherapeutic clinical agents for treatment of a variety of cancers. Although steroid treatment is beneficial, the mechanisms by which steroids improve outcome in cancer patients are not well understood. Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit isoform 1 (NaK-β1) is a cell-cell adhesion molecule, and its expression is down-regulated in cancer cells undergoing epithelial-to mesenchymal-transition (EMT), a key event associated with cancer progression to metastatic disease. In this study, we performed high-throughput screening to identify small molecules that could up-regulate NaK-β1 expression in cancer cells. Compounds related to the glucocorticoids were identified as drug candidates enhancing NaK-β1 expression. Of these compounds, triamcinolone, dexamethasone, and fluorometholone were validated to increase NaK-β1 expression at the cell surface, enhance cell-cell adhesion, attenuate motility and invasiveness and induce mesenchymal to epithelial like transition of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells in vitro. Treatment of NaK-β1 knockdown cells with these drug candidates confirmed that these compounds mediate their effects through up-regulating NaK-β1. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these compounds attenuate tumor growth in subcutaneous RCC xenografts and reduce local invasiveness in orthotopically-implanted tumors. Our results strongly indicate that the addition of glucocorticoids in the treatment of RCC may improve outcome for RCC patients by augmenting NaK-β1 cell-cell adhesion function. PMID:25836370

  17. Differential gene expression pattern in biopsies with renal allograft pyelonephritis and allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Oghumu, Steve; Nori, Uday; Bracewell, Anna; Zhang, Jianying; Bott, Cherri; Nadasdy, Gyongyi M; Brodsky, Sergey V; Pelletier, Ronald; Satoskar, Abhay R; Nadasdy, Tibor; Satoskar, Anjali A

    2016-09-01

    Differentiating acute pyelonephritis (APN) from acute rejection (AR) in renal allograft biopsies can sometimes be difficult because of overlapping clinical and histologic features, lack of positive urine cultures,and variable response to antibiotics. We wanted to study differential gene expression between AR and APN using biopsy tissue. Thirty-three biopsies were analyzed using NanoString multiplex platform and PCR (6 transplant baseline biopsies, 8 AR, 15 APN [8 culture positive, 7 culture negative], and 4 native pyelonephritis [NP]). Additional 22 biopsies were tested by PCR to validate the results. CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and IDO1 were the top differentially expressed genes, upregulated in AR. Lactoferrin (LTF) and CXCL1 were higher in APN and NP. No statistically significant difference in transcript levels was seen between culture-positive and culture-negative APN biopsies. Comparing the overall mRNA signature using Ingenuity pathway analysis, interferon-gamma emerged as the dominant upstream regulator in AR and allograft APN, but not in NP (which clustered separately). Our study suggests that chemokine pathways in graft APN may differ from NP and in fact resemble AR, due to a component of alloreactivity, resulting in variable response to antibiotic treatment. Therefore, cautious addition of steroids might help in resistant cases of graft APN.

  18. PD1-Expressing T Cell Subsets Modify the Rejection Risk in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Rebecca; Thomas, Niclas; Workman, Sarita; Ambrose, Lyn; Guzman, David; Sivakumaran, Shivajanani; Johnson, Margaret; Thorburn, Douglas; Harber, Mark; Chain, Benny; Stauss, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether multi-parameter immune phenotyping before or after renal ­transplantation can predict the risk of rejection episodes. Blood samples collected before and weekly for 3 months after transplantation were analyzed by multi-parameter flow cytometry to define 52 T cell and 13 innate lymphocyte subsets in each sample, producing more than 11,000 data points that defined the immune status of the 28 patients included in this study. Principle component analysis suggested that the patients with histologically confirmed rejection episodes segregated from those without rejection. Protein death 1 (PD-1)-expressing subpopulations of regulatory and conventional T cells had the greatest influence on the principal component segregation. We constructed a statistical tool to predict rejection using a support vector machine algorithm. The algorithm correctly identified 7 out of 9 patients with rejection, and 14 out of 17 patients without rejection. The immune profile before transplantation was most accurate in determining the risk of rejection, while changes of immune parameters after transplantation were less accurate in discriminating rejection from non-rejection. The data indicate that pretransplant immune subset analysis has the potential to identify patients at risk of developing rejection episodes, and suggests that the proportion of PD1-expressing T cell subsets may be a key indicator of rejection risk. PMID:27148254

  19. Hexavalent chromium induces expression of mesenchymal and stem cell markers in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Jen; Yang, Cheng-Lin; Chow, Kuan-Chih; Kuo, Ting-Wei

    2016-02-01

    Cr(VI) causes severe kidney damage. The patient's renal function could gradually recover by spontaneous kidney regeneration. The molecular effect of Cr(VI) on recovery of kidney cells, however, has not been clearly elucidated. Here we show that Cr(VI) induces expression of mesenchymal and stem cell markers, cell markers, such as paxillin, vimentin, α-SMA, nanog, and CD133 of HK-2 cells. Moreover, Cr(VI) activates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). By revealing that levels of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase were promptly reduced following Cr(VI) challenge, our data suggested that DDH could be involved in a Cr(VI)-related oxidation to generate massive reactive oxygen species and H2 O2 , and to create intracellular hypoxia, which then increased levels of SUMO-1 activating enzyme subunit 2, and sumoylation of eukaryotic elongation factor-2, to mediate the subsequent molecular and cellular responses, e.g., expression of mesenchymal and stem cell markers. Pretreatment with vitamin C reduced Cr(VI)-related cellular effects. However, no evident effect was observed when vitamin C was added following Cr(VI) challenge. PMID:25620490

  20. Endotoxemia alters tight junction gene and protein expression in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Eadon, Michael T; Hack, Bradley K; Xu, Chang; Ko, Benjamin; Toback, F Gary; Cunningham, Patrick N

    2012-09-15

    Intact tight junctional (TJ) proteins are required for tubular ion transport and waste excretion. Disruption of TJs may contribute to a decreased glomerular filtration rate in acute kidney injury (AKI) via tubular backleak. The effect of LPS-mediated AKI on murine TJs has not been studied extensively. We hypothesized LPS endotoxin administration to mice would disrupt tubular TJ proteins including zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and claudins. ZO-1 and occludin immunofluorescence 24 h post-LPS revealed a marked change in localization from the usual circumferential fencework pattern to one with substantial fragmentation. Renal ZO-1 expression was significantly reduced 24 h after LPS (decrease of 56.1 ± 7.4%, P < 0.001), with subsequent recovery. ZO-1 mRNA expression was increased 24 h post-LPS (4.34 ± 0.87-fold, P = 0.0019), suggesting disruption of ZO-1 protein is not mediated by transcriptional regulation, but rather by degradation or changes in translation. Similarly, claudin-4 protein expression was decreased despite elevated mRNA. LPS administration resulted in dephosphorylation of occludin and fragmented tubular redistribution. Protein expression of claudin-1, and -3 was increased after LPS. ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1, -3, and -4 gene expression were increased 48 h after LPS, suggesting a renal response to strengthen TJs following injury. Interestingly, reduced mRNA expression was found only for claudin-8. This study provides further support that LPS-induced AKI is associated with structural injury and is not merely due to hemodynamic changes.

  1. Adipocyte gene expression is altered in formerly obese mice and as a function of diet composition.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan S; Becker, Kevin G; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; Cooke, David W

    2008-06-01

    In the development of obesity, the source of excess energy may influence appetite and metabolism. To determine the effects of differences in diet composition in obesity, mice were fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (HC; 10% fat energy) or a high-fat energy-restricted diet (HFR; 60% fat energy) over 18 wk in weight-matched groups of mice. To identify obesity-associated genes with persistently altered expression following weight reduction, mice were fed either a standard low-fat diet (LF; 10% fat energy), an unrestricted high-fat diet (HF; 60% fat energy), or a HF diet followed by weight reduction (WR). Mice fed a HF diet had significantly greater gonadal fat mass and higher whole blood glucose concentrations than mice fed an HC diet. Of the mice fed a high-fat diet, total body weight and serum insulin concentrations were greater in HF than in HFR. Microarray analysis revealed that HF vs. HC feeding resulted in global differences in adipocyte gene expression patterns. Although we identified genes whose expression was altered in both moderately and severely obese mice, there were also a large number of genes with altered expression only in severe obesity. Formerly obese, WR mice did not differ significantly from lean controls in total body weight or physiological measures. However, microarray analysis revealed distinctly different patterns of adipocyte gene expression. Furthermore, there were 398 genes with altered expression in HF mice that persisted in WR mice. Genes with persistently altered expression following obesity may play a role in rebound weight gain following weight reduction.

  2. Abnormal gene expression profile reveals the common key signatures associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H J; Sun, Z Q; Qian, W Q; Sheng, L

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the common gene signatures of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC), and to expand the respective protein-protein interaction networks associated with CCRCC regulation. For the latter, we utilized multiple gene expression data sets from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), with which we could analyze the aberrant gene expression patterns at the transcriptome level that distinguish cancer from normal samples. We obtained the GSE781 and GSE6344 clear cell renal cell carcinoma gene expression datasets from GEO, which contained a total of 37 cancer and 37 normal samples. Subsequent R language analysis allowed identification of the differentially expressed genes. The genes that exhibited significant up or downregulation in cancers were entered into the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery to perform analysis of gene functional annotations, resulting in the generation of two protein-protein interaction networks that included the most significantly up or downregulated genes in CCRCC. These allowed us to identify the key factor genes, which could potentially be utilized to separate cancer versus normal samples. The differentially regulated genes are also highly likely to be functionally important regulatory factors in renal cell carcinoma: cell functions showing enrichment of these genes include amine biosynthetic and vitamin metabolic processes, ion binding, extracellular transport function, and regulation of biosynthesis. Together, the results from our study offer further reason to pursue diagnosis and therapy of CCRCC at the molecular level. PMID:25867368

  3. Pregnancy complicated by obesity induces global transcript expression alterations in visceral and subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-08-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet not much is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n = 4/group) at the time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations led to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase, tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2, and ephrin type-B receptor 6, not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis as compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity.

  4. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  5. S fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli bind to primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells but do not induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, B; Placzek, M; Doehn, C; Hacker, J; Schmidt, G; Wasenauer, G; Daha, M R; van der Woude, F J; Sack, K

    1995-01-01

    We have recently reported an increase of expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 by renal carcinoma cells in response to S fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Now we demonstrate that E. coli expressing S and P fimbriae strongly binds to human proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, in primary and simian virus 40-transfected renal tubular epithelial cells S fimbriae do not enhance the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1. PMID:7622256

  6. Gene expression changes induced by ochratoxin A in renal and hepatic tissues of male F344 rat after oral repeated administration

    SciTech Connect

    Arbillaga, Leire; Vettorazzi, Ariane; Gil, Ana G; Garcia-Jalon, Jose Antonio

    2008-07-15

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a naturally occurring mycotoxin, is nephrotoxic in all animal species tested and is considered a potent renal carcinogen, particularly in male rats. Its mechanism of toxicity is still unknown, although oxidative stress appears to be a plausible mechanism. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the biological pathways that are modulated in vivo by OTA in male F344 rats in order to gain further insight into its mechanism of renal toxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with OTA (500 {mu}g/kg bw) and gene expression profiles in target and non-target organs were analyzed after 7 and 21 days administration. As was expected, a time-dependent increase of OTA concentrations was found in plasma, kidney and liver, with the concentrations found in both tissues being quite similar. However, histopathological examinations only revealed changes in kidney; signs of nephrotoxicity involving single cell necrosis and karyomegalic nuclei were observed in the treated rats. The number of differentially expressed genes in kidney was much higher than in liver (541 versus 11 at both time points). Several similarities were observed with other in vivo gene expression data. However, great differences were found with previous in vitro gene expression data, with the exception of DNA damage response which was not observed at mRNA level in any of our study conditions. Down-regulation was the predominant effect. Oxidative stress response pathway and genes involved in metabolism and transport were inhibited at both time points. RGN (regucalcin) - a gene implicated in calcium homeostasis - was strongly inhibited at both time points and genes implicated in cell survival and proliferation were up-regulated at day 21. Moreover, translation factors and annexin genes were up-regulated at both time points. Apart from oxidative stress, alterations of the calcium homeostasis and cytoskeleton structure may be present at the first events of OTA toxicity.

  7. Altered expression of AT-rich interactive domain 1A in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Akimasa; Kunita, Akiko; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Shibahara, Junji; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fukayama, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) is a subunit of the Switch/Sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex. Recently, genome-wide whole exome sequencing revealed frequent mutations of ARID1A in hepatocellular carcinoma, but clinicopathological significance of ARID1A alteration has not been clarified yet. In this study, expression of ARID1A was investigated immunohistochemically in 290 cases of hepatocellular carcinomas. In the evaluation of tissue microarrays, cases of ARID1A alteration (63 total cases, 21.7%) consisted of 11 (3.8%) cases showing loss of expression and 52 (17.9%) with weak expression. Alteration of ARID1A was correlated with larger tumor size (P=0.034) and well or moderate differentiation of tumor histology (P=0.035). There was no significant correlation with age, sex, cirrhosis, TNM stage, tumor size, number of tumors, vascular invasion, patient survival, HBV infection, HCV infection, heavy use of alcohol, nor diabetes mellitus. EBER in situ hybridization was negative in all 11 cases with loss of ARID1A. Altered expression of ARID1A was inversely correlated with nuclear expression of p53 (P=0.018) or beta-catenin (P=0.025). There was some heterogeneity of ARID1A alteration within each case, and immunohistochemistry of the whole sections demonstrated that four of 11 cases with loss of ARID1A in TMA analysis showed localized positive area within the tumor. Alteration of ARID1A may accelerate tumor growth in a subset of hepatocellular carcinoma, and this pathway may be distinct from p53 and beta-catenin pathways. PMID:26045782

  8. Formaldehyde exposure alters miRNA expression profiles in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Li, Guifa; Yang, Jing; Ling, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that inhaling formaldehyde (FA) causes damage to the central nervous system. However, it is unclear whether FA can disturb the function of the olfactory bulb. Using a microarray, we found that FA inhalation altered the miRNA expression profile. Functional enrichment analysis of the predicted targets of the changed miRNA showed that the enrichment canonical pathways and networks associated with cancer and transcriptional regulation. FA exposure disrupts miRNA expression profiles within the olfactory bulb.

  9. Expression of AS3MT alters transcriptional profiles in human urothelial cells exposed to arsenite.

    PubMed

    Hester, Sd; Drobná, Z; Andrews, Dmk; Liu, J; Waalkes, Mp; Thomas, Dj; Styblo, M

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an environmental toxicant and human carcinogen. The enzymatic methylation of iAs that is catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state)-methyltransferase (AS3MT) generates reactive methylated intermediates that contribute to the toxic and carcinogenic effects of iAs. We have shown that clonal human urothelial cells (UROtsa/F35) that express rat AS3MT and methylate iAs are more susceptible to acute toxicity of arsenite (iAs(III)) than parental UROtsa cells that do not express AS3MT and do not methylate iAs. The current work examines transcriptional changes associated with AS3MT expression and identifies specific categories of genes expressed in UROtsa and UROtsa/F35 cells in response to a 24-h exposure to 1 or 50 microM iAs(III). Here, the expression of 21,073 genes was assessed using Agilent Human 1A(V2) arrays. Venn analysis showed marked concentration-dependent differences between gene expression patterns in UROtsa and UROTsa/F35 cells exposed to iAs(III). Among 134 genes altered by exposure to subtoxic 1 microM iAs(III), only 14 were shared by both cell lines. Exposure to cytotoxic 50 microM iAs(III) uniquely altered 1389 genes in UROtsa/F35 and 649 genes in UROtsa cells; 5033 altered genes were associated with the chemical alone. In UROtsa, but not UROtsa/F35 cells exposure to 1 microM iAs(III) altered expression of genes associated with cell adhesion. In contrast, expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation was significantly altered in UROtsa/F35 cells at this exposure level. At 50 microM iAs(III), pathways regulating cell cycle, cell death, transcription, and metabolism were affected in both cell lines. However, only Urotsa/F35 cells showed numerous G-protein and kinase pathway alterations as well as alterations in pathways involved in cell growth and differentiation. These data link the AS3MT-catalyzed methylation of iAs to specific genomic responses in human cells exposed to iAs(III). Further analysis of these responses will

  10. Identification of genes associated with renal cell carcinoma using gene expression profiling analysis

    PubMed Central

    YAO, TING; WANG, QINFU; ZHANG, WENYONG; BIAN, AIHONG; ZHANG, JINPING

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults and accounts for ~80% of all kidney cancer cases. However, the pathogenesis of RCC has not yet been fully elucidated. To interpret the pathogenesis of RCC at the molecular level, gene expression data and bio-informatics methods were used to identify RCC associated genes. Gene expression data was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and identified differentially coexpressed genes (DCGs) and dysfunctional pathways in RCC patients compared with controls. In addition, a regulatory network was constructed using the known regulatory data between transcription factors (TFs) and target genes in the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Browser (http://genome.ucsc.edu) and the regulatory impact factor of each TF was calculated. A total of 258,0427 pairs of DCGs were identified. The regulatory network contained 1,525 pairs of regulatory associations between 126 TFs and 1,259 target genes and these genes were mainly enriched in cancer pathways, ErbB and MAPK. In the regulatory network, the 10 most strongly associated TFs were FOXC1, GATA3, ESR1, FOXL1, PATZ1, MYB, STAT5A, EGR2, EGR3 and PELP1. GATA3, ERG and MYB serve important roles in RCC while FOXC1, ESR1, FOXL1, PATZ1, STAT5A and PELP1 may be potential genes associated with RCC. In conclusion, the present study constructed a regulatory network and screened out several TFs that may be used as molecular biomarkers of RCC. However, future studies are needed to confirm the findings of the present study. PMID:27347102

  11. Microemboli alter the acute stress response and cause prolonged expression of MCP-1 in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Christina L; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2015-04-01

    Microvascular ischemia is linked to cardiovascular disease pathology, as well as alterations in mood and cognition. Ischemia activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and through chronic activation, alters HPA axis function. Dysregulation of the HPA axis can lead to the chronic release of glucocorticoids, a hyper-inflammatory cerebral response, cell damage, and changes in behavior. Although the interactions between injury and HPA axis activity have been established in global ischemia, HPA-related repercussions of diffuse ischemic damage and subsequent inflammation have not been assessed. The current study used a rat model of microsphere embolism (ME) ischemia to test the hypothesis that microvascular ischemia would lead to long term alterations in HPA axis function and inflammatory activity. Furthermore, given the pro-inflammatory nature of chronic stress, we assessed the implications of chronic stress for gene expression of inflammatory factors and key components of the glucocorticoid receptor response, following microvascular ischemia. Results indicated that ME altered the response to an acute stress fourteen days following ME injury and increased hippocampal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (Mcp-1) as long as 4 weeks following ME injury, without concomitant effects on gene expression of the glucocorticoid receptor or its co-chaperones. Furthermore, no exacerbative effects of chronic stress exposure were observed following ME injury beyond the effects of ME injury alone. Together, these results indicate that ME injury is sufficient to alter both HPA axis activity and cerebral inflammation for a prolonged period of time following injury.

  12. Mutant U2AF1 Expression Alters Hematopoiesis and Pre-mRNA Splicing In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; Ley, James N.; White, Brian S.; Kim, Sanghyun; Tibbitts, Justin; Shao, Jin; Ndonwi, Matthew; Wadugu, Brian; Duncavage, Eric J.; Okeyo-Owuor, Theresa; Liu, Tuoen; Griffith, Malachi; McGrath, Sean; Magrini, Vincent; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O’Laughlin, Michelle; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Heterozygous somatic mutations in the spliceosome gene U2AF1 occur in ~11% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the most common adult myeloid malignancy. It is unclear how these mutations contribute to disease. We examined in vivo hematopoietic consequences of the most common U2AF1 mutation using a doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse model. Mice expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F) display altered hematopoiesis and changes in pre-mRNA splicing in hematopoietic progenitor cells by whole transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Integration with human RNA-seq datasets determined that common mutant U2AF1-induced splicing alterations are enriched in RNA processing genes, ribosomal genes, and recurrently-mutated MDS and acute myeloid leukemia-associated genes. These findings support the hypothesis that mutant U2AF1 alters downstream gene isoform expression, thereby contributing to abnormal hematopoiesis in MDS patients. PMID:25965570

  13. Methyl-ß-cyclodextrin alters adipokine gene expression and glucose metabolism in swine adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if metabolic stress as induced by methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MCD) can alter cytokine expression in neonatal swine adipose tissue explants. Subcutaneous adipose tissue explants (100 ± 10 mg) were prepared from 21 day old pigs. Explants were incubated in medium 199 s...

  14. POTENTIAL ALTERATIONS IN GENE EXPRESSION ASSOCIATED WITH CARCINOGEN EXPOSURE IN MYA ARENARIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gonadal cancers in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) have been found at high prevalences (20-40%) in populations in eastern Maine. The aetiology of these tumours is unknown. We hypothesized that gene expression would be altered in gonadal tumours and that examination of gene expres...

  15. Expression of FSHD-related DUX4-FL alters proteostasis and induces TDP-43 aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Sachiko; Beermann, Mary Lou; Boyce, Frederick M; Miller, Jeffrey Boone

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pathogenesis in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) appears to be due to aberrant expression, particularly in skeletal muscle nuclei, of the full-length isoform of DUX4 (DUX4-FL). Expression of DUX4-FL is known to alter gene expression and to be cytotoxic, but cell responses to DUX4-FL are not fully understood. Our study was designed to identify cellular mechanisms of pathogenesis caused by DUX4-FL expression. Methods We used human myogenic cell cultures to analyze the effects of DUX4-FL when it was expressed either from its endogenous promoter in FSHD cells or by exogenous expression using BacMam vectors. We focused on determining the effects of DUX4-FL on protein ubiquitination and turnover and on aggregation of TDP-43. Results Human FSHD myotubes with endogenous DUX4-FL expression showed both altered nuclear and cytoplasmic distributions of ubiquitinated proteins and aggregation of TDP-43 in DUX4-FL-expressing nuclei. Similar changes were found upon exogenous expression of DUX4-FL, but were not seen upon expression of the non-toxic short isoform DUX4-S. DUX4-FL expression also inhibited protein turnover in a model system and increased the amounts of insoluble ubiquitinated proteins and insoluble TDP-43. Finally, inhibition of the ubiquitin–proteasome system with MG132 produced TDP-43 aggregation similar to DUX4-FL expression. Interpretations Our results identify DUX4-FL-induced inhibition of protein turnover and aggregation of TDP-43, which are pathological changes also found in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and inclusion body myopathy, as potential pathological mechanisms in FSHD. PMID:25750920

  16. Increased pheromone cCF10 expression in Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formed by isolates from renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Jarzembowski, Tomasz; Daca, Agnieszka; Bryl, Ewa; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna; Gołębiewska, Justyna; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Witkowski, Jacek

    2012-12-01

    Renal transplant recipients are at a high risk of developing infectious complications even caused by commensal bacteria. This is because of various physiological non-immunological, and immunological protective mechanisms are not fully efficient in RTx patients. Therefore, rapid and precise diagnostic tools are essential in this particular group of patients. We aimed to develop simple and sensitive protocol Flow-Fish for the study of gene expression in enterococci and to compare expression of genes involved in virulence regulation in biofilm and planktonic form of Enterococcus faecalis. Proper optimization of the method was demonstrated with analysis of dehydrogenase gene expression. According to expectation reduction of the dehydrogenase gene expression was observed in biofilm. Furthermore, expression of studied gene was higher in clinical than in commensal strains. We have also found that in contrast to dehydrogenase gene, pheromone cCF10 gene expression increasing then clinical strains formed biofilm.

  17. Renal expression of FGF23 and peripheral resistance to elevated FGF23 in rodent models of polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Spichtig, Daniela; Zhang, Hongbo; Mohebbi, Nilufar; Pavik, Ivana; Petzold, Katja; Stange, Gerti; Saleh, Lanja; Edenhofer, Ilka; Segerer, Stephan; Biber, Jürg; Jaeger, Philippe; Serra, Andreas L; Wagner, Carsten A

    2014-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphate homeostasis and is linked to cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease. FGF23 rises in patients with CKD stages 2-3, but in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, the increase of FGF23 precedes the first measurable decline in renal function. The mechanisms governing FGF23 production and effects in kidney disease are largely unknown. Here we studied the relation between FGF23 and mineral homeostasis in two animal models of PKD. Plasma FGF23 levels were increased 10-fold in 4-week-old cy/+ Han:SPRD rats, whereas plasma urea and creatinine concentrations were similar to controls. Plasma calcium and phosphate levels as well as TmP/GFR were similar in PKD and control rats at all time points examined. Expression and activity of renal phosphate transporters, the vitamin D3-metabolizing enzymes, and the FGF23 co-ligand Klotho in the kidney were similar in PKD and control rats through 8 weeks of age, indicating resistance to FGF23, although phosphorylation of the FGF receptor substrate 2α protein was enhanced. In the kidneys of rats with PKD, FGF23 mRNA was highly expressed and FGF23 protein was detected in cells lining renal cysts. FGF23 expression in bone and spleen was similar in control rats and rats with PKD. Similarly, in an inducible Pkd1 knockout mouse model, plasma FGF23 levels were elevated, FGF23 was expressed in kidneys, but renal phosphate excretion was normal. Thus, the polycystic kidney produces FGF23 but is resistant to its action.

  18. Alcohol Consumption Modulates Host Defense in Rhesus Macaques by Altering Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections, whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations > 80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (blood ethanol concentrations < 50 mg/dl) enhanced, T and B cell responses to modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination in a nonhuman primate model of voluntary ethanol consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T cell and Ab responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced the expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing and increased the expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated the expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced the expression of genes involved in cancer. To uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate the expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our data set.

  19. Alcohol Consumption Modulates Host Defense in Rhesus Macaques by Altering Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections, whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations > 80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (blood ethanol concentrations < 50 mg/dl) enhanced, T and B cell responses to modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination in a nonhuman primate model of voluntary ethanol consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T cell and Ab responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced the expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing and increased the expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated the expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced the expression of genes involved in cancer. To uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate the expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our data set. PMID:26621857

  20. Influenza matrix protein 2 alters CFTR expression and function through its ion channel activity.

    PubMed

    Londino, James D; Lazrak, Ahmed; Jurkuvenaite, Asta; Collawn, James F; Noah, James W; Matalon, Sadis

    2013-05-01

    The human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic AMP-activated chloride (Cl(-)) channel in the lung epithelium that helps regulate the thickness and composition of the lung epithelial lining fluid. We investigated whether influenza M2 protein, a pH-activated proton (H(+)) channel that traffics to the plasma membrane of infected cells, altered CFTR expression and function. M2 decreased CFTR activity in 1) Xenopus oocytes injected with human CFTR, 2) epithelial cells (HEK-293) stably transfected with CFTR, and 3) human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-) expressing native CFTR. This inhibition was partially reversed by an inhibitor of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. Next we investigated whether the M2 inhibition of CFTR activity was due to an increase of secretory organelle pH by M2. Incubation of Xenopus oocytes expressing CFTR with ammonium chloride or concanamycin A, two agents that alkalinize the secretory pathway, inhibited CFTR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of M2- and CFTR-expressing oocytes with the M2 ion channel inhibitor amantadine prevented the loss in CFTR expression and activity; in addition, M2 mutants, lacking the ability to transport H(+), did not alter CFTR activity in Xenopus oocytes and HEK cells. Expression of an M2 mutant retained in the endoplasmic reticulum also failed to alter CFTR activity. In summary, our data show that M2 decreases CFTR activity by increasing secretory organelle pH, which targets CFTR for destruction by the ubiquitin system. Alteration of CFTR activity has important consequences for fluid regulation and may potentially modify the immune response to viral infection.

  1. Influenza matrix protein 2 alters CFTR expression and function through its ion channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Londino, James D.; Lazrak, Ahmed; Jurkuvenaite, Asta; Collawn, James F.; Noah, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic AMP-activated chloride (Cl−) channel in the lung epithelium that helps regulate the thickness and composition of the lung epithelial lining fluid. We investigated whether influenza M2 protein, a pH-activated proton (H+) channel that traffics to the plasma membrane of infected cells, altered CFTR expression and function. M2 decreased CFTR activity in 1) Xenopus oocytes injected with human CFTR, 2) epithelial cells (HEK-293) stably transfected with CFTR, and 3) human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o−) expressing native CFTR. This inhibition was partially reversed by an inhibitor of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. Next we investigated whether the M2 inhibition of CFTR activity was due to an increase of secretory organelle pH by M2. Incubation of Xenopus oocytes expressing CFTR with ammonium chloride or concanamycin A, two agents that alkalinize the secretory pathway, inhibited CFTR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of M2- and CFTR-expressing oocytes with the M2 ion channel inhibitor amantadine prevented the loss in CFTR expression and activity; in addition, M2 mutants, lacking the ability to transport H+, did not alter CFTR activity in Xenopus oocytes and HEK cells. Expression of an M2 mutant retained in the endoplasmic reticulum also failed to alter CFTR activity. In summary, our data show that M2 decreases CFTR activity by increasing secretory organelle pH, which targets CFTR for destruction by the ubiquitin system. Alteration of CFTR activity has important consequences for fluid regulation and may potentially modify the immune response to viral infection. PMID:23457187

  2. Expression Profiles and Clinical Significance of MicroRNAs in Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yu-Zheng; Xu, Lu-Wei; Xu, Zheng; Wu, Ran; Xin, Hui; Zhu, Meng; Lu, Tian-Ze; Geng, Li-Guo; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Chang-Cheng; Yu, Peng; Zhao, You-Cai; Hu, Zhi-Kai; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Liu-Hua; Wu, Jian-Ping; Li, Wen-Cheng; Zhu, Jia-Geng; Jia, Rui-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is the second most prevalent subtype of kidney cancers. In the current study, we analyzed the global microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in pRCC, with the aim to evaluate the relationship of miRNA expression with the progression and prognosis of pRCC. A total of 163 treatment-naïve primary pRCC patients were identified from the Cancer Genome Atlas dataset and included in this retrospective observational study. The miRNA expression profiles were graded by tumor-node-metastasis information, and compared between histologic subtypes. Furthermore, the training-validation approach was applied to identify miRNAs of prognostic values, with the aid of Kaplan–Meier survival, and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Finally, the online DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discover) program was applied for the pathway enrichment analysis with the target genes of prognosis-associated miRNAs, which were predicted by 3 computational algorithms (PicTar, TargetScan, and Miranda). In the progression-related miRNA profiles, 26 miRNAs were selected for pathologic stage, 28 for pathologic T, 16 for lymph node status, 3 for metastasis status, and 32 for histologic types, respectively. In the training stage, the expression levels of 12 miRNAs (mir-134, mir-379, mir-127, mir-452, mir-199a, mir-200c, mir-141, mir-3074, mir-1468, mir-181c, mir-1180, and mir-34a) were significantly associated with patient survival, whereas mir-200c, mir-127, mir-34a, and mir-181c were identified by multivariate Cox regression analyses as potential independent prognostic factors in pRCC. Subsequently, mir-200c, mir-127, and mir-34a were confirmed to be significantly correlated with patient survival in the validation stage. Finally, target gene prediction analysis identified a total of 113 target genes for mir-200c, 37 for mir-127, and 180 for mir-34a, which further generated 15 molecular pathways. Our results

  3. Glucocorticoids differentially regulate expression of duodenal and renal calbindin-D9k through glucocorticoid receptor-mediated pathway in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geun-Shik; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2006-02-01

    Dexamethasone (Dex) is a member of the glucocorticoids (GCs), and is broadly used as an anti-inflammatory medication. Continuous administration with GCs induces adverse effects and suffering in humans (i.e., osteoporosis) due to negative calcium balance derived from low re- and absorption in the duodenum and kidney. A cytosolic calcium-binding protein, calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k), is dominantly expressed in the renal and intestinal tissues involved in calcium re- and absorption and plays an active role in calcium transport. In the present study, we employed adrenalectomized (ADX) and sham-treated (Sham) male mice to examine the effect of Dex on CaBP-9k gene expression in the duodenum and kidney. Dex significantly reduced the levels of duodenal CaBP-9k mRNA and protein, and it restored ADX-induced decrease in renal CaBP-9k protein compared with the level of Sham control. Dex treatment increased calcium and phosphate levels in the sera of both Sham and ADX mice. In a time course experiment, Dex significantly decreased duodenal CaBP-9k at the transcriptional and translational levels at 3 days, whereas it temporarily increased CaBP-9k mRNA and protein levels at 12 and 24 h. Altered CaBP-9k expression by Dex was completely reversed by mifepristone, an antagonist for the GC receptor (GR). In addition, duodenal CaBP-9k and GR were colocalized on the enterocyte (duodenocyte), supporting a role for GR in regulating CaBP-9k. In ovariectomized (OVX) and ADX female mice daily treated with Dex for 3 days, duodenal CaBP-9k was expressed at the same level as in male mice. Also, no cross-activity of progesterone and Dex on their receptors was observed. Taken together, these results indicate that mouse CaBP-9k gene may be regulated by Dex in a tissue-specific manner, and reduced duodenal CaBP-9k via the GR pathway may take part in negative calcium absorption of GC-induced osteoporosis, whereas renal CaBP-9k may not be involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis. PMID:16219669

  4. Drought response transcriptomes are altered in poplar with reduced tonoplast sucrose transporter expression

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Frost, Christopher J.; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Harding, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic Populus tremula x alba (717-1B4) plants with reduced expression of a tonoplast sucrose efflux transporter, PtaSUT4, exhibit reduced shoot growth compared to wild type (WT) under sustained mild drought. The present study was undertaken to determine whether SUT4-RNAi directly or indirectly altered poplar predisposition and/or response to changes in soil water availability. While sucrose and hexose levels were constitutively elevated in shoot organs, expression responses to drought were most altered in the root tips of SUT4-RNAi plants. Prior to any drought treatment, constitutively elevated transcript levels of abscisic acid biosynthetic genes and bark/vegetative storage proteins suggested altered metabolism in root tips of RNAi plants. Stronger drought-stimulation of stress-inducible genes encoding late-embryogenesis-abundant proteins in transgenic roots was consistent with increased vulnerability to soil drying. Transcript evidence suggested an RNAi effect on intercellular water trafficking by aquaporins in stem xylem during soil drying and recovery. Co-expression network analysis predicted altered integration of abscisic acid sensing/signaling with ethylene and jasmonate sensing/signaling in RNAi compared to WT roots. The overall conclusion is that steepened shoot-root sugar gradient in RNAi plants increased sensitivity of root tips to decreasing soil water availability. PMID:27641356

  5. Drought response transcriptomes are altered in poplar with reduced tonoplast sucrose transporter expression.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Frost, Christopher J; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Harding, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic Populus tremula x alba (717-1B4) plants with reduced expression of a tonoplast sucrose efflux transporter, PtaSUT4, exhibit reduced shoot growth compared to wild type (WT) under sustained mild drought. The present study was undertaken to determine whether SUT4-RNAi directly or indirectly altered poplar predisposition and/or response to changes in soil water availability. While sucrose and hexose levels were constitutively elevated in shoot organs, expression responses to drought were most altered in the root tips of SUT4-RNAi plants. Prior to any drought treatment, constitutively elevated transcript levels of abscisic acid biosynthetic genes and bark/vegetative storage proteins suggested altered metabolism in root tips of RNAi plants. Stronger drought-stimulation of stress-inducible genes encoding late-embryogenesis-abundant proteins in transgenic roots was consistent with increased vulnerability to soil drying. Transcript evidence suggested an RNAi effect on intercellular water trafficking by aquaporins in stem xylem during soil drying and recovery. Co-expression network analysis predicted altered integration of abscisic acid sensing/signaling with ethylene and jasmonate sensing/signaling in RNAi compared to WT roots. The overall conclusion is that steepened shoot-root sugar gradient in RNAi plants increased sensitivity of root tips to decreasing soil water availability. PMID:27641356

  6. Immunosenescence is associated with altered gene expression and epigenetic regulation in primary and secondary immune organs

    PubMed Central

    Sidler, Corinne; Wóycicki, Rafał; Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Metz, Gerlinde; Kovalchuk, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Deterioration of the immune system (immunosenescence) with age is associated with an increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune disease and cancer, and reduced responsiveness to vaccination. Immunosenescence entails a reduced supply of naïve T cells from the thymus and increased specialization of peripheral T cell clones. Both thymic involution and peripheral T cell homeostasis are thought to involve cellular senescence. In order to analyze this at the molecular level, we studied gene expression profiles, epigenetic status, and genome stability in the thymus and spleen of 1-, 4-, and 18-month-old Long Evans rats. In the thymus, altered gene expression, DNA and histone H3K9 hypomethylation, increased genome instability, and apoptosis were observed in 18-month-old animals compared to 1- and 4-month-old animals. In the spleen, alterations in gene expression and epigenetic regulation occurred already by the age of 4 months compared to 1 month and persisted in 18-month-old compared to 1-month-old rats. In both organs, these changes were accompanied by the altered composition of resident T cell populations. Our study suggests that both senescence and apoptosis may be involved in altered organ function. PMID:24151501

  7. Association between As and Cu renal cortex accumulation and physiological and histological alterations after chronic arsenic intake

    SciTech Connect

    Rubatto Birri, Paolo N.; Perez, Roberto D.; Cremonezzi, David; Perez, Carlos A.; Rubio, Marcelo; Bongiovanni, Guillermina A.

    2010-07-15

    Arsenic (As) is one of the most abundant hazards in the environment and it is a human carcinogen. Related to excretory functions, the kidneys in humans, animal models or naturally exposed fauna, are target organs for As accumulation and deleterious effects. Previous studies carried out using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry by synchrotron radiation (SR-{mu}XRF) showed a high concentration of As in the renal cortex of chronically exposed rats, suggesting that this is a suitable model for studies on renal As accumulation. This accumulation was accompanied by a significant increase in copper (Cu) concentration. The present study focused on the localization of these elements in the renal cortex and their correlation with physiological and histological As-related renal effects. Experiments were performed on nine male Wistar rats, divided into three experimental groups. Two groups received 100 {mu}g/ml sodium arsenite in drinking water for 60 and 120 consecutive days, respectively. The control group received water without sodium arsenite (<50 ppb As). For histological analysis, 5-{mu}m-thick sections of kidneys were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Biochemical analyses were used to determine concentrations of plasma urea and creatinine. The As and Cu mapping were carried out by SR-{mu}XRF using a collimated white synchrotron spectrum (300 {mu}mx300 {mu}m) on kidney slices (2 mm thick) showing As and Cu co-distribution in the renal cortex. Then, renal cortical slices (100 {mu}m thick) were scanned with a focused white synchrotron spectrum (30 {mu}mx30 {mu}m). Peri-glomerular accumulation of As and Cu at 60 and 120 days was found. The effects of 60 days of arsenic consumption were seen in a decreased Bowman's space as well as a decreased plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine ratio. Major deleterious effects; however, were seen on tubules at 120 days of exposition. This study supports the hypothesis that tubular accumulation of As-Cu may have some bearing on the

  8. Reduced renal calcium excretion in the absence of sclerostin expression: evidence for a novel calcium-regulating bone kidney axis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv; Vallon, Volker

    2014-10-01

    The kidneys contribute to calcium homeostasis by adjusting the reabsorption and excretion of filtered calcium through processes that are regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25[OH]2D3). Most of the filtered calcium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, primarily by paracellular mechanisms that are not sensitive to calcium-regulating hormones in physiologically relevant ways. In the distal tubule, however, calcium is reabsorbed by channels and transporters, the activity or expression of which is highly regulated and increased by PTH and 1α,25(OH)2D3. Recent research suggests that other, heretofore unrecognized factors, such as the osteocyte-specific protein sclerostin, also regulate renal calcium excretion. Clues in this regard have come from the study of humans and mice with inactivating mutations of the sclerostin gene that both have increased skeletal density, which would necessitate an increase in intestinal absorption and/or renal reabsorption of calcium. Deletion of the sclerostin gene in mice significantly diminishes urinary calcium excretion and increases fractional renal calcium reabsorption. This is associated with increased circulating 1α,25(OH)2D3 levels, whereas sclerostin directly suppresses 1α-hydroxylase in immortalized proximal tubular cells. Thus, evidence is accumulating that sclerostin directly or indirectly reduces renal calcium reabsorption, suggesting the presence of a novel calcium-excreting bone-kidney axis.

  9. Restricted maternal nutrition alters myogenic regulatory factor expression in satellite cells of ovine offspring.

    PubMed

    Raja, J S; Hoffman, M L; Govoni, K E; Zinn, S A; Reed, S A

    2016-07-01

    Poor maternal nutrition inhibits muscle development and postnatal muscle growth. Satellite cells are myogenic precursor cells that contribute to postnatal muscle growth, and their activity can be evaluated by the expression of several transcription factors. Paired-box (Pax)7 is expressed in quiescent and active satellite cells. MyoD is expressed in activated and proliferating satellite cells and myogenin is expressed in terminally differentiating cells. Disruption in the expression pattern or timing of expression of myogenic regulatory factors negatively affects muscle development and growth. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition during gestation would alter the in vitro temporal expression of MyoD and myogenin in satellite cells from offspring at birth and 3 months of age. Ewes were fed 100% or 60% of NRC requirements from day 31±1.3 of gestation. Lambs from control-fed (CON) or restricted-fed (RES) ewes were euthanized within 24 h of birth (birth; n=5) or were fed a control diet until 3 months of age (n=5). Satellite cells isolated from the semitendinosus muscle were used for gene expression analysis or cultured for 24, 48 or 72 h and immunostained for Pax7, MyoD or myogenin. Fusion index was calculated from a subset of cells allowed to differentiate. Compared with CON, temporal expression of MyoD and myogenin was altered in cultured satellite cells isolated from RES lambs at birth. The percent of cells expressing MyoD was greater in RES than CON (P=0.03) after 24 h in culture. After 48 h of culture, there was a greater percent of cells expressing myogenin in RES compared with CON (P0.05). In satellite cells from RES lambs at 3 months of age, the percent of cells expressing MyoD and myogenin were greater than CON after 72 h in culture (P<0.05). Fusion index was reduced in RES lambs at 3 months of age compared with CON (P<0.001). Restricted nutrition during gestation alters the temporal expression of myogenic regulatory factors in satellite cells of the

  10. Hypoxia reduces constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human proximal renal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xuan; Kimura, Hideki . E-mail: hkimura@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Hirota, Kiichi; Sugimoto, Hidehiro; Yoshida, Haruyoshi

    2005-10-07

    Chronic hypoxia has been reported to be associated with macrophage infiltration in progressive forms of kidney disease. Here, we investigated the regulatory effects of hypoxia on constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-stimulated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in cultured human proximal renal tubular cells (HPTECs). Hypoxia reduced constitutive MCP-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent fashion for up to 48 h. Hypoxia also inhibited MCP-1 up-regulation by TNF-{alpha}. Treatment with actinomycin D showed that hypoxic down-regulation of MCP-1 expression resulted mainly from a decrease in the transcription but not the mRNA stability. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that treatment with hypoxia or an iron chelator, desferrioxamine, induced nuclear accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in HPTECs. Desferrioxamine mimicked hypoxia in the reduction of MCP-1 expression. However, overexpression of a dominant negative form of HIF-1{alpha} did not abolish the hypoxia-induced reduction of MCP-1 expression in HPTECs. These results suggest that hypoxia is an important negative regulator of monocyte chemotaxis to the renal inflamed interstitium, by reducing MCP-1 expression partly via hypoxia-activated signals other than the HIF-1 pathway.

  11. Loss of tumour suppressor PTEN expression in renal injury initiates SMAD3- and p53-dependent fibrotic responses.

    PubMed

    Samarakoon, Rohan; Helo, Sevann; Dobberfuhl, Amy D; Khakoo, Nidah S; Falke, Lucas; Overstreet, Jessica M; Goldschmeding, Roel; Higgins, Paul J

    2015-08-01

    Deregulation of the tumour suppressor PTEN occurs in lung and skin fibrosis and diabetic and ischaemic renal injury. However, the potential role of PTEN and associated mechanisms in the progression of kidney fibrosis is unknown. Tubular and interstitial PTEN expression was dramatically decreased in several models of renal injury, including aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), streptozotocin (STZ)-mediated injury and ureteral unilateral obstruction (UUO), correlating with Akt, p53 and SMAD3 activation and fibrosis. Stable silencing of PTEN in HK-2 human tubular epithelial cells induced dedifferentiation and CTGF, PAI-1, vimentin, α-SMA and fibronectin expression, compared to HK-2 cells expressing control shRNA. Furthermore, PTEN knockdown stimulated Akt, SMAD3 and p53(Ser15) phosphorylation, with an accompanying decrease in population density and an increase in epithelial G1 cell cycle arrest. SMAD3 or p53 gene silencing or pharmacological blockade partially suppressed fibrotic gene expression and relieved growth inhibition orchestrated by deficiency or inhibition of PTEN. Similarly, shRNA suppression of PAI-1 rescued the PTEN loss-associated epithelial proliferative arrest. Moreover, TGFβ1-initiated fibrotic gene expression is further enhanced by PTEN depletion. Combined TGFβ1 treatment and PTEN silencing potentiated epithelial cell death via p53-dependent pathways. Thus, PTEN loss initiates tubular dysfunction via SMAD3- and p53-mediated fibrotic gene induction, with accompanying PAI-1-dependent proliferative arrest, and cooperates with TGFβ1 to induce the expression of profibrotic genes and tubular apoptosis.

  12. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background RNA silencing is used in plants as a major defence mechanism against invasive nucleic acids, such as viruses. Accordingly, plant viruses have evolved to produce counter defensive RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs). These factors interfere in various ways with the RNA silencing machinery in cells, and thereby disturb the microRNA (miRNA) mediated endogene regulation and induce developmental and morphological changes in plants. In this study we have explored these effects using previously characterized transgenic tobacco plants which constitutively express (under CaMV 35S promoter) the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) derived from a potyviral genome. The transcript levels of leaves and flowers of these plants were analysed using microarray techniques (Tobacco 4 × 44 k, Agilent). Results Over expression of HC-Pro RSS induced clear phenotypic changes both in growth rate and in leaf and flower morphology of the tobacco plants. The expression of 748 and 332 genes was significantly changed in the leaves and flowers, respectively, in the HC-Pro expressing transgenic plants. Interestingly, these transcriptome alterations in the HC-Pro expressing tobacco plants were similar as those previously detected in plants infected with ssRNA-viruses. Particularly, many defense-related and hormone-responsive genes (e.g. ethylene responsive transcription factor 1, ERF1) were differentially regulated in these plants. Also the expression of several stress-related genes, and genes related to cell wall modifications, protein processing, transcriptional regulation and photosynthesis were strongly altered. Moreover, genes regulating circadian cycle and flowering time were significantly altered, which may have induced a late flowering phenotype in HC-Pro expressing plants. The results also suggest that photosynthetic oxygen evolution, sugar metabolism and energy levels were significantly changed in these transgenic plants. Transcript levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) were

  13. Alteration of PHYA expression change circadian rhythms and timing of bud set in Populus.

    PubMed

    Kozarewa, Iwanka; Ibáñez, Cristian; Johansson, Mikael; Ogren, Erling; Mozley, David; Nylander, Eva; Chono, Makiko; Moritz, Thomas; Eriksson, Maria E

    2010-05-01

    In many temperate woody species, dormancy is induced by short photoperiods. Earlier studies have shown that the photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) promotes growth. Specifically, Populus plants that over-express the oat PHYA gene (oatPHYAox) show daylength-independent growth and do not become dormant. However, we show that oatPHYAox plants could be induced to set bud and become cold hardy by exposure to a shorter, non-24 h diurnal cycle that significantly alters the relative position between endogenous rhythms and perceived light/dark cycles. Furthermore, we describe studies in which the expression of endogenous Populus tremula x P. tremuloides PHYTOCHROME A (PttPHYA) was reduced in Populus trees by antisense inhibition. The antisense plants showed altered photoperiodic requirements, resulting in earlier growth cessation and bud formation in response to daylength shortening, an effect that was explained by an altered innate period that leads to phase changes of clock-associated genes such as PttCO2. Moreover, gene expression studies following far-red light pulses show a phyA-mediated repression of PttLHY1 and an induction of PttFKF1 and PttFT. We conclude that the level of PttPHYA expression strongly influences seasonally regulated growth in Populus and is central to co-ordination between internal clock-regulated rhythms and external light/dark cycles through its dual effect on the pace of clock rhythms and in light signaling.

  14. The expression of p73 is increased in lung cancer, independent of p53 gene alteration

    PubMed Central

    Tokuchi, Y; Hashimoto, T; Kobayashi, Y; Hayashi, M; Nishida, K; Hayashi, S; Imai, K; Nakachi, K; Ishikawa, Y; Nakagawa, K; Kawakami, Y; Tsuchiya, E

    1999-01-01

    p73 gene, a new p53 homologue, has been identified: it supposedly acts as tumour suppressor gene in neuroblastoma. To clarify whether p73 might be involved in lung carcinogenesis, we examined p73 expression in resected lung cancer and paired normal lung in 60 cases using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We also examined p73 gene status in three representative cases using Southern blot, and p53 gene alteration in 49 cases using PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and direct sequence. In 87% of the cases (52/60) p73 expression in tumour was more than twice as high as that in paired normal lung tissues, and the difference between p73 expression in tumour and normal lung tissue was significant (P < 0.0001). However, Southern blot analysis revealed that none of the cases showed p73 gene amplification. Compared with clinicopathological characteristics, p73 expression correlates significantly with histological differences and age of patient, independently (P < 0.05). Concerning p53 gene status, 43% (21/49) showed p53 gene alteration, but there was no correlation between p73 overexpression and p53 gene alteration. Our results suggest that need for further functional analysis of the role of p73 in lung carcinogenesis. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408409

  15. Altered Stra13 and Dec2 circadian gene expression in hypoxic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guillaumond, Fabienne; Lacoche, Samuel; Dulong, Sandrine; Grechez-Cassiau, Aline; Filipski, Elisabeth; Li, Xiao-Mei; Levi, Francis; Berra, Edurne; Delaunay, Franck; Teboul, Michele

    2008-05-16

    The circadian system regulates rhythmically most of the mammalian physiology in synchrony with the environmental light/dark cycle. Alteration of circadian clock gene expression has been associated with tumour progression but the molecular links between the two mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we show that Stra13 and Dec2, two circadian transcriptional regulators which play a crucial role in cell proliferation and apoptosis are overexpressed and no longer rhythmic in serum shocked fibroblasts treated with CoCl{sub 2,} a substitute of hypoxia. This effect is associated with a loss of circadian expression of the clock genes Rev-erb{alpha} and Bmal1, and the clock-controlled gene Dbp. Consistently, cotransfection assays demonstrate that STRA13 and DEC2 both antagonize CLOCK:BMAL1 dependent transactivation of the Rev-erb{alpha} and Dbp promoters. Using a transplantable osteosarcoma tumour model, we show that hypoxia is associated with altered circadian expression of Stra13, Dec2, Rev-erb{alpha}, Bmal1 and Dbp in vivo. These observations collectively support the notion that overexpression of Stra13 and Dec2 links hypoxia signalling to altered circadian clock gene expression.

  16. Altered expression of neuropeptides in FoxG1-null heterozygous mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Frullanti, Elisa; Amabile, Sonia; Lolli, Maria Grazia; Bartolini, Anna; Livide, Gabriella; Landucci, Elisa; Mari, Francesca; Vaccarino, Flora M; Ariani, Francesca; Massimino, Luca; Renieri, Alessandra; Meloni, Ilaria

    2016-02-01

    Foxg1 gene encodes for a transcription factor essential for telencephalon development in the embryonic mammalian forebrain. Its complete absence is embryonic lethal while Foxg1 heterozygous mice are viable but display microcephaly, altered hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioral and cognitive deficiencies. In order to evaluate the effects of Foxg1 alteration in adult brain, we performed expression profiling in total brains from Foxg1+/- heterozygous mutants and wild-type littermates. We identified statistically significant differences in expression levels for 466 transcripts (P<0.001), 29 of which showed a fold change ≥ 1.5. Among the differentially expressed genes was found a group of genes expressed in the basal ganglia and involved in the control of movements. A relevant (three to sevenfold changes) and statistically significant increase of expression, confirmed by qRT-PCR, was found in two highly correlated genes with expression restricted to the hypothalamus: Oxytocin (Oxt) and Arginine vasopressin (Avp). These neuropeptides have an important role in maternal and social behavior, and their alteration is associated with impaired social interaction and autistic behavior. In addition, Neuronatin (Nnat) levels appear significantly higher both in Foxg1+/- whole brain and in hippocampal neurons after silencing Foxg1, strongly suggesting that it is directly or indirectly repressed by Foxg1. During fetal and neonatal brain development, Nnat may regulate neuronal excitability, receptor trafficking and calcium-dependent signaling and, in the adult brain, it is predominantly expressed in parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons. Overall, these results implicate the overexpression of a group of neuropeptides in the basal ganglia, hypothalamus, cortex and hippocampus in the pathogenesis FOXG1 behavioral impairments.

  17. Progressive natural killer cell dysfunction associated with alterations in subset proportions and receptor expression in soft-tissue sarcoma patients.

    PubMed

    Bücklein, Veit; Adunka, Tina; Mendler, Anna N; Issels, Rolf; Subklewe, Marion; Schmollinger, Jan C; Noessner, Elfriede

    2016-07-01

    Immunotherapy is currently investigated as treatment option in many types of cancer. So far, results from clinical trials have demonstrated that significant benefit from immunomodulatory therapies is restricted to patients with select histologies. To broaden the potential use of these therapies, a deeper understanding for mechanisms of immunosuppression in patients with cancer is needed. Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) presents a medical challenge with significant mortality even after multimodal treatment. We investigated function and immunophenotype of peripheral natural killer (NK) cells from chemotherapy-naive STS patients (1st line) and STS patients with progression or relapse after previous chemotherapeutic treatment (2nd line). We found NK cells from peripheral blood of both STS patient cohorts to be dysfunctional, being unable to lyse K562 target cells while NK cells from renal cell cancer (RCC) patients did not display attenuated lytic activity. Ex vivo stimulation of NK cells from STS patients with interleukin-2 plus TKD restored cytotoxic function. Furthermore, altered NK cell subset composition with reduced proportions of CD56(dim) cells could be demonstrated, increasing from 1st- to 2nd-line patients. 2nd-line patients additionally displayed significantly reduced expression of receptors (NKG2D), mediators (CD3ζ), and effectors (perforin) of NK cell activation. In these patients, we also detected fewer NK cells with CD57 expression, a marker for terminally differentiated cytotoxic NK cells. Our results elucidate mechanisms of NK cell dysfunction in STS patients with advanced disease. Markers like NKG2D, CD3ζ, and perforin are candidates to characterize NK cells with effective antitumor function for immunotherapeutic interventions. PMID:27622032

  18. Progressive natural killer cell dysfunction associated with alterations in subset proportions and receptor expression in soft-tissue sarcoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Bücklein, Veit; Adunka, Tina; Mendler, Anna N.; Issels, Rolf; Subklewe, Marion; Schmollinger, Jan C.; Noessner, Elfriede

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunotherapy is currently investigated as treatment option in many types of cancer. So far, results from clinical trials have demonstrated that significant benefit from immunomodulatory therapies is restricted to patients with select histologies. To broaden the potential use of these therapies, a deeper understanding for mechanisms of immunosuppression in patients with cancer is needed. Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) presents a medical challenge with significant mortality even after multimodal treatment. We investigated function and immunophenotype of peripheral natural killer (NK) cells from chemotherapy-naive STS patients (1st line) and STS patients with progression or relapse after previous chemotherapeutic treatment (2nd line). We found NK cells from peripheral blood of both STS patient cohorts to be dysfunctional, being unable to lyse K562 target cells while NK cells from renal cell cancer (RCC) patients did not display attenuated lytic activity. Ex vivo stimulation of NK cells from STS patients with interleukin-2 plus TKD restored cytotoxic function. Furthermore, altered NK cell subset composition with reduced proportions of CD56dim cells could be demonstrated, increasing from 1st- to 2nd-line patients. 2nd-line patients additionally displayed significantly reduced expression of receptors (NKG2D), mediators (CD3ζ), and effectors (perforin) of NK cell activation. In these patients, we also detected fewer NK cells with CD57 expression, a marker for terminally differentiated cytotoxic NK cells. Our results elucidate mechanisms of NK cell dysfunction in STS patients with advanced disease. Markers like NKG2D, CD3ζ, and perforin are candidates to characterize NK cells with effective antitumor function for immunotherapeutic interventions. PMID:27622032

  19. Reduced NOV/CCN3 Expression Limits Inflammation and Interstitial Renal Fibrosis after Obstructive Nephropathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Ahmed; Kazazian, Chantal; Authier, Florence; Koseki, Haruhiko; Hiraoka, Shuichi; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Martinerie, Cécile; Chadjichristos, Christos E.

    2015-01-01

    The main hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is excessive inflammation leading to interstitial tissue fibrosis. It has been recently reported that NOV/CCN3 could be involved in kidney damage but its role in the progression of nephropathies is poorly known. NOV/CCN3 is a secreted multifunctional protein belonging to the CCN family involved in different physiological and pathological processes such as angiogenesis, inflammation and cancers. The purpose of our study was to determine the role of NOV/CCN3 in renal inflammation and fibrosis related to primitive tubulointerstitial injury. After unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), renal histology and real-time PCR were performed in NOV/CCN3-/- and wild type mice. NOV/CCN3 mRNA expression was increased in the obstructed kidneys in the early stages of the obstructive nephropathy. Interestingly, plasmatic levels of NOV/CCN3 were strongly induced after 7 days of UUO and the injection of recombinant NOV/CCN3 protein in healthy mice significantly increased CCL2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, after 7 days of UUO NOV/CCN3-/- mice displayed reduced proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion markers expression leading to restricted accumulation of interstitial monocytes, in comparison with their wild type littermates. Consequently, in NOV/CCN3-/- mice interstitial renal fibrosis was blunted after 15 days of UUO. In agreement with our experimental data, NOV/CCN3 expression was highly increased in biopsies of patients with tubulointerstitial nephritis. Thus, the inhibition of NOV/CCN3 may represent a novel target for the progression of renal diseases. PMID:26367310

  20. A Computational Gene Expression Score for Predicting Immune Injury in Renal Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tim Q.; Hsieh, Szu-Chuan; Roedder, Silke; Damm, Izabella; Vincenti, Flavio; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole genome microarray meta-analyses of 1030 kidney, heart, lung and liver allograft biopsies identified a common immune response module (CRM) of 11 genes that define acute rejection (AR) across different engrafted tissues. We evaluated if the CRM genes can provide a molecular microscope to quantify graft injury in acute rejection (AR) and predict risk of progressive interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) in histologically normal kidney biopsies. Methods Computational modeling was done on tissue qPCR based gene expression measurements for the 11 CRM genes in 146 independent renal allografts from 122 unique patients with AR (n = 54) and no-AR (n = 92). 24 demographically matched patients with no-AR had 6 and 24 month paired protocol biopsies; all had histologically normal 6 month biopsies, and 12 had evidence of progressive IFTA (pIFTA) on their 24 month biopsies. Results were correlated with demographic, clinical and pathology variables. Results The 11 gene qPCR based tissue CRM score (tCRM) was significantly increased in AR (5.68 ± 0.91) when compared to STA (1.29 ± 0.28; p < 0.001) and pIFTA (7.94 ± 2.278 versus 2.28 ± 0.66; p = 0.04), with greatest significance for CXCL9 and CXCL10 in AR (p <0.001) and CD6 (p<0.01), CXCL9 (p<0.05), and LCK (p<0.01) in pIFTA. tCRM was a significant independent correlate of biopsy confirmed AR (p < 0.001; AUC of 0.900; 95% CI = 0.705–903). Gene expression modeling of 6 month biopsies across 7/11 genes (CD6, INPP5D, ISG20, NKG7, PSMB9, RUNX3, and TAP1) significantly (p = 0.037) predicted the development of pIFTA at 24 months. Conclusions Genome-wide tissue gene expression data mining has supported the development of a tCRM-qPCR based assay for evaluating graft immune inflammation. The tCRM score quantifies injury in AR and stratifies patients at increased risk of future pIFTA prior to any perturbation of graft function or histology. PMID:26367000

  1. Increased expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is related to the acute renal lesions induced by gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Volpini, R A; Balbi, A P C; Costa, R S; Coimbra, T M

    2006-06-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) may be involved in the pathogenesis of acute renal failure. This study investigated the expression of p-p38 MAPK and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) in the renal cortex of rats treated with gentamicin. Twenty rats were injected with gentamicin, 40 mg/kg, i.m., twice a day for 9 days, 20 with gentamicin + pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-kappaB inhibitor), 14 with 0.15 M NaCl, i.m., twice a day for 9 days, and 14 with 0.15 M NaCl , i.m., twice a day for 9 days and PDTC, 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1), i.p., twice a day for 15 days. The animals were killed 5 and 30 days after the last of the injections and the kidneys were removed for histological, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis and for nitrate determination. The results of the immunohistochemical study were evaluated by counting the p-p38 MAPK-positive cells per area of renal cortex measuring 0.05 mm2. Creatinine was measured by the Jaffé method in blood samples collected 5 and 30 days after the end of the treatments. Gentamicin-treated rats presented a transitory increase in plasma creatinine levels. In addition, animals killed 5 days after the end of gentamicin treatment presented acute tubular necrosis and increased nitrate levels in the renal cortex. Increased expression of p-p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB was also observed in the kidneys from these animals. The animals killed 30 days after gentamicin treatment showed residual areas of interstitial fibrosis in the renal cortex, although the expression of p-p38 MAPK in their kidneys did not differ from control. Treatment with PDTC reduced the functional and structural changes induced by gentamicin as well as the expression of p-p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB. The increased expression of p-p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB observed in these rats suggests that these signaling molecules may be involved in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial nephritis induced by gentamicin.

  2. Altered Expression of Fibrosis Genes in Capsules of Failed Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implants

    PubMed Central

    Mahale, Alka; Othman, Maha W.; Al Shahwan, Sami; Al Jadaan, Ibrahim; Owaydha, Ohood; Khan, Zahid; Edward, Deepak P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implant is an aqueous shunt device used to control intraocular pressure in glaucoma. Implant failure results from impervious encapsulation of the shunt plate causing increased hydraulic resistance and raised intraocular pressure. We hypothesized that deregulation of fibrosis pathway contributes to capsular resistance. We tested this by studying fibrosis related gene expression in failed AGV implants. Methods Differential gene expression was examined in failed AGV capsules and compared to normal control tenon. Following total RNA extraction, 84 key genes in fibrosis pathway were examined by real-time PCR using RT2 Profiler PCR Array. Relative gene expression was calculated using ΔΔCt method. Gene specific TaqMan assays were used to validate select genes with ≥2 fold differential expression in the array expression profile. Results We observed differential expression in several genes in the fibrosis pathway. Almost half (39/84) of examined genes showed ≥2 fold differential expression in majority of capsules examined on the array. TaqMan assays for select genes including CCN2 (CTGF), THBS1, SERPINE1, THBS2, COL3A1, MMP3, and IL1A in an increased validation sample set showed significant changes in expression (p value from <0.001 to 0.022) at a high frequency in concurrence with our array results. Conclusions Pathway-focused analyses identified candidate genes with altered expression providing molecular evidence for deregulation of the fibrosis pathway in AGV failure. PMID:25879570

  3. Aged human muscle demonstrates an altered gene expression profile consistent with an impaired response to exercise.

    PubMed

    Jozsi, A C; Dupont-Versteegden, E E; Taylor-Jones, J M; Evans, W J; Trappe, T A; Campbell, W W; Peterson, C A

    2000-12-01

    The gene expression profile of skeletal muscle from healthy older (62-75 years old) compared with younger (20-34 years old) men demonstrated elevated expression of genes typical of a stress or damage response, and decreased expression of a gene encoding a DNA repair/cell cycle checkpoint protein. Although the expression of these genes was relatively unaffected by a single bout of resistance exercise in older men, acute exercise altered gene expression in younger men such that post-exercise gene expression in younger men was similar to baseline gene expression in older men. The lack of response of muscle from older subjects to resistance exercise was also apparent in the expression of the inflammatory response gene IL-1beta, which did not differ between the age groups at baseline, but increased within 24 h of the exercise bout only in younger subjects. Other genes with potentially important roles in the adaptation of muscle to exercise, specifically in the processes of angiogenesis and cell proliferation, showed a similar response to exercise in older compared with younger subjects. Only one gene encoding the multifunctional, early growth response transcription factor EGR-1, showed an opposite pattern of expression in response to exercise, acutely decreasing in younger and increasing in older subjects. These results may provide a molecular basis for the inherent variability in the response of muscle from older as compared with younger individuals to resistance training.

  4. Ectopic ERK Expression Induces Phenotypic Conversion of C10 Cells and Alters DNA Methyltransferase Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2012-05-04

    In some model systems constitutive extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation is sufficient to promote an oncogenic phenotype. Here we investigate whether constitutive ERK expression influences phenotypic conversion in murine C10 type II alveolar epithelial cells. C10 cells were stably transduced with an ERK1-green fluorescent protein (ERK1-GFP) chimera or empty vector and ectopic ERK expression was associated with the acquisition of soft agar focus-forming potential in late passage, but not early passage cells. Late passage ERK1-GFP cells exhibited a significant increase in the expression of DNA methyl transferases (DNMT1 and 3b) and a marked increase in sensitivity to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC)-mediated toxicity, relative to early passage ERK1-GFP cells and vector controls. The expression of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) were significantly increased in late passage cells, suggesting enhanced DNA damage recognition and repair activity which we interpret as a reflection of genomic instability. Phospho-ERK levels were dramatically decreased in late passage ERK1-GFP cells, relative to early passage and vector controls, and phospho-ERK levels were restored by treatment with sodium orthovanadate, indicating a role for phosphatase activity in this response. Collectively these observations suggest that ectopic ERK expression promotes phenotypic conversion of C10 cells that is associated with latent effects on epigenetic programming and phosphatase activities.

  5. Alteration of human hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by cigarette smoke condensate.

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Katia; Vee, Marc Le; Abdel-Razzak, Ziad; Jouan, Elodie; Stieger, Bruno; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Smoking is well-known to impair pharmacokinetics, through inducing expression of drug metabolizing enzymes. In the present study, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) also alters activity and expression of hepatic drug transporters, which are now recognized as major actors of hepatobiliary elimination of drugs. CSC thus directly inhibited activities of sinusoidal transporters such as OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1 and NTCP as well as those of canalicular transporters like P-glycoprotein, MRP2, BCRP and MATE1, in hepatic transporters-overexpressing cells. CSC similarly counteracted constitutive OATP, NTCP and OCT1 activities in human highly-differentiated hepatic HepaRG cells. In parallel, CSC induced expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in HepaRG cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B1, OATP2B1, OAT2, NTCP, OCT1 and BSEP, and enhanced that of MRP4. Such changes in transporter gene expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway, and were counteracted, for some of them, by siRNA-mediated AhR silencing. This suggests that CSC alters hepatic drug transporter levels via activation of the AhR cascade. Importantly, drug transporter expression regulations as well as some transporter activity inhibitions occurred for a range of CSC concentrations similar to those required for inducing drug metabolizing enzymes and may therefore be hypothesized to be relevant for smokers. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of cigarette smoke, which could contribute to known alteration of pharmacokinetics and some liver adverse effects caused by smoking. PMID:27450509

  6. Altered Gene Expression in Schizophrenia: Findings from Transcriptional Signatures in Fibroblasts and Blood

    PubMed Central

    Cattane, Nadia; Minelli, Alessandra; Milanesi, Elena; Maj, Carlo; Bignotti, Stefano; Bortolomasi, Marco; Chiavetto, Luisella Bocchio; Gennarelli, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole-genome expression studies in the peripheral tissues of patients affected by schizophrenia (SCZ) can provide new insight into the molecular basis of the disorder and innovative biomarkers that may be of great utility in clinical practice. Recent evidence suggests that skin fibroblasts could represent a non-neural peripheral model useful for investigating molecular alterations in psychiatric disorders. Methods A microarray expression study was conducted comparing skin fibroblast transcriptomic profiles from 20 SCZ patients and 20 controls. All genes strongly differentially expressed were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in fibroblasts and analyzed in a sample of peripheral blood cell (PBC) RNA from patients (n = 25) and controls (n = 22). To evaluate the specificity for SCZ, alterations in gene expression were tested in additional samples of fibroblasts and PBCs RNA from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (n = 16; n = 21, respectively) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) patients (n = 15; n = 20, respectively). Results Six genes (JUN, HIST2H2BE, FOSB, FOS, EGR1, TCF4) were significantly upregulated in SCZ compared to control fibroblasts. In blood, an increase in expression levels was confirmed only for EGR1, whereas JUN was downregulated; no significant differences were observed for the other genes. EGR1 upregulation was specific for SCZ compared to MDD and BD. Conclusions Our study reports the upregulation of JUN, HIST2H2BE, FOSB, FOS, EGR1 and TCF4 in the fibroblasts of SCZ patients. A significant alteration in EGR1 expression is also present in SCZ PBCs compared to controls and to MDD and BD patients, suggesting that this gene could be a specific biomarker helpful in the differential diagnosis of major psychoses. PMID:25658856

  7. Chronic mild stress alters circadian expressions of molecular clock genes in the liver.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kei; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tsukita, Sohei; Kaneko, Keizo; Shirai, Yuta; Munakata, Yuichiro; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Imai, Junta; Uno, Kenji; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Sawada, Shojiro; Oka, Yoshitomo; Katagiri, Hideki

    2013-02-01

    Chronic stress is well known to affect metabolic regulation. However, molecular mechanisms interconnecting stress response systems and metabolic regulations have yet to be elucidated. Various physiological processes, including glucose/lipid metabolism, are regulated by the circadian clock, and core clock gene dysregulation reportedly leads to metabolic disorders. Glucocorticoids, acting as end-effectors of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, entrain the circadian rhythms of peripheral organs, including the liver, by phase-shifting core clock gene expressions. Therefore, we examined whether chronic stress affects circadian expressions of core clock genes and metabolism-related genes in the liver using the chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure. In BALB/c mice, CMS elevated and phase-shifted serum corticosterone levels, indicating overactivation of the HPA axis. The rhythmic expressions of core clock genes, e.g., Clock, Npas2, Bmal1, Per1, and Cry1, were altered in the liver while being completely preserved in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuculeus (SCN), suggesting that the SCN is not involved in alterations in hepatic core clock gene expressions. In addition, circadian patterns of glucose and lipid metabolism-related genes, e.g., peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (Ppar) α, Pparγ-1, Pparγ-coactivator-1α, and phosphoenolepyruvate carboxykinase, were also disturbed by CMS. In contrast, in C57BL/6 mice, the same CMS procedure altered neither serum corticosterone levels nor rhythmic expressions of hepatic core clock genes and metabolism-related genes. Thus, chronic stress can interfere with the circadian expressions of both core clock genes and metabolism-related genes in the liver possibly involving HPA axis overactivation. This mechanism might contribute to metabolic disorders in stressful modern societies.

  8. Image Defocus and Altered Retinal Gene Expression in Chick: Clues to the Pathogenesis of Ametropia

    PubMed Central

    McGlinn, Alice M.; Baldwin, Donald A.; Tobias, John W.; Iuvone, P. Michael; Khurana, Tejvir S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Because of the retina's role in refractive development, this study was conducted to analyze the retinal transcriptome in chicks wearing a spectacle lens, a well-established means of inducing refractive errors, to identify gene expression alterations and to develop novel mechanistic hypotheses about refractive development. Methods. One-week-old white Leghorn chicks wore a unilateral spectacle lens of +15 or −15 D for 6 hours or 3 days. With total RNA from the retina/(retinal pigment epithelium, RPE), chicken gene microarrays were used to compare gene expression levels between lens-wearing and contralateral control eyes (n = 6 chicks for each condition). Normalized microarray signal intensities were evaluated by analysis of variance, using a false discovery rate of <10% as the statistical criterion. Selected differentially expressed genes were validated by qPCR. Results. Very few retina/RPE transcripts were differentially expressed after plus lens wear. In contrast, approximately 1300 transcripts were differentially expressed under each of the minus lens conditions, with minimal overlap. For each condition, low fold-changes typified the altered transcriptome. Differentially regulated genes under the minus lens conditions included many potentially informative signaling molecules and genes whose protein products have roles in intrinsic retinal circadian rhythms. Conclusions. Plus or minus lens wear induce markedly different, not opposite, alterations in retina/RPE gene expression. The initial retinal responses to defocus are quite different from those when the eye growth patterns are well established, suggesting that different mechanisms govern the initiation and persistence or progression of refractive errors. The gene lists identify promising signaling candidates and regulatory pathways for future study, including a potential role for circadian rhythms in refractive development. PMID:21642623

  9. Prognostic prediction and diagnostic role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuebing; Jiang, Jifa; Ye, Xiaobing; Liu, Yanyan; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Lu

    2014-08-01

    The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) has been reported to function in multiple malignancies, but its effect on clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) hasn't been discussed yet. This study aimed to identify the potential role of ICAM1 in prognostic prediction and early diagnosis of ccRCC. ICAM1 expression was inspected by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathologic variables. Association between protein expression and cancer-specific survival (CSS) of ccRCC patients was evaluated and the value of area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) was calculated to measure the protein's diagnostic accuracy. ICAM1 was positively immunostained in 83.2% of 173 ccRCC tissues, but negatively immunostained in all the para-cancerous normal epitheliums of renal tubules. High ICAM1 expression was significantly related to male sex (P = 0.00241), T3/T4 stage (P = 0.02249), non-N0M0 stage (P = 0.03797) and positive renal pelvis invasion (P = 0.04227). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis illustrated that high ICAM1 expression was significantly correlated to a decreased CSS (P = 0.00006). Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that ICAM1 was an independent predictor for CSS of patients (P = 0.00451). Furthermore, the AUC value of ICAM1 in diagnosing ccRCC was 0.916 (P < 0.00001). In conclusion, high ICAM1 expression on tumor cells indicates a poor outcome of patients and ICAM1 is likely to be an independent predictor for the prognosis of ccRCC. Moreover, ICAM1 has a high AUC value and may be a potential and useful diagnostic marker. PMID:24535541

  10. Growth pattern switch of renal cells and expression of cell cycle related proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yanling; Shi Yonghong; Liu Yaling; Dong Hui; Liu, Maodong; Li Ying; Duan Huijun

    2007-11-09

    Renal hypertrophy, partly due to cell proliferation and hypertrophy, has been found correlated to renal function deterioration in diabetes mellitus. We screened the up-regulated cell cycle related genes to investigate cell growth and the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy using STZ-induced diabetic rats. Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2} and P{sup 27} were found significantly up-regulated in diabetic kidney. Increased cell proliferation in the kidney was seen at day 3, peaked at day 5, and returned to normal level at day 30. Cyclin E and CDK{sub 2} expression also peeked at day 5 and P{sup 27} activity peaked at day 14. These findings indicate that a hyperplastic growth period of renal cells is followed by a hypertrophic growth period at the early stage of diabetes. The growth pattern switch may be regulated by cell cycle regulating proteins, Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2}, and P{sup 27}.

  11. Resveratrol increases nephrin and podocin expression and alleviates renal damage in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qing-Rong; Ren, Yan-Long; Zhu, Jia-Jia; Hu, Yan-Jin; Zheng, Jin-Su; Fan, Hui; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang; Liu, Wen-Xian

    2014-07-14

    Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol). Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  12. Gene expression patterns underlying parasite-induced alterations in host behaviour and life history.

    PubMed

    Feldmeyer, Barbara; Mazur, Johanna; Beros, Sara; Lerp, Hannes; Binder, Harald; Foitzik, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Many parasites manipulate their hosts' phenotype. In particular, parasites with complex life cycles take control of their intermediate hosts' behaviour and life history to increase transmission to their definitive host. The proximate mechanisms underlying these parasite-induced alterations are poorly understood. The cestode Anomotaenia brevis affects the behaviour, life history and morphology of parasitized Temnothorax nylanderi ants and indirectly of their unparasitized nestmates. To gain insights on how parasites alter host phenotypes, we contrast brain gene expression patterns of T. nylanderi workers parasitized with the cestode, their unparasitized nestmates and unparasitized workers from unparasitized colonies. Over 400 differentially expressed genes between the three groups were identified, with most uniquely expressed genes detected in parasitized workers. Among these are genes that can be linked to the increased lifespan of parasitized workers. Furthermore, many muscle (functionality) genes are downregulated in these workers, potentially causing the observed muscular deformations and their inactive behaviour. Alterations in lifespan and activity could be adaptive for the parasite by increasing the likelihood that infected workers residing in acorns are eaten by their definitive host, a woodpecker. Our transcriptome analysis reveals numerous gene expression changes in parasitized workers and their uninfected nestmates and indicates possible routes of parasite manipulation. Although causality still needs to be established, parasite-induced alterations in lifespan and host behaviour appear to be partly explained by morphological muscle atrophy instead of central nervous system interference, which is often the core of behavioural regulation. Results of this study will shed light upon the molecular basis of antagonistic species interactions.

  13. Gene expression patterns underlying parasite-induced alterations in host behaviour and life history.

    PubMed

    Feldmeyer, Barbara; Mazur, Johanna; Beros, Sara; Lerp, Hannes; Binder, Harald; Foitzik, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Many parasites manipulate their hosts' phenotype. In particular, parasites with complex life cycles take control of their intermediate hosts' behaviour and life history to increase transmission to their definitive host. The proximate mechanisms underlying these parasite-induced alterations are poorly understood. The cestode Anomotaenia brevis affects the behaviour, life history and morphology of parasitized Temnothorax nylanderi ants and indirectly of their unparasitized nestmates. To gain insights on how parasites alter host phenotypes, we contrast brain gene expression patterns of T. nylanderi workers parasitized with the cestode, their unparasitized nestmates and unparasitized workers from unparasitized colonies. Over 400 differentially expressed genes between the three groups were identified, with most uniquely expressed genes detected in parasitized workers. Among these are genes that can be linked to the increased lifespan of parasitized workers. Furthermore, many muscle (functionality) genes are downregulated in these workers, potentially causing the observed muscular deformations and their inactive behaviour. Alterations in lifespan and activity could be adaptive for the parasite by increasing the likelihood that infected workers residing in acorns are eaten by their definitive host, a woodpecker. Our transcriptome analysis reveals numerous gene expression changes in parasitized workers and their uninfected nestmates and indicates possible routes of parasite manipulation. Although causality still needs to be established, parasite-induced alterations in lifespan and host behaviour appear to be partly explained by morphological muscle atrophy instead of central nervous system interference, which is often the core of behavioural regulation. Results of this study will shed light upon the molecular basis of antagonistic species interactions. PMID:26615010

  14. Oxidative Stress Alters miRNA and Gene Expression Profiles in Villous First Trimester Trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Courtney E.; Tolba, Mai F.; Rondelli, Catherine M.; Xu, Meixiang; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and miRNA changes in placenta as a potential mechanism involved in preeclampsia (PE) is not fully elucidated. We investigated the impact of oxidative stress on miRNAs and mRNA expression profiles of genes associated with PE in villous 3A first trimester trophoblast cells exposed to H2O2 at 12 different concentrations (0-1 mM) for 0.5, 4, 24, and 48 h. Cytotoxicity, determined using the SRB assay, was used to calculate the IC50 of H2O2. RNA was extracted after 4 h exposure to H2O2 for miRNA and gene expression profiling. H2O2 exerted a concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity on 3A trophoblast cells. Short-term exposure of 3A cells to low concentration of H2O2 (5% of IC50) significantly altered miRNA profile as evidenced by significant changes in 195 out of 595 evaluable miRNAs. Tool for annotations of microRNAs (TAM) analysis indicated that these altered miRNAs fall into 43 clusters and 34 families, with 41 functions identified. Exposure to H2O2 altered mRNA expression of 22 out of 84 key genes involved in dysregulation of placental development. In conclusion, short-term exposure of villous first trimester trophoblasts to low concentrations of H2O2 significantly alters miRNA profile and expression of genes implicated in placental development. PMID:26339600

  15. In vitro - in vivo correlation of gene expression alterations induced by liver carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Heise, T; Schug, M; Storm, D; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, H; Ahr, H J; Hellwig, B; Rahnenfuhrer, J; Ghallab, A; Guenther, G; Sisnaiske, J; Reif, R; Godoy, P; Mielke, H; Gundert-Remy, U; Lampen, A; Oberemm, A; Hengstler, J G

    2012-01-01

    Although cultivated hepatocytes are widely used in the studies of drug metabolism, their application in toxicogenomics is considered as problematic, because previous studies have reported only little overlap between chemically induced gene expression alterations in liver in vivo and in cultivated hepatocytes. Here, we identified 22 genes that were altered in livers of rats after oral administration of the liver carcinogens aflatoxin B1 (AB1), 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), methapyrilene (MP) or piperonyl-butoxide (PBO). The functions of the 22 genes have been classified into two groups. Genes related to stress response, DNA repair or metabolism and genes associated with cell proliferation, respectively. Next, rat hepatocyte sandwich cultures were exposed to AB1, 2-NF, MP or PBO for 24h and expression of the above mentioned genes was determined by RT-qPCR. Significant correlations between the degree of gene expression alterations in vivo and in vitro were obtained for the stress, DNA repair and metabolism associated genes at concentrations covering a range from cytotoxic concentrations to non-toxic/in vivo relevant concentrations. In contrast to the stress associated genes, no significant in vivo/in vitro correlation was obtained for the genes associated with cell proliferation. To understand the reason of this discrepancy, we compared replacement proliferation in vivo and in vitro. While hepatocytes in vivo, killed after administration of hepatotoxic compounds, are rapidly replaced by proliferating surviving cells, in vitro no replacement proliferation as evidenced by BrdU incorporation was observed after washing out hepatotoxic concentrations of MP. In conclusion, there is a good correlation between gene expression alterations induced by liver carcinogens in vivo and in cultivated hepatocytes. However, it should be considered that cultivated primary hepatocytes do not show replacement proliferation explaining the in vivo/in vitro discrepancy concerning proliferation

  16. Somatic Copy Number Alterations at Oncogenic Loci Show Diverse Correlations with Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszik, Jason; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Siroy, Alan E.; Lazar, Alexander J.; Davies, Michael A.; Woodman, Scott E.; Kwong, Lawrence N.

    2016-01-01

    Somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) affecting oncogenic drivers have a firmly established role in promoting cancer. However, no agreed-upon standard exists for calling locus-specific amplifications and deletions in each patient sample. Here, we report the correlative analysis of copy number amplitude and length with gene expression across 6,109 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset across 16 cancer types. Using specificity, sensitivity, and precision-based scores, we assigned optimized amplitude and length cutoffs for nine recurrent SCNAs affecting known oncogenic drivers, using mRNA expression as a functional readout. These cutoffs captured the majority of SCNA-driven, highly-expression-altered samples. The majority of oncogenes required only amplitude cutoffs, as high amplitude samples were almost invariably focal; however, CDKN2A and PTEN uniquely required both amplitude and length cutoffs as primary predictors. For PTEN, these extended to downstream AKT activation. In contrast, SCNA genes located peri-telomerically or in fragile sites showed poor expression-copy number correlations. Overall, our analyses identify optimized amplitude and length cutoffs as efficient predictors of gene expression changes for specific oncogenic SCNAs, yet warn against one-size-fits-all interpretations across all loci. Our results have implications for cancer data analyses and the clinic, where copy number and mutation data are increasingly used to personalize cancer therapy.

  17. Altered Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Accessory Proteins in Murine and Human Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Noelle; Gaynor, Katherine U; Rowan, Simon C; Walsh, Sinead M; Fabre, Aurelie; Boylan, John; Keane, Michael P; McLoughlin, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive fibrotic disease with a poor prognosis. The balance between transforming growth factor β1 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling plays an important role in tissue homeostasis, and alterations can result in pulmonary fibrosis. We hypothesized that multiple BMP accessory proteins may be responsible for maintaining this balance in the lung. Using the bleomycin mouse model for fibrosis, we examined an array of BMP accessory proteins for changes in mRNA expression. We report significant increases in mRNA expression of gremlin 1, noggin, follistatin, and follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1), and significant decreases in mRNA expression of chordin, kielin/chordin-like protein, nephroblastoma overexpressed gene, and BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI). Protein expression studies demonstrated increased levels of noggin, BAMBI, and FSTL1 in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice and in the lungs of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that transforming growth factor β stimulation resulted in increased expression of noggin, BAMBI, and FSTL1 in human small airway epithelial cells. These results provide the first evidence that multiple BMP accessory proteins are altered in fibrosis and may play a role in promoting fibrotic injury.

  18. Somatic Copy Number Alterations at Oncogenic Loci Show Diverse Correlations with Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Roszik, Jason; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Siroy, Alan E.; Lazar, Alexander J.; Davies, Michael A; Woodman, Scott E; Kwong, Lawrence N

    2016-01-01

    Somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) affecting oncogenic drivers have a firmly established role in promoting cancer. However, no agreed-upon standard exists for calling locus-specific amplifications and deletions in each patient sample. Here, we report the correlative analysis of copy number amplitude and length with gene expression across 6,109 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset across 16 cancer types. Using specificity, sensitivity, and precision-based scores, we assigned optimized amplitude and length cutoffs for nine recurrent SCNAs affecting known oncogenic drivers, using mRNA expression as a functional readout. These cutoffs captured the majority of SCNA-driven, highly-expression-altered samples. The majority of oncogenes required only amplitude cutoffs, as high amplitude samples were almost invariably focal; however, CDKN2A and PTEN uniquely required both amplitude and length cutoffs as primary predictors. For PTEN, these extended to downstream AKT activation. In contrast, SCNA genes located peri-telomerically or in fragile sites showed poor expression-copy number correlations. Overall, our analyses identify optimized amplitude and length cutoffs as efficient predictors of gene expression changes for specific oncogenic SCNAs, yet warn against one-size-fits-all interpretations across all loci. Our results have implications for cancer data analyses and the clinic, where copy number and mutation data are increasingly used to personalize cancer therapy. PMID:26787600

  19. Prickle1 stunts limb growth through alteration of cell polarity and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tian; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background Wnt/PCP signaling plays a critical role in multiple developmental processes, including limb development. Wnt5a, a ligand of the PCP pathway, signals through the Ror2/Vangl2 or the Vangl2/Ryk complex to regulate limb development along the proximal-distal axis in mice. Based on the interaction between Van Gogh and Prickle in Drosophila, we hypothesized the vertebrate Prickle1 have similar function as Vangl2 in limb development. Results We show Prickle1 is expressed in the skeletal condensates that will differentiate into chondrocytes and later form bones. Disrupted Prickle1 function in Prickle1C251X/C251X mouse mutants alters expression of genes such as Bmp4, Fgf8, Vangl2 and Wnt5a. These expression changes correlate with shorter and wider bones in the limbs and loss of one phalangeal segment in digits 2-5 of Prickle1C251X mutants. These growth defects along the proximal-distal axis are also associated with increased cell death in the growing digit tip, reduced cell death in the interdigital membrane and disrupted chondrocyte polarity. Conclusions We suggest Prickle1 is part of the Wnt5a/PCP signaling, regulating cell polarity and affecting expression of multiple factors to stunt limb growth through altered patterns of gene expression, including the PCP genes Wnt5a and Vangl2. PMID:23913870

  20. Microarray analysis reveals altered circulating microRNA expression in mice infected with Coxsackievirus B3

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chaoyu; Tong, Lei; Zhao, Wenran; Wang, Yan; Meng, Yuan; Lin, Lexun; Liu, Bingchen; Zhai, Yujia; Zhong, Zhaohua; Li, Xueqi

    2016-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a common causative agent in the development of inflammatory cardiomyopathy. However, whether the expression of peripheral blood microRNAs (miRNAs) is altered in this process is unknown. The present study investigated changes to miRNA expression in the peripheral blood of CVB3-infected mice. Utilizing miRNA microarray technology, differential miRNA expression was examined between normal and CVB3-infected mice. The present results suggest that specific miRNAs were differentially expressed in the peripheral blood of mice infected with CVB3, varying with infection duration. Using miRNA microarray analysis, a total of 96 and 89 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in the peripheral blood of mice infected with CVB3 for 3 and 6 days, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to validate differentially expressed miRNAs, revealing a consistency of these results with the miRNA microarray analysis results. The biological functions of the differentially expressed miRNAs were then predicted by bioinformatics analysis. The potential biological roles of differentially expressed miRNAs included hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. These results may provide important insights into the mechanisms responsible for the progression of CVB3 infection. PMID:27698715

  1. Microarray analysis reveals altered circulating microRNA expression in mice infected with Coxsackievirus B3

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chaoyu; Tong, Lei; Zhao, Wenran; Wang, Yan; Meng, Yuan; Lin, Lexun; Liu, Bingchen; Zhai, Yujia; Zhong, Zhaohua; Li, Xueqi

    2016-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a common causative agent in the development of inflammatory cardiomyopathy. However, whether the expression of peripheral blood microRNAs (miRNAs) is altered in this process is unknown. The present study investigated changes to miRNA expression in the peripheral blood of CVB3-infected mice. Utilizing miRNA microarray technology, differential miRNA expression was examined between normal and CVB3-infected mice. The present results suggest that specific miRNAs were differentially expressed in the peripheral blood of mice infected with CVB3, varying with infection duration. Using miRNA microarray analysis, a total of 96 and 89 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in the peripheral blood of mice infected with CVB3 for 3 and 6 days, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to validate differentially expressed miRNAs, revealing a consistency of these results with the miRNA microarray analysis results. The biological functions of the differentially expressed miRNAs were then predicted by bioinformatics analysis. The potential biological roles of differentially expressed miRNAs included hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. These results may provide important insights into the mechanisms responsible for the progression of CVB3 infection.

  2. Renal dopaminergic system: Pathophysiological implications and clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Marcelo Roberto; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás Martín; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia Lucía; Kravetz, María Cecilia; Rosón, María Inés; Rodríguez Fermepin, Martín; Fernández, Belisario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Fluid homeostasis, blood pressure and redox balance in the kidney are regulated by an intricate interaction between local and systemic anti-natriuretic and natriuretic systems. Intrarenal dopamine plays a central role on this interactive network. By activating specific receptors, dopamine promotes sodium excretion and stimulates anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. Different pathological scenarios where renal sodium excretion is dysregulated, as in nephrotic syndrome, hypertension and renal inflammation, can be associated with impaired action of renal dopamine including alteration in biosynthesis, dopamine receptor expression and signal transduction. Given its properties on the regulation of renal blood flow and sodium excretion, exogenous dopamine has been postulated as a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent renal failure in critically ill patients. The aim of this review is to update and discuss on the most recent findings about renal dopaminergic system and its role in several diseases involving the kidneys and the potential use of dopamine as a nephroprotective agent. PMID:25949933

  3. Warming Alters Expressions of Microbial Functional Genes Important to Ecosystem Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Kai; Xie, Jianping; Zhou, Aifen; Liu, Feifei; Li, Dejun; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play critical roles in ecosystem functioning and are likely altered by climate warming. However, so far, little is known about effects of warming on microbial functional gene expressions. Here, we applied functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to analyze cDNA reversely transcribed from total RNA to assess expressed functional genes in active soil microbial communities after nine years of experimental warming in a tallgrass prairie. Our results showed that warming significantly altered the community wide gene expressions. Specifically, expressed genes for degrading more recalcitrant carbon were stimulated by warming, likely linked to the plant community shift toward more C4 species under warming and to decrease the long-term soil carbon stability. In addition, warming changed expressed genes in labile C degradation and N cycling in different directions (increase and decrease), possibly reflecting the dynamics of labile C and available N pools during sampling. However, the average abundances of expressed genes in phosphorus and sulfur cycling were all increased by warming, implying a stable trend of accelerated P and S processes which might be a mechanism to sustain higher plant growth. Furthermore, the expressed gene composition was closely related to both dynamic (e.g., soil moisture) and stable environmental attributes (e.g., C4 leaf C or N content), indicating that RNA analyses could also capture certain stable trends in the long-term treatment. Overall, this study revealed the importance of elucidating functional gene expressions of soil microbial community in enhancing our understanding of ecosystem responses to warming. PMID:27199978

  4. Altered tryptophan hydroxylase 2 expression in enteric serotonergic nerves in Hirschsprung’s-associated enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, David; Murphy, Justin M; Doyle, Brian; O’Donnell, Anne Marie; Gillick, John; Puri, Prem

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine if expression of colonic tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), a surrogate marker of neuronal 5-hydroxytryptamine, is altered in Hirschsprung’s-associated enterocolitis. METHODS: Entire resected colonic specimens were collected at the time of pull-through operation in children with Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR, n = 12). Five of these patients had a history of pre-operative Hirschsprung’s-associated enterocolitis (HAEC). Controls were collected at colostomy closure in children with anorectal malformation (n = 10). The distribution of expression of TPH2 was evaluated using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Protein expression of TPH2 was quantified using western blot analysis in the deep smooth muscle layers. RESULTS: TPH2 was co-expressed in nitrergic and cholinergic ganglia in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses in ganglionic colon in HSCR and healthy controls. Co-expression was also seen in submucosal interstitial cells of Cajal and PDGFRα+ cells. The density of TPH2 immuno-positive fibers decreased incrementally from ganglionic bowel to transition zone bowel to aganglionic bowel in the myenteric plexus. Expression of TPH2 was reduced in ganglionic bowel in those affected by pre-operative HAEC compared to those without HAEC and healthy controls. However, expression of TPH2 was similar or high compared to controls in the colons of children who had undergone diverting colostomy for medically refractory HAEC. CONCLUSION: Altered TPH2 expression in colonic serotonergic nerves of patients with HSCR complicated by HAEC may contribute to intestinal secretory and motor disturbances, including recurrent HAEC. PMID:27217698

  5. Warming Alters Expressions of Microbial Functional Genes Important to Ecosystem Functioning.

    PubMed

    Xue, Kai; Xie, Jianping; Zhou, Aifen; Liu, Feifei; Li, Dejun; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play critical roles in ecosystem functioning and are likely altered by climate warming. However, so far, little is known about effects of warming on microbial functional gene expressions. Here, we applied functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) to analyze cDNA reversely transcribed from total RNA to assess expressed functional genes in active soil microbial communities after nine years of experimental warming in a tallgrass prairie. Our results showed that warming significantly altered the community wide gene expressions. Specifically, expressed genes for degrading more recalcitrant carbon were stimulated by warming, likely linked to the plant community shift toward more C4 species under warming and to decrease the long-term soil carbon stability. In addition, warming changed expressed genes in labile C degradation and N cycling in different directions (increase and decrease), possibly reflecting the dynamics of labile C and available N pools during sampling. However, the average abundances of expressed genes in phosphorus and sulfur cycling were all increased by warming, implying a stable trend of accelerated P and S processes which might be a mechanism to sustain higher plant growth. Furthermore, the expressed gene composition was closely related to both dynamic (e.g., soil moisture) and stable environmental attributes (e.g., C4 leaf C or N content), indicating that RNA analyses could also capture certain stable trends in the long-term treatment. Overall, this study revealed the importance of elucidating functional gene expressions of soil microbial community in enhancing our understanding of ecosystem responses to warming.

  6. Changes in gene expression in human renal proximal tubule cells exposed to low concentrations of S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine, a metabolite of trichloroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, Edward A. . E-mail: e.lock@ljmu.ac.uk; Barth, Jeremy L.; Argraves, Scott W.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2006-10-15

    Epidemiology studies suggest that there may be a weak association between high level exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and renal tubule cell carcinoma. Laboratory animal studies have shown an increased incidence of renal tubule carcinoma in male rats but not mice. TCE can undergo metabolism via glutathione (GSH) conjugation to form metabolites that are known to be nephrotoxic. The GSH conjugate, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione (DCVG), is processed further to the cysteine conjugate, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), which is the penultimate nephrotoxic species. We have cultured human renal tubule cells (HRPTC) in serum-free medium under a variety of different culture conditions and observed growth, respiratory control and glucose transport over a 20 day period in medium containing low glucose. Cell death was time- and concentration-dependent, with the EC{sub 5} for DCVG being about 3 {mu}M and for DCVC about 7.5 {mu}M over 10 days. Exposure of HRPTC to sub-cytotoxic doses of DCVC (0.1 {mu}M and 1 {mu}M for 10 days) led to a small number of changes in gene expression, as determined by transcript profiling with Affymetrix human genome chips. Using the criterion of a mean 2-fold change over control for the four samples examined, 3 genes at 0.1 {mu}M DCVC increased, namely, adenosine kinase, zinc finger protein X-linked and an enzyme with lyase activity. At 1 {mu}M DCVC, two genes showed a >2-fold decrease, N-acetyltransferase 8 and complement factor H. At a lower stringency (1.5-fold change), a total of 63 probe sets were altered at 0.1 {mu}M DCVC and 45 at 1 {mu}M DCVC. Genes associated with stress, apoptosis, cell proliferation and repair and DCVC metabolism were altered, as were a small number of genes that did not appear to be associated with the known mode of action of DCVC. Some of these genes may serve as molecular markers of TCE exposure and effects in the human kidney.

  7. Extracting tumor tissue immune status from expression profiles: correlating renal cancer prognosis with tumor-associated immunome.

    PubMed

    Teltsh, Omri; Porgador, Angel; Rubin, Eitan

    2015-10-20

    Investigating the expression of genes in cancer-associated immune cells (immunome) is imperative for prognosis prediction. However, evaluating the expression of immune-associated genes within cancer biopsy is subject to significant inconsistencies related to the sampling methodology. Here, we present immFocus, a method for extracting immune signals from total RNA sequencing of tumor biopsies, intended for immunity depiction and prognosis evaluation. It is based on reducing the variation which biopsy preparation adds to the apparent expression levels of immune genes. We employed immFocus to normalize gene expression with an immune index using data obtained from renal clear cell carcinoma biopsies. Genes that became less variable due to normalization were found to be preferentially immune-related. Moreover, immune-related genes tended to become more prognostic due to the normalization. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that whole transcriptome sequencing can be used for interrogation of a cancer immunome and for advancing immune-based prognosis.

  8. Altered leukotriene B4 metabolism in CYP4F18-deficient mice does not impact inflammation following renal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Valeria; Vaivoda, Rachel; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Dombkowski, David; Douaidy, Karim; Stark, Christopher; Drake, Justin; Guilliams, Evin; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Preffer, Frederic; Stoilov, Ivaylo; Christmas, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory responses to infection and injury must be restrained and negatively regulated to minimize damage to host tissue. One proposed mechanism involves enzymatic inactivation of the pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4, but it is difficult to dissect the roles of various metabolic enzymes and pathways. A primary candidate for a regulatory pathway is omega oxidation of leukotriene B4 in neutrophils, presumptively by CYP4F3A in humans and CYP4F18 in mice. This pathway generates ω, ω-1, and ω-2 hydroxylated products of leukotriene B4, depending on species. We created mouse models targeting exons 8 and 9 of the Cyp4f18 allele that allows both conventional and conditional knockouts of Cyp4f18. Neutrophils from wild-type mice convert leukotriene B4 to 19-hydroxy leukotriene B4, and to a lesser extent 18-hydroxy leukotriene B4, whereas these products were not detected in neutrophils from conventional Cyp4f18 knockouts. A mouse model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury was used to investigate the consequences of loss of CYP4F18 in vivo. There were no significant changes in infiltration of neutrophils and other leukocytes into kidney tissue as determined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, or renal injury as assessed by histological scoring and measurement of blood urea nitrogen. It is concluded that CYP4F18 is necessary for omega oxidation of leukotriene B4 in neutrophils, and is not compensated by other CYP enzymes, but loss of this metabolic pathway is not sufficient to impact inflammation and injury following renal ischemia-reperfusion in mice.

  9. Altered Leukotriene B4 metabolism in CYP4F18-deficient mice does not impact inflammation following renal ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Valeria; Vaivoda, Rachel; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Dombkowski, David; Douaidy, Karim; Stark, Christopher; Drake, Justin; Guilliams, Evin; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Preffer, Frederic; Stoilov, Ivaylo; Christmas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory responses to infection and injury must be restrained and negatively regulated to minimize damage to host tissue. One proposed mechanism involves enzymatic inactivation of the pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4, but it is difficult to dissect the roles of various metabolic enzymes and pathways. A primary candidate for a regulatory pathway is omega oxidation of leukotriene B4 in neutrophils, presumptively by CYP4F3A in humans and CYP4F18 in mice. This pathway generates ω, ω-1, and ω-2 hydroxylated products of leukotriene B4, depending on species. We created mouse models targeting exons 8 and 9 of the Cyp4f18 allele that allows both conventional and conditional knockout of Cyp4f18. Neutrophils from wild-type mice convert leukotriene B4 to 19-hydroxy leukotriene B4, and to a lesser extent 18-hydroxy leukotriene B4, whereas these products were not detected in neutrophils from conventional Cyp4f18 knockouts. A mouse model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury was used to investigate the consequences of loss of CYP4F18 in vivo. There were no significant changes in infiltration of neutrophils and other leukocytes into kidney tissue as determined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, or renal injury as assessed by histological scoring and measurement of blood urea nitrogen. It is concluded that CYP4F18 is necessary for omega oxidation of leukotriene B4 in neutrophils, and is not compensated by other CYP enzymes, but loss of this metabolic pathway is not sufficient to impact inflammation and injury following renal ischemia-reperfusion in mice. PMID:24632148

  10. PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ALTERS STEADY-STATE AND ACTIVATED GENE EXPRESSION IN THE ADULT RAT BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Stepien, Katarzyna A.; Lussier, Alexandre A.; Neumann, Sarah M.; Pavlidis, Paul; Kobor, Michael S.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with alterations in numerous physiological systems, including the stress and immune systems . We have previously shown that PAE increases the course and severity of arthritis in an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model. While the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully known, changes in neural gene expression are emerging as important factors in the etiology of PAE effects. As the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) play key roles in neuroimmune function, PAE-induced alterations to their transcriptome may underlie abnormal steady-state functions and responses to immune challenge. The current study examined brains from adult PAE and control females from our recent AA study to determine whether PAE causes long-term alterations in gene expression and whether these mediate the altered severity and course of arthritis in PAE females Methods Adult females from PAE, pair-fed [PF], and ad libitum-fed control [C]) groups were injected with either saline or complete Freund’s adjuvant. Animals were terminated at the peak of inflammation or during resolution (days 16 and 39 post-injection, respectively); cohorts of saline-injected PAE, PF and C females were terminated in parallel. Gene expression was analyzed in the PFC and HPC using whole genome mRNA expression microarrays. Results Significant changes in gene expression in both the PFC and HPC were found in PAE compared to controls in response to ethanol exposure alone (saline-injected females), including genes involved in neurodevelopment, apoptosis, and energy metabolism. Moreover, in response to inflammation (adjuvant-injected females), PAE animals showed unique expression patterns, while failing to exhibit the activation of genes and regulators involved in the immune response observed in control and pair-fed animals. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that PAE affects neuroimmune function at the level of gene expression

  11. Renal arteriography

    MedlinePlus

    Renal angiogram; Angiography - kidney; Renal angiography; Renal artery stenosis - arteriography ... Renal arteriography is often needed to help decide on the best treatment after other tests are done ...

  12. Comparison of gene expression profiles altered by comfrey and riddelliine in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan; Dial, Stacey; Fuscoe, James; Chen, Tao

    2007-01-01

    Background Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) is a perennial plant and has been consumed by humans as a vegetable, a tea and an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. It, however, is hepatotoxic and carcinogenic in experimental animals and hepatotoxic in humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) exist in many plants and many of them cause liver toxicity and/or cancer in humans and experimental animals. In our previous study, we found that the mutagenicity of comfrey was associated with the PAs contained in the plant. Therefore, we suggest that carcinogenicity of comfrey result from those PAs. To confirm our hypothesis, we compared the expression of genes and processes of biological functions that were altered by comfrey (mixture of the plant with PAs) and riddelliine (a prototype of carcinogenic PA) in rat liver for carcinogenesis in this study. Results Groups of 6 Big Blue Fisher 344 rats were treated with riddelliine at 1 mg/kg body weight by gavage five times a week for 12 weeks or fed a diet containing 8% comfrey root for 12 weeks. Animals were sacrificed one day after the last treatment and the livers were isolated for gene expression analysis. The gene expressions were investigated using Applied Biosystems Rat Whole Genome Survey Microarrays and the biological functions were analyzed with Ingenuity Analysis Pathway software. Although there were large differences between the significant genes and between the biological processes that were altered by comfrey and riddelliine, there were a number of common genes and function processes that were related to carcinogenesis. There was a strong correlation between the two treatments for fold-change alterations in expression of drug metabolizing and cancer-related genes. Conclusion Our results suggest that the carcinogenesis-related gene expression patterns resulting from the treatments of comfrey and riddelliine are very similar, and PAs contained in comfrey are the main active components responsible for carcinogenicity of

  13. Increased Nek1 expression in Renal Cell Carcinoma cells is associated with decreased sensitivity to DNA-damaging treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yumay; Chen, Chi-Fen; Polci, Rosaria; Wei, Randy; Riley, Daniel J.; Chen, Phang-Lang

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous disease with resistance to systemic chemotherapy. Elevated expression of multiple drug resistance (MDR) has been suggested to be one of the mechanisms for this resistance. Here, we provide an alternative mechanism to explain RCC's resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Never-in mitosis A-related protein kinase 1 (Nek1) plays an important role in DNA damage response and proper checkpoint activation. The association of Nek1 with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) is a critical determinant of cell survival following DNA-damaging treatment. We report here that Nek1 is highly expressed in RCC tumor and cultured RCC cells compared to that of normal renal tubular epithelial cells (RTE). The association between Nek1 and VDAC1 is genotoxic dependent: prolonged Nek1/VDAC1 dissociation will lead to VDAC1 dephosphorylation and initiate apoptosis. Down-regulation of Nek1 expression in RCC cells enhanced their sensitivity to DNA-damaging treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that the increased Nek1 expression in RCC cells maintain persistent VDAC1 phosphorylation, closing its channel and preventing the onset of apoptosis under genotoxic insults. Based on these results, we believe that Nek1 can serve as a potential therapeutic target for drug development in the treatment of RCC. PMID:24970796

  14. Heparanase Overexpression Reduces Hepcidin Expression, Affects Iron Homeostasis and Alters the Response to Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Asperti, Michela; Stuemler, Tanja; Poli, Maura; Gryzik, Magdalena; Lifshitz, Lena; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G.; Vlodavsky, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of systemic iron availability that acts by controlling the degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin. It is expressed mainly in the liver and regulated by iron, inflammation, erythropoiesis and hypoxia. The various agents that control its expression act mainly via the BMP6/SMAD signaling pathway. Among them are exogenous heparins, which are strong hepcidin repressors with a mechanism of action not fully understood but that may involve the competition with the structurally similar endogenous Heparan Sulfates (HS). To verify this hypothesis, we analyzed how the overexpression of heparanase, the HS degrading enzyme, modified hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis in hepatic cell lines and in transgenic mice. The results showed that transient and stable overexpression of heparanase in HepG2 cells caused a reduction of hepcidin expression and of SMAD5 phosphorylation. Interestingly, the clones showed also altered level of TfR1 and ferritin, indices of a modified iron homeostasis. The heparanase transgenic mice showed a low level of liver hepcidin, an increase of serum and liver iron with a decrease in spleen iron content. The hepcidin expression remained surprisingly low even after treatment with the inflammatory LPS. The finding that modification of HS structure mediated by heparanase overexpression affects hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis supports the hypothesis that HS participate in the mechanisms controlling hepcidin expression. PMID:27711215

  15. Ustilago maydis natural antisense transcript expression alters mRNA stability and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Michael E; Saville, Barry J

    2013-01-01

    Ustilago maydis infection of Zea mays leads to the production of thick-walled diploid teliospores that are the dispersal agent for this pathogen. Transcriptome analyses of this model biotrophic basidiomycete fungus identified natural antisense transcripts (NATs) complementary to 247 open reading frames. The U. maydis NAT cDNAs were fully sequenced and annotated. Strand-specific RT-PCR screens confirmed expression and identified NATs preferentially expressed in the teliospore. Targeted screens revealed four U. maydis NATs that are conserved in a related fungus. Expression of NATs in haploid cells, where they are not naturally occurring, resulted in increased steady-state levels of some complementary mRNAs. The expression of one NAT, as-um02151, in haploid cells resulted in a twofold increase in complementary mRNA levels, the formation of sense–antisense double-stranded RNAs, and unchanged Um02151 protein levels. This led to a model for NAT function in the maintenance and expression of stored teliospore mRNAs. In testing this model by deletion of the regulatory region, it was determined that alteration in NAT expression resulted in decreased pathogenesis in both cob and seedling infections. This annotation and functional analysis supports multiple roles for U. maydis NATs in controlling gene expression and influencing pathogenesis. PMID:23650872

  16. Ustilago maydis natural antisense transcript expression alters mRNA stability and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Michael E; Saville, Barry J

    2013-07-01

    Ustilago maydis infection of Zea mays leads to the production of thick-walled diploid teliospores that are the dispersal agent for this pathogen. Transcriptome analyses of this model biotrophic basidiomycete fungus identified natural antisense transcripts (NATs) complementary to 247 open reading frames. The U. maydis NAT cDNAs were fully sequenced and annotated. Strand-specific RT-PCR screens confirmed expression and identified NATs preferentially expressed in the teliospore. Targeted screens revealed four U. maydis NATs that are conserved in a related fungus. Expression of NATs in haploid cells, where they are not naturally occurring, resulted in increased steady-state levels of some complementary mRNAs. The expression of one NAT, as-um02151, in haploid cells resulted in a twofold increase in complementary mRNA levels, the formation of sense-antisense double-stranded RNAs, and unchanged Um02151 protein levels. This led to a model for NAT function in the maintenance and expression of stored teliospore mRNAs. In testing this model by deletion of the regulatory region, it was determined that alteration in NAT expression resulted in decreased pathogenesis in both cob and seedling infections. This annotation and functional analysis supports multiple roles for U. maydis NATs in controlling gene expression and influencing pathogenesis.

  17. Ustilago maydis natural antisense transcript expression alters mRNA stability and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Michael E; Saville, Barry J

    2013-07-01

    Ustilago maydis infection of Zea mays leads to the production of thick-walled diploid teliospores that are the dispersal agent for this pathogen. Transcriptome analyses of this model biotrophic basidiomycete fungus identified natural antisense transcripts (NATs) complementary to 247 open reading frames. The U. maydis NAT cDNAs were fully sequenced and annotated. Strand-specific RT-PCR screens confirmed expression and identified NATs preferentially expressed in the teliospore. Targeted screens revealed four U. maydis NATs that are conserved in a related fungus. Expression of NATs in haploid cells, where they are not naturally occurring, resulted in increased steady-state levels of some complementary mRNAs. The expression of one NAT, as-um02151, in haploid cells resulted in a twofold increase in complementary mRNA levels, the formation of sense-antisense double-stranded RNAs, and unchanged Um02151 protein levels. This led to a model for NAT function in the maintenance and expression of stored teliospore mRNAs. In testing this model by deletion of the regulatory region, it was determined that alteration in NAT expression resulted in decreased pathogenesis in both cob and seedling infections. This annotation and functional analysis supports multiple roles for U. maydis NATs in controlling gene expression and influencing pathogenesis. PMID:23650872

  18. Oestradiol and progesterone differentially alter cytoskeletal protein expression and flame cell morphology in Taenia crassiceps.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Javier R; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Sánchez-Orellana, Pedro L; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Martínez-Velázquez, Nancy; Escobedo, Galileo; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    We examined the effects of oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) on cytoskeletal protein expression in the helminth Taenia crassiceps - specifically actin, tubulin and myosin. These proteins assemble into flame cells, which constitute the parasite excretory system. Total protein extracts were obtained from E2- and P4-treated T. crassiceps cysticerci and untreated controls, and analysed by one- and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and videomicroscopy. Exposure of T. crassiceps cysticerci to E2 and P4 induced differential protein expression patterns compared with untreated controls. Changes in actin, tubulin and myosin expression were confirmed by flow cytometry of parasite cells and immunofluorescence. In addition, parasite morphology was altered in response to E2 and P4 versus controls. Flame cells were primarily affected at the level of the ciliary tuft, in association with the changes in actin, tubulin and myosin. We conclude that oestradiol and progesterone act directly on T. crassiceps cysticerci, altering actin, tubulin and myosin expression and thus affecting the assembly and function of flame cells. Our results increase our understanding of several aspects of the molecular crosstalk between host and parasite, which might be useful in designing anthelmintic drugs that exclusively impair parasitic proteins which mediate cell signaling and pathogenic reproduction and establishment.

  19. A not cytotoxic nickel concentration alters the expression of neuronal differentiation markers in NT2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Claudia; Barbaccia, Maria Luisa; Pistritto, Giuseppa

    2015-03-01

    Nickel, a known occupational/environmental hazard, may cross the placenta and reach appreciable concentrations in various fetal organs, including the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether nickel interferes with the process of neuronal differentiation. Following a 4 week treatment with retinoic acid (10μM), the human teratocarcinoma-derived NTera2/D1 cell line (NT2 cells) terminally differentiate into neurons which recapitulate many features of human fetal neurons. The continuous exposure of the differentiating NT2 cells to a not cytotoxic nickel concentration (10μM) increased the expression of specific neuronal differentiation markers such as neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2). Furthermore, nickel exposure increased the expression of hypoxia-inducible-factor-1α (HIF-1α) and induced the activation of the AKT/PKB kinase pathway, as shown by the increase of P(Ser-9)-GSK-3β, the inactive form of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Intriguingly, by the end of the fourth week the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein, a marker of dopaminergic neurons, was lower in nickel-treated than in control cultures. Thus, likely by partially mimicking hypoxic conditions, a not-cytotoxic nickel concentration appears to alter the process of neuronal differentiation and hinder the expression of the dopaminergic neuronal phenotype. Taken together, these results suggest that nickel, by altering normal brain development, may increase susceptibility to neuro-psychopathology later in life.

  20. Analysis of microdissected neurons by 18O mass spectrometry reveals altered protein expression in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Masakazu; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Volkmann, Inga; Aoki, Mikio; Winblad, Bengt; Sakai, Jun; Tjernberg, Lars O

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is evident that the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are derived from severe neuronal damage, and especially pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus are affected pathologically. Here, we analysed the proteome of hippocampal neurons, isolated from post-mortem brains by laser capture microdissection. By using 18O labelling and mass spectrometry, the relative expression levels of 150 proteins in AD and controls were estimated. Many of the identified proteins are involved in transcription and nucleotide binding, glycolysis, heat-shock response, microtubule stabilization, axonal transport or inflammation. The proteins showing the most altered expression in AD were selected for immunohistochemical analysis. These analyses confirmed the altered expression levels, and showed in many AD cases a pathological pattern. For comparison, we also analysed hippocampal sections by Western blot. The expression levels found by this method showed poor correlation with the neuron-specific analysis. Hence, we conclude that cell-specific proteome analysis reveals differences in the proteome that cannot be detected by bulk analysis. PMID:21883897

  1. Variance of gene expression identifies altered network constraints in neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Mar, Jessica C; Matigian, Nicholas A; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Mellick, George D; Sue, Carolyn M; Silburn, Peter A; McGrath, John J; Quackenbush, John; Wells, Christine A

    2011-08-01

    Gene expression analysis has become a ubiquitous tool for studying a wide range of human diseases. In a typical analysis we compare distinct phenotypic groups and attempt to identify genes that are, on average, significantly different between them. Here we describe an innovative approach to the analysis of gene expression data, one that identifies differences in expression variance between groups as an informative metric of the group phenotype. We find that genes with different expression variance profiles are not randomly distributed across cell signaling networks. Genes with low-expression variance, or higher constraint, are significantly more connected to other network members and tend to function as core members of signal transduction pathways. Genes with higher expression variance have fewer network connections and also tend to sit on the periphery of the cell. Using neural stem cells derived from patients suffering from Schizophrenia (SZ), Parkinson's disease (PD), and a healthy control group, we find marked differences in expression variance in cell signaling pathways that shed new light on potential mechanisms associated with these diverse neurological disorders. In particular, we find that expression variance of core networks in the SZ patient group was considerably constrained, while in contrast the PD patient group demonstrated much greater variance than expected. One hypothesis is that diminished variance in SZ patients corresponds to an increased degree of constraint in these pathways and a corresponding reduction in robustness of the stem cell networks. These results underscore the role that variation plays in biological systems and suggest that analysis of expression variance is far more important in disease than previously recognized. Furthermore, modeling patterns of variability in gene expression could fundamentally alter the way in which we think about how cellular networks are affected by disease processes.

  2. Altered gene expression profiles in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of type 2 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been an increasing body of epidemiologic and biochemical evidence implying the role of cerebral insulin resistance in Alzheimer-type dementia. For a better understanding of the insulin effect on the central nervous system, we performed microarray-based global gene expression profiling in the hippocampus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of streptozotocin-induced and spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats as model animals for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Results Following pathway analysis and validation of gene lists by real-time polymerase chain reaction, 30 genes from the hippocampus, such as the inhibitory neuropeptide galanin, synuclein gamma and uncoupling protein 2, and 22 genes from the prefrontal cortex, e.g. galanin receptor 2, protein kinase C gamma and epsilon, ABCA1 (ATP-Binding Cassette A1), CD47 (Cluster of Differentiation 47) and the RET (Rearranged During Transfection) protooncogene, were found to exhibit altered expression levels in type 2 diabetic model animals in comparison to non-diabetic control animals. These gene lists proved to be partly overlapping and encompassed genes related to neurotransmission, lipid metabolism, neuronal development, insulin secretion, oxidative damage and DNA repair. On the other hand, no significant alterations were found in the transcriptomes of the corpus striatum in the same animals. Changes in the cerebral gene expression profiles seemed to be specific for the type 2 diabetic model, as no such alterations were found in streptozotocin-treated animals. Conclusions According to our knowledge this is the first characterization of the whole-genome expression changes of specific brain regions in a diabetic model. Our findings shed light on the complex role of insulin signaling in fine-tuning brain functions, and provide further experimental evidence in support of the recently elaborated theory of type 3 diabetes. PMID:22369239

  3. Persistent Alterations of Gene Expression Profiling of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells From Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Daniel Y.; Chen, Jinguo; Taslim, Cenny; Hsu, Ping-Ching; Marian, Catalin; David, Sean P.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Shields, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    The number of validated biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure is limited, and none exist for tobacco-related cancer. Additional biomarkers for smoke, effects on cellular systems in vivo are needed to improve early detection of lung cancer, and to assist the Food and Drug Administration in regulating exposures to tobacco products. We assessed the effects of smoking on the gene expression using human cell cultures and blood from a cross-sectional study. We profiled global transcriptional changes in cultured smokers’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in vitro (n = 7) and from well-characterized smokers’ blood (n = 36). ANOVA with adjustment for covariates and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis in this study. CSC in vitro altered the expression of 1 178 genes (177 genes with > 1.5-fold-change) at P < 0.05. In vivo, PBMCs of heavy and light smokers differed for 614 genes (29 with > 1.5-fold-change) at P < 0.05 (309 remaining significant after adjustment for age, race, and gender). Forty-one genes were persistently altered both in vitro and in vivo, 22 having the same expression pattern reported for non-small cell lung cancer. Our data provides evidence that persistent alterations of gene expression in vitro and in vivo may relate to carcinogenic effects of cigarette smoke, and the identified genes may serve as potential biomarkers for cancer. The use of an in vitro model to corroborate results from human studies provides a novel way to understand human exposure and effect. PMID:26294040

  4. Altered Gene Expression Pattern in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kiliszek, Marek; Burzynska, Beata; Michalak, Marcin; Gora, Monika; Winkler, Aleksandra; Maciejak, Agata; Leszczynska, Agata; Gajda, Ewa; Kochanowski, Janusz; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis and therapy, acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of mortality in the general population. A novel insight into the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction obtained by studying gene expression should help to discover novel biomarkers of MI and to suggest novel strategies of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish gene expression patterns in leukocytes from acute myocardial infarction patients. Methods and Results Twenty-eight patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included. The blood was collected on the 1st day of myocardial infarction, after 4–6 days, and after 6 months. Control group comprised 14 patients with stable coronary artery disease, without history of myocardial infarction. Gene expression analysis was performed with Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarrays and GCS3000 TG system. Lists of genes showing altered expression levels (fold change >1.5, p<0.05) were submitted to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Gene lists from each group were examined for canonical pathways and molecular and cellular functions. Comparing acute phase of MI with the same patients after 6 months (stable phase) and with control group we found 24 genes with changed expression. In canonical analysis three pathways were highlighted: signaling of PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), IL-10 and IL-6 (interleukin 10 and 6). Conclusions In the acute phase of STEMI, dozens of genes from several pathways linked with lipid/glucose metabolism, platelet function and atherosclerotic plaque stability show altered expression. Up-regulation of SOCS3 and FAM20 genes in the first days of myocardial infarction is observed in the vast majority of patients. PMID:23185530

  5. Inhalation of Ultrafine Particles Alters Blood Leukocyte Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Mark W.; Stewart, Judith C.; Oberdörster, Günter; Morrow, Paul E.; Chalupa, David; Pietropaoli, Anthony P.; Frasier, Lauren M.; Speers, Donna M.; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li-Shan; Utell, Mark J.

    2006-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; aerodynamic diameter < 100 nm) may contribute to the respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with particulate air pollution. We tested the hypothesis that inhalation of carbon UFPs has vascular effects in healthy and asthmatic subjects, detectable as alterations in blood leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules. Healthy subjects inhaled filtered air and freshly generated elemental carbon particles (count median diameter ~ 25 nm, geometric standard deviation ~ 1.6), for 2 hr, in three separate protocols: 10 μg/m3 at rest, 10 and 25 μg/m3 with exercise, and 50 μg/m3 with exercise. In a fourth protocol, subjects with asthma inhaled air and 10 μg/m3 UFPs with exercise. Peripheral venous blood was obtained before and at intervals after exposure, and leukocyte expression of surface markers was quantitated using multiparameter flow cytometry. In healthy subjects, particle exposure with exercise reduced expression of adhesion molecules CD54 and CD18 on monocytes and CD18 and CD49d on granulocytes. There were also concentration-related reductions in blood monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils and increased lymphocyte expression of the activation marker CD25. In subjects with asthma, exposure with exercise to 10 μg/m3 UFPs reduced expression of CD11b on monocytes and eosinophils and CD54 on granulocytes. Particle exposure also reduced the percentage of CD4+ T cells, basophils, and eosinophils. Inhalation of elemental carbon UFPs alters peripheral blood leukocyte distribution and expression of adhesion molecules, in a pattern consistent with increased retention of leukocytes in the pulmonary vascular bed. PMID:16393658

  6. Neonatal Bisphenol A exposure alters sexually dimorphic gene expression in the postnatal rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinyan; Mickens, Jillian A; McCaffrey, Katherine A; Leyrer, Stephanie M; Patisaul, Heather B

    2012-01-01

    Developmental exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), a component of polycarbonate and epoxy resins, has been purported to adversely impact reproductive function in female rodents. Because neonatal life is a critical window for the sexual dimorphic organization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, interference with this process could underlie compromised adult reproductive physiology. The goal of the present study was to determine if neonatal BPA exposure interferes with sex specific gene expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), ER beta (ERβ) and kisspeptin (Kiss1) in the anterior and mediobasal hypothalamus. Long Evans (LE) neonatal rats were exposed to vehicle, 10μg estradiol benzoate (EB), 50mg/kg BPA or 50μg/kg BPA by subcutaneous injection daily from postnatal day 0 (PND 0) to PND 2. Gene expression was assessed by in situ hybridization on PNDs 4 and 10. Within the anterior hypothalamus ERα expression was augmented by BPA in PND 4 females, then fell to male-typical levels by PND 10. ERβ expression was not altered by BPA on PND 4, but significantly decreased or eliminated in both sexes by PND 10. Kiss1 expression was diminished by BPA in the anterior hypothalamus, especially in females. There were no significant impacts of BPA in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Collectively, BPA effects did not mirror those of EB. The results show that neonatal hypothalamic ER and Kiss1 expression is sensitive to BPA exposure. This disruption may alter sexually dimorphic hypothalamic organization and underlie adult reproductive deficiencies. Additionally, the discordant effects of EB and BPA indicate that BPA likely disrupts hypothalamic organization by a mechanism other than simply acting as an estrogen mimic.

  7. Altered Protein Composition and Gene Expression in Strabismic Human Extraocular Muscles and Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Andrea B.; Feng, Cheng-Yuan; Altick, Amy L.; Quilici, David R.; Wen, Dan; Johnson, L. Alan; von Bartheld, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether structural protein composition and expression of key regulatory genes are altered in strabismic human extraocular muscles. Methods Samples from strabismic horizontal extraocular muscles were obtained during strabismus surgery and compared with normal muscles from organ donors. We used proteomics, standard and customized PCR arrays, and microarrays to identify changes in major structural proteins and changes in gene expression. We focused on muscle and connective tissue and its control by enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines. Results Strabismic muscles showed downregulation of myosins, tropomyosins, troponins, and titin. Expression of collagens and regulators of collagen synthesis and degradation, the collagenase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and its inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)1 and TIMP2, was upregulated, along with tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptors, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), as well as proteoglycans. Growth factors controlling extracellular matrix (ECM) were also upregulated. Among 410 signaling genes examined by PCR arrays, molecules with downregulation in the strabismic phenotype included GDNF, NRG1, and PAX7; CTGF, CXCR4, NPY1R, TNF, NTRK1, and NTRK2 were upregulated. Signaling molecules known to control extraocular muscle plasticity were predominantly expressed in the tendon rather than the muscle component. The two horizontal muscles, medial and lateral rectus, displayed similar changes in protein and gene expression, and no obvious effect of age. Conclusions Quantification of proteins and gene expression showed significant differences in the composition of extraocular muscles of strabismic patients with respect to important motor proteins, elements of the ECM, and connective tissue. Therefore, our study supports the emerging view that the molecular composition of strabismic muscles is substantially altered. PMID:27768799

  8. Levonorgestrel enhances spermatogenesis suppression by testosterone with greater alteration in testicular gene expression in men.

    PubMed

    Lue, YanHe; Wang, Christina; Cui, YuGui; Wang, XingHai; Sha, JiaHao; Zhou, ZuoMin; Xu, Jun; Wang, Charles; Hikim, Amiya P Sinha; Swerdloff, Ronald S

    2009-03-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that combined treatment of testosterone with a progestin induces a more rapid and greater suppression of spermatogenesis than testosterone treatment alone. We hypothesized that the suppressive effects of the combination of testosterone undecanoate (TU) injections plus oral levonorgestrel (LNG) on spermatogenesis may be mediated through a greater perturbation of testicular gene expression than TU alone. To test this hypothesis, we performed open testicular biopsy on 12 different adult healthy subjects: 1) four healthy men as controls; 2) four men 2 wk after TU treatment; and 3) four men 2 wk after TU + LNG administration. RNA isolated from biopsies was used for DNA microarray using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 oligonucleotide microarrays. Gene expression with >or=2-fold changes (P < 0.05) compared with control was analyzed using the National Institutes of Health Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery 2008 resource. The TU treatment altered the gene expression in 109 transcripts, whereas TU + LNG altered the gene expression in 207 transcripts compared with control. Both TU and TU + LNG administration suppressed gene expression of insulin-like 3; cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A1 in Leydig cells; and inhibin alpha in Sertoli cells; they increased proapoptotic transcripts BCL2-like 14, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3; and they decreased X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. In comparison with TU treatment alone, TU + LNG treatment upregulated insulin-like 6 and relaxin 1, and downregulated RNA-binding protein transcripts. We conclude that TU + LNG administration induces more changes in testicular gene expression than TU alone. This exploratory study provided a novel and valuable database to study the mechanisms of action of hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis in men and identified testicular-specific molecules that may serve as potential targets for male contraceptive

  9. Alteration of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) Expression in Orbital Fibroblasts from Patients with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pei-Chen; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is a disfiguring and sometimes blinding disease, which is characterized by inflammation and swelling of orbital tissues, with fibrosis and adipogenesis being predominant features. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the expression levels of fibrosis-related genes, especially that of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), are altered in orbital fibroblasts of patients with GO. The role of oxidative stress in the regulation of CTGF expression in GO orbital fibroblasts is also examined. By a SYBR Green-based real time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR), we demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of fibronectin, apolipoprotein J, and CTGF in cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO were significantly higher than those of age-matched normal controls (p = 0.007, 0.037, and 0.002, respectively). In addition, the protein expression levels of fibronectin, apolipoprotein J, and CTGF analyzed by Western blot were also significantly higher in GO orbital fibroblasts (p = 0.046, 0.032, and 0.008, respectively) as compared with the control. Furthermore, after treatment of orbital fibroblasts with a sub-lethal dose of hydrogen peroxide (200 μM H2O2), we found that the H2O2-induced increase of CTGF expression was more pronounced in the GO orbital fibroblasts as compared with those in normal controls (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.007). Importantly, pre-incubation with antioxidants including N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin C, respectively, resulted in significant attenuation of the induction of CTGF in GO orbital fibroblasts in response to H2O2 (p = 0.004 and 0.015, respectively). Taken together, we suggest that oxidative stress plays a role in the alteration of the expression of CTGF in GO orbital fibroblasts that may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of GO. Antioxidants may be used in combination with the therapeutic agents for effective treatment of GO. PMID:26599235

  10. Ethanol-related alterations in gene expression patterns in the developing murine hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Chanchal; Park, Kyoung Sun; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that consuming alcohol prior to and during pregnancy can cause harm to the developing fetus. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a term commonly used to describe a range of disabilities that may arise from prenatal alcohol exposure such as fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders, and alcohol-related birth defects. Here, we report that maternal binge alcohol consumption alters several important genes that are involved in nervous system development in the mouse hippocampus at embryonic day 18. Microarray analysis revealed that Nova1, Ntng1, Gal, Neurog2, Neurod2, and Fezf2 gene expressions are altered in the fetal hippocampus. Pathway analysis also revealed the association of the calcium signaling pathway in addition to other pathways with the differentially expressed genes during early brain development. Alteration of such important genes and dynamics of the signaling pathways may cause neurodevelopmental disorders. Our findings offer insight into the molecular mechanism involved in neurodevelopmental disorders associated with alcohol-related defects.

  11. Ethanol-related alterations in gene expression patterns in the developing murine hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Chanchal; Park, Kyoung Sun; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that consuming alcohol prior to and during pregnancy can cause harm to the developing fetus. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a term commonly used to describe a range of disabilities that may arise from prenatal alcohol exposure such as fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders, and alcohol-related birth defects. Here, we report that maternal binge alcohol consumption alters several important genes that are involved in nervous system development in the mouse hippocampus at embryonic day 18. Microarray analysis revealed that Nova1, Ntng1, Gal, Neurog2, Neurod2, and Fezf2 gene expressions are altered in the fetal hippocampus. Pathway analysis also revealed the association of the calcium signaling pathway in addition to other pathways with the differentially expressed genes during early brain development. Alteration of such important genes and dynamics of the signaling pathways may cause neurodevelopmental disorders. Our findings offer insight into the molecular mechanism involved in neurodevelopmental disorders associated with alcohol-related defects. PMID:26063602

  12. Expression of Genes Involved in Porphyrin Biosynthesis Pathway in the Human Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Filho, Hugo Nóbrega; da Silva, Evelin Caroline; Silva, Flávia R O; Courrol, Lilia Coronato; de Mesquita, Carlos Henrique; Bellini, Maria Helena

    2015-09-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains one of the greatest challenges of urological oncology and is the third leading cause of death in genitourinary cancers. Surgery may be curative when patients present with localized disease. Our previous results demonstrated the autofluorescence of blood PpIX in primary RCC mouse model and an increase in fluorescence intensity as a function of growth of the subcutaneous tumor mass. In another work, a nice correlation between the growth of the tumor mass and tissue fluorescence intensity was found. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression profile of porphyrin biosynthesis pathway-related genes of human kidney cells. We used two kidney cell lines, one normal (HK2) and another malignant (Caki-1). Endogenous and 5-aminolevolinic acid (ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) HK2 and Caki-1 cells were analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure mRNA of those genes. Emission spectra were obtained by exciting the samples at 405 nm. For ALA untreated cells the maximum fluorescence intensity was detected at 635 nm. The mean peak area of emission spectra in both cells types increased linearly in function of cell number. Besides, basal levels of PpIX autofluorescence of each cell concentration of HK2 samples were significantly lower than those of Caki-1 samples. For ALA-treated cells the mean PpIX spectra shows PpIX emission peak at 635 nm with a shoulder at 700 nm. Analysis of PpIX fluorescence intensity ratio between tumor cells and HK2 cells showed that fluorescence intensity was, on average, 26 times greater in tumor cells than in healthy cells. qRT-PCR revealed that in Caki-1 ALA-treated cells, PEPT gene was significantly up-regulated and FECH and HO-1 genes were significantly down regulated in comparison with HK2 ALA-treated cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the preferential accumulation of ALA-induced PpIX in human RCC and also indicate that

  13. A low-salt diet increases the expression of renal sirtuin 1 through activation of the ghrelin receptor in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shao-Yu; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Chen, Yung-Ming; Wu, Vin-Cent; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is renoprotective; however, details regarding its distribution and functions in the kidney remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that Sirt1 was mainly expressed in the tubulointerstitial cells of normal rat kidneys and was co-localized with aquaporin 2, indicating it may be involved in water/salt regulation. Renal Sirt1 expression increased in the non-glomerular cytoplasmic portion of the kidney after a 24-h fast, but no significant changes in Sirt1 expression occurred after water loading (50 mL/kg) or 24-h water deprivation. After consuming a low-salt (0.075%) or 60% calorie restriction diet for 7 days, Sirt1 expression in the rat kidney was significantly increased, whereas a high-salt (8%) diet did not change the level of Sirt1 expression. The low-salt diet also increased Sirt1 expression in the heart, muscle, brain, and fat tissues. The increased Sirt1 that was observed in rats on a low-salt diet was associated with increased ghrelin expression in the distal nephron, with both molecules exhibiting similar distribution patterns. An in vitro experiment suggested that ghrelin increases Sirt1 expression in cortical collecting duct cells by activating ghrelin receptors. Our study indicates that this 'ghrelin-Sirt1 system' may participate in regulating sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. PMID:27600292

  14. A low-salt diet increases the expression of renal sirtuin 1 through activation of the ghrelin receptor in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shao-Yu; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Chen, Yung-Ming; Wu, Vin-Cent; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is renoprotective; however, details regarding its distribution and functions in the kidney remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that Sirt1 was mainly expressed in the tubulointerstitial cells of normal rat kidneys and was co-localized with aquaporin 2, indicating it may be involved in water/salt regulation. Renal Sirt1 expression increased in the non-glomerular cytoplasmic portion of the kidney after a 24-h fast, but no significant changes in Sirt1 expression occurred after water loading (50 mL/kg) or 24-h water deprivation. After consuming a low-salt (0.075%) or 60% calorie restriction diet for 7 days, Sirt1 expression in the rat kidney was significantly increased, whereas a high-salt (8%) diet did not change the level of Sirt1 expression. The low-salt diet also increased Sirt1 expression in the heart, muscle, brain, and fat tissues. The increased Sirt1 that was observed in rats on a low-salt diet was associated with increased ghrelin expression in the distal nephron, with both molecules exhibiting similar distribution patterns. An in vitro experiment suggested that ghrelin increases Sirt1 expression in cortical collecting duct cells by activating ghrelin receptors. Our study indicates that this ‘ghrelin-Sirt1 system’ may participate in regulating sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. PMID:27600292

  15. PD-L1 Expression in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Analysis of Nephrectomy and Sites of Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Jilaveanu, L.B.; Shuch, B.; Zito, C. R.; Parisi, F.; Barr, M.; Kluger, Y.; Chen, L.; Kluger, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Expression of programmed death ligand (PD-L1/B7-H1/CD274) represents a mechanism of immune escape for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. Drugs blocking PD-L1 or its receptor are in clinical development and early data suggests that tumor PD-L1 expression may predict response. Patients and Methods: A tissue microarray (TMA) consisting of four biopsy cores from 34 matched pairs of nephrectomy and metastatic sites of clear cell RCC was used to assess PD-L1 expression by quantitative immunofluorescence. Assessment of intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity and primary and metastatic tumor expression was performed using a method of Automated Quantitative Analysis (AQUA). Results: The median AQUA scores were higher in metastatic than primary specimens (P < 0.0001). The correlation between PD-L1 expression in matched primary and metastatic specimens was weak (R= 0.24). Within a given tumor, variable PD-L1 staining heterogeneity was seen, however the degree of heterogeneity was similar in primary and metastatic sites (P = 0.482). Conclusions: The weak correlation between PD-L1 expression in primary and metastatic sites for a given patient suggests that expression in nephrectomy specimens cannot be used to select metastatic RCC patients for PD-L1 and PD-1 inhibitors. The intra-tumor heterogeneity seen in both primary and metastatic specimens indicates that a single core biopsy might not be sufficient to determine PD-L1 expression. PMID:24563671

  16. Augmenter of liver regeneration inhibits TGF-β1-induced renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via suppressing TβR II expression in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Guo-tao; Yan, Ru-yu; Sun, Hang; Guo, Hui; Liu, Qi

    2014-10-01

    Tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a crucial role in the progression of renal tubular interstitial fibrosis (TIF), which subsequently leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and eventually, end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We propose that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), a member of the newly discovered ALR/Erv1 protein family shown to ameliorate hepatic fibrosis, plays a similar protective role in renal tubular cells and has potential as a new treatment option for CKD. Here, we showed that recombinant human ALR (rhALR) inhibits EMT in renal tubular cells by antagonizing activation of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway. Further investigation revealed that rhALR suppresses the expression of TGF-β receptor type II (TβR II) and significantly alleviates TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). No apparent adverse effects were observed upon the addition of rhALR alone to cells. These findings collectively suggest that ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT, supporting its potential utility as an effective antifibrotic strategy to reverse TIF in CKD. - Highlights: • ALR is involved in the pathological progression of renal EMT in NRK-52E cells. • ALR suppresses the expression of TβRII and the phosphorylation of Smad2 and NF-κB. • ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT.

  17. Simulated microgravity alters the expression of key genes involved in fracture healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, N. Patrick; Androjna, Caroline; Hill, Esther; Globus, Ruth K.; Midura, Ronald J.

    2013-11-01

    Fracture healing in animal models has been shown to be altered in both ground based analogs of spaceflight and in those exposed to actual spaceflight. The molecular mechanisms behind altered fracture healing as a result of chronic exposure to microgravity remain to be elucidated. This study investigates temporal gene expression of multiple factors involved in secondary fracture healing, specifically those integral to the development of a soft tissue callus and the transition to that of hard tissue. Skeletally mature female rats were subjected to a 4 week period of simulated microgravity and then underwent a closed femoral fracture procedure. Thereafter, they were reintroduced to the microgravity and allowed to heal for a 1 or 2 week period. A synchronous group of weight bearing rats was used as a normal fracture healing control. Utilizing Real-Time quantitative PCR on mRNA from fracture callus tissue, we found significant reductions in the levels of transcripts associated with angiogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. These data suggest an altered fracture healing process in a simulated microgravity environment, and these alterations begin early in the healing process. These findings may provide mechanistic insight towards developing countermeasure protocols to mitigate these adaptations.

  18. A genetic polymorphism affects the risk and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma: association with follistatin-like protein 1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Han, Xue; Yu, Yongwei; Ding, Yibo; Ni, Chong; Liu, Wenbin; Hou, Xiaomei; Li, Zixiong; Hou, Jianguo; Shen, Dan; Yin, Jianhua; Zhang, Hongwei; Thompson, Timothy C.; Tan, Xiaojie; Cao, Guangwen

    2016-01-01

    Few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have been identified, yet genetic predisposition contributes significantly to this malignancy. We previously showed that follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) was significantly down-regulated in clear cell RCC (ccRCC), in particular metastatic ccRCC. In the present study, we systemically investigated the associations of the 6 SNPs within FSTL1-coding genomic region with RCC risk and postoperative prognosis. Age- and gender-matched case-control study (417 vs 855) indicated that rs1259293 variant genotype CC was significantly associated with an increased risk of RCC, with an odds ratio of 2.004 (95% confidence internal [CI] = 1.190–3.375). Multivariate Cox regression analysis in 309 of 417 cases showed that rs1259293 genotype (CC vs TT + CT) independently predicted an unfavorable prognosis, with a hazard ratio of 2.531 (95% CI = 1.052–6.086). Expression of FSTL1 was significantly higher in adjacent renal tissues than in tumors, and significantly higher in the tissues with rs1259293 TT genotype than in those with rs1259293 TC+CC genotypes. rs1259293 C allele might generate a CTCF binding site that blocks trans-activation of FSTL1 expression. Our results indicate that rs1259293 is associated with an increased risk and unfavorable postoperative prognosis of RCC, possibly by down-regulating FSTL1 expression in renal tissues. PMID:27225192

  19. Progressive alterations of cytokeratin expressions in the process of chronic arsenism.

    PubMed

    Yu, H S; Chiou, K S; Chen, G S; Yang, R C; Chang, S F

    1993-12-01

    Recent studies of an endemic occurrence of chronic arsenism in a limited area on the southwest coast of Taiwan are focusing on its cytokeratin analysis in hopes of tracing the disease's biochemical expression. Specimens were obtained from uninvolved skin and arsenical cancers including Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to analyse cytokeratin expression. Progressive alterations in cytokeratin expression were found in various skin lesions. These include an expression of K16 in the uninvolved skin; K16 and K6 in Bowen's disease; and K16, K6 and K17 in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. In addition, we found that the K1 isoelectric variants shifted to more acidic forms with the complete absence of K1 in basal cell carcinoma. K16 expression in uninvolved skin indicates that it is nevertheless in a hyperproliferative status. K17 was expressed in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, but not in Bowen's disease. The progressive impairment of phosphorylation of K1 and K2 in the process of chronic arsenism provides us with a suitable model for studying the biological significance of phosphorylation in intermediate filaments during chemical carcinogenesis.

  20. Preliminary evidence of phenytoin-induced alterations in embryonic gene expression in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Musselman, A C; Bennett, G D; Greer, K A; Eberwine, J H; Finnell, R H

    1994-01-01

    SWV mouse embryos collected on gestational days (GD) 9:12 and 10:00 following chronic in utero exposure to teratogenic concentrations of phenytoin were utilized for in situ transcription studies of gene expression. The substrate cDNA obtained from the frozen embryo sections was amplified into radiolabelled antisense RNA (RT/aRNA) and used as a probe to screen a panel of 20 cDNA clones representing genes that are important regulators of craniofacial and neural development. The magnitude of alteration in gene expression following phenytoin treatment was determined densitometrically by changes in the hybridization intensity of the aRNA probes to the cDNA clones immobilized to the slot blots. We found that both Wnt-1 and the calcium channel gene were developmentally regulated, as their level of expression decreased significantly between the two collection times. Phenytoin treatment produced a significant downregulation in the level of expression for 25% of the genes examined in the GD 9:12 embryos, including the growth factors TGF-beta and NT3, the proto-oncogene Wnt-1, the nicotinic receptor, and the voltage sensitive calcium channel gene. Additional changes in the coordinate expression of several of the growth and transcription factors were observed at both gestational timepoints. The application of RT/aRNA technology has extended our appreciation of the normal patterns of gene expression during craniofacial and neural development, and provided the first demonstration of multiple coordinate changes in transcription patterns following teratogenic insult.

  1. Manipulation of BK channel expression is sufficient to alter auditory hair cell thresholds in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rohmann, Kevin N.; Tripp, Joel A.; Genova, Rachel M.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Non-mammalian vertebrates rely on electrical resonance for frequency tuning in auditory hair cells. A key component of the resonance exhibited by these cells is an outward calcium-activated potassium current that flows through large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels. Previous work in midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) has shown that BK expression correlates with seasonal changes in hearing sensitivity and that pharmacologically blocking these channels replicates the natural decreases in sensitivity during the winter non-reproductive season. To test the hypothesis that reducing BK channel function is sufficient to change auditory thresholds in fish, morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) were used in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) to alter expression of slo1a and slo1b, duplicate genes coding for the pore-forming α-subunits of BK channels. Following MO injection, microphonic potentials were recorded from the inner ear of larvae. Quantitative real-time PCR was then used to determine the MO effect on slo1a and slo1b expression in these same fish. Knockdown of either slo1a or slo1b resulted in disrupted gene expression and increased auditory thresholds across the same range of frequencies of natural auditory plasticity observed in midshipman. We conclude that interference with the normal expression of individual slo1 genes is sufficient to increase auditory thresholds in zebrafish larvae and that changes in BK channel expression are a direct mechanism for regulation of peripheral hearing sensitivity among fishes. PMID:24803460

  2. Consistently altered expression of gene sets in postmortem brains of individuals with major psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Darby, M M; Yolken, R H; Sabunciyan, S

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of gene expression in postmortem brain is an important tool for understanding the pathogenesis of serious psychiatric disorders. We hypothesized that major molecular deficits associated with psychiatric disease would affect the entire brain, and such deficits may be shared across disorders. We performed RNA sequencing and quantified gene expression in the hippocampus of 100 brains in the Stanley Array Collection followed by replication in the orbitofrontal cortex of 57 brains in the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium. We then identified genes and canonical pathway gene sets with significantly altered expression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the hippocampus and in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression in the orbitofrontal cortex. Although expression of individual genes varied, gene sets were significantly enriched in both of the brain regions, and many of these were consistent across diagnostic groups. Further examination of core gene sets with consistently increased or decreased expression in both of the brain regions and across target disorders revealed that ribosomal genes are overexpressed while genes involved in neuronal processes, GABAergic signaling, endocytosis and antigen processing have predominantly decreased expression in affected individuals compared to controls without a psychiatric disorder. Our results highlight pathways of central importance to psychiatric health and emphasize messenger RNA processing and protein synthesis as potential therapeutic targets for all three of the disorders. PMID:27622934

  3. Consistently altered expression of gene sets in postmortem brains of individuals with major psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Darby, M M; Yolken, R H; Sabunciyan, S

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of gene expression in postmortem brain is an important tool for understanding the pathogenesis of serious psychiatric disorders. We hypothesized that major molecular deficits associated with psychiatric disease would affect the entire brain, and such deficits may be shared across disorders. We performed RNA sequencing and quantified gene expression in the hippocampus of 100 brains in the Stanley Array Collection followed by replication in the orbitofrontal cortex of 57 brains in the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium. We then identified genes and canonical pathway gene sets with significantly altered expression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the hippocampus and in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression in the orbitofrontal cortex. Although expression of individual genes varied, gene sets were significantly enriched in both of the brain regions, and many of these were consistent across diagnostic groups. Further examination of core gene sets with consistently increased or decreased expression in both of the brain regions and across target disorders revealed that ribosomal genes are overexpressed while genes involved in neuronal processes, GABAergic signaling, endocytosis and antigen processing have predominantly decreased expression in affected individuals compared to controls without a psychiatric disorder. Our results highlight pathways of central importance to psychiatric health and emphasize messenger RNA processing and protein synthesis as potential therapeutic targets for all three of the disorders. PMID:27622934

  4. Induction of renal senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) expression by testosterone and its contribution to urinary calcium absorption in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Han; Jian, Cai-Yun; Chou, Jou-Chun; Chen, Chien-Wei; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Soong, Christina; Hu, Sindy; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Wang, Paulus S; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of androgen, mainly testosterone, in the expression of renal senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) in male rats. We found that the renal SMP30 expression was up-regulated by endogenous testosterone stimulation during puberty. Interestingly, androgen-deficient orchidectomized (ORX) rats exhibited lower SMP30 mRNA and protein expression in the kidney, and that was restored by testosterone propionate (TP) replacement. Abrogation of androgen receptor (AR) activity by co-treatment with flutamide abolished testosterone-induced SMP30 expression in the kidney as well as in the NRK52E cells. However, SMP30 expression was unaltered in the liver of ORX rats. We also showed a positive correlation between renal SMP30 expression and plasma testosterone level during the aging process. TP-induced SMP30 expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was observed and was an evidence to explain the gender difference of SMP30 levels. Immunofluorescence assay showed that renal SMP30 was specifically expressed in the proximal tubular segments of the kidney. The urinary Ca(2+) level was increased in both ORX and male aging rats. Taken together, our results indicate a novel role of testosterone in regulating SMP30 expression specifically in the kidney to contribute to urinary calcium absorption. PMID:27553527

  5. Induction of renal senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) expression by testosterone and its contribution to urinary calcium absorption in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Po-Han; Jian, Cai-Yun; Chou, Jou-Chun; Chen, Chien-Wei; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Soong, Christina; Hu, Sindy; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Wang, Paulus S.; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of androgen, mainly testosterone, in the expression of renal senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) in male rats. We found that the renal SMP30 expression was up-regulated by endogenous testosterone stimulation during puberty. Interestingly, androgen-deficient orchidectomized (ORX) rats exhibited lower SMP30 mRNA and protein expression in the kidney, and that was restored by testosterone propionate (TP) replacement. Abrogation of androgen receptor (AR) activity by co-treatment with flutamide abolished testosterone-induced SMP30 expression in the kidney as well as in the NRK52E cells. However, SMP30 expression was unaltered in the liver of ORX rats. We also showed a positive correlation between renal SMP30 expression and plasma testosterone level during the aging process. TP-induced SMP30 expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was observed and was an evidence to explain the gender difference of SMP30 levels. Immunofluorescence assay showed that renal SMP30 was specifically expressed in the proximal tubular segments of the kidney. The urinary Ca2+ level was increased in both ORX and male aging rats. Taken together, our results indicate a novel role of testosterone in regulating SMP30 expression specifically in the kidney to contribute to urinary calcium absorption. PMID:27553527

  6. Histopathologic Alterations Associated with Global Gene Expression Due to Chronic Dietary TCDD Exposure in Juvenile Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Cariou, Ronan; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Jiang, Nan; Goetz, Giles; Hutz, Reinhold J.; Tonellato, Peter J.; Carvan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate the effects and possible developmental disease implication of chronic dietary TCDD exposure on global gene expression anchored to histopathologic analysis in juvenile zebrafish by functional genomic, histopathologic and analytic chemistry methods. Specifically, juvenile zebrafish were fed Biodiet starter with TCDD added at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppb, and fish were sampled following 0, 7, 14, 28 and 42 d after initiation of the exposure. TCDD accumulated in a dose- and time-dependent manner and 100 ppb TCDD caused TCDD accumulation in female (15.49 ppb) and male (18.04 ppb) fish at 28 d post exposure. Dietary TCDD caused multiple lesions in liver, kidney, intestine and ovary of zebrafish and functional dysregulation such as depletion of glycogen in liver, retrobulbar edema, degeneration of nasal neurosensory epithelium, underdevelopment of intestine, and diminution in the fraction of ovarian follicles containing vitellogenic oocytes. Importantly, lesions in nasal epithelium and evidence of endocrine disruption based on alternatively spliced vasa transcripts are two novel and significant results of this study. Microarray gene expression analysis comparing vehicle control to dietary TCDD revealed dysregulated genes involved in pathways associated with cardiac necrosis/cell death, cardiac fibrosis, renal necrosis/cell death and liver necrosis/cell death. These baseline toxicological effects provide evidence for the potential mechanisms of developmental dysfunctions induced by TCDD and vasa as a biomarker for ovarian developmental disruption. PMID:24988445

  7. Sirt1 protects against oxidative stress-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis by the bidirectional regulation of catalase expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Wakino, Shu Yoshioka, Kyoko; Tatematsu, Satoru; Hara, Yoshikazu; Minakuchi, Hitoshi; Washida, Naoki; Tokuyama, Hirobumi; Hayashi, Koichi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2008-07-18

    NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylase Sirt1 regulates cellular apoptosis. We examined the role of Sirt1 in renal tubular cell apoptosis by using HK-2 cells, proximal tubular cell lines with or without reactive oxygen species (ROS), H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Without any ROS, Sirt1 inhibitors enhanced apoptosis and the expression of ROS scavenger, catalase, and Sirt1 overexpression downregulated catalase. When apoptosis was induced with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Sirt1 was upregulated with the concomitant increase in catalase expression. Sirt1 overexpression rescued H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis through the upregulation of catalase. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced the nuclear accumulation of forkhead transcription factor, FoxO3a and the gene silencing of FoxO3a enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, endogenous Sirt1 maintains cell survival by regulating catalase expression and by preventing the depletion of ROS required for cell survival. In contrast, excess ROS upregulates Sirt1, which activates FoxO3a and catalase leading to rescuing apoptosis. Thus, Sirt1 constitutes a determinant of renal tubular cell apoptosis by regulating cellular ROS levels.

  8. Expression of serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors in the human cerebellum and alterations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, S L; Burnet, P W; Gittins, R; Baker, K; Harrison, P J

    2001-11-01

    The occurrence of human cerebellar serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors (5-HT(2A)R) is equivocal and their status in schizophrenia unknown. Using a range of techniques, we investigated cerebellar 5-HT(2A)R expression in 16 healthy subjects and 16 subjects with schizophrenia. Immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody showed labelling of Purkinje cell bodies and dendrites, as well as putative astrocytes. Western blots showed a major band at approximately 45 kDa. Receptor autoradiography and homogenate binding with [(3)H]ketanserin revealed cerebellar 5-HT(2A)R binding sites present at levels approximately a third of that in prefrontal cortex. 5-HT(2A)R mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, with higher relative levels in men than women. Several aspects of 5-HT(2A)R expression were altered in schizophrenia. 5-HT(2A)R immunoreactivity in Purkinje cells was partially redistributed from soma to dendrites and was increased in white matter. 5-HT(2A)R mRNA was decreased in the male patients. 5-HT(2A)R measured by dot blots and [(3)H]ketanserin binding (B(max) and K(d)) were not significantly altered in schizophrenia. These data show that 5-HT(2A)R gene products (mRNA, protein, binding sites) are expressed in the human cerebellum at nonnegligible levels; this bears upon 5-HT(2A)R imaging studies which use the cerebellum as a reference region. 5-HT(2A)R expression is altered in schizophrenia; the shift of 5-HT(2A)R from soma to dendrites is noteworthy since atypical antipsychotics have the opposite effect. Finally, the results emphasise that expression of a receptor gene is a mutifaceted process. Measurement of multiple parameters is necessary to give a clear picture of the normal situation and to show the profile of alterations in a disease. PMID:11574947

  9. In vivo regulation of renal expression of (pro)renin receptor by a low-sodium diet.

    PubMed

    Matavelli, Luis C; Huang, Jiqian; Siragy, Helmy M

    2012-12-15

    Effects of low salt (LS) on (pro)renin receptor (PRR) expression are not well established. We hypothesized that LS enhances renal PRR expression via the cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal-salt (NS) or LS diet associated with intrarenal cortical administration of vehicle (V), the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-dl-penicillamine (SNAP), the cGMP analog 8-bromoguanosine (8-Br)-cGMP, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1, 2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), or a PKG inhibitor (PKGi) for 6 days via osmotic minipump. We evaluated the effects of each treatment on renal interstitial fluid (RIF) levels of nitrate/nitrite and cGMP and renal PRR expression. There were no significant changes in blood pressure with any of the treatments. Urinary sodium excretion was significantly lower in rats given a LS diet. Compared with NS + V, RIF nitrate/nitrite and cGMP levels increased in LS + V rats. In NS groups, RIF nitrate/nitrite and cGMP levels did not change with l-NAME, ODQ, or PKGi and increased in response to SNAP. 8-Br-cGMP increased RIF cGMP but not RIF nitrate/nitrite. In LS groups, RIF nitrate/nitrite decreased with l-NAME and did not change with ODQ or PKGi whereas RIF cGMP decreased with l-NAME, ODQ, and PKGi. PRR mRNA and protein increased in LS + V. In NS rats, PRR mRNA and protein increased in response to 8-Br-GMP and were not affected by any of other treatments. In LS rats, PRR mRNA and protein decreased significantly in response to l-NAME, ODQ, and PKGi. We conclude that LS intake enhances renal expression of PRR via cGMP-PKG signaling pathway.

  10. Epigenetic Regulation of MicroRNAs Controlling CLDN14 Expression as a Mechanism for Renal Calcium Handling

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yongfeng; Himmerkus, Nina; Plain, Allein; Bleich, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The kidney has a major role in extracellular calcium homeostasis. Multiple genetic linkage and association studies identified three tight junction genes from the kidney—claudin-14, -16, and -19—as critical for calcium imbalance diseases. Despite the compelling biologic evidence that the claudin-14/16/19 proteins form a regulated paracellular pathway for calcium reabsorption, approaches to regulate this transport pathway are largely unavailable, hindering the development of therapies to correct calcium transport abnormalities. Here, we report that treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors downregulates renal CLDN14 mRNA and dramatically reduces urinary calcium excretion in mice. Furthermore, treatment of mice with HDAC inhibitors stimulated the transcription of renal microRNA-9 (miR-9) and miR-374 genes, which have been shown to repress the expression of claudin-14, the negative regulator of the paracellular pathway. With renal clearance and tubule perfusion techniques, we showed that HDAC inhibitors transiently increase the paracellular cation conductance in the thick ascending limb. Genetic ablation of claudin-14 or the use of a loop diuretic in mice abrogated HDAC inhibitor-induced hypocalciuria. The genetic mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor from patients with autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) repressed the transcription of miR-9 and miR-374 genes, and treatment with an HDAC inhibitor rescued the phenotypes of cell and animal models of ADH. Furthermore, systemic treatment of mice with antagomiRs against these miRs relieved claudin-14 gene silencing and caused an ADH-like phenotype. Together, our findings provide proof of concept for a novel therapeutic principle on the basis of epigenetic regulation of renal miRs to treat hypercalciuric diseases. PMID:25071082

  11. Expression of Fas and Fas Ligand on Mouse Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells in the Generalized Shwartzman Reaction and Its Relationship to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Naoki; Narita, Kayo; Kato, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Morikawa, Akiko; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Previously we reported that the consecutive injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into LPS-sensitized mice for the generalized Shwartzman reaction (GSR) appeared to induce the injury of renal tubular epithelial cells via apoptosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism of renal tubular epithelial cell injury in GSR. The expression of Fas and Fas ligand was immunohistochemically detected on renal tubular epithelial cells from GSR-induced mice, although neither Fas nor Fas ligand was found in cells from untreated control mice or in cells from mice receiving a single injection of LPS. GSR-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury was produced in neither Fas-negative MRL-lpr/lpr mice nor Fas ligand-negative MRL-gld/gld mice. The administration of anti-gamma interferon antibody together with a preparative injection of LPS prevented the expression of Fas and Fas ligand and the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. A provocative injection of tumor necrosis factor alpha into LPS-sensitized mice augmented Fas and Fas ligand expression and the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. The administration of tumor necrosis factor alpha to interleukin-12-sensitized mice resulted in Fas and Fas ligand expression and the apoptosis. Sensitization with interleukin-12 together with anti-gamma interferon antibody did not cause the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. It was suggested that the Fas/Fas ligand system probably plays a critical role in the development of renal tubular epithelial cell injury through apoptotic cell death. PMID:10417181

  12. Sequential Infection with Common Pathogens Promotes Human-like Immune Gene Expression and Altered Vaccine Response.

    PubMed

    Reese, Tiffany A; Bi, Kevin; Kambal, Amal; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Beura, Lalit K; Bürger, Matheus C; Pulendran, Bali; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David; Haining, W Nicholas; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-05-11

    Immune responses differ between laboratory mice and humans. Chronic infection with viruses and parasites are common in humans, but are absent in laboratory mice, and thus represent potential contributors to inter-species differences in immunity. To test this, we sequentially infected laboratory mice with herpesviruses, influenza, and an intestinal helminth and compared their blood immune signatures to mock-infected mice before and after vaccination against yellow fever virus (YFV-17D). Sequential infection altered pre- and post-vaccination gene expression, cytokines, and antibodies in blood. Sequential pathogen exposure induced gene signatures that recapitulated those seen in blood from pet store-raised versus laboratory mice, and adult versus cord blood in humans. Therefore, basal and vaccine-induced murine immune responses are altered by infection with agents common outside of barrier facilities. This raises the possibility that we can improve mouse models of vaccination and immunity by selective microbial exposure of laboratory animals to mimic that of humans. PMID:27107939

  13. Rat embryo fibroblast cells expressing human papillomavirus 1a genes exhibit altered growth properties and tumorigenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Green, M; Brackmann, K H; Loewenstein, P M

    1986-01-01

    Human papillomavirus 1a (HPV1a) induces benign tumors (papillomas or warts) in humans under natural conditions of infection but has not been found to replicate significantly in cell culture or in experimental animals. To establish model systems to study the oncogenic properties and expression of HPV genes, we established cell lines by cotransfecting the 3Y1 rat fibroblast cell line with HPV1a DNA constructs containing an intact early gene region and the Tn5 neomycin resistance gene. Most cell lines selected for expression of the neomycin resistance gene by treatment with the antibiotic G-418 contained viral DNA in a high-molecular-weight form. The growth characteristics of several cell lines containing high copy numbers of HPV1a DNA were studied further. They were shown to differ from the parental cell line and from G-418-resistant cell lines that did not incorporate viral DNA in the following properties: morphological alteration, increased cell density at confluence, growth in 0.5% serum, efficient anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and rapid formation of tumors in nude mice. Those cell lines that possessed altered growth properties and tumorigenicity were found to express abundant quantities of polyadenylated virus-specific RNA species in the cytoplasm. Images PMID:3023676

  14. MicroRNA-Offset RNA Alters Gene Expression and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin; Schnitzler, Gavin R.; Iyer, Lakshmanan K.; Aronovitz, Mark J.; Baur, Wendy E.; Karas, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-offset RNAs (moRs) were first identified in simple chordates and subsequently in mouse and human cells by deep sequencing of short RNAs. MoRs are derived from sequences located immediately adjacent to microRNAs (miRs) in the primary miR (pri-miR). Currently moRs are considered to be simply a by-product of miR biosynthesis that lack biological activity. Here we show for the first time that a moR is biologically active. We demonstrate that endogenous or over-expressed moR-21 significantly alters gene expression and inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In addition, we find that miR-21 and moR-21 may regulate different genes in a given pathway and can oppose each other in regulating certain genes. We report that there is a “seed region” of moR-21 as well as a “seed match region” in the target gene 3’UTR that are indispensable for moR-21-mediated gene down-regulation. We further demonstrate that moR-21-mediated gene repression is Argonaute 2 (Ago2) dependent. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that microRNA offset RNA alters gene expression and is biologically active. PMID:27276022

  15. Altered expression of PGK1 in a family with phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Svaasand, Eva K; Aasly, Jan; Landsem, Veslemøy Malm; Klungland, Helge

    2007-11-01

    The X-linked recessive disease phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) deficiency is caused by altered expression of the PGK1 enzyme, which causes muscle stiffness, hemolytic anemia, and mental retardation. In this study we characterized the PGK1 gene in a family of two brothers, two sisters, and their parents. A single mutation in exon 6, which was associated with the pattern of inheritance of PGK1 deficiency, was observed. This silent G213G; c.639C>T mutation was localized to the conserved exon-intron boundary. We have developed a method for quantification of PGK1 mRNA and demonstrated a marked reduction in PGK1 mRNA in both brothers with the disease. A smaller decrease in PGK1 expression was observed in one sister with symptoms of PGK deficiency and in her mother. Only the normal PGK1 allele was expressed in the two heterozygous women. Whereas most known PGK1 mutations cause amino acid alterations, our study indicates that inhibition of the transcription mechanism is the cause of PGK deficiency. PMID:17661373

  16. Altered gene expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Guillozet-Bongaarts, A L; Hyde, T M; Dalley, R A; Hawrylycz, M J; Henry, A; Hof, P R; Hohmann, J; Jones, A R; Kuan, C L; Royall, J; Shen, E; Swanson, B; Zeng, H; Kleinman, J E

    2014-01-01

    The underlying pathology of schizophrenia (SZ) is likely as heterogeneous as its symptomatology. A variety of cortical and subcortical regions, including the prefrontal cortex, have been implicated in its pathology, and a number of genes have been identified as risk factors for disease development. We used in situ hybridization (ISH) to examine the expression of 58 genes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, comprised of Brodmann areas 9 and 46) from 19 individuals with a premorbid diagnosis of SZ and 33 control individuals. Genes were selected based on: (1) previous identification as risk factors for SZ; (2) cell type markers or (3) laminar markers. Cell density and staining intensity were compared in the DLPFC, as well as separately in Brodmann areas 9 and 46. The expression patterns of a variety of genes, many of which are associated with the GABAergic system, were altered in SZ when compared with controls. Additional genes, including C8orf79 and NR4A2, showed alterations in cell density or staining intensity between the groups, highlighting the need for additional studies. Alterations were, with only a few exceptions, limited to Brodmann area 9, suggesting regional specificity of pathology in the DLPFC. Our results agree with previous studies on the GABAergic involvement in SZ, and suggest that areas 9 and 46 may be differentially affected in the disease. This study also highlights additional genes that may be altered in SZ, and indicates that these potentially interesting genes can be identified by ISH and high-throughput image analysis techniques. PMID:23528911

  17. Losartan attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis and tubular cell apoptosis in a rat model of obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Li, Detian; Zhang, Beiru

    2014-08-01

    Ureteral obstruction leads to renal injury and progresses to irreversible renal fibrosis, with tubular cell atrophy and apoptosis. There is conflicting evidence concerning whether losartan (an angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist) mitigates renal interstitial fibrosis and renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis following unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of losartan on renal tubular cell apoptosis and renal fibrosis in a rat model of UUO. The rats were subjected to UUO by ureteral ligation and were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (control) or losartan. The controls underwent sham surgery. The renal tissues were collected 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after surgery for measurement of various indicators of renal fibrosis. UUO increased the expression levels of α‑smooth muscle actin and collagen I, and the extent of renal tubular fibrosis and apoptosis in a time‑dependent manner. Losartan treatment partially attenuated these responses. Progression of renal interstitial fibrosis was accompanied by phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and altered the expression levels of two apoptosis‑related proteins (Bax and Bcl2). Losartan treatment also partially attenuated these responses. The results indicated that losartan attenuated renal fibrosis and renal tubular cell apoptosis in a rat model of UUO. This effect appeared to be mediated by partial blockage of STAT3 phosphorylation.

  18. Transgenic poplar expressing the pine GS1a show alterations in nitrogen homeostasis during drought.

    PubMed

    Molina-Rueda, Juan Jesús; Kirby, Edward G

    2015-09-01

    Transgenic hybrid poplars engineered to express ectopically the heterologous pine cytosolic GS1a display a number of significant pleiotropic phenotypes including enhanced growth, enhanced nitrogen use efficiency, and resistance to drought stress. The present study was undertaken in order to assess mechanisms whereby ectopic expression of pine GS1a in transgenic poplars results in enhanced agronomic phenotypes. Microarray analysis using the Agilent Populus whole genome array has allowed identification of genes differentially expressed between wild type (WT) and GS transgenics in four tissues (sink leaves, source leaves, stems, and roots) under three growth conditions (well-watered, drought, and recovery). Analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes in functional categories related to nitrogen metabolism show a trend of significant down-regulation in GS poplars compared to the WT, including genes encoding nitrate and nitrite reductases. The down-regulation of these genes was verified using qPCR, and downstream effects were further tested using NR activity assays. Results suggest that higher glutamine levels in GS transgenics regulate nitrate uptake and reduction. Transcript levels of nitrogen-related genes in leaves, including GS/GOGAT cycle enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, GABA shunt enzymes, photorespiration enzymes, asparagine synthetase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and PII, were also assessed using qPCR revealing significant differences between GS poplars and the WT. Moreover, metabolites related to these differentially expressed genes showed alterations in levels, including higher levels of GABA, hydroxyproline, and putrescine in the GS transgenic. These alterations in nitrogen homeostasis offer insights into mechanisms accounting for drought tolerance observed in GS poplars. PMID:26113157

  19. Transgenic poplar expressing the pine GS1a show alterations in nitrogen homeostasis during drought.

    PubMed

    Molina-Rueda, Juan Jesús; Kirby, Edward G

    2015-09-01

    Transgenic hybrid poplars engineered to express ectopically the heterologous pine cytosolic GS1a display a number of significant pleiotropic phenotypes including enhanced growth, enhanced nitrogen use efficiency, and resistance to drought stress. The present study was undertaken in order to assess mechanisms whereby ectopic expression of pine GS1a in transgenic poplars results in enhanced agronomic phenotypes. Microarray analysis using the Agilent Populus whole genome array has allowed identification of genes differentially expressed between wild type (WT) and GS transgenics in four tissues (sink leaves, source leaves, stems, and roots) under three growth conditions (well-watered, drought, and recovery). Analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes in functional categories related to nitrogen metabolism show a trend of significant down-regulation in GS poplars compared to the WT, including genes encoding nitrate and nitrite reductases. The down-regulation of these genes was verified using qPCR, and downstream effects were further tested using NR activity assays. Results suggest that higher glutamine levels in GS transgenics regulate nitrate uptake and reduction. Transcript levels of nitrogen-related genes in leaves, including GS/GOGAT cycle enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, GABA shunt enzymes, photorespiration enzymes, asparagine synthetase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and PII, were also assessed using qPCR revealing significant differences between GS poplars and the WT. Moreover, metabolites related to these differentially expressed genes showed alterations in levels, including higher levels of GABA, hydroxyproline, and putrescine in the GS transgenic. These alterations in nitrogen homeostasis offer insights into mechanisms accounting for drought tolerance observed in GS poplars.

  20. Ectopic expression of SOX9 in osteoblasts alters bone mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bojian; Cotter, Meghan M; Chen, Dongxing; Hernandez, Christopher J; Zhou, Guang

    2012-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. We previously demonstrated that Col1a1-SOX9 transgenic (TG) mice, in which SOX9 specifically expresses in osteoblasts driven by a 2.3-kb Col1a1 promoter, display osteopenia during the early postnatal stage. In this study, to further analyze the osteopenia phenotype and especially the effect of the osteoblast-specific expression of SOX9 on bone mechanical properties, we performed bone geometry and mechanical property analysis of long bones from Col1a1-SOX9 TG mice and wild-type littermates (WT) at different time points. Interestingly, after body weight adjustment, TG mice had similar whole-bone strength as WT mice but significantly thinner cortical bone, lower elastic modulus, and higher moment of inertia. Thus, osteoblast-specific SOX9 expression results in altered bone structure and material properties. Furthermore, the expression levels of Pcna, Col1a1, osteocalcin, and the Opg/Rankl ratio in TG mice were significantly lower until 4 months of age compared with WT mice, suggesting that TG mice have dysregulated bone homeostasis. Finally, bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from TG mice display enhanced adipocyte differentiation and decreased osteoblast differentiation in vitro, suggesting that osteoblast-specific expression of SOX9 can lead to altered mesenchymal stem cell differentiation potentials. In conclusion, our study implies that SOX9 activity has to be tightly regulated in the adult skeleton to ensure optimal bone quality. PMID:22143895

  1. Inferring causal genomic alterations in breast cancer using gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the primary objectives in cancer research is to identify causal genomic alterations, such as somatic copy number variation (CNV) and somatic mutations, during tumor development. Many valuable studies lack genomic data to detect CNV; therefore, methods that are able to infer CNVs from gene expression data would help maximize the value of these studies. Results We developed a framework for identifying recurrent regions of CNV and distinguishing the cancer driver genes from the passenger genes in the regions. By inferring CNV regions across many datasets we were able to identify 109 recurrent amplified/deleted CNV regions. Many of these regions are enriched for genes involved in many important processes associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Genes in these recurrent CNV regions were then examined in the context of gene regulatory networks to prioritize putative cancer driver genes. The cancer driver genes uncovered by the framework include not only well-known oncogenes but also a number of novel cancer susceptibility genes validated via siRNA experiments. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first effort to systematically identify and validate drivers for expression based CNV regions in breast cancer. The framework where the wavelet analysis of copy number alteration based on expression coupled with the gene regulatory network analysis, provides a blueprint for leveraging genomic data to identify key regulatory components and gene targets. This integrative approach can be applied to many other large-scale gene expression studies and other novel types of cancer data such as next-generation sequencing based expression (RNA-Seq) as well as CNV data. PMID:21806811

  2. Nutritional status alters saccharin intake and sweet receptor mRNA expression in rat taste buds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Yan, Jianqun; Suo, Yi; Li, Jinrong; Wang, Qian; Lv, Bo

    2010-04-14

    Sweet taste usually signifies the presence of caloric food. It is commonly accepted that a close association exists among sweet taste perception, preference, and nutritional status. However, the mechanisms involved remain unknown. To investigate whether nutritional status affects the preference for palatable solutions and alters sweet taste receptor gene expression in rats, we measured saccharin intake and preference using a two-bottle preference test, and changes in body weight, plasma leptin levels, and gene expression for the sweet taste receptor in taste buds in high-fat diet-induced obese rats and chronically diet-restricted rats. We found that the consumption and preference ratios for 0.01 and 0.04 M saccharin were significantly lower in the high-fat diet-induced obese rats than in the normal diet rats, while the serum leptin levels were markedly increased in obese rats. Consistent with the changes in saccharin intake, the gene expression level of the sweet taste receptor T1R3 was significantly decreased in the high-fat diet-induced obese rats compared with the control rats. By contrast, the chronically diet-restricted rats showed remarkably enhanced consumption and preference for 0.04 M saccharin. The serum leptin concentration was decreased, and the gene expression of the leptin receptor was markedly increased in the taste buds. In conclusion, our results suggest that nutritional status alters saccharin preference and the expression of T1R3 in taste buds. These processes may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the modulation of peripheral sweet taste sensitivity, in which leptin plays a role.

  3. Chronic restraint stress induces intestinal inflammation and alters the expression of hexose and lipid transporters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chooi Yeng

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is reported to be one of the main causes of obesity. Based on observations in studies that relate stress and gut inflammation to obesity, the present study hypothesized that chronic stress, via inflammation, alters the expression of nutrient transporters and contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome. Rats were exposed to restraint stress for 4 h/day for 5 days/week for eight consecutive weeks. Different segments of rat intestine were then collected and analysed for signs of pathophysiological changes and the expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like-1 (NPC1L1), sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 (SLC5A1, previously known as SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter-2 (SLC2A2, previously known as GLUT2). In a separate experiment, the total anti-oxidant activity (TAA)-time profile of control isolated intestinal segments was measured. Stress decreased the expression of NPC1L1 in the ileum and upregulated SLC5A1 in both the jejunum and ileum and SLC2A2 in the duodenum. Inflammation and morphological changes were observed in the proximal region of the intestine of stressed animals. Compared with jejunal and ileal segments, the rate of increase in TAA was higher in the duodenum, indicating that the segment contained less anti-oxidants; anti-oxidants may function to protect the tissues. In conclusion, stress alters the expression of hexose and lipid transporters in the gut. The site-specific increase in the expression of SLC5A1 and SLC2A2 may be correlated with pathological changes in the intestine. The ileum may be protected, in part, by gut anti-oxidants. Collectively, the data suggest that apart from causing inflammation, chronic stress may promote sugar uptake and contribute to hyperglycaemia.

  4. Cyclic Equibiaxial Tensile Strain Alters Gene Expression of Chondrocytes via Histone Deacetylase 4 Shuttling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chongwei; Wei, Xiaochun; Lv, Zhi; Sun, Xiaojuan; Wang, Shaowei; Zhang, Yang; Jiao, Qiang; Wang, Xiaohu; Li, Yongping; Wei, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This paper aims to investigate whether equibiaxial tensile strain alters chondrocyte gene expression via controlling subcellular localization of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). Materials and Methods Murine chondrocytes transfected with GFP-HDAC4 were subjected to 3 h cyclic equibiaxial tensile strain (CTS, 6% strain at 0.25 Hz) by a Flexcell® FX-5000™ Tension System. Fluorescence microscope and western blot were used to observe subcellular location of HDAC4. The gene expression was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The concentration of Glycosaminoglycans in culture medium was quantified by bimethylmethylene blue dye; Collagen II protein was evaluated by western blot. Cells phenotype was identified by immunohistochemistry. Cell viability was evaluated by live-dead cell detect kit. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of HDAC4 nuclear relocation, was used to further validate whether HDAC4 nuclear relocation plays a role in gene expression in response to tension stimulation. Results 87.5% of HDAC4 was located in the cytoplasm in chondrocytes under no loading condition, but it was relocated to the nucleus after CTS. RT-PCR analysis showed that levels of mRNA for aggrecan, collagen II, LK1 and SOX9 were all increased in chondrocytes subjected to CTS as compared to no loading control chondrocytes; in contrast, the levels of type X collagen, MMP-13, IHH and Runx2 gene expression were decreased in the chondrocytes subjected to CTS as compared to control chondrocytes. Meanwhile, CTS contributed to elevation of glycosaminoglycans and collagen II protein, but did not change collagen I production. When Okadaic acid blocked HDAC4 relocation from the cytoplasm to nucleus, the changes of the chondrocytes induced by CTS were abrogated. There was no chondrocyte dead detected in this study in response to CTS. Conclusions CTS is able to induce HDAC4 relocation from cytoplasm to nucleus. Thus, CTS alters chondrocytes gene expression in association with the relocation of HDAC4 induced

  5. MET Expression in Primary and Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Implications of Correlative Biomarker Assessment to MET Pathway Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Shuch, Brian; Falbo, Ryan; Parisi, Fabio; Adeniran, Adebowale; Kluger, Yuval; Kluger, Harriet M.; Jilaveanu, Lucia B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Inhibitors of the MET pathway hold promise in the treatment for metastatic kidney cancer. Assessment of predictive biomarkers may be necessary for appropriate patient selection. Understanding MET expression in metastases and the correlation to the primary site is important, as distant tissue is not always available. Methods and Results. MET immunofluorescence was performed using automated quantitative analysis and a tissue microarray containing matched nephrectomy and distant metastatic sites from 34 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Correlations between MET expressions in matched primary and metastatic sites and the extent of heterogeneity were calculated. The mean expression of MET was not significantly different between primary tumors when compared to metastases (P = 0.1). MET expression weakly correlated between primary and matched metastatic sites (R = 0.5) and a number of cases exhibited very high levels of discordance between these tumors. Heterogeneity within nephrectomy specimens compared to the paired metastatic tissues was not significantly different (P = 0.39). Conclusions. We found that MET expression is not significantly different in primary tumors than metastatic sites and only weakly correlates between matched sites. Moderate concordance of MET expression and significant expression heterogeneity may be a barrier to the development of predictive biomarkers using MET targeting agents. PMID:26448928

  6. Microenvironment alters epigenetic and gene expression profiles in Swarm rat chondrosarcoma tumors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage tumors that do not respond to traditional chemotherapy or radiation. The 5-year survival rate of histologic grade III chondrosarcoma is less than 30%. An animal model of chondrosarcoma has been established - namely, the Swarm Rat Chondrosarcoma (SRC) - and shown to resemble the human disease. Previous studies with this model revealed that tumor microenvironment could significantly influence chondrosarcoma malignancy. Methods To examine the effect of the microenvironment, SRC tumors were initiated at different transplantation sites. Pyrosequencing assays were utilized to assess the DNA methylation of the tumors, and SAGE libraries were constructed and sequenced to determine the gene expression profiles of the tumors. Based on the gene expression analysis, subsequent functional assays were designed to determine the relevancy of the specific genes in the development and progression of the SRC. Results The site of transplantation had a significant impact on the epigenetic and gene expression profiles of SRC tumors. Our analyses revealed that SRC tumors were hypomethylated compared to control tissue, and that tumors at each transplantation site had a unique expression profile. Subsequent functional analysis of differentially expressed genes, albeit preliminary, provided some insight into the role that thymosin-β4, c-fos, and CTGF may play in chondrosarcoma development and progression. Conclusion This report describes the first global molecular characterization of the SRC model, and it demonstrates that the tumor microenvironment can induce epigenetic alterations and changes in gene expression in the SRC tumors. We documented changes in gene expression that accompany changes in tumor phenotype, and these gene expression changes provide insight into the pathways that may play a role in the development and progression of chondrosarcoma. Furthermore, specific functional analysis indicates that thymosin-β4 may have a role

  7. ALTERED EXPRESSION OF NEUROPLASTICITY-RELATED GENES IN THE BRAIN OF DEPRESSED SUICIDES

    PubMed Central

    FUCHSOVA, B.; ALVAREZ JULIÁ, A.; RIZAVI, H. S.; FRASCH, A. C.; PANDEY, G. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Expression of the neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6a (GPM6A), the proteolipid protein (PLP/DM20) family member, is downregulated in the hippocampus of chronically stressed animals. Its neuroplastic function involves a role in neurite formation, filopodium outgrowth and synaptogenesis through an unknown mechanism. Disruptions in neuroplasticity mechanisms have been shown to play a significant part in the etiology of depression. Thus, the current investigation examined whether GPM6A expression is also altered in human depressed brain. Methods Expression levels and coexpression patterns of GPM6A, GPM6B, and PLP1 (two other members of PLP/DM20 family) as well as of the neuroplasticity-related genes identified to associate with GPM6A were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in postmortem samples from the hippocampus (n =18) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (n= 25) of depressed suicide victims and compared with control subjects (hippocampus n= 18; PFC n =25). Neuroplasticity-related proteins that form complexes with GPM6A were identified by coimmunoprecipitation technique followed by mass spectrometry. Results Results indicated transcriptional downregulation of GPM6A and GPM6B in the hippocampus of depressed suicides. The expression level of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CAMK2A) and coronin1A (CORO1A) was also significantly decreased. Subsequent analysis of coexpression patterns demonstrated coordinated gene expression in the hippocampus and in the PFC indicating that the function of these genes might be coregulated in the human brain. However, in the brain of depressed suicides this coordinated response was disrupted. Conclusions Disruption of coordinated gene expression as well as abnormalities in GPM6A and GPM6B expression and expression of the components of GPM6A complexes were detected in the brain of depressed suicides. PMID:25934039

  8. Sturge-Weber syndrome: altered blood vessel fibronectin expression and morphology.

    PubMed

    Comi, Anne M; Weisz, Catherine J C; Highet, Bridget H; Skolasky, Richard L; Pardo, Carlos A; Hess, Ellen J

    2005-07-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome presents with vascular malformations of the brain, skin, and eye. Fibronectin has potent effects on angiogenesis, vessel remodeling, and vessel innervation density. To determine fibronectin expression in the blood vessels of Sturge-Weber syndrome brain and skin tissue and to quantify the density and circumference of Sturge-Weber syndrome blood vessels by type compared with controls, we performed in situ hybridization for fibronectin messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression on six Sturge-Weber syndrome cortical brain samples, six epilepsy brain samples, skin from two port-wine stain skin lesions, and two normal skin samples from two subjects with Sturge-Weber syndrome. Fibronectin messenger RNA was expressed in blood vessels and endothelial cells in the parenchyma of both Sturge-Weber syndrome and control brain tissues and in skin samples. Fibronectin expression was significantly reduced by 23% in the Sturge-Weber syndrome meningeal vessels compared with the epilepsy controls (P < .01). Fibronectin expression was significantly increased by 19% in the Sturge-Weber syndrome parenchymal vessels compared with the epilepsy controls (P < .05). No difference was found in the expression of fibronectin in port-wine stain skin blood vessels. The density of leptomeningeal blood vessels in the Sturge-Weber syndrome brain tissue samples was 45% greater than in the epilepsy samples (P < .05). Blood vessel circumference was significantly decreased in the Sturge-Weber syndrome meningeal vessels compared with the controls (27%; P < .05). When blood vessels from different brain regions were compared, fibronectin expression was decreased in Sturge-Weber syndrome meningeal vessels and was increased in the parenchymal vessels. Altered blood vessel fibronectin expression in Sturge-Weber syndrome could contribute to abnormal vascular structure and function in this disorder. PMID:16159522

  9. Systemic Sclerosis Patients Present Alterations in the Expression of Molecules Involved in B-Cell Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Lilian; Ferrier, Ashley; Aravena, Octavio; Fonseca, Elianet; Berendsen, Jorge; Biere, Andrea; Bueno, Daniel; Ramos, Verónica; Aguillón, Juan Carlos; Catalán, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The activation threshold of B cells is tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activator receptors in such a way that disturbances in their expression can lead to the appearance of autoimmunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of activating and inhibitory molecules involved in the modulation of B cell functions in transitional, naive, and memory B-cell subpopulations from systemic sclerosis patients. To achieve this, blood samples were drawn from 31 systemic sclerosis patients and 53 healthy individuals. Surface expression of CD86, MHC II, CD19, CD21, CD40, CD22, Siglec 10, CD35, and FcγRIIB was determined by flow cytometry. IL-10 production was evaluated by intracellular flow cytometry from isolated B cells. Soluble IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA from supernatants of stimulated B cells. Systemic sclerosis patients exhibit an increased frequency of transitional and naive B cells related to memory B cells compared with healthy controls. Transitional and naive B cells from patients express higher levels of CD86 and FcγRIIB than healthy donors. Also, B cells from patients show high expression of CD19 and CD40, whereas memory cells from systemic sclerosis patients show reduced expression of CD35. CD19 and CD35 expression levels associate with different autoantibody profiles. IL-10+ B cells and secreted levels of IL-10 were markedly reduced in patients. In conclusion, systemic sclerosis patients show alterations in the expression of molecules involved in B-cell regulation. These abnormalities may be determinant in the B-cell hyperactivation observed in systemic sclerosis. PMID:26483788

  10. Altered expression of glycosaminoglycans in metastatic 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, P.A.; Cheong, P.H.; Nakajima, M.; Yung, W.K.A.; Moser, R.P.; Nicolson, G.L.

    1987-02-24

    A difference in the expression and metabolism of (/sup 35/S)sulfated glycosaminoglycans between rat mammary tumor cells derived from a primary tumor and those from its metastatic lesions has been observed. Cells from the primary tumor possessed about equal quantities of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate on their cell surfaces but released fourfold more chondroitin sulfate than heparan sulfate into their medium. In contrast, cells from distal metastatic lesions expressed approximately 5 times more heparan sulfate than chondroitin sulfate in both medium and cell surface fractions. This was observed to be the result of differential synthesis of the glycosaminoglycans and not of major structural alterations of the individual glycosaminoglycans. The degree of sulfation and size of heparan sulfate were similar for all cells examined. However, chondroitin sulfate, observed to be only chondroitin 4-sulfate, from the metastases-derived cells had a smaller average molecular weight on gel filtration chromatography and showed a decreased quantity of sulfated disaccharides upon degradation with chondroitin ABC lyase compared to the primary tumor derived cells. Major qualitative or quantitative alterations were not observed for hyaluronic acid among the various 13762NF cells. The metabolism of newly synthesized sulfated glycosaminoglycans was also different between cells from primary tumor and metastases. A pulse-chase kinetics study demonstrated that both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were degraded by the metastases-derived cells, whereas the primary tumor derived cells degraded only heparan sulfate and degraded it at a slower rate. These results suggested that altered glycosaminoglycan expression and metabolism may be associated with the metastatic process in 13762NF rat mammary tumor cells.

  11. Chronic maternal morphine alters calbindin D-28k expression pattern in postnatal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Mithbaokar, Pratibha; Fiorito, Filomena; Della Morte, Rossella; Maharajan, Veeramani; Costagliola, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The distribution pattern of calbindin (CB)-D28k-expressing neurons results to be altered in several brain regions of chronic morphine exposed adult mice. In this study, the influence of chronic maternal exposure to morphine on the distribution pattern of CB-D28k-expressing neurons in the brain of mouse offspring was investigated. Females of CD-1 mice were daily administered with saline or morphine for 7 days before mating, during the whole gestation period, and until 21 day post-partum. Their offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 18, and the brains were examined by histology using cresyl violet and by immunohistochemistry using a rabbit polyclonal anti-CB-D28k antibody. Histology revealed no significant differences in the distribution pattern and the number of neurons between the offspring forebrain of the control group of mice and the two groups of mice treated with different doses of morphine. However, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the number of CB-D28k-immunoreactive neurons remarkably decreased in the cingulate cortex, in the layers II-IV of the parietal cortex and in all regions of the hippocampus, while it increased in the layers V-VI of the parietal cortex and in the subicular region of the offspring brain of morphine treated mice. Overall, our findings demonstrate that maternal exposure to morphine alters the pattern of CB-D28k-expressing neuron pattern in specific regions of murine developing brain, in a layer- and dose-dependent way, thus suggesting that these alterations might represent a mechanism by which morphine modifies the functional aspects of developing brain.

  12. Mechanical Force Alters Morphogenetic Movements and Segmental Gene Expression Patterns during Drosophila Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhishek; Shivashankar, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an organism is accompanied by various cellular morphogenetic movements, changes in cellular as well as nuclear morphology and transcription programs. Recent evidence suggests that intra and inter-cellular connections mediated by various adhesion proteins contribute to defining nuclear morphology. In addition, three dimensional organization of the cell nucleus regulate the transcription programs. However the link between cellular morphogenetic movements and its coupling to nuclear function in a developmental context is poorly understood. In this paper we use a point perturbation by tissue level laser ablation and sheet perturbation by application of force using magnetic tweezers to alter cellular morphogenetic movements and probe its impact on nuclear morphology and segmental gene expression patterns. Mechanical perturbations during blastoderm stage in a developing Drosophila embryo resulted in localized alterations in nuclear morphology and cellular movement. In addition, global defects in germ-band (GB) extension and retraction are observed when external force is applied during morphogenetic movements, suggesting a long-range physical coupling within the GB layer of cells. Further local application of force resulted in redistribution of non muscle myosin-II in the GB layer. Finally these perturbations lead to altered segmental gene (engrailed) expression patterns later during the development. Our observations suggest that there exists a tight regulation between nuclear morphology and cellular adhesive connections during morphogenetic movement of cells in the embryo. The observed spatial changes in patterning genes, with perturbation, highlight the importance of nuclear integrity to cellular movement in establishing gene expression program in a developmental system. PMID:22470437

  13. Oxaliplatin Alters Expression of T1R2 Receptor and Sensitivity to Sweet Taste in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Akihiro; Nishida, Kentaro; Yamanaka, Yuri; Miyata, Ai; Ikukawa, Akiko; Yabu, Miharu; Miyamoto, Karin; Bansho, Saho; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    As one of the adverse effects of oxaliplatin, a key agent in colon cancer chemotherapy, a taste disorder is a severe issue in a clinical situation because it decreases the quality of life of patients. However, there is little information on the mechanism underlying the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder. Here, we examined the molecular and behavioral characteristics of the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder in rats. Oxaliplatin (4-16 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats intraperitoneally for 2 d. Expression levels of mRNA and protein of taste receptors in circumvallate papillae (CP) were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Taste sensitivity was assessed by their behavioral change using a brief-access test. Morphological change of the taste buds in CP was evaluated by hematoxyline-eosin (HE) staining, and the number of taste cells in taste buds was counted by immunohistochemical analysis. Among taste receptors, the expression levels of mRNA and protein of T1R2, a sweet taste receptor subunit, were increased transiently in CP of oxaliplatin-administered rats on day 7. In a brief-access test, the lick ratio was decreased in oxaliplatin-administered rats on day 7 and the alteration was recovered to the control level on day 14. There was no detectable alteration in the morphology of taste buds, number of taste cells or plasma zinc level in oxaliplatin-administered rats. These results suggest that decreased sensitivity to sweet taste in oxaliplatin-administered rats is due, at least in part, to increased expression of T1R2, while these alterations are reversible. PMID:27040630

  14. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    PubMed

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake. PMID:26447209

  15. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    PubMed

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake.

  16. Association of Angiopoietin-2 and Ki-67 Expression with Vascular Density and Sunitinib Response in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mirtti, Tuomas; Ristimäki, Ari; Joensuu, Heikki; Bono, Petri; Saharinen, Pipsa

    2016-01-01

    The Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2, Angpt2) growth factor is a context-dependent antagonist/agonist ligand of the endothelial Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase and known to promote tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. Angiopoietin antagonists have been tested in clinical cancer trials in combination with VEGF-based anti-angiogenic therapy, including sunitinib, which is widely used as a first-line therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, little is known about Ang2 protein expression in human tumours and the correlation of tumour Ang2 expression with tumour vascularization, tumour cell proliferation and response to anti-angiogenic therapies. Here, we evaluated, using immunohistochemistry, the expression of Ang2, CD31 and the cell proliferation marker Ki-67 in the primary kidney cancer from 136 mRCC patients, who received first-line sunitinib after nephrectomy. Ang2 protein expression was restrained to RCC tumour vessels, and correlated with tumour vascularization and response to sunitinib. High pre-therapeutic Ang2 expression, and more strongly, combined high expression of both Ang2 and CD31, were associated with a high clinical benefit rate (CBR). Low cancer Ki-67 expression, but not Ang2 or CD31 expression, was associated with favourable progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) as compared to patients with high Ki-67 expression (PFS 6.5 vs. 10.6 months, P = 0.009; OS, 15.7 vs. 28.5 months, P = 0.015). In summary, in this study to investigate endothelial Ang2 in mRCC patients treated with first-line sunitinib, high cancer Ang2 expression was associated with the CBR, but not PFS or OS, whereas low Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with long PFS and OS. PMID:27100185

  17. A Complex Interaction Between Reduced Reelin Expression and Prenatal Organophosphate Exposure Alters Neuronal Cell Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Brian R.; Ross, Brennan; Chou, Joan Wang; Khankan, Rana; Khialeeva, Elvira; Bui, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and major depressive disorders. Prior studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that the combinatorial effect of two factors—reduced expression of reelin protein and prenatal exposure to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos oxon—gives rise to acute biochemical effects and to morphological and behavioral phenotypes in adolescent and young adult mice. In the current study, we examine the consequences of these factors on reelin protein expression and neuronal cell morphology in adult mice. While the cell populations that express reelin in the adult brain appear unchanged in location and distribution, the levels of full length and cleaved reelin protein show persistent reductions following prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon. Cell positioning and organization in the hippocampus and cerebellum are largely normal in animals with either reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon, but cellular complexity and dendritic spine organization is altered, with a skewed distribution of immature dendritic spines in adult animals. Paradoxically, combinatorial exposure to both factors appears to generate a rescue of the dendritic spine phenotypes, similar to the mitigation of behavioral and morphological changes observed in our prior study. Together, our observations support an interaction between reelin expression and chlorpyrifos oxon exposure that is not simply additive, suggesting a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors in regulating brain morphology. PMID:27364165

  18. Tumor transcriptome sequencing reveals allelic expression imbalances associated with copy number alterations.

    PubMed

    Tuch, Brian B; Laborde, Rebecca R; Xu, Xing; Gu, Jian; Chung, Christina B; Monighetti, Cinna K; Stanley, Sarah J; Olsen, Kerry D; Kasperbauer, Jan L; Moore, Eric J; Broomer, Adam J; Tan, Ruoying; Brzoska, Pius M; Muller, Matthew W; Siddiqui, Asim S; Asmann, Yan W; Sun, Yongming; Kuersten, Scott; Barker, Melissa A; De La Vega, Francisco M; Smith, David I

    2010-02-19

    Due to growing throughput and shrinking cost, massively parallel sequencing is rapidly becoming an attractive alternative to microarrays for the genome-wide study of gene expression and copy number alterations in primary tumors. The sequencing of transcripts (RNA-Seq) should offer several advantages over microarray-based methods, including the ability to detect somatic mutations and accurately measure allele-specific expression. To investigate these advantages we have applied a novel, strand-specific RNA-Seq method to tumors and matched normal tissue from three patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas. Additionally, to better understand the genomic determinants of the gene expression changes observed, we have sequenced the tumor and normal genomes of one of these patients. We demonstrate here that our RNA-Seq method accurately measures allelic imbalance and that measurement on the genome-wide scale yields novel insights into cancer etiology. As expected, the set of genes differentially expressed in the tumors is enriched for cell adhesion and differentiation functions, but, unexpectedly, the set of allelically imbalanced genes is also enriched for these same cancer-related functions. By comparing the transcriptomic perturbations observed in one patient to his underlying normal and tumor genomes, we find that allelic imbalance in the tumor is associated with copy number mutations and that copy number mutations are, in turn, strongly associated with changes in transcript abundance. These results support a model in which allele-specific deletions and duplications drive allele-specific changes in gene expression in the developing tumor.

  19. Matrine alters microRNA expression profiles in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Xie, Shoupin; Liu, Xiaojun; Wu, Hongyan; Lin, Xingyao; Gu, Jing; Wang, Huping; Duan, Yongqiang

    2014-11-01

    Matrine, a major alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens, has been reported to possess antitumor properties in several types of cancers, including gastric cancer. However, its mechanisms of action on gastric cancer remain poorly understood. Dysregulation of microRNAs, a class of small, non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules involved in gene expression, is strongly correlated with cancer. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that matrine treatment altered miRNA expression in SGC7901 cells. Using miRCURY™ microarray analysis, we identified 128 miRNAs substantially exhibiting >2-fold expression changes in matrine-treated cells relative to their expression levels in untreated cells. RT-qPCR was used to show that the levels of 8 miRNAs whose target genes were clustered in the cell cycle pathway increased, while levels of 14 miRNAs whose target genes were clustered in the MAPK signaling pathway decreased. These results were consistent with those from the miRNA microarray experiment. Bioinformatical analysis revealed that the majority of 57 identified enrichment pathways were highly involved in tumorigenesis. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that matrine induces considerable changes in the miRNA expression profiles of SGC7901 cells, suggesting miRNA microarray combined with RT-qPCR validation and bioinformatical analysis provide a novel and promising approach to identify anticancer targets and the mechanisms of matrine involved.

  20. Mutations that alter the timing and pattern of cubitus interruptus gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Slusarski, D.C.; Motzny, C.K.; Holmgren, R.

    1995-01-01

    The cubitus interruptus (ci) gene is a member of the Drosophila segment polarity gene family and encodes a protein with a zinc finger domain homologous to the vertebrate Gli genes and the nematode tra-1 gene. Three classes of existing mutations in the ci locus alter the regulation of ci expression and can be used to examine ci function during development. The first class of ci mutations causes interruptions in wing veins four and five due to inappropriate expression of the ci product in the posterior compartment of imaginal discs. The second class of mutations eliminates ci protein early in embryogenesis and causes the deletion of structures that are derived from the region including and adjacent to the engrailed expressing cells. The third class of mutations eliminates ci protein later in embryogenesis and blocks the formation of the ventral naked cuticle. The loss of ci expression at these two different stages in embryonic development correlates with the subsequent elimination of wingless expression. Adults heterozygous for the unique ci{sup Ce} mutation have deletions between wing veins three and four. A similar wing defect is present in animals mutant for the segment polarity gene fused that encodes a putative serine/threonine kinase. In ci{sup Ce}/+ and fused mutants, the deletions between wing veins three and four correlate with increased ci protein levels in the anterior compartment. Thus, proper regulation of both the ci mRNA and protein appears to be critical for normal Drosophila development. 47 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Verticillium dahliae alters Pseudomonas spp. populations and HCN gene expression in the rhizosphere of strawberry.

    PubMed

    DeCoste, Nadine J; Gadkar, Vijay J; Filion, Martin

    2010-11-01

    The production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) by beneficial root-associated bacteria is an important mechanism for the biological control of plant pathogens. However, little is known about the biotic factors affecting HCN gene expression in the rhizosphere of plants. In this study, real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays were developed to investigate the effect of the plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae on hcnC (encoding for HCN biosynthesis) gene expression in Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300. Strawberry plants were inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 and (or) V. dahliae and grown in pots filled with nonsterilized field soil. RNA was extracted from rhizosphere soil sampled at 0, 15, 30, and 45 days following inoculation with V. dahliae and used for qRT-PCR analyses. Populations of V. dahliae and Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 were also monitored using a culture-independent qPCR approach. hcnC expression was detected at all sampling dates. The presence of V. dahliae had a significant stimulation effect on hcnC gene expression and also increased the population of Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300. However, the V. dahliae population was not altered by the presence of Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the effect of a plant pathogen on HCN gene expression in the rhizosphere soil.

  2. Expression of Arabidopsis CAX1 in tobacco: altered calcium homeostasis and increased stress sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Hirschi, K D

    1999-01-01

    Calcium (Ca(2)+) efflux from the cytosol modulates Ca(2+) concentrations in the cytosol, loads Ca(2+) into intracellular compartments, and supplies Ca(2+) to organelles to support biochemical functions. The Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter CAX1 (for CALCIUM EXCHANGER 1) of Arabidopsis is thought to be a key mediator of these processes. To clarify the regulation of CAX1, we examined CAX1 RNA expression in response to various stimuli. CAX1 was highly expressed in response to exogenous Ca(2+). Transgenic tobacco plants expressing CAX1 displayed symptoms of Ca(2+) deficiencies, including hypersensitivity to ion imbalances, such as increased magnesium and potassium concentrations, and to cold shock, but increasing the Ca(2+) in the media abrogated these sensitivities. Tobacco plants expressing CAX1 also demonstrated increased Ca(2+) accumulation and altered activity of the tonoplast-enriched Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter. These results emphasize that regulated expression of Ca(2+)/H(+) antiport activity is critical for normal growth and adaptation to certain stresses. PMID:10559438

  3. Verticillium dahliae alters Pseudomonas spp. populations and HCN gene expression in the rhizosphere of strawberry.

    PubMed

    DeCoste, Nadine J; Gadkar, Vijay J; Filion, Martin

    2010-11-01

    The production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) by beneficial root-associated bacteria is an important mechanism for the biological control of plant pathogens. However, little is known about the biotic factors affecting HCN gene expression in the rhizosphere of plants. In this study, real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays were developed to investigate the effect of the plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae on hcnC (encoding for HCN biosynthesis) gene expression in Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300. Strawberry plants were inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 and (or) V. dahliae and grown in pots filled with nonsterilized field soil. RNA was extracted from rhizosphere soil sampled at 0, 15, 30, and 45 days following inoculation with V. dahliae and used for qRT-PCR analyses. Populations of V. dahliae and Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 were also monitored using a culture-independent qPCR approach. hcnC expression was detected at all sampling dates. The presence of V. dahliae had a significant stimulation effect on hcnC gene expression and also increased the population of Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300. However, the V. dahliae population was not altered by the presence of Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the effect of a plant pathogen on HCN gene expression in the rhizosphere soil. PMID:21076481

  4. Altered Th17 Cytokine Expression in Helicobacter pylori Patients with TLR4 (D299G) Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nader; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Kheiri, Soleyman; Gholipour, Abolfazl; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with gastric ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma. Polymorphisms in the host genes coding for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may influence the innate and adaptive immune response to the infection, affecting the susceptibility to H. pylori or the disease outcomes. However, the details and association with different polymorphism and clinical expression of infection remain unclear. A case-control study consisting of 58 patients with H. pylori infection and 44 H. pylori uninfection was conducted. Genomic DNA was extracted and genotypes of TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism were assessed through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Mucosal cytokines expression in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric biopsies was determined by real-time PCR. The expression of IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23 and TGF-β1 was significantly higher in patients with D299G polymorphism in TLR4. But the expression of IL-18 between patients with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR4 and patients with the wild-type allele was not significant. In H. pylori-infected patients with gastritis, SNPs in TLR4 may alter cytokine expression toward Th17 immune response in the gastric mucosa and may have increased risk for the development of peptic ulcer. PMID:26853914

  5. Altered enteroendocrine cell expression in T cell receptor alpha chain knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Rubin, D C; Zhang, H; Qian, P; Lorenz, R G; Hutton, K; Peters, M G

    2000-10-15

    Mice lacking T cell receptor alpha chain (TCRalpha(-/-)) develop inflammation of the colon. We have examined the effect of this inflammation on the colonic epithelium by studying markers of epithelial cuff, enteroendocrine, and immune cell differentiation. Using immunohistochemical techniques, colons were compared in normal C57/BL6 and murine TCR alpha(-/-) mice aged 2 and 3 weeks and 3-11 months. TCR alpha(-/-) mice aged 3-11 months had histologic evidence of inflammation with increased expression of CD45, CD4+, CD8+, and B220+ cells and a decrease in expression of IgA+ cells. There was a decrease in the number of cholecystokinin, serotonin, and neurotensin enteroendocrine expressing cells in the colon of TCR alpha(-/-) mice. These changes were not present in 2-3-week-old suckling/weaning mice. In contrast, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1, and gastrin expression did not change and small intestinal enteroendocrine cells remained unaltered. The change in colonic enteroendocrine cell expression appears to be a specific response, since only a subset of these cells was altered, and the epithelium was intact by histologic analysis. The absence of functional T cells in TCR alpha(-/-) colon has a marked effect on differentiation of a specific subpopulation of enteroendocrine cells, prior to loss of integrity of the epithelium. PMID:11054861

  6. Alterations of gene expression in skin and lung of mice exposed to light and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Izzotti, Alberto; Cartiglia, Cristina; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Balansky, Roumen M; D'Agostini, Francesco; Lubet, Ronald A; De Flora, Silvio

    2004-10-01

    We previously showed that sunlight-mimicking light induces genotoxic damage not only in skin but also even in lung, bone marrow, and peripheral blood of hairless mice. Moreover, light and smoke acted synergically in the respiratory tract. To clarify the mechanisms involved, we investigated by cDNA-arrays the expression of 746 toxicologically relevant genes in skin and lungs of mice exposed for 28 days to light and/or environmental cigarette smoke. Glutathione-S-transferase-Pi and catalase were overexpressed in the lungs of mice exposed to light only. Moreover, the light induced in skin the expression of genes involved in carcinogenesis, photoaging, and production of genotoxic and oxidizing derivatives traveling at a distance. Smoke induced the expression of multiple genes in both skin and lung, which reflect adaptive responses and mechanisms related to cancer and, possibly, to emphysema and stroke. As shown in mice exposed to both light and smoke, the light tended to increase smoke-induced gene expression in lungs, while smoke tended to attenuate light-induced gene expression in skin. The oral administration of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac inhibited the light-induced overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 and oxidative stress-related genes in skin, and down-regulated smoke-induced genes involved in oxidative stress, removal of damaged proteins, inflammation, and immune response in lung. These results provide a mechanistic insight explaining the systemic alterations induced by both light and smoke in mouse skin and lungs.

  7. Altered expression of neuropeptide Y receptors caused by focal cortical dysplasia in human intractable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hanjiang; Guan, Yuguang; Zhou, Jian; Qi, Xueling; Li, Tianfu; Xu, Zhiqing David; Luan, Guo-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a common cause of pharmacologically-intractable epilepsy, however, the precise mechanisms underlying the epileptogenicity of FCD remains to be determined. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an endogenous anticonvulsant in the central nervous system, plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Increased expression of NPY and its receptors has been identified in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, presumed to act as an endogenous anticonvulsant mechanism. Therefore, we investigated whether expression changes in NPY receptors occurs in patients with FCD. We specifically investigated the expression of seizure-related NPY receptor subtypes Y1, Y2, and Y5 in patients with FCD versus autopsy controls. We found that Y1R and Y2R were up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels in the temporal and frontal lobes in FCD lesions. By contrast, there was no significant change in either receptor detected in parietal lesions. Notably, overexpression of Y5R was consistently observed in all FCD lesions. Our results demonstrate the altered expression of Y1R, Y2R and Y5R occurs in FCD lesions within the temporal, frontal and parietal lobe. Abnormal NPY receptor subtype expression may be associated with the onset and progression of epileptic activity and may act as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of refractory epilepsy caused by FCD. PMID:26943580

  8. Diffuse expression of PAX2 and PAX8 in the cystic epithelium of mixed epithelial stromal tumor, angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts, and primary renal synovial sarcoma: evidence supporting renal tubular differentiation.

    PubMed

    Karafin, Matthew; Parwani, Anil V; Netto, Georges J; Illei, Peter B; Epstein, Jonathan I; Ladanyi, Marc; Argani, Pedram

    2011-09-01

    Over the past decade, 3 novel, typically cystic renal neoplasms have been described: angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts (AMLEC), mixed epithelial stromal tumor (MEST), and primary renal synovial sarcoma (SS). In all 3 neoplasms, the nature of the cystic epithelium is not clear; some have postulated that the cysts represent cystically dilated, entrapped renal tubular epithelium, whereas an alternative interpretation is that the epithelium represents epithelial differentiation by the stromal component of the neoplasm. The latter is supported by the extrarenal location of the epithelium in some cases. PAX2 and PAX8 are tissue-specific transcription factors expressed primarily in the renal and Müllerian systems and also in Wolffian duct structures (such as seminal vesicle). Their expression has not been examined in these lesions. We performed PAX2 and PAX8 immunohistochemistry on representative sections of cases of AMLEC (8 cases), MEST (8 cases), and renal SS (3 cases). The relative percentage and intensity (none, weak, moderate, and strong) of nuclear labeling were evaluated in both the benign adjacent renal tubules and the lesion's epithelial cysts. In the benign kidney, distal convoluted tubules (DCTs) labeled strongly for PAX2 and PAX8, whereas proximal convoluted tubules labeled minimally. The cystic epithelium of all 8 cases of AMLEC, including 5 that protruded beyond the renal capsule into the perirenal fat, demonstrated strong diffuse labeling for both PAX2 and PAX8. We also identified a mimic of entirely extrarenal AMLEC, angiomyolipoma with endosalpingiosis. PAX2 and PAX8 diffusely and strongly labeled the epithelial component of all 8 cases of MEST, including all architectural (phyllodes-like, large cysts, small cysts, clustered microcysts) and virtually all cytologic (hobnail, flat, cuboidal, columnar, apocrine, and clear cell) epithelial variants present. The epithelial cysts of all 3 cases of primary renal SS labeled diffusely and strongly for PAX2

  9. Alterations in hepatic miRNA expression during negative energy balance in postpartum dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Negative energy balance (NEB), an altered metabolic state, occurs in early postpartum dairy cattle when energy demands to support lactation exceed energy intake. During NEB the liver undergoes oxidative stress and increased breakdown of fatty acids accompanied by changes in gene expression. It is now known that micro RNAs (miRNA) can have a role in mediating such alterations in gene expression through repression or degradation of target mRNAs. miRNA expression is known to be altered by metabolism and environmental factors and miRNAs are implicated in expression modulation of metabolism related genes. Results miRNA expression was profiled in the liver of moderate yielding dairy cattle under severe NEB (SNEB) and mild NEB (MNEB) using the Affymetrix Gene Chip miRNA_2.0 array with 679 probe sets for Bos-taurus miRNAs. Ten miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed using the ‘samr’ statistical package (delta = 0.6) at a q-value FDR of < 12%. Five miRNAs including miR-17-5p, miR-31, miR-140, miR-1281 and miR-2885 were validated using RT-qPCR, to be up-regulated under SNEB. Liver diseases associated with these miRNAs include non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). miR-140 and miR-17-5p are known to show differential expression under oxidative stress. A total of 32 down-regulated putative target genes were also identified among 418 differentially expressed hepatic genes previously reported for the same animal model. Among these, GPR37 (G protein-coupled receptor 37), HEYL (hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-like), DNJA1, CD14 (Cluster of differentiation 14) and GNS (glucosamine (N-acetyl)-6-sulfatase) are known to be associated with hepatic metabolic disorders. In addition miR-140 and miR-2885 have binding sites on the most down-regulated of these genes, FADS2 (Fatty acid desaturase 2) which encodes an enzyme critical in lipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, HNF3-gamma (Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma), a

  10. Human Renal Normal, Tumoral, and Cancer Stem Cells Express Membrane-Bound Interleukin-15 Isoforms Displaying Different Functions1

    PubMed Central

    Azzi, Sandy; Gallerne, Cindy; Romei, Cristina; Le Coz, Vincent; Gangemi, Rosaria; Khawam, Krystel; Devocelle, Aurore; Gu, Yanhong; Bruno, Stefania; Ferrini, Silvano; Chouaib, Salem; Eid, Pierre; Azzarone, Bruno; Giron-Michel, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Intrarenal interleukin-15 (IL-15) participates to renal pathophysiology, but the role of its different membrane-bound isoforms remains to be elucidated. In this study, we reassess the biology of membrane-bound IL-15 (mb-IL-15) isoforms by comparing primary cultures of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC) to peritumoral (ptumTEC), tumoral (RCC), and cancer stem cells (CSC/CD105+). RPTEC express a 14 to 16 kDa mb-IL-15, whose existence has been assumed but never formally demonstrated and likely represents the isoform anchored at the cell membrane through the IL-15 receptor α (IL-15Rα) chain, because it is sensitive to acidic treatment and is not competent to deliver a reverse signal. By contrast, ptumTEC, RCC, and CSC express a novel N-hyperglycosylated, short-lived transmembrane mb-IL-15 (tmb-IL-15) isoform around 27 kDa, resistant to acidic shock, delivering a reverse signal in response to its soluble receptor (sIL-15Rα). This reverse signal triggers the down-regulation of the tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin in ptumTEC and RCC but not in CSC/CD105+, where it promotes survival. Indeed, through the AKT pathway, tmb-IL-15 protects CSC/CD105+ from non-programmed cell death induced by serum starvation. Finally, both mb-IL-15 and tmb-IL-15 are sensitive to metalloproteases, and the cleaved tmb-IL-15 (25 kDa) displays a powerful anti-apoptotic effect on human hematopoietic cells. Overall, our data indicate that both mb-IL-15 and tmb-IL-15 isoforms play a complex role in renal pathophysiology downregulating E-cadherin and favoring cell survival. Moreover, “apparently normal” ptumTEC cells, sharing different properties with RCC, could contribute to organize an enlarged peritumoral “preneoplastic” environment committed to favor tumor progression. PMID:26152359

  11. Genes and small RNA transcripts exhibit dosage-dependent expression pattern in maize copy-number alterations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy-number alterations are widespread in animal and plant genomes, but their immediate impact on gene expression is still unclear. In animals, copy-number alterations usually exhibit dosage effects, except for sex chromosomes that tend to be dosage compensated. In plants, genes within small duplica...

  12. Altered Gene Expressions and Cytogenetic Repair Efficiency in Cells with Suppressed Expression of XPA after Proton Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Gridley, Daila S.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Cellular responses to damages from ionizing radiation (IR) exposure are influenced not only by the genes involved in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair, but also by non- DSB repair genes. We demonstrated previously that suppressed expression of several non-DSB repair genes, such as XPA, elevated IR-induced cytogenetic damages. In the present study, we exposed human fibroblasts that were treated with control or XPA targeting siRNA to 250 MeV protons (0 to 4 Gy), and analyzed chromosome aberrations and expressions of genes involved in DNA repair. As expected, after proton irradiation, cells with suppressed expression of XPA showed a significantly elevated frequency of chromosome aberrations compared with control siRNA treated (CS) cells. Protons caused more severe DNA damages in XPA knock-down cells, as 36% cells contained multiple aberrations compared to 25% in CS cells after 4Gy proton irradiation. Comparison of gene expressions using the real-time PCR array technique revealed that expressions of p53 and its regulated genes in irradiated XPA suppressed cells were altered similarly as in CS cells, suggesting that the impairment of IR induced DNA repair in XPA suppressed cells is p53-independent. Except for XPA, which was more than 2 fold down regulated in XPA suppressed cells, several other DNA damage sensing and repair genes (GTSE1, RBBP8, RAD51, UNG and XRCC2) were shown a more than 1.5 fold difference between XPA knock-down cells and CS cells after proton exposure. The possible involvement of these genes in the impairment of DNA repair in XPA suppressed cells will be further investigated.

  13. Neutral buoyancy and sleep-deprived serum factors alter expression of cytokines regulating osteogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorczynski, Reginald M.; Gorczynski, Christopher P.; Gorczynski, Laura Y.; Hu, Jiang; Lu, Jin; Manuel, Justin; Lee, Lydia

    2005-05-01

    We examined expression of genes associated with cytokine production, and genes implicated in regulating bone metabolism, in bone stromal and osteoblast cells incubated under standard ground conditions and under conditions of neutral buoyancy, and in the presence/absence of serum from normal or sleep-deprived mice. We observed a clear interaction between these two conditions (exposure to neutral buoyancy and serum stimulation) in promoting enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Both conditions independently altered expression of a number of cytokines implicated in the regulation of bone metabolism. However, using stromal cells from IL-1 and TNF α cytokine r KO mice, we concluded that the increased bone loss under microgravity conditions was not primarily cytokine mediated.

  14. Influence of Altered Transcription on the Translational Control of Human Ferritin Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouault, Tracey A.; Hentze, Matthias W.; Dancis, Andrew; Caughman, Wright; Harford, Joe B.; Klausner, Richard D.

    1987-09-01

    In this paper, we examine the response of a translational regulatory mechanism when changes in mRNA levels are induced. The gene that encodes the human ferritin heavy chain has been transfected into mouse fibroblasts. Stable transformants that express the human ferritin heavy chain have been isolated. This protein assembles into ferritin polymers and can co-assemble with host mouse ferritin. Biosynthetic rates of the expressed human ferritin varied over a wide range in response to perturbations in iron supply, but total and cytoplasmic messenger RNA levels remained unchanged. When changes in ferritin mRNA levels were induced by treatment with sodium butyrate, proportional changes in the biosynthetic rates of ferritin were observed, but the capacity for modulating biosynthesis in response to alterations in iron availability was preserved. These findings suggest that the final protein biosynthetic rate of a translationally regulated gene depends on both translational regulatory signals and underlying transcription rates.

  15. Operator Sequence Alters Gene Expression Independently of Transcription Factor Occupancy in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Sanchez, Alvaro; Boedicker, James Q.; Osborne, Melisa; Gelles, Jeff; Kondev, Jane; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A canonical quantitative view of transcriptional regulation holds that the only role of operator sequence is to set the probability of transcription factor binding, with operator occupancy determining the level of gene expression. In this work, we test this idea by characterizing repression in vivo and the binding of RNA polymerase in vitro in experiments where operators of various sequences were placed either upstream or downstream from the promoter in Escherichia coli. Surprisingly, we find that operators with a weaker binding affinity can yield higher repression levels than stronger operators. Repressor bound to upstream operators modulates promoter escape, and the magnitude of this modulation is not correlated with the repressor-operator binding affinity. This suggests that operator sequences may modulate transcription by altering the nature of the interaction of the bound transcription factor with the transcriptional machinery, implying a new layer of sequence dependence that must be confronted in the quantitative understanding of gene expression. PMID:22840405

  16. Alterations in Gene Expression and DNA Methylation during Murine and Human Lung Alveolar Septation

    PubMed Central

    Cuna, Alain; Halloran, Brian; Faye-Petersen, Ona; Kelly, David; Crossman, David K.; Cui, Xiangqin; Pandit, Kusum; Kaminski, Naftali; Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop; Ahmad, Ausaf; Mariani, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation, a major epigenetic mechanism, may regulate coordinated expression of multiple genes at specific time points during alveolar septation in lung development. The objective of this study was to identify genes regulated by methylation during normal septation in mice and during disordered septation in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In mice, newborn lungs (preseptation) and adult lungs (postseptation) were evaluated by microarray analysis of gene expression and immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by sequencing (MeDIP-Seq). In humans, microarray gene expression data were integrated with genome-wide DNA methylation data from bronchopulmonary dysplasia versus preterm and term lung. Genes with reciprocal changes in expression and methylation, suggesting regulation by DNA methylation, were identified. In mice, 95 genes with inverse correlation between expression and methylation during normal septation were identified. In addition to genes known to be important in lung development (Wnt signaling, Angpt2, Sox9, etc.) and its extracellular matrix (Tnc, Eln, etc.), genes involved with immune and antioxidant defense (Stat4, Sod3, Prdx6, etc.) were also observed. In humans, 23 genes were differentially methylated with reciprocal changes in expression in bronchopulmonary dysplasia compared with preterm or term lung. Genes of interest included those involved with detoxifying enzymes (Gstm3) and transforming growth factor-β signaling (bone morphogenetic protein 7 [Bmp7]). In terms of overlap, 20 genes and three pathways methylated during mouse lung development also demonstrated changes in methylation between preterm and term human lung. Changes in methylation correspond to altered expression of a number of genes associated with lung development, suggesting that DNA methylation of these genes may regulate normal and abnormal alveolar septation. PMID:25387348

  17. Hindlimb unloading results in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and alters left ventricular connexin 43 expression

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Matthew K.; Welliver, Kathryn C.; Jepson, Amanda J.; Garnett, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    Hindlimb unloading (HU) is a well-established animal model of cardiovascular deconditioning. Previous data indicate that HU results in cardiac sympathovagal imbalance. It is well established that cardiac sympathovagal imbalance increases the risk for developing cardiac arrhythmias. The cardiac gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) is predominately expressed in the left ventricle (LV) and ensures efficient cell-to-cell electrical coupling. In the current study we wanted to test the hypothesis that HU would result in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and alter the expression and/or phosphorylation of LV-Cx43. Electrocardiographic data using implantable telemetry were obtained over a 10- to 14-day HU or casted control (CC) condition and in response to a sympathetic stressor using isoproterenol administration and brief restraint. The arrhythmic burden was calculated using a modified scoring system to quantify spontaneous and provoked arrhythmias. In addition, Western blot analysis was used to measure LV-Cx43 expression in lysates probed with antibodies directed against the total and an unphosphorylated form of Cx43 in CC and HU rats. HU resulted in a significantly greater total arrhythmic burden during the sympathetic stressor with significantly more ventricular arrhythmias occurring. In addition, there was increased expression of total LV-Cx43 observed with no difference in the expression of unphosphorylated LV-Cx43. Specifically, the increased expression of LV-Cx43 was consistent with the phosphorylated form. These data taken together indicate that cardiovascular deconditioning produced through HU results in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and increased expression of phosphorylated LV-Cx43. PMID:23302960

  18. Hindlimb unloading results in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and alters left ventricular connexin 43 expression.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Julia A; Henry, Matthew K; Welliver, Kathryn C; Jepson, Amanda J; Garnett, Emily R

    2013-03-01

    Hindlimb unloading (HU) is a well-established animal model of cardiovascular deconditioning. Previous data indicate that HU results in cardiac sympathovagal imbalance. It is well established that cardiac sympathovagal imbalance increases the risk for developing cardiac arrhythmias. The cardiac gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) is predominately expressed in the left ventricle (LV) and ensures efficient cell-to-cell electrical coupling. In the current study we wanted to test the hypothesis that HU would result in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and alter the expression and/or phosphorylation of LV-Cx43. Electrocardiographic data using implantable telemetry were obtained over a 10- to 14-day HU or casted control (CC) condition and in response to a sympathetic stressor using isoproterenol administration and brief restraint. The arrhythmic burden was calculated using a modified scoring system to quantify spontaneous and provoked arrhythmias. In addition, Western blot analysis was used to measure LV-Cx43 expression in lysates probed with antibodies directed against the total and an unphosphorylated form of Cx43 in CC and HU rats. HU resulted in a significantly greater total arrhythmic burden during the sympathetic stressor with significantly more ventricular arrhythmias occurring. In addition, there was increased expression of total LV-Cx43 observed with no difference in the expression of unphosphorylated LV-Cx43. Specifically, the increased expression of LV-Cx43 was consistent with the phosphorylated form. These data taken together indicate that cardiovascular deconditioning produced through HU results in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and increased expression of phosphorylated LV-Cx43.

  19. Blood gene expression profiles suggest altered immune function associated with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Aliza P; Gibson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies found that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can impair immune function and increase risk for cardiovascular disease or events. Mechanisms underlying the physiological reverberations of anxiety, however, are still elusive. Hence, we aimed to investigate molecular processes mediating effects of anxiety on physical health using blood gene expression profiles of 336 community participants (157 anxious and 179 control). We examined genome-wide differential gene expression in anxiety, as well as associations between nine major modules of co-regulated transcripts in blood gene expression and anxiety. No significant differential expression was observed in women, but 631 genes were differentially expressed between anxious and control men at the false discovery rate of 0.1 after controlling for age, body mass index, race, and batch effect. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that genes with altered expression levels in anxious men were involved in response of various immune cells to vaccination and to acute viral and bacterial infection, and in a metabolic network affecting traits of metabolic syndrome. Further, we found one set of 260 co-regulated genes to be significantly associated with anxiety in men after controlling for the relevant covariates, and demonstrate its equivalence to a component of the stress-related conserved transcriptional response to adversity profile. Taken together, our results suggest potential molecular pathways that can explain negative effects of GAD observed in epidemiological studies. Remarkably, even mild anxiety, which most of our participants had, was associated with observable changes in immune-related gene expression levels. Our findings generate hypotheses and provide incremental insights into molecular mechanisms mediating negative physiological effects of GAD. PMID:25300922

  20. Methamphetamine and HIV-Tat alter murine cardiac DNA methylation and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Koczor, Christopher A; Fields, Earl; Jedrzejczak, Mark J; Jiao, Zhe; Ludaway, Tomika; Russ, Rodney; Shang, Joan; Torres, Rebecca A; Lewis, William

    2015-11-01

    This study addresses the individual and combined effects of HIV-1 and methamphetamine (N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine, METH) on cardiac dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of HIV/AIDS. METH is abused epidemically and is frequently associated with acquisition of HIV-1 infection or AIDS. We employed microarrays to identify mRNA differences in cardiac left ventricle (LV) gene expression following METH administration (10d, 3mg/kg/d, subcutaneously) in C57Bl/6 wild-type littermates (WT) and Tat-expressing transgenic (TG) mice. Arrays identified 880 differentially expressed genes (expression fold change>1.5, p<0.05) following METH exposure, Tat expression, or both. Using pathway enrichment analysis, mRNAs encoding polypeptides for calcium signaling and contractility were altered in the LV samples. Correlative DNA methylation analysis revealed significant LV DNA methylation changes following METH exposure and Tat expression. By combining these data sets, 38 gene promoters (27 related to METH, 11 related to Tat) exhibited differences by both methods of analysis. Among those, only the promoter for CACNA1C that encodes L-type calcium channel Cav1.2 displayed DNA methylation changes concordant with its gene expression change. Quantitative PCR verified that Cav1.2 LV mRNA abundance doubled following METH. Correlative immunoblots specific for Cav1.2 revealed a 3.5-fold increase in protein abundance in METH LVs. Data implicate Cav1.2 in calcium dysregulation and hypercontractility in the murine LV exposed to METH. They suggest a pathogenetic role for METH exposure to promote LV dysfunction that outweighs Tat-induced effects. PMID:26307267

  1. Unclassified pediatric renal stromal tumor overlapping with metanephric stromal tumor and solitary fibrous tumor with diffuse S-100 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Brancato, Franca; Gurrera, Alessandra; Bisceglia, Michele; Alaggio, Rita; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Di Benedetto, Vincenzo; Magro, Gaetano

    2011-11-15

    Metanephric stromal tumor (MST) is a rare pediatric neoplasm unique to the kidneys that is currently included in the spectrum of metanephric tumors, along with metanephric adenoma and adenofibroma. We herein report an unusual case of pediatric renal stromal tumor overlapping with MST and solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Histologically, the tumor was composed of bland-looking spindle to stellate cells embedded in a fibro-sclerotic stroma that focally surrounded native entrapped renal tubules or blood vessels with abortive rings or collarettes. Alternating hypercellular and hypocellular areas and a focal hemangiopericytomatous-like vascular pattern imparted to the tumor a resemblance to SFT. Angiodysplasia of intratumoral arterioles was also observed, but juxtaglomerular cell hyperplasia was not a feature. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells showed a polyphenotypic profile, including diffuse expression of vimentin and CD34, and focal immunoreactivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin, EMA, and CD99. However, the most striking finding was diffuse nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of S-100 protein. Although this protein has been reported to stain the heterologous glial and/or cartilaginous components that can be occasionally encountered in MST, this marker has not been previously reported in the fibroblastic component of MST. Pathologist should be aware of similar unusual unclassified tumors to avoid potential confusion with other benign or malignant S-100 protein-positive tumors.

  2. Changes in mitochondrial DNA alter expression of nuclear encoded genes associated with tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Jandova, Jana; Janda, Jaroslav; Sligh, James E

    2012-10-15

    We previously reported the presence of a mtDNA mutation hotspot in UV-induced premalignant and malignant skin tumors in hairless mice. We have modeled this change (9821insA) in murine cybrid cells and demonstrated that this alteration in mtDNA associated with mtBALB haplotype can alter the biochemical characteristics of cybrids and subsequently can contribute to significant changes in their behavioral capabilities. This study shows that changes in mtDNA can produce differences in expression levels of specific nuclear-encoded genes, which are capable of triggering the phenotypes such as seen in malignant cells. From a potential list of differentially expressed genes discovered by microarray analysis, we selected MMP-9 and Col1a1 for further studies. Real-time PCR confirmed up-regulation of MMP-9 and down-regulation of Col1a1 in cybrids harboring the mtDNA associated with the skin tumors. These cybrids also showed significantly increased migration and invasion abilities compared to wild type. The non-specific MMP inhibitor, GM6001, was able to inhibit migratory and invasive abilities of the 9821insA cybrids confirming a critical role of MMPs in cellular motility. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a key transcription factor for production of MMPs. An inhibitor of NF-κB activation, Bay 11-7082, was able to inhibit the expression of MMP-9 and ultimately decrease migration and invasion of mutant cybrids containing 9821insA. These studies confirm a role of NF-κB in the regulation of MMP-9 expression and through this regulation modulates the migratory and invasive capabilities of cybrids with mutant mtDNA. Enhanced migration and invasion abilities caused by up-regulated MMP-9 may contribute to the tumorigenic phenotypic characteristics of mutant cybrids.

  3. Methamphetamine neurotoxicity increases brain expression and alters behavioral functions of CB₁ cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Bortolato, Marco; Frau, Roberto; Bini, Valentina; Luesu, William; Loriga, Roberta; Collu, Maria; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Ennas, M Grazia; Castelli, M Paola

    2010-10-01

    Cannabis is the most common secondary illicit substance in methamphetamine (METH) users, yet the outcomes of the concurrent consumption of both substances remain elusive. Capitalizing on recent findings on the implication of CB₁ cannabinoid receptors in the behavioral effects of METH, we hypothesized that METH-induced neurotoxicity may alter the brain expression of CB₁, thereby affecting its role in behavioral functions. To test this possibility, we subjected rats to a well-characterized model of METH neurotoxicity (4 mg/kg, subcutaneous × 4 injections, 2 h apart), and analyzed their CB₁ receptor brain expression three weeks later. METH exposure resulted in significant enhancements of CB₁ receptor expression across several brain regions, including prefrontal cortex, caudate-putamen, basolateral amygdala, CA1 hippocampal region and perirhinal cortex. In parallel, a different group of METH-exposed rats was used to explore the responsiveness to the potent cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) (0.5-1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), within several paradigms for the assessment of emotional and cognitive functions, such as open field, object exploration and recognition, and startle reflex. WIN induced anxiolytic-like effects in METH-exposed rats and anxiogenic-like effects in saline-treated controls. Furthermore, METH-exposed animals exhibited a significantly lower impact of WIN on the attenuation of exploratory behaviors and short-term (90 min) recognition memory. Conversely, METH neurotoxicity did not significantly affect WIN-induced reductions in locomotor activity, exploration time and acoustic startle. These results suggest that METH neurotoxicity may alter the vulnerability to select behavioral effects of cannabis, by inducing distinct regional variations in the expression of CB₁ receptors.

  4. Altered Skeletal Muscle Lipase Expression and Activity Contribute to Insulin Resistance in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Badin, Pierre-Marie; Louche, Katie; Mairal, Aline; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd; Rustan, Arild C.; Smith, Steven R.; Langin, Dominique; Moro, Cedric

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance is associated with elevated content of skeletal muscle lipids, including triacylglycerols (TAGs) and diacylglycerols (DAGs). DAGs are by-products of lipolysis consecutive to TAG hydrolysis by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and are subsequently hydrolyzed by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). We hypothesized that an imbalance of ATGL relative to HSL (expression or activity) may contribute to DAG accumulation and insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We first measured lipase expression in vastus lateralis biopsies of young lean (n = 9), young obese (n = 9), and obese-matched type 2 diabetic (n = 8) subjects. We next investigated in vitro in human primary myotubes the impact of altered lipase expression/activity on lipid content and insulin signaling. RESULTS Muscle ATGL protein was negatively associated with whole-body insulin sensitivity in our population (r = −0.55, P = 0.005), whereas muscle HSL protein was reduced in obese subjects. We next showed that adenovirus-mediated ATGL overexpression in human primary myotubes induced DAG and ceramide accumulation. ATGL overexpression reduced insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis (−30%, P < 0.05) and disrupted insulin signaling at Ser1101 of the insulin receptor substrate-1 and downstream Akt activation at Ser473. These defects were fully rescued by nonselective protein kinase C inhibition or concomitant HSL overexpression to restore a proper lipolytic balance. We show that selective HSL inhibition induces DAG accumulation and insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS Altogether, the data indicate that altered ATGL and HSL expression in skeletal muscle could promote DAG accumulation and disrupt insulin signaling and action. Targeting skeletal muscle lipases may constitute an interesting strategy to improve insulin sensitivity in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21498783

  5. Morphine-conditioned cue alters c-Fos protein expression in the brain of crayfish.

    PubMed

    Dziopa, Leah; Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola; Baier, Dana; Kiel, Michael; Sameera, Sayeed; Brager, Adam; Beatriz, Vega; Nathaniel, Thomas I

    2011-07-15

    With a highly organized stereotypic behavior and a simplified neuronal system that is characterized by cellular modularity, crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) represents an excellent model that we used in this study to explore how a drug-conditioned-cue alters c-Fos protein expression in the brain of an invertebrate species. The first set of experiments revealed that a single injection of different doses of morphine (3.0 μg/g, 6.0 μg/g and 12.0 μg/g) into the circulatory system of crayfish significantly increased locomotor activity. Repeated injections of morphine increased locomotion at lower doses (3.0 μg/g and 6.0 μg/g), and decreased locomotion at a higher dose of 12.0 μg/g. The second experiment revealed that a repeated or single injection of morphine serves as reward when paired with a distinct visual environment. In the third experiment, we found that the c-Fos profile of morphine treated crayfish in an unconditioned environment did not show a significant increase from the basal level comparable to saline treated crayfish. The brains of crayfish were more active during exposure to the cue-elicited drug conditioned environment than the unconditioned environment. These results indicate that chronic morphine treatment alone is not sufficient to induce changes in the expression of c-Fos; instead, morphine-environment pairing in a specific context contributes to the expression of alterations in c-Fos regulation. The enhancement of c-Fos expression in the brain of crayfish seems to reflect the sensory or anticipatory facets of conditioning that suggests that potential and even unanticipated hypotheses in drug addiction can emerge from studies of addiction in crayfish.

  6. Ethanol alters gene expression and cell organization during optic vesicle evagination.

    PubMed

    Santos-Ledo, A; Cavodeassi, F; Carreño, H; Aijón, J; Arévalo, R

    2013-10-10

    Ethanol has been described as a teratogen in vertebrate development. During early stages of brain formation, ethanol affects the evagination of the optic vesicles, resulting in synophthalmia or cyclopia, phenotypes where the optic vesicles partially or totally fuse. The mechanisms by which ethanol affects the morphogenesis of the optic vesicles are however largely unknown. In this study we make use of in situ hybridization, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to show that ethanol has profound effects on cell organization and gene expression during the evagination of the optic vesicles. Exposure to ethanol during early eye development alters the expression patterns of some genes known to be important for eye morphogenesis, such as rx3/1 and six3a. Furthermore, exposure to ethanol interferes with the acquisition of neuroepithelial features by the eye field cells, which is clear at ultrastructual level. Indeed, ethanol disrupts the acquisition of fusiform cellular shapes within the eye field. In addition, tight junctions do not form and retinal progenitors do not properly polarize, as suggested by the mis-localization and down-regulation of zo1. We also show that the ethanol-induced cyclopic phenotype is significantly different to that observed in cyclopic mutants, suggesting a complex effect of ethanol on a variety of targets. Our results show that ethanol not only disrupts the expression pattern of genes involved in retinal morphogenesis, such as rx3 and rx1, but also disrupts the changes in cell polarity that normally occur during eye field splitting. Thus, ethylic teratology seems to be related not only to modifications in gene expression and cell death but also to alterations in cell morphology.

  7. Neonatal Colon Insult Alters Growth Factor Expression and TRPA1 Responses in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, Julie A.; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Malin, Sacha A.; Davis, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation or pain during neonatal development can result in long-term structural and functional alterations of nociceptive pathways, ultimately altering pain perception in adulthood. We have developed a mouse model of neonatal colon irritation (NCI) to investigate the plasticity of pain processing within the viscerosensory system. Mouse pups received an intracolonic administration of 2% mustard oil (MO) on postnatal days 8 and 10. Distal colons were processed at subsequent timepoints for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and growth factor expression. Adult mice were assessed for visceral hypersensitivity by measuring the visceromotor response during colorectal distension. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from adult mice were retrogradely labeled from the distal colon and calcium imaging was used to measure transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) responses to acute application of capsaicin and MO, respectively. Despite the absence of inflammation (as indicated by MPO activity), neonatal exposure to intracolonic MO transiently maintained a higher expression level of growth factor messenger RNA (mRNA). Adult NCI mice displayed significant visceral hypersensitivity, as well as increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the hindpaw, compared to control mice. The percentage of TRPA1-expressing colon afferents was significantly increased in NCI mice, however they displayed no increase in the percentage of TRPV1-immunopositive or capsaicin-sensitive colon DRG neurons. These results suggest that early neonatal colon injury results in a long-lasting visceral hypersensitivity, possibly driven by an early increase in growth factor expression and maintained by permanent changes in TRPA1 function. PMID:20850221

  8. Changes in mitochondrial DNA alter expression of nuclear encoded genes associated with tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jandova, Jana; Janda, Jaroslav; Sligh, James E

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported the presence of a mtDNA mutation hotspot in UV-induced premalignant and malignant skin tumors in hairless mice. We have modeled this change (9821insA) in murine cybrid cells and demonstrated that this alteration in mtDNA associated with mtBALB haplotype can alter the biochemical characteristics of cybrids and subsequently can contribute to significant changes in their behavioral capabilities. This study shows that changes in mtDNA can produce differences in expression levels of specific nuclear-encoded genes, which are capable of triggering the phenotypes such as seen in malignant cells. From a potential list of differentially expressed genes discovered by microarray analysis, we selected MMP-9 and Col1a1 for further studies. Real-time PCR confirmed up-regulation of MMP-9 and down-regulation of Col1a1 in cybrids harboring the mtDNA associated with the skin tumors. These cybrids also showed significantly increased migration and invasion abilities compared to wild type. The non-specific MMP inhibitor, GM6001, was able to inhibit migratory and invasive abilities of the 9821insA cybrids confirming a critical role of MMPs in cellular motility. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a key transcription factor for production of MMPs. An inhibitor of NF-κB activation, Bay11-7082, was able to inhibit the expression of MMP-9 and ultimately decrease migration and invasion of mutant cybrids containing 9821insA. These studies confirm a role of NF-κB in the regulation of MMP-9 expression and through this regulation modulates the migratory and invasive capabilities of cybrids with mutant mtDNA. Enhanced migration and invasion abilities caused by up-regulated MMP-9 may contribute to the tumorigenic phenotypic characteristics of mutant cybrids. PMID:22705584

  9. An acute dose of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid alters gene expression in multiple mouse brain regions.

    PubMed

    Schnackenberg, B J; Saini, U T; Robinson, B L; Ali, S F; Patterson, T A

    2010-10-13

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is normally found in the brain in low concentrations and may function as a neurotransmitter, although the mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated. GHB has been used as a general anesthetic and is currently used to treat narcolepsy and alcoholism. Recreational use of GHB is primarily as a "club drug" and a "date rape drug," due to its amnesic effects. For this study, the hypothesis was that behavioral and neurochemical alterations may parallel gene expression changes in the brain after GHB administration. Adult male C57/B6N mice (n=5/group) were administered a single dose of 500 mg/kg GHB (i.p.) and were sacrificed 1, 2 and 4 h after treatment. Control mice were administered saline. Brains were removed and regionally dissected on ice. Total RNA from the hippocampus, cortex and striatum was extracted, amplified and labeled. Gene expression was evaluated using Agilent whole mouse genome 4x44K oligonucleotide microarrays. Microarray data were analyzed by ArrayTrack and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using P < or = 0.01 and a fold change > or = 1.7 as the criteria for significance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) showed that samples from each time point clustered into distinct treatment groups with respect to sacrifice time. Ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA) was used to identify involved pathways. The results show that GHB induces gene expression alterations in hundreds of genes in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum, and the number of affected genes increases throughout a 4-h time course. Many of these DEGs are involved in neurological disease, apoptosis, and oxidative stress.

  10. An Atlas of Altered Expression of Deubiquitinating Enzymes in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luise, Chiara; Capra, Maria; Donzelli, Maddalena; Mazzarol, Giovanni; Jodice, Maria Giovanna; Nuciforo, Paolo; Viale, Giuseppe; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Confalonieri, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Background Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are proteases that process ubiquitin (Ub) or ubiquitin-like gene products, remodel polyubiquitin(-like) chains on target proteins, and counteract protein ubiquitination exerted by E3 ubiquitin-ligases. A wealth of studies has established the relevance of DUBs to the control of physiological processes whose subversion is known to cause cellular transformation, including cell cycle progression, DNA repair, endocytosis and signal transduction. Altered expression of DUBs might, therefore, subvert both the proteolytic and signaling functions of the Ub system. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we report the first comprehensive screening of DUB dysregulation in human cancers by in situ hybridization on tissue microarrays (ISH-TMA). ISH-TMA has proven to be a reliable methodology to conduct this kind of study, particularly because it allows the precise identification of the cellular origin of the signals. Thus, signals associated with the tumor component can be distinguished from those associated with the tumor microenvironment. Specimens derived from various normal and malignant tumor tissues were analyzed, and the “normal” samples were derived, whenever possible, from the same patients from whom tumors were obtained. Of the ∼90 DUBs encoded by the human genome, 33 were found to be expressed in at least one of the analyzed tissues, of which 22 were altered in cancers. Selected DUBs were subjected to further validation, by analyzing their expression in large cohorts of tumor samples. This analysis unveiled significant correlations between DUB expression and relevant clinical and pathological parameters, which were in some cases indicative of aggressive disease. Conclusions/Significance The results presented here demonstrate that DUB dysregulation is a frequent event in cancer, and have implications for therapeutic approaches based on DUB inhibition. PMID:21283576

  11. Niacin in pharmacological doses alters microRNA expression in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Aline; Keller, Janine; Most, Erika; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Administration of pharmacological niacin doses was recently reported to have pronounced effects on skeletal muscle gene expression and phenotype in obese Zucker rats, with the molecular mechanisms underlying the alteration of gene expression being completely unknown. Since miRNAs have been shown to play a critical role for gene expression through inducing miRNA-mRNA interactions which results in the degradation of specific mRNAs or the repression of protein translation, we herein aimed to investigate the influence of niacin at pharmacological doses on the miRNA expression profile in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats fed either a control diet with 30 mg supplemented niacin/kg diet or a high-niacin diet with 780 mg supplemented niacin/kg diet for 4 wk. miRNA microarray analysis revealed that 42 out of a total of 259 miRNAs were differentially expressed (adjusted P-value <0.05), 20 being down-regulated and 22 being up-regulated, between the niacin group and the control group. Using a biostatistics approach, we could demonstrate that the most strongly up-regulated (log2 ratio ≥0.5) and down-regulated (log2 ratio ≤-0.5) miRNAs target approximately 1,800 mRNAs. Gene-term enrichment analysis showed that many of the predicted target mRNAs from the most strongly regulated miRNAs were involved in molecular processes dealing with gene transcription such as DNA binding, transcription regulator activity, transcription factor binding and in important regulatory pathways such as Wnt signaling and MAPK signaling. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that pharmacological niacin doses alter the expression of miRNAs in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats and that the niacin-regulated miRNAs target a large set of genes and pathways which are involved in gene regulatory activity indicating that at least some of the recently reported effects of niacin on skeletal muscle gene expression and phenotype in obese Zucker rats are mediated through mi

  12. Loss of pdr-1/parkin influences Mn homeostasis through altered ferroportin expression in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Chen, Pan; Bornhorst, Julia; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Schumacher, Fabian; Kleuser, Burkhard; Bowman, Aaron B.; Aschner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to the essential metal manganese (Mn) can result in an irreversible condition known as manganism that shares similar pathophysiology with Parkinson’s disease (PD), including dopaminergic (DAergic) cell loss that leads to motor and cognitive impairments. However, the mechanisms behind this neurotoxicity and its relationship with PD remain unclear. Many genes confer risk for autosomal recessive, early-onset PD, including the parkin/PARK2 gene that encodes for the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin. Using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as an invertebrate model that conserves the DAergic system, we previously reported significantly increased Mn accumulation in pdr-1/parkin mutants compared to wildtype (WT) animals. For the current study, we hypothesize that this enhanced accumulation is due to alterations in Mn transport in the pdr-1 mutants. While no change in mRNA expression of the major Mn importer proteins (smf-1-3) was found in pdr-1 mutants, significant downregulation in mRNA levels of the putative Mn exporter ferroportin (fpn-1.1) was observed. Using a strain overexpressing fpn-1.1 in worms lacking pdr-1, we show evidence for attenuation of several endpoints of Mn-induced toxicity, including survival, metal accumulation, mitochondrial copy number and DAergic integrity, compared to pdr-1 mutants alone. These changes suggest a novel role of pdr-1 in modulating Mn export through altered transporter expression, and provides further support of metal dyshomeostasis as a component of Parkinsonism pathophysiology. PMID:25769119

  13. Norepinephrine transporter knock-out alters expression of the genes connected with antidepressant drugs action.

    PubMed

    Solich, Joanna; Kolasa, Magdalena; Kusmider, Maciej; Faron-Gorecka, Agata; Pabian, Paulina; Zurawek, Dariusz; Szafran-Pilch, Kinga; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2015-01-12

    Norepinephrine transporter knock-out mice (NET-KO) exhibit depression-resistant phenotypes. They manifest significantly shorter immobility times in both the forced swim test and the tail suspension test. Moreover, biochemical studies have revealed the up-regulation of other monoamine transporters (dopamine and serotonin) in the brains of NET-KO mice, similar to the phenomenon observed after the chronic pharmacological blockade of norepinephrine transporter by desipramine in wild-type (WT) animals. NET-KO mice are also resistant to stress, as we demonstrated previously by measuring plasma corticosterone concentration. In the present study, we used a microdissection technique to separate target brain regions and the TaqMan Low Density Array approach to test the expression of a group of genes in the NET-KO mice compared with WT animals. A group of genes with altered expression were identified in four brain structures (frontal and cingulate cortices, dentate gyrus of hippocampus and basal-lateral amygdala) of NET-KO mice compared with WT mice. These genes are known to be altered by antidepressant drugs administration. The most interesting gene is Crh-bp, which modulates the activity of corticotrophin--releasing hormone (CRH) and several CRH-family members. Generally, genetic disturbances within noradrenergic neurons result in biological changes, such as in signal transduction and intercellular communication, and may be linked to changes in noradrenaline levels in the brains of NET-KO mice.

  14. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE ALTERS GENE EXPRESSION IN THE DEVELOPING MURINE HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Horn, Kristin H.; Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of passive smoke exposures on the developing brain. Objective The purpose of the current study was to identify changes in gene expression in the murine hippocampus as a consequence of in utero exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke (an experimental equivalent of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)) at exposure levels that do not result in fetal growth inhibition. Methods A whole body smoke inhalation exposure system was utilized to deliver ETS to pregnant C57BL/6J mice for six hours/day from gestational days 6–17 (gd 6–17) [for microarray] or gd 6–18.5 [for fetal phenotyping]. Results There were no significant effects of ETS exposure on fetal phenotype. However, 61 “expressed” genes in the gd 18.5 fetal hippocampus were differentially regulated (up- or down-regulated by 1.5 fold or greater) by maternal exposure to ETS. Of these 61 genes, 25 genes were upregulated while 36 genes were downregulated. A systems biology approach, including computational methodologies, identified cellular response pathways, and biological themes, underlying altered fetal programming of the embryonic hippocampus by in utero cigarette smoke exposure. Conclusions Results from the present study suggest that even in the absence of effects on fetal growth, prenatal smoke exposure can alter gene expression during the “early” period of hippocampal growth and may result in abnormal hippocampal morphology, connectivity, and function. PMID:19969065

  15. Distinct alterations in ATP-binding cassette transporter expression in liver, kidney, small intestine, and brain in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Atsushi; Norikane, Sari; Okada, Ayaka; Adachi, Mamiko; Kato, Yukio; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2014-08-01

    Pathophysiological changes of infection or inflammation are associated with alterations in the production of numerous absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion-related proteins. However, little information is available on the effects of inflammation on the expression levels and activities of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We examined the effect of acute (on day 7) and chronic (on day 21) inflammation on the expression of ABC transporters in some major tissues in rat. Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) in rats was used as an animal model for inflammation. The mRNA levels of mdr1a and mdr1b encoding P-glycoprotein (P-gp) decreased significantly in livers of AA rats on day 21. Hepatic protein levels of P-gp, Mrp2, and Bcrp decreased significantly in membranes but not homogenates of AA rats after 7 days and after 21 days of treatment with adjuvant. Contrary to liver, protein levels of P-gp and Mrp2, but not Bcrp in kidney, increased significantly in membranes. The biliary excretion of rhodamine 123 was decreased in rats with chronic inflammation owing to decreases in efflux activities of P-gp. Our results showed that the expression of transporters in response to inflammation was organ dependent. In particular, hepatic and renal P-gp and Mrp2 exhibited opposite changes in membrane protein levels.

  16. Low-intensity infrared lasers alter actin gene expression in skin and muscle tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Mencalha, A. L.; Campos, V. M. A.; Ferreira-Machado, S. C.; Peregrino, A. A. F.; Magalhães, L. A. G.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.

    2013-02-01

    The biostimulative effect of low-intensity lasers is the basis for treatment of diseases in soft tissues. However, data about the influence of biostimulative lasers on gene expression are still scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of low-intensity infrared lasers on the expression of actin mRNA in skin and muscle tissue. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats was exposed to low-intensity infrared laser radiation at different fluences and frequencies. One and 24 hours after laser exposure, tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and evaluation of actin gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The data obtained show that laser radiation alters the expression of actin mRNA differently in skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats depending of the fluence, frequency and time after exposure. The results could be useful for laser dosimetry, as well as to justify the therapeutic protocols for treatment of diseases of skin and muscle tissues based on low-intensity infrared laser radiation.

  17. Expression of functions by normal sheep alveolar macrophages and their alteration by interaction with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Niang, M; Rosenbusch, R F; Lopez-Virella, J; Kaeberle, M L

    1997-10-31

    Normal sheep alveolar macrophages collected by bronchial lavage were exposed to live or heat-killed Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae organisms, and their capability to ingest Staphylococcus aureus and to elicit antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against sensitized chicken red blood cells was tested. Controls consisted of non-infected macrophages in M199 medium. In addition, the effect of M. ovipneumoniae on expression of surface molecules on these sheep alveolar macrophages was determined. The percentage of S. aureus ingested by nontreated sheep alveolar macrophages was significantly higher than that of infected macrophages. Live mycoplasmas were more effective in suppressing the ingestion of S. aureus by these macrophages than killed mycoplasmas. Both live and killed mycoplasmas suppressed the cytolytic effect of the sheep alveolar macrophages to a similar degree. About 78% and 45% of the normal sheep alveolar macrophages had IgG and complement receptors, respectively. Infection of these macrophages with M. ovipneumoniae decreased significantly the expression of IgG receptors but had no effects on complement receptors. There were substantial increases in the expression of both MHC class I and class II by the mycoplasma-induced macrophages as compared with unstimulated macrophages. Live mycoplasmas were more effective in inducing expression of both classes than killed mycoplasmas. The results, taken together, suggest that M. ovipneumoniae induced alterations in macrophage activities and this may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease induced by the organism.

  18. Ectopic KNOX Expression Affects Plant Development by Altering Tissue Cell Polarity and Identity[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rebocho, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant development involves two polarity types: tissue cell (asymmetries within cells are coordinated across tissues) and regional (identities vary spatially across tissues) polarity. Both appear altered in the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Hooded mutant, in which ectopic expression of the KNOTTED1-like Homeobox (KNOX) gene, BKn3, causes inverted polarity of differentiated hairs and ectopic flowers, in addition to wing-shaped outgrowths. These lemma-specific effects allow the spatiotemporal analysis of events following ectopic BKn3 expression, determining the relationship between KNOXs, polarity, and shape. We show that tissue cell polarity, based on localization of the auxin transporter SISTER OF PINFORMED1 (SoPIN1), dynamically reorients as ectopic BKn3 expression increases. Concurrently, ectopic expression of the auxin importer LIKE AUX1 and boundary gene NO APICAL MERISTEM is activated. The polarity of hairs reflects SoPIN1 patterns, suggesting that tissue cell polarity underpins oriented cell differentiation. Wing cell files reveal an anisotropic growth pattern, and computational modeling shows how polarity guiding growth can account for this pattern and wing emergence. The inverted ectopic flower orientation does not correlate with SoPIN1, suggesting that this form of regional polarity is not controlled by tissue cell polarity. Overall, the results suggest that KNOXs trigger different morphogenetic effects through interplay between tissue cell polarity, identity, and growth. PMID:27553356

  19. Arsenic-induced alteration in the expression of genes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Burns, Anna L; Hiriart, Marcia; Cebrián, Mariano E; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2007-12-01

    Chronic exposure to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water is associated with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The present revision focuses on the effect of arsenic on tissues that participate directly in glucose homeostasis, integrating the most important published information about the impairment of the expression of genes related to type 2 diabetes by arsenic as one of the possible mechanisms by which it leads to the disease. Many factors are involved in the manner in which arsenic contributes to the occurrence of diabetes. The reviewed studies suggest that arsenic might increase the risk for type 2 diabetes via multiple mechanisms, affecting a cluster of regulated events, which in conjunction trigger the disease. Arsenic affects insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue by modifying the expression of genes involved in insulin resistance and shifting away cells from differentiation to the proliferation pathway. In the liver arsenic disturbs glucose production, whereas in pancreatic beta-cells arsenic decreases insulin synthesis and secretion and reduces the expression of antioxidant enzymes. The consequences of these changes in gene expression include the reduction of insulin secretion, induction of oxidative stress in the pancreas, alteration of gluconeogenesis, abnormal proliferation and differentiation pattern of muscle and adipocytes as well as peripheral insulin resistance.

  20. Arsenic-induced alteration in the expression of genes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea Burns, Anna L.; Hiriart, Marcia; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2007-12-01

    Chronic exposure to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water is associated with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The present revision focuses on the effect of arsenic on tissues that participate directly in glucose homeostasis, integrating the most important published information about the impairment of the expression of genes related to type 2 diabetes by arsenic as one of the possible mechanisms by which it leads to the disease. Many factors are involved in the manner in which arsenic contributes to the occurrence of diabetes. The reviewed studies suggest that arsenic might increase the risk for type 2 diabetes via multiple mechanisms, affecting a cluster of regulated events, which in conjunction trigger the disease. Arsenic affects insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue by modifying the expression of genes involved in insulin resistance and shifting away cells from differentiation to the proliferation pathway. In the liver arsenic disturbs glucose production, whereas in pancreatic beta-cells arsenic decreases insulin synthesis and secretion and reduces the expression of antioxidant enzymes. The consequences of these changes in gene expression include the reduction of insulin secretion, induction of oxidative stress in the pancreas, alteration of gluconeogenesis, abnormal proliferation and differentiation pattern of muscle and adipocytes as well as peripheral insulin resistance.

  1. Fluoride alters type I collagen expression in the early stages of odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, I; Spodnik, J H; Domaradzka-Pytel, B; Sidor-Kaczmarek, J; Bereznowski, Z

    2006-11-01

    Fluoride alters the expression and post-translational modifications of extracellular matrix proteins in dentin. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of fluoride on type I collagen expression during the early stages of tooth germ development in rats. Pregnant dams were divided into three groups and fed a standard diet. From the fifth day of pregnancy the three groups received tap water with, respectively, trace amounts of fluoride (C), a low fluoride concentration (FL) or and a high fluoride concentration (FH). Changes in type I collagen expression and distribution were evaluated. The expression of type I collagen was restricted to the extracellular spaces of cells of mesenchymal origin. In the youngest animals the most intense immunoreactivity for type I collagen was detected in predentin of the FL group. Although the intensity of immunostaining increased in proportion to the age of the animals, the largest increase in the groups investigated was detected in the FL group. We concluded that a low concentration of fluoride can act as a stimulator of type I collagen deposition in the extracellular matrix of dentin, while high concentrations of fluoride have an opposite effect, acting as an inhibitor of type I collagen formation in dentin.

  2. Chronic unpredictive mild stress leads to altered hepatic metabolic profile and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Hong-mei; Li, Qi; Zhou, Chao; Yu, Meng; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Hong-wu; Ding, Gang; Shang, Hai; Zou, Zhong-mei

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a complex disease characterized by a series of pathological changes. Research on depression is mainly focused on the changes in brain, but not on liver. Therefore, we initially explored the metabolic profiles of hepatic extracts from rats treated with chronic unpredictive mild stress (CUMS) by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Using multivariate statistical analysis, a total of 26 altered metabolites distinguishing CUMS-induced depression from normal control were identified. Using two-stage receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, 18 metabolites were recognized as potential biomarkers related to CUMS-induced depression via 12 metabolic pathways. Subsequently, we detected the mRNA expressions levels of apoptosis-associated genes such as Bax and Bcl-2 and four key enzymes including Pla2g15, Pnpla6, Baat and Gad1 involved in phospholipid and primary bile acid biosynthesis in liver tissues of CUMS rats by real-time qRT-PCR assay. The expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, Pla2g15, Pnpla6 and Gad1 mRNA were 1.43,1.68, 1.74, 1.67 and 1.42-fold higher, and those of Baat, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio mRNA were 0.83, 0.85-fold lower in CUMS rats compared with normal control. Results of liver-targeted metabonomics and mRNA expression demonstrated that CUMS-induced depression leads to variations in hepatic metabolic profile and gene expression, and ultimately results in liver injury. PMID:27006086

  3. Spaceflight alters expression of microRNA during T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Chang, Tammy T; Martinez, Emily M; Li, Chai-Fei

    2015-12-01

    Altered immune function has been demonstrated in astronauts during spaceflights dating back to Apollo and Skylab; this could be a major barrier to long-term space exploration. We tested the hypothesis that spaceflight causes changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression. Human leukocytes were stimulated with mitogens on board the International Space Station using an onboard normal gravity control. Bioinformatics showed that miR-21 was significantly up-regulated 2-fold during early T-cell activation in normal gravity, and gene expression was suppressed under microgravity. This was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR (n = 4). This is the first report that spaceflight regulates miRNA expression. Global microarray analysis showed significant (P < 0.05) suppression of 85 genes under microgravity conditions compared to normal gravity samples. EGR3, FASLG, BTG2, SPRY2, and TAGAP are biologically confirmed targets and are co-up-regulated with miR-21. These genes share common promoter regions with pre-mir-21; as the miR-21 matures and accumulates, it most likely will inhibit translation of its target genes and limit the immune response. These data suggest that gravity regulates T-cell activation not only by transcription promotion but also by blocking translation via noncoding RNA mechanisms. Moreover, this study suggests that T-cell activation itself may induce a sequence of gene expressions that is self-limited by miR-21. PMID:26276131

  4. Alterations in miRNA processing and expression in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Cairns, Murray; Rose, Barbara; O'Brien, Christopher; Shannon, Kerwin; Clark, Jonathan; Gamble, Jennifer; Tran, Nham

    2009-06-15

    Genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas revealed a distinct expression signature consisting largely of upregulated miRNAs compared with matched normal tissue. Microarray data were confirmed by quantitative real time RT-PCR (q-RTPCR). Five miRNA genes upregulated in the tumours were found in close proximity to fragile sites and/or cancer associated genomic regions. Interestingly, q-RTPCR revealed an increase in the expression of components of the miRNA processing machinery (Dicer, Drosha, DGCR8 and p68) in tumours suggesting that the deregulation of miRNA expression may result from increased miRNA biogenesis. Target gene prediction analysis of the altered miRNAs indicated that genes in a number of signalling pathways important in tumourigenesis including WNT, MAPK and JAK-STAT were overrepresented. Significantly, the oncogene PLAG1 was overexpressed in our cohort and may be potentially regulated by these miRNAs. This is the first study to examine changes in the miRNA milieu in pleomorphic adenoma, the most common salivary gland tumour. This study has demonstrated an upregulation of both miRNAs genes and an upregulation of the miRNA processing machinery. These changes may be potential underlying mechanisms for the development of these benign tumours.

  5. Spaceflight alters expression of microRNA during T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Chang, Tammy T; Martinez, Emily M; Li, Chai-Fei

    2015-12-01

    Altered immune function has been demonstrated in astronauts during spaceflights dating back to Apollo and Skylab; this could be a major barrier to long-term space exploration. We tested the hypothesis that spaceflight causes changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression. Human leukocytes were stimulated with mitogens on board the International Space Station using an onboard normal gravity control. Bioinformatics showed that miR-21 was significantly up-regulated 2-fold during early T-cell activation in normal gravity, and gene expression was suppressed under microgravity. This was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR (n = 4). This is the first report that spaceflight regulates miRNA expression. Global microarray analysis showed significant (P < 0.05) suppression of 85 genes under microgravity conditions compared to normal gravity samples. EGR3, FASLG, BTG2, SPRY2, and TAGAP are biologically confirmed targets and are co-up-regulated with miR-21. These genes share common promoter regions with pre-mir-21; as the miR-21 matures and accumulates, it most likely will inhibit translation of its target genes and limit the immune response. These data suggest that gravity regulates T-cell activation not only by transcription promotion but also by blocking translation via noncoding RNA mechanisms. Moreover, this study suggests that T-cell activation itself may induce a sequence of gene expressions that is self-limited by miR-21.

  6. Loss of neprilysin alters protein expression in the brain of Alzheimer's disease model mice.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Per; Loganathan, Krishnapriya; Sekiguchi, Misaki; Winblad, Bengt; Iwata, Nobuhisa; Saido, Takaomi C; Tjernberg, Lars O

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease displaying extracellular plaques formed by the neurotoxic amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles consisting of protein tau. However, how these pathologies relate to the massive neuronal death that occurs in AD brains remain elusive. Neprilysin is the major Aβ-degrading enzyme and a lack thereof increases Aβ levels in the brain twofold. To identify altered protein expression levels induced by increased Aβ levels, we performed a proteomic analysis of the brain of the AD mouse model APPsw and compared it to that of APPsw mice lacking neprilysin. To this end we established an LC-MS/MS method to analyze brain homogenate, using an (18) O-labeled internal standard to accurately quantify the protein levels. To distinguish between alterations in protein levels caused by increased Aβ levels and those induced by neprilysin deficiency independently of Aβ, the brain proteome of neprilysin deficient APPsw mice was also compared to that of neprilysin deficient mice. By this approach we identified approximately 600 proteins and the levels of 300 of these were quantified. Pathway analysis showed that many of the proteins with altered expression were involved in neurological disorders, and that tau, presenilin and APP were key regulators in the identified networks. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with identifiers PXD000968 and PXD001786 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000968 and (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001786). Interestingly, the levels of several proteins, including some not previously reported to be linked to AD, were associated with increased Aβ levels.

  7. Alterations in Mc1r gene expression are associated with regressive pigmentation in Astyanax cavefish.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Bethany A; Gross, Joshua B

    2015-11-01

    Diverse changes in coloration across distant taxa are mediated through alterations in certain highly conserved pigmentation genes. Among these genes, Mc1r is a frequent target for mutation, and many documented alterations involve coding sequence changes. We investigated whether regulatory mutations in Mc1r may also contribute to pigmentation loss in the blind Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus. This species comprises multiple independent cave populations that have evolved reduced (or absent) melanic pigmentation as a consequence of living in darkness for millions of generations. Among the most salient cave-associated traits, complete absence (albinism) or reduced levels of pigmentation (brown) have long been the focus of degenerative pigmentation research in Astyanax. These two Mendelian traits have been linked to specific coding mutations in Oca2 (albinism) and Mc1r (brown). However, four of the seven caves harboring the brown phenotype exhibit unaffected coding sequences compared to surface fish. Thus, diverse genetic changes involving the same genes likely impact reduced pigmentation among cavefish populations. Using both sequence and expression analyses, we show that certain cave-dwelling populations harboring the brown mutation have substantial alterations to the putative Mc1r cis-regulatory region. Several of these sequence mutations in the Mc1r 5' region were present across multiple, independent cave populations. This study suggests that pigmentation reduction in Astyanax cavefish evolves through a combination of both coding and cis-regulatory mutations. Moreover, this study represents one of the first attempts to identify regulatory alterations linked to regressive changes in cave-dwelling populations of A. mexicanus. PMID:26462499

  8. Alterations in Mc1r gene expression are associated with regressive pigmentation in Astyanax cavefish.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Bethany A; Gross, Joshua B

    2015-11-01

    Diverse changes in coloration across distant taxa are mediated through alterations in certain highly conserved pigmentation genes. Among these genes, Mc1r is a frequent target for mutation, and many documented alterations involve coding sequence changes. We investigated whether regulatory mutations in Mc1r may also contribute to pigmentation loss in the blind Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus. This species comprises multiple independent cave populations that have evolved reduced (or absent) melanic pigmentation as a consequence of living in darkness for millions of generations. Among the most salient cave-associated traits, complete absence (albinism) or reduced levels of pigmentation (brown) have long been the focus of degenerative pigmentation research in Astyanax. These two Mendelian traits have been linked to specific coding mutations in Oca2 (albinism) and Mc1r (brown). However, four of the seven caves harboring the brown phenotype exhibit unaffected coding sequences compared to surface fish. Thus, diverse genetic changes involving the same genes likely impact reduced pigmentation among cavefish populations. Using both sequence and expression analyses, we show that certain cave-dwelling populations harboring the brown mutation have substantial alterations to the putative Mc1r cis-regulatory region. Several of these sequence mutations in the Mc1r 5' region were present across multiple, independent cave populations. This study suggests that pigmentation reduction in Astyanax cavefish evolves through a combination of both coding and cis-regulatory mutations. Moreover, this study represents one of the first attempts to identify regulatory alterations linked to regressive changes in cave-dwelling populations of A. mexicanus.

  9. Elevated expression of KIF18A enhances cell proliferation and predicts poor survival in human clear cell renal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, QI; CAO, BIN; NAN, NING; WANG, YU; ZHAI, XU; LI, YOUFANG; CHONG, TIE

    2016-01-01

    The function of kinesin family member 18A (KIF18A) in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine the expression and prognostic significance of KIF18A in RCC. Specimens from 273 RCC patients undergoing nephrectomies were studied. Expression of KIF18A mRNA was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or quantitative PCR, and the expression of KIF18A protein was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The expression of KIF18A in clear-cell RCC cell lines was decreased using small interfering RNA targeting KIF18A, and increased by transfection with KIF18A cDNA. The proliferative ability of RCC cells in vitro and in vivo was detected by WST-1 assay and an animal xenograft model with BALB/c nude mice, respectively. The association between KIF18A expression and overall survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The results showed that KIF18A expression was significantly increased in RCC tissues compared with normal kidney tissues. The level of KIF18A expression was significantly associated with tumor stage, histological grade, metastasis and tumor size. Moreover, KIF18A increased the proliferation of RCC cells in vitro and in vivo. KIF18A expression was upregulated in RCC and enhanced the proliferation of RCC cells. Therefore, it appears that KIF18A plays a key role in the carcinogenesis and progression of RCC, and is a novel candidate prognostic marker for RCC patients. Furthermore, silencing KIF18A expression may serve as a new therapeutic strategy against RCC. PMID:27347065

  10. Spaceflight induces both transient and heritable alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ou, Xiufang; Long, Likun; Zhang, Yunhong; Xue, Yiqun; Liu, Jingchun; Lin, Xiuyun; Liu, Bao

    2009-03-01

    Spaceflight represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as cosmic radiation, microgravity and space magnetic fields are involved, which may provoke stress responses and jeopardize genome integrity. Given the inherent property of epigenetic modifications to respond to intrinsic as well as external perturbations, it is conceivable that epigenetic markers like DNA methylation may undergo alterations in response to spaceflight. We report here that extensive alteration in both DNA methylation and gene expression occurred in rice plants subjected to a spaceflight, as revealed by a set of characterized sequences including 6 transposable elements (TEs) and 11 cellular genes. We found that several features characterize the alterations: (1) All detected alterations are hypermethylation events; (2) whereas alteration in both CG and CNG methylation occurred in the TEs, only alteration in CNG methylation occurred in the cellular genes; (3) alteration in expression includes both up- and down-regulations, which did not show a general correlation with alteration in methylation; (4) altered methylation patterns in both TEs and cellular genes are heritable to progenies at variable frequencies; however, stochastic reversion to wild-type patterns and further de novo changes in progenies are also apparent; and (5) the altered expression states in both TEs and cellular genes are also heritable to selfed progenies but with markedly lower transmission frequencies than altered DNA methylation states. Furthermore, we found that a set of genes encoding for the various putative DNA methyltransferases, 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases, the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeller (DDM1) and siRNA-related proteins are extremely sensitive to perturbation by spaceflight, which might be an underlying cause for the altered methylation patterns in the space-flown plants. We discuss implications of spaceflight-induced epigenetic variations with regard to health safety

  11. Disordered regulation of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase gene expression by phosphorus in X-linked hypophosphatemic (hyp) mice.

    PubMed

    Azam, Nasreen; Zhang, Martin Y H; Wang, Xuemei; Tenenhouse, Harriet S; Portale, Anthony A

    2003-08-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemic (Hyp) mice exhibit hypophosphatemia, impaired renal phosphate reabsorption, defective skeletal mineralization, and disordered regulation of vitamin D metabolism: In Hyp mice, restriction of dietary phosphorus induces a decrease in serum concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and renal activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase), and induces an increase in renal activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (24-hydroxylase). In contrast, in wild-type mice, phosphorus restriction stimulates renal 1alpha-hydroxylase gene expression and suppresses that of 24-hydroxylase. To determine the molecular basis for the disordered regulation of vitamin D metabolism in Hyp mice, we determined renal mitochondrial 1alpha-hydroxylase activity and the renal abundance of p450c1alpha and p450c24 mRNA in wild-type and Hyp mice fed either control, low-, or high-phosphorus diets for 5 d. In wild-type mice, phosphorus restriction increased 1alpha-hydroxylase activity and p450c1alpha mRNA expression by 6-fold and 3-fold, respectively, whereas in the Hyp strain the same diet induced changes of similar magnitude but opposite in direction. Phosphorus supplementation was without effect in wild-type mice, whereas in Hyp mice the same diet induced 3-fold and 2-fold increases, respectively, in enzyme activity and p450c1alpha mRNA abundance. In wild-type mice, both renal 1alpha-hydroxylase activity and p450c1alpha mRNA abundance varied inversely and significantly with serum phosphorus concentrations, whereas in Hyp mice the relationship between both renal parameters and serum phosphorus concentration was direct. In Hyp mice, phosphorus restriction induced a significant increase in renal p450c24 mRNA abundance, in contrast to the lack of effect observed in wild-type mice. The present findings demonstrate that regulation of both the p450c1alpha and p45024 genes by phosphorus is disordered in Hyp mice at the level of renal 1alpha

  12. Chronic antidepressant treatments resulted in altered expression of genes involved in inflammation in the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Alboni, Silvia; Benatti, Cristina; Montanari, Claudia; Tascedda, Fabio; Brunello, Nicoletta

    2013-12-01

    To gain insight into the possible immune targets of antidepressant, we evaluated the expression of several inflammatory mediators in the hypothalamus of rats chronically (28 days) treated with the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (5mg/kg, i.p.) or the tricyclic compound imipramine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). We focused our attention on the hypothalamus as it plays a key role in determining many of the somatic symptoms experienced by depressed patients. This brain region, critical also for expression of motivated behaviours, participates in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and in stress response as well as coordinates physiological functions such as sleep and food intake that have been found altered in a high percentage of depressed patients. Notably, hypothalamus is a key structure for brain cytokine expression and function as it integrates signals from the neuro, immune, endocrine systems. By means of quantitative Real Time PCR experiments we demonstrated that a chronic treatment with either fluoxetine or imipramine resulted in a reduction of IL-6 and IFN-γ mRNAs and increased IL-4 mRNA expression in the rat hypothalamus. Moreover, we demonstrated that hypothalamic expression of members of IL-18 system was differentially affected by chronic antidepressant treatments. Chronically administered fluoxetine decreased IL-8 and CX3CL1 hypothalamic expression, while a chronic treatment with imipramine decreased p11 mRNA. Our data suggest that a shift in the balance of the inflammation toward an anti-inflammatory state in the hypothalamus may represent a common mechanism of action of both the chronic treatments with fluoxetine and imipramine.

  13. Altered hypothalamic inflammatory gene expression correlates with heat stroke severity in a conscious rodent model.

    PubMed

    Audet, Gerald N; Dineen, Shauna M; Quinn, Carrie M; Leon, Lisa R

    2016-04-15

    It has been suggested that heat-induced hypothalamic damage mediates core temperature (Tc) disturbances during heat stroke (HS) recovery; this is significant as hypothermia and/or fever have been linked to severity and overall pathological insult. However, to date there has been a lack of histological evidence in support of these claims. We hypothesized that local hypothalamic cytokines and/or chemokines, known regulators of Tc, are mediating the elevation in Tc during HS recovery even in the absence of histological damage. In experiment 1, the hypothalamus of Fischer 344 rats was examined for 84 cytokine/chemokine genes (real-time PCR) at multiple time points (Tc,Max, 1, 3, and 10 days) during mild HS recovery. In experiment 2, the hypothalamus of three different HS severities (MILD, moderate [MOD], and severe [SEV]) in rats were examined for the same genes as experiment 1 as well as six oxidative damage markers, at a single intermediate time point (1 day). Systemic cytokines were also analyzed in experiment 2 across the three severities. There were significant alterations in 25 cytokines/chemokines expression at Tc,Max, but little or no changes in expression at longer time points in experiment 1. In experiment 2 there were significant changes in gene expression in SEV rats only, with MILD and MOD rats showing baseline expression at 1 day, despite an absence of systemic cytokine expression in any severity. There was also no change in any oxidative marker of damage at 1 day, regardless of severity. In conclusion, we show only limited changes during long term recovery from HS, but demonstrate differences in hypothalamic gene expression patterns that may be driving HS pathology and morbidity. These findings contribute to our overall understanding of HS pathology in the CNS, as well as providing avenues for future pharmacological intervention. PMID:26876741

  14. Characteristics of nobiletin-mediated alteration of gene expression in cultured cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Ikeda, Ayaka; Yoshida, Chiaki; Kimura, Junko; Mori, Junki; Fujiwara, Hironori; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Degawa, Masakuni

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Nobiletin-mediated alterations of gene expression were examined with DNA microarrays. ► Three organ-derived cell lines were treated with 100 μM nobiletin for 24 h. ► In all cell lines, 3 endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive genes were up-regulated. ► Some cell cycle-regulating and oxidative stress-promoting genes were down-regulated. ► These alterations may contribute to nobiletin-mediated biological effects. -- Abstract: Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid that is highly contained in the peels of citrus fruits, exerts a wide variety of beneficial effects, including anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells, repressive effects in hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and ameliorative effects in dementia at in vitro and in vivo levels. In the present study, to further understand the mechanisms of these actions of nobiletin, the nobiletin-mediated alterations of gene expression in three organ-derived cell lines – 3Y1 rat fibroblasts, HuH-7 human hepatocarcinoma cells, and SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells – were first examined with DNA microarrays. In all three cell lines, treatments with nobiletin (100 μM) for 24 h resulted in more than 200% increases in the expression levels of five genes, including the endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive genes Ddit3, Trib3, and Asns, and in less than 50% decreases in the expression levels of seven genes, including the cell cycle-regulating genes Ccna2, Ccne2, and E2f8 and the oxidative stress-promoting gene Txnip. It was also confirmed that in each nobiletin-treated cell line, the levels of the DDIT3 (DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3, also known as CHOP and GADD153) and ASNS (asparagine synthetase) proteins were increased, while the level of the TXNIP (thioredoxin-interacting protein, also known as VDUP1 and TBP-2) protein was decreased. All these findings suggest that nobiletin exerts a wide variety of biological effects, at least partly, through induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and

  15. Changes in mitochondrial DNA alter expression of nuclear encoded genes associated with tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jandova, Jana; Janda, Jaroslav; Sligh, James E

    2012-10-15

    We previously reported the presence of a mtDNA mutation hotspot in UV-induced premalignant and malignant skin tumors in hairless mice. We have modeled this change (9821insA) in murine cybrid cells and demonstrated that this alteration in mtDNA associated with mtBALB haplotype can alter the biochemical characteristics of cybrids and subsequently can contribute to significant changes in their behavioral capabilities. This study shows that changes in mtDNA can produce differences in expression levels of specific nuclear-encoded genes, which are capable of triggering the phenotypes such as seen in malignant cells. From a potential list of differentially expressed genes discovered by microarray analysis, we selected MMP-9 and Col1a1 for further studies. Real-time PCR confirmed up-regulation of MMP-9 and down-regulation of Col1a1 in cybrids harboring the mtDNA associated with the skin