Science.gov

Sample records for alternate soil clean-up

  1. Cleaning up soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Arniella, E.F. ); Holley, R.E. )

    1991-08-01

    This article describes one new technology used to clean up soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from underground storage tanks. Topics covered include cleanup criteria, soil remediation technologies, air stripping-soil venting system and process design and performance. This contaminated site was located in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area.

  2. Clean-up criteria for remediation of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.D.; Wilson, J.R.; Sato, Chikashi

    1997-08-01

    {open_quotes}How clean is clean?{close_quotes} is a question commonly raised in the remediation of contaminated soils. To help with the answer, criteria are proposed to serve as guidelines for remedial actions and to define a clean-up level such that the remaining contaminant residuals in the soil will not violate the Drinking Water Standards (DWS). The equations for computing those criteria are developed from the principle of conservation of mass and are functions of the maximum concentration level in the water (MCL) and the sorption coefficient. A multiplier, ranging from 10 to 1000, is also factored into the soil standard equation to reflect the effectiveness of various remediation techniques. Maximum allowable concentration in the soil (MSCL) is presented for several contaminants which are being regulated at the present time. Future modifications are recommended for better estimates of the MSCLs as additional transport mechanisms are incorporated to account for other potentially dominant effects.

  3. Application of State and Federal Guidelines for Establishing Alternate Soil Clean-Up Levels for the Protection of Groundwater at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, K.; McMahon, W.; Hoover, J.

    2008-07-01

    Risk-based soil cleanup levels that are protective of groundwater have been calculated for use in environmental remediation activities at the Hanford Site using vadose zone fate and transport modeling. The determination of soil cleanup levels is important because it involves the technical basis for the levels of contamination that can be left in place, which are protective of human health and the environment. The determination of risk-based soil cleanup levels is an especially important issue at the Hanford Site where site conditions such as a semi-arid climate, and a thick vadose zone of over 100 meters necessitate the use of appropriate risk-based methods. In the absence of an alternative risk-based approach, the cleanup levels default to background, detection limits, or simplistic formulas not intended for applications involving these distinctive site conditions. However, the use of vadose zone fate and transport modeling for risk-based applications such as the determination of soil cleanup levels in the vadose zone are not as well established as modeling for groundwater applications. Thus, the use of models in this manner involves additional challenges for the demonstration of the efficacy of its use for risk-based applications, in accordance with federal and state regulatory requirements and guidelines. An approach has been developed to integrate with federal and state regulatory guidelines in conjunction with the development of the risk-based methodology. Demonstration of integration with these guidelines primarily involves documentation of the objectives of the problem to be solved, the technical basis and rationale associated with the selection of an appropriate risk-based method (e.g., model type and code selection), and documentation associated with the use of the model, e.g., conceptual site model, parameter estimation, uncertainty and assumptions analyses, and model results. (authors)

  4. An alternative clean-up column for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in solid matrices.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Elizabeth N; Madadi, Vincent O; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The need for continuous monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has necessitated the development of analytical techniques that are sensitive and selective with minimal reagent requirement. In light of this, we developed a column for clean-up of soil and sediment extracts, which is less demanding in terms of the amount of solvent and sorbent. The dual-layer column consists of acidified silica gel and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). MIPs were synthesized via aqueous suspension polymerization using PCB 15 as the dummy template, 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and the obtained particles characterized via SEM, BET, and batch rebinding assays. Pre-concentration of the spiked real-world water sample using MISPE gave recoveries between 85.2 and 104.4% (RSD < 8.69). On the other hand, the specific dual-layer column designed for clean-up of extracts from complex matrices provided recoveries of 91.6-102.5% (RSD < 4%) for spiked soil, which was comparable to clean-up using acidified silica (70.4-90.5%; RSD < 3.72%) and sulfoxide modified silica (89.7-103.0%; RSD < 13.0%). However, the polymers were reusable maintaining recoveries of 79.8-111.8% after 30 cycles of regeneration and re-use, thereby availing a cost-effective clean-up procedure for continuous monitoring of PCBs. Method detection limits were 0.01-0.08 ng g(-1) and 0.002-0.01 ng mL(-1) for solid matrices and water, respectively.

  5. Next steps in the development of ecological soil clean-up values for metals.

    PubMed

    Wentsel, Randall; Fairbrother, Anne

    2014-07-01

    This special series in Integrated Environmental Assessment Management presents the results from 6 workgroups that were formed at the workshop on Ecological Soil Levels-Next Steps in the Development of Metal Clean-Up Values (17-21 September 2012, Sundance, Utah). This introductory article presents an overview of the issues assessors face when conducting risk assessments for metals in soils, key US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) documents on metals risk assessment, and discusses the importance of leveraging from recent major terrestrial research projects, primarily to address Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances (REACH) requirements in Europe, that have significantly advanced our understanding of the behavior and toxicity of metals in soils. These projects developed large data sets that are useful for the risk assessment of metals in soil environments. The workshop attendees met to work toward developing a process for establishing ecological soil clean-up values (Eco-SCVs). The goal of the workshop was to progress from ecological soil screening values (Eco-SSLs) to final clean-up values by providing regulators with the methods and processes to incorporate bioavailability, normalize toxicity thresholds, address food-web issues, and incorporate background concentrations. The REACH data sets were used by workshop participants as case studies in the development of the ecological standards for soils. The workshop attendees discussed scientific advancements in bioavailability, soil biota and wildlife case studies, soil processes, and food-chain modeling. In addition, one of the workgroups discussed the processes needed to frame the topics to gain regulatory acceptance as a directive or guidance by Canada, the USEPA, or the United States.

  6. Cleaning-up atrazine-polluted soil by using Microbial Electroremediating Cells.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Garay, Ainara; Boltes, Karina; Esteve-Núñez, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    Biodegradation of pollutants in soil is greatly limited by the availability of terminal electron acceptors required for supporting microbial respiration. Such limitation can be overcome if soil-buried electrodes accept the electrons released in the microbial metabolism. We propose the term bioelectroventing for such a environmental treatment. The process would be performed in a device so-called Microbial Electroremediating Cell. Indeed, our studies demonstrate that the presence of electrodes as electron acceptors effectively stimulated by 5-fold the biodegradation rate of the herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl amino-1,3,5-triazine) in comparison with soil natural attenuation. Furthermore, a different set of toxicological test using Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata green alga e, Salmonella typhimorium bacteria and Sorghum saccharatum plant seeds respectively, confirm that atrazine-polluted soil can be effectively cleaned-up in short time by the use of MERCs. PMID:27448317

  7. Cleaning-up atrazine-polluted soil by using Microbial Electroremediating Cells.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Garay, Ainara; Boltes, Karina; Esteve-Núñez, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    Biodegradation of pollutants in soil is greatly limited by the availability of terminal electron acceptors required for supporting microbial respiration. Such limitation can be overcome if soil-buried electrodes accept the electrons released in the microbial metabolism. We propose the term bioelectroventing for such a environmental treatment. The process would be performed in a device so-called Microbial Electroremediating Cell. Indeed, our studies demonstrate that the presence of electrodes as electron acceptors effectively stimulated by 5-fold the biodegradation rate of the herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl amino-1,3,5-triazine) in comparison with soil natural attenuation. Furthermore, a different set of toxicological test using Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata green alga e, Salmonella typhimorium bacteria and Sorghum saccharatum plant seeds respectively, confirm that atrazine-polluted soil can be effectively cleaned-up in short time by the use of MERCs.

  8. Enhanced phyto-extraction not a feasible option to clean up uranium contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Duquene, Lise; Wannijn, Jean; Filip, Tack; Baeten, Joke

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A greenhouse experiment was set up to evaluate the potential of enhanced phyto-extraction to clean up U contaminated soils. One soil had a naturally high U concentration and the other soil was impacted by effluents from the former radium extraction industry. Enhancement of U solubility and uptake by plants (ryegrass and Indian mustard) was monitored after addition of 5 chemical amendments (5 mmol kg{sup -1} soil dry weight): citric acid, ammonium citrate-citric acid mixture, oxalic acid, EDDS and NTA. Uranium solubilization and uptake were highly influenced by the amendment applied and soil-plant combinations. Citric acid was most effective in increasing U solubility (up to 18-fold increase). Citric acid and the ammonium citrate-citric acid mixture were most effective in increasing U uptake by ryegrass (up to 6-fold). For Indian mustard, EDDS and citric acid were most effective (up to 9- fold). In the optimal scenario only 0.16 % of the total uranium present in the soil could be extracted with one harvest and it would take more than 200 years to reduce the initial uranium content with 10 %. Based on these results, we must conclude that phyto-extraction is not a feasible technique to decrease the uranium concentration of historically contaminated soils. (authors)

  9. From conceptual model to remediation: bioavailability, a key to clean up heavy metal contaminated soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Pedron, Francesca; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2013-04-01

    Processes of metal bioavailability in the soil To know the bioavailability processes at site specific levels is essential to understand in detail the risks associated with pollution, and to support the decision-making process, i.e. description of the conceptual model and choice of clean up technologies. It is particularly important to assess how chemical, physical and biological processes in the soil affect the reactions leading to adsorption, precipitation or release of contaminants. The measurement of bioavailability One of the main difficulties in the practical application of the bioavailability concept in soil remediation is the lack of consensus on the method to be used to measure bioavailability. The best strategy is to apply a series of tests to assess bioavailability, since no applicable method is universally valid under all conditions. As an example, bioavailability tests for phytotechnology application should consider two distinct aspects: a physico-chemical driven solubilization process and a physiologically driven uptake process. Soil and plant characteristics strongly influence bioavailability. Bioavailability as a tool in remediation strategies Bioavailability can be used at all stages in remediation strategies: development of the conceptual model, evaluation of risk assessment, and selection of the best technology, considering different scenarios and including different environmental objectives. Two different strategies can be followed: the reduction and the increase of bioavailability. Procedures that reduce bioavailability aim to prevent the movement of pollutants from the soil to the living organisms, essentially by: i) removal of the labile phase of the contaminant, i.e. the fraction which is intrinsic to the processes of bioavailability (phytostabilization); ii) conversion of the labile fraction into a stable fraction (precipitation or adsorption); iii) increase of the resistance to mass transfer of the contaminants (inertization). Procedures

  10. Capacity of the bioremediation technology for clean-up of soil and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Masak, Jan; Machackova, Jirina; Siglova, Martina; Cejkova, Alena; Jirku, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    A column reactor was designed and used to simulate conditions affecting the bioremediations of petroleum hydrocarbons. The work illustratively describes the aerobic (model) clean-up of soil samples enabling to predict the efficiency of a technology installed in parallel on contaminated former airport. The data showing the performance of thus precharacterized technology are presented.

  11. Methodology and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative environmental restoration clean-up goals

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, M.R.; Short, S.M.; Stiles, D.L.

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the methodologies and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative strategies for conducting remediation of all DOE sites and facilities, but does not address issues relating to Waste Management capabilities. Clean-up strategies and their corresponding goals for contaminated media may be driven by concentration-based regulatory standards, land-use standards (e.g., residential, industrial, wild life reserve, or totally restricted), risk-based standards, or other standards determined through stakeholder input. Strategies implemented to achieve these goals usually require the deployment of (a) clean-up technologies to destroy, remove, or contain the contaminants of concern; (b) institutional controls to prevent potential receptors from coming into contact with the contaminants; or (c) a combination of the above.

  12. Cleaning up

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, T.S.

    1993-02-01

    This article reports on the electronics manufacturer's response to findings that chemicals used in manufacturing integrated circuits induced miscarriages in plant workers and other environmental problems such as ozone depletion and the use of heavy metals and toxic gases in manufacturing. The topics of the article include the finding that a photoresist is at fault, the phase-out of ethylene glycol ethers, alternatives to ethylene glycol ethers, ozone-eating CFCs, use of citrus derived substitutes for CFCs, alternative manufacturing processes, substitutes for other ozone depleting chemicals, and the use of heavy metals in electronics manufacturing.

  13. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, J.D.; Meltzer, M.; Miscovich, D.; Montoya, D.; Goodrich, P.; Blycker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL`s findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria.

  14. Phytoextraction for clean-up of low-level uranium contaminated soil evaluated.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, H; Van Hees, M

    2004-01-01

    Spills in the nuclear fuel cycle have led to soil contamination with uranium. In case of small contamination just above release levels, low-cost yet sufficiently efficient remedial measures are recommended. This study was executed to test if low-level U contaminated sandy soil from a nuclear fuel processing site could be phytoextracted in order to attain the required release limits. Two soils were tested: a control soil (317 Bq 238U kg(-1)) and the same soil washed with bicarbonate (69 Bq 238U kg(-1)). Ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Melvina) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Vitasso) were used as test plants. The annual removal of soil activity by the biomass was less than 0.1%. The addition of citric acid (25 mmol kg(-1)) 1 week before the harvest increased U uptake up to 500-fold. With a ryegrass and mustard yield of 15,000 and 10,000 kg ha(-1), respectively, up to 3.5% and 4.6% of the soil activity could be removed annually by the biomass. With a desired activity reduction level of 1.5 and 5 for the bicarbonate-washed and control soil, respectively, it would take 10-50 years to attain the release limit. However, citric acid addition resulted in a decreased dry weight production. PMID:15162854

  15. PHYTOREMEDIATION: USING PLANTS TO CLEAN UP CONTAMINATED SOIL, GROUNDWATER, AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoremediation is an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost. The cleanup technology is defined as the use of green plants to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy ...

  16. Phytoremediation: using green plants to clean up contaminate soil, groundwater, and wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M.C.; Hinchman, R.R.; Gatliff, E.G.

    1996-07-01

    Phytoremediation, an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost, is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses, forbs, and woody species) to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy metals, trace elements, organic compounds and radioactive compounds in soil or water. Our research includes a successful field demonstration of a plant bioreactor for processing the salty wastewater from petroleum wells; the demonstration is currently under way at a natural gas well site in Oklahoma, in cooperation with Devon Energy Corporation. A greenhouse experiment on zinc uptake in hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) was initiated in 1995. These experiments are being conducted to confirm and extend field data indicating high levels of zinc (4,200 ppm) in leaves of hybrid poplar growing as a cleanup system at a site with zinc contamination in the root zone of some of the trees. Analyses of soil water from experimental pots that had received several doses of zinc indicated that the zinc was totally sequestered by the plants in about 4 hours during a single pass through the root system. The data also showed concentrations of sequestered metal of >38,000 ppm Zn in the dry root tissue. These levels of sequestered zinc exceed the levels found in either roots or tops of many of the known ``hyperaccumulator`` species. Because the roots sequester most of the contaminant taken up in most plants, a major objective of this program is to determine the feasibility of root harvesting as a method to maximize the removal of contaminants from soils. Available techniques and equipment for harvesting plant roots, including young tree roots, are being evaluated and modified as necessary for use with phytoremediation plants.

  17. Soil clean up by venting: comparison between modelling and experimental VOC removal results.

    PubMed

    Brusturean, G A; Todinca, T; Perju, D; Carré, J; Bourgois, J

    2007-10-01

    Many investigations into specific or accidental pollution relate to hydrocarbons of oil origin: fuels (gasoline or gas oil), fuel oil and lubricants. Pollution by petroleum products is a source of volatile organic compounds in soil. Therefore, laboratory column venting experiments were completed in order to investigate the removal of a pure compound (toluene) and a mixture of two (toluene and n-heptane) and five (toluene, n-heptane, ethylbenzene, m-xylene and p-xylene) compounds. The choice of the compounds, as well as their proportion in the mixture was made on the basis of the real fuel composition. The objective of this study is a comparison between the experimental volatile organic compounds removal results and the predicted values of a simple classical analytical mathematical model that enables the modelling of the venting process. The proposed model for the contaminants transport describes the removal of organic compounds from soil, the contaminants being distributed among four phases: vapour, nonaqueous liquid phase, aqueous and "solid" phase; local phases equilibrium and ideal behaviour of all four phases were found to be accurate enough to describe the interphase mass transfer. The testing of the mathematical model accuracy has been done by using the following performance criteria: dynamic absolute error, average error, model accuracy and correlation coefficient. The reasonable agreement between the predicted and the experimental results as well as the values of the performance criteria prove that the mathematical model is suitable to describe the removal of volatile organic compounds pollutants by venting in the range of experimental conditions used in the pilot plant. PMID:17970522

  18. The NucleoSpin® DNA Clean-up XS kit for the concentration and purification of genomic DNA extracts: an alternative to microdialysis filtration.

    PubMed

    Hudlow, William R; Krieger, Robert; Meusel, Markus; Sehhat, Joshua C; Timken, Mark D; Buoncristiani, Martin R

    2011-06-01

    Traditionally, DNA extracts from biological evidence items have been concentrated and rinsed using microdialysis filtration units, including the Centricon(®) and Microcon(®) centrifugal filter devices. As an alternative to microdialysis filtration, we present an optimized method for using NucleoSpin(®) XS silica columns to concentrate and clean-up aqueous extracts from the organic extraction of DNA from biological samples. The method can be used with standard organic extraction and dithiothreitol (DTT)-based differential extraction methods with no modifications to these methods prior to the concentration and clean-up step. Extracts from laboratory-prepared bloodstains, saliva and semen stains have been successfully amplified with both qPCR and STR assays. Finally, the total time to process a set of samples with the NucleoSpin(®) XS column is approximately 30 min vs. approximately 1.5h with the Centricon(®) YM-100 filter device.

  19. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  20. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  1. Ultrasonic extraction of veterinary antibiotics from soils and pig slurry with SPE clean-up and LC-UV and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Paul A; Holten Lützhøft, Hans-Christian; Ma, Hai-Ping; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Boxall, Alistair B A; Kay, Paul

    2004-11-15

    A simple and rapid analytical method is presented in which the three veterinary antibiotics oxytetracycline (OTC), sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) and tylosin (TYL) are simultaneously extracted and determined in four different soils. Extractions were carried out by a combination of ultrasonic agitation and vortex mixing using a mixture of methanol, EDTA and McIlvaine buffer at pH 7 as the extractant solution. The extracts were then cleaned-up by a tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) method using an Isolute SAX anion exchange cartridge to remove natural organic matter and an Oasis HLB polymeric cartridge to retain the study compounds. Analysis was by HPLC-UV with additional fluorescence detection for SCP. Recoveries were in the range 68-85% for SCP in all soil types, 58-75% for OTC in sandy soils, 27-51% for OTC in clay containing soils, 74-105% for TYL and 47-61% in a clay soil. OTC and SCP were also extracted from liquid pig manure using a mixture of EDTA and McIlvaine buffer at pH 7 with ultrasonic agitation and vortex mixing with SPE clean-up and HPLC-UV analysis. Recoveries were greater than 77% and 58% for OTC and SCP, respectively. Limits of detection were 18mugkg(-1) for OTC and SCP and 40mugkg(-1) for TYL in soils and 70mugL(-1) for OTC and 140mugL(-1) for SCP in pig slurry. PMID:18969712

  2. Innovative Integration of Decommissioning and Deactivation Program with Soil-Groundwater Clean Up Program Has Positive Results on Budget and Schedule: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schappell, B; Rucker, G

    2007-07-25

    An innovative approach to integrate the activities of a decommissioning and deactivation program (D&D) with a soil-groundwater clean up program has had significant positive results saving both money and time at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. The accomplishments that have been achieved by the combining the two programs have been remarkable including significant cost savings, economies of scale for sampling and document generation, and alignment of common objectives. Because of the coordination of both activities area-wide ''end states'' can be formulated and be consistent with the customers' cleanup goals and federal regulations. This coordinates and aligns both the environmental clean up and D&D objectives because each must be addressed simultaneously and comprehensively. In this respect, resources from both organizations can be pooled to take advantage of the strengths of each. The new approach allows more efficient use of lean financial resources and optimizes workforce activities to attain the common objectives while being more cost effective, more protective of the environment, and optimizing the use existing resources.

  3. Metal-accumulating plants: The biological resource and its commercial exploitation is soil clean-up technology

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.J.M.; Reeves, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a broad overview of metal hyperaccumulator plants and biological accumulation technology. Plants that have been identified as having the greatest potentials for development as phytoremediator crops for metal-contaminated soils are very briefly discussed. Phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, and phytostabilization are briefly defined. Issues pertinent to large scale phytoremediation of soils are discussed, including biological and technological constraints.

  4. Enrichment of perfluorinated alkyl substances on polyethersulfone using 1-methylpyperidine as ion-pair reagent for the clean-up of carrot and amended soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, Ekhiñe; Zabaleta, Itsaso; Iparraguirre, Arantza; Aguirre, Josu; Fernández, Luis Ángel; Berger, Urs; Prieto, Ailette; Zuloaga, Olatz

    2015-10-01

    The development of a simple, cheap and environment friendly analytical method for the simultaneous determination of different perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including seven perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, three perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonamide in carrot and amended soil was carried out in the present work. The method was based on focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction followed by extract clean-up through enrichment of the target compounds on a polymeric material using an ion-pair reagent and detection by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The following variables affecting the clean-up step were evaluated: the nature of the polymeric material (polyethersulfone, PES, versus silicone rod), the amount of the polymeric material (from 1 to 9 mg), the ion-pair reagent (1-methylpyperidine, 1-MP, versus tetrabutylammonium salts), the concentration of the ion-pair reagent (from 5 to 50 mM) and the extraction time (from 15 min to 24 h). Optimum clean-up conditions were obtained using preconcentration on 9 mg of PES polymeric material combined with 5 mM 1-MP as ion-pair reagent for 3h. The method was validated in terms of apparent recoveries in the range of 77-140% and 95-137% at the low concentration (50 ng g(-1)) and in the range of 70-136% and 79-132% at the high concentration (290 ng g(-1)) for amended soil and carrot, respectively, after correction with the corresponding labeled standards. Precision, as relative standard deviation, was within 2-23%, while method detection limits were 0.31-2.85 ng g(-1) for amended soil and 0.11-1.83 ng g(-1) for carrot. In the absence of a certified reference material for the target analytes in the matrices studied, inter-method comparison was carried out and the same samples were processed using two independent clean-up procedures, the one developed in the present work and a classical based on solid-phase extraction. Statistically comparable results were obtained according to the one

  5. Enrichment of perfluorinated alkyl substances on polyethersulfone using 1-methylpyperidine as ion-pair reagent for the clean-up of carrot and amended soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, Ekhiñe; Zabaleta, Itsaso; Iparraguirre, Arantza; Aguirre, Josu; Fernández, Luis Ángel; Berger, Urs; Prieto, Ailette; Zuloaga, Olatz

    2015-10-01

    The development of a simple, cheap and environment friendly analytical method for the simultaneous determination of different perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including seven perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, three perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonamide in carrot and amended soil was carried out in the present work. The method was based on focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction followed by extract clean-up through enrichment of the target compounds on a polymeric material using an ion-pair reagent and detection by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The following variables affecting the clean-up step were evaluated: the nature of the polymeric material (polyethersulfone, PES, versus silicone rod), the amount of the polymeric material (from 1 to 9 mg), the ion-pair reagent (1-methylpyperidine, 1-MP, versus tetrabutylammonium salts), the concentration of the ion-pair reagent (from 5 to 50 mM) and the extraction time (from 15 min to 24 h). Optimum clean-up conditions were obtained using preconcentration on 9 mg of PES polymeric material combined with 5 mM 1-MP as ion-pair reagent for 3h. The method was validated in terms of apparent recoveries in the range of 77-140% and 95-137% at the low concentration (50 ng g(-1)) and in the range of 70-136% and 79-132% at the high concentration (290 ng g(-1)) for amended soil and carrot, respectively, after correction with the corresponding labeled standards. Precision, as relative standard deviation, was within 2-23%, while method detection limits were 0.31-2.85 ng g(-1) for amended soil and 0.11-1.83 ng g(-1) for carrot. In the absence of a certified reference material for the target analytes in the matrices studied, inter-method comparison was carried out and the same samples were processed using two independent clean-up procedures, the one developed in the present work and a classical based on solid-phase extraction. Statistically comparable results were obtained according to the one

  6. CLEANING UP PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS: COMPARING EFFECTIVENESS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION WITH SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL DESORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site that is contaminated with high levels of p,p,-DDT, p,p,-DDD, p,p,-DDE, toxaphene and hexachlorocyclohexane. The effectiveness of supercritical fluid extraction ...

  7. Determining the clean-up radius of a soil-vapor extraction well: A computer modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Peramaki, M.P.

    1994-12-31

    Over the past decade soil-vapor extraction (SVE) has become the remedial technology of choice at many sites with soils impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Although SVE systems operating at most remediation sites are used to remove petroleum derivatives from highly permeable soils, SVE is now increasingly being used at Superfund and other waste disposal sites having complex geology and multiple contaminants of concern. The increased use of SVE has resulted in quality research that has removed much of the guess work from the design of such systems. Greater understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in SVE has resulted in increasingly effective applications of the technology. Computer modeling studies can be used to determine which site-specific parameters affect the EROI and to show the effects that variations in contaminant concentration, contaminant volatility, extraction well flow rate, well construction, remediation time period, and surface covering have on the EROI of a SVE well. The results of such computer modeling studies are valuable to SVE system designers as they illustrate the importance of proper SVE system configuration. Design guidelines gathered from the modeling studies are useful to aid remediation system designers in developing effective full-scale SVE systems.

  8. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-08-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

  9. Enantioseparation and determination of triticonazole enantiomers in fruits, vegetables, and soil using efficient extraction and clean-up methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Gao, Beibei; Tian, Mingming; Shi, Haiyan; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua

    2016-01-15

    An efficient and novel enantioseparation and determination method was developed to quantify the enantiomers of chiral triazole fungicide triticonazole in fruit, vegetable, and soil samples. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions, the enantiomers of triticonazole were completely enantioseparated on a cellulose tris(3-chloro-4-methyl phenyl carbamate) column with relatively good resolution (Rs=14.04). Two cleanup methods were compared to quantify the enantiomers of triticonazole. The modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) extraction procedure was achieved with sufficient recoveries and low detection limits. Good recoveries were obtained for the two enantiomers ranging from 84.1% to 103.2% in the six matrices, and the relative standard deviation values ranged from 1.7% to 8.4%. Under the optimal conditions, the obtained limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.0012-0.0031mg/kg for the two enantiomers, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.0036-0.0091mg/kg, which were lower than the maximum residue levels established in Japan. In addition, the stereochemical structure of triticonazole enantiomers were determined for the first time using a combination of experimental and predicted electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The first eluted enantiomer was confirmed to be (+)-(S)-triticonazole. These results indicate that the proposed method is convenient and reliable for the enantioselective detection of triticonazole in authentic samples. The proposed method could be widely applicable for investigating the stereoselective degradation of triticonazole in food and environmental matrices, providing additional information for reliable risk assessment of triazole fungicides. PMID:26724558

  10. Cleaning up underground contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    At hundreds of industrial and government sites across the United States, environmental consulting firms are designing permanent containment systems for underground contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels, cleaning solvents, and industrial chemicals. In quantities of thousands of liters or more, these chemicals threaten to contaminate drinking water supplies for hundreds of years. Typical containment systems (e.g., deep wells of cement or clay, or hydraulic pumping to control groundwater movement) can keep the chemicals from further contaminating groundwater if they are properly maintained for many years, but they do not remove the contaminants. Clearly, removing the contaminants from the soil is a much preferable solution than containing them and attempting to prevent their spread. A dynamic underground stripping process that combines steam and electrical heating of underground soils with vacuum extraction of vapors and fluids and guiding these processes by real-time monitoring methods is described.

  11. Encapsulation as a passive soil remediation alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Mario, B.R. De

    1996-12-31

    By implementing institutional and engineering controls, a passive, cost-effective, remedial alternative has allowed redevelopment of an abandoned, industrial, site located in Newark, New Jersey. Soil and groundwater contaminants at the site include volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and metals. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) recognized the impracticality of requiring an aggressive, localized, remedial action to clean up contaminated soil and groundwater in a region that has historically used fill to create land along the state`s waterways. By placing an institutional control, known as a Declaration of Environmental Restriction (DER), on the property, the NJDEP allowed contaminated fill to remain on site and approved encapsulation as the remedial action for the soil. The approved engineering control, encapsulation, consisted of the design and placement of an asphalt pavement cap that covered the affected areas of concern. The asphalt pavement cap prevents direct human contact to contaminated soil and leaching of contaminants in the soil into the groundwater by surface water infiltration. This paper focuses on the subsurface soil investigation and establishment of the DER. The benefits of this remedial alternative are: (1) the urban redevelopment of contaminated land while simultaneously ensuring protection to human health and the environment; (2) costs savings of not having to clean up a regional problem as if it were local; and (3) the facilitation of a property transfer transaction without the risk of future liability for an historical problem.

  12. TRACKING CLEAN UP AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL, C.W.

    2005-05-27

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA), is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), The Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for cleaning up the Hanford Site. Established in the 1940s to produce material for nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford is often referred to as the world's large environmental cleanup project. The Site covers more than 580 square miles in a relatively remote region of southeastern Washington state in the US. The production of nuclear materials at Hanford has left a legacy of tremendous proportions in terms of hazardous and radioactive waste. From a waste-management point of view, the task is enormous: 1700 waste sites; 450 billion gallons of liquid waste; 70 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater; 53 million gallons of tank waste; 9 reactors; 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil; 22 thousand drums of mixed waste; 2.3 tons of spent nuclear fuel; and 17.8 metric tons of plutonium-bearing material and this is just a partial listing. The agreement requires that DOE provide the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to the lead regulatory agency to help guide then in making decisions. The agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in it, or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The Action Plan that supports the TPA requires that Ecology and EPA have access to all data that is relevant to work performed, or to be performed, under the Agreement. Further, the Action Plan specifies two additional requirements: (1) that EPA, Ecology and their respective contractor staffs have access to all the information electronically, and (2) that the databases are accessible to, and used by, all personnel doing TPA

  13. Evaluation of alternative sorbents for dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up in the QuEChERS method for the determination of pesticide residues in rice by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Liziara da C; Caldas, Sergiane S; Prestes, Osmar D; Primel, Ednei G; Zanella, Renato

    2016-05-01

    Many compounds are used for pest control during the production and storage of rice, making it necessary to employ multiclass methods for pesticide residues determination. For this purpose, QuEChERS-based methods are very efficient, fast and accurate, and improvements in the clean-up step are important, especially for complex matrices, like cereals. In this work, different sorbents such as chitosan, florisil(®) , alumina, diatomaceous earth, graphitized carbon black, besides the commonly used primary secondary amine and octadecylsilane, were evaluated for dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up in acetate-buffered QuEChERS method for the determination of residues of 20 representative pesticides and one metabolite in rice by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The sorbent C18 presented the best results, however, chitosan showed similar results, and the best performance among the unconventional sorbents evaluated. The method limit of quantification, attending accuracy (70-120% recovery) and precision (RSD ≤20%) criteria, ranged from 5 to 20 μg/kg. Results showed that chitosan is an effective alternative to reduce analysis costs, maintaining the method reliability and accuracy.

  14. Deriving site-specific clean-up criteria to protect ecological receptors (plants and soil invertebrates) exposed to metal or metalloid soil contaminants via the direct contact exposure pathway.

    PubMed

    Checkai, Ron; Van Genderen, Eric; Sousa, José Paulo; Stephenson, Gladys; Smolders, Erik

    2014-07-01

    Soil contaminant concentration limits for the protection of terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates are commonly based on thresholds derived using data from laboratory ecotoxicity tests. A comprehensive assessment has been made for the derivation of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States; however, these limits are conservative because of their focus on high bioavailability scenarios. Here, we explain and evaluate approaches to soil limit derivation taken by 4 jurisdictions, 2 of which allow for correction of data for factors affecting bioavailability among soils, and between spiked and field-contaminated soils (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH] Regulation, European Union [EU], and the National Environment Protection Council [NEPC], Australia). Scientifically advanced features from these methods have been integrated into a newly developed method for deriving soil clean-up values (SCVs) within the context of site-specific baseline ecological risk assessment. Resulting site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability may permit a greater residual concentration in soil when compared to generic screening limit concentrations (e.g., Eco-SSL), while still affording acceptable protection. Two choices for selecting the level of protection are compared (i.e., allowing higher effect levels per species, or allowing a higher percentile of species that are potentially unprotected). Implementation of this new method is presented for the jurisdiction of the United States, with a focus on metal and metalloid contaminants; however, the new method can be used in any jurisdiction. A case study for molybdate shows the large effect of bioavailability corrections and smaller effects of protection level choices when deriving SCVs.

  15. Deriving site-specific clean-up criteria to protect ecological receptors (plants and soil invertebrates) exposed to metal or metalloid soil contaminants via the direct contact exposure pathway

    PubMed Central

    Checkai, Ron; Van Genderen, Eric; Sousa, José Paulo; Stephenson, Gladys; Smolders, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Soil contaminant concentration limits for the protection of terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates are commonly based on thresholds derived using data from laboratory ecotoxicity tests. A comprehensive assessment has been made for the derivation of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States; however, these limits are conservative because of their focus on high bioavailability scenarios. Here, we explain and evaluate approaches to soil limit derivation taken by 4 jurisdictions, 2 of which allow for correction of data for factors affecting bioavailability among soils, and between spiked and field-contaminated soils (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH] Regulation, European Union [EU], and the National Environment Protection Council [NEPC], Australia). Scientifically advanced features from these methods have been integrated into a newly developed method for deriving soil clean-up values (SCVs) within the context of site-specific baseline ecological risk assessment. Resulting site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability may permit a greater residual concentration in soil when compared to generic screening limit concentrations (e.g., Eco-SSL), while still affording acceptable protection. Two choices for selecting the level of protection are compared (i.e., allowing higher effect levels per species, or allowing a higher percentile of species that are potentially unprotected). Implementation of this new method is presented for the jurisdiction of the United States, with a focus on metal and metalloid contaminants; however, the new method can be used in any jurisdiction. A case study for molybdate shows the large effect of bioavailability corrections and smaller effects of protection level choices when deriving SCVs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:346–357. PMID:24470189

  16. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  17. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  18. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  19. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  20. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  1. Determination of benazolin-ethyl residues in soil and rape seed by SPE clean-up and GC with electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolu; Yang, Tao; Hu, Jiye

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed and established for residue determination of benazolin-ethyl in soil and rape seed samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Limits of quantification of the method are 0.005 mg/kg for both soil and rape seed, which are sufficiently below the maximum residue limit, and the limit of detection is 0.0023 ng. The average recoveries of the analyte range from 85.89 to 105.84% with relative standard deviations (coefficient of variation) less than 5.53% at the three spike levels (0.005, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg). The half-life of benazolin-ethyl in soil from the experimental field is 4.62 days. The final residues of benazolin-ethyl in soil and rape seed samples are lower than 0.005 mg/kg at harvest time. Direct confirmation of the analyte in real samples is achieved by GC-mass spectrometry. It is demonstrated that the proposed method is simple, rapid and efficient, and reliable to detect benazolin-ethyl residues in soil and rape seed samples.

  2. Determination of benazolin-ethyl residues in soil and rape seed by SPE clean-up and GC with electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolu; Yang, Tao; Hu, Jiye

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed and established for residue determination of benazolin-ethyl in soil and rape seed samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Limits of quantification of the method are 0.005 mg/kg for both soil and rape seed, which are sufficiently below the maximum residue limit, and the limit of detection is 0.0023 ng. The average recoveries of the analyte range from 85.89 to 105.84% with relative standard deviations (coefficient of variation) less than 5.53% at the three spike levels (0.005, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg). The half-life of benazolin-ethyl in soil from the experimental field is 4.62 days. The final residues of benazolin-ethyl in soil and rape seed samples are lower than 0.005 mg/kg at harvest time. Direct confirmation of the analyte in real samples is achieved by GC-mass spectrometry. It is demonstrated that the proposed method is simple, rapid and efficient, and reliable to detect benazolin-ethyl residues in soil and rape seed samples. PMID:22718745

  3. Clean-up of lead contaminated sites - the Ontario experience

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, R.J.; Linzon, S.N.; Stokes, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    Toronto Health Department testing of children residing near one of the smelters has continued to reveal a number of instances of elevated blood lead levels although levels have decreased significantly since the mid-1970's. Air lead emissions from the smelter have been controlled to the point where excursions of the 5 ug/m/sup 3/ Ontario ambient air quality criterion are infrequent. City of Toronto health authorities have expressed the concern that soil lead levels above 1000 ug/g may be associated with elevated blood lead levels in children. In response to this concern, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment conducted soil sampling on 389 residential properties near the smelter in 1985. The Phytoxicology Section of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment has recently recommended soil clean-up levels of lead and other metals for the decommissioning and redevelopment of industrially-contaminated sites. The recommended soil clean-up levels for lead are 1000 ug/g and 500 ug/g for industrial and residential redevelopment, respectively. The 500 ug/g residential clean-up criterion has been applied to the clean-up of land contaminated by an abandoned tannery and lead smelter complex in the city of Kingston, Ontario. 34 references, 4 tables.

  4. Rapid estimation of readily leachable triazine residues in soils using automatic kinetic bioaccessibility assays followed by on-line sorptive clean-up as a front-end to liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vida, Ana C F; Cocovi-Solberg, David J; Zagatto, Elias A G; Miró, Manuel

    2016-08-15

    An automatic batchwise bioaccessibility test was proposed for on-line monitoring of readily mobile pools of ametryn and atrazine residues in agricultural soils with different physicochemical properties. A 0.01molL(-1) CaCl2 solution mimicking rainwater percolation through the soil profiles was used for the herbicide extractions. The extract aliquots were successively sampled at regular time intervals in order to investigate the extraction kinetics. For extract clean-up and retention of freely dissolved target species, 30mg of restricted-access like copolymer were used as in-line sorptive material followed by elution with methanol and on-line heart-cut injection towards a C18 silica reversed-phase monolithic column (100×4.6mm) in a liquid chromatographic system. A mathematical model emphasized that the readily available pools vs time can be in most instances described by a first-order exponential equation, thus an asymptotical value is approached. Consequently, the leaching assays can be performed without attaining chemical equilibrium. Enhancement factors and detection limits were 10.2 and 18.8, and 0.40 and 0.37mgkg(-1) for ametryn and atrazine, respectively. The automatic method features good repeatability for leaching tests (r.s.d.: 11.8-10.2% for sandy and 3.7-6.2% for clayey soil). Reliable data, demonstrated with relative recoveries in the soil leachates ranging from 86 to 104%, were achieved in less than 35min, thus avoiding the need for up to 24h as recommended by standard leaching methods. PMID:27260437

  5. Rapid estimation of readily leachable triazine residues in soils using automatic kinetic bioaccessibility assays followed by on-line sorptive clean-up as a front-end to liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vida, Ana C F; Cocovi-Solberg, David J; Zagatto, Elias A G; Miró, Manuel

    2016-08-15

    An automatic batchwise bioaccessibility test was proposed for on-line monitoring of readily mobile pools of ametryn and atrazine residues in agricultural soils with different physicochemical properties. A 0.01molL(-1) CaCl2 solution mimicking rainwater percolation through the soil profiles was used for the herbicide extractions. The extract aliquots were successively sampled at regular time intervals in order to investigate the extraction kinetics. For extract clean-up and retention of freely dissolved target species, 30mg of restricted-access like copolymer were used as in-line sorptive material followed by elution with methanol and on-line heart-cut injection towards a C18 silica reversed-phase monolithic column (100×4.6mm) in a liquid chromatographic system. A mathematical model emphasized that the readily available pools vs time can be in most instances described by a first-order exponential equation, thus an asymptotical value is approached. Consequently, the leaching assays can be performed without attaining chemical equilibrium. Enhancement factors and detection limits were 10.2 and 18.8, and 0.40 and 0.37mgkg(-1) for ametryn and atrazine, respectively. The automatic method features good repeatability for leaching tests (r.s.d.: 11.8-10.2% for sandy and 3.7-6.2% for clayey soil). Reliable data, demonstrated with relative recoveries in the soil leachates ranging from 86 to 104%, were achieved in less than 35min, thus avoiding the need for up to 24h as recommended by standard leaching methods.

  6. EVALUATION OF PERSONAL COOLING DEVICES FOR A DIOXIN CLEAN-UP OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study investigated the use of personal coolers to increase worker productivity and safety while working at elevated, ambient temperatures cleaning up dioxin contaminated soil.^The study included laboratory tests to measure the thermal characteristics of the chemical protectiv...

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction as an on-line clean-up technique for rapid amperometric screening and alternative liquid chromatography for confirmation of paraquat and diquat in olive oil samples.

    PubMed

    Zougagh, M; Bouabdallah, M; Salghi, R; Hormatallah, A; Rios, A

    2008-09-12

    A rapid and simple method for the direct screening of paraquat (PQ) and diquat (DQ) in olive oil samples is proposed. The sample screening method involves supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (clean-up followed by the extraction of the analytes) followed by continuous flow electrochemical detection. Those samples for which the total concentration is close to or above the threshold limit established by the Columbian Society for Social Protection (0.05 microg g(-1)) are subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) with diode array detection (DAD). This confirmation method allows the determination of PQ and DQ in the range between 0.04 and 1.0 microg g(-1), with average relative standard deviations lower than 3.5%, and 0.003 and 0.002 microg g(-1) detection limits for PQ and DQ, respectively. The proposed arrangement opens up interesting prospects for the direct determination of polar pesticides in complex samples with a good throughput and a high level of automation.

  8. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  9. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  10. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  11. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  12. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  13. 48 CFR 52.236-12 - Cleaning Up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning Up. 52.236-12 Section 52.236-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED... Cleaning Up. As prescribed in 36.512, insert the following clause: Cleaning Up (APR 1984) The...

  14. 48 CFR 52.236-12 - Cleaning Up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning Up. 52.236-12 Section 52.236-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED... Cleaning Up. As prescribed in 36.512, insert the following clause: Cleaning Up (APR 1984) The...

  15. 48 CFR 52.236-12 - Cleaning Up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning Up. 52.236-12 Section 52.236-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED... Cleaning Up. As prescribed in 36.512, insert the following clause: Cleaning Up (APR 1984) The...

  16. 48 CFR 52.236-12 - Cleaning Up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning Up. 52.236-12 Section 52.236-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED... Cleaning Up. As prescribed in 36.512, insert the following clause: Cleaning Up (APR 1984) The...

  17. 48 CFR 52.236-12 - Cleaning Up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning Up. 52.236-12 Section 52.236-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED... Cleaning Up. As prescribed in 36.512, insert the following clause: Cleaning Up (APR 1984) The...

  18. Cockroaches probably cleaned up after dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces.

  19. Helping nature clean up oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, A.

    1996-11-01

    Oil spills are nothing new. In fact, for millions of years crude oil has been seeping up to the Earth`s surface, and for all that time Mother Nature has been on the job with microbes, or bacteria, to harmlessly convert the oil to water and carbon dioxide gas. Not all bacteria are bad. True, some can make us sick, however, the good ones help us bake bread, brew beer, and even clean up oil spills by a process known as biodegradation. Oil and bacteria don`t easily get together because oil and water don`t mix and bacteria prefer to stay in water. After some oil tankers spills in the English Channel 25 years ago, major oil companies (Arco, BP, Exxon, and others) developed oil dispersant products-specialized chemicals that make oils and sea water mix. The simplest examples of similar wetting agents are soaps and detergents. Now, thanks to dispersants, the natural bacteria at sea can easily get to the oil and the normally slow biodegradation process goes rather quickly.

  20. Cockroaches Probably Cleaned Up after Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces. PMID:24324610

  1. Interim Site Assessment and Clean-up Guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In April 1995 an Interim Site Investigation and Clean-up Guidebook (for petroleum hydrocarbon and volatile organic compound impacted sites) was developed for public use. The purpose of the Guidebook was to offer a new approach to the site cleanup process: one that reduces time, cuts costs, and establishes a defined endpoint for investigations and cleanup actions. The Guidebook provided a matrix to screen for low-risk contaminated sites. After a year of use, the Guidebook was revised in May 1996. The most notable change was in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Section and the modification of the screening table for petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The changes considered the strong influence of lithology on contaminant transport and recognized the large attenuation of the long chain, heavy oil and tar, hydrocarbons in soils.

  2. Cleaning up the nuclear weapons complex: A herculean challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Probst, K.N.; McGovern, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    For nearly five decades, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors engaged in a highly secretive, complex, and massive endeavor to fabricate nuclear weapons for national security purposes. Large-scale production of nuclear weapons was an unprecedented undertaking requiring thousands of facilities, dozens of large tracts of land, huge volumes of dangerous materials, and great quantities of water. With the Cold Wars end and the emergence of new types of national security concerns, weapons production operations have, for the most part, ceased, and much of the secrecy under which they were shrouded has lifted. The subsequent revelation reveal at many sites tremendous volumes of soil and groundwater are contaminated with both radioactive and hazardous materials. Wastes stored for years pose substantial dangers, and many aging facilities that harbor highly radioactive and sensitive materials are deteriorating. The topics covered in this overview article include the following: more to `cleanup` than cleaning up; a fragmented regulatory regime; new regulatory regimes.

  3. Glufosinate ammonium clean-up procedure from water samples using SPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayeb M., A.; Ismail B., S.; Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ta, Goh Choo; Agustar, Hani Kartini

    2015-09-01

    For the determination of glufosinate ammonium residue in soil and water samples, different solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent efficiency was studied. Four different SPE sorbents i.e.: CROMABOND PS-H+, CROMABOND PS-OH-, ISOLUTE ENV+, Water Sep-Pak and OASIS HLB were used. Sample clean-up performance was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (Agilent 1220 infinity LC) with fluorescence detector. Detection of FMO-derivatives was done at λ ex = 260 nm and λ em= 310 nm. OASIS HLB column was the most suitable for the clean-up in view of the overall feasibility of the analysis.

  4. Tephra fall clean-up in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Josh L.; Wilson, Thomas M.; Magill, Christina

    2015-10-01

    Tephra falls impact urban communities by disrupting transport systems, contaminating and damaging buildings and infrastructures, and are potentially hazardous to human health. Therefore, prompt and effective tephra clean-up measures are an essential component of an urban community's response to tephra fall. This paper reviews case studies of tephra clean-up operations in urban environments around the world, spanning 50 years. It identifies methods used in tephra clean-up and assesses a range of empirical relationships between level of tephra accumulation and clean-up metrics such as collected tephra volume, costs, and duration of operations. Results indicate the volume of tephra collected from urban areas is proportional to tephra accumulation. Urban areas with small tephra accumulations (1,000 m3/km2 or an average of 1 mm thickness) may collect < 1% of the total deposit, whereas urban areas which experience large accumulations (> 50,000 m3/km2 or an average of 50 mm thickness) remove up to 80%. This relationship can inform impact and risk assessments by providing an estimate of the likely response required for a given tephra fall. No strong relationship was found between tephra fall accumulation and clean-up cost or duration for urban environments which received one-off tephra falls, suggesting that these aspects of tephra fall clean-up operations are context specific. Importantly, this study highlights the advantage of effective planning for tephra clean-up and disposal in potentially exposed areas.

  5. Using Phytoremediation to Clean Up Contamination at Military Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Negri, M.C.; Schneider, J.F.; Gatliff, E.G.

    1997-07-01

    During and following World War II, wastes from the production of munitions and other military materials were disposed of using the best available practices acceptable at that time. However, these disposal methods often contaminated soil and groundwater with organic compounds and metals that require cleanup under current regulations. An emerging technology for cleaning contaminated soils and shallow groundwater is phytoremediation, an environmentally friendly, low- cost, and low-tech process. Phytoremediation encompasses all plant- influenced biological, chemical, and physical processes that aid in the uptake, degradation, and metabolism of contaminants by either plants or free-living organisms in the plant`s rhizosphere. A phytoremediation system can be viewed as a biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the soil and below-ground ecosystem for subsequent productive use. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been conducting basic and applied research in phytoremediation since 1990. Initial greenhouse studies evaluated salt-tolerant wetland plants to clean UP and reduce the volume of salty `produced water` from petroleum wells. Results of these studies were used to design a bioreactor for processing produced water that is being demonstrated at a natural gas well in Oklahoma; this system can reduce produced water volume by about 75% in less than eight days, representing substantial savings in waste disposal cost. During 1994, ANL conducted a TNT plant uptake and in situ remediation study in a ridge-and-furrow area used for the disposal of pink water at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant.

  6. PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The basic technology behind PRP is thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers. Water cannot penetrate the microcapsule s cell, but oil is absorbed right into the beeswax spheres as they float on the water s surface. This way, the contaminants, chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil such as fuels, motor oils, or petroleum hydrocarbons, are caught before they settle. PRP works well as a loose powder for cleaning up contaminants in lakes and other ecologically fragile areas. The powder can be spread over a contaminated body of water or soil, and it will absorb contaminants, contain them in isolation, and dispose of them safely. In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle. Bottom-dwelling fish exposed to compounds released after oil spills may develop liver disease, in addition to reproductive and growth problems. This use of PRP is especially effective for environmental cleanup in sensitive areas like coral reefs and mangroves.

  7. 36. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING BILL KEYS CLEANING UP AFTER THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING BILL KEYS CLEANING UP AFTER THE MILL RUN (NOTE SCREEN FROM MORTAR SETTING ON TABLE, STAMPS ARE HUNG UP). - Wall Street Gold Mill, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    E&I. The company will be denoted as ''IT'' for the rest of the document since the original contract was awarded to IT. This report details IT, Knoxville, TN and its subcontractor Nuclear Fuels Services (NFS) study to investigate alternative mercury treatment technology. The IT/NFS team demonstrated two processes for the amalgamation/stabilization/fixation of mercury and potentially Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) and radionuclide-contaminated soils. This project was to identify and demonstrate remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated soil using established treatment chemistries on soil from the Oak Ridge Reservation, Y-12 National Security Complex, the off-site David Witherspoon properties, and/or other similarly contaminated sites. Soil from the basement of Y-12 Plant Alpha 2 Building at the Oak Ridge Reservation was received at IT and NFS on December 20, 2001. Soils from the other locations were not investigated. The soil had background levels of radioactivity and had all eight RCRA metals well below the Toxicity Characteristic (TC) criteria. This project addresses the new DOE Environmental Management Thrust 2 ''Alternative Approaches to Current High Risk/High Cost Baselines''. Successful completion of this project will provide a step-change in DOE's treatment ability.

  9. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to simulate expected ranges of mercury

  10. Mt. Dioxin: "Clean Up" Action Threatens Florida Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Lois

    1995-01-01

    Addresses citizen action taken by African American communities in Pensacola, Florida located in close proximity to a Superfund site. Discusses how the community is organizing to stop site clean-up efforts that residents claim have unjustly increased their already high exposure to toxins such as dioxin. (LZ)

  11. Marine Debris Clean-Ups as Meaningful Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepath, Carl M.; Bacon, Joseph Scott

    2010-01-01

    This seven to eight week hands-on Marine Debris Clean-up Project used a service project to provide an introduction of marine science ecology, watershed interrelationships, the scientific method, and environmental stewardship to 8th grade middle school students. It utilized inquiry based learning to introduce marine debris sources and impacts to…

  12. Groundwater clean-up: The Savannah River Site experience

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.G.; Surovchak, S.R.

    1991-12-31

    Protection of the Earth`s valuable resources is of great concern to the public in relation to safety and health. One of the resources receiving extensive attention is groundwater. Past waste disposal practices have impacted groundwater quality in many locations throughout the nation. In response, the Federal Government has passed legislation to protect and restore the environment. In many cases, application of this legislation has lead to strict clean-up standards. Savannah River Site (SRS) experiences suggest that meeting clean-up standards is a challenge in light of technical realities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the corrective action program that is addressing a plume of volatile organics beneath the A/M Area of the SRS. The history and status of the program, costs, measures of performance, lessons learned, and challenges faced are presented.

  13. Groundwater clean-up: The Savannah River Site experience

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.G. ); Surovchak, S.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Protection of the Earth's valuable resources is of great concern to the public in relation to safety and health. One of the resources receiving extensive attention is groundwater. Past waste disposal practices have impacted groundwater quality in many locations throughout the nation. In response, the Federal Government has passed legislation to protect and restore the environment. In many cases, application of this legislation has lead to strict clean-up standards. Savannah River Site (SRS) experiences suggest that meeting clean-up standards is a challenge in light of technical realities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the corrective action program that is addressing a plume of volatile organics beneath the A/M Area of the SRS. The history and status of the program, costs, measures of performance, lessons learned, and challenges faced are presented.

  14. Myelodysplastic syndromes in Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, Daniil F; Sklyarenko, Lilia M; Koval, Stella V; Rodionova, Nataliia K; Zavelevich, Michael P; Ivanivskaya, Tetiana S; Poludnenko, Liudmyla Yu; Ukrainskaya, Nataliia I

    2015-10-01

    The studies of the recent decades posed the question of the association between radiation exposure and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This association has been proved in secondary MDS originating upon exposure to chemotherapeutics and/or radiation therapy. The long-term study in Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivors demonstrated the significant linear dose-response for MDS confirming the link between radiation exposure and this form of hematopoietic malignancies. All these findings provide the strong basis for studying MDS in the persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl disaster, especially those in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers of 1986-1987. The data on MDS among Chernobyl clean-up workers (1986-1987) diagnosed in 1996-2012 at the reference laboratory of RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology are summarized. MDS cases were diagnosed in 23 persons (21 males and 2 females) having been exposed to radiation as clean-up workers of 1986-1987. Refractory anemia (RA) has been detected in 13, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS)-in 2, and refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-in 8 patients. The median age of those MDS patients was 62.0 years. In addition, 5 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were recorded in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with the median time of 14.8 years from 1986-1987 to diagnosis. The association between radiation exposure and MDS is discussed. The suggested life-long risk for myelodysplastic syndromes among A-bomb survivors in Japan highlights the importance of the continuing follow-up studies in the affected populations in the post-Chernobyl period. PMID:26208666

  15. Myelodysplastic syndromes in Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, Daniil F; Sklyarenko, Lilia M; Koval, Stella V; Rodionova, Nataliia K; Zavelevich, Michael P; Ivanivskaya, Tetiana S; Poludnenko, Liudmyla Yu; Ukrainskaya, Nataliia I

    2015-10-01

    The studies of the recent decades posed the question of the association between radiation exposure and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This association has been proved in secondary MDS originating upon exposure to chemotherapeutics and/or radiation therapy. The long-term study in Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivors demonstrated the significant linear dose-response for MDS confirming the link between radiation exposure and this form of hematopoietic malignancies. All these findings provide the strong basis for studying MDS in the persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl disaster, especially those in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers of 1986-1987. The data on MDS among Chernobyl clean-up workers (1986-1987) diagnosed in 1996-2012 at the reference laboratory of RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology are summarized. MDS cases were diagnosed in 23 persons (21 males and 2 females) having been exposed to radiation as clean-up workers of 1986-1987. Refractory anemia (RA) has been detected in 13, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS)-in 2, and refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-in 8 patients. The median age of those MDS patients was 62.0 years. In addition, 5 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were recorded in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with the median time of 14.8 years from 1986-1987 to diagnosis. The association between radiation exposure and MDS is discussed. The suggested life-long risk for myelodysplastic syndromes among A-bomb survivors in Japan highlights the importance of the continuing follow-up studies in the affected populations in the post-Chernobyl period.

  16. Tidd hot gas clean up program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This Final Report on the Tidd Hot Gas Clean Up Program covers the period from initial Proof-of-Concept testing in August, 1990, through final equipment inspections in May, 1995. The Tidd Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) system was installed in the Tidd Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Demonstration Plant, which is the first utility-scale PFBC plant in the United States. Detailed design work on the project began in July, 1990, and site construction began in December, 1991. Initial operation of the system occurred in May, 1992, and the hot gas filter was commissioned in October, 1992. The test program ended in March, 1995, when the Tidd Plant was shut down following its four-year test program. Section 1.0 of this report is an executive summary of the project covering the project background, system description, test results and conclusions. Section 2.0 is an introduction covering the program objectives and schedule. Section 3.0 provides detailed descriptions of the system and its major components. Section 4.0 provides detailed results of all testing including observations and posttest inspection results. Sections 5.0 and 6.0 list the program conclusions and recommendations, respectively. Appendix I is a report prepared by Southern Research Institute on the properties of Tidd PFBC ash sampled during the test program. Appendix II is a report prepared by Westinghouse STC on the performance of candle filter fail-safe regenerator devices.

  17. Hudson River PCB clean-up to begin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Christie Whitman signed the Record of Decision on 1 February to clean up a stretch of the Hudson River that has been contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The decision calls for dredging 2 million cubic meters of PCB-contaminated sediment from a 64-kilometer stretch of the upper Hudson to remove about 68,000 kilograms of PCBs.The plan follows years of scientific study about whether the PCBs were safely encased in the sediment or posed a continuing hazard, and concern over whether the PCBs can be safely removed without stirring up a larger pollution problem along the river. The EPA found that PCBs in the sediment are not safely buried because erosion and river flows can redistribute river sediment. The agency also found that although PCBs break down naturally over time, this degradation does not render them harmless.

  18. Recent trends at the state and federal level in accelerating CERCLA clean-ups

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, B.

    1996-12-31

    Efforts at accelerating remedial action at the federal level focus on the following: the Superfund accelerated clean-up model (SCAM); Brownfields economic redevelopment initiative; guidance documents and policies; and collaboration with state voluntary cleanup programs. At the state level efforts involved in accelerating clean-ups include voluntary clean-up programs and Brownfields initiatives.

  19. Bioenergy residues as novel sorbents to clean up pesticide pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Santanu

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, water contamination from agricultural use of pesticides has received increasing attention within the last decades. In general, sources of pesticide water pollution are categorized into diffuse (stemming from treated fields) and point sources (stemming from farmyards and spillages). Research has demonstrated that 40 to 90% of surface water pesticide contamination is due to point source pollution. To reduce point pollution from farm yards, where the spray equipment is washed, biobed or biofilter systems are used to treat the washing water. The organic material usually used in these systems is often not environmentally sustainable (e.g. peat) and incorporated organic material such as straw leads to a highly heterogeneous water flow, with negative effects on the retention and degradation behavior of the pesticides. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the suitability of alternative materials based on bioenergy residues (biochar and digestate) for use in biofilters. To this aim the sorption-desorption potential of three contrasting pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) on mixtures of soil with digestate and/or biochar were investigated in laboratory batch equilibrium experiments. The results indicate that the mixture of digestate and biochar increased pesticide sorption potential, whereby in all cases, the Kd des / Kf des values were lower than the Kd ads / Kf ads values indicating that the retention of the pesticides was weak. Thus, as Kf des were lower than the Kf ads values and H values were below 1, it can be concluded that the biomixtures presented negative desorption (higher hysteresis) in those cases. A higher Kd (>78 L kg-1), Kf (>400 μM1-1/nf L1/nfkg-1) and KL (>40 L kg-1) was obtained for all pesticides for the digestate and biochar based mixtures, which had a higher organic matter content. However, lower sorption of the pesticides was observed in blank soil compared to the other biomixtures, which was attributed to the

  20. Understanding 'clean-up' of III-V native oxides during atomic layer deposition using bulk first principles models.

    PubMed

    Klejna, Sylwia; Elliott, Simon D

    2011-09-01

    The use of III-V materials as the channel in future transistor devices is dependent on removing the deleterious native oxides from their surface before deposition of a gate dielectric. Trimethylaluminium has been found to achieve in situ 'clean-up' of the oxides of GaAs and InGaAs before atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina. Here we propose six reaction mechanisms for 'clean-up,' featuring exchange of ligands between surface atoms, reduction of arsenic oxide by methyl groups and desorption of various products. We use first principles Density Functional Theory (DFT) to determine which mechanistic path is thermodynamically favoured based on models of the bulk oxides and gas-phase products. We therefore predict that 'clean-up' of arsenic oxides mostly produces As4 gas. Most C is predicted to form C2H6 but with some C2H4, CH4 and H2O. An alternative pathway is non-redox ligand exchange, which allows non-reducible oxides to be cleaned-up.

  1. Predicting soil erosion for alternative land uses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Erda; Xin, Chang; Williams, Jimmy R; Xu, Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The APEX (Agricultural Policy-Environmental eXtender) model developed in the United States was calibrated for northwestern China's conditions. The model was then used to investigate soil erosion effects associated with alternative land uses at the ZFG (Zi-Fang-Gully) watershed in northwestern China. The results indicated that the APEX model could be calibrated reasonably well (+/-15% errors) to fit those areas with >50% slope within the watershed. Factors being considered during calibration include runoff, RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) slope length and steepness factor, channel capacity flow rate, floodplain saturated hydraulic conductivity, and RUSLE C factor coefficient. No changes were made in the APEX computer code. Predictions suggest that reforestation is the best practice among the eight alternative land uses (the status quo, all grass, all grain, all grazing, all forest, half tree and half grass, 70% tree and 30% grain, and construction of a reservoir) for control of water runoff and soil erosion. Construction of a reservoir is the most effective strategy for controlling sediment yield although it does nothing to control upland erosion. For every 1 Mg of crop yield, 11 Mg of soil were lost during the 30-yr simulation period, suggesting that expanding land use for food production should not be encouraged on the ZFG watershed. Grass species are less effective than trees in controlling runoff and erosion on steep slopes because trees generally have deeper and more stable root systems.

  2. Environmental benefits of Boston Harbor clean-up projects

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, M.S.; Smith, W.M. )

    1990-01-09

    The Massachusetts Water Resources Authority has undertaken one of the largest public works projects in the country to control the pollution of Boston Harbor. The project includes construction of a new primary and secondary treatment plant and sludge treatment facilities, excavation of a long ocean outfall and diffuser, and a solution to the overflow of mixed sewage and stormwater during storms; it will take over twenty years and billions of dollars to construct. A comparison of the relative costs and environmental benefits of relative costs and environmental benefits of the various construction projects, and other pollution control strategies, shows that some projects are more cost-effective than others for solving specific pollution problems. The capture and treatment of combined sewer overflow (CSO) will result in a more dramatic reduction of pathogen contamination than will completion of the primary and secondary treatment plants. Although the flow of raw sewage is intermittent and relatively small, it has high concentrations of bacteria and viruses. On the other hand, the new treatment plants will be more important in reducing toxic contamination of fish and shellfish. In summary, all the planned clean-up projects appear to be necessary to reach the goal of a swimmable, fishable Boston Harbor.

  3. Acetonitrile extraction and dual-layer solid phase extraction clean-up for pesticide residue analysis in propolis.

    PubMed

    Oellig, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Propolis is a very complex mixture of substances that is produced by honey bees and is known to be a rather challenging matrix for residue analysis. Besides resins, flavonoids and phenols, high amount of wax is co-extracted resulting in immense matrix effects. Therefore a suitable clean-up is crucial and indispensable. In this study, a reliable solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up was developed for pesticide residue analysis in propolis. The clean-up success was quickly and easily monitored by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with different detection possibilities. The final method consists of the extraction of propolis with acetonitrile according to the QuEChERS method followed by an effective extract purification on dual-layer SPE cartridges with spherical hydrophobic polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin/primary secondary amine as sorbent and a mixture of toluene/acetone (95:5, v/v) for elution. Besides fat-soluble components like waxes, flavonoids, and terpenoids, more polar compounds like organic acids, fatty acids, sugars and anthocyanins were also removed to large extent. Method performance was assessed by recovery experiments at spiking levels of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (n=5) for fourteen pesticides that are relevant for propolis. Mean recoveries determined by HPLC-MS against solvent standards were between 40 and 101%, while calculation against matrix-matched standards provided recoveries of 79-104%. Precision of recovery, assessed by relative standard deviations, were below 9%. Thus, the developed dual-layer SPE clean-up enables the reliable pesticide residue analysis in propolis and provides a suitable alternative to time-consuming clean-up procedures proposed in literature. PMID:27059398

  4. Acetonitrile extraction and dual-layer solid phase extraction clean-up for pesticide residue analysis in propolis.

    PubMed

    Oellig, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Propolis is a very complex mixture of substances that is produced by honey bees and is known to be a rather challenging matrix for residue analysis. Besides resins, flavonoids and phenols, high amount of wax is co-extracted resulting in immense matrix effects. Therefore a suitable clean-up is crucial and indispensable. In this study, a reliable solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up was developed for pesticide residue analysis in propolis. The clean-up success was quickly and easily monitored by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with different detection possibilities. The final method consists of the extraction of propolis with acetonitrile according to the QuEChERS method followed by an effective extract purification on dual-layer SPE cartridges with spherical hydrophobic polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin/primary secondary amine as sorbent and a mixture of toluene/acetone (95:5, v/v) for elution. Besides fat-soluble components like waxes, flavonoids, and terpenoids, more polar compounds like organic acids, fatty acids, sugars and anthocyanins were also removed to large extent. Method performance was assessed by recovery experiments at spiking levels of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (n=5) for fourteen pesticides that are relevant for propolis. Mean recoveries determined by HPLC-MS against solvent standards were between 40 and 101%, while calculation against matrix-matched standards provided recoveries of 79-104%. Precision of recovery, assessed by relative standard deviations, were below 9%. Thus, the developed dual-layer SPE clean-up enables the reliable pesticide residue analysis in propolis and provides a suitable alternative to time-consuming clean-up procedures proposed in literature.

  5. Oil spills debris clean up by thermal desorption.

    PubMed

    Araruna, J T; Portes, V L O; Soares, A P L; Silva, M G; Sthel, M S; Schramm, D U; Tibana, S; Vargas, H

    2004-07-01

    Oil spills represent a significant environmental issue in Brazil. This paper presents the latest results of a comprehensive experimental programme aimed at understanding how the presence of spilled oil affects the properties of sands and at studying alternatives to remediate the affected shores. Results indicate that oil causes a slight increase in grain size and uniformity, and oiled debris presents a smaller void ratio but a larger unit weight. It was also observed that effective strength parameters for both the natural and oiled debris were the same although the undrained strength of a natural sand is much higher than that of the contaminated sand. At ambient temperature, oiled debris emits methane and ammonia, and these emissions tend to increase with rising temperatures. On the other hand, the oil and grease content from oiled debris decreases with rising temperature and prolonged exposure. Finally, in situ thermal desorption seems to be a promising method for cleaning debris from oil spills. It is simple, fast and avoids all the difficulties associated with digging up the soil for disposal or cleanup.

  6. Evaluation of an automated clean-up system for the isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of PCB, PCDD, and PCDF in food.

    PubMed

    Eljarrat, E; Sauló, J; Monjonell, A; Caixach, J; Rivera, J

    2001-12-01

    An automated clean-up system was evaluated for the simultaneous analysis of polychiorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), and biphenyls (PCB) in different foods. In addition to the seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDIPCDF and four non-ortho PCB, by use of the clean-up system studied, it was possible to collect the eight mono-ortho and two di-ortho PCB and the seven indicator PCB in two separate fractions during the same clean-up run. The study was first performed using standard mixtures containing PCDD, PCDF and PCB, and a certified reference material. The recoveries of the 13C-labeled compounds ranged from 51 to 90%, indicating that the PCDD, PCDF, and PCB clean-up worked satisfactorily. Next, the automated system for PCDD, PCDF, and PCB analysis was evaluated for foods such as milk, egg, meat (beef, chicken, and pork), mussel, and olive oil. The recoveries of the 13C-labeled compounds ranged from 40 to 120% for PCB and from 57 to 113% for PCDD/ PCDF, meeting the requirements of well accepted methods. Thus, the automated clean-up system studied is a suitable alternative to conventional clean-up methods.

  7. Biomonitoring of workers cleaning up ammunition waste sites.

    PubMed

    Sabbioni, Gabriele; Rumler, Richard

    2007-01-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an important occupational and environmental pollutant. In TNT-exposed humans, notable toxic manifestations have included aplastic anaemia, toxic hepatitis, cataracts, hepatomegaly and liver cancer. Therefore, it is important to develop protection measures and to monitor workers involved in the clean-up of ammunition sites. Haemoglobin (Hb) adducts of TNT, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT), and the urine metabolites of TNT, 4ADNT and 2ADNT were found in 22-50% of the exposed workers, but not in the control group. The exposed workers were wearing protective equipment. The levels of erythrocytes, haemoglobin, creatinine, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and lymphocyte levels were significantly lower in the exposed workers than in the non-exposed workers. The levels of blood urea and reticulocytes were significantly higher in the exposed workers than in the non-exposed workers. Headache (26%), mucous membrane irritation (16%), sick leave (18%), lassitude (8%), anxiety (6%), shortness of breath (3%), nausea (5%) and allergic reactions (8%) were reported by the exposed workers. In a further analysis the U-4ADNT levels and the Hb-adduct levels were compared to the blood parameter and the health effects. The blood parameters were not significantly different between the U-4ADNT positive and U-4ADNT-negative group. Headache, mucous membrane irritation, sick leave, lassitude, anxiety, shortness of breath and allergic reactions were statistically not different between the two groups. Also in the workers with Hb-4ADNT adducts no significant negative changes were seen in regards to the changes of the blood parameters or the health effects. According to the results of the present study, it appears that the blood parameter changes and the health effects are more influenced by other factors than by the internal exposure to TNT.

  8. Building upon Historical Competencies: Next-generation Clean-up Technologies for World-Wide Application - 13368

    SciTech Connect

    Guevara, K.C.; Fellinger, A.P.; Aylward, R.S.; Griffin, J.C.; Hyatt, J.E.; Bush, S.R.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has a 60-year history of successfully operating nuclear facilities and cleaning up the nuclear legacy of the Cold War era through the processing of radioactive and otherwise hazardous wastes, remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, management of nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning of excess facilities. SRS recently unveiled its Enterprise.SRS (E.SRS) strategic vision to identify and facilitate application of the historical competencies of the site to current and future national and global challenges. E.SRS initiatives such as the initiative to Develop and Demonstrate Next generation Clean-up Technologies seek timely and mutually beneficial engagements with entities around the country and the world. One such ongoing engagement is with government and industry in Japan in the recovery from the devastation of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. (authors)

  9. Ecologically-based clean-up criteria for nitroaromatic explosives using toxicity test results

    SciTech Connect

    Duh, D.; Roberts, B.; Buzgo, S.

    1995-12-31

    A former trinitrotoluene (TNT) production and storage facility was the focus of a Remedial Investigation (RI). Contaminants identified during the RI included 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,6-DNT, and 2,4,6-TNT, PCBs, arsenic, lead and chromium. The Conceptual Site Model determined there to be several complete exposure pathways. One of these identified a route by which soil invertebrate communities could be affected through dermal contact and ingestion of soil contaminants. Maintenance of the soil invertebrate community was chosen as the assessment endpoints for this pathway in the Ecological Risk Assessment. The corresponding measurement endpoint was survival of earthworms in 14-day toxicity tests in which they were exposed to site soils. Seven surficial soil samples were collected from Areas of Concern. Each sample was evaluated for acute toxicity to earthworms using standard USEPA protocols. Chemical concentrations were also measured. An artificial soil was used as the control and diluent to establish the Lethal Concentration (LC{sub 50}) of the test soils to earthworms. From the toxicity test results and the corresponding chemical analysis, a matrix of toxicity and contaminant levels was developed. This table was used to determine a concentration of each contaminant at which no acute lethality would be expected. Lower bounds to the chemical specific LC{sub 50} values were determined and, based on sample-specific toxicity units, appropriate LC{sub 50} values were derived (333 mg/kg 2,4-DNT, 182 mg/kg 2,6-DNT, and 1960 mg/kg 2,4,6TNT). Extrapolation of this level to a chronic No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) provided a means of proposing site-specific ecologically based clean-up criteria for the constituents of concern which would be protective of the chosen assessment endpoint.

  10. BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological remediation of soils contaminated with organic chemicals is an alternative treatment technology that can often meet the goal of achieving a permanent clean-up remedy at hazardous waste sites, as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for impl...

  11. Uses of bioremediation for pesticide waste clean-up

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, J.H.; Lavy, T.L.

    1994-12-31

    Bioremediation technologies enhance the growth and activity of microorganisms in order to degrade and/or detoxify chemical wastes. Stricter EPA guidelines concerning chemical contamination of soil and water, and potential cost savings over traditional remediation practices have increased interest in bioremediation. The pesticide and petroleum contamination found at some agrichemical dealerships may lend themselves to bioremediation. In order to assess the applicability of a given bioremediation practice, a basic knowledge of bioremediation is helpful. This paper reviews basic bioremediation concepts and practices.

  12. Canada's plan for coal: Clean up or shut Down

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-15

    The plan would affect 21 large coal-fired plants consisting of 51 units currently generating roughly 19 percent of the country's electricity and yielding 13 percent of its GHG emissions. the actual impact of the plan is stretched over a period of time, allowing for alternatives to make up the gap created by the coal shutdown. If all goes according to the plan, Canada's GHG emissions will drop by 17 percent relative to 2005 levels by 2020.

  13. Biological quality of soils containing hydrocarbons and efficacy of ecological risk reduction by bioremediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.; Napolitano, G.E.; Sample, B.E.

    1996-06-01

    This project provides technical support to the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF; a consortium of petroleum companies) on environmentally acceptable endpoints that may be used to help assess the ecological risk of petroleum hydrocarbon residuals in soils. The project, was designed in consultation with PERF representatives and focuses on the relationship between {open_quotes}chemically available{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biologically available{close_quotes} measurements of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in soils, a discrepancy of considerable interest to the petroleum industry. Presently, clean-up standards for soils contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) constituents are based on concentrations of TPH, as measured in solvent extracts of soil samples. Interestingly, TPH includes a complex mixture of compounds which differ from one another in molecular weight and toxicity. Based on various studies with insecticides, herbicides and metals, some compounds apparently can slowly permeate into soil particles. If this situation occurs, the particle-embedded compounds may be extractable by use of organic solvents, and yet be unavailable biologically. This hypothesis serves as the central focus for our study. If this hypothesis is correct, then soil clean-up standards based on solvent-extractable TPH data may be more stringent than necessary to achieve a desired level of environmental risk. The economic significance of this possibility is considerable, because clean-up costs to achieve a low-risk status would, in most cases, be lower than those needed to achieve a standard based on present limits, which are based on measurements of {open_quotes}extractable{close_quotes} TPH.

  14. An alternative to soil taxonomy for describing key soil characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Miller, Mark E.; Brown, Joel R.; Toevs, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    is not a simple task. Furthermore, because the US system of soil taxonomy is not applied universally, its utility as a means for effectively describing soil characteristics to readers in other countries is limited. Finally, and most importantly, even at the finest level of soil classification there are often large within-taxa variations in critical properties that can determine ecosystem responses to drivers such as climate and land-use change.

  15. Validation data for HPLC/FLD determinations of ochratoxin A in red paprika and black pepper adopting a one-step clean-up procedure.

    PubMed

    Bononi, M; Gallone, F; Tateo, F

    2010-02-01

    Validation data for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in two spice matrices, red paprika and black pepper, were obtained for samples prepared with a simplified single-step clean-up column. Extracts of finely ground samples of red paprika and black pepper were prepared and applied to a Mycosep 229 Ochra clean-up column. The purified extract was then subjected to HPLC/FLD analysis. The relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) of the method was 11.8% for red paprika and 9.9% for black pepper. The limit of detection (LOD) value (three times the noise) was estimated as corresponding to the response of an extract derived from a blank matrix (previously washed) and spiked at 1.0 microg kg(-1). The limit of quantitation (LOQ) (three times LOD) was 3.0 microg kg(-1). The performance of the one-step column clean-up procedure appears to be a suitable alternative to commonly used clean-up techniques and allows the precise determination of OTA in two complex matrices.

  16. UTILIZING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP, SAVAHHAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Bergren, C

    2009-01-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units and facilities that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  17. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  18. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND CLEANING UP BROWNFIELDS SITES: GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1741 SAIC. Technical Approaches to Characterizing and Cleaning up Brownfields Sites. EPA/625/R/00/009 (NTIS PB2002-105021) , Available: 68-C7-0011. The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the p...

  19. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  20. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  1. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  2. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  3. 75 FR 26098 - Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Havasu in the Copper Canyon in support of the underwater cleanup of Copper Canyon. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for...

  4. Refractive properties of separate erythrocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers at different pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarevica, Gunta; Freivalds, Talivaldis; Bruvere, Ruta; Gabruseva, Natalija; Leice, Alevtine; Zvagule, Tija

    2000-04-01

    This study is focused on the modifications in erythrocytes of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident clean-up workers as a late health effect of short-term impact of high level radioactive contamination. As a result, a new method based on erythrocyte refractive index properties at different pH has been elaborated.

  5. Kinetics of combined SO/sub 2//NO in flue gas clean-up

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.

    1985-03-01

    The kinetics of reactions involving SO/sub 2/, NO, and ferrous chelate additives in wet flue gas simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification scrubbers are discussed. The relative importance of these reactions are assessed. The relevance of these reactions to spray dryer processes for combined SO/sub 2//NO flue gas clean-up is addressed. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  6. PCR inhibitor removal using the NucleoSpin® DNA Clean-Up XS kit.

    PubMed

    Faber, Korie L; Person, Eric C; Hudlow, William R

    2013-01-01

    Forensic evidence samples are collected from an unlimited variety of substrates, which may contain compounds known to inhibit the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These PCR inhibitors are co-extracted with the DNA sample and can negatively affect the DNA typing results, which can range from partial to complete inhibition of the short tandem repeat (STR) PCR. One potential solution is to remove the PCR inhibitors from the extracts prior to the STR PCR with the NucleoSpin(®) DNA Clean-Up XS kit. The kit contains a NucleoSpin(®) XS silica column that has a special funnel design of thrust rings along with a very small silica membrane, which allows for sample elution in a small volume that is appropriate for use with current STR typing kits. The NucleoSpin(®) DNA Clean-Up XS kit was optimized for the best possible DNA recovery and then evaluated for its ability to remove eight commonly encountered PCR inhibitors including: bile salt, collagen, hematin, humic acid, indigo, melanin, tannic acid and urea. Each of these PCR inhibitors was effectively removed by the NucleoSpin(®) DNA Clean-Up XS kit as demonstrated by generating more complete STR profiles from the cleaned up inhibitor samples than from the raw inhibitor samples.

  7. Case Study: Using Microbe Molecular Biology for Gulf Oil Spill Clean Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This case has the student actively investigate the regulation of expression of a novel bacterial gene in the context of attempts to solve a real world problem, clean up of the April 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Although the case is fictitious, it is based on factual gene regulatory characteristics of oil-degrading…

  8. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sigilião, Lara Carvalho Freitas; Marquezan, Mariana; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding. Methods: A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L), 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H), 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L), DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU), Renew System (GR) and Diagloss polisher (GD). Mean roughness (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz) were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05) was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01). Conclusion: All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness. PMID:26560825

  9. Oak Ridge Cleanup Vision: Moving to the Future by Cleaning Up the Past - 13291

    SciTech Connect

    Cange, Susan M.; Wieland, Christopher C.; DePaoli, Susan M.

    2013-07-01

    received buy-in from the leadership in Headquarters, the regulators, and the community. Issues EM was facing in 2009 are presented. Resulting lessons learned and subsequent changes that the Office has gone through in the past several years in order to improve performance in the safe execution of work, relationships with external stakeholders, and communications both internally and externally are discussed. Results of these efforts are provided as a summary of Program accomplishments, including a strong focus on the future. EM's motto, Moving to the Future by Cleaning up the Past, will be demonstrated through the Program's mission, which includes protecting the region's health and environment; ensuring the continuation of ongoing vital missions being conducted by DOE on the Oak Ridge Reservation; and making clean land available for future use at all three sites, with a near-term focus on Re-industrialization of ETTP. (authors)

  10. A review of polymer nanofibres by electrospinning and their application in oil-water separation for cleaning up marine oil spills.

    PubMed

    Sarbatly, Rosalam; Krishnaiah, Duduku; Kamin, Zykamilia

    2016-05-15

    The growths of oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased environmental problems, such as oil spillage and the resulting pollution. The study of the methods for cleaning up oil spills is a critical issue to protect the environment. Various techniques are available to contain oil spills, but they are typically time consuming, energy inefficient and create secondary pollution. The use of a sorbent, such as a nanofibre sorbent, is a technique for controlling oil spills because of its good physical and oil sorption properties. This review discusses about the application of nanofibre sorbent for oil removal from water and its current developments. With their unique physical and mechanical properties coupled with their very high surface area and small pore sizes, nanofibre sorbents are alternative materials for cleaning up oil spills.

  11. A review of polymer nanofibres by electrospinning and their application in oil-water separation for cleaning up marine oil spills.

    PubMed

    Sarbatly, Rosalam; Krishnaiah, Duduku; Kamin, Zykamilia

    2016-05-15

    The growths of oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased environmental problems, such as oil spillage and the resulting pollution. The study of the methods for cleaning up oil spills is a critical issue to protect the environment. Various techniques are available to contain oil spills, but they are typically time consuming, energy inefficient and create secondary pollution. The use of a sorbent, such as a nanofibre sorbent, is a technique for controlling oil spills because of its good physical and oil sorption properties. This review discusses about the application of nanofibre sorbent for oil removal from water and its current developments. With their unique physical and mechanical properties coupled with their very high surface area and small pore sizes, nanofibre sorbents are alternative materials for cleaning up oil spills. PMID:27016959

  12. The fate of alternative soil fumigants to methyl bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, R.; Gao, S.

    2011-12-01

    Soil fumigation is an important agricultural practice for the control of soil-borne pests. Since the phase-out of methyl bromide, due to its role in the depletion of stratospheric ozone, several alternatives such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), chloropicrin (CP), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) are being increasingly used. The major processes and factors affecting the fate of these chemicals are evaluated. The high volatility of fumigants leads to high emission loss when no proper containment is used. Recent tarping technology using low permeability films can significantly reduce emissions. Fumigant degradation rate becomes critical to the determination of fumigation rate that affects efficacy and residence time in soil. A series of laboratory incubation experiments were carried out to determine degradation rate of 1,3-D isomers, CP and DMDS in five different soils collected from California and Florida. Fumigant degradation rates depend highly on the amounts of fumigants in soil, chemical characteristics, and soil conditions. Fumigant degradation rate were found to increase for all fumigants as the fumigant amounts in soil decreased. The changes were smaller for 1,3-D isomers compared to CP and DMDS. In soils with the lowest application rate, the degradation rate of fumigants is in the order of CP > DMDS > cis-1,3-D > trans-1,3-D. Soil and environmental factors also affect fumigant degradation rate. These findings suggest that a proper application rate should be determined for specific fumigants in a soil when using low permeability tarp in order to achieve sufficient fumigation efficacy during a certain period of time while minimizing potential surge of emissions after tarp removal and/or long residence time in soil that may cause phytotoxicity or leaching.

  13. Improved clean-up for the determination of lasalocid in 'difficult' food matrices.

    PubMed

    Tarbin, J A; Rawlings, E; Tyler, D; Sharman, M

    2002-01-01

    Methodology has been developed for the determination of lasalocid in analytically 'difficult' matrices such as processed and spiced foods. The procedure was based on an existing silica-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up to which was added a novel NH2 SPE step before HPLC with fluorescence detection. Use of the additional step enabled the determination of lasalocid in matrices such as baby food, meat pies ('pasties'), etc. Analysis of these matrices was not possible using the standard clean-up on its own. Chromatography showed a massive reduction in the amount of co-extractives and interferences. Validation data were obtained down to the 10-40 mg kg(-1) level for a range of products. Recoveries ranged from 74% at 10 microg kg(-1) for pork sausages to 96% at 40 microg kg(-1) for meat pies. PMID:11817373

  14. Coupling detergent lysis/clean-up methodology with intact protein fractionation for enhanced proteome characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Ritin; Dill, Brian; Chourey, Karuna; Shah, Manesh B; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2012-01-01

    The expanding use of surfactants for proteome sample preparations has prompted the need to systematically optimize the application and removal of these MS-deleterious agents prior to proteome measurements. Here we compare four different detergent clean-up methods (Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation, Chloroform/Methanol/Water (CMW) extraction, commercial detergent removal spin column method (DRS) and filter-aided sample preparation(FASP)) with respect to varying amounts of protein biomass in the samples, and provide efficiency benchmarks with respect to protein, peptide, and spectral identifications for each method. Our results show that for protein limited samples, FASP outperforms the other three clean-up methods, while at high protein amount all the methods are comparable. This information was used in a dual strategy of comparing molecular weight based fractionated and unfractionated lysates from three increasingly complex samples (Escherichia coli, a five microbial isolate mixture, and a natural microbial community groundwater sample), which were all lysed with SDS and cleaned up using FASP. The two approaches complemented each other by enhancing the number of protein identifications by 8%-25% across the three samples and provided broad pathway coverage.

  15. The effect of water spray upon incineration flue gas clean-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haigang; Li, Bin; Liu, Shi; Pan, Zhonggang; Yan, Guizhang

    2000-06-01

    The existence of liquid water was found very important in incineration flue gas clean-up systems for enhancing the absorption of acid components contained. In a newly developed incineration flue gas clean-up tower, which works in a semi-dry mode, the water is injected in the form of spray to maximum its contact surface with the gas. The criteria for the design of the water nozzles would be high water concentration but no liquid impinging on the solid wall and complete evaporation inside the tower. In order to optimize the atomizer design, the effects of the spray type (hollow or solid cone), their initial droplet size distribution and water flow rate on the performance of the acid gas absorption were investigated. The liquid behaviour was studied with a fluid dynamic simulation code, and the overall performance was checked experimentally. This paper presents the use of a commercial CFD code, FLUENT, and some modifications made during such investigation. The modification includes the viscosity of the flue gas defined as a function of the temperature, and the initial mass fraction of different droplet size group described with an exponential distribution formula of Rosin-Rammler. The investigation results (the optimal spray parameters) were used to guide the water nozzle design. The general performance of the flue gas clean-up system measured during the plant operation complied with the design criteria.

  16. Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites

    SciTech Connect

    S. J. Nacht

    2000-02-01

    The Sectored Clean-up Work Plan (SCWP) replaces the Housekeeping Category Corrective Action Unit Work Plan and provides a strategy to be used for conducting housekeeping activities using a sectored clean-up approach. This work plan provides a process by which one or more existing housekeeping category Corrective Action Sites (CASS) from the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and/or non-FFACO designated waste site(s) are grouped into a sector for simultaneous remediation and cleanup. This increases effectiveness and efficiencies in labor, materials, equipment, cost, and time. This plan is an effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to expedite work in a more organized and efficient approach. The objectives of this plan are to: Group housekeeping FFACO CASS and non-FFACO housekeeping sites into sectors and remediate during the same field visit; Provide consistent documentation on FFACO CAS and non-FFACO clean-up activities; Perform similar activities under one approved document; Remediate areas inside the Deactivation and Decommissioning facilities and compounds in a campaign-style remediation; and Increase efficiencies and cost-effectiveness, accelerate cleanups, reduce mobilization, demobilization, and remediation costs.

  17. Clean-up of a pesticide-lanolin mixture by gel permeation chromatography.

    PubMed

    López-Mesas, M; Crespi, M; Brach, J; Mullender, J P

    2000-12-01

    In this study, the efficiency of a clean-up method by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for the separation of pesticides from lanolin is analyzed. The pesticides analyzed belong to two different families, organophosphorous and synthetic pyrethroids. Lanolin, a standard mixture of the pesticides, and a lanolin-pesticides mixture are injected in a GPC column. The recoveries and elution times from the GPC column of lanolin (by a gravimetric method) and pesticides (by gas chromatography-electron capture detector) are determined. From this column, a good separation of the lanolin-pesticides mixture is observed. PMID:11144515

  18. Use of sediment serial dilution series to establish biological effect levels and clean-up goals

    SciTech Connect

    Timmer, E.; DeLong, T.; Millard, J.; Dobroski, C.

    1995-12-31

    A sediment serial dilution study was used to determine biological effect levels for two freshwater invertebrates, Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca. The sediments for the test were collected from a New England brook which contained elevated levels of lead and polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of the sediment dilution study was two-fold: (1 ) to provide a site-specific estimation of biological effect levels, thus reducing uncertainties associated with using literature-based values, and (2) to establish clean-up goals specific to this freshwater system.

  19. Clean-up of a pesticide-lanolin mixture by gel permeation chromatography.

    PubMed

    López-Mesas, M; Crespi, M; Brach, J; Mullender, J P

    2000-12-01

    In this study, the efficiency of a clean-up method by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for the separation of pesticides from lanolin is analyzed. The pesticides analyzed belong to two different families, organophosphorous and synthetic pyrethroids. Lanolin, a standard mixture of the pesticides, and a lanolin-pesticides mixture are injected in a GPC column. The recoveries and elution times from the GPC column of lanolin (by a gravimetric method) and pesticides (by gas chromatography-electron capture detector) are determined. From this column, a good separation of the lanolin-pesticides mixture is observed.

  20. Automation of a clean-up procedure for determination of trichothecenes in cereals using a charcoal-alumina column.

    PubMed

    Langseth, W; Clasen, P E

    1992-06-19

    Automation of the clean-up procedure for trichothecenes on a charcoal-alumina column is described. Standard high-performance liquid chromatographic equipment was used for the clean-up step. An acetonitrile-water (84 + 16, v/v) extract of the sample was cleaned up on a column packed with charcoal-alumina-Celite, which was washed with acetonitrile between each sample. The eluates were collected directly in reaction vials and evaporated to dryness. The residual water was removed azeotropically with benzene. The sample was derivatized with 1-(trimethylsilyl)imidazole and analysed by capillary gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

  1. Determination of amphetamines in hair by integrating sample disruption, clean-up and solid phase derivatization.

    PubMed

    Argente-García, A; Moliner-Martínez, Y; Campíns-Falcó, P; Verdú-Andrés, J; Herráez-Hernández, R

    2016-05-20

    The utility of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the direct analysis of amphetamines in hair samples has been evaluated, using liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection and precolumn derivatization. The proposed approach is based on the employment of MSPD for matrix disruption and clean-up, followed by the derivatization of the analytes onto the dispersant-sample blend. The fluorogenic reagent 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) has been used for derivatization. Different conditions for MSPD, analyte purification and solid phase derivatization have been tested, using amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), ephedrine (EPE) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as model compounds. The results have been compared with those achieved by using ultrasound-assisted alkaline digestion and by MSPD combined with conventional solution derivatization. On the basis of the results obtained, a methodology is proposed for the analysis of amphetamines in hair which integrates sample disruption, clean-up and derivatization using a C18 phase. Improved sensitivity is achieved with respect to that obtained by the alkaline digestion or by the MSPD followed by solution derivatization methods. The method can be used for the quantification of the tested amphetamines within the 2.0-20.0ng/mg concentration interval, with limits of detection (LODs) of 0.25-0.75ng/mg. The methodology is very simple and rapid (the preparation of the sample takes less than 15min). PMID:27108048

  2. Early Aging in Chernobyl Clean-Up Workers: Long-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Krasnov, V.; Kryukov, V.; Samedova, E.; Emelianova, I.; Ryzhova, I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper represents data of long-term open prospective study. 312 male clean-up workers, who participated in elimination of the Chernobyl disaster consequences in 1986-87, were observed and examined in Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry. The average age of patients was 57,0 ± 6,8 years. All patients were diagnosed with psychoorganic syndrome, caused by combination of different factors, which led to early cerebrovascular pathology, which was confirmed by clinical, neuropsychological, and instrumental examination. Anamnesis and the level of social adaptation were also assayed. Clinical estimation was done with the use of specially developed Clinical Psychopathological Chart. All the symptoms were divided into 4 groups (asthenic, psychovegetative, dysthymic, and cognitive symptom-complexes). No pronounced signs of dementia were observed. The control group included 44 clean-up workers without mental disorders. Predomination of various exogenous factors before and after accident was noted. Therapy included different vasotropic remedies, as well as family therapy, art therapy, and cognitive training. The possibilities of the reverse development of symptoms were statistically proved. The results allow making a conclusion that these disorders could not be explained either by radiation effects or by PTSD but connected with cerebrovascular pathology. PMID:25692150

  3. Spinning filter separation system for oil spill clean-up operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrle, J.; Fischer, E.C.; Kenney, W.P.; Korczynski, J.F.; Gracik, T.D.

    1996-09-26

    According to current technology, effective clean up of oil spills from the surface of ocean water is performed by an oil sweeper vessel within which oil contaminated water is collected for transport to remotely located on-shore equipment within which oil separation and disposal is performed. The processing of large quantities of oil polluted ocean water is accordingly time consuming as well as costly. It is therefore an important object of the present invention to provide a less costly oil spill clean up system involving more rapid processing of large quantities of oil polluted ocean water. In accordance with the present invention, oil polluted ocean water is processed at an oil spill location by continuous separation during pressurized flow of the water through at least two separator devices within which successive reduction in oil concentration is effected with respect to a separated portion of the water by filtered flow through porous membrane walls to correspondingly increase the oil concentration within the other remaining portion of water being processed. The first portion of the processed water when sufficiently reduced in oil concentration is discharged for return to the oil spill location, while the remaining portion is collected until a sufficient level of oil concentration therein is achieved to permit disposal thereof by burning at the oil spill site.

  4. Determination of amphetamines in hair by integrating sample disruption, clean-up and solid phase derivatization.

    PubMed

    Argente-García, A; Moliner-Martínez, Y; Campíns-Falcó, P; Verdú-Andrés, J; Herráez-Hernández, R

    2016-05-20

    The utility of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the direct analysis of amphetamines in hair samples has been evaluated, using liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection and precolumn derivatization. The proposed approach is based on the employment of MSPD for matrix disruption and clean-up, followed by the derivatization of the analytes onto the dispersant-sample blend. The fluorogenic reagent 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) has been used for derivatization. Different conditions for MSPD, analyte purification and solid phase derivatization have been tested, using amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), ephedrine (EPE) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as model compounds. The results have been compared with those achieved by using ultrasound-assisted alkaline digestion and by MSPD combined with conventional solution derivatization. On the basis of the results obtained, a methodology is proposed for the analysis of amphetamines in hair which integrates sample disruption, clean-up and derivatization using a C18 phase. Improved sensitivity is achieved with respect to that obtained by the alkaline digestion or by the MSPD followed by solution derivatization methods. The method can be used for the quantification of the tested amphetamines within the 2.0-20.0ng/mg concentration interval, with limits of detection (LODs) of 0.25-0.75ng/mg. The methodology is very simple and rapid (the preparation of the sample takes less than 15min).

  5. Site-specific sediment clean-up objectives developed by the sediment quality triad

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, S.; Janisch, T.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community data were collected and evaluated in concert (1) to characterize adverse effects of hydrocarbon and metal contaminants in the sediments of a small inlet of Superior Bay, Lake Superior and a tributary creek and (2) to derive numeric objectives for the clean up of this system. Sediments from reference locations and eight study sites were analyzed for a range of contaminants, including hydrocarbons (measured both as diesel range organics (DRO) and oil and grease), lead, chromium, and ammonia. A range of sediment toxicity was observed across the eight study sites using a variety of tests and endpoints: Hyalella azteca (10 day survival and growth), Chironomus tentans (10 day survival and growth), Ceriodaphnia dubia (48 hour survival), and Daphnia magna (48 hour survival and 10 day survival and reproduction). A range of alterations of the benthic macroinvertebrate community compared with communities from reference locations were observed. Benthic community alterations were summarized quantitatively by taxa richness and Shannon-Weiner mean diversity. Lowest effect levels determined through this study included 150 {micro}g/g dry sediment for DRO (as measured in this study) and 40 {micro}g/g dry sediment for lead. Effects thresholds determined through this study included 1,500 {micro}g/g dry sediment for DRO and 90 {micro}g/g dry sediment for lead. These levels and concentrations measured in relevant reference locations are being used to define objectives for sediment clean up in the inlet and creek.

  6. [Structural and functional changes of myocardium in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers with atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Khomaziuk, I M; Habulavichene, Zh M; Khomaziuk, V A

    2011-01-01

    Particularities and clinical importance of the structural and functional changes of myocardium were estimated in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers with atrial fibrillation (AF). We examined 122 men with AF, which was associated with ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension. Paroxysmal AF was diagnosed in 42 patients, 80 patients had permanent AE Control group comprised 80 men without AF. Echocardiography and Doppler studies were performed using ultrasound scanner Aloka SSD-630 (Japan). Significant structural and functional changes of the heart were revealed already in paroxysmal AF and became more pronounced in permanent AF. Increased left atrial size, its ratio to left ventricular end diastolic diameter, diastolic dysfunction were important echocardiographic predictors of AF. Heart walls thickening was accompanied by disorders of myocardial relaxation, increase in myocardial mass led to ischemia, and together they promoted overload, dysfunction of atrium and development of AF. Obligatory echocardiographic examination of the Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers with ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension is necessary for predicting AF early, ordering adequate therapy in proper time and improving prognosis.

  7. Using integrated geospatial mapping and conceptual site models to guide risk-based environmental clean-up decisions.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Henry J; Greenberg, Michael R; Burger, Joanna; Gochfield, Michael; Powers, Charles; Kosson, David; Keren, Roger; Danis, Christine; Vyas, Vikram

    2005-04-01

    Government and private sector organizations are increasingly turning to the use of maps and other visual models to provide a depiction of environmental hazards and the potential risks they represent to humans and ecosystems. Frequently, the graphic presentation is tailored to address a specific contaminant, its location and possible exposure pathways, and potential receptors. Its format is usually driven by the data available, choice of graphics technology, and the audience being served. A format that is effective for displaying one contaminant at one scale at one site, however, may be ineffective in accurately portraying the circumstances surrounding a different contaminant at the same site, or the same contaminant at a different site, because of limitations in available data or the graphics technology being used. This is the daunting challenge facing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which is responsible for the nation's legacy wastes from nuclear weapons research, testing, and production at over 100 sites in the United States. In this article, we discuss the development and use of integrated geospatial mapping and conceptual site models to identify hazards and evaluate alternative long-term environmental clean-up strategies at DOE sites located across the United States. While the DOE probably has the greatest need for such information, the Department of Defense and other public and private responsible parties for many large and controversial National Priority List or Superfund sites would benefit from a similar approach.

  8. A solid-phase extraction procedure for the clean-up of thiram from aqueous solutions containing high concentrations of humic substances.

    PubMed

    Filipe, O M S; Vidal, M M; Duarte, A C; Santos, E B H

    2007-05-15

    A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure with an octadecyl bonded phase silica (C(18)) was developed for clean-up of the fungicide thiram from aqueous solutions containing high concentrations of humic substances, for future studies of thiram adsorption onto solid humic substances or soils. Suspensions of humic acids and soil, in aqueous 0.01M CaCl(2) solution, were prepared and used as samples. These extracts were spiked with thiram and immediately applied to a C(18)-SPE cartridge. Thiram was eluted with chloroform and its concentration measured by spectrophotometry at 283nm. Non-spiked aqueous extracts (blanks) and a control sample of thiram in 0.01M CaCl(2) aqueous solution were also prepared and submitted to the same SPE procedure. The results show that humic substances are extensively retained by the C(18) cartridge but are not eluted with CHCl(3). Recoveries of 100-104% were obtained for thiram in the presence of humic substances. The SPE procedure described in this work is an efficient clean-up step to remove the interference of humic substances absorbance and to be coupled to any spectrophotometric or HPLC-UV method, usually used for thiram analysis in food extracts.

  9. Estimation of the uncertainties of extraction and clean-up steps in pesticide residue analysis of plant commodities.

    PubMed

    Omeroglu, P Yolci; Ambrus, A; Boyacioglu, D

    2013-01-01

    Extraction and clean-up constitute important steps in pesticide residue analysis. For the correct interpretation of analytical results, uncertainties of extraction and clean-up steps should be taken into account when the combined uncertainty of the analytical result is estimated. In the scope of this study, uncertainties of extraction and clean-up steps were investigated by spiking (14)C-labelled chlorpyrifos to analytical portions of tomato, orange, apple, green bean, cucumber, jackfruit, papaya and starfruit. After each step, replicate measurements were carried out with a liquid scintillation counter. Uncertainties in extraction and clean-up steps were estimated separately for every matrix and method combination by using within-laboratory reproducibility standard deviation and were characterised with the CV of recoveries. It was observed that the uncertainty of the ethyl acetate extraction step varied between 0.8% and 5.9%. The relative standard uncertainty of the clean-up step with dispersive SPE used in the method known as QuEChERS was estimated to be around 1.5% for tomato, apple and green beans. The highest variation of 4.8% was observed in cucumber. The uncertainty of the clean-up step with gel permeation chromatography ranged between 5.3% and 13.1%, and it was relatively higher than that obtained with the dispersive SPE method.

  10. Transgenic plants for phytoremediation: helping nature to clean up environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Van Aken, Benoit

    2008-05-01

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up environmental pollution. However, detoxification of organic pollutants by plants is often slow, leading to the accumulation of toxic compounds that could be later released into the environment. A recent publication by Doty and colleagues describes the development of transgenic poplars (Populus) overexpressing a mammalian cytochrome P450, a family of enzymes commonly involved in the metabolism of toxic compounds. The engineered plants showed enhanced performance with regards to the metabolism of trichloroethylene and the removal of a range of other toxic volatile organic pollutants, including vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and benzene. This work suggests that transgenic plants might be able to contribute to the wider and safer application of phytoremediation.

  11. Case study: Using microbe molecular biology for Gulf oil spill clean up.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    This case has the student actively investigate the regulation of expression of a novel bacterial gene in the context of attempts to solve a real world problem, clean up of the April 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Although the case is fictitious, it is based on factual gene regulatory characteristics of oil-degrading microbes. The case is written for a sophomore Cell Biology lecture course at Indiana Wesleyan University that is taught to Biology/Pre-Med majors. This study is also appropriate for use in undergraduate microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, and molecular genetics courses. The case is intended to enhance coverage of transcription, translation, control of gene expression, and selected molecular biology techniques. Opportunities to practice critical thinking skills and to a lesser extent an introduction to the paradigm of life science research at the industry level are provided.

  12. Chemistry and microbiology of permeable reactive barriers for in situ groundwater clean up.

    PubMed

    Scherer, M M; Richter, S; Valentine, R L; Alvarez, P J

    2000-01-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are receiving a great deal of attention as an innovative, cost-effective technology for in situ clean up of groundwater contamination. A wide variety of materials are being proposed for use in PRBs, including zero-valent metals (e.g., iron metal), humic materials, oxides, surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZs), and oxygen- and nitrate-releasing compounds. PRB materials remove dissolved groundwater contaminants by immobilization within the barrier or transformation to less harmful products. The primary removal processes include: (1) sorption and precipitation, (2) chemical reaction, and (3) biologically mediated reactions. This article presents an overview of the mechanisms and factors controlling these individual processes and discusses the implications for the feasibility and long-term effectiveness of PRB technologies.

  13. The integration of science and politics to clean up 50 years in the nuclear sandbox

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C.E.; Holeman, T.

    1999-07-01

    The Cold War was fought between world superpowers for approximately 40 years from the end of the second World War until the end of the 1980s. During that time, the US government devoted billions of dollars to the development and production of nuclear weapons. Now the Cold War is over and the US is left with numerous nuclear weapons factories, stockpiles of nuclear materials, and mountains of waste to decontaminate and decommission. In the heat of the Cold War, little or no thought was given to how the facilities building bombs would be dismantled. Far too little attention was paid to the potential human health and environmental impact of the weapons production. Now, dozens of communities across the country face the problems this negligence created. In many cases, the location, extent, and characteristics of the waste and contamination are unknown, due to negligence or due to intentional hiding of waste and associated problems. Water supplies are contaminated and threatened; air quality is degraded and threatened; workers and residents risk contamination and health impacts; entire communities risk disaster from potential nuclear catastrophe. The US government, in the form of the US Department of Energy (DOE), now accepts responsibility for creating and cleaning up the mess. But it is the local communities, the home towns of the bomb factories and laboratories, that carry a significant share of the burden of inventing the science and politics required to clean up 50 years in the nuclear sandbox. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of the local community in addressing the cleanup of the US nuclear weapons complex. Local governments do not own nor are responsible for the environmental aftermath, but remain the perpetual neighbor to the facility, the hometown of workers, and long-term caretaker of the off-site impacts of the on-site contamination and health risks.

  14. [Determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in vegetable oils by double clean-up-gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ding, Liping; Cai, Chunping; Wang, Danhong

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the residues of seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetable oils, a method was established for the determination of trace PCBs in vegetable oils by double clean-up coupled with gas chromatography (GC). After extracted with acetonitrile, the sample extract was concentrated to dryness followed by re-dissolving with hexane. And the solution was pretreated by adding concentrated sulfuric acid followed cleaned-up with silica gel in dispersive solid-phase extraction protocol, then analyzed by GC with external standard meth- od. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, the analysis was carried out with a capillary column (HP-5, 30 m x 0.32 mm x 0.25 μm) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and the sample volume was 1.00 μL. Monitoring with an electron-capture detector, all the target analytes were separated by temperature-programming of the column. Good linearities were obtained in the range of 10-500 μg/L for the seven indicator PCBs with the correlation coefficients greater than 0. 999. For different matrices, the limits of detection (S/N = 3) and limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) were in the range of 1.8-8.9 pg/kg and 5.9-29.8 μg/kg, respectively. At three spiked levels of 10, 20 and 100 μg/kg of the seven indicator PCBs in olive oil, palm oil and peanut oil blank samples, the average recoveries ranged from 71.0% to 105.5% with the RSDs of 4.0%-11.3%. The method is simple, rapid and accurate, and can be used for the routine analysis of the indicator PCBs in vegetable oils.

  15. Studies of leukemia and thyroid disease among Chernobyl clean-up workers from the Baltics

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Tekkel, M.; Rahu, M.

    1997-03-01

    Following the reactor accident at Chernobyl in late April of 1986, hundreds of thousands of men from throughout the former Soviet Union were sent to Chernobyl to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris, and help decontaminate the local environment. They remained for an average of three months and were allowed to accumulate up to 25 cGy of radiation before being sent home. Doses for some workers may have exceeded the allowable limit. The experience of Chernobyl clean-up workers is potentially informative about cancer risk associated with protracted exposure to low levels of radiation. Cohorts of clean-up workers from the Baltic Republics were assembled for study, based on military records and other lists. The study population includes 4,833 men from Estonia 5,709 from Latvia and at least 5,446 from Lithuania, where a pilot study is underway. They are being monitored for cancer incidence through linkages with the corresponding national cancer registries. Biodosimetric assays, including fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosome translocation analysis and the glycophorin A (GPA) somatic cell mutation assay, are being used to supplement information about radiation doses from worker records and questionnaires. Thyroid screening examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsies were performed on nearly 2,000 workers in the Estonian cohort (mean age, 40 y) during the spring of 1995, nine years after the reactor accident. The study is still in progress. Work began first in Estonia, and results presented here pertain to this subgroup except as otherwise noted. The average age at the time of arrival at Chernobyl was 31 years. 62% were sent in 1986. Possible reasons for the apparent absence or rarity of radiation-induced thyroid nodules include low and protracted doses, low susceptibility among men exposed as adults, and insufficient passage of time since the accident.

  16. Quantifying the clean-up of LNAPL lens and LNAPL entrapped in an aquifer composed of fractured permeable formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, H.; Koengeter, J.

    2006-12-01

    This study has originated and motivated by a case history of a comparatively wide scale of kerosene (LNAPL) contamination in an aquifer composed of a fractured permeable formation. Presently, parts of the LNAPL are entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer, and other parts are incorporated with LNAPL lens on top of the flowing groundwater. The study develops conceptual, mathematical and numerical models for simulating the aquifer and LNAPL lens clean-up by a pump-and-treat procedure. The numerical simulations identify the importance of mechanisms of dissolution of the entrapped LNAPL ganglia and the LNAPL lens by films of contact. Clean-up of the LNAPL lens is also affected by mixing in fracture intersections located at the interface LNAPL-groundwater. Dimensionless parameters governing all involved processes are identified and their effects in different ranges are quantified. The clean-up of the LNAPL lens is mainly affected by the mobility number and the fracture segment orientation. These parameters also determine the depth of penetration of the organic solutes into the aquifer. Clean-up of the entrapped LNAPL is mainly affected by the dimensionless interphase mass transfer coefficient. The simulations indicate that at low mobility numbers rates of LNAPL lens clean-up may be faster or slower than clean-up of the LNAPL entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer, depending on the value of the interphase mass transfer coefficient. At high mobility numbers the clean- up rates of the LNAPL lens are always slower than those of the LNAPL entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer.

  17. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-01-01

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold. PMID:24152987

  18. Comparison of clean-up methods for ochratoxin A on wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili commercialized in Italy.

    PubMed

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-10-01

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold. PMID:24152987

  19. Comparison of clean-up methods for ochratoxin A on wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili commercialized in Italy.

    PubMed

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-10-22

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold.

  20. Determination of diphenamide, napropamide and metolachlor in tobacco by gel permeation chromatographic clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxia; Dang, Yuanlin; Zhang, Shusheng; Liu, Huimin; Qu, Lingbo; Liao, Xincheng; Zhao, Yufen; Wu, Yangjie

    2005-05-01

    Diphenamide, napropamide and metolachlor (FIG. 1) are selective, pre-emergence arylamide herbicides used to control the growth of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in a variety of fields, e.g. fruit trees, nuts, corns, green crops, etc. They possess high activity and moderate toxicity. For food and environment safety, the detailed investigations on their residues and metabolism are very important. Diphenamide, napropamide and metolachlor in the pesticide products, serum, urine, soil, environmental water, fruits and wine have been widely analyzed by ELISA, fluorescence, phosphorescence, capillary electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography(GC) and GC mass spectrometry (GC-MS). However, to our knowledge, simultaneous residue analysis of diphenamide, napropamide and metolachlor in tobacco samples has not been extensively documented. Tobacco is greatly consumed by smokers throughout the world. The pesticide residue in tobaccos might be potentially harmful to smokers' health. With this in mind the residue determination and control of diphenamide, napropamide and metolachlor in the tobacco leaves are very important for tobacco products and consumers. For these three herbicides, the tolerable maximum residue limits (MRLs) have been limited ranging from 0.05 (for tobacco products) to 5 mg/kg (for tobacco leaves) in different European countries. For the complex tobacco samples, the GC and HPLC with UV detection suffer from matrix interference making quantification and identification of these herbicides difficult. In such cases the removal of the matrix effects and identification of the target compounds are of great importance. The present work reports the extraction and clean up procedures, as well as, the chromatographic conditions developed for the simultaneous determination of diphenamide, napropamide and metolachlor residues in the fluecured tobacco leaves, from the different sources using HPLC-UV method. PMID:16477944

  1. [Non-Parametric Analysis of Radiation Risks of Mortality among Chernobyl Clean-Up Workers].

    PubMed

    Gorsky, A I; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A; Shchukina, N V; Chekin, S Yu; Ivanov, V K

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the relationship between dose and mortality from cancer and circulation diseases in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers based on the data from the National Radiation and Epidemiological Registry was performed. Medical and dosimetry information on the clean-up workers, males, who got radiation doses from April 26, 1986 to April 26, 1987, which was accumulated from 1992 to 2012, was used for the analysis. The total size of the cohort was 42929 people, 12731 deaths were registered in the cohort, among them 1893 deaths from solid cancers and 5230 deaths were from circulation diseases. An average age of the workers was 39 years in 1992 and the mean dose was 164 mGy. The dose-effect relationship was estimated with the use of non-parametric analysis of survival with regard to concurrence of risks of mortality. The risks were estimated in 6 dose groups of similar size (1-70, 70-130, 130-190, 190-210, 210-230 and.230-1000 mGy). The group "1-70 mGy" was used as control. Estimated dose-effect relationship related to cancers and circulation diseases is described approximately with a linear model, coefficient of determination (the proportion of variability explained by the linear model) for cancers was 23-25% and for circulation diseases - 2-13%. The slope coefficient of the dose-effect relationship normalized to 1 Gy for the ratio of risks for cancers in the linear model was 0.47 (95% CI: -0.77, 1.71), and for circulation diseases it was 0.22 (95% CI: -0.58, 1.02). Risks coefficient (slope coefficient of excess mortality at a dose of 1 Gy) for solid cancers was 1.94 (95% CI: - 3.10, 7.00) x 10(-2) and for circulation diseases it was 0.67 (95% CI: -9.61, 11.00) x 10(-2). 137 deaths from radiation-induced cancers and 47 deaths from circulation diseases were registered during a follow up period. PMID:27534064

  2. [Non-Parametric Analysis of Radiation Risks of Mortality among Chernobyl Clean-Up Workers].

    PubMed

    Gorsky, A I; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A; Shchukina, N V; Chekin, S Yu; Ivanov, V K

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the relationship between dose and mortality from cancer and circulation diseases in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers based on the data from the National Radiation and Epidemiological Registry was performed. Medical and dosimetry information on the clean-up workers, males, who got radiation doses from April 26, 1986 to April 26, 1987, which was accumulated from 1992 to 2012, was used for the analysis. The total size of the cohort was 42929 people, 12731 deaths were registered in the cohort, among them 1893 deaths from solid cancers and 5230 deaths were from circulation diseases. An average age of the workers was 39 years in 1992 and the mean dose was 164 mGy. The dose-effect relationship was estimated with the use of non-parametric analysis of survival with regard to concurrence of risks of mortality. The risks were estimated in 6 dose groups of similar size (1-70, 70-130, 130-190, 190-210, 210-230 and.230-1000 mGy). The group "1-70 mGy" was used as control. Estimated dose-effect relationship related to cancers and circulation diseases is described approximately with a linear model, coefficient of determination (the proportion of variability explained by the linear model) for cancers was 23-25% and for circulation diseases - 2-13%. The slope coefficient of the dose-effect relationship normalized to 1 Gy for the ratio of risks for cancers in the linear model was 0.47 (95% CI: -0.77, 1.71), and for circulation diseases it was 0.22 (95% CI: -0.58, 1.02). Risks coefficient (slope coefficient of excess mortality at a dose of 1 Gy) for solid cancers was 1.94 (95% CI: - 3.10, 7.00) x 10(-2) and for circulation diseases it was 0.67 (95% CI: -9.61, 11.00) x 10(-2). 137 deaths from radiation-induced cancers and 47 deaths from circulation diseases were registered during a follow up period.

  3. Terminating Safeguards on Excess Special Nuclear Material: Defense TRU Waste Clean-up and Nonproliferation - 12426

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Timothy; Nelson, Roger

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) manages defense nuclear material that has been determined to be excess to programmatic needs and declared waste. When these wastes contain plutonium, they almost always meet the definition of defense transuranic (TRU) waste and are thus eligible for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The DOE operates the WIPP in a manner that physical protections for attractiveness level D or higher special nuclear material (SNM) are not the normal operating condition. Therefore, there is currently a requirement to terminate safeguards before disposal of these wastes at the WIPP. Presented are the processes used to terminate safeguards, lessons learned during the termination process, and how these approaches might be useful for future defense TRU waste needing safeguards termination prior to shipment and disposal at the WIPP. Also described is a new criticality control container, which will increase the amount of fissile material that can be loaded per container, and how it will save significant taxpayer dollars. Retrieval, compliant packaging and shipment of retrievably stored legacy TRU waste has dominated disposal operations at WIPP since it began operations 12 years ago. But because most of this legacy waste has successfully been emplaced in WIPP, the TRU waste clean-up focus is turning to newly-generated TRU materials. A major component will be transuranic SNM, currently managed in safeguards-protected vaults around the weapons complex. As DOE and NNSA continue to consolidate and shrink the weapons complex footprint, it is expected that significant quantities of transuranic SNM will be declared surplus to the nation's needs. Safeguards termination of SNM varies due to the wide range of attractiveness level of the potential material that may be directly discarded as waste. To enhance the efficiency of shipping waste with high TRU fissile content to WIPP, DOE designed an over

  4. Evaluation of Methyl Bromide Alternatives Efficacy against Soil-Borne Pathogens, Nematodes and Soil Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongwei; Yan, Dongdong; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2015-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) and other alternatives were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. and their influence on soil microbial communities. Both Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. were significantly reduced by the MB (30.74 mg kg-1), methyl iodide (MI: 45.58 mg kg-1), metham sodium (MS: 53.92 mg kg-1) treatments. MS exhibited comparable effectiveness to MB in controlling Meloidogyne spp. and total nematodes, followed by MI at the tested rate. By contrast, sulfuryl fluoride (SF: 33.04 mg kg-1) and chloroform (CF: 23.68 mg kg-1) showed low efficacy in controlling Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. MB, MI and MS significantly lowered the abundance of different microbial populations and microbial biomass in soil, whereas SF and CF had limited influence on them compared with the control. Diversity indices in Biolog studies decreased in response to fumigation, but no significant difference was found among treatments in PLFA studies. Principal component and cluster analyses of Biolog and PLFA data sets revealed that MB and MI treatments greatly influenced the soil microbial community functional and structural diversity compared with SF treatment. These results suggest that fumigants with high effectiveness in suppressing soil-borne disease could significantly influence soil microbial community. PMID:25723395

  5. Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose clean-up of a large volume naphthenic acid extract.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard A; Kavanagh, Richard; Burnison, B Kent; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Der Kraak, Glen Van; Solomon, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    The Athabasca oil sands of Alberta, Canada contain an estimated 174 billion barrels of bitumen. During oil sands refining processes, an extraction tailings mixture is produced that has been reported as toxic to aquatic organisms and is therefore collected in settling ponds on site. Investigation into the toxicity of these tailings pond waters has identified naphthenic acids (NAs) and their sodium salts as the major toxic components, and a multi-year study has been initiated to identify the principal toxic components within NA mixtures. Future toxicity studies require a large volume of a NA mixture, however, a well-defined bulk extraction technique is not available. This study investigated the use of a weak anion exchanger, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose (DEAE-cellulose), to remove humic-like material present after collecting the organic acid fraction of oil sands tailings pond water. The NA extraction and clean-up procedure proved to be a fast and efficient method to process large volumes of tailings pond water, providing an extraction efficiency of 41.2%. The resulting concentrated NA solution had a composition that differed somewhat from oil sands fresh tailings, with a reduction in the abundance of lower molecular weight NAs being the most significant difference. This reduction was mainly due to the initial acidification of tailings pond water. The DEAE-cellulose treatment had only a minor effect on the NA concentration, no noticeable effect on the NA fingerprint, and no significant effect on the mixture toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri. PMID:16469358

  6. Hanford tank clean up: A guide to understanding the technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gephart, R.E.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the most difficult technical challenges in cleaning up the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State will be to process the radioactive and chemically complex waste found in the Site`s 177 underground storage tanks. Solid, liquid, and sludge-like wastes are contained in 149 single- and 28 double-shelled steel tanks. These wastes contain about one half of the curies of radioactivity and mass of hazardous chemicals found on the Hanford Site. Therefore, Hanford cleanup means tank cleanup. Safely removing the waste from the tanks, separating radioactive elements from inert chemicals, and creating a final waste form for disposal will require the use of our nation`s best available technology coupled with scientific advances, and an extraordinary commitment by all involved. The purpose of this guide is to inform the reader about critical issues facing tank cleanup. It is written as an information resource for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting to gain a basic understanding about the waste in Hanford`s tanks -- how the waste was created, what is in the waste, how it is stored, and what are the key technical issues facing tank cleanup. Access to information is key to better understanding the issues and more knowledgeably participating in cleanup decisions. This guide provides such information without promoting a given cleanup approach or technology use.

  7. Environmental roundup/company wins reimbursement for clean up of oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    The U.S. Court of Claims has awarded Union Petroleum Corp. almost $100,000 to reimburse the expenses it had incurred in cleaning up an oil spill caused by vandals at Union's oil terminal and distribution facility near Revere, Massachusetts on 4/5-6/75. The court ruled that Union had established all of the elements required by the Clean Water Act to recover its reasonable expenses. Among these elements were the immediate notification of the U.S. Coast Guard and a spill cleanup company upon the discovery of the spill and discharge of some of the approximately 60,000 gal of No. 6 fuel oil into the Chelsea Creek on 4/6/75; the adequate security precautions at Union's facilities, including a spill containment system and an oil separator to prevent oil from being discharged into the creek; and the responsibility of a third party for the discharge. The court also praised the voluntary action taken by Union, since the two railroad cars from which the No. 6 fuel oil had been discharged were not owned or operated by Union.

  8. Diving behaviour of wildlife impacted by an oil spill: A clean-up and rehabilitation success?

    PubMed

    Chilvers, B L; Morgan, K M; Finlayson, G; Sievwright, K A

    2015-11-15

    The value of rehabilitating oiled wildlife is an on-going global debate. On October 5, 2011, the cargo vessel C/V Rena grounded on Astrolabe Reef, New Zealand (NZ), spilling over 300 tonnes of heavy fuel oil. As part of the Rena oil spill response, 383 little blue penguins (LBP, Eudyptula minor) were captured, cleaned, rehabilitated and released back into a cleaned environment. This research investigates foraging behaviour changes due either to the oil spill or by the rehabilitation process by comparing the diving behaviour of rehabilitated (n=8) and non-rehabilitated (n=6) LBPs and with LBP populations throughout NZ. Stabile isotope analysis of feathers was also used to investigate diet. There were no foraging behaviour differences between rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated LBPs and the overall diving behaviour of these LBPs have similar, if not less energetic, foraging behaviour than other LBPs in NZ. This suggests the rehabilitation process and clean-up undertaken after the Rena appears effective and helps justify the rehabilitation of oiled wildlife across the world.

  9. [The assessment of remote cytogenetic effects in clean up workers of Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Golub, E V

    2009-01-01

    Cytogenetic study cohort of the liquidators of the consequences of Chernobyl accident over 4-6 years after clean-up working in the alienation zone was carried out by conventional method. For The results of study liquidators cohort of 1986-1987 years have shown decreasing the frequency of cells with unstable chromosome aberrations for 25-30% per each year of examination. The frequency of chromosomal and chromatid-type aberrations have been also decreasing. The increasing of frequency radiation markers (dicentrics and rings) was observed for liquidators who worked in Chernobyl in 1988 year. Significant distinctions on other cytogenetics parameters as well as for liquidators who worked in Chernobyl in 1989 year were not observed perhaps of small number of examined cohorts. Nevertheless level of chromosome aberrations observed in remote post radiation period was significantly higher then controls that may be caused by radiation-induced genome instability. Obtained data show the importance of cytogenetic examination of that cohort for estimation and the prognosis the risk of delayed negative consequences of exposure.

  10. Diving behaviour of wildlife impacted by an oil spill: A clean-up and rehabilitation success?

    PubMed

    Chilvers, B L; Morgan, K M; Finlayson, G; Sievwright, K A

    2015-11-15

    The value of rehabilitating oiled wildlife is an on-going global debate. On October 5, 2011, the cargo vessel C/V Rena grounded on Astrolabe Reef, New Zealand (NZ), spilling over 300 tonnes of heavy fuel oil. As part of the Rena oil spill response, 383 little blue penguins (LBP, Eudyptula minor) were captured, cleaned, rehabilitated and released back into a cleaned environment. This research investigates foraging behaviour changes due either to the oil spill or by the rehabilitation process by comparing the diving behaviour of rehabilitated (n=8) and non-rehabilitated (n=6) LBPs and with LBP populations throughout NZ. Stabile isotope analysis of feathers was also used to investigate diet. There were no foraging behaviour differences between rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated LBPs and the overall diving behaviour of these LBPs have similar, if not less energetic, foraging behaviour than other LBPs in NZ. This suggests the rehabilitation process and clean-up undertaken after the Rena appears effective and helps justify the rehabilitation of oiled wildlife across the world. PMID:26424224

  11. Dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl analysis: automation and improvement of clean-up established by example of spices.

    PubMed

    Kleinhenz, Silvia; Jira, Wolfgang; Schwind, Karl-Heinz

    2006-04-01

    To analyze polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in spices by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a new clean-up method had to be developed owing to the high content of essential oils in the samples. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) column with activated silica endowed with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide was used. Under these conditions, clean-up was achieved using at least 5-7 g of pepper and even higher amounts of other spices. The automatized clean-up comprised three additional chromatographic steps after accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by gel permeation: chromatography on a florisil SPE column, extract cleaning with the above-mentioned silica SPE column and chromatography with an activated charcoal column. On the basis of this automatized clean-up, a method that is more effective, rapid, simplified and economical than the available methods for PCDD/PCDF and PCB analysis is proposed. In model studies, the average recoveries for PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 82.6% and 105.6% and for the PCBs between 71.3% and 113.3%.

  12. EVALUATION OF DEMONSTRATED AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT AND CLEAN-UP OF CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides an overview of the Phase III Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for Treatment and Clean Up of Contaminated Land and Groundwater. It also contains the key conclusions of the Pilot Study and recommendations for further act...

  13. Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia.

    PubMed

    Eglite, M E; Zvagule, T J; Rainsford, K D; Reste, J D; Curbakova, E V; Kurjane, N N

    2009-06-01

    The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State Register) that was established in 1994. From these data, estimates have been made of external ionizing radiation to which these workers were exposed together with observations on the impact of exposure to heavy metals (especially lead and zinc) and radioactive isotopes released during the reactor 'meltdown'. These factors along with psycho-emotional and social-economic stresses account for a marked excess of mortality and morbidity in the group of CNPP accident clean-up workers compared with that of the non-exposed normal Latvian population adjusted for age and sex. The number of diseases or conditions in the CNPP accident clean-up workers has progressively risen from an average of 1.3 in 1986 to 10.9 in 2007. This exceeds for the Latvian population when adjusted for age and sex. The most serious conditions affect the nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine (especially thyroid) and immunological systems. While the morbidity associated with diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems has decreased in recent years that in the other systems is increasing. In recent years, there has been an increased occurrence of cancers affecting the thyroid, prostate and stomach. Clinical and laboratory investigations suggest that surviving CNPP accident clean-up workers exhibit signs of immuno-inflammatory reactions causing premature aging with evidence of autoimmune diseases and immunological deficiencies or abnormalities. It is suggested that the CNPP accident clean-up workers may have a specific syndrome, the 'Chernobyl post-radiation neurosomatic polypathy', due to sustained oxidant

  14. Policies to clean up toxic industrial contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo: a cost-benefit analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cost-benefit analysis is a transparent tool to inform policy makers about the potential effect of regulatory interventions, nevertheless its use to evaluate clean-up interventions in polluted industrial sites is limited. The two industrial areas of Gela and Priolo in Italy were declared "at high risk of environmental crisis" in 1990. Since then little has been done to clean the polluted sites and reduce the health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure. This study, aims to quantify the monetary benefits resulting from clean-up interventions in the contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo. Methods A damage function approach was used to estimate the number of health outcomes attributable to industrial pollution exposure. Extensive one way analyses and probabilistic analyses were conducted to investigate the sensitivity of results to different model assumptions. Results It has been estimated that, on average, 47 cases of premature death, 281 cases of cancer and 2,702 cases of non-cancer hospital admission could be avoided each year by removing environmental exposure in these two areas. Assuming a 20 year cessation lag and a 4% discount rate we calculate that the potential monetary benefit of removing industrial pollution is €3,592 million in Priolo and €6,639 million in Gela. Conclusions Given the annual number of health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure the effective clean-up of Gela and Priolo should be prioritised. This study suggests that clean-up policies costing up to €6,639 million in Gela and €3,592 million in Priolo would be cost beneficial. These two amounts are notably higher than the funds allocated thus far to clean up the two sites, €127.4 million in Gela and €774.5 million in Priolo, implying that further economic investments - even considerable ones - could still prove cost beneficial. PMID:21797993

  15. Establishing a universal swabbing and clean-up protocol for the combined recovery of organic and inorganic explosive residues.

    PubMed

    Song-im, Nopporn; Benson, Sarah; Lennard, Chris

    2012-11-30

    A single-step solvent extraction and a solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up procedure was developed and optimised in order to establish a universal sampling and clean-up protocol for the combined recovery of organic and inorganic explosive residues. Mixtures of three common swabbing solvents (acetone, acetonitrile and methanol) with water, in various ratios, were assessed for the extraction of four target organic explosives [pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP)] and two inorganic anions (chlorate and nitrate) from alcohol wipes that were used as a swabbing medium. An efficient, single-step extraction of both organic and inorganic compounds from the wipes was achieved using 60% v/v methanol/water. To develop a clean-up procedure, four commercially available SPE cartridges (Oasis HLB, Isolute(®) C18, Bond-Elut(®) ENV and ABS ELUT Nexus) and an in-house packed XAD-7 cartridge were firstly evaluated for their retention capacity toward three organic explosives (PETN, TNT and RDX) in a mixture of methanol and water. A SPE technique was then developed and optimised from the short-listed sorbents with four representative organic explosives (including TATP). The Nexus cartridge was found to provide a suitable sorbent for extract clean-up following swab extraction with 60% v/v methanol/water. By incorporating the optimised clean-up procedure with the application of a polyester-based alcohol wipe as a sampling medium, a universal swabbing protocol for the combined recovery of both organic and inorganic explosive residues was established. The feasibility of the proposed protocol was assessed by collection and quantitation of the residue from a mixture of TNT, PETN and chlorate deposited on a laminate test surface. PMID:22959657

  16. Establishing a universal swabbing and clean-up protocol for the combined recovery of organic and inorganic explosive residues.

    PubMed

    Song-im, Nopporn; Benson, Sarah; Lennard, Chris

    2012-11-30

    A single-step solvent extraction and a solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up procedure was developed and optimised in order to establish a universal sampling and clean-up protocol for the combined recovery of organic and inorganic explosive residues. Mixtures of three common swabbing solvents (acetone, acetonitrile and methanol) with water, in various ratios, were assessed for the extraction of four target organic explosives [pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP)] and two inorganic anions (chlorate and nitrate) from alcohol wipes that were used as a swabbing medium. An efficient, single-step extraction of both organic and inorganic compounds from the wipes was achieved using 60% v/v methanol/water. To develop a clean-up procedure, four commercially available SPE cartridges (Oasis HLB, Isolute(®) C18, Bond-Elut(®) ENV and ABS ELUT Nexus) and an in-house packed XAD-7 cartridge were firstly evaluated for their retention capacity toward three organic explosives (PETN, TNT and RDX) in a mixture of methanol and water. A SPE technique was then developed and optimised from the short-listed sorbents with four representative organic explosives (including TATP). The Nexus cartridge was found to provide a suitable sorbent for extract clean-up following swab extraction with 60% v/v methanol/water. By incorporating the optimised clean-up procedure with the application of a polyester-based alcohol wipe as a sampling medium, a universal swabbing protocol for the combined recovery of both organic and inorganic explosive residues was established. The feasibility of the proposed protocol was assessed by collection and quantitation of the residue from a mixture of TNT, PETN and chlorate deposited on a laminate test surface.

  17. Technical approaches to characterizing and cleaning up iron and steel mill sites under the brownfields initiative. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    EPA has developed this guide to provide decision-makers, such as city planners, private sector developers, and other involved in redeveloping brownfields, with a better understanding of the technical issues involved in assessing and cleaning up iron and steel mill sites so they can make the most informed decisions possible. This overview of the technical process involved in assessing and cleaning up brownfields sites can assist planners in making decisions at various stages of the project. An understanding of land use and industrial processes conducted in the past at a site can help the planner to conceptualize the site and identify likely areas of contamination that may require cleanup. Numerous resources are suggested to facilitate characterization of the site and consideration of cleanup technologies.

  18. Ultrasonic extraction followed by a novel filtration and clean-up device for screening of some polyphenols in tobaccos.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xungang; Cai, Jibao; Yang, Jun; Su, Qingde

    2005-02-01

    A simple and efficient HPLC method using a diode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous determination of six polyphenols in tobaccos. Ultrasonic extraction was employed at 25 degrees C to extract the polyphenols present in tobaccos into anhydrous methanol. A novel filtration device linked to a clean-up cartridge was designed for simultaneous extract filtration and clean-up. Optimized HPLC-DAD analysis, with multi-wavelength detection, was used for determination of the polyphenols. Because the content of some of the polyphenols is too low to be quantified directly, a concentration step was necessary. Anhydrous methanol was employed for extraction of the polyphenols because of its high extraction efficiency and its low boiling point in the concentration step. Using the proposed method, six polyphenols were quantified in tobaccos (Nicotina tobaccum L.).

  19. Determination of deoxynivalenol in cereals by immunoaffinity clean-up and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanshen; Wang, Zhanhui; De Saeger, Sarah; Shi, Weimin; Li, Cun; Zhang, Suxia; Cao, Xingyuan; Shen, Jianzhong

    2012-02-01

    An immunoaffinity column (IAC) was prepared with a new deoxynivalenol (DON) monoclonal antibody and used as a clean-up tool before ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis of DON in cereals. The developed IAC clean-up method showed high recoveries for DON. They ranged from 61% to 103% in wheat, rice, and millet with intra-day and inter-day variations below 19% and 17%, respectively. The column capacity was 2.86μg DON per mL of gel, and it maintained above 0.68μg/mL of gel after 10 cycles of usage at 2 days intervals. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.3 and 0.8μg/kg, respectively. Twenty-one out of 40 analyzed commercial cereal samples were positive at DON concentrations from 7 to 534μg/kg.

  20. Variable-Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE): Stability code development and clean-up glove data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozendaal, Roger A.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) was to establish an improved swept wing transition criterion. The development of the Unified Stability System gave a way of quickly examining disturbance growth for a wide variety of laminar boundary layers. The disturbance growth traces shown are too scattered to define a transition criteria to replace the F-111 data band, which has been used successfully to design NLF gloves. Still, a careful review of the clean-up glove data may yield cases for which the transition location is known more accurately. Liquid crystal photographs of the clean-up glove show much spanwise variation in the transition front for some conditions, and this further complicates the analyses. Several high quality cases are needed in which the transition front is well defined and at a relatively constant chordwise station.

  1. Alternating Paratill Shank Placement for Enhanced Soil Disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ParatillTM is a type of bent-leg non-inversion tillage implement commonly used on Coastal Plain soils of the southeastern U.S. to break naturally occurring consolidated soil layers. Conservation tillage operations with a ParatillTM are usually conducted with the shanks placed in the same location...

  2. Alternate data sources for soil surveys on rangeland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, Emil H.; Klingebiel, A.A.; Moore, D.G.; Fosnight, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    the feasibility of using this approach for producing physiographic maps as an aid for mapping soils and range sites. The project is a cooperative investigation of the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Soil Conservation Service, and the Bureau of Land Management.

  3. Novel fracture technology proves marginal Viking prospect economic, part II: Well clean-up, flowback and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Haidar, S.; Rylance, M.; Tybero, G.

    1996-12-31

    Having completed both fracture treatments as discussed in a companion paper, this paper continues on to describe the post fracture shut-in, clean-up and well testing operations that took place on the Viking Wx exploration well 49/17-12. These operations involved the removal of Resin Coated Proppant (RCP) from the wellbore, via Coiled Tubing (CT), through the use of a specially designed jetting nozzle. The RCP pack stability at a concentration of 3.0 lb/ft{sup 2} (as per planned design) had already been tested in a flowback cell. The use of a Surface Read-Out (SRO) gauge, combined with gas, water and proppant flow rates as well as the viscosity of fracturing fluids returns, enabled real time calculation of the drag forces, on the proppant pack, during clean-up. The flow rate, in the field, was controlled such that the calculated drag forces remained below those observed in the laboratory. Following the clean-up a flow and build-up test was conducted, to evaluate the fracture half length and fracture conductivity, from which a Pseudo-radial skin was calculated. The Non-Darcy effects in the fracture were also evaluated, and finally the short term and long term well deliverabilities were assessed.

  4. Analysis of fusaric acid in maize using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) clean-up and ion-pair LC with diode array UV detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusaric acid is a phytotoxin and mycotoxin occasionally found in maize contaminated with Fusarium fungi. A selective sample clean-up procedure was developed to detect fusaric acid in maize using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) clean-up coupled with ion-pair liquid chromatography...

  5. Using soil function evaluation in multi-criteria decision analysis for sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Volchko, Yevheniya; Norrman, Jenny; Rosén, Lars; Bergknut, Magnus; Josefsson, Sarah; Söderqvist, Tore; Norberg, Tommy; Wiberg, Karin; Tysklind, Mats

    2014-07-01

    Soil contamination is one of the major threats constraining proper functioning of the soil and thus provision of ecosystem services. Remedial actions typically only address the chemical soil quality by reducing total contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels guided by land use. However, emerging regulatory requirements on soil protection demand a holistic view on soil assessment in remediation projects thus accounting for a variety of soil functions. Such a view would require not only that the contamination concentrations are assessed and attended to, but also that other aspects are taking into account, thus addressing also physical and biological as well as other chemical soil quality indicators (SQIs). This study outlines how soil function assessment can be a part of a holistic sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The paper presents a method for practitioners for evaluating the effects of remediation alternatives on selected ecological soil functions using a suggested minimum data set (MDS) containing physical, biological and chemical SQIs. The measured SQIs are transformed into sub-scores by the use of scoring curves, which allows interpretation and the integration of soil quality data into the MCDA framework. The method is demonstrated at a study site (Marieberg, Sweden) and the results give an example of how soil analyses using the suggested MDS can be used for soil function assessment and subsequent input to the MCDA framework.

  6. Using soil function evaluation in multi-criteria decision analysis for sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Volchko, Yevheniya; Norrman, Jenny; Rosén, Lars; Bergknut, Magnus; Josefsson, Sarah; Söderqvist, Tore; Norberg, Tommy; Wiberg, Karin; Tysklind, Mats

    2014-07-01

    Soil contamination is one of the major threats constraining proper functioning of the soil and thus provision of ecosystem services. Remedial actions typically only address the chemical soil quality by reducing total contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels guided by land use. However, emerging regulatory requirements on soil protection demand a holistic view on soil assessment in remediation projects thus accounting for a variety of soil functions. Such a view would require not only that the contamination concentrations are assessed and attended to, but also that other aspects are taking into account, thus addressing also physical and biological as well as other chemical soil quality indicators (SQIs). This study outlines how soil function assessment can be a part of a holistic sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The paper presents a method for practitioners for evaluating the effects of remediation alternatives on selected ecological soil functions using a suggested minimum data set (MDS) containing physical, biological and chemical SQIs. The measured SQIs are transformed into sub-scores by the use of scoring curves, which allows interpretation and the integration of soil quality data into the MCDA framework. The method is demonstrated at a study site (Marieberg, Sweden) and the results give an example of how soil analyses using the suggested MDS can be used for soil function assessment and subsequent input to the MCDA framework. PMID:24529453

  7. Incorporating the soil function concept into sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Volchko, Yevheniya; Norrman, Jenny; Bergknut, Magnus; Rosén, Lars; Söderqvist, Tore

    2013-11-15

    Soil functions are critical for ecosystem survival and thus for an ecosystem's provision of services to humans. This is recognized in the proposed EU Soil Framework Directive from 2006, which lists seven important soil functions and services to be considered in a soil management practice. Emerging regulatory requirements demand a holistic view on soil evaluation in remediation projects. This paper presents a multi-scale, structured and transparent approach for incorporating the soil function concept into sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives using a set of ecological, socio-cultural and economic criteria. The basis for the presented approach is a conceptualization of the linkages between soil functions and ecosystem services connected to with the sustainability paradigm. The approach suggests using (1) soil quality indicators (i.e. physical, chemical and biological soil properties) for exploring the performance of soil functions at the site level, and (2) soil service indicators (i.e. value-related measurements) for evaluating the performance of services resulting from soil functions across all levels of the spatial scale. The suggested approach is demonstrated by application in a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework for sustainability appraisals of remediation alternatives. Further, the possibilities of using soil quality indicators for soil function evaluation are explored by reviewing existing literature on potential negative and positive effects of remediation technologies on the functionality of the treated soil. The suggested approach for including the soil function concept in remediation projects is believed to provide a basis for better informed decisions that will facilitate efficient management of contaminated land and to meet emerging regulatory requirements on soil protection.

  8. High intensity magnetic separation for the clean-up of a site polluted by lead metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Sierra, C; Martínez, J; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Afif, E; Gallego, J R

    2013-03-15

    The industrial history in the district of Linares (Spain) has had a severe impact on soil quality. Here we examined soil contaminated by lead and other heavy metals in "La Cruz" site, a brownfield affected by metallurgical residues. Initially, the presence of contaminants mainly associated with the presence of lead slag fragments mixed with the soil was evaluated. The subsequent analysis showed a quasi-uniform distribution of the pollution irrespective of the grain-size fractions. This study was accompanied by a characterization of the lead slag behavior under the presence of a magnetic field. Two main magnetic components were detected: first a ferromagnetic and/or ferrimagnetic contribution, second a paramagnetic and/or antiferromagnetic one. It was also established that the slag was composed mainly of lead spherules and iron oxides embedded in a silicate matrix. Under these conditions, the capacity of magnetic separation to remove pollutants was examined. Therefore, two high intensity magnetic separators (dry and wet devices, respectively) were used. Dry separation proved to be successful at decontaminating soil in the first stages of a soil washing plant. In contrast, wet separation was found effective as a post-process for the finer fractions.

  9. Bibliography for innovative site clean-up technologies, September 1996 update

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    ;Contents: Technology Survey Reports; EPA Program Information; Ground Water (In Situ Treatment); Thermal Treatment; Bioremediation; Soil VaporExtraction and Enhancement; Physical/Chemical Treatment; Site Characterization; Other Conferences and International Surveys; TechnicalSupport; Community Relations; Bulletin Board Systems/Databases/Software/Internet Resources; Technology Newsletters: Latest Issues and Back Issue Sets; and Innovative Site Remediation Engineering Technology Monographs.

  10. 77 FR 35431 - Final Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, CO, Uranium Mill

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... standards for a 30-day comment period (76 FR 70170; November 10, 2011). The public comment period and... COMMISSION Final Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, CO, Uranium Mill AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Uranium milling alternative standards. SUMMARY: This document announces that...

  11. Absorbent Pads for Containment, neutralization, and clean-up of environmental spills containing chemically-reactive agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A pad for cleaning up liquid spills is described which contains a porous surface covering, and an absorbent interior containing chemically reactive reagents for neutralizing noxious chemicals within the spilled liquid. The porous surface and the absorbent component would normally consist of chemically resistant materials allowing tentative spill to pass. The absorbent interior which contains the neutralizing reagents can but is not required to be chemically resilient and conducts the liquid chemically reactive reagents where the dangerous and undesirable chemicals within the chemical spill are then neutralized as well as removed from the premises.

  12. Absorbent pads for Containment, Neutralization, and Clean-Up of Environmental Spills Containing Chemically-Reactive Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A pad for cleaning up liquid spills is described which contains a porous surface covering, and an absorbent interior containing chemically reactive reagents for neutralizing noxious chemicals within the spilled liquid. The porous surface and the absorbent component would normally consist of chemically resistant materials allowing tentative spill to pass. The absorbent interior which contains the neutralizing reagents can but is not required to be chemically resilient and conducts the liquid chemical spill towards the absorbent interior containing the chemically reactive reagents where the dangerous and undesirable chemicals within the chemical spill are then neutralized as well as removed from the premises.

  13. Method of and apparatus for preheating pressurized fluidized bed combustor and clean-up subsystem of a gas turbine power plant

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Rossa W.; Zoll, August H.

    1982-01-01

    In a gas turbine power plant having a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, gas turbine-air compressor subsystem and a gas clean-up subsystem interconnected for fluid flow therethrough, a pipe communicating the outlet of the compressor of the gas turbine-air compressor subsystem with the interior of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor and the gas clean-up subsystem to provide for flow of compressed air, heated by the heat of compression, therethrough. The pressurized fluidized bed combustor and gas clean-up subsystem are vented to atmosphere so that the heated compressed air flows therethrough and loses heat to the interior of those components before passing to the atmosphere.

  14. NucleoSpin(®) XS Columns for DNA Concentration and Clean-Up.

    PubMed

    Hudlow, William R

    2016-01-01

    The phenol-chloroform (organic) extraction method continues to be a preferred method for extraction of DNA from forensic evidence samples that may contain low quantities of DNA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors. The aqueous extracts from the organic extraction of DNA require subsequent concentration and cleanup, which has traditionally been performed with microdialysis filter units, including the Centricon(®) and Microcon(®) centrifugal filter devices. Here, we describe the use of the NucleoSpin(®) XS silica columns as an alternative for the concentration and purification of the aqueous extracts from the organic extraction and for the removal of PCR inhibitors from existing DNA extracts. PMID:27259735

  15. NucleoSpin(®) XS Columns for DNA Concentration and Clean-Up.

    PubMed

    Hudlow, William R

    2016-01-01

    The phenol-chloroform (organic) extraction method continues to be a preferred method for extraction of DNA from forensic evidence samples that may contain low quantities of DNA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors. The aqueous extracts from the organic extraction of DNA require subsequent concentration and cleanup, which has traditionally been performed with microdialysis filter units, including the Centricon(®) and Microcon(®) centrifugal filter devices. Here, we describe the use of the NucleoSpin(®) XS silica columns as an alternative for the concentration and purification of the aqueous extracts from the organic extraction and for the removal of PCR inhibitors from existing DNA extracts.

  16. Reaching Part Per Trillion Clean-Up Criteria for Mercury in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K. T.; Kosny, K.; Drescher, S. R.; Southworth, G. R.; Hensley, J. F.

    2003-02-24

    In the last couple of years, emphasis on environmental mercury contamination and elimination of mercury use has increased. The U.S. Department of Energy has for many decades maintained a stockpile of elemental mercury for operations and, as a consequence of its routine use, spills have occurred. These historical spills have resulted in some contamination of water streams and soils. In this work we examine a newly developed technique for removal of mercury from contaminated groundwater. In this application the mercury concentration was approximately 2.3 parts per billion and the treatment criterion was 200 parts per trillion. Several forms of mercury species contributed to the contamination. The treatment technique developed for this water was to convert all forms of mercury, through a series of fast chemical reactions, to elemental mercury, which was air-stripped from the water. This paper presents preliminary laboratory work on the method.

  17. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils combining gel permeation chromatography with solid-phase extraction clean-up.

    PubMed

    Fromberg, A; Højgård, A; Duedahl-Olesen, L

    2007-07-01

    A semi-automatic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils using a combined gel permeation chromatography/solid-phase extraction (GPC/SPE) clean-up is presented. The method takes advantage of automatic injections using a Gilson ASPEC XL sample handling system equipped with a GPC column (S-X3) and pre-packed silica SPE columns for the subsequent clean-up and finally gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The method was validated for the determination of PAHs in vegetable oils and it can meet the criteria for the official control of benzo[a]pyrene levels in foods laid down by the Commission of the European Communities. A survey of 69 vegetable oils sampled from the Danish market included olive oil as well as other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene in all the oils were low (<0.2-0.8 microg kg(-1)), except for one sample of sunflower oil containing 11 microg kg(-1) benzo[a]pyrene. PMID:17613061

  18. Application of single immunoaffinity clean-up for simultaneous determination of regulated mycotoxins in cereals and nuts.

    PubMed

    Vaclavikova, Marta; MacMahon, Shaun; Zhang, Kai; Begley, Timothy H

    2013-12-15

    A rapid and sensitive analytical strategy for the simultaneous determination of twelve mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, zearalenon, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, T-2 and HT-2 toxins) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. The method was validated for peanuts, barley and maize-breakfast cereals; selected as they represent the matrices most often contaminated by mycotoxins. The method is designed for fast and reliable analyses of mycotoxins in regulatory, industrial and private laboratories. Multi-target immunoaffinity columns containing antibodies for all mycotoxins studied herein were used for sample clean-up. Method optimization was predominantly focused on the simplification of extraction and clean-up procedure recommended by column producers. This newly developed and simplified procedure decreased both the sample preparation time and the solvent volumes used for their processing. The analysis of all regulated mycotoxins was conducted by a newly developed UHPLC-MS/MS method with a sample run time of only ten minutes. The method trueness was tested with analytical spikes and certified reference materials, with recoveries ranging from 71% to 112% for all of the examined mycotoxins.

  19. [The retrospective cytogenetic dosimetry using the results of conventional chromosomal analysis in Chernobyl clean-up workers].

    PubMed

    Maznik, N A; Vinnikov, V A

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the cohortal biodosimetry carried out in 435 Chernobyl clean-up workers, who were surveyed with the conventional cytogenetic technique in terms from several days to 10 years after the end of their duties in the Chernobyl accident exclusive zone. An empirical model of the aberrant cell dynamics was utilized for the calculation of mean initial yields of dicentrics and centric rings in groups with different terms and duration of staying in the Chernobyl zone. Corresponding protracted irradiation doses estimated from aberration levels ranged from 79 to 670 mGy. The probabilistic distribution of the radiation doses was constructed by the applying the Bayesian analysis to initial individual chromosome exchange yields extrapolated to the exposure termination moment. This distribution was characterized by the mean dose about 460 mGy and maximum of probability density in the interval of 50-300 mGy. For the late somatic risk assessment in clean-up workers the probabilistic distribution of equivalentally-acute radiation doses was proposed; that had the mean value about 270 mGy, modal classes of 250-350 mGy and 99.8% of the probability density concentrated within the dose range from 0 to 1000 mGy. PMID:16454338

  20. Use of solid phase extraction for the isolation and clean-up of a derivatised furazolidone metabolite from animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Conneely, A; Nugent, A; O'Keeffe, M

    2002-06-01

    A method is presented for the determination of protein-bound residues of furazolidone in animal tissue. The use of furazolidone in food-producing animals has been banned in the EU. Illegal use of furazolidone can be monitored most effectively by testing for bound residues containing the 3-amino-2-oxazolidone (AOZ) moiety which, unlike the parent drug, is stable and can be detected for prolonged periods after cessation of treatment. This paper reports the development of an extraction and clean-up procedure for AOZ from liver using solid phase extraction. The method replaces solvent extraction and provides extensive sample clean-up with removal of approximately 99% of the derivatising agent, 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, which may interfere with the determination. It also offers the advantage of being suitable for automation, thereby increasing throughput of samples. The extraction procedure may be used for HPLC and ELISA screening techniques. The method has been validated in fortified and incurred pig liver samples, yielding mean recovery of AOZ in excess of 60%.

  1. A systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, M.T.; Reed, B.E.; Gabr, M.

    1993-07-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Report for Year 1 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the following nine technical projects encompassed by the Year 1 Agreement for the period of April 1 through June 30, 1993: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies -- drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; site remediation technologies -- in situ bioremediation of organic contaminants; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors -- monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessments of Technologies for hazardous waste site remediation -- non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; and remediation of hazardous sites with stream reforming.

  2. Hyperaccumulator oilcake manure as an alternative for chelate-induced phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated alluvial soils.

    PubMed

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The ability of hyperaccumulator oilcake manure as compared to chelates was investigated by growing Calendula officinalis L for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated alluvial soil. The combinatorial treatment T6 [2.5 g kg(-1) oilcake manure+5 mmol kg(-1) EDDS] caused maximum cadmium accumulation in root, shoot and flower up to 5.46, 4.74 and 1.37 mg kg(-1) and lead accumulation up to 16.11, 13.44 and 3.17 mg kg(-1), respectively at Naini dump site, Allahabad (S3). The treatment showed maximum remediation efficiency for Cd (RR=0.676%) and Pb (RR=0.202%) at Mumfordganj contaminated site (S2). However, the above parameters were also observed at par with the treatment T5 [2.5 g kg(-1) oilcake manure +2 g kg(-1) humic acid]. Applied EDDS altered chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and carotene contents of plants while application of oilcake manure enhanced their contents in plant by 3.73-8.65%, 5.81-17.65%, and 7.04-17.19%, respectively. The authors conclude that Calendula officinalis L has potential to be safely grown in moderately Cd and Pb-contaminated soils and application of hyperaccumulator oilcake manure boosts the photosynthetic pigments of the plant, leading to enhanced clean-up of the cadmium and lead-contaminated soils. Hence, the hyperaccumulator oilcake manure should be preferred over chelates for sustainable phytoremediation through soil-plant rhizospheric process.

  3. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium contaminated soils under cacao plantations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils...

  4. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs. PMID:24100092

  5. Environmental Immunoassays: Alternative Techniques for Soil and Water Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of soil and water samples for environmental studies and compliance testing can be formidable, time consuming, and costly. As a consequence, immunochemical techniques have become popular for environmental analysis because they are reliable, rapid, and cost effective. During the past 5 years, the use of immunoassays for environmental monitoring has increased substantially, and their use as an integral analytical tool in many environmental laboratories is now commonplace. This chapter will present the basic concept of immunoassays, recent advances in the development of immunochemical methods, and examples of successful applications of immunoassays in environmental analysis.

  6. Water compatible stir-bar devices imprinted with underivatised glyphosate for selective sample clean-up.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Caballero, Alberto; Diaz-Diaz, Goretti; Bengoetxea, Olatz; Quintela, Amaia; Unceta, Nora; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2016-06-17

    This paper reports the development of stir bars with a new MIP based coating, for the selective sorptive extraction of the herbicide glyphosate (GLYP). Molecular imprinting of the polymer has directly been carried out employing underivatised GLYP as the template molecule. Due to the poor solubility of the target compound in organic solvents, the MIP methodology has been optimised for rebinding in aqueous media, being the synthesis and the rebinding steps carried out in water:methanol mixtures and pure aqueous media. The coating has been developed by radical polymerisation initiated by UV energy, using N-allylthiourea and 2-dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate as functional monomers and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. Mechanical stability of the coating has been improved using 1,3-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane in the polymerisation mixture. Under the optimised conditions, the MIP has demonstrated excellent selectivity for the target compound in the presence of structural analogues, including its major metabolites. The applicability of the proposed method to real matrices has also been assessed using river water and soil samples. Registered mean recoveries ranged from 90.6 to 97.3% and RSD values were below 5% in all cases, what confirmed the suitability of the described methodology for the selective extraction and quantification of GLYP.

  7. Water compatible stir-bar devices imprinted with underivatised glyphosate for selective sample clean-up.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Caballero, Alberto; Diaz-Diaz, Goretti; Bengoetxea, Olatz; Quintela, Amaia; Unceta, Nora; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2016-06-17

    This paper reports the development of stir bars with a new MIP based coating, for the selective sorptive extraction of the herbicide glyphosate (GLYP). Molecular imprinting of the polymer has directly been carried out employing underivatised GLYP as the template molecule. Due to the poor solubility of the target compound in organic solvents, the MIP methodology has been optimised for rebinding in aqueous media, being the synthesis and the rebinding steps carried out in water:methanol mixtures and pure aqueous media. The coating has been developed by radical polymerisation initiated by UV energy, using N-allylthiourea and 2-dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate as functional monomers and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. Mechanical stability of the coating has been improved using 1,3-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane in the polymerisation mixture. Under the optimised conditions, the MIP has demonstrated excellent selectivity for the target compound in the presence of structural analogues, including its major metabolites. The applicability of the proposed method to real matrices has also been assessed using river water and soil samples. Registered mean recoveries ranged from 90.6 to 97.3% and RSD values were below 5% in all cases, what confirmed the suitability of the described methodology for the selective extraction and quantification of GLYP. PMID:27207580

  8. Clean-up progress at the SNL/NM Classified Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, P.J.; Galloway, R.B.

    1999-11-30

    The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)Environmental Restoration Project is currently excavating the Classified Waste Landfill in Technical Area II, a disposal area for weapon components for approximately 40 years until it closed in 1987. Many different types of classified parts were disposed in unlined trenches and pits throughout the course of the landfill's history. A percentage of the parts contain explosives and/or radioactive components or contamination. The excavation has progressed backward chronologically from the last trenches filled through to the earlier pits. Excavation commenced in March 1998, and approximately 75 percent of the site (as defined by geophysical anomalies) has been completed as of November 1999. The material excavated consists primarily of classified weapon assemblies and related components, so disposition must include demilitarization and sanitization. This has resulted in substantial waste minimization and cost avoidance for the project as upwards of 90 percent of the classified materials are being demilitarized and recycled. The project is using field screening and lab analysis in conjunction with preliminary and in-process risk assessments to characterize soil and make waste determinations in a timely a fashion as possible. Challenges in waste management have prompted the adoption of innovative solutions. The hand-picked crew (both management and field staff) and the ability to quickly adapt to changing conditions has ensured the success of the project. The current schedule is to complete excavation in July 2000, with follow-on verification sampling, demilitarization, and waste management activities following.

  9. Copper dynamics under alternating redox conditions is influenced by soil properties and contamination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Ramona; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effect of soil redox conditions on contaminant dynamics is of significant importance for evaluating their lability, mobility and potential transfer to other environmental compartments. Under changing redox conditions, soil properties and constituents such as Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and organic matter (OM) may influence the behavior of associated metallic elements (MEs). In this work, the redox-driven release and redistribution of Cu between different soil pools was studied in three soils having different contamination sources. This was achieved by subjecting soil columns to a series of alternating reducing and oxidizing cycles under non-limiting C conditions, and assessing their influence on soil pore water, leachate and solid phase composition. Results showed that, in all soils, alternating redox conditions led to an increase in the distribution of Cu in the more labile fractions, consequently enhancing its susceptibility to loss. This was generally linked to the redox-driven cycling of Fe, Mn and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In fact, results suggested that the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and subsequent reprecipitation as poorly-ordered phases under oxic conditions contributed to the release and mobilization of Cu and/or Cu-containing organometallic complexes. However, the behavior of Cu, as well as the mechanisms controlling Cu release and loss with redox cycling, was influenced by both soil properties (e.g. pH, contents of easily reducible Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides) and source of Cu contamination.

  10. Copper dynamics under alternating redox conditions is influenced by soil properties and contamination source.

    PubMed

    Balint, Ramona; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effect of soil redox conditions on contaminant dynamics is of significant importance for evaluating their lability, mobility and potential transfer to other environmental compartments. Under changing redox conditions, soil properties and constituents such as Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and organic matter (OM) may influence the behavior of associated metallic elements (MEs). In this work, the redox-driven release and redistribution of Cu between different soil pools was studied in three soils having different contamination sources. This was achieved by subjecting soil columns to a series of alternating reducing and oxidizing cycles under non-limiting C conditions, and assessing their influence on soil pore water, leachate and solid phase composition. Results showed that, in all soils, alternating redox conditions led to an increase in the distribution of Cu in the more labile fractions, consequently enhancing its susceptibility to loss. This was generally linked to the redox-driven cycling of Fe, Mn and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In fact, results suggested that the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and subsequent reprecipitation as poorly-ordered phases under oxic conditions contributed to the release and mobilization of Cu and/or Cu-containing organometallic complexes. However, the behavior of Cu, as well as the mechanisms controlling Cu release and loss with redox cycling, was influenced by both soil properties (e.g. pH, contents of easily reducible Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides) and source of Cu contamination.

  11. An assessment of alternative agricultural management practice impacts on soil carbon in the corn belt

    SciTech Connect

    Barnwell, T.O. Jr.; Jackson, R.B.; Mulkey, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    This impact of alternative management practices on agricultural soil C is estimated by a soil C mass balance modeling study that incorporates policy considerations in the analysis. A literature review of soil C modeling and impacts of management practices has been completed. The models selected for use and/or modification to meet the needs of representing soil C cycles in agroecosystems and impacts of management practices are CENTURY and DNDC. These models share a common ability to examine the impacts of alternative management practices on soil organic C, and are readily accessible. An important aspect of this effort is the development of the modeling framework and methodology that define the agricultural production systems and scenarios (i.e., crop-soil-climate combinations) to be assessed in terms of national policy, the integration of the model needs with available databases, and the operational mechanics of evaluating C sequestration potential with the integrated model/database system. We are working closely with EPA`s Office of Policy and Program Evaluation to define a reasonable set of policy alternatives for this assessment focusing on policy that might be affected through a revised Farm Bill, such as incentives to selectively promote conservation tillage, crop rotations, and/or good stewardship of the conservation reserve. Policy alternatives are translated into basic data for use in soil C models through economic models. These data, including such elements as agricultural practices, fertilization rates, and production levels are used in the soil C models to produce net carbon changes on a per unit area basis. The unit-area emissions are combined with areal-extent data in a GIS to produce an estimate of total carbon and nitrogen changes and thus estimate greenhouse benefits.

  12. Planar solid phase extraction clean-up for pesticide residue analysis in tea by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Oellig, Claudia; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2012-10-19

    Efficient clean-up is indispensable for preventing matrix effects in multi-residue analysis of pesticides in food by liquid and gas chromatography (LC and GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). High-throughput planar solid phase extraction (HTpSPE) was recently introduced as a new clean-up concept in residue analysis of pesticides in fruit and vegetables (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2011 [45]). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used to completely separate pesticides from matrix compounds and to focus them into a sharp zone, followed by extraction of the target zone by the TLC-MS interface. As rather challenging matrices, tea samples were chosen in this study. Besides chlorophylls and polyphenols, high amount of caffeine is co-extracted resulting in strong matrix effects both in LC-MS and GC-MS. The former HTpSPE procedure was adapted to initial extracts of green and black tea resulting in colorless extracts nearly free of matrix effects and interferences, as shown for seven chemically representative pesticides (acetamiprid, penconazole, azoxystrobin, chlorpyrifos, pirimicarb, fenarimol, and mepanipyrim). LC-MS/MS calibration curves obtained in the range of 0.002-0.5 mg/kg from matrix-matched standards and solvent standards were nearly identical and demonstrated the effectiveness of clean-up by HTpSPE. Mean recoveries determined by LC-MS/MS against solvent standards at spiking levels of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg ranged between 72 and 114% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.7-4.7% (n=4), while LC-MS measurements of tea samples spiked at 1 mg/kg provided recoveries of 81-104% with RSDs of 1.2-4.9% (n=6). Using LC-MS/MS, the method showed high sensitivity with signal-to-noise ratios>10 for concentrations below 0.002 mg/kg. HTpSPE of one sample was done in a few minutes, while numerous samples were cleaned in parallel at minimal costs with very low sample and solvent consumption. PMID:22981507

  13. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes.

  14. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, David. A.; Jones, Scott B.; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T.; Smith, Andrew R.; Jones, Davey L.; Marshall, Miles R.; Emmett, Bridget A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction.

  15. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David. A.; Jones, Scott B.; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T.; Smith, Andrew R.; Jones, Davey L.; Marshall, Miles R.; Emmett, Bridget A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction. PMID:26804897

  16. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125

  17. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture.

    PubMed

    Robinson, David A; Jones, Scott B; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T; Smith, Andrew R; Jones, Davey L; Marshall, Miles R; Emmett, Bridget A

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction. PMID:26804897

  18. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture.

    PubMed

    Robinson, David A; Jones, Scott B; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T; Smith, Andrew R; Jones, Davey L; Marshall, Miles R; Emmett, Bridget A

    2016-01-25

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction.

  19. Controlled Soil Warming Powered by Alternative Energy for Remote Field Sites

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Jill F.; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2°C in 1 m2 plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125

  20. High alternative oxidase activity in cold soils and its implication to the Dole Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angert, Alon; Rodeghiero, Mirco; Griffin, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    Variations in the Dole Effect, which have been used to infer past changes in biospheric productivity, are strongly affected by isotopic discrimination in soil respiration. Respiration through the alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway is associated with a higher discrimination than the one associated with the “normal” dark respiration pathway (the cytochrome pathway, COX). However, observations of O2 discrimination and AOX activity in undisturbed natural environments are scarce. In the current study we measured the O2 concentration and stable isotopes in the root zone of tundra, boreal forest and alpine forest soils. To estimate the discrimination from this data, we have performed O2 diffusion experiments in gamma-sterilized soil columns, with varying soil clay content. The discrimination found in the diffusion experiments was independent of clay content, and the value found, 14 ± 2‰, is the same as the one for binary diffusion of O2 in N2, indicating no interaction between the O2 and clay particles. Based on the field and laboratory results, the respiratory discrimination in the soils studied is 15-31‰, with the higher values associated with colder soils. The high discrimination found for cold (<6°C) soils indicates that AOX is a major respiratory pathway in these soils. This relationship between soil temperature and discrimination can be used in future interpretations of Dole Effect variations.

  1. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology.

  2. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology. PMID:25540943

  3. Immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to thin-layer chromatography for the determination of aflatoxins in various food matrices.

    PubMed

    Stroka, J; Van Otterdijk, R; Anklam, E

    2000-12-29

    A one-dimensional TLC method to determine aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) in various food matrices was elaborated which abstains fully on the use of chlorinated solvents. It implements an immunoaffinity clean-up step after extraction with methanol. The aflatoxins were quantified by densitometry. The method has shown to be rapid and efficient. In-house performance characteristics were established. The limit of quantification was found to be significantly lower than current regulatory limits for aflatoxin control outside and within the European Community. The obtained recovery and precision data gave a strong indication, that the method is likely to give satisfactory performance if tested in a future collaborative trial. PMID:11204238

  4. On-line detection of metal pollutant spikes in MSW incinerator flue gases prior to clean-up

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, D. Sharifi, V.; Swithenbank, J.; Argent, B.; Ardelt, D.

    2007-07-01

    SUWIC's unique mobile metals emissions monitoring laboratory has been used to measure metal pollutant spikes in the flue gas from a municipal solid waste incinerator, prior to gas clean-up. The laboratory has a heated sampling probe that extends into the plant, allowing the simultaneous on-line measurement of the concentrations of more than 30 metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). As little is known about temporal variation in metal concentrations, this capability is seen as a major advance. The graphs of continuous measurements show that the elemental loading is far from uniform, and that concentrations fluctuate far more than may have been conventionally expected. There are occasional significant spikes in the emission profiles for cadmium and mercury, which are believed to be due to specific items in the waste feed material. Continuous monitoring measurements are of significant value for those seeking to model metal behaviour in combustion and in pollution control devices.

  5. [CHANGES OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY OF CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT CLEAN-UP WORKERS WITH STABLE ANGINA].

    PubMed

    Nastina, O

    2014-01-01

    Changes of global and local myocardial contractility of Chernobyl accident clean-up workers (ChA CW) with stable angina were investigated. There were discovered that regular long-term treatment of ChA CW with stable angina using of antiischemic and metabolic drugs promoted to stabilization of global and local myocardial contractility indexes. Ejection fraction, degree of contraction of front-rear systolic left ventricle size, systolic thickness of interventricular septum sufficiently increased. Step-by-step worsening of global and local myocardial contractility indexes in cases of non-regular treatment was taken place. Sufficient differences between indexes of ejection fraction, left ventricle end-diastolic volume, systolic thickness and excursion of interventricular septum in stable angina patients of general population and ChA CW were discovered. Results of global and local myocardial contractility monitoring in ChA CW with stable angina substantiate the advisability of long-term supporting treatment using evidence-based drugs.

  6. [Comparative analysis of the combined treatment efficacy of the Chernobyl accident clean-up workers with essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Habulavichene, Zh M

    2012-12-01

    It was shown the results of comparative evaluation of combined treatment in 111 clean-up workers of Chernobyl accident with essential hypertension (EH). This treatment consist of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers in combination with calcium channel blockers and diuretics. The follow-up period lasted 12 months. It was found that combined therapy provides comparable and reliable blood pressure (BP) control during 24-hour, significant reduction of average daily BP, daytime and nighttime BP, an index of time of the BP, BP variability. Despite on achieved target blood pressure level, 4 weeks treatment is not enough for regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Significant regress of LVH was found if treatment lasted during a year under the condition that BP remained at the target level. It was revealed the advantage of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers intake combined with a diuretic on regress of left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction.

  7. Extraction, clean-up and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of zilpaterol as feed additive in fattening cattle.

    PubMed

    Bocca, B; Di Mattia, M; Cartoni, C; Fiori, M; Felli, M; Neri, B; Brambilla, G

    2003-01-01

    Zilpaterol is an adrenergic drug currently licensed in Mexico and South Africa as a feed additive for cattle close to consignment. In this study an analytical method to detect zilpaterol in commercial feeds was set up. The influence of extraction solvent and matrix was evaluated. The drug as a trimethylsilyl derivative was characterized by GC-MS, on a quadrupole detector, in the electron impact mode. Acidic extraction, solid-phase extraction C(18) non-endcapped clean-up and mass characterization on ions m/z 308, 291, 405, 390 provided zilpaterol recoveries >75.3% and repeatability <3.3% in feeds spiked in the range 30.0-120.0 ng/g. The limits of detection and quantification were 7.5 and 25.0 ng/g, respectively. Such limits are well below the dose of 5.0-20.0 microgram/g proposed as effective.

  8. Is the cutting of oil contaminated marshes an efficient clean-up technique in a subtropical estuary?

    PubMed

    Wolinski, André L T O; Lana, Paulo C; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo

    2011-06-01

    Cutting and removal of oil-impacted marsh plants are still used worldwide as a clean-up and recovery technique. To experimentally test the efficacy of cutting and removing marsh plants under subtropical conditions, we simulated an oil spill (Bunker MF-180) in Spartina alterniflora marshes and compared the responses of plant height, biomass, density of culms and number of flowering plants in high and low energy areas in Paranaguá Bay (S Brazil) for about 9 months. Cutting and removal were inefficient in promoting or accelerating the recovery of the impacted areas. Cut or uncut impacted marshes fully recovered within 6 months, both in low and high energy areas. Plant cutting should be practiced only when there is an effective risk of contamination of groundwater near urban areas, when obvious aesthetical issues are involved in areas of touristic interest or when there are real short-term conservation risks to threatened species.

  9. Application of zirconium dioxide nanoparticle sorbent for the clean-up step in post-harvest pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Uclés, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Dolores Hernando, Maria; Rosal, Roberto; Ferrer, Carmen; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2015-11-01

    The use of yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide nanoparticles as d-SPE clean-up sorbent for a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of post-harvest fungicides (carbaryl, carbendazim, chlorpropham, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, flutriafol, imazalil, iprodione, methomyl, myclobutanil, pirimiphos-methyl, prochloraz, pyrimethanil, thiabendazole, thiophanate-methyl and tolclofos-methyl) in orange and pear samples has been evaluated and validated. The sample preparation was a modification of the QuEChERS extraction method using yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanoparticles as the solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up sorbents prior to injecting the ten-fold diluted extracts into the LC system. By using the yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide extraction method, more recoveries in the 70-120% range were obtained - thus this method was used for the validation. Quantification was carried out using a matrix-matched calibration curve which was linear in the 1-500 µg kg(-1) range for almost all the pesticides studied. The validated limit of quantification was 10 µg kg(-1) for most of the studied compounds, except chlorpropham, ethoxyquin and thiophanate-methyl. Pesticide recoveries at the 10 and 100 µg kg(-1) concentration levels were satisfactory, with values between 77% and 120% and relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10% (n=5). The developed method was applied for the determination of selected fungicides in 20 real orange and pear samples. Four different pesticide residues were detected in 10 of these commodities; 20% of the samples contained pesticide residues at a quantifiable level (equal to or above the LOQs) for at least one pesticide residue. The most frequently-detected pesticide residues were: carbendazim, thiabendazole and imazalil-all were below the MRL. The highest concentration found was imazalil at 1175 µg kg

  10. Application of zirconium dioxide nanoparticle sorbent for the clean-up step in post-harvest pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Uclés, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Dolores Hernando, Maria; Rosal, Roberto; Ferrer, Carmen; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2015-11-01

    The use of yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide nanoparticles as d-SPE clean-up sorbent for a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of post-harvest fungicides (carbaryl, carbendazim, chlorpropham, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, flutriafol, imazalil, iprodione, methomyl, myclobutanil, pirimiphos-methyl, prochloraz, pyrimethanil, thiabendazole, thiophanate-methyl and tolclofos-methyl) in orange and pear samples has been evaluated and validated. The sample preparation was a modification of the QuEChERS extraction method using yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanoparticles as the solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up sorbents prior to injecting the ten-fold diluted extracts into the LC system. By using the yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide extraction method, more recoveries in the 70-120% range were obtained - thus this method was used for the validation. Quantification was carried out using a matrix-matched calibration curve which was linear in the 1-500 µg kg(-1) range for almost all the pesticides studied. The validated limit of quantification was 10 µg kg(-1) for most of the studied compounds, except chlorpropham, ethoxyquin and thiophanate-methyl. Pesticide recoveries at the 10 and 100 µg kg(-1) concentration levels were satisfactory, with values between 77% and 120% and relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10% (n=5). The developed method was applied for the determination of selected fungicides in 20 real orange and pear samples. Four different pesticide residues were detected in 10 of these commodities; 20% of the samples contained pesticide residues at a quantifiable level (equal to or above the LOQs) for at least one pesticide residue. The most frequently-detected pesticide residues were: carbendazim, thiabendazole and imazalil-all were below the MRL. The highest concentration found was imazalil at 1175 µg kg

  11. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R; Li, Y; Baligar, V C

    2016-09-01

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils and amendments. Cadmium was added at 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) (spiked), then, amendments were incorporated at 0, 0.5, or 2 %. Amended soils were incubated at room temperature for 28 days. Plant-available Cd was determined using 0.01 M CaCl2 (WSE) and Mehlich 3 (M3) extraction procedures in subsamples taken from individual bags at six time intervals. Soils and amendments displayed different sorption characteristics and a better fit was attained with Freundlich model (R (2) > 0.82). Amendments were ineffective in reducing extractable Cd in non-spiked soils. In Cd-spiked soils, vermicompost at 2 % significantly reduced WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.36, 0.54, and 0.38 mg kg(-1) to values lower that instrument's detection in all the three soils and significantly diminished M3-extractable Cd (P < 0.05) from 4.62 to 4.11 mg kg(-1) in only one soil. Vermicompost at 0.5 % significantly decreased WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.04 and 0.31 to 1.69 and 0.20 mg kg(-1), respectively, in two soils with low sorption capacity for Cd. In contrast, zeolite failed to reduce WSE- or M3-extractable Cd in all studied soils. A negative correlation occurred between soil pH and WSE-Cd (r > -0.89, P < 0.01). The decrease in WSE-Cd appears to be associated with the increase in pH of the vermicompost-amended soils. PMID:27234831

  12. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R; Li, Y; Baligar, V C

    2016-09-01

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils and amendments. Cadmium was added at 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) (spiked), then, amendments were incorporated at 0, 0.5, or 2 %. Amended soils were incubated at room temperature for 28 days. Plant-available Cd was determined using 0.01 M CaCl2 (WSE) and Mehlich 3 (M3) extraction procedures in subsamples taken from individual bags at six time intervals. Soils and amendments displayed different sorption characteristics and a better fit was attained with Freundlich model (R (2) > 0.82). Amendments were ineffective in reducing extractable Cd in non-spiked soils. In Cd-spiked soils, vermicompost at 2 % significantly reduced WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.36, 0.54, and 0.38 mg kg(-1) to values lower that instrument's detection in all the three soils and significantly diminished M3-extractable Cd (P < 0.05) from 4.62 to 4.11 mg kg(-1) in only one soil. Vermicompost at 0.5 % significantly decreased WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.04 and 0.31 to 1.69 and 0.20 mg kg(-1), respectively, in two soils with low sorption capacity for Cd. In contrast, zeolite failed to reduce WSE- or M3-extractable Cd in all studied soils. A negative correlation occurred between soil pH and WSE-Cd (r > -0.89, P < 0.01). The decrease in WSE-Cd appears to be associated with the increase in pH of the vermicompost-amended soils.

  13. Evaluation of the persistence of functional and biological respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Emma; Souto-Alonso, Ana; Espinosa, Ana; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Gómez, Federico P; Fuster, Carme; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Antó, Josep Maria; Barberà, Joan Albert

    2014-01-01

    Fishermen who had participated in clean-up activities of the Prestige oil spill showed increased bronchial responsiveness and higher levels of respiratory biomarkers 2 years later. We aimed to evaluate the persistence of these functional and biological respiratory health effects 6 years after clean-up work. In 2008/2009 a follow-up study was done in 230 never-smoking fishermen who had been exposed to clean-up work in 2002/2003 and 87 non-exposed fishermen. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness testing and the determination of respiratory biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate were done identically as in the baseline survey in 2004/2005. Associations between participation in clean-up work and respiratory health parameters were assessed using linear and logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex and age. Information from 158 exposed (69%) and 57 non-exposed (66%) fishermen was obtained. Loss to follow-up in the non-exposed was characterised by less respiratory symptoms at baseline. During the 4-year follow-up period lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the levels of respiratory biomarkers of oxidative stress and growth factors had deteriorated notably more among non-exposed than among exposed. At follow-up, respiratory health indices were similar or better in clean-up workers than in non-exposed. No clear differences between highly exposed and moderately exposed clean-up workers were found. In conclusion, we could not detect long-term respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the Prestige oil spill. Methodological issues that need to be considered in this type of studies include the choice of a non-exposed control group and limitation of follow-up to subgroups such as never smokers.

  14. Biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosaric, N.; Lu, G.; Velikonja, J.

    1995-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals is a viable alternative method for clean-up and remedy of hazardous waste sites. The final objective in this approach is to convert the parent toxicant into a readily biodegradable product which is harmless to human health and/or the environment. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil can also efficiently be enhanced by addition or in-situ production of biosufactants. It was generally observed that the degradation time was shortened and particularly the adaptation time for the microbes. More data from our laboratories showed that chlorinated aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, a herbicide Metolachlor, as well as naphthalene are degraded faster and more completely when selected biosurfactants are added to the soil. More recent data demonstrated an enhanced biodegradation of heavy hydrocarbons in petrochemical sludges, and in contaminated oil when biosurfactants were present or were added prior to the biodegradation process.

  15. Total soil DNA quantification as an alternative microbial biomass determination approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    .87 indicated slight (about 13%) underestimation of microbial biomass-C obtained by the CFE approach. Thus, quantification of microbial dsDNA is an alternative option to determine soil microbial biomass under extreme conditions, e.g., in frozen and alkaline soils. In contrast to approaches based on indirect characteristics (respiration, etc.), the DNA-based approach enables evaluating microbial biomass using the immediate content of basic cell compounds universal to all living organisms. This research was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Project No 14-14-00625.

  16. Effects of alternating wetting and drying versus continuous flooding on chromium fate in paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wendan; Ye, Xuezhu; Yang, Xiaoe; Li, Tingqiang; Zhao, Shouping; Zhang, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenic chromium (Cr) pollution in soils poses a great threat to human health through the food chain. It is imperative to understand Cr fate under the range of conditions suitable for rice growth. In this study, the effects of irrigation managements on dynamics of porewater Cr(VI) concentrations in rice paddies and Cr distribution in rice were investigated with pot experiments under greenhouse conditions. Soil redox potential in continuous flooding (CF) treatments showed that reducing conditions remained for the whole duration of rice growing period, while soil redox potential in alternating wetting and drying (AWD) treatments showed that soil conditions alternately changed between reducing and oxic. As soil redox potential is an important factor affecting Cr(VI) reduction in paddy soils, dynamics of Cr(VI) concentration were clearly different under different irrigation managements. In CF treatments, porewater Cr(VI) concentrations decreased with time after planting, while in AWD treatments porewater Cr(VI) concentrations were increased and decreased alternately response to the irrigation cycles. Chromium(VI) concentrations in the CF treatments were lower than those in AWD treatments for most part of rice-growing season. Moreover, Cr concentrations in rice tissues were significantly influenced by irrigation with relatively higher values in the AWD treatments, which might be attributed to the higher porewater Cr(VI) concentrations in AWD treatments. Therefore, it would be better to use CF than AWD management in Cr-contaminated paddy soils to reduce Cr accumulation in rice, and thus to reduce the potential risk to human health.

  17. Effects of alternating wetting and drying versus continuous flooding on chromium fate in paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wendan; Ye, Xuezhu; Yang, Xiaoe; Li, Tingqiang; Zhao, Shouping; Zhang, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenic chromium (Cr) pollution in soils poses a great threat to human health through the food chain. It is imperative to understand Cr fate under the range of conditions suitable for rice growth. In this study, the effects of irrigation managements on dynamics of porewater Cr(VI) concentrations in rice paddies and Cr distribution in rice were investigated with pot experiments under greenhouse conditions. Soil redox potential in continuous flooding (CF) treatments showed that reducing conditions remained for the whole duration of rice growing period, while soil redox potential in alternating wetting and drying (AWD) treatments showed that soil conditions alternately changed between reducing and oxic. As soil redox potential is an important factor affecting Cr(VI) reduction in paddy soils, dynamics of Cr(VI) concentration were clearly different under different irrigation managements. In CF treatments, porewater Cr(VI) concentrations decreased with time after planting, while in AWD treatments porewater Cr(VI) concentrations were increased and decreased alternately response to the irrigation cycles. Chromium(VI) concentrations in the CF treatments were lower than those in AWD treatments for most part of rice-growing season. Moreover, Cr concentrations in rice tissues were significantly influenced by irrigation with relatively higher values in the AWD treatments, which might be attributed to the higher porewater Cr(VI) concentrations in AWD treatments. Therefore, it would be better to use CF than AWD management in Cr-contaminated paddy soils to reduce Cr accumulation in rice, and thus to reduce the potential risk to human health. PMID:25546832

  18. Cleaning up Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted. (GR)

  19. Cleaning Up Your Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author discusses how inadequate ventilation, poor air quality, mold and other conditions can have a detrimental impact on the health of students and school staff. She states that, these unsafe environmental conditions can cause a negative effect on students' health as well as their achievement. Furthermore, she discusses…

  20. Cleaning up Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A development program that started in 1975 between Union Carbide and JPL, led to Advanced Silicon Materials LLC's, formerly ASiMI, commercial process for producing silane in viable quantities. The process was expanded to include the production of high-purity polysilicon for electronic devices. The technology came out of JPL's Low Cost Silicon Array Project.

  1. CLEAN-UP Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Mikulski, Barbara A. [D-MD

    2011-05-12

    05/12/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Cleaning up with sunshine

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, D.Y.; Blake, D.M.

    1996-08-01

    This article describes how solar photocatalytic technology can be an effective method of breaking up toxic chemicals and disinfecting both water and air. The use of solar energy for the production of food, fiber, and heat has been known to mankind for a long time. Research over the last five decades has also made it possible to produce mechanical and electrical power with solar energy. And although the potential of solar radiation for disinfection and environmental mitigation has been known for years, only recently has this technology been scientifically recognized and researched. For anyone who has observed colors fading over long exposure to sunlight, certain materials deteriorating in the sunlight, or skin getting sunburned, it is not hard to imagine sunlight causing reactions that could be used beneficially to break up toxic chemicals. Older civilizations considered it essential that human dwellings be designed to allow sunshine in. This may have been for disinfection or to keep the growth of microorganisms in check. Research over the last three decades has not only confirmed the capability of sunlight for detoxification and disinfection but also accelerated the natural process by the use of catalysts. When sunlight is used to break up toxic chemicals by direct absorption through the chemical surface, the process is called photolysis. If the objective is achieved by the use of catalysts, it is known as photocatalysis. Recent research has concentrated mainly on photocatalytic detoxification and disinfection.

  3. Cleaning Up the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Don; Pruett, Lindsay

    2005-01-01

    Environmental community service projects provide many opportunities for students to help the environment and connect with their communities. In Washington State, students are allowed to obtain a high school varsity letter in community service if they complete over 150 community service hours in a calendar year. To help students toward this goal,…

  4. Oil spill clean up

    SciTech Connect

    Claxton, L.D.; Houk, V.S.; Williams, R.; Kremer, F.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. During biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic constituents to toxic species. Also, toxic compounds refractory to biological degradation may compromise the effectiveness of the treatment technique. In the study, the Salmonella mutagenicity assay showed that both the Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its weathered counterpart collected from oil-impacted water were weakly mutagenic. Results also showed that the mutagenic components were depleted at a faster rate than the overall content of organic material.

  5. Cleaning Up High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses cleaning techniques and equipment for areas in a school that are hard to reach, such as the high spacious ceilings, the tall windows of a school atrium, and high points in gymnasiums and auditoriums. (GR)

  6. Cleaning up the House

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, C.

    2007-12-15

    Under the new 'Green the Capital' initiative, measures are making the House of Representatives a more energy efficient workplace. The Capital power plant, which burns mostly coal and natural gas to heat seven boilers, must operate in a carbon-neutral fashion by the end of 2008, by increasing energy efficiency and fuel switching. Roughly 103,000 MW hours of electricity will be bought each year from solar and wind-powered sources. Other measures being implemented are use of fluorescent light bulbs and recycled paper, and a boost in recycling of materials. 4 photos.

  7. Electrical field assisted matrix solid phase dispersion as a powerful tool to improve the extraction efficiency and clean-up of fluoroquinolones in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Orlando, Ricardo Mathias; Faria, Adriana Ferreira

    2016-08-26

    This work presents a new method by electrical matrix solid phase dispersion for the extraction and clean-up of marbofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, difloxacin and sarafloxacin in bovine milk. Composition and pH of the eluent, applied electrical potential and polarity were optimized by experimental designs. The combination of the chromatographic and electrophoretic mechanisms allowed the extraction and clean-up in one step with low organic solvent consumption, high extraction throughput and elution automation. Linearity, precision, trueness and limit of quantification were evaluated and provided values in accordance with other methods recently developed for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in milk. This technique proved to be promising for the extraction and clean-up of ionizable analytes in different milk matrices.

  8. Determining hydraulic properties of a loam soil by alternative infiltrometer techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagna, Vincenzo; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Di Prima, Simone; Iovino, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Testing alternative infiltrometer techniques to determine soil hydraulic properties is necessary for specific soil types. For a loam soil, the water retention and hydraulic conductivity values predicted by the BEST (Beerkan Estimation of Soil Transfer parameters) procedure of soil hydraulic characterization were compared with data collected by more standard laboratory and field techniques. In addition, six infiltrometer techniques were compared in terms of estimated saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, Ks. The BEST-intercept algorithm with a saturated soil water content set at 76% of the porosity yielded water retention values statistically similar to those obtained in the laboratory and Ks values practically coinciding with those determined in the field with the pressure infiltrometer (PI) since the means differed by a negligible 1.9%. The unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity measured with the tension infiltrometer (TI) was reproduced satisfactorily by BEST only close to saturation, i.e. for an established pressure head of -10 mm. BEST, the PI, one-potential experiments with both the TI and the mini disk infiltrometer (MDI), the simplified falling head (SFH) technique and the bottomless bucket (BB) method yielded statistically similar estimates of Ks for the sampled area, differing at the most by a factor of three. The suggestion was that smaller values were obtained with longer and more soil-disturbing infiltration runs. In conclusion, an applicative scenario of BEST yielding good predictions of water retention and saturated or near-saturated hydrodynamic parameters was suggested for the sampled loam soil. Any of the tested infiltration techniques appears usable to obtain the order of magnitude of Ks at the field site but the TI, MDI and SFH data seem more representative of a dry, non-disturbed soil whereas the BEST, BB and PI data appear more appropriate to characterize a wet soil at some stage during a rainfall event. Additional investigations carried out

  9. Hyperaccumulator oilcake manure as an alternative for chelate-induced phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated alluvial soils.

    PubMed

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The ability of hyperaccumulator oilcake manure as compared to chelates was investigated by growing Calendula officinalis L for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated alluvial soil. The combinatorial treatment T6 [2.5 g kg(-1) oilcake manure+5 mmol kg(-1) EDDS] caused maximum cadmium accumulation in root, shoot and flower up to 5.46, 4.74 and 1.37 mg kg(-1) and lead accumulation up to 16.11, 13.44 and 3.17 mg kg(-1), respectively at Naini dump site, Allahabad (S3). The treatment showed maximum remediation efficiency for Cd (RR=0.676%) and Pb (RR=0.202%) at Mumfordganj contaminated site (S2). However, the above parameters were also observed at par with the treatment T5 [2.5 g kg(-1) oilcake manure +2 g kg(-1) humic acid]. Applied EDDS altered chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and carotene contents of plants while application of oilcake manure enhanced their contents in plant by 3.73-8.65%, 5.81-17.65%, and 7.04-17.19%, respectively. The authors conclude that Calendula officinalis L has potential to be safely grown in moderately Cd and Pb-contaminated soils and application of hyperaccumulator oilcake manure boosts the photosynthetic pigments of the plant, leading to enhanced clean-up of the cadmium and lead-contaminated soils. Hence, the hyperaccumulator oilcake manure should be preferred over chelates for sustainable phytoremediation through soil-plant rhizospheric process. PMID:25397984

  10. Validation of an HPLC analytical method coupled to a multifunctional clean-up column for the determination of deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Sugita-Konsihi, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Tabata, Setsuko; Nakajima, Masahiro; Nouno, Masanori; Nakaie, Yoko; Chonan, Takao; Aoyagi, Mitsutoshi; Kibune, Nobuyuki; Mizuno, Kazutoshi; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Kanamaru, Naoki; Minamisawa, Masatoshi; Aita, Norio; Kushiro, Masayo; Tanaka, Kenji; Takatori, Kosuke

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate a method using a multifunctional clean-up column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography as an official analytical method for the determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat used as food or feed, an inter-laboratory study was performed in 12 laboratories using four naturally contaminated wheat samples and one spiked sample. The relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSDr) and reproducibility (RSDR) of naturally contaminated wheat were in the range 5.8-11.3% and 12.0-20.7%, respectively. The HORRAT was less than 1.0 in each sample. From the spiking test, the recovery rate, RSDr, RSDR and HORRAT value were 100.0%, 11.2%, 10.3% and 0.5, respectively. The limit of quantification is 0.10 mg/kg from the range obtained in a linear calibration. Thus, it should be useful as a sensitive and validated analytical method for the determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat intended for use in food and feed.

  11. Tackling the challenge of selective analytical clean-up of complex natural extracts: the curious case of chlorophyll removal.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; D'Hondt, Els; Noten, Bart; Hermans, Nina; Apers, Sandra; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2014-11-15

    Alkaline saponification is often used to remove interfering chlorophylls and lipids during carotenoids analysis. However, saponification also hydrolyses esterified carotenoids and is known to induce artifacts. To avoid carotenoid artifact formation during saponification, Larsen and Christensen (2005) developed a gentler and simpler analytical clean-up procedure involving the use of a strong basic resin (Ambersep 900 OH). They hypothesised a saponification mechanism based on their Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array (LC-PDA) data. In the present study, we show with LC-PDA-accurate mass-Mass Spectrometry that the main chlorophyll removal mechanism is not based on saponification, apolar adsorption or anion exchange, but most probably an adsorption mechanism caused by H-bonds and dipole-dipole interactions. We showed experimentally that esterified carotenoids and glycerolipids were not removed, indicating a much more selective mechanism than initially hypothesised. This opens new research opportunities towards a much wider scope of applications (e.g. the refinement of oils rich in phytochemical content).

  12. A probabilistic model estimating oil spill clean-up costs--a case study for the Gulf of Finland.

    PubMed

    Montewka, Jakub; Weckström, Mia; Kujala, Pentti

    2013-11-15

    Existing models estimating oil spill costs at sea are based on data from the past, and they usually lack a systematic approach. This make them passive, and limits their ability to forecast the effect of the changes in the oil combating fleet or location of a spill on the oil spill costs. In this paper we make an attempt towards the development of a probabilistic and systematic model estimating the costs of clean-up operations for the Gulf of Finland. For this purpose we utilize expert knowledge along with the available data and information from literature. Then, the obtained information is combined into a framework with the use of a Bayesian Belief Networks. Due to lack of data, we validate the model by comparing its results with existing models, with which we found good agreement. We anticipate that the presented model can contribute to the cost-effective oil-combating fleet optimization for the Gulf of Finland. It can also facilitate the accident consequences estimation in the framework of formal safety assessment (FSA).

  13. Physicochemical regeneration of high silica zeolite Y used to clean-up water polluted with sulfonamide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Braschi, I; Blasioli, S; Buscaroli, E; Montecchio, D; Martucci, A

    2016-05-01

    High silica zeolite Y has been positively evaluated to clean-up water polluted with sulfonamides, an antibiotic family which is known to be involved in the antibiotic resistance evolution. To define possible strategies for the exhausted zeolite regeneration, the efficacy of some chemico-physical treatments on the zeolite loaded with four different sulfonamides was evaluated. The evolution of photolysis, Fenton-like reaction, thermal treatments, and solvent extractions and the occurrence in the zeolite pores of organic residues eventually entrapped was elucidated by a combined thermogravimetric (TGA-DTA), diffractometric (XRPD), and spectroscopic (FT-IR) approach. The chemical processes were not able to remove the organic guest from zeolite pores and a limited transformation on embedded molecules was observed. On the contrary, both thermal treatment and solvent extraction succeeded in the regeneration of the zeolite loaded from deionized and natural fresh water. The recyclability of regenerated zeolite was evaluated over several adsorption/regeneration cycles, due to the treatment efficacy and its stability as well as the ability to regain the structural features of the unloaded material. PMID:27155437

  14. Tackling the challenge of selective analytical clean-up of complex natural extracts: the curious case of chlorophyll removal.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; D'Hondt, Els; Noten, Bart; Hermans, Nina; Apers, Sandra; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2014-11-15

    Alkaline saponification is often used to remove interfering chlorophylls and lipids during carotenoids analysis. However, saponification also hydrolyses esterified carotenoids and is known to induce artifacts. To avoid carotenoid artifact formation during saponification, Larsen and Christensen (2005) developed a gentler and simpler analytical clean-up procedure involving the use of a strong basic resin (Ambersep 900 OH). They hypothesised a saponification mechanism based on their Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array (LC-PDA) data. In the present study, we show with LC-PDA-accurate mass-Mass Spectrometry that the main chlorophyll removal mechanism is not based on saponification, apolar adsorption or anion exchange, but most probably an adsorption mechanism caused by H-bonds and dipole-dipole interactions. We showed experimentally that esterified carotenoids and glycerolipids were not removed, indicating a much more selective mechanism than initially hypothesised. This opens new research opportunities towards a much wider scope of applications (e.g. the refinement of oils rich in phytochemical content). PMID:24912710

  15. Does further clean-up reduce the matrix enhancement effect in gas chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues in food?

    PubMed

    Schenck, F J; Lehotay, S J

    2000-01-28

    Sample extracts of apples, peas, green beans, oranges, raspberries, clementines, carrots, and wheat obtained using the Food and Drug Administration (acetone extraction) and Canadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency (acetonitrile extraction) multiresidue methods for pesticides were subjected to clean-up using different solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges in an attempt to reduce or eliminate the matrix enhancement effect. The matrix enhancement effect is related to the blocking of active sites on the injector liner by matrix components, thereby increasing signal in the presence of matrix versus standards in solvent in which the pesticides themselves interact with the active sites. Graphitized carbon black (GCB) was often used in combination with various anion-exchange SPE cartridges. The extracts were then spiked with organophosphorus insecticides. These process standards were then compared to standards in acetone of the same concentration using gas chromatography with flame photometric detection or ion trap mass spectrometric detection. Sample matrix enhancement varied from little to no effect for some pesticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos, malathion) to >200% in the case of certain susceptible pesticides. The GCB removed color components but showed little effect in reducing matrix enhancement by itself. The anion-exchange cartridges in combination with GCB or not, substantially reduced the matrix enhancement effect but did not eliminate it. PMID:10677079

  16. Application of Polymeric Agents for Improved Soil Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, John

    2008-09-30

    The objectives of the Thrust II project include optimization of the technology for PO Mayak soils, identification of clean up requirements, design and construction of a mobile production-scale process system, installation and deployment of the soil washing technology.

  17. Effect of alternating bioremediation and electrokinetics on the remediation of n-hexadecane-contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sa; Guo, Shuhai; Li, Fengmei; Yang, Xuelian; Teng, Fei; Wang, Jianing

    2016-04-01

    This study demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of n-hexadecane in soil, realized by alternating bioremediation and electrokinetic technologies. Using an alternating technology instead of simultaneous application prevented competition between the processes that would lower their efficiency. For the consumption of the soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) necessary for bioremediation by electrokinetics, bioremediation was performed first. Because of the utilization and loss of the DOM and water-soluble ions by the microbial and electrokinetic processes, respectively, both of them were supplemented to provide a basic carbon resource, maintain a high electrical conductivity and produce a uniform distribution of ions. The moisture and bacteria were also supplemented. The optimal DOM supplement (20.5 mg·kg‑1 glucose; 80–90% of the total natural DOM content in the soil) was calculated to avoid competitive effects (between the DOM and n-hexadecane) and to prevent nutritional deficiency. The replenishment of the water-soluble ions maintained their content equal to their initial concentrations. The degradation rate of n-hexadecane was only 167.0 mg·kg‑1·d‑1 (1.9%, w/w) for the first 9 days in the treatments with bioremediation or electrokinetics alone, but this rate was realized throughout the whole process when the two technologies were alternated, with a degradation of 78.5% ± 2.0% for the n-hexadecane after 45 days of treatment.

  18. Effect of alternating bioremediation and electrokinetics on the remediation of n-hexadecane-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sa; Guo, Shuhai; Li, Fengmei; Yang, Xuelian; Teng, Fei; Wang, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of n-hexadecane in soil, realized by alternating bioremediation and electrokinetic technologies. Using an alternating technology instead of simultaneous application prevented competition between the processes that would lower their efficiency. For the consumption of the soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) necessary for bioremediation by electrokinetics, bioremediation was performed first. Because of the utilization and loss of the DOM and water-soluble ions by the microbial and electrokinetic processes, respectively, both of them were supplemented to provide a basic carbon resource, maintain a high electrical conductivity and produce a uniform distribution of ions. The moisture and bacteria were also supplemented. The optimal DOM supplement (20.5 mg·kg−1 glucose; 80–90% of the total natural DOM content in the soil) was calculated to avoid competitive effects (between the DOM and n-hexadecane) and to prevent nutritional deficiency. The replenishment of the water-soluble ions maintained their content equal to their initial concentrations. The degradation rate of n-hexadecane was only 167.0 mg·kg−1·d−1 (1.9%, w/w) for the first 9 days in the treatments with bioremediation or electrokinetics alone, but this rate was realized throughout the whole process when the two technologies were alternated, with a degradation of 78.5% ± 2.0% for the n-hexadecane after 45 days of treatment. PMID:27032838

  19. Effect of alternating bioremediation and electrokinetics on the remediation of n-hexadecane-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sa; Guo, Shuhai; Li, Fengmei; Yang, Xuelian; Teng, Fei; Wang, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of n-hexadecane in soil, realized by alternating bioremediation and electrokinetic technologies. Using an alternating technology instead of simultaneous application prevented competition between the processes that would lower their efficiency. For the consumption of the soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) necessary for bioremediation by electrokinetics, bioremediation was performed first. Because of the utilization and loss of the DOM and water-soluble ions by the microbial and electrokinetic processes, respectively, both of them were supplemented to provide a basic carbon resource, maintain a high electrical conductivity and produce a uniform distribution of ions. The moisture and bacteria were also supplemented. The optimal DOM supplement (20.5 mg·kg(-1) glucose; 80-90% of the total natural DOM content in the soil) was calculated to avoid competitive effects (between the DOM and n-hexadecane) and to prevent nutritional deficiency. The replenishment of the water-soluble ions maintained their content equal to their initial concentrations. The degradation rate of n-hexadecane was only 167.0 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) (1.9%, w/w) for the first 9 days in the treatments with bioremediation or electrokinetics alone, but this rate was realized throughout the whole process when the two technologies were alternated, with a degradation of 78.5% ± 2.0% for the n-hexadecane after 45 days of treatment. PMID:27032838

  20. Separation and determination of citrinin in corn using HPLC fluorescence detection assisted by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction clean-up

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid chromatography based method to detect citrinin in corn was developed using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) sample clean-up. Molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized using 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid as the template and an amine functional monomer. Density func...

  1. Analysis of sterigmatocystin in cereals, animal feed, seeds, beer and cheese by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC and LC-MS/MS quantification.

    PubMed

    Marley, Elaine; Brown, Phyllis; Mackie, Jennifer; Donnelly, Carol; Wilcox, Joyce; Pietri, Amedeo; Macdonald, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A method is reported for the analysis of sterigmatocystin in various food and feed matrices using a commercial sterigmatocystin immunoaffinity column (IAC) for sample clean-up prior to HPLC analysis by UV with mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). Cereals (wheat, oats, rye, maize and rice), sunflower seeds and animal feed were spiked with sterigmatocystin at levels from 0.75 to 50 µg kg(-1) to establish method performance. Using acetonitrile/water extraction followed by IAC clean-up, and analysis by HPLC with detection at 325 nm, recoveries ranged from 68% to 106%, with repeatability from 4.2% to 17.5%. The limit of quantification with UV detection in these matrices was 1.5 µg kg(-1). For the analysis of beer and cheese the sample preparation prior to IAC clean-up was changed to accommodate the different properties of the matrix, prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. For beer and cheese spiked at 5.0 µg kg(-1) the recoveries were 94% and 104%, and precision (RSDs) were 1.9% and 2.9% respectively. The limits of quantification by LC-MS/MS in beer and cheese were 0.02 and 0.6 µg kg(-1) respectively. The sterigmatocystin IAC was demonstrated to provide an efficient clean-up of various matrices to enable this mycotoxin to be determined by either HPLC with UV detection or LC-MS/MS.

  2. A LC/UV/Vis method for determination of cyanocobalamin in multivitamin dietary supplements with on-line sample clean-up

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A HPLC-UV method using a two-column strategy with a switching valve for on-line sample clean-up was developed for the determination of cyanocobalamin (CN-CBL-vitamin B12, in dietary supplements. The method uses two columns, an Agilent Zorbax C8 (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 um particle) reversed-phase column...

  3. Analysis of sterigmatocystin in cereals, animal feed, seeds, beer and cheese by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC and LC-MS/MS quantification.

    PubMed

    Marley, Elaine; Brown, Phyllis; Mackie, Jennifer; Donnelly, Carol; Wilcox, Joyce; Pietri, Amedeo; Macdonald, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A method is reported for the analysis of sterigmatocystin in various food and feed matrices using a commercial sterigmatocystin immunoaffinity column (IAC) for sample clean-up prior to HPLC analysis by UV with mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). Cereals (wheat, oats, rye, maize and rice), sunflower seeds and animal feed were spiked with sterigmatocystin at levels from 0.75 to 50 µg kg(-1) to establish method performance. Using acetonitrile/water extraction followed by IAC clean-up, and analysis by HPLC with detection at 325 nm, recoveries ranged from 68% to 106%, with repeatability from 4.2% to 17.5%. The limit of quantification with UV detection in these matrices was 1.5 µg kg(-1). For the analysis of beer and cheese the sample preparation prior to IAC clean-up was changed to accommodate the different properties of the matrix, prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. For beer and cheese spiked at 5.0 µg kg(-1) the recoveries were 94% and 104%, and precision (RSDs) were 1.9% and 2.9% respectively. The limits of quantification by LC-MS/MS in beer and cheese were 0.02 and 0.6 µg kg(-1) respectively. The sterigmatocystin IAC was demonstrated to provide an efficient clean-up of various matrices to enable this mycotoxin to be determined by either HPLC with UV detection or LC-MS/MS. PMID:26515281

  4. Multiplug filtration clean-up with multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the analysis of pesticide residues using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengyue; Fan, Sufang; Yu, Chuanshan; Zhang, Junyan; Pan, Canping

    2013-10-01

    A novel design for a rapid clean-up method was developed for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The acetonitrile-based sample extraction technique was used to obtain the extracts, and further clean-up was carried out by applying the streamlined procedure on a multiplug filtration clean-up column coupled with a syringe. The sorbent used for clean-up in this research is multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which was mixed with anhydrous magnesium sulfate to remove water from the extracts. This method was validated on 40 representative pesticides and apple, cabbage, and potato sample matrices spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100 μg/kg. It exhibited recoveries between 71 and 117% for most pesticides with RSDs < 15%. Matrix-matched calibrations were performed with the coefficients of determination >0.995 for most studied pesticides between concentration levels of 10-500 μg/L. The LOQs for 40 pesticides ranged from 2 to 50 μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market fruit and vegetable samples.

  5. A Membrane-Based Electro-Separation Method (MBES) for Sample Clean-Up and Norovirus Concentration.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wei; Cannon, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne illnesses in the United States. Enhanced methods for detecting noroviruses in food matrices are needed as current methods are complex, labor intensive and insensitive, often resulting in inhibition of downstream molecular detection and inefficient recovery. Membrane-based electro-separation (MBES) is a technique to exchange charged particles through a size-specific dialysis membrane from one solution to another using electric current as the driving force. Norovirus has a net negative surface charge in a neutrally buffered environment, so when placed in an electric field, it moves towards the anode. It can then be separated from the cathodic compartment where the sample is placed and then collected in the anodic compartment for downstream detection. In this study, a MBES-based system was designed, developed and evaluated for concentrating and recovering murine norovirus (MNV-1) from phosphate buffer. As high as 30.8% MNV-1 migrated from the 3.5 ml sample chamber to the 1.5 ml collection chamber across a 1 μm separation membrane when 20 V was applied for 30 min using 20 mM sodium phosphate with 0.01% SDS (pH 7.5) as the electrolyte. In optimization of the method, weak applied voltage (20 V), moderate duration (30 min), and low ionic strength electrolytes with SDS addition were needed to increase virus movement efficacy. The electric field strength of the system was the key factor to enhance virus movement, which could only be improved by shortening the electrodes distance, instead of increasing system applied voltage because of virus stability. This study successfully demonstrated the norovirus mobility in an electric field and migration across a size-specific membrane barrier in sodium phosphate electrolyte. With further modification and validation in food matrixes, a novel, quick, and cost-effective sample clean-up technique might be developed to separate norovirus particles from food

  6. Lignin decomposition and microbial community in paddy soils: effects of alternating redox conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerli, Chiara; Liu, Qin; Hanke, Alexander; Kaiser, Klaus; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    Paddy soils are characterised by interchanging cycles of anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Such fluctuations cause continuous changes in soil solution chemistry as well as in the composition and physiological responses of the microbial community. Temporary deficiency in oxygen creates conditions favourable to facultative or obligates anaerobic bacteria, while aerobic communities can thrive in the period of water absence. These alterations can strongly affect soil processes, in particular organic matter (OM) accumulation and mineralization. In submerged soils, lignin generally constitutes a major portion of the total OM because of hampered degradation under anoxic conditions. The alternating redox cycles resulting from paddy soil management might promote both degradation and preservation of lignin, affecting the overall composition and reactivity of total and dissolved OM. We sampled soils subjected to cycles of anoxic (rice growing period) and oxic (harvest and growth of other crops) conditions since 700 and 2000 years. We incubated suspended Ap material, sampled from the two paddy plus two corresponding non-paddy control soils under oxic and anoxic condition, for 3 months, interrupted by a short period of three weeks (from day 21 to day 43) with reversed redox conditions. At each sampling time (day 2, 21, 42, 63, 84), we determined lignin-derived phenols (by CuO oxidation) as well as phospholipids fatty acids contents and composition. We aimed to highlight changes in lignin decomposition as related to the potential rapid changes in microbial community composition. Since the studied paddy soils had a long history of wet rice cultivation, the microbial community should be well adapted to interchanging oxic and anoxic cycles, therefore fully expressing its activity at both conditions. In non-paddy soil changes in redox conditions caused modification of quantity and composition of the microbial community. On the contrary, in well-established paddy soils the microbial

  7. A Membrane-Based Electro-Separation Method (MBES) for Sample Clean-Up and Norovirus Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wei; Cannon, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne illnesses in the United States. Enhanced methods for detecting noroviruses in food matrices are needed as current methods are complex, labor intensive and insensitive, often resulting in inhibition of downstream molecular detection and inefficient recovery. Membrane-based electro-separation (MBES) is a technique to exchange charged particles through a size-specific dialysis membrane from one solution to another using electric current as the driving force. Norovirus has a net negative surface charge in a neutrally buffered environment, so when placed in an electric field, it moves towards the anode. It can then be separated from the cathodic compartment where the sample is placed and then collected in the anodic compartment for downstream detection. In this study, a MBES-based system was designed, developed and evaluated for concentrating and recovering murine norovirus (MNV-1) from phosphate buffer. As high as 30.8% MNV-1 migrated from the 3.5 ml sample chamber to the 1.5 ml collection chamber across a 1 μm separation membrane when 20 V was applied for 30 min using 20 mM sodium phosphate with 0.01% SDS (pH 7.5) as the electrolyte. In optimization of the method, weak applied voltage (20 V), moderate duration (30 min), and low ionic strength electrolytes with SDS addition were needed to increase virus movement efficacy. The electric field strength of the system was the key factor to enhance virus movement, which could only be improved by shortening the electrodes distance, instead of increasing system applied voltage because of virus stability. This study successfully demonstrated the norovirus mobility in an electric field and migration across a size-specific membrane barrier in sodium phosphate electrolyte. With further modification and validation in food matrixes, a novel, quick, and cost-effective sample clean-up technique might be developed to separate norovirus particles from food

  8. An Alternative Approach to Assess the Habitat Selection of Folsomia candida in Contaminated Soils.

    PubMed

    Bori, Jaume; Riva, Maria Carme

    2015-11-01

    Avoidance tests with collembolans provide a quick assessment of soil quality. However, some parameters of the procedure can be modified in order to increase its performance. In this study we assessed the tendency of Folsomia candida to avoid soils contaminated with boric acid [350-700-1400-2800-5600 mg/kg soil dry weight (dw)], phenmedipham (35-70-140-280 mg/kg dw) or petroleum hydrocarbons (1312-1838-2625-3675-5250 mg/kg dw) by preferring an untreated soil. Two separate methodologies were applied, the one presented in the ISO standard 17512:2 and a modified version of the Petri dish method that allowed data acquisition after 2, 24 and 48 h of exposure. After combining data from three separate trials, effective median concentration values (EC50) from the presented method were lower and showed similar or less variability than those from the ISO procedure, suggesting the modified protocol as a suitable alternative screening tool. PMID:26350730

  9. Multiresidue determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mogadati, P.S.; Rosen, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    Methods for the multiresidue extraction, cleanup and GC/MS determination of 142 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in soil have been developed. The use of solid phase extraction cartridges makes it possible to clean up the soil sufficiently so that the equivalent of 40 mg. soil may be injected onto the GC capillary column without overloading or harming the column. Combining this clean-up method with chemical ionization ion trap detection allowed for very low limits of detection.

  10. Screening of plant and fungal metabolites in wheat, maize and animal feed using automated on-line clean-up coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ates, Ebru; Godula, Michal; Stroka, Joerg; Senyuva, Hamide

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of plant and fungal metabolites can occur in cereals and feed but only a limited number of target compounds are sought. This screening method is using a database of over 600 metabolites to establish contamination profiles in food and feed. Extracts were injected directly into an automated turbulent flow sample clean-up system, coupled to a liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometer (Orbitrap). Compound identification criteria for database searching were defined and the approach was validated by spiking plant and fungal metabolites into cereals and feed. A small survey of market samples (15) and quality control materials (9) of maize, wheat and feed was conducted using this method. Besides regulated and known secondary metabolites, fumiquinazoline F, fusarochromanone and dihydrofusarubin were identified for the first time in samples of maize and oats. This method enables clean-up of crude extracts within 18min and screening and confirmation of a wide range of different compound classes.

  11. Gel permeation chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography combination as an automated clean-up technique for the multiresidue analysis of fats.

    PubMed

    Rimkus, G G; Rummler, M; Nausch, I

    1996-06-14

    The well-known and almost universally utilizable clean-up technique of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and subsequent conventional silica-gel column chromatography was automated by an on-line solvent evaporation of the GPC fraction, followed by normal-phase HPLC separation. The ternary solvent system n-hexane-toluene-acetone (88:10:2, v/v/v) was used as the mobile phase which resulted in only one HPLC fraction for all relevant analytes. The HPLC column was cleaned automatically after each sample by backflushing with polar solvents. The recoveries and reproducibilities of 35 analytes (mainly organochlorine compounds) were in the range of 77-90% and 3-7%, respectively; the high efficiency of the HPLC separation provide very clean extracts for the GC analysis. This automated clean-up technique is routinely used for the multiresidue analysis of various fat-containing food and biota samples.

  12. Restricted access materials for sample clean-up in the analysis of trace levels of tetracyclines by liquid chromatography. Application to food and environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Chico, J; Meca, S; Companyó, R; Prat, M D; Granados, M

    2008-02-15

    Restricted access materials (RAM) based on alkyl diol silica (ADS) porous particles were evaluated for the sample clean-up in tetracyclines analysis in milk and water samples by liquid chromatography. RAM with C(4), C(8) and C(18) bonded to the inner pore surfaces were tested, with C(8) providing the best performance. A switching column LC system which combines an ADS C(8) RAM column and an analytical C(18) column connected to a fluorimetric detector was used for tetracyclines analysis. The RAM clean-up removed large peaks that otherwise appeared in the initial time window of the chromatograms, attributed to proteins in milk samples and humic substances in water samples. Thus, quantification of analytes in real samples, especially of the most polar compounds such as oxytetracycline and tetracycline, was clearly improved.

  13. On-Line Solid-Phase Extraction Capillary Electrophoresis Mass Spectrometry for Preconcentration and Clean-Up of Peptides and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Benavente, Fernando; Medina-Casanellas, Silvia; Giménez, Estela; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and other microscale separation techniques, for the analysis of low abundant peptides and proteins in complex samples, are the poor concentration limits of detection. Several strategies have been developed to improve CE sensitivity. Here, we describe an on-line solid-phase extraction capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry method with a commercial C18 sorbent for clean-up and preconcentration of neuropeptides from highly diluted biological samples.

  14. Late effects of ionizing radiation on functional status of bronchopulmonary system in COPD patients among the clean-up workers of the Chornobyl NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Sushko, V O; Shvaiko, L I; Bazyka, K D

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on the functional condition of the bronchopulmonary system in clean-up workers of Chornobyl NPP patients with COPD in a remote post-emergency period. Materials and methods. The study of functional characteristics was carried out in 272 patients - 197 clean-up workers of Chornobyl NPP accident (ChNPPA) with radiation exposure from 25 to 988 mSv; 75 - group of nosological control and 20 healthy persons. Results and conclusions. For the clean-up workers of Chornobyl NPP with exposure doses over 500 mSv demonstrated correlation between respiratory function parameters and dose which is confirmed for these patients, compared with irradiated in doses less than 500 mSv and nosology control, a significant decreasing of VC (76,3 ± 8,5%, 82,4 ± 8,5% and 82,7 ± 8,1% accordingly, p <0,05), FVC (78,2 ± 8,3%, 84,3 ± 7,9% і 86,1 ± 9,7%, p <0,05), FEF 50 (26,1 ± 11,5%, 32,6 ± 10,6% і 32,1 ± 12,7%, p <0, 05) і FEF 75 (23,8 ± 8,1%, 27,8 ± 9,3% і 27,6 ± 9,2%, p <0,05). These changers combined with decrease in lung diffusion capacity in cases more than 500 mSv, and indicate severe respiratory disorders in patients with COPD among clean-up workers of ChNPPA.

  15. Development of sample clean up methods for the analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis methyl mycocerosate biomarkers in sputum extracts by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nicoara, Simona C.; Turner, Nicholas W.; Minnikin, David E.; Lee, Oona Y.-C.; O'Sullivan, Denise M.; McNerney, Ruth; Mutetwa, Reggie; Corbett, Liz E.; Morgan, Geraint H.

    2015-01-01

    A proof of principle gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method is presented, in combination with clean up assays, aiming to improve the analysis of methyl mycocerosate tuberculosis biomarkers from sputum. Methyl mycocerosates are generated from the transesterification of phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIMs), extracted in petroleum ether from sputum of tuberculosis suspect patients. When a high matrix background is present in the sputum extracts, the identification of the chromatographic peaks corresponding to the methyl derivatives of PDIMs analytes may be hindered by the closely eluting methyl ether of cholesterol, usually an abundant matrix constituent frequently present in sputum samples. The purification procedures involving solid phase extraction (SPE) based methods with both commercial Isolute-Florisil cartridges, and purpose designed molecularly imprinted polymeric materials (MIPs), resulted in cleaner chromatograms, while the mycocerosates are still present. The clean-up performed on solutions of PDIMs and cholesterol standards in petroleum ether show that, depending on the solvent mix and on the type of SPE used, the recovery of PDIMs is between 64 and 70%, whilst most of the cholesterol is removed from the system. When applied to petroleum ether extracts from representative sputum samples, the clean-up procedures resulted in recoveries of 36–68% for PDIMs, allowing some superior detection of the target analytes. PMID:25728371

  16. "Trees Live on Soil and Sunshine!"--Coexistence of Scientific and Alternative Conception of Tree Assimilation.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Christine Johanna; Bissinger, Kerstin; Thorn, Simon; Bogner, Franz Xaver

    2016-01-01

    Successful learning is the integration of new knowledge into existing schemes, leading to an integrated and correct scientific conception. By contrast, the co-existence of scientific and alternative conceptions may indicate a fragmented knowledge profile. Every learner is unique and thus carries an individual set of preconceptions before classroom engagement due to prior experiences. Hence, instructors and teachers have to consider the heterogeneous knowledge profiles of their class when teaching. However, determinants of fragmented knowledge profiles are not well understood yet, which may hamper a development of adapted teaching schemes. We used a questionnaire-based approach to assess conceptual knowledge of tree assimilation and wood synthesis surveying 885 students of four educational levels: 6th graders, 10th graders, natural science freshmen and other academic studies freshmen. We analysed the influence of learner's characteristics such as educational level, age and sex on the coexistence of scientific and alternative conceptions. Within all subsamples well-known alternative conceptions regarding tree assimilation and wood synthesis coexisted with correct scientific ones. For example, students describe trees to be living on "soil and sunshine", representing scientific knowledge of photosynthesis mingled with an alternative conception of trees eating like animals. Fragmented knowledge profiles occurred in all subsamples, but our models showed that improved education and age foster knowledge integration. Sex had almost no influence on the existing scientific conceptions and evolution of knowledge integration. Consequently, complex biological issues such as tree assimilation and wood synthesis need specific support e.g. through repeated learning units in class- and seminar-rooms in order to help especially young students to handle and overcome common alternative conceptions and appropriately integrate scientific conceptions into their knowledge profile. PMID

  17. "Trees Live on Soil and Sunshine!"--Coexistence of Scientific and Alternative Conception of Tree Assimilation.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Christine Johanna; Bissinger, Kerstin; Thorn, Simon; Bogner, Franz Xaver

    2016-01-01

    Successful learning is the integration of new knowledge into existing schemes, leading to an integrated and correct scientific conception. By contrast, the co-existence of scientific and alternative conceptions may indicate a fragmented knowledge profile. Every learner is unique and thus carries an individual set of preconceptions before classroom engagement due to prior experiences. Hence, instructors and teachers have to consider the heterogeneous knowledge profiles of their class when teaching. However, determinants of fragmented knowledge profiles are not well understood yet, which may hamper a development of adapted teaching schemes. We used a questionnaire-based approach to assess conceptual knowledge of tree assimilation and wood synthesis surveying 885 students of four educational levels: 6th graders, 10th graders, natural science freshmen and other academic studies freshmen. We analysed the influence of learner's characteristics such as educational level, age and sex on the coexistence of scientific and alternative conceptions. Within all subsamples well-known alternative conceptions regarding tree assimilation and wood synthesis coexisted with correct scientific ones. For example, students describe trees to be living on "soil and sunshine", representing scientific knowledge of photosynthesis mingled with an alternative conception of trees eating like animals. Fragmented knowledge profiles occurred in all subsamples, but our models showed that improved education and age foster knowledge integration. Sex had almost no influence on the existing scientific conceptions and evolution of knowledge integration. Consequently, complex biological issues such as tree assimilation and wood synthesis need specific support e.g. through repeated learning units in class- and seminar-rooms in order to help especially young students to handle and overcome common alternative conceptions and appropriately integrate scientific conceptions into their knowledge profile.

  18. Identification of Alternative Vapor Intrusion Pathways Using Controlled Pressure Testing, Soil Gas Monitoring, and Screening Model Calculations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanming; Holton, Chase; Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Johnson, Paul C

    2015-11-17

    Vapor intrusion (VI) pathway assessment and data interpretation have been guided by an historical conceptual model in which vapors originating from contaminated soil or groundwater diffuse upward through soil and are swept into a building by soil gas flow induced by building underpressurization. Recent studies reveal that alternative VI pathways involving neighborhood sewers, land drains, and other major underground piping can also be significant VI contributors, even to buildings beyond the delineated footprint of soil and groundwater contamination. This work illustrates how controlled-pressure-method testing (CPM), soil gas sampling, and screening-level emissions calculations can be used to identify significant alternative VI pathways that might go undetected by conventional sampling under natural conditions at some sites. The combined utility of these tools is shown through data collected at a long-term study house, where a significant alternative VI pathway was discovered and altered so that it could be manipulated to be on or off. Data collected during periods of natural and CPM conditions show that the alternative pathway was significant, but its presence was not identifiable under natural conditions; it was identified under CPM conditions when measured emission rates were 2 orders of magnitude greater than screening-model estimates and subfoundation vertical soil gas profiles changed and were no longer consistent with the conventional VI conceptual model.

  19. An improved clean-up strategy for simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in fatty food samples.

    PubMed

    Pirard, Catherine; Focant, Jean-François; De, Pauw Edwin

    2002-01-01

    The study and extension of a simple automated clean-up method for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) to a broad range of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is described. The isolation of seven PCDD, ten PCDF, and three coplanar PCB (cPCB) is extended to eight monoortho substituted PCB and seven so-called "marker PCB" (Aroclor 1260) for fatty food samples. This enables quantification of 35 compounds - including all congeners with a WHO toxic equivalent factor (TEF)--in a single extraction and single purification step. The chromatographic behaviour of mono-ortho PCB and marker PCB on a variety of adsorbents, including basic alumina, has been studied. Partitioning of analytes through multi-column sequences is described and correlated with their structural and electronic properties, by use of molecular modelling calculations. The fractionation process available with the Power-Prep automated clean-up system enables rapid independent analysis of the different groups of compounds. Gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) is used for the PCDD/F and cPCB fraction and quadrupole ion-storage tandem in time mass spectrometry (GC-QISTMS) for analysis of the remaining PCB. A comparison study was performed on quality-control samples and real fatty food samples to evaluate the robustness of the new strategy compared with a reference method. On the basis of this simultaneous clean-up, a rapid simplified strategy for PCDD/F and selected PCB analysis determination is proposed for fatty food samples.

  20. Development of sample preparation method for auxin analysis in plants by vacuum microwave-assisted extraction combined with molecularly imprinted clean-up procedure.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuling; Li, Yuanwen; Zhang, Yi; Li, Gongke; Chen, Yueqin

    2011-04-01

    A novel sample preparation method for auxin analysis in plant samples was developed by vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE) followed by molecularly imprinted clean-up procedure. The method was based on two steps. In the first one, conventional solvent extraction was replaced by VMAE for extraction of auxins from plant tissues. This step provided efficient extraction of 3-indole acetic acid (IAA) from plant with dramatically decreased extraction time, furthermore prevented auxins from degradation by creating a reduced oxygen environment under vacuum condition. In the second step, the raw extract of VMAE was further subjected to a clean-up procedure by magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) beads. Owing to the high molecular recognition ability of the magnetic MIP beads for IAA and 3-indole-butyric acid (IBA), the two target auxins in plants can be selectively enriched and the interfering substance can be eliminated by dealing with a magnetic separation procedure. Both the VMAE and the molecularly imprinted clean-up conditions were investigated. The proposed sample preparation method was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatogram and fluorescence detection for determination of IAA and IBA in peas and rice. The detection limits obtained for IAA and IBA were 0.47 and 1.6 ng/mL and the relative standard deviation were 2.3% and 2.1%, respectively. The IAA contents in pea seeds, pea embryo, pea roots and rice seeds were determined. The recoveries were ranged from 70.0% to 85.6%. The proposed method was also applied to investigate the developmental profiles of IAA concentration in pea seeds and rice seeds during seed germination. PMID:20953778

  1. Role of radiation and non-radiation factors on the development of coronary heart disease in the Chornobyl clean-up workers: epidemiological study results.

    PubMed

    Krasnikova, L I; Buzunov, V O

    2014-09-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to establish the risks for coronary heart disease in the Chornobyl clean-up workers with regard to a whole-body external radiation dose and non-radiation (biological, social-and-hygienic and behavioral) factors. Materials and methods. Risk-analysis was based on the cohort of the Chornobyl male clean-up workers 1986-1987 (8,625 men, including 3,623 with available whole-body external doses). Data of clinical-and-epidemiological registry, National Research Centre for Radiation Medicine were used for 1992-2013 monitoring period. We used the internal control group with radiation doses less than 0.05 Gy. Results. Statistically significant radiation risks in the Chornobyl clean-up workers were established for the coronary heart disease at doses 0.15-0.249 Gy, 0.25-0.99 Gy, 1 Gy and more (dose group 0.15-0.249 Gy RRY=1.9 (1.2; 3.1), ERR=4.6 (1.5; 14.9) Gy-1, EAR=64.2 cases per 1000 person-years, Gy); among exposed people aged 40 years and older - at doses 0.5-0.99 Gy (RRY=1.4 (1.05; 1.81), ERR=0.5 (0.03; 1.1) Gy-1, EAR=30.5 cases per 1000 person-years, Gy). Statistically significant risks for the disease under consideration were also identified with regard to non-radiation factors (smoking, improper physical training, adverse working conditions, diseases etc; age and psychoemotional overstrain were of a particular impact). Non-radiation factors are at most responsible for development of coronary heart disease. For this reason the control of potential confounding factors is required to assess the effect of the radiation factor both at a stage of comparison groups selection and analysis using the Mantel-Haenszel method.

  2. Efficient sample clean-up and online preconcentration for sensitive determination of melamine in milk samples by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-ling; Chen, Xiao-wei; Zhang, Zhu-bao; Li, Jing; Xie, Tian-yao

    2014-10-01

    Based on an efficient sample clean-up and field-amplified sample injection online preconcentration technique in capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection, a new analytical method for the sensitive determination of melamine in milk samples was established. In order to remove the complex matrix interference, which resulted in a serious problem during field-amplified sample injection, liquid-liquid extraction was utilized. As a result, liquid-liquid extraction provides excellent sample clean-up efficiency when ethyl acetate was used as organic extraction by adjusting the pH of the sample solution to 9.5. Both inorganic salts and biological macromolecules are effectively removed by liquid-liquid extraction. The sample clean-up procedure, capillary electrophoresis separation parameters and field-amplified sample injection conditions are discussed in detail. The capillary electrophoresis separation was achieved within 5 min under the following conditions: an uncoated fused-silica capillary, 12 mM HAc + 10 mM NaAc (pH = 4.6) as running buffer, separation voltage of +13 kV, electrokinetic injection of +12 kV × 10 s. Preliminary validation of the method performance with spiked melamine provided recoveries >90%, with limits of detection and quantification of 0.015 and 0.050 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day were below 6%. This newly developed method is sensitive and cost effective, therefore, suitable for screening of melamine contamination in milk products.

  3. Cleaning up the Legacy of the Cold War: Plutonium Oxides and the Role of Synchrotron Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, David Lewis

    2015-01-21

    The deceptively simple binary formula of AnO2 belies an incredibly complex structural nature, and propensity to form mixed-valent, nonstoichiometric phases of composition AnO2±x. For plutonium, the very formation of PuO2+x has challenged a long-established dogma, and raised fundamental questions for long-term storage and environmental migration. This presentation covers two aspects of Los Alamos synchrotron radiation studies of plutonium oxides: (1) the structural chemistry of laboratory-prepared AnO2+x systems (An = U, Pu; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) determined through a combination of x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and x-ray scattering of laboratory prepared samples; and (2) the application of synchrotron radiation towards the decontamination and decommissioning of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Making the case for particle transport mechanisms as the basis of plutonium and americium mobility, rather than aqueous sorption-desorption processes, established a successful scientific basis for the dominance of physical transport processes by wind and water. The scientific basis was successful because it was in agreement with general theory on insolubility of PuO2 in oxidation state IV, results of ultrafiltration analyses of field water/sediment samples, XAFS analyses of soil, sediment, and concrete samples, and was also in general agreement with on-site monitoring data. This understanding allowed Site contractors to rapidly move to application of soil erosion and sediment transport models as the means of predicting plutonium and americium transport, which led to design and application of site-wide soil erosion control technology to help control downstream concentrations of plutonium and americium in streamflow.

  4. A one-step extraction/clean-up method for determination of PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs in environmental solid matrices.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Drage, Daniel; Harrad, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    A selective pressurized liquid extraction (S-PLE) method was developed for rapid determination of 3 classes of halogenated organic contaminants in indoor dust, soil and sediment samples. The optimised method used 3 : 2 v/v n-hexane-dichloromethane for extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). Extraction was performed at 90 °C for 5 min followed by 4 min static time under 1500 psi. Good recoveries of target analytes were obtained after 3 extraction cycles. In-cell cleanup was performed using 10 g of 44% H2SO4 acid silica and 5 g of florisil (secondary fat retainer), while copper powder was used to remove elemental sulfur. The method was validated using NIST SRM2585 and SRM 1941b in addition to an in-house previously characterised soil sample. Measured concentrations of target compounds showed good agreement with the certified values with RSD < 20% indicating the good accuracy and precision of the S-PLE method. Clean extracts provided low noise levels resulting in low method detection limits (<0.03 ng g(-1)) and LOQs (<0.1 ng g(-1)). The method developed was applied successfully to real environmental samples and it provided various advantages over traditional methods including reduced solvent consumption and analysis time, minimal sample contamination and high sample throughput which can be beneficial for environmental monitoring programs dealing with large numbers of samples.

  5. How do alternative root water uptake models affect the inverse estimation of soil hydraulic parameters and the prediction of evapotranspiration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayler, Sebastian; Salima-Sultana, Daisy; Selle, Benny; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Högy, Petra; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Soil water extraction by roots affects the dynamics and distribution of soil moisture and controls transpiration, which influences soil-vegetation-atmosphere feedback processes. Consequently, root water uptake requires close attention when predicting water fluxes across the land surface, e.g., in agricultural crop models or in land surface schemes of weather and climate models. The key parameters for a successful simultaneous simulation of soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration in Richards equation-based models are the soil hydraulic parameters, which describe the shapes of the soil water retention curve and the soil hydraulic conductivity curve. As measurements of these parameters are expensive and their estimation from basic soil data via pedotransfer functions is rather inaccurate, the values of the soil hydraulic parameters are frequently inversely estimated by fitting the model to measured time series of soil water content and evapotranspiration. It is common to simulate root water uptake and transpiration by simple stress functions, which describe from which soil layer water is absorbed by roots and predict when total crop transpiration is decreased in case of soil water limitations. As for most of the biogeophysical processes simulated in crop and land surface models, there exist several alternative functional relationships for simulating root water uptake and there is no clear reason for preferring one process representation over another. The error associated with alternative representations of root water uptake, however, contributes to structural model uncertainty and the choice of the root water uptake model may have a significant impact on the values of the soil hydraulic parameters estimated inversely. In this study, we use the agroecosystem model system Expert-N to simulate soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration at three agricultural field sites located in two contrasting regions in Southwest Germany (Kraichgau, Swabian Alb). The Richards

  6. Problems and prospects concerning the phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptsik, G. N.

    2014-09-01

    The current state, problems, and prospects of phymoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils are analyzed. The main attention is paid to the phytoextraction and phytostabilization as the most widespread and alternative methods of soil phytoremediation. The efficiency of phymoremediation is related to the natural capability of plants for the accumulation and translocation of metals, their tolerance to a high content of metals, the plant biomass, and the amendments applied. The advantages and disadvantages of phytoremediation as compared to other methods of remediation of polluted soils in situ are considered. Examples of successful phytoextraction and phytomining for cleaning up of contaminated soils in Rasteburg (South Africa) and the phytostabilization of technogenic barrens nearby the copper-nickel plants in Sudbury (Ontario, Canada) and in the Kola Subarctic (Russia) are presented.

  7. Comparison of solid phase extraction, saponification and gel permeation chromatography for the clean-up of microwave-assisted biological extracts in the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Navarro, P; Cortazar, E; Bartolomé, L; Deusto, M; Raposo, J C; Zuloaga, O; Arana, G; Etxebarria, N

    2006-09-22

    The feasibility of different clean-up procedures was studied for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biota samples such as oysters, mussels and fish liver. In this sense, once the samples were extracted--essentially with acetone and in a microwave system--and before they could be analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), three different approaches were studied for the clean-up step: solid phase extraction (SPE), microwave-assisted saponification (MAS) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The main aim of this work was to maximise the recoveries of PAHs and to minimise the presence of interfering compounds in the last extract. In the case of SPE, Florisil cartridges of 1, 2 and 5 g, and silica cartridges of 5 g were studied. In that case, and with oysters and mussels, microwave-assisted extraction and 5 g Florisil cartridges provided good results. In addition, the concentrations obtained for Standard Reference Material (SRM) NIST 2977 (mussel tissue) were in good agreement with the certified values. In the case of microwave-assisted saponification, the extracts were not as clean as those obtained with 5 g Florisil and this fact lead to overestimate the concentration of the heaviest PAHs. Finally, the cleanest extracts were obtained by GPC. The method was successfully applied to mussels, oysters and hake liver, and the results obtained for NIST 2977 (mussel tissue) were within the confidence interval of the certified reference material for most of the certified analytes.

  8. Evaluation of three somatic genetic biomarkers as indicators of low dose radiation effects in clean-up workers of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Jones, I M; Tucker, J D; Langlois, R G; Mendelsohn, M L; Pleshanov, P; Nelson, D O

    2001-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess three biomarkers of genetic effect for their individual and collective ability to detect and estimate radiation exposure in Russian Chernobyl clean-up workers. Work assignments were planned to limit dose to 0.25 Gy. The three biomarkers employed were chromosome translocations detectcd in lynmphocytes by florescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), and mutation at two genes, glycophorin A (GPA) in red blood cells detected by flow cytometry and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) in lymphocytes detected by selective cell culture. Samples were Obtained from 1992 to 2000. The time between exposure at Chernobyl and sample acquisition was > or =5 years. The lymphocyte assays detected an elevation over controls in average outcomes it clean-up workers: translocation rates were 46% higher when adjusted for age and smoking and HPRT mutant frequencies were were 16% higher when adjusted for age. The G PA assay did not detect an exposure effect. The results indicate that measuring frequency of translocations by FISH is preferred for low dose radiation, retrospective biochemistry.

  9. Determination of pesticides in edible oils by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry employing new generation materials for dispersive solid phase extraction clean-up.

    PubMed

    Dias, Jonatan V; Cutillas, Victor; Lozano, Ana; Pizzutti, Ionara R; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of several sorbents on removal fats from edible oils (olive, soya and sunflower) during the clean-up step for posterior determination of 165 pesticides by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS system. The extraction procedure employed in this work was the citrate version of QuEChERS method followed by a step of freezing out with dry ice and clean-up evaluation using i) PSA with magnesium sulfate (d-SPE); ii) magnesium sulfate and Z-sep sorbent (d-SPE); iii) Z-sep (column SPE) and iv) Agilent Bond Elut QuEChERS Enhanced Matrix Removal-Lipid (EMR-Lipid). After evaluation of the recovery results at 10, 20 and 50μgkg(-1), the EMR-Lipid showed important advantages comparing to the other sorbents evaluated, such as better recovery rates and RSD%. The method was validated at the three concentrations described above. Analytical curves linearity was evaluated by spiking blank oil samples at 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500μgkg(-1). The method demonstrated good recoveries values between the acceptable range of 70-120% and RSD%<20 for most of evaluated pesticides. In order to evaluate the performance of the method, this same procedure was employed to other oils such as soya and sunflower with very good results.

  10. [Simultaneous determination of zeranols and chloramphenicol in foodstuffs of animal origin by combination immunoaffinity column clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Guomin; Xi, Cunxian; Li, Xianliang; Chen, Dongdong; Tang, Bobin; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Hua

    2014-06-01

    A combination immunoaffinity column (IAC-CZ) clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method was successfully developed for zearalenol, beta-zearalenol and zearalenone) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The samples (fish, liver, milk and honey) were enzymatically digested by beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase for about 16 h and then extracted with ether. The extracts were evaporated to dryness and then the residues were dissolved by 1.0 mL of 50% acetonitrile solution. After filtered and diluted with PBS buffer, the reconstituted solution were cleaned-up with a IAC-CZ and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu Shim-pack VP-ODS column with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution. The detection was carried out by electrospray negative ionization mass spectrometry in MRM mode. The proposed method was validated by the limit of detection (0.04-0.10 microg/kg), linearity (R2 > or = 0.999 0), average recoveries (70.9%-95.6%) and precisions (2.0% - 11.8%). The developed method is reliable, sensitive and has good applicability. The combination immunoaffinity column was proved to be an effective pretreatment technique to decrease the matrix effect, and it met the requirements of residue analysis of co-occurring zeranols and chloramphenicol. PMID:25269264

  11. Determination of fusarium mycotoxins in wheat, maize and animal feed using on-line clean-up with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ates, E; Mittendorf, K; Stroka, J; Senyuva, H

    2013-01-01

    An automated method involving on-line clean-up and analytical separation in a single run using TurboFlow™ reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer has been developed for the simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol, T2 toxin, HT2 toxin, zearalenone and fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize, wheat and animal feed. Detection was performed in full scan mode at a resolution of R = 100,000 full width at half maximum with high energy collision cell dissociation for the determination of fragment ions with a mass accuracy below 5 ppm. The extract from homogenised samples, after blending with a 0.1% aqueous mixture of 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile (43:57) for 45 min, was injected directly onto the TurboFlow™ (TLX) column for automated on-line clean-up followed by analytical separation and accurate mass detection. The TurboFlow™ column enabled specific binding of target mycotoxins, whereas higher molecular weight compounds, like fats, proteins and other interferences with different chemical properties, were removed to waste. Single laboratory method validation was performed by spiking blank materials with mycotoxin standards. The recovery and repeatability was determined by spiking at three concentration levels (50, 100 and 200% of legislative limits) with six replicates. Average recovery, relative standard deviation and intermediate precision values were 71 to 120%, 1 to 19% and 4 to 19%, respectively. The method accuracy was confirmed with certified reference materials and participation in proficiency testing.

  12. [Simultaneous determination of zeranols and chloramphenicol in foodstuffs of animal origin by combination immunoaffinity column clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Guomin; Xi, Cunxian; Li, Xianliang; Chen, Dongdong; Tang, Bobin; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Hua

    2014-06-01

    A combination immunoaffinity column (IAC-CZ) clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method was successfully developed for zearalenol, beta-zearalenol and zearalenone) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The samples (fish, liver, milk and honey) were enzymatically digested by beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase for about 16 h and then extracted with ether. The extracts were evaporated to dryness and then the residues were dissolved by 1.0 mL of 50% acetonitrile solution. After filtered and diluted with PBS buffer, the reconstituted solution were cleaned-up with a IAC-CZ and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu Shim-pack VP-ODS column with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution. The detection was carried out by electrospray negative ionization mass spectrometry in MRM mode. The proposed method was validated by the limit of detection (0.04-0.10 microg/kg), linearity (R2 > or = 0.999 0), average recoveries (70.9%-95.6%) and precisions (2.0% - 11.8%). The developed method is reliable, sensitive and has good applicability. The combination immunoaffinity column was proved to be an effective pretreatment technique to decrease the matrix effect, and it met the requirements of residue analysis of co-occurring zeranols and chloramphenicol.

  13. Determination of eight sulfonamides in bovine kidney by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with on-line extraction and sample clean-up.

    PubMed

    Van Eeckhout, N; Perez, J C; Van Peteghem, C

    2000-01-01

    A sensitive, high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (i.e. mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry; LC/MS/MS) method with on-line extraction and sample clean-up for the screening and confirmation of residues of sulfonamides in kidney is described. The sulfonamides are extracted from homogenized kidney with methanol. After centrifugation of the extract, an aliquot of the extract is directly injected on the LC/MS/MS system with further extraction and clean-up of the sample on-line. Detection of the analytes was achieved by positive electrospray ionization (ESI) followed by multiple reaction monitoring. For each sulfonamide the collisional decomposition of the protonated molecule to a common, abundant fragment ion was monitored. The method has been validated for sulfadimethoxine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine and sulfapyridine. Calibration curves resulting from spiked blank kidney samples at the 10-200 microg/kg level showed good linear correlation. At the level of 50, 100 and 200 microg/kg both within- and between-day precision, as measured by relative standard deviation (RSD), were less than 16%. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 5 to 13.5 microg/kg. The recoveries ranged from 78 to 82%. The procedure provides a rapid, reliable and sensitive method for the determination of residues of sulfonamides in bovine kidney. The advantage of this method over existing methods is its decreased sample preparation and analysis time, which makes the method more suitable for routine analysis. PMID:11114046

  14. Determination of pesticides in edible oils by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry employing new generation materials for dispersive solid phase extraction clean-up.

    PubMed

    Dias, Jonatan V; Cutillas, Victor; Lozano, Ana; Pizzutti, Ionara R; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of several sorbents on removal fats from edible oils (olive, soya and sunflower) during the clean-up step for posterior determination of 165 pesticides by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS system. The extraction procedure employed in this work was the citrate version of QuEChERS method followed by a step of freezing out with dry ice and clean-up evaluation using i) PSA with magnesium sulfate (d-SPE); ii) magnesium sulfate and Z-sep sorbent (d-SPE); iii) Z-sep (column SPE) and iv) Agilent Bond Elut QuEChERS Enhanced Matrix Removal-Lipid (EMR-Lipid). After evaluation of the recovery results at 10, 20 and 50μgkg(-1), the EMR-Lipid showed important advantages comparing to the other sorbents evaluated, such as better recovery rates and RSD%. The method was validated at the three concentrations described above. Analytical curves linearity was evaluated by spiking blank oil samples at 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500μgkg(-1). The method demonstrated good recoveries values between the acceptable range of 70-120% and RSD%<20 for most of evaluated pesticides. In order to evaluate the performance of the method, this same procedure was employed to other oils such as soya and sunflower with very good results. PMID:27507727

  15. Multicriteria optimisation of a simultaneous supercritical fluid extraction and clean-up procedure for the determination of persistent organohalogenated pollutants in aquaculture samples.

    PubMed

    Rodil, R; Carro, A M; Lorenzo, R A; Cela, R

    2007-04-01

    A useful tool based on a single-step extraction and clean-up procedure for the determination of 15 organohalogenated pollutants (including brominated flame retardants) in aquaculture samples, using aluminium oxide basic and acidic silica gel in the supercritical extraction cell followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection or mass spectrometry has been developed. This effective clean-up step ensures a minimum of chromatographic difficulties related to complex matrix components such as aquaculture feed. The extraction procedure has been screened by a fractional factorial design for the preliminary statistically significant parameters. The factors selected were extraction temperature, pressure, static extraction time, dynamic extraction time and carbon dioxide flow rate. The Doehlert design, followed by a multicriteria decision-making strategy, was then performed in order to determine the optimum conditions for the two most significant factors: pressure (165 bar) and dynamic extraction time (27 min). Under optimal conditions, the procedure developed with GC-MS/MS provides an excellent linearity, detection (0.01-0.2 ng g(-1)) and quantification limits (0.05-0.8 ng g(-1)) for most of the analytes investigated. The feasibility of the proposed supercritical fluid extraction method was validated by analysing two reference materials and fish feed and shellfish samples with satisfactory results. PMID:17123577

  16. Water-entry value as an alternative indicator of soil water-repellency and wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Wu, L.; Wu, Q. J.

    2000-05-01

    Soil water-repellency is an increasingly important consideration in hydrology. In this paper, we relate the degree of soil water-repellency and wettability to the critical water-entry value of a soil. A water-ponding method was used for simple measurement of water-entry value in repellent soils. A tension-pressure infiltrometer method was demonstrated for measuring water-entry value in both repellent and wettable soils. The measurement techniques were used to detect a sudden breakdown of repellency under a sufficiently high water pressure. Experimental results have proven that the water-entry value, in terms of soil water potential, is positive in repellent soils, and negative in wettable soils or soil conditions. The water-entry value is shown to be an easily measured indicator of repellency or wettability that provide an assessment of hydraulic effects of soil physical, chemical and biological properties.

  17. Radiation and non-radiation factors and their impact on the natural history of coronary heart disease in Chornobyl accident clean-up workers.

    PubMed

    Bilyi, D O; Nastina, O M; Gabulavichene, Zh M; Sydorenko, G V; Bazyka, O D; Bilaya, V V; Kovalyov, O S

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of a range of risk factors and ionizing radiation on the severity of clinical presentation of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Chornobyl accident clean-up workers (ACW). Materials and methods. A total of 376 ACW and 123 Kiev city residents with no exposure to radiation participated in the study. Study scope included the case history recording, clinical check-up, electrocardiography (ECG), daily ECG-monitoring, daily arterial blood pressure monitoring, exercise ECG, Doppler ultrasound (Doppler echocardiography), and serum lipid profile assay. The severity of CHD was scored as a sum of functional class (FC) of angina pectoris and stage of heart failure (HF) to estimate the combined impact of several risk factors. Participation in the clean-up work, age, gender, body mass excess, hypercholesterolemia, CHD, diabetes mellitus (DM), survived myocardial infarction (MI) and acute cerebral stroke, heart rhythm abnormalities, and a complete bundle branch block were accounted as risk factors. Both separate and combined impact of those factors was assayed. The combined effect was scored as a sum where value zero corresponded to no sign and value one corresponded to its presence, whereas values from 1 to 4 explained the expression of a sign according to severity or stage of a disease according to contemporary classifications. Results and conclusions. Despite the fact that clinical characterization, functional state of cardiovascular system, and comorbidities in ACW were almost similar to that in control group the onset of CHD in ACW was significantly earlier (55.9 vs. 59.8 years old). According to Spearman's rank-order correlation data there was a reliable link of FC grades and HF severity values sum to the sum of indices scoring the age group of patients, their gender, presence of arterial hypertension, MI in a history, DM type 2, heart rhythm abnormalities, and a complete bundle branch block. Cluster of risk factors

  18. Planar solid phase extraction clean-up and microliter-flow injection analysis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for multi-residue screening of pesticides in food.

    PubMed

    Oellig, Claudia; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-07-18

    For multi-residue analysis of pesticides in food, a sufficient clean-up is essential for avoiding matrix effects in liquid and gas chromatography (LC and GC) analysis coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). In the last two years, high-throughput planar solid phase extraction (HTpSPE) was established as a new clean-up concept for pesticide residue analysis in fruits and vegetables (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2011) and tea (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2012). HTpSPE results in matrix-free extracts almost free of interferences and matrix effects. In this study, a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was applied to directly analyze HTpSPE extracts for pesticide residues. This HTpSPE-microliter-flow injection analysis (μL-FIA)-TOFMS approach detects all pesticides at once in a single mass spectrum, without a liquid chromatographic separation step. Complete sample information was obtained after the injection of the cleaned extract within a single peak. Recovery studies for seven representative pesticides in four different matrices (apples, red grapes, cucumbers, tomatoes) provided mean recoveries of 86-116% with relative standard deviations of 1.3-10% (n=5) using the mass signal intensities under the entire sample peak. Comparing the mass spectra of sample peaks from spiked extracts and solvent standards indicated the efficiency of HTpSPE clean-up. A pesticide database search detected all spiked pesticides with a low incidence of false-positives. HTpSPE of one sample required a few minutes, and numerous samples could be cleaned in parallel at minimal cost with low sample and solvent consumption. The μL-FIA-TOFMS screening then needed an additional 6min per sample. The novel screening approach was successfully applied to QuEChERS extracts of several real samples, and the pesticides identified by HTpSPE-μL-FIA-TOFMS were identical to the pesticides detected by common target LC-MS/MS analyses. The high degree of concordantly identified pesticides by the new developed HTp

  19. Radiation and non-radiation factors and their impact on the natural history of coronary heart disease in Chornobyl accident clean-up workers.

    PubMed

    Bilyi, D O; Nastina, O M; Gabulavichene, Zh M; Sydorenko, G V; Bazyka, O D; Bilaya, V V; Kovalyov, O S

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of a range of risk factors and ionizing radiation on the severity of clinical presentation of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Chornobyl accident clean-up workers (ACW). Materials and methods. A total of 376 ACW and 123 Kiev city residents with no exposure to radiation participated in the study. Study scope included the case history recording, clinical check-up, electrocardiography (ECG), daily ECG-monitoring, daily arterial blood pressure monitoring, exercise ECG, Doppler ultrasound (Doppler echocardiography), and serum lipid profile assay. The severity of CHD was scored as a sum of functional class (FC) of angina pectoris and stage of heart failure (HF) to estimate the combined impact of several risk factors. Participation in the clean-up work, age, gender, body mass excess, hypercholesterolemia, CHD, diabetes mellitus (DM), survived myocardial infarction (MI) and acute cerebral stroke, heart rhythm abnormalities, and a complete bundle branch block were accounted as risk factors. Both separate and combined impact of those factors was assayed. The combined effect was scored as a sum where value zero corresponded to no sign and value one corresponded to its presence, whereas values from 1 to 4 explained the expression of a sign according to severity or stage of a disease according to contemporary classifications. Results and conclusions. Despite the fact that clinical characterization, functional state of cardiovascular system, and comorbidities in ACW were almost similar to that in control group the onset of CHD in ACW was significantly earlier (55.9 vs. 59.8 years old). According to Spearman's rank-order correlation data there was a reliable link of FC grades and HF severity values sum to the sum of indices scoring the age group of patients, their gender, presence of arterial hypertension, MI in a history, DM type 2, heart rhythm abnormalities, and a complete bundle branch block. Cluster of risk factors

  20. Bioremediation: An effective remedial alternative for petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Autry, A.R.; Ellis, G.M. )

    1992-11-01

    Bioremediation technologies applied to contaminated soil usually mitigate environmental rate-limiting factors so that biodegradation rates are maximized for any given compound. A newer approach to soil bioremediation mitigates these environmental rate-limiting factors simultaneously, initially allowing biodegradation to proceed at a maximal rate without the need for additional action. This technology involves intensive mixing of contaminated soil in a ribbon blender, introduction of a protein-based, surfactant-containing nutrient additive to the soil while in the mixer, physical entrainment of oxygen-containing air into the soil, discharge of the mixed soil from the mixer, and placement of the mixed soil in curing piles, for curing, during which time biodegradation can occur. No additional treatment actions (e.g., tillage, fertilizer or water applications) are typically required. The remediation, using this approach, of a former distribution facility which possessed soil contaminated with gasoline, is summarized. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  1. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SEPARATION/CONCENTRATION TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticide contamination includes a wide variety of compounds and may result from manufacturing improper storage, handling, disposal; or agricultural processes. It can occur in soil and can lead to secondary contamination of groundwater. Remediation of pesticide-contaminated soils...

  2. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  3. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) and Steam As Alternatives For Parasitic Nematode Control In Florida Floriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and steam are being investigated for controlling a broad spectrum of pests, including parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD is a biologically-based method that combines organic amendments and solar heat with water saturated soil to create oxygen-depleted soil co...

  4. Ultrasonication extraction and gel permeation chromatography clean-up for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oil by an isotope dilution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Guo, Cui

    2010-07-01

    An analytical method for the determination of US EPA priority pollutant 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oil was developed by an isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Extraction was performed with ultrasonication mode using acetonitrile as solvent, and subsequent clean-up was applied using narrow gel permeation chromatographic column. Three deuterated PAHs surrogate standards were used as internal standards for quantification and analytical quality control. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were globally below 0.5 ng/g, the recoveries were in the range of 81-96%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were lower than 20%. Further trueness assessment of the method was also verified through participation in international cocoa butter proficiency test (T0638) organised by the FAPAS with excellent results in 2008. The results obtained with the described method were satisfying (z ≤ 2). The method has been applied to determine PAH in real edible oil samples. PMID:20627308

  5. Use of gel permeation chromatography for clean-up in the analysis of coccidiostats in eggs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chico, J; Rúbies, A; Centrich, F; Companyó, R; Prat, M D; Granados, M

    2013-05-01

    An analytical method for determination and confirmation of nine coccidiostatics in eggs is reported. Ethyl acetate is used as extraction solvent, with satisfactory results, and simple automated clean-up is based on gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) . The target compounds are then analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated in-house in accordance with Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Trueness and precision were determined at four concentrations, and the mean errors obtained were <10 %, with relative standard deviations ranging from 3 to 18 %. For three non-authorized coccidiostatics (clopidol, ethopabate, and ronizadole), decision limit and detection capability were in the ranges 0.12-0.16 and 0.18-0.23 μg kg(-1), respectively. The results obtained prove the suitability of this new analytical method for routine monitoring of these substances in eggs.

  6. On-line clean-up of pressurized liquid extracts for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in feedingstuffs and food matrices using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Björklund, E; von Holst, C

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes a fast and simple pressurized liquid extraction method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in feedingstuffs and food matrices. The method is based on a simultaneous extraction/clean-up step requiring a minimum of sample handling. The final analysis was performed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seven PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) were analyzed, all of which are indicator congeners that, according to European legislation should be included in the analytical monitoring program. The extracted matrices were spiked feed for poultry and two certified reference materials naturally contaminated with PCBs (cod-liver oil and milk powder), which showed excellent conformity with certified data.

  7. Use of gel permeation chromatography for clean-up in the analysis of coccidiostats in eggs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chico, J; Rúbies, A; Centrich, F; Companyó, R; Prat, M D; Granados, M

    2013-05-01

    An analytical method for determination and confirmation of nine coccidiostatics in eggs is reported. Ethyl acetate is used as extraction solvent, with satisfactory results, and simple automated clean-up is based on gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) . The target compounds are then analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated in-house in accordance with Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Trueness and precision were determined at four concentrations, and the mean errors obtained were <10 %, with relative standard deviations ranging from 3 to 18 %. For three non-authorized coccidiostatics (clopidol, ethopabate, and ronizadole), decision limit and detection capability were in the ranges 0.12-0.16 and 0.18-0.23 μg kg(-1), respectively. The results obtained prove the suitability of this new analytical method for routine monitoring of these substances in eggs. PMID:23535744

  8. Determination of endocrine disrupting compounds in fish liver, brain, and muscle using focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction and dispersive solid phase extraction as clean-up strategy.

    PubMed

    Ros, Oihana; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Prieto, Ailette

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a new method for the simultaneous extraction of several endocrine disrupting compounds, including alkylphenols (APs), estrogen, bisphenol-A (BPA) and one phthalate metabolite (mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, MEHP) in fish liver, brain, and muscle. Parameters affecting the extraction (extraction solvent and temperature) and the clean-up (dispersive phase nature and amount) steps were evaluated. The extraction was performed by means of focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) using 10 mL of n-hexane:acetone (50:50, v/v) for 5 min at ~0 °C, and the clean-up was done by means of dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using 100 mg of ENVI-CARB and 100 mg of MgSO4 for the cleaning of brain and muscle extracts together with 100 mg of PSA in the case of liver extracts. Good apparent recoveries were obtained in the case of liver (62-132 %), brain (66-120 %), and muscle (74-129 %), relative standard deviation (RSD%) was always below 26 %, and the method detection limits (MDLs) were at low ng/g level. The developed method was applied to fish captured in Urdaibai estuary (Bay of Biscay) in December 2015, and the concentrations obtained were in the range MDL-1115 ng/g in brain, MDL-962 ng/g in muscle, and MDL-672 ng/g in liver. In general, the highest concentrations were measured in liver, followed by brain and muscle. In addition, diethylstilbestrol was only detected in fish brain. Graphical Abstract MS method scheme for the/MS method scheme for the determination of EDCs in fish liver, brain and muscle.

  9. Simultaneous determination of four aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in ginger and related products by HPLC with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up and postcolumn photochemical derivatization.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Kong, Weijun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Meihua

    2013-12-01

    Ginger, a widely used spice and traditional Chinese medicine, is prone to be contaminated by mycotoxins. A simple, sensitive, and reproducible method based on immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with HPLC and on-line postcolumn photochemical derivatization with fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFs) B1 , B2 , G1 , G2 , and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 25 batches of gingers and related products marketed in China for the first time. The samples were first extracted by ultrasonication with methanol/water (80:20, v/v) and then cleaned up with immunoaffinity columns for analysis. Under the optimized conditions, the LODs and LOQs for the five mycotoxins were 0.03-0.3 and 0.1-0.9 μg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 81.3-100.8% for AFs and from 88.6-99.5% for OTA at three spiking levels. Good linearity was observed for the analytes with correlation coefficients all >0.9995. All moldy gingers were contaminated with at least one kind of the five investigated mycotoxins, while none of them were found in normal gingers. Ginger powder samples were contaminated slightly with the contamination levels below the LOQs, while ginger tea bags were mainly contaminated by OTA at 1.05-1.19 μg/kg and ginger black tea bags were mainly contaminated by AFs at 3.37-5.76 μg/kg. All the contamination levels were below the legally allowable limits.

  10. Rapid determination of 88 veterinary drug residues in milk using automated TurborFlow online clean-up mode coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-xia; Yang, Ji-zhou; Wang, Zhao-xing; Wang, Cai-juan; Liu, Ya-feng; Zhang, Li

    2016-02-01

    A novel method based on TurborFlow online solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established for simultaneous screening and confirmation of 88 wide-range veterinary drugs belonging to eight families (20 sulfonamides, 7 macrolides, 15 quinolones, 8 penicillins, 13 benzimidazoles, 4 tetracyclines, 2 sedatives, and 19 hormones) in milk. The preparation method consists of sample dilution and ultrasonic extraction, followed by an automated turbulent flow cyclone chromatography sample clean-up system. The detection was achieved in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM). The total run time was within 39 min, including automated extraction, analytical chromatography and re-equilibration of the turboflow system. The optimization of different experimental parameters including extraction, purification, separation, and detection were evaluated separately in this study. The developed method was validated and good performing characteristics were obtained. The linear regression coefficients (R(2)) of matrix-match calibration standard curves established for quantification were higher than 0.9930. The limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.2-2.0 μg/kg given by signal-noise ratio ≥3 (S/N) and the limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N≥10) ranged between 0.5 μg/kg and 10 μg/kg. Average recoveries of spiked target compounds with different levels were between 63.1% and 117.4%, with percentage relative standard deviations (RSD) in the range of 3.3-17.6%. The results indicated that the developed method has great potential for the routine laboratory analysis of large numbers of samples on measuring different classes of compounds. In comparison to traditional procedures, the automated sample clean-up ensures rapid, effective, sensitive analyses of veterinary drugs in milk.

  11. Determination of endocrine disrupting compounds in fish liver, brain, and muscle using focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction and dispersive solid phase extraction as clean-up strategy.

    PubMed

    Ros, Oihana; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Prieto, Ailette

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a new method for the simultaneous extraction of several endocrine disrupting compounds, including alkylphenols (APs), estrogen, bisphenol-A (BPA) and one phthalate metabolite (mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, MEHP) in fish liver, brain, and muscle. Parameters affecting the extraction (extraction solvent and temperature) and the clean-up (dispersive phase nature and amount) steps were evaluated. The extraction was performed by means of focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) using 10 mL of n-hexane:acetone (50:50, v/v) for 5 min at ~0 °C, and the clean-up was done by means of dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using 100 mg of ENVI-CARB and 100 mg of MgSO4 for the cleaning of brain and muscle extracts together with 100 mg of PSA in the case of liver extracts. Good apparent recoveries were obtained in the case of liver (62-132 %), brain (66-120 %), and muscle (74-129 %), relative standard deviation (RSD%) was always below 26 %, and the method detection limits (MDLs) were at low ng/g level. The developed method was applied to fish captured in Urdaibai estuary (Bay of Biscay) in December 2015, and the concentrations obtained were in the range MDL-1115 ng/g in brain, MDL-962 ng/g in muscle, and MDL-672 ng/g in liver. In general, the highest concentrations were measured in liver, followed by brain and muscle. In addition, diethylstilbestrol was only detected in fish brain. Graphical Abstract MS method scheme for the/MS method scheme for the determination of EDCs in fish liver, brain and muscle. PMID:27342793

  12. Alternative poultry litter storage for improved transportation and use as a soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Penn, Chad J; Vitale, Jeffery; Fine, Scott; Payne, Joshua; Warren, Jason G; Zhang, Hailin; Eastman, Margaret; Herron, Sheri L

    2011-01-01

    Transportation of poultry litter out of nutrient limited watersheds such as the Illinois River basin (eastern Oklahoma) is a logical solution for minimizing phosphorus (P) losses from soils to surface waters. Transportation costs are basedon mass of load and distance transported. This study investigated an alternative litter storage technique designed to promote carbon (C) degradation, thereby concentrating nutrients for the purpose of decreasing transportation costs through decreased mass. Poultry litter was stored in 0.90-Mg conical piles under semipermeable tarps and adjusted to 40% moisture content, tested with and without addition of alum (aluminum sulfate). additional study was conducted using 3.6-Mg piles under the same conditions, except tested with and without use of aeration pipes. Samples were analyzed before and after (8 wk) storage. Litter mass degradation (i.e., loss in mass due to organic matter decomposition) was estimated on the basis of changes in litter total P contents. Additional characterization included pH, total nutrients, moisture content, total C, and degree of humification. Litter storage significantly decreased litter mass (16 to 27%), concentrated nutrients such as P and potassium (K) and increased proportion of fulvic and humic acids. The addition of aeration pipes increased mass degradationrelative to piles without aeration pipes. Nitrogen volatilization losses were minimized with alum additions. Increases in P and K concentrations resulted in greater monetary value per unit mass compared with fresh litter. Such increases translate to increased litter shipping distance and cost savings of $17.2 million over 25 yr for litter movement out of eastern Oklahoma.

  13. Assessment of alternative management practices and policies affecting soil carbon in agroecosystems of the central United States

    SciTech Connect

    Donigian, A.S.; Barnwell, T.O.; Jackson, R.B.; Patwardhan, A.S.; Weinrich, K.B.

    1994-04-01

    The goal of the U.S. EPA BIOME Agroecosystems Assessment Project is to evaluate the degree to which agroecosystems can be technically managed, on a sustainable basis, to conserve and sequester carbon, reduce the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and provide reference datasets and methodologies for agricultural assessment. The report provides preliminary estimates of carbon sequestration potential for the central United States including the Corn Belt, the Great Lakes, and portions of the Great Plains. This study region comprises 44% of the land area and 60% to 70% of the agricultural cropland of the conterminous United States. The assessment methodology includes the integration of the RAMS economic model, the Century soil carbon model, meteorologic and soils data bases, and GIS display and analysis capabilities in order to assess the impacts on soil carbon of current agricultural trends and conditions, alternative tillage practices, use of cover crops, and Conservation Reserve Program policy.

  14. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  15. Are the Rich Cleaning Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Cait

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the dichotomy between new wealthy and not-so-wealthy people. Points out that the distance between the top and bottom tiers of income distribution has grown significantly since the 1970s. Looks at the reasons for the increase and what can be done about it. (JOW)

  16. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  17. Metalworkers clean up their waste

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1994-10-01

    This article describes how using methods such as chemical precipitation, filtration, and ion exchange, metal parts manufacturers are reducing the pollutants in their wastewater so it can be reused or safely discharged. Metalworking manufacturer are recovering useful materials, lowering their disposal costs, and reducing pollution by treating their wastewater with methods such as chemical precipitation and ion exchange so that it can be reused or safely discharged. They are also reducing wastes by recycling metalworking coolants. The major wastewater treatment technologies identified by the Environmental Protection Agency are chemical precipitation, or adding flocculants to bind waste particles together; membrane ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, in which waste is trapped when the water passes through a membrane; and ion exchange, in which specially formulated resins capture dissolved metal salts. Other treatment techniques cited by Elwood Forsht, chief of the chemicals and metals branch at the EPA, include electrowinning, which uses electrolysis to concentrate metallic ions in wastewater, and coolant recycling, a method that removes metal particles by centrifugal force and kills bacteria by pasteurization. Many metalworking operations create wastewater, including drilling, welding, soldering, surface finishing, electroplating, acid treatment, anodizing, assembly, and machining. Companies use wastewater treatment technologies to recycle their wastewater or clean it so that it meets EPA standards and can be discharged into a municipal waste system, thus avoiding high disposal costs.

  18. Commercial potting soils as an alternative infection source of Legionella pneumophila and other Legionella species in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Casati, S; Gioria-Martinoni, A; Gaia, V

    2009-06-01

    Legionella spp. are pathogens that can cause Legionnaires' disease in humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. The principal reservoir for these microorganisms is water, but Legionella spp. have been isolated from composted vegetable and plant material, and from many potting mixes as well. In Australia, there have been several cases of Legionnaires' disease in which Legionella longbeachae has been isolated from potting soils. In Switzerland, the source of infection cannot always be identified as water or cooling towers: therefore, we have investigated 46 commercially available potting soils in Switzerland to determine the presence of Legionella spp. We were able to detect Legionella spp. in 45.7% (21/46) of the potting soil samples analysed by culture. Legionella pneumophila was present in 19.6% (9/46) of the samples and L. pneumophila serogroup 1 in 6.5% (3/46). Quantification by both culture and quantitative real-time PCR revealed high concentrations of legionellae in potting soils, ranging between 10(3) CFU/g and 10(5) CFU/g and 10(4) genomic units (GU)/g and 10(6) GU/g, respectively. Thus, potting soils may represent an alternative reservoir for Legionella spp. in Switzerland.

  19. Magnetic Pattern of Luvisol Sequences From Mexico and Russia: An Alternative Analysis of Soil Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas Ortiz, J. F.; Ortega Guerrero, B.; Solleiro Rebolledo, E.; Sedov, S.

    2007-05-01

    Recently, soil has been consolidated like a worthy and complementary source of information to environmental and paleo-climatic reconstruction research. The study of magnetic mineralogy present in soil horizons play an important role to understand a lot of complex process which to allow obtain information about environment condition present during genesis and evolution of soil. The main aim of this study is to compare soils with different parent material, as well as to obtain a magnetic sign from soils profile which could be used to determinate the responsible of pedogenic process of their magnetic behavior of each horizon, and their possible relationship with environmental condition. Study carried out of two complete profiles of buried interglacial Luvisols, one formed in loess in Russia (Alexandrovsky quarry, AQ) and the other in volcaniclastics in Mexico (Barranca Tlalpan, BT). In the AQ, the magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in the paleosol compared to parent material. In the BT sequence, susceptibility enhancement is absent in the soil profile. Increase of fine-grained magnetic components in the soil is attributed to neoformed minerals. However, this process cannot compensate for the loss of lithogenic magnetic minerals in any of the genetic horizons, and the resulting trend is susceptibility depletion in the whole soil profile. The pedogenic environment of eluvial horizons in both Luvisols is destructive to all magnetic components, both primary and secondary. Higher concentrations of antiferromagnetic components (hematite and goethite) found in E horizons are related to redoximorphic processes.

  20. Bio-enhanced thin-spreading: A low cost soil remediation alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, G.; Pfarrer, R. III

    1996-11-01

    Products manufactured at Kohler Company`s Kohler, Wisconsin plant include a variety of plumbing fixtures, including vitreous china toilets and sinks, cast iron enameled sinks and tubs, electroplated faucets, assorted plumbing fittings, and small engines. This paper focuses on a soil remediation project performed at the Kohler Company`s Kohler, Wisconsin facility. In order to implement this soil remediation project, close coordination and communication was required with many project entities including numerous company departments, contractors, regulatory agencies, and the general public. Using an innovative and cost-effective soil treatment method called bio-enhanced thin-spreading (BETS), over 5,000 cubic yards of kerosene-contaminated soils were successfully remediated. The purpose of this case study is: (1) to describe the technical aspects of the remediation project including the BETS soil treatment method; and (2) to discuss factors which can significantly influence the development, management, and implementation of environmental remediation projects at large manufacturing facilities.

  1. Enhanced thermal conduction -- An alternative solution for removing a broad range of hydrocarbons from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Bova, J.C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of Enhanced Thermal Conduction (ETC), an ex-situ soil remediation process. A review of a practical demonstration of this process which was conducted by Woodward-Clyde Consultants to determine the capability of the technology for remediating soils from gasworks sites that have been contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cyanide is also presented in this paper. Projections for using this process to treat soils contaminated with other hazardous materials such as TCE PCE and PCB's are discussed as well.

  2. Development of a bi-functional silica monolith for electro-osmotic pumping and DNA clean-up/extraction using gel-supported reagents in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Jennifer A; Shaw, Kirsty J; Docker, Peter T; Dyer, Charlotte E; Greenman, John; Greenway, Gillian M; Haswell, Stephen J

    2009-06-01

    A silica monolith used to support both electro-osmotic pumping (EOP) and the extraction/elution of DNA coupled with gel-supported reagents is described. The benefits of the combined EOP extraction/elution system were illustrated by combining DNA extraction and gene amplification using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. All the reagents necessary for both processes were supported within pre-loaded gels that allow the reagents to be stored at 4 degrees C for up to four weeks in the microfluidic device. When carrying out an analysis the crude sample only needed to be hydrodynamically introduced into the device which was connected to an external computer controlled power supply via platinum wire electrodes. DNA was extracted with 65% efficiency after loading lysed cells onto a silica monolith. Ethanol contained within an agarose gel matrix was then used to wash unwanted debris away from the sample by EOP (100 V cm(-1) for 5 min). The retained DNA was subsequently eluted from the monolith by water contained in a second agarose gel, again by EOP using an electric field of 100 V cm(-1) for 5 min, and transferred into the PCR reagent containing gel. The eluted DNA in solution was successfully amplified by PCR, confirming that the concept of a complete self-contained microfluidic device could be realised for DNA sample clean up and amplification, using a simple pumping and on-chip reagent storage methodology.

  3. A multi-residue method for the determination of 90 pesticides in matrices with a high water content by LC-MS/MS without clean-up.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Fernando Diniz; da Silva Oliveira, Fabiano Aurélio; de Souza, Wesley Robert; Pontelo, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Mauro Lúcio Gonçalves; Silva, Gilsara

    2012-01-01

    A method using QuEChERS extraction and LC-MS/MS in electrospray positive ionisation mode was developed and validated for the analysis of 90 pesticides in a high water content matrix (tomato) in a single chromatographic run. To assess the intra-laboratory reproducibility of the method, validation was conducted on four different days by two different analysts. The validation data was treated using a spreadsheet developed in-house, which sets the most appropriate model for linear fit by determining whether the residuals of the calibration curves are homocedastic or heterocedastic. A statistical test for the significance of regression was also carried out. Calibration was always matrix-matched and the curves were obtained over the range 0.0075-0.10 or 0.020-0.125 mg kg(-1). Identification of analytes was based on retention times and MRM ratios. Recoveries were assessed at four different levels for each analyte and were between 73 and 106%, with relative standard deviations under reproducibility conditions of <20%. The measurement uncertainties of the method for each pesticide analysed were below 50%. Previous validation of the same method, applied to papaya samples and satisfactory results obtained in various proficiency tests with different high water content matrices, demonstrated the applicability of the method to these classes of commodities, without clean-up. The validated method will be applied routinely in the pesticide residues monitoring programme that constitutes the National Residue and Contaminant Control Plan of Brazil.

  4. Simultaneous pressurized liquid extraction and clean-up for the analysis of polybrominated biphenyls by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Malavia, J; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2011-05-30

    This paper describes a fast and simple pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method combined with gas chromatography coupled to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS-MS) for the determination of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in fish samples. The method is based on a simultaneous extraction/clean-up step to reduce analysis time and solvent consumption. The effect of several PLE operating conditions, such as solvent type, extraction temperature and time, number of cycles, and lipid retainer, was optimized to obtain maximum recovery of the analytes with the minimum presence of matrix-interfering compounds. The best conditions were obtained at 100°C with n-hexane using 15 g of silica modified with sulphuric acid (44%, w/w) as sorbent for lipid removal. Quality parameters of the GC-ITMS-MS method were established, achieving good linearity (r>0.998), between 1 and 500 ng ml(-1), and low instrumental limits of detection (0.14-0.76 pg injected). For the whole method, limits of detection ranging from 0.03 to 0.16 ng g(-1) wet weight and good precision (RSD<16%) were obtained. PMID:21530792

  5. Results of the clean-up operation to reduce pollution on flooded agricultural fields after the red mud spill in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Uzinger, Nikolett; Anton, Áron Dániel; Ötvös, Károly; Tamás, Péter; Anton, Attila

    2015-07-01

    In Hungary, the dam of a red mud reservoir breached shortly after noon on October 4, 2010. Approximately 0.7-1 million m(3) highly alkaline red mud with very low dry matter content flowed into the Torna Creek and the surrounding area, covering 1017 ha of agricultural land. Results of the risk assessment of the accident indicated that the red mud should be removed from the surface of fields where it formed a continuous layer of more than 5 cm. After the removal, samples were taken manually from depths of 0.0-0.2 m and 0.2-0.4 m in a sampling grid and background samples unaffected by red mud from the depth of 0.0-0.3 m. Total element contents (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn, and Na) and pH values were measured, and the results were analysed using correlation analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis probe. Dependence of the measured variables from elevation above sea level was studied using a 10 m by 10 m digital elevation model. Only ∼6.5% of the flooded area was temporarily designated as unsuitable for the production of food and fodder crops. In summary, the clean-up operation can be said to have been a success.

  6. In-cell clean-up pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of hydrophobic persistent and emerging organic pollutants in coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Pintado-Herrera, Marina G; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2016-01-15

    The main goal of this work was to develop, optimize and validate a multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of 97 contaminants, including fragrances, UV filters, repellents, endocrine disruptors, biocides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organophosphorus flame retardants, and several types of pesticides in marine sediment samples. Extraction and cleanup were integrated into the same step using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with in-cell clean-up (1g of alumina). The extraction was performed using dichloromethane at 100 °C, 1500 psi and 3 extraction cycles (5 min per cycle). Extracts were derivatized with N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) to improve the signal and sensitivity of some target compounds (i.e., triclosan, 2-hydroxybenzophenone). Separation, identification and quantification of analytes were carried out by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Under optimal conditions, the optimized protocol showed good recovery percentages (70-100%), linearity (>0.99) and limits of detection below 1 ng g(-1) for all compounds. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of sediment samples from different coastal areas from Andalusia (Spain), where occurrence and distribution of emerging contaminants in sediments is very scarce. Twenty five compounds out of 98 were detected in all samples, with the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol and the fragrance galaxolide showing the highest concentrations, up to 377.6 ng g(-1) and 237.4 ng g(-1), respectively.

  7. Screening of pollution control and clean-up materials for river chemical spills using the multiple case-based reasoning method with a difference-driven revision strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rentao; Jiang, Jiping; Guo, Liang; Shi, Bin; Liu, Jie; Du, Zhaolin; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-01

    In-depth filtering of emergency disposal technology (EDT) and materials has been required in the process of environmental pollution emergency disposal. However, an urgent problem that must be solved is how to quickly and accurately select the most appropriate materials for treating a pollution event from the existing spill control and clean-up materials (SCCM). To meet this need, the following objectives were addressed in this study. First, the material base and a case base for environment pollution emergency disposal were established to build a foundation and provide material for SCCM screening. Second, the multiple case-based reasoning model method with a difference-driven revision strategy (DDRS-MCBR) was applied to improve the original dual case-based reasoning model method system, and screening and decision-making was performed for SCCM using this model. Third, an actual environmental pollution accident from 2012 was used as a case study to verify the material base, case base, and screening model. The results demonstrated that the DDRS-MCBR method was fast, efficient, and practical. The DDRS-MCBR method changes the passive situation in which the choice of SCCM screening depends only on the subjective experience of the decision maker and offers a new approach to screening SCCM.

  8. A food web model of mercury transfer from stream sediment to predators of fish for ecological risk based clean-up goals

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, T.P.; Hadden, C.T.; Cornaby, B.W.; Mitz, S.V.

    1997-09-01

    A linear steady-state model of the food web linking sediment to piscivorous predators was used to derive ecological risk based clean-up concentrations for mercury in sediment of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), Oak Ridge, TN. The model partitions aquatic invertebrates into two classes based on the primary source of exposure to mercury in sediment, and the prey-fish community into three classes based on differences in their diets and feeding habits. Biotransfer factors for the links between sediment and sediment-dwelling invertebrates, water and aquatic biota and fish, and prey and predators are published values. The model uses site specific data on the fraction of methylmercury in sediment, the relative abundance of prey fish, and the predicted flux of mercury from sediment. Monte Carlo analysis quantifies the uncertainty in the risk to top predators of fish. At 96 mg/kg mercury in sediment, less than 20% of the exposures exceed dietary limits for endpoint receptors. The fraction of methylmercury in sediment, the three biotransfer factors for methylmercury, and diet are sensitive parameters.

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction as an on-line clean-up technique for determination of riboflavin vitamins in food samples by capillary electrophoresis with fluorimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Zougagh, Mohammed; Ríos, Angel

    2008-08-01

    An automatic method for the separation and determination of riboflavin (RF) vitamins (RF, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide) in food samples (chicken liver, tablet and powder milk) is proposed. The method is based on the on-line coupling of a supercritical fluid extractor (SFE) with a continuous flow-CE system with guided optical fiber fluorimetric detection (CF-CE-FD). The whole SFE-CF-CE-FD arrangement allowed the automatic treatment of food samples (clean-up of the sample followed by the extraction of the analytes), and the direct introduction of a small volume of the extracted plug to the CE-FD system for the determination of RF vitamins. Fluorescence detection introduced an appropriated sensitivity and contributed to avoid interferences of nonfluorescent polar compounds coming from the matrix samples in the extracted plug. Electrophoretic responses were linear within the 0.05-1 microg/g range, whereas the detection limits of RF vitamins were in the 0.036-0.042 microg/g range. The proposed arrangement opens up interesting prospects for the direct determination of polar analytes in complex samples with a good throughput and high level of automation.

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid phase clean-up for analysis of ochratoxin A in beer, red wine, and grape juice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiliang; Kong, Weijun; Zhou, Shujun; Yin, Lihui; Wan, Li; Yang, Meihua

    2013-04-01

    A simple, reliable, and low-cost method based on molecularly imprinted polymer as a selective sorbent of SPE was proposed for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer, red wine, and grape juice by HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Samples were diluted with water and cleaned up with an AFFINIMIP® SPE OTA column. After washing and eluting, the analyte was analyzed by HPLC-FLD. Under the optimized conditions, LOD and LOQ for OTA were 0.025 and 0.08 ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries of OTA from beer, red wine, and grape spiked at 0.1, 2, and 5 ng/mL ranged from 91.6 to 101.7%. Furthermore, after a simple regenerated procedure, the molecularly imprinted polymer based SPE column could be reused at least 14 times to achieve more than 80% recoveries of OTA in real samples. The developed method was applied to the detection of 30 beer, red wine, and grape juice samples and only four samples were contaminated by OTA with levels below the legal limits.

  11. Results of the clean-up operation to reduce pollution on flooded agricultural fields after the red mud spill in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Uzinger, Nikolett; Anton, Áron Dániel; Ötvös, Károly; Tamás, Péter; Anton, Attila

    2015-07-01

    In Hungary, the dam of a red mud reservoir breached shortly after noon on October 4, 2010. Approximately 0.7-1 million m(3) highly alkaline red mud with very low dry matter content flowed into the Torna Creek and the surrounding area, covering 1017 ha of agricultural land. Results of the risk assessment of the accident indicated that the red mud should be removed from the surface of fields where it formed a continuous layer of more than 5 cm. After the removal, samples were taken manually from depths of 0.0-0.2 m and 0.2-0.4 m in a sampling grid and background samples unaffected by red mud from the depth of 0.0-0.3 m. Total element contents (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn, and Na) and pH values were measured, and the results were analysed using correlation analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis probe. Dependence of the measured variables from elevation above sea level was studied using a 10 m by 10 m digital elevation model. Only ∼6.5% of the flooded area was temporarily designated as unsuitable for the production of food and fodder crops. In summary, the clean-up operation can be said to have been a success. PMID:25647492

  12. [Analysis of aldicarb and its metabolites in ginger using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with multiplug filtration clean up with multiwalled carbon nanotubes].

    PubMed

    Ma, Lili; Jia, Li; Zhou, Xinran; Liu, Yan; Fan, Xiaojing; Pan, Canping

    2014-06-01

    A simple and rapid pretreatment procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of aldicarb and its metabolites, aldicarb sulfone and aldicarb sulfoxide in ginger. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned up with multiplug filtration using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS). The eluate was dried with nitrogen gas at room temperature, and redissolved in an acetonitrile-water (5:95, v/v) mixture, then quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) operated in positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. A linear relationship was achieved in the range of 0.5 -200 microg/L for the peak areas to the mass concentrations of the target compounds with the linear correlation coefficients (r2) higher than 0.99. The recoveries at three spiked levels of 2, 20 and 200 microg/kg were in the range from 71.4% to 89.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) from 0.7% to 13.2% under the selected conditions. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) of aldicarb, aldicarb sulfone, and aldicarb sulfoxide in ginger were 1.0, 2.0 and 1.0 microg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrate that the developed method is rapid, cost-effective, and can meet the requirements of the multiple pesticide residue analysis. The method is applicable to determine aldicarb and its metabolites in ginger.

  13. Microwave-assisted extraction at atmospheric pressure coupled to different clean-up methods for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in olive and avocado oil.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Edwar; Báez, María E; Díaz, Juan

    2009-12-18

    An effective extraction method was devised for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in olive and avocado oil samples, using atmospheric pressure microwave-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (APMAE) and solid-phase extraction or low-temperature precipitation as clean-up step. A simple glass system equipped with an air-cooled condenser was designed as an extraction vessel. The pesticides were partitioned between acetonitrile and oil solution in hexane. Analytical determinations were carried out by gas chromatography-flame photometric detection and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, using a triple quadrupole mass analyzer, for confirmation purposes. Several factors influencing the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized through fractional factorial design and Doehlert design. Under optimal conditions the recovery of pesticides from oil at 0.025 microg g(-1) ranged from 71% to 103%, except for fenthion in avocado oil, with RSDs < or = 13% (n=5). The LOQ for the entire method ranged from 0.004 to 0.015 microg g(-1). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of the selected pesticides in 20 commercially packed extra virgin olive oils and four commercially packed avocado oils produced in Chile. Detectable residues of different OPPs were observed in 85% of samples. PMID:19926091

  14. Chemical response of soil leachate to alternative approaches to experimental acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, I.J.; Kosian, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    One approach to evaluating computer models which predict terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem response to acid deposition is the experimental acidification of soils with subsequent comparisons among predicted and measured soil solution response. Using a soil microcosm experimental approach, comparisons between simulated acid rain (i.e. dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), dry NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, and prilled reduced S were made for suitability for large-scale field experiments. Soil microcosms consisting of reconstructed soil profiles received a background simulated throughfall dosing over the six month treatment period. Results indicated that simulated throughfall, applied at twice the ambient rate, acidified soil leachates approximately 0.5 pH units over the treatment period. Along with the decline in leachate pH was an apparent release of base cations as well as Fe and Al. Over the length of the treatment period, very little of the prilled S dissolved and the simulated acid rain treatment did not have significant effects on leachate chemistry.

  15. Organic farming and cover crops as an alternative to mineral fertilizers to improve soil physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Cima, Diego; Luik, Anne; Reintam, Endla

    2015-10-01

    For testing how cover crops and different fertilization managements affect the soil physical properties in a plough based tillage system, a five-year crop rotation experiment (field pea, white potato, common barley undersown with red clover, red clover, and winter wheat) was set. The rotation was managed under four different farming systems: two conventional: with and without mineral fertilizers and two organic, both with winter cover crops (later ploughed and used as green manure) and one where cattle manure was added yearly. The measurements conducted were penetration resistance, soil water content, porosity, water permeability, and organic carbon. Yearly variations were linked to the number of tillage operations, and a cumulative effect of soil organic carbon in the soil as a result of the different fertilization amendments, organic or mineral. All the systems showed similar tendencies along the three years of study and differences were only found between the control and the other systems. Mineral fertilizers enhanced the overall physical soil conditions due to the higher yield in the system. In the organic systems, cover crops and cattle manure did not have a significant effect on soil physical properties in comparison with the conventional ones, which were kept bare during the winter period. The extra organic matter boosted the positive effect of crop rotation, but the higher number of tillage operations in both organic systems counteracted this effect to a greater or lesser extent.

  16. Soil treatment with hot air (Cultivit) as alternative to methyl bromide.

    PubMed

    Runia, W T; Molendijk, L P G; Neophytou, G; Greenberger, A

    2006-01-01

    A new development in physical soil treatment is the application of hot air. Hot air treatment is based on blowing extremely hot air into rotavating humid soil. The method has been developed and applied commercially in Israel for the last few years. An increased growth response (IGR) was observed in several crops like potato, cauliflower, kohlrabi and the flower Esclepia, when the soil was treated with hot air prior to planting. Scientific trials were performed in Israel and Cyprus to quantify IGR and to evaluate the efficacy against plant-parasitic nematodes. Squash was grown in tunnels on root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita) infested fields in sandy (Israel) and clay loam (Cyprus) soils. In Israel hot air treatment was compared with metam sodium and methyl bromide and a cold air treated control. In Cyprus hot air treatment was compared with untreated control. Hot air treatment increased squash yield in Israel with 90 % and in Cyprus with 150%. Root assessments showed that after hot air treatment the root-knot nematodes were still able to infest plants and cause galling damage. Nematode counts were not reduced by hot air treatment. It may be concluded that the general concept of soil disinfestation is not applicable to hot air treatment. Any positive effect in yield could not be explained by reduction in nematode populations in soil. Possible chemical and biological changes in the hot air treated soils need to be identified. Further research will determine the possibilities and limitations of this method in other crops and under various climatic conditions.

  17. Influence of alternating soil drying and wetting on the desorption and distribution of aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues in soil organic fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonowski, N. D.; Mucha, M.; Thiele, B.; Hofmann, D.; Burauel, P.

    2012-04-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of alternating soil drying and wetting on the release of aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues and their distribution in soil organic fractions (humic acids, fulvic acids, and humin substances). The used soils (gleyic cambisol; Corg 1.2%, pH 7.2) were obtained from the upper soil layer of two individual outdoor lysimeter studies containing either environmentally long-term aged 14C residues of the herbicide ethidimuron (ETD; 0-10 cm depth; time of aging: 9 years) or methabenzthiazuron (MBT; 0-30 cm depth; time of aging: 17 years). Triplicate soil samples (10 g dry soil equivalents) were (A=dry/wet) previously dried (45° C) or (B=wet/wet) directly mixed with pure water (1+2, w:w), shaken (150 rpm, 1 h), and centrifuged (~2000 g). The resulting supernatant was removed, filtered (0.45 μm) and subjected to 14C activity analysis via liquid scintillation counter (LSC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis, and LC-MS-MS analysis. This extraction procedure was repeated 15 individual times, for both setups (A) and (B). To determine the distribution of the aged 14C labelled pesticide residues in the soil organic matter fractions, the soil samples were subject to humic and fulvic acids fractionations at cycles 0, 4, 10, and 15. The residual pesticide 14C activity associated with the humic, fulvic, and humin substances (organic fraction remaining in the soil) fractions was determined via LSC. The water-extracted residual 14C activity was significantly higher in the extracts of the dry/wet, compared to the wet/wet soil samples for both pesticides. The total extracted 14C activity in the dry/wet soil extracts accounted for 51.0% (ETD) and 15.4% (MBT) in contrast to 19.0% (ETD) and 4.7% (MBT) in the wet/wet extracts after 15 water extractions. LC-MS-MS analysis revealed the parent compound ETD 27.9 μg kg-1 soil (dry/wet) and 10.7 μg kg-1 soil (wet/wet), accounting for 3.45 and 1.35% of total parent compound

  18. Influence of alternating soil drying and wetting on the desorption and distribution of aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues in soil organic fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonowski, N. D.; Mucha, M.; Thiele, B.; Hofmann, D.; Burauel, P.

    2012-04-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of alternating soil drying and wetting on the release of aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues and their distribution in soil organic fractions (humic acids, fulvic acids, and humin substances). The used soils (gleyic cambisol; Corg 1.2%, pH 7.2) were obtained from the upper soil layer of two individual outdoor lysimeter studies containing either environmentally long-term aged 14C residues of the herbicide ethidimuron (ETD; 0-10 cm depth; time of aging: 9 years) or methabenzthiazuron (MBT; 0-30 cm depth; time of aging: 17 years). Triplicate soil samples (10 g dry soil equivalents) were (A=dry/wet) previously dried (45° C) or (B=wet/wet) directly mixed with pure water (1+2, w:w), shaken (150 rpm, 1 h), and centrifuged (~2000 g). The resulting supernatant was removed, filtered (0.45 μm) and subjected to 14C activity analysis via liquid scintillation counter (LSC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis, and LC-MS-MS analysis. This extraction procedure was repeated 15 individual times, for both setups (A) and (B). To determine the distribution of the aged 14C labelled pesticide residues in the soil organic matter fractions, the soil samples were subject to humic and fulvic acids fractionations at cycles 0, 4, 10, and 15. The residual pesticide 14C activity associated with the humic, fulvic, and humin substances (organic fraction remaining in the soil) fractions was determined via LSC. The water-extracted residual 14C activity was significantly higher in the extracts of the dry/wet, compared to the wet/wet soil samples for both pesticides. The total extracted 14C activity in the dry/wet soil extracts accounted for 51.0% (ETD) and 15.4% (MBT) in contrast to 19.0% (ETD) and 4.7% (MBT) in the wet/wet extracts after 15 water extractions. LC-MS-MS analysis revealed the parent compound ETD 27.9 μg kg-1 soil (dry/wet) and 10.7 μg kg-1 soil (wet/wet), accounting for 3.45 and 1.35% of total parent compound

  19. Soil ecosystem function under native and exotic plant assemblages as alternative states of successional grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirito, Florencia; Yahdjian, Laura; Tognetti, Pedro M.; Chaneton, Enrique J.

    2014-01-01

    Old fields often become dominated by exotic plants establishing persistent community states. Ecosystem functioning may differ widely between such novel communities and the native-dominated counterparts. We evaluated soil ecosystem attributes in native and exotic (synthetic) grass assemblages established on a newly abandoned field, and in remnants of native grassland in the Inland Pampa, Argentina. We asked whether exotic species alter soil functioning through the quality of the litter they shed or by changing the decomposition environment. Litter decomposition of the exotic dominant Festuca arundinacea in exotic assemblages was faster than that of the native dominant Paspalum quadrifarium in native assemblages and remnant grasslands. Decomposition of a standard litter (Triticum aestivum) was also faster in exotic assemblages than in native assemblages and remnant grasslands. In a common garden, F. arundinacea showed higher decay rates than P. quadrifarium, which reflected the higher N content and lower C:N of the exotic grass litter. Soil respiration rates were higher in the exotic than in the native assemblages and remnant grasslands. Yet there were no significant differences in soil N availability or net N mineralization between exotic and native assemblages. Our results suggest that exotic grass dominance affected ecosystem function by producing a more decomposable leaf litter and by increasing soil decomposer activity. These changes might contribute to the extended dominance of fast-growing exotic grasses during old-field succession. Further, increased organic matter turnover under novel, exotic communities could reduce the carbon storage capacity of the system in the long term.

  20. Sound absorption coefficient in situ: an alternative for estimating soil loss factors.

    PubMed

    Freire, Rosane; Meletti de Abreu, Marco Henrique; Okada, Rafael Yuri; Soares, Paulo Fernando; GranhenTavares, Célia Regina

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the sound absorption coefficient and factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was determined in a section of the Maringá Stream basin, Paraná State, by using erosion plots. In the field, four erosion plots were built on a reduced scale, with dimensions of 2.0×12.5m. With respect to plot coverage, one was kept with bare soil and the others contained forage grass (Brachiaria), corn and wheat crops, respectively. Planting was performed without any type of conservation practice in an area with a 9% slope. A sedimentation tank was placed at the end of each plot to collect the material transported. For the acoustic system, pink noise was used in the measurement of the proposed monitoring, for collecting information on incident and reflected sound pressure levels. In general, obtained values of soil loss confirmed that 94.3% of material exported to the basin water came from the bare soil plot, 2.8% from the corn plot, 1.8% from the wheat plot, and 1.1% from the forage grass plot. With respect to the acoustic monitoring, results indicated that at 16kHz erosion plot coverage type had a significant influence on the sound absorption coefficient. High correlation coefficients were found in estimations of the A and C factors of the USLE, confirming that the acoustic technique is feasible for the determination of soil loss directly in the field.

  1. Evaluation of the halophyte Salsola soda as an alternative crop for saline soils high in selenium and boron.

    PubMed

    Centofanti, Tiziana; Bañuelos, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Urbanization, industrial development, and intensive agriculture have caused soil contamination and land degradation in many areas of the world. Salinization is one important factor contributing to land degradation and it affects agricultural production and environmental quality. When salinization is combined with soil pollution by trace elements, as it occurs in many arid and semi-arid regions around the world, strategies to phyto-manage pollutants and sustain crop production need to be implemented. In this study, we present the case of saline soils in the West side of Central California which contain naturally-occurring selenium (Se), boron (B), and other salts, such as NaCl, CaCl2, Na2SO4, and Na2SeO4. To sustain crop production on Se- and B-laden arid saline soils, we investigated the potential of the halophyte "agretti" (Salsola soda L.) as an alternative crop. The aim of our greenhouse study was to examine adaptability, B tolerance, and Se accumulation by S. soda grown on soils collected from a typical saline-laden field site located on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Our results showed that S. soda tolerates the saline (EC ∼ 10 dS m(-1)) and B-laden soils (10 mg B L(-1)) of the SJV even with the additional irrigation of saline and B rich water (EC ∼ 3 dS m(-1) and 4 mg B L(-1)). Under these growing conditions, the plant can accumulate high concentrations of Na (80 g Na kg(-1) DW), B (100 mg B kg(-1) DW), and Se (3-4 mg Se kg(-1) DW) without showing toxicity symptoms. Hence, S. soda showed promising potential as a plant species that can be grown in B-laden saline soils and accumulate and potentially manage excessive soluble Se and B in soil.

  2. Evaluation of the halophyte Salsola soda as an alternative crop for saline soils high in selenium and boron.

    PubMed

    Centofanti, Tiziana; Bañuelos, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Urbanization, industrial development, and intensive agriculture have caused soil contamination and land degradation in many areas of the world. Salinization is one important factor contributing to land degradation and it affects agricultural production and environmental quality. When salinization is combined with soil pollution by trace elements, as it occurs in many arid and semi-arid regions around the world, strategies to phyto-manage pollutants and sustain crop production need to be implemented. In this study, we present the case of saline soils in the West side of Central California which contain naturally-occurring selenium (Se), boron (B), and other salts, such as NaCl, CaCl2, Na2SO4, and Na2SeO4. To sustain crop production on Se- and B-laden arid saline soils, we investigated the potential of the halophyte "agretti" (Salsola soda L.) as an alternative crop. The aim of our greenhouse study was to examine adaptability, B tolerance, and Se accumulation by S. soda grown on soils collected from a typical saline-laden field site located on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Our results showed that S. soda tolerates the saline (EC ∼ 10 dS m(-1)) and B-laden soils (10 mg B L(-1)) of the SJV even with the additional irrigation of saline and B rich water (EC ∼ 3 dS m(-1) and 4 mg B L(-1)). Under these growing conditions, the plant can accumulate high concentrations of Na (80 g Na kg(-1) DW), B (100 mg B kg(-1) DW), and Se (3-4 mg Se kg(-1) DW) without showing toxicity symptoms. Hence, S. soda showed promising potential as a plant species that can be grown in B-laden saline soils and accumulate and potentially manage excessive soluble Se and B in soil. PMID:25897503

  3. Alternative Approaches for Screening Contaminated Sediments and Soils for PCDD/PCDF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generating analytical data for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) using the traditional high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis method, EPA Method 1613B, is time-consuming and expensive. Consequently, alternative methods to ...

  4. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF SOIL REMEDIATION ALTERNATIVES AT THE BUILDING 812 OPERABLE UNIT, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE 300

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, C.; Miles, D.; Abitz, R.

    2009-08-14

    The Department of Energy Livermore Site Office requested a technical review of remedial alternatives proposed for the Building 812 Operable Unit, Site 300 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The team visited the site and reviewed the alternatives proposed for soil remediation in the draft RI/FS and made the following observations and recommendations. Based on the current information available for the site, the team did not identify a single technology that would be cost effective and/or ecologically sound to remediate DU contamination at Building 812 to current remedial goals. Soil washing is not a viable alternative and should not be considered at the site unless final remediation levels can be negotiated to significantly higher levels. This recommendation is based on the results of soil washing treatability studies at Fernald and Ashtabula that suggest that the technology would only be effective to address final remediation levels higher than 50 pCi/g. The technical review team identified four areas of technical uncertainty that should be resolved before the final selection of a preferred remedial strategy is made. Areas of significant technical uncertainty that should be addressed include: (1) Better delineation of the spatial distribution of surface contamination and the vertical distribution of subsurface contamination in the area of the firing table and associated alluvial deposits; (2) Chemical and physical characterization of residual depleted uranium (DU) at the site; (3) Determination of actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates to support risk modeling; and (4) More realistic estimation of cost for remedial alternatives, including soil washing, that were derived primarily from vendor estimates. Instead of conducting the planned soil washing treatability study, the team recommends that the site consider a new phased approach that combines additional characterization approaches and technologies to address the technical uncertainty in

  5. An evaluation method for determination of non-polar pesticide residues in animal fat samples by using dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Mercedes; González, Carmen; Miralles, Ana

    2011-05-01

    A rapid and easy method has been proposed, optimized and evaluated for quantitative determination at trace level of a representative group of non-polar pesticides in fat samples. The method includes n-hexane-saturated acetonitrile extraction, fat precipitation by cooling pre clean-up followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) based on QuEChERS procedure clean-up. Determination was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Efficiency of the d-SPE clean-up step was evaluated by comparison with fat oxidation treatment and gel permeation chromatography. Different combinations of d-SPE extraction reagents and sample amounts were tested in order to minimize matrix co-extractives and interferences. Best recoveries were obtained with 1200 mg of MgSO(4), 400 mg of end-capped C(18), 400 mg of PSA and 1 g of sample amount. SIM method, matrix effect, precision, and accuracy were evaluated with spiked pork fat samples for 38 representative pesticides. Results of this study showed that this technique is applicable in routine analysis for its application into monitoring programs. It simplifies time-consuming clean-up steps and allows a satisfactory long-term chromatographic performance.

  6. Development of sample extraction and clean-up strategies for target and non-target analysis of environmental contaminants in biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Mueller, Jochen F; Tsai, Henghang; Gomez Ramos, Maria Jose

    2015-12-24

    Recently, there has been an increasing trend towards multi-targeted analysis and non-target screening methods as a means to increase the number of monitored analytes. Previous studies have developed biomonitoring methods which specifically focus on only a small number of analytes with similar physico-chemical properties. In this paper, we present a simple and rapid multi-residue method for simultaneous extraction of polar and non-polar organic chemicals from biological matrices, containing up to 5% lipid content. Our method combines targeted multi-residue analysis using gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) and a multi-targeted analysis complemented with non-target screening using liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). The optimization of the chemical extraction procedure and the effectiveness of different clean-up methods were evaluated for two biological matrices: fish muscle (lipid content ∼2%) and breast milk (∼4%). To extract a wide range of chemicals, the partition/extraction procedure used for the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach was tested as the initial step for the extraction of 77 target compounds covering a broad compound domain. All the target analytes have different physico-chemical properties (log Kow ranges from -0.3 to 10) and cover a broad activity spectrum; from polar pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) to highly lipophilic chemicals such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochloride pesticides (OCPs). A number of options were explored for the clean-up of lipids, proteins and other impurities present in the matrix. Zirconium dioxide-based sorbents as dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) and protein-lipid removal filter cartridges (Captiva ND Lipids) provided the best results for GC-MS and LC-MS analysis

  7. Development of sample extraction and clean-up strategies for target and non-target analysis of environmental contaminants in biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Mueller, Jochen F; Tsai, Henghang; Gomez Ramos, Maria Jose

    2015-12-24

    Recently, there has been an increasing trend towards multi-targeted analysis and non-target screening methods as a means to increase the number of monitored analytes. Previous studies have developed biomonitoring methods which specifically focus on only a small number of analytes with similar physico-chemical properties. In this paper, we present a simple and rapid multi-residue method for simultaneous extraction of polar and non-polar organic chemicals from biological matrices, containing up to 5% lipid content. Our method combines targeted multi-residue analysis using gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) and a multi-targeted analysis complemented with non-target screening using liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). The optimization of the chemical extraction procedure and the effectiveness of different clean-up methods were evaluated for two biological matrices: fish muscle (lipid content ∼2%) and breast milk (∼4%). To extract a wide range of chemicals, the partition/extraction procedure used for the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach was tested as the initial step for the extraction of 77 target compounds covering a broad compound domain. All the target analytes have different physico-chemical properties (log Kow ranges from -0.3 to 10) and cover a broad activity spectrum; from polar pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) to highly lipophilic chemicals such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochloride pesticides (OCPs). A number of options were explored for the clean-up of lipids, proteins and other impurities present in the matrix. Zirconium dioxide-based sorbents as dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) and protein-lipid removal filter cartridges (Captiva ND Lipids) provided the best results for GC-MS and LC-MS analysis

  8. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry for Ion Recovery and Clean-Up of MS and MS/MS Spectra Obtained from Low Abundance Viral Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, David J.; Crispin, Max; Bonomelli, Camille; Scrivens, Jim H.

    2015-07-01

    Many samples of complex mixtures of N-glycans released from small amounts of material, such as glycoproteins from viruses, present problems for mass spectrometric analysis because of the presence of contaminating material that is difficult to remove by conventional methods without involving sample loss. This study describes the use of ion mobility for extraction of glycan profiles from such samples and for obtaining clean CID spectra when targeted m/z values capture additional ions from those of the target compound. N-glycans were released enzymatically from within SDS-PAGE gels, from the representative recombinant glycoprotein, gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus, and examined by direct infusion electrospray in negative mode followed by ion mobility with a Waters Synapt G2 mass spectrometer (Waters MS-Technologies, Manchester, UK). Clean profiles of singly, doubly, and triply charged N-glycans were obtained from samples in cases where the raw electrospray spectra displayed only a few glycan ions as the result of low sample concentration or the presence of contamination. Ion mobility also enabled uncontaminated CID spectra to be obtained from glycans when their molecular ions displayed coincidence with ions from fragments or multiply charged ions with similar m/z values. This technique proved to be invaluable for removing extraneous ions from many CID spectra. The presence of such ions often produces spectra that are difficult to interpret. Most CID spectra, even those from abundant glycan constituents, benefited from such clean-up, showing that the extra dimension provided by ion mobility was invaluable for studies of this type.

  9. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry for Ion Recovery and Clean-Up of MS and MS/MS Spectra Obtained from Low Abundance Viral Samples.

    PubMed

    Harvey, David J; Crispin, Max; Bonomelli, Camille; Scrivens, Jim H

    2015-10-01

    Many samples of complex mixtures of N-glycans released from small amounts of material, such as glycoproteins from viruses, present problems for mass spectrometric analysis because of the presence of contaminating material that is difficult to remove by conventional methods without involving sample loss. This study describes the use of ion mobility for extraction of glycan profiles from such samples and for obtaining clean CID spectra when targeted m/z values capture additional ions from those of the target compound. N-glycans were released enzymatically from within SDS-PAGE gels, from the representative recombinant glycoprotein, gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus, and examined by direct infusion electrospray in negative mode followed by ion mobility with a Waters Synapt G2 mass spectrometer (Waters MS-Technologies, Manchester, UK). Clean profiles of singly, doubly, and triply charged N-glycans were obtained from samples in cases where the raw electrospray spectra displayed only a few glycan ions as the result of low sample concentration or the presence of contamination. Ion mobility also enabled uncontaminated CID spectra to be obtained from glycans when their molecular ions displayed coincidence with ions from fragments or multiply charged ions with similar m/z values. This technique proved to be invaluable for removing extraneous ions from many CID spectra. The presence of such ions often produces spectra that are difficult to interpret. Most CID spectra, even those from abundant glycan constituents, benefited from such clean-up, showing that the extra dimension provided by ion mobility was invaluable for studies of this type.

  10. Positive- and negative-ion mass spectrometry of diphenylmethane antihistaminics and their analogues and rapid clean-up of them from biological samples.

    PubMed

    Seno, H; Hattori, H; Kumazawa, T; Suzuki, O

    1993-12-01

    Positive-ion electron impact (PIEI), positive-ion chemical ionization (PICI) and negative-ion chemical ionization (NICI) mass spectra are presented for 15 compounds of diphenylmethane antihistaminics and their analogues, and each fragmentation pathway was analyzed. In the PIEI mode, molecular peaks were very small or missing for most compounds. Peaks at m/z 58, due to a dimethylaminomethyl group liberated, constituted base peaks in five compounds. Peaks at m/z 165 and/or 167, due to diaromatic rings plus a methyl group, appeared in most compounds. In the PICI mode, peaks due to M+H and M+C2H5 appeared in all compounds. Peaks due to diaromatic rings plus a methyl or ethyl group constituted base peaks in five compounds, which had an ether bond in their structures. In the NICI mode, anions at m/z M-H appeared in most compounds. Peaks at m/z 35 were observed for compounds having a chlorine group in their structures. Detection limits for total ion monitoring of these compounds were 20-50 ng on column in the PIEI mode, 100-200 ng in the PICI mode and 500-1000 ng in the NICI mode. A rapid and simple clean-up procedure of these drugs with use of Sep-Pak C18 cartridges is also presented. The drugs could be detected by gas chromatography with DB-1 and DB-17 capillary columns with satisfactory separation from impurities in their underivatized forms. The recovery of the drugs, which had been added to whole blood and urine, was more than 60% except for meclizine. PMID:8307529

  11. Rapid screening method for quinolone residues in livestock and fishery products using immobilised metal chelate affinity chromatographic clean-up and liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Takeda, N; Gotoh, M; Matsuoka, T

    2011-09-01

    An efficient LC method was developed for screening the presence of quinolones (QLs)--comprising fluoroquinolones (FQs) and acidic quinolones (AQs)--residues in various livestock and fishery products. Targeted analytes were for nine FQs of marbofloxacin (MAR), ofloxacin (OFL), norfloxacin (NOR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), enrofloxacin (ENR), danofloxacin (DAN), orbifloxacin (ORB), difloxacin (DIF) and sarafloxacin (SAR), and three AQs of oxolinic acid (OXA), nalidixic acid (NAL) and flumequine (FMQ). Samples comprised ten different food products covering five matrices: muscle (cattle, swine and chicken), liver (chicken), raw fish (shrimp and salmon), egg (chicken), and processed food (ham, sausage and fish sausage). This method involved a simple extraction with (1:1) acetonitrile-methanol, a highly selective clean-up with an immobilised metal chelate affinity column charged with Fe(3+), a fast isocratic LC analysis using a short column (20 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) with a mobile phase of (15:85:0.1) methanol/water/formic acid, and fluorescence detection (excitation/emission wavelengths of 295 nm/455 nm for FQs (495 nm for MAR), and 320 nm/365 nm for AQs). Among FQs, pairs of NOR/OFL, ORB/DIF and ENR/DAN were incompletely resolved. A confirmatory LC run with a Mg(2+) containing methanolic mobile phase was also proposed for the samples suspected of being positive. The optimised method gave satisfactory recoveries of 88.5% (56.1-108.6%) and 78.7% (44.1-99.5%) for intra- and inter-day assays with relative standard deviations of 7.2% (0.7-18.4%) and 6.8% (1.4-16.6%), respectively. Limits of quantitation ranged from 0.8 µg kg(-1) (DAN) to 6.5 µg kg(-1) (SAR). This method was successfully employed to analyse 113 real samples and two positive samples were found: fish sausage (CIP 990 µg kg(-1)) and shrimp (ENR 20 µg kg(-1)).

  12. A method for determining fumonisin B1 in corn using immunoaffinity column clean-up and thin layer chromatography/densitometry.

    PubMed

    Preis, R A; Vargas, E A

    2000-06-01

    A method for determining fumonisin B1 (FB1) in corn was developed and the clean-up optimized in order to give an extract suitable for one-dimensional thin layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis. FB1 was extracted with a solution of methanol:water (80:20, v/v), purified through an immunoaffinity column and separated on a C18 reversed phase TLC plate. The FB1 was visualized with 0.1 mol/l sodium tetraborate, 0.40 mg/ml fluorescamine in acetonitrile and 0.01 mol/l boric acid:acetonitrile (2:3, v/v) for fluorescence detection, and quantified by densitometric analysis. Water, acetonitrile:water (1:1 v/v) and acetonitrile:water (4:1 v/v) were evaluated as TLC solvents for running both standards and samples together with derivatization procedures aimed at improving separation, resolution, sensitivity and linearity. The mean recovery for FB1 for spiked samples was found to be 85% and the linear equation of standard calibration curve by densitometric analysis gave an r2 value higher than 0.99. The maximum coefficient of variation for replicate analysis of spiked samples was 19%. The absolute amount of FB1 standard detectable on a TLC plate was 2 ng, giving a detection limit for the method of 0.1 mg/kg. The method has been shown to be robust in the application of FB1 monitoring in corn (214 samples) collected in different regions of the country. FB1 was detected in 99% of these samples in the range of 0.2 to 6 mg/kg. PMID:10932789

  13. Coupling of acetonitrile deproteinization and salting-out extraction with acetonitrile stacking for biological sample clean-up and the enrichment of hydrophobic compounds (porphyrins) in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Huie, Carmen W

    2006-11-01

    A new sample pretreatment approach in CE was developed for concurrent biological sample clean-up and the concentration of hydrophobic compounds based on the combination of ACN deproteinization with salting-out extraction. Further enhancement in concentration detection sensitivity was achieved by coupling (offline) salting-out extraction with an online CE sample enrichment technique known as "ACN stacking". By optimizing the pH of salting-out extraction, a number of model compounds (hydrophobic porphyrins with clinical significances), i.e. zinc-protoporphyrin, protoporphyrin, and coproporphyrin (CP) III and I, can be efficiently extracted from the aqueous sample into a smaller volume organic solvent (ACN) phase and an enrichment factor of ca. 100 can be obtained. The pressure injection of the enriched ACN phase (containing ca.1% NaCl) into the CE capillary at 10% capillary volume resulted in additional concentration of the various hydrophobic porphyrins, allowing for a combined enrichment factor of ca.1000 to be obtained. Calibration curves obtained for the determination of a pair of positional isomers with significant diagnostic value, urinary CPIII and CPI, were found to be linear between 10-300 ng/mL (with R2 = 0.999), and LODs (absorbance detection at 400 nm) were ca. 0.8 ng/mL (1.1 nmol/L of CPIII or CPI). Based on a single salting-out extraction, intraday precisions (nine consecutive injections) for both CPIII and CPI (at spiked concentrations of 10-300 ng/mL into urine) in terms of migration time and peak area were found to be within the range of 0.2-0.5 and 0.8-2.9%, respectively.

  14. Rapid screening method for quinolone residues in livestock and fishery products using immobilised metal chelate affinity chromatographic clean-up and liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Takeda, N; Gotoh, M; Matsuoka, T

    2011-09-01

    An efficient LC method was developed for screening the presence of quinolones (QLs)--comprising fluoroquinolones (FQs) and acidic quinolones (AQs)--residues in various livestock and fishery products. Targeted analytes were for nine FQs of marbofloxacin (MAR), ofloxacin (OFL), norfloxacin (NOR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), enrofloxacin (ENR), danofloxacin (DAN), orbifloxacin (ORB), difloxacin (DIF) and sarafloxacin (SAR), and three AQs of oxolinic acid (OXA), nalidixic acid (NAL) and flumequine (FMQ). Samples comprised ten different food products covering five matrices: muscle (cattle, swine and chicken), liver (chicken), raw fish (shrimp and salmon), egg (chicken), and processed food (ham, sausage and fish sausage). This method involved a simple extraction with (1:1) acetonitrile-methanol, a highly selective clean-up with an immobilised metal chelate affinity column charged with Fe(3+), a fast isocratic LC analysis using a short column (20 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) with a mobile phase of (15:85:0.1) methanol/water/formic acid, and fluorescence detection (excitation/emission wavelengths of 295 nm/455 nm for FQs (495 nm for MAR), and 320 nm/365 nm for AQs). Among FQs, pairs of NOR/OFL, ORB/DIF and ENR/DAN were incompletely resolved. A confirmatory LC run with a Mg(2+) containing methanolic mobile phase was also proposed for the samples suspected of being positive. The optimised method gave satisfactory recoveries of 88.5% (56.1-108.6%) and 78.7% (44.1-99.5%) for intra- and inter-day assays with relative standard deviations of 7.2% (0.7-18.4%) and 6.8% (1.4-16.6%), respectively. Limits of quantitation ranged from 0.8 µg kg(-1) (DAN) to 6.5 µg kg(-1) (SAR). This method was successfully employed to analyse 113 real samples and two positive samples were found: fish sausage (CIP 990 µg kg(-1)) and shrimp (ENR 20 µg kg(-1)). PMID:21749230

  15. Simultaneous pressurized enzymatic hydrolysis extraction and clean up for arsenic speciation in seafood samples before high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Moscoso-Pérez, Carmen; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2010-10-29

    The feasibility of pressurized conditions to assist enzymatic hydrolysis of seafood tissues for arsenic speciation was novelty studied. A simultaneous in situ (in cell) clean-up procedure was also optimized, which speeds up the whole sample treatment. Arsenic species (As(III), MMA, DMA, As(V), AsB and AsC) were released from dried seafood tissues using pepsin as a protease, and the arsenic species were separated/quantified by anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Variables inherent to the enzymatic activity (pH, temperature and ionic strength), the amount of enzyme (pepsin), and factors affecting pressurization (pressure, static time, number of cycles and amount of dispersing agent, C-18) were fully evaluated. Pressurized assisted enzymatic hydrolysis (PAEH) with pepsin can be finished after few minutes (two cycles of 2 min each one plus 3 min to reach the hydrolysis temperature of 50 °C). A total sample solubilisation is not achieved after the procedure, however it is efficient enough for breaking down certain bonds of bio-molecules and for releasing arsenic species. The developed method has been found to be precise (RSDs lower than 6% for As(III), DMA and As(V); and 3% for AsB) and sensitive (LOQs of 18.1, 36.2, 35.7, 28.6, 20.6 and 22.5 ng/g for As(III), MMA, DMA, As(V), AsB and AsC, respectively). The optimized methodology was successfully applied to different certified reference materials (DORM-2 and BCR 627) which offer certified AsB and DMA contents, and also to different seafood products (mollusks, white fishes and cold water fishes).

  16. Passive extraction and clean-up of phenoxy acid herbicides in samples from a groundwater plume using hollow fiber supported liquid membranes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Fu; Toräng, Lars; Mayer, Philipp; Jönsson, Jan Ake

    2007-08-10

    Hollow fiber supported liquid membranes were applied for the passive extraction of phenoxy acid herbicides from water samples. Polypropylene hollow fiber membranes (240 microm i.d., 30 microm wall thickness, 0.05 microm pore size, 30 cm length) were impregnated with 2.0% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in di-n-hexyl ether in the pores of the fiber wall to form a liquid membrane. They were then filled with basic solution in the lumen as acceptor and finally placed into the sample (donor). Complete extraction of phenoxy acid herbicides including 2,4-D, MCPA, dichlorprop, and mecoprop from an acidified sample (4 mL, adjusted to pH 1.5 with HCl) into basic acceptor (10 microL of 0.2M NaOH) was achieved after 4 h of shaking (100 rpm) resulting in an enrichment factor of 400 times. The acceptor was then neutralized by addition of HCl and injected into a HPLC system for the determination of the phenoxy acid herbicides. Environmentally relevant salinity (0-3.5% NaCl) and dissolved organic matter (0-25 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon) had no significant effect on the extraction. The method provided extraction efficiencies of more than 91%, detection limits of 0.3-0.6 microg/L, and combined extraction and clean up in one single step. This procedure was applied to determine aqueous concentrations of phenoxy acid herbicides in groundwater samples collected from an old dumping site (Cheminova, Denmark) with detected concentrations up to 5800 microg/L. Although the samples were very dirty with large amounts of suspended particles, non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and dissolved organic matters, good spike recoveries (80-126%) were obtained for 10 of the 11 samples.

  17. Preparation and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymer for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate: application to sample clean-up prior to gas chromatographic determination.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Huma; Memon, Najma; Khan, Hamayun; Bhanger, M I; Nizamani, S M

    2012-07-20

    The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) selective for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) an environmental endocrine disruptor was prepared by suspension polymerization using methacrylamide as functional monomer and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide as cross-linker. The imprinted polymer was employed for solid-phase extraction of DEHP from water samples of environmental importance and characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The adsorption properties of the imprinted polymer were demonstrated by equilibrium rebinding experiments, Pseudo-second-order kinetic model, Sips isotherm and Scatchard analysis. The reusability of MIP was checked for at least six repeated batch adsorption cycles and the results showed almost no deterioration in the adsorption capacity. The competitive recognition studies were performed with DEHP and structurally similar compounds; dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The imprinting factor (IF) of DEHP was found to be 12.86 which was much higher than the imprinting factors (IF) of other phthalates. A method constituted by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) with GC-FID was developed for DEHP analysis in water samples under very simple conditions. Sample loading and desorption conditions were also optimized. The MISPE method's linearity ranged from 0.035 to 3.0 μg ml⁻¹ with r² = 0.9998. Intra-assay, interassay precision and accuracy ranged from 0.0168% to 1.017%, 1.130% to 4.799% and 94.98% to 99.35%, respectively. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.011 and 0.035 μg ml⁻¹, respectively. Synthesized MIP was employed in MISPE for cleaning up the spiked river water samples prior to gas chromatographic analysis. The river samples were found to contain DEHP in the range of 1.4 × 10⁻³ to 0.349 μg ml⁻¹. PMID:22673816

  18. 76 FR 70170 - Proposed Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, Colorado Uranium Mill

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Uravan site began operations in 1912 as a radium mill and later expanded operations to include extraction... of radium-226 in soil, found in the Colorado Rules and Regulations Pertaining to Radiation Control, 6... exceeded by more than 5 pCi/g (picocuries per gram) of radium-226 averaged over the first 15...

  19. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  20. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  1. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  2. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  3. 40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of... applicability, see 40 CFR Part 268 Appendix VII. To determine the date any given listed hazardous waste... section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to...

  4. ENGINEERING ISSUE: TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the increased need for Superfund decision-makers to have a working knowledge of the remedial capabilities available to treat soil and sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the Superfund Engineering Forum has identified remediation of PCB-contamin...

  5. EVALUATION OF REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeffner, S. L.; Navratil, J. D.; Torrao, G.; Smalley, R.

    2002-02-25

    Soils contaminated with radionuclides are an environmental concern at most Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Clean up efforts at many of these sites are ongoing using conventional remediation techniques. These remediation techniques are often expensive and may not achieve desired soil volume reduction. Several studies using alternative remediation techniques have been performed on plutonium-contaminated soils from the Nevada Test Site. Results to date exhibit less than encouraging results, but these processes were often not fully optimized, and other approaches are possible. Clemson University and teaming partner Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the National Environmental Technologies Laboratory, are assisting the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in re-evaluating technologies that have the potential of reducing the volume of plutonium contaminated soil. This efforts includes (1) a through literature review and summary of (a) NTS soil characterization and (b) volume reduction treatment technologies applied to plutonium-contaminated NTS soils, (2) an interactive workshop for vendors, representatives from DOE sites and end-users, and (3) bench scale demonstration of applicable vendor technologies at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory.

  6. Determination of pesticide residues in fish tissues by modified QuEChERS method and dual-d-SPE clean-up coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molina-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Cieslik, Ewa; Cieslik, Iwona; Walkowska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to modify the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method for the determination of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in fatty animal matrices such as fish muscle tissues of carp and sturgeon collected from Carp Valley, Lesser Poland. Pesticides extraction effectiveness was evaluated at 0.030 mg kg(-1) spiking level and efficiency of the dispersive-solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up step was evaluated by comparison testing two different d-SPE clean-up stages, first the addition of the d-SPE sorbent combination (PSA + SAX + NH2), and secondly the addition of C18 after extracts enrichment with the d-SPE sorbent combination (PSA + SAX + NH2), introducing a novel concept of clean-up named dual-d-SPE clean-up. Analysis of pesticide residues was performed by Gas Chromatography Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/Q-MS) working in selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Linear relation was observed from 0 to 200 ng mL(-1) and determination coefficient R(2) > 0.997 in all instances for all target analytes. Better recoveries and cleanliness of extracts in both samples, carp and sturgeon tissues, were obtained after C18 addition during the dual-d-SPE clean-up step. Recoveries were in the range 70-120%, with relative standard deviation lower than 10% at 0.030 mg kg(-1) spiking level for most pesticides. LODs ranged 0.001-0.003 mg kg(-1), while LOQs ranged 0.004-0.009 mg kg(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied analyzing pesticide residues in real carp and sturgeon muscle samples; detectable pesticide residues were observed, but in all of the cases contamination level was lower than the default maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union (EU), Regulation (EC) N 396/2005.

  7. Leaching heavy metals from the surface soil of reclaimed tidal flat by alternating seawater inundation and air drying.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shi-Hong; Liu, Zhen-Ling; Li, Qu-Sheng; Yang, Ping; Wang, Li-Li; He, Bao-Yan; Xu, Zhi-Min; Ye, Jin-Shao; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-08-01

    Leaching experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to simulate seawater leaching combined with alternating seawater inundation and air drying. We investigated the heavy metal release of soils caused by changes associated with seawater inundation/air drying cycles in the reclaimed soils. After the treatment, the contents of all heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, and Cu), except Zn, in surface soil significantly decreased (P < 0.05), with removal rates ranging from 10% to 51%. The amounts of the exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, and oxidizable fractions also significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Moreover, prolonged seawater inundation enhanced the release of heavy metals. Measurement of diffusive gradients in thin films indicated that seawater inundation significantly increased the re-mobility of heavy metals. During seawater inundation, iron oxide reduction induced the release of heavy metals in the reducible fraction. Decomposition of organic matter, and complexation with dissolved organic carbon decreased the amount of heavy metals in the oxidizable fraction. Furthermore, complexation of chloride ions and competition of cations during seawater inundation and/or leaching decreased the levels of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction. By contrast, air drying significantly enhanced the concentration of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction. Therefore, the removal of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction can be enhanced during subsequent leaching with seawater.

  8. Leaching heavy metals from the surface soil of reclaimed tidal flat by alternating seawater inundation and air drying.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shi-Hong; Liu, Zhen-Ling; Li, Qu-Sheng; Yang, Ping; Wang, Li-Li; He, Bao-Yan; Xu, Zhi-Min; Ye, Jin-Shao; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-08-01

    Leaching experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to simulate seawater leaching combined with alternating seawater inundation and air drying. We investigated the heavy metal release of soils caused by changes associated with seawater inundation/air drying cycles in the reclaimed soils. After the treatment, the contents of all heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, and Cu), except Zn, in surface soil significantly decreased (P < 0.05), with removal rates ranging from 10% to 51%. The amounts of the exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, and oxidizable fractions also significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Moreover, prolonged seawater inundation enhanced the release of heavy metals. Measurement of diffusive gradients in thin films indicated that seawater inundation significantly increased the re-mobility of heavy metals. During seawater inundation, iron oxide reduction induced the release of heavy metals in the reducible fraction. Decomposition of organic matter, and complexation with dissolved organic carbon decreased the amount of heavy metals in the oxidizable fraction. Furthermore, complexation of chloride ions and competition of cations during seawater inundation and/or leaching decreased the levels of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction. By contrast, air drying significantly enhanced the concentration of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction. Therefore, the removal of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction can be enhanced during subsequent leaching with seawater. PMID:27236846

  9. Development and validation of an alternative to conventional pretreatment methods for residue analysis of butachlor in water, soil, and rice.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jiaying; Jiang, Wenqing; Liu, Fengmao; Zhao, Huiyu; Wang, Suli; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and effective alternative analytical method for residues of butachlor in water, soil, and rice was established. The operating variables affecting performance of this method, including different extraction conditions and cleanup adsorbents, were evaluated. The determination of butachlor residues in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice was performed using GC/MS after extraction with n-hexane and cleanup with graphite carbon black. The average recoveries ranged from 81.5 to 102.7%, with RSDs of 0.6-7.7% for all of the matrixes investigated. The limits of quantitation were 0.05 mg/kg in water and rice plant, and 0.01 mg/kg in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice. A comparison among this proposed method, the conventional liquid-liquid extraction, the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe method, and Soxhlet extraction indicated that this method was more suitable for analyzing butachlor in rice samples. The further validation of the proposed method was carried out by Soxhlet extraction for the determination of butachlor residues in the husked rice samples, and the residue results showed there was no obvious difference obtained from these two methods. Samples from a rice field were found to contain butachlor residues below the maximum residue limits set by China (0.5 mg/kg) and Japan (0.1 mg/kg). The proposed method has a strong potential for application in routine screening and processing of large numbers of samples. This study developed a more effective alternative to the conventional analytical methods for analyzing butachlor residues in various matrixes.

  10. “Trees Live on Soil and Sunshine!”- Coexistence of Scientific and Alternative Conception of Tree Assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, Simon; Bogner, Franz Xaver

    2016-01-01

    Successful learning is the integration of new knowledge into existing schemes, leading to an integrated and correct scientific conception. By contrast, the co-existence of scientific and alternative conceptions may indicate a fragmented knowledge profile. Every learner is unique and thus carries an individual set of preconceptions before classroom engagement due to prior experiences. Hence, instructors and teachers have to consider the heterogeneous knowledge profiles of their class when teaching. However, determinants of fragmented knowledge profiles are not well understood yet, which may hamper a development of adapted teaching schemes. We used a questionnaire-based approach to assess conceptual knowledge of tree assimilation and wood synthesis surveying 885 students of four educational levels: 6th graders, 10th graders, natural science freshmen and other academic studies freshmen. We analysed the influence of learner’s characteristics such as educational level, age and sex on the coexistence of scientific and alternative conceptions. Within all subsamples well-known alternative conceptions regarding tree assimilation and wood synthesis coexisted with correct scientific ones. For example, students describe trees to be living on “soil and sunshine”, representing scientific knowledge of photosynthesis mingled with an alternative conception of trees eating like animals. Fragmented knowledge profiles occurred in all subsamples, but our models showed that improved education and age foster knowledge integration. Sex had almost no influence on the existing scientific conceptions and evolution of knowledge integration. Consequently, complex biological issues such as tree assimilation and wood synthesis need specific support e.g. through repeated learning units in class- and seminar-rooms in order to help especially young students to handle and overcome common alternative conceptions and appropriately integrate scientific conceptions into their knowledge profile

  11. Soil, Water, and Greenhouse-gas Impacts of Alternative Biomass Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte Moore, L. A.; Bach, E.; Cambardella, C.; Hargreaves, S.; Helmers, M.; Hofmockel, K.; Isenhart, T.; Kolka, R. K.; Ontl, T.; Welsh, W.; Williams, R.; Landscape Biomass Team

    2010-12-01

    Through the 2008 Energy Independence and Security Act and other state and federal mandates, the U.S. is embarking on an aggressive agenda to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. While grain-derived ethanol will be used to largely meet initial renewable fuels targets, advanced biofuels derived from lignocellulosic materials are expected to comprise a growing proportion of the renewable energy portfolio and provide a more sustainable solution. As part of our interdisciplinary research, we are assessing the environmental impacts of four lignocellulosic biomass cropping systems and comparing them to a conventional corn cropping system. This comparison is conducted using a randomized, replicated experiment initiated in fall 2008, which compares the five cropping systems across a toposequence (i.e., floodplain, toeslope, backslope, shoulder, summit). In addition to assessing herbaceous and woody biomass yields, we are evaluating the environmental performance of these systems through changes in water quality, greenhouse-gas emissions, and carbon pools. Initial results document baseline soil parameters, including the capacity of the soils to sequester carbon across the toposequence, and the impacts of landscape heterogeneity and cropping system on soil moisture and nitrate-nitrogen levels in the vadose zone. Additional results on greenhouse-gas emissions and carbon dynamics are forthcoming from this year’s field research. The fuller understanding of the environmental performance of these systems will help inform federal and state policies seeking to incentivize the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry.

  12. Bioremediation assessment of diesel-biodiesel-contaminated soil using an alternative bioaugmentation strategy.

    PubMed

    Colla, Tatiana Simonetto; Andreazza, Robson; Bücker, Francielle; de Souza, Marcela Moreira; Tramontini, Letícia; Prado, Gerônimo Rodrigues; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira; Bento, Fátima Menezes

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of successive bioaugmentation, conventional bioaugmentation, and biostimulation of biodegradation of B10 in soil. In addition, the structure of the soil microbial community was assessed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The consortium was inoculated on the initial and the 11th day of incubation for successive bioaugmentation and only on the initial day for bioaugmentation and conventional bioaugmentation. The experiment was conducted for 32 days. The microbial consortium was identified based on sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and consisted as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Ochrobactrum intermedium. Nutrient introduction (biostimulation) promoted a positive effect on microbial populations. The results indicate that the edaphic community structure and dynamics were different according to the treatments employed. CO2 evolution demonstrated no significant difference in soil microbial activity between biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis indicated a biodegradation level of 35.7 and 32.2 % for the biostimulation and successive bioaugmentation treatments, respectively. Successive bioaugmentation displayed positive effects on biodegradation, with a substantial reduction in TPH levels.

  13. Changes in root architecture under elevated concentrations of CO₂ and nitrogen reflect alternate soil exploration strategies.

    PubMed

    Beidler, Katilyn V; Taylor, Benton N; Strand, Allan E; Cooper, Emily R; Schönholz, Marcos; Pritchard, Seth G

    2015-02-01

    Predicting the response of fine roots to increased atmospheric CO₂ concentration has important implications for carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Root architecture is known to play an important role in how trees acquire soil resources in changing environments. However, the effects of elevated CO₂ on the fine-root architecture of trees remain unclear. We investigated the architectural response of fine roots exposed to 14 yr of CO₂ enrichment and 6 yr of nitrogen (N) fertilization in a Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) forest. Root traits reflecting geometry, topology and uptake function were measured on intact fine-root branches removed from soil monoliths and the litter layer. CO₂ enrichment resulted in the development of a fine-root pool that was less dichotomous and more exploratory under N-limited conditions. The per cent mycorrhizal colonization did not differ among treatments, suggesting that root growth and acclimation to elevated CO₂ were quantitatively more important than increased mycorrhizal associations. Our findings emphasize the importance of architectural plasticity in response to environmental change and suggest that changes in root architecture may allow trees to effectively exploit larger volumes of soil, thereby pre-empting progressive nutrient limitations.

  14. Comparison of Soil Respiration in Typical Conventional and New Alternative Cereal Cropping Systems on the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bing; Ju, Xiaotang; Su, Fang; Gao, Fengbin; Cao, Qingsen; Oenema, Oene; Christie, Peter; Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-01-01

    We monitored soil respiration (Rs), soil temperature (T) and volumetric water content (VWC%) over four years in one typical conventional and four alternative cropping systems to understand Rs in different cropping systems with their respective management practices and environmental conditions. The control was conventional double-cropping system (winter wheat and summer maize in one year - Con.W/M). Four alternative cropping systems were designed with optimum water and N management, i.e. optimized winter wheat and summer maize (Opt.W/M), three harvests every two years (first year, winter wheat and summer maize or soybean; second year, fallow then spring maize - W/M-M and W/S-M), and single spring maize per year (M). Our results show that Rs responded mainly to the seasonal variation in T but was also greatly affected by straw return, root growth and soil moisture changes under different cropping systems. The mean seasonal CO2 emissions in Con.W/M were 16.8 and 15.1 Mg CO2 ha−1 for summer maize and winter wheat, respectively, without straw return. They increased significantly by 26 and 35% in Opt.W/M, respectively, with straw return. Under the new alternative cropping systems with straw return, W/M-M showed similar Rs to Opt.W/M, but total CO2 emissions of W/S-M decreased sharply relative to Opt.W/M when soybean was planted to replace summer maize. Total CO2 emissions expressed as the complete rotation cycles of W/S-M, Con.W/M and M treatments were not significantly different. Seasonal CO2 emissions were significantly correlated with the sum of carbon inputs of straw return from the previous season and the aboveground biomass in the current season, which explained 60% of seasonal CO2 emissions. T and VWC% explained up to 65% of Rs using the exponential-power and double exponential models, and the impacts of tillage and straw return must therefore be considered for accurate modeling of Rs in this geographical region. PMID:24278340

  15. Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils: Phase I report: Development of alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Oma, K.H.; Perez, J.M. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    This engineering evaluation was conducted to evaluate vitrification technologies for remediation of raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. Two technologies were evaluated: in situ vitrification (ISV) and the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM). Both technologies would be effective at the Weldon Spring site. For ISV, there are two processing options for each type of waste: vitrify the waste in place, or move the waste to a staging area and then vitrify. The total time required to vitrify raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soil is estimated at 5 to 6 years, with operating costs of $65.7M for staged operations or $110M for in-place treatment. This estimate does not include costs for excavation and transportation of wastes to the staging location. Additional tests are recommended to provide a more in-depth evaluation of the processing options and costs. For the JHCM process, about 6.5 years would be required to vitrify the three waste types. Total operating costs are estimated to be $73M if the glass is produced in granular form, and $97M if the glass is cast into canisters. Costs for the excavation and transportation of wastes are beyond the scope of this study and are not included in the estimates. Additional tests are also recommended to better define technical issues and costs. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Evaluating the relative contribution of methane oxidation to methane emissions from young floodplain soils under Alternative Irrigation Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierreux, Sofie; Verhoeven, Elizabeth; Akter, Masuda; Sleutel, Steven; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Romani, Marco; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    To keep the pace with a yearly growing demand for rice by 1-2%, future rice production must come primarily from high yielding irrigated rice, putting a pressure on fresh water reserves. In this context, water saving Alternative Irrigation Management (AIM) is progressively applied worldwide. By introducing repeated or mid-seasonal drainage, AIM suppresses emission of CH4, otherwise prevalent in continuously flooded rice. However, little is known about the effect of AIM on the balance of CH4 genesis and oxidation in paddy soils. We studied relevant soil parameters and CH4 emissions in continuously flooded (CF) and alternately wetted and dried (AWD) rice paddies. During a field campaign at the Castello d'Agogna experimental station (Pavia, Italy), we measured in situ CH4 oxidation and emission rates using the closed gas chamber technique with or without application of CH2F2 as a selective inhibitor of CH4 oxidation. In addition, we determined potential CH4 oxidation rates using incubated soil slurries originating from the same experimental plots. The dataset was supplemented with depth differentiated monitoring of redox potential, temperature, moisture content and soil solution parameters (DOC, Fe2+, Mn3+, mineral N and dissolved CH4). Peaks in dissolved CH4 manifested at 5 and 12.5cm depth, with much lower and equal levels at 25, 50 and 80cm depth. Also depth distributions of dissolved Fe and Mn followed this pattern, indicating that methanogenic activity was primarily confounded to the topsoil. Seasonal CH4 emissions were about halved by AWD compared to CF management. After a fast decline of in situ oxidation within the AWD treatment at the beginning of the season, CH4 oxidation percentages in CF and AWD increased until the booting stage (67DAS), reaching peak values of 83% and 69% of produced CH4, respectively. CH4 oxidation thereafter gradually declined to nearly 50% in both treatments after the final drainage (103 DAS). Seasonal trends of potential CH4 oxidation

  17. Determination of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in wheat and barley using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: on-line clean-up versus conventional sample preparation techniques.

    PubMed

    Nathanail, Alexis V; Sarikaya, Ebru; Jestoi, Marika; Godula, Michal; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2014-12-29

    In this study, we compared the performance of conventional sample preparation techniques used in mycotoxin analyses against automated on-line sample clean-up for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its conjugated derivative, deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-glucoside (D3G), in cereal grains. Blank wheat and barley samples were spiked with DON and D3G, extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile:water (84:16, v/v) and processed by one of the following: extract and shoot, MycoSep(®) 227 clean-up columns, MycoSep 227 with an additional acetonitrile elution step and centrifugal filtration, followed by analysis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Based on method performance characteristics and poor recoveries (<30%) obtained for the polar D3G with some techniques, the extract and shoot approach was chosen for the inter-laboratory method comparison study. Thus, the same spiked samples were analysed in parallel by another laboratory with an in-house validated on-line sample clean-up method, utilising TurboFlow™ chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Method validation was performed by determination of specificity, linearity, recovery, intra-day precision and the limits of detection and quantification. Matrix-matched linearity (R(2)>0.985) was established in the range of 100-1600 and 20-320μg/kg for DON and D3G, respectively. Average recoveries (%RSD) were acceptable with both methods for wheat and barley, ranging between 73% and 102% (3-12%) for DON and 72% and 98% (1-10%) for D3G. The benefit of using automated sample clean-up in comparison to extract and shoot is the ability to inject directly pure extracts into the mass spectrometer, offering faster analyses and improved sensitivity with minimum system maintenance.

  18. The use of immunoaffinity columns connected in tandem for selective and cost-effective mycotoxin clean-up prior to multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis in food matrices.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Joyce; Donnelly, Carol; Leeman, David; Marley, Elaine

    2015-06-26

    This paper describes the use of two immunoaffinity columns (IACs) coupled in tandem, providing selective clean-up, based on targeted mycotoxins known to co-occur in specific matrices. An IAC for aflatoxins+ochratoxin A+fumonisins (AOF) was combined with an IAC for deoxynivalenol+zearalenone+T-2/HT-2 toxins (DZT); an IAC for ochratoxin A (O) was combined with a DZT column; and an aflatoxin+ochratoxin (AO) column was combined with a DZT column. By combining pairs of columns it was demonstrated that specific clean-up can be achieved as required for different matrices. Samples of rye flour, maize, breakfast cereal and wholemeal bread were analysed for mycotoxins regulated in the EU, by spiking at levels close to EU limits for adult and infant foods. After IAC clean-up extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS with quantification using multiple reaction monitoring. Recoveries were found to be in range from 60 to 108%, RSDs below 10% depending on the matrix and mycotoxin combination and LOQs ranged from 0.1n g/g for aflatoxin B1 to 13.0 ng/g for deoxynivalenol. Surplus cereal proficiency test materials (FAPAS(®)) were also analysed with found levels of mycotoxins falling within the satisfactory range of concentrations (Z score ≤ ± 2), demonstrating the accuracy of the proposed multi-mycotoxin IAC methods. PMID:25990350

  19. Application of ion-exchange cartridge clean-up in food analysis. V. Simultaneous determination of sulphonamide antibacterials in animal liver and kidney using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Ito, Y; Oka, H; Ikai, Y; Matsumoto, H; Miyazaki, Y; Nagase, H

    2000-11-10

    A simple, rapid, and reliable method for the determination of residual sulphonamide antibacterials (SAs) (sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfadimidine, sulfamethoxypiridazine, sulfisozole, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfadimethoxine, and sulfaquinoxaline) in animal liver and kidney was developed using a combination of clean-up on a Bond Elut PSA cartridge and HPLC with UV detection. The SAs were extracted with ethyl acetate and then dissolved in 5 ml of 50 v/v% ethyl acetate-n-hexane after being evaporated to dryness. For clean-up of the crude sample, the resuspended extract was applied to a Bond Elut PAS (primary/secondary amine cartridge), and then SAs were eluted from the cartridge using 5 ml of 20 v/v% acetonitrile-0.05 M ammonium formate before being analysed by HPLC. Recoveries of the SAs at the levels of 0.5 and 0.1 microg/g were 70.8-98.2%, the rerative standard deviation were less than 7.0%, and the detection limits were 0.03 microg/g. The present analysis method of SAs in animal kidney and liver using HPLC with a clean-up procedure was demonstrated to be highly applicable to the direct LC-MS-MS analysis without any modification. PMID:11185627

  20. Analysis of neuropeptide Y and its metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and integrated sample clean-up with a novel restricted-access sulphonic acid cation exchanger.

    PubMed

    Racaityte, K; Lutz ESM; Unger, K K; Lubda, D; Boos, K S

    2000-08-18

    A novel restricted access cation exchanger with sulphonic acid groups at the internal surface was proven to be highly suitable in the sample clean up of peptides on-line coupled to HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and several of its fragments in plasma were subjected to the sample clean-up procedure. The peptides were eluted by a step gradient from the restricted access column, applying 10 mM phosphate buffer pH 3.5 from 5 to 20% (v/v) of acetonitrile with 1 M NaCl and transferred to a Micra ODS II column (33x4.6 mm). The separation of the peptides and their fragments was performed by a linear gradient from 20 to 60% (v/v) acetonitrile in water with 0.1% formic acid and 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid in 4 min at a flow-rate of 0.75 ml/min. An integrated and completely automated system composed of sample clean up-HPLC-ESI-MS was used to analyze real life samples. The sample volumes ranged between 20 and 100 microl. Peaks due to the fragments NPY 1-36, 3-36 and 13-36 in porcine plasma were identified by ESI-MS. The limit of detection was in the 5 nmol/ml range. The total analysis required 21 min and allowed the direct injection of plasma.

  1. Evaluation of lead toxicity in Erica andevalensis as an alternative species for revegetation of contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Mingorance, M D; Leidi, E O; Valdés, B; Rossini Oliva, S

    2012-02-01

    Although revegetation using native flora is a low cost way to stabilize soil and restore the landscape contaminated with metals, little is known regarding the Pb-tolerance of many of these species. For this purpose, we evaluated the tolerance of Erica andevalensis to Pb by growing plants in nutrient solutions with increasing concentrations of Pb (up to 100 microM). Plant growth and different physiological parameters were determined to ascertain tolerance to metal stress. Additionally, an electron microscopy study coupled with EDX-analysis was performed to get clues on the Pb uptake and translocation from roots into stem and leaves. The LOEC (the lowest observed effect concentration) of Pb was 40 microM while the IC50 (inhibition concentration) was 80 microM Pb. Chemical analysis revealed a root > stem > leaf accumulation pattern. There was a severe reduction in fresh biomass and chlorophyll concentration at the highest Pb dose. The SEM-EDX study indicated that Pb was mostly located in root epidermal tissues. The blockage of Pb on the root probably avoided its toxic effects by limiting Pb transport to other tissues.

  2. Continuous measurement of viscous magnetization decay: an alternative tool in magnetic granulometry of sediments and soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadima, M.

    2013-12-01

    The ultra-fine magnetic grains in sediments and soils usually span across the superparamagnetic/stable single domain (SP/SSD) boundary. The SP grains carry no remanent magnetization but possess a very high magnetic susceptibility. While the SSD grains carry a very stable magnetic remanence, the magnetization of the grains just around the SP/SSD boundary is highly viscous. The presence of the SP magnetic particles has been traditionally investigated using the in-phase magnetic susceptibility measured in several operating frequencies. In addition, it has been suggested that the out-of-phase susceptibility measured on a single frequency can provide us with comparable results since there is a direct relationship between the frequency-dependent in-phase susceptibility and the out-of-phase susceptibility. Assuming a broad distribution of the ultra-fine magnetic particles spanning across the SP/SSD boundary we suggest to assess their presence using the continuous measurement of the decay of viscous magnetization. For that purpose we use a newly-developed Agico pulse magnetizer coupled with a JR6 spinner magnetometer which allows the automatic repeated measurements of magnetic remanence. Since both instruments are controlled from the same computer, the exact time of DC pulse termination is known and used as a zero time for evaluation of time-dependent viscous decay. Magnetic remanence is then measured repeatedly as a function of time for about five minutes. Exponential decay curve is fitted on the acquired data and the relative ratio of viscous and non-viscous grains is estimated. Our method is tested on the loess/paleosol samples from the European loess belt. The relative amount of the ultra-fine grains assessed by the suggested viscous decay method can be very well correlated with the results obtained from the frequency-dependent and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements.

  3. Weeds ability to phytoremediate cadmium-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Hossein; Parsa, Mehdi; Mohassel, Mohammad Hassan Rashed; Rahimi, Salman; Mijani, Sajad

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method to other technologies to clean up the soil, air and water pollution by heavy metals is phytoremediation. Therefore, a pot culture experiment was conducted at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran, in 2014 to determine the potential absorption of cadmium by Portulaca oleracea (Common purslane), Solanum nigrum (Black nightshade), Abutilon theophrasti (Velvetleaf) and Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion). The type of experiment was completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and four replications. The soil in pot was treated with different rates of CdCl2.H2O (0 (control), 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg Cd/kg soil) and the plants were sown. With increasing concentration levels, fresh weight and dry weight of shoots and roots of all plant species were reduced. The reduction severity was ranked according the following order, P. oleracea > A. theophrasti > S. nigrum > T. officinale. Bioconcentration factor (BCF), Translocation factor (TF) and Translocation efficiency (TE%) was ranked according the following order, T. officinale > S. nigrum > A. theophrasti > P. oleracea. The results of this study revealed that T. officinale and S. nigrum are effective species to phytoremediate Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:26125671

  4. Extraction of pesticides from contaminated soil using supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, G.B.

    1991-12-31

    The demand for processes to clean up contaminated soils without generating additional contaminants, such as hazardous solvents, is increasing. One approach to minimizing this problem is to use supercritical fluids like light hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} to extract contaminants from soils. Gases exhibit unique properties under supercritical conditions. They retain the ability to diffuse through the interstitial spaces of solid materials, plus they have the solvating power of liquids. Some examples of extractions using SCFs are caffeine from coffee, cholesterol from eggs, drugs from plants, and nicotine from tobacco. Supercritical CO{sub 2} is an attractive, alternative extraction medium for removal of pesticides from soils. Carbon dioxide is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and if recycled, nonpolluting. Contaminants may be easily recovered by evaporating the CO{sub 2} into an expansion vessel. Supercritical fluid extraction technology is discussed and results are given for the extraction of atrazine, bentazon, alachlor, and permethrin from contaminated soil prepared in the laboratory. Initial studies show >95% removal for these pesticides.

  5. Extraction of pesticides from contaminated soil using supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    The demand for processes to clean up contaminated soils without generating additional contaminants, such as hazardous solvents, is increasing. One approach to minimizing this problem is to use supercritical fluids like light hydrocarbons and CO[sub 2] to extract contaminants from soils. Gases exhibit unique properties under supercritical conditions. They retain the ability to diffuse through the interstitial spaces of solid materials, plus they have the solvating power of liquids. Some examples of extractions using SCFs are caffeine from coffee, cholesterol from eggs, drugs from plants, and nicotine from tobacco. Supercritical CO[sub 2] is an attractive, alternative extraction medium for removal of pesticides from soils. Carbon dioxide is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and if recycled, nonpolluting. Contaminants may be easily recovered by evaporating the CO[sub 2] into an expansion vessel. Supercritical fluid extraction technology is discussed and results are given for the extraction of atrazine, bentazon, alachlor, and permethrin from contaminated soil prepared in the laboratory. Initial studies show >95% removal for these pesticides.

  6. Weeds ability to phytoremediate cadmium-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Hossein; Parsa, Mehdi; Mohassel, Mohammad Hassan Rashed; Rahimi, Salman; Mijani, Sajad

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method to other technologies to clean up the soil, air and water pollution by heavy metals is phytoremediation. Therefore, a pot culture experiment was conducted at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran, in 2014 to determine the potential absorption of cadmium by Portulaca oleracea (Common purslane), Solanum nigrum (Black nightshade), Abutilon theophrasti (Velvetleaf) and Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion). The type of experiment was completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and four replications. The soil in pot was treated with different rates of CdCl2.H2O (0 (control), 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg Cd/kg soil) and the plants were sown. With increasing concentration levels, fresh weight and dry weight of shoots and roots of all plant species were reduced. The reduction severity was ranked according the following order, P. oleracea > A. theophrasti > S. nigrum > T. officinale. Bioconcentration factor (BCF), Translocation factor (TF) and Translocation efficiency (TE%) was ranked according the following order, T. officinale > S. nigrum > A. theophrasti > P. oleracea. The results of this study revealed that T. officinale and S. nigrum are effective species to phytoremediate Cd-contaminated soil.

  7. Use of combined air sparging and soil vacuum extraction (AS/SVE) and groundwater recovery and treatment as remedial alternatives for dissolved DNAPL recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sturdivant, R. Jr.; Fulton, G.A. Jr.; Bains, F.E.

    1995-10-01

    Corrective action has been implemented to address a dissolved dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) plume in the vicinity of a former waste impoundment at the Paxon Polymer Company facility, located north of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Assessment activities focused on the characterization of the geologic and hydrologic properties of the sediments underlying the area of investigation and the impact of the dissolved DNAPL plume to the soils and groundwater. Geologic characterization revealed that the facility is underlain by Quaternary age sediments consisting of mixtures of fine-grained sands, silt, and clay. Two hydrologic units were identified within the shallow sediments which are referred to as the Upper Permeable Zone and Second Permeable Zone. The investigation focused on the impacted soils and groundwater of the Upper and Second Permeable Zones. The Upper and Second Permeable Zones were characterized hydrologically to determine the most applicable remedial alternative for addressing the dissolved DNAPL plume. Pilot tests consisting of soil vacuum extraction (SVE), combined air sparging with SVE (AS/SVE), and groundwater recovery were performed. Evaluation of these remedial technology alternatives resulted in the selection of the combined AS/SVE system alternative for the Upper Permeable Zone and the groundwater recovery alternative for the Second Permeable Zone. Recovered off-gas from the combined AS/SVE treatment system from the Upper Permeable Zone is treated through use of a granular activated carbon unit, while recovered groundwater form the Second Permeable Zone is treated by use of a low-profile air stripper.

  8. Combining the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe approach and clean-up by immunoaffinity column for the analysis of 15 mycotoxins by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Tessiot, Sabine; Bessaire, Thomas; Racault, Lucie; Fiorese, Elisa; Urbani, Alessandro; Chan, Wai-Chinn; Cheng, Pearly; Mottier, Pascal

    2014-04-11

    Optimization and validation of a multi-mycotoxin method by LC-MS/MS is presented. The method covers the EU-regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2), as well as nivalenol and 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol for analysis of cereals, cocoa, oil, spices, infant formula, coffee and nuts. The proposed procedure combines two clean-up strategies: First, a generic preparation suitable for all mycotoxins based on the QuEChERS (for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) protocol. Second, a specific clean-up devoted to aflatoxins and ochratoxin A using immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up. Positive identification of mycotoxins in matrix was conducted according to the confirmation criteria defined in EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC while quantification was performed by isotopic dilution using (13)C-labeled mycotoxins as internal standards. Limits of quantification were at or below the maximum levels set in the EC/1886/2006 document for all mycotoxin/matrix combinations under regulation. In particular, the inclusion of an IAC step allowed achieving LOQs as low as 0.05 and 0.25μg/kg in cereals for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Other performance parameters like linearity [(r)(2)>0.99], recovery [71-118%], precision [(RSDr and RSDiR)<33%], and trueness [78-117%] were all compliant with the analytical requirements stipulated in the CEN/TR/16059 document. Method ruggedness was proved by a verification process conducted by another laboratory. PMID:24636559

  9. Combining the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe approach and clean-up by immunoaffinity column for the analysis of 15 mycotoxins by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Tessiot, Sabine; Bessaire, Thomas; Racault, Lucie; Fiorese, Elisa; Urbani, Alessandro; Chan, Wai-Chinn; Cheng, Pearly; Mottier, Pascal

    2014-04-11

    Optimization and validation of a multi-mycotoxin method by LC-MS/MS is presented. The method covers the EU-regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2), as well as nivalenol and 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol for analysis of cereals, cocoa, oil, spices, infant formula, coffee and nuts. The proposed procedure combines two clean-up strategies: First, a generic preparation suitable for all mycotoxins based on the QuEChERS (for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) protocol. Second, a specific clean-up devoted to aflatoxins and ochratoxin A using immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up. Positive identification of mycotoxins in matrix was conducted according to the confirmation criteria defined in EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC while quantification was performed by isotopic dilution using (13)C-labeled mycotoxins as internal standards. Limits of quantification were at or below the maximum levels set in the EC/1886/2006 document for all mycotoxin/matrix combinations under regulation. In particular, the inclusion of an IAC step allowed achieving LOQs as low as 0.05 and 0.25μg/kg in cereals for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Other performance parameters like linearity [(r)(2)>0.99], recovery [71-118%], precision [(RSDr and RSDiR)<33%], and trueness [78-117%] were all compliant with the analytical requirements stipulated in the CEN/TR/16059 document. Method ruggedness was proved by a verification process conducted by another laboratory.

  10. New method for the determination of parabens and bisphenol A in human milk samples using ultrasound-assisted extraction and clean-up with dispersive sorbents prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Dorival-García, N; Zafra-Gómez, A; Camino-Sánchez, F J; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A

    2015-06-15

    A sensitive and accurate analytical method for the determination of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben and bisphenol A in human milk samples has been developed and validated. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and a simplified and rapid clean-up technique that uses sorbent materials has been successfully applied for the preparation of samples prior to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The analytes were extracted from freeze-dried human milk samples using acetonitrile and ultrasonic radiation (three 15-min cycles at 70% amplitude), and further cleaned-up with C18 sorbents. The most influential parameters affecting the UAE method and the clean-up steps were optimized using design of experiments. Negative electrospray ionization (ESI) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was used for MS detection. The use of two reactions for each compound allowed simultaneous quantification and identification in one run. The analytes were separated in less than 10min. Deuterium-labeled ethylparaben-d5 (EPB-d5) and deuterium-labeled bisphenol A-d16 (BPA-d16) were used as surrogates. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.4 to 0.7ngmL(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 11.1% in all cases. In the absence of certified reference materials, recovery assays with spiked samples using matrix-matched calibration were used to validate the method. Recovery rates ranged from 93.8% to 112.2%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of four selected parabens and bisphenol A in human milk samples obtained from nursing mothers living in the province of Granada (Spain). PMID:25942557

  11. New method for the determination of parabens and bisphenol A in human milk samples using ultrasound-assisted extraction and clean-up with dispersive sorbents prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Dorival-García, N; Zafra-Gómez, A; Camino-Sánchez, F J; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A

    2015-06-15

    A sensitive and accurate analytical method for the determination of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben and bisphenol A in human milk samples has been developed and validated. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and a simplified and rapid clean-up technique that uses sorbent materials has been successfully applied for the preparation of samples prior to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The analytes were extracted from freeze-dried human milk samples using acetonitrile and ultrasonic radiation (three 15-min cycles at 70% amplitude), and further cleaned-up with C18 sorbents. The most influential parameters affecting the UAE method and the clean-up steps were optimized using design of experiments. Negative electrospray ionization (ESI) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was used for MS detection. The use of two reactions for each compound allowed simultaneous quantification and identification in one run. The analytes were separated in less than 10min. Deuterium-labeled ethylparaben-d5 (EPB-d5) and deuterium-labeled bisphenol A-d16 (BPA-d16) were used as surrogates. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.4 to 0.7ngmL(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 11.1% in all cases. In the absence of certified reference materials, recovery assays with spiked samples using matrix-matched calibration were used to validate the method. Recovery rates ranged from 93.8% to 112.2%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of four selected parabens and bisphenol A in human milk samples obtained from nursing mothers living in the province of Granada (Spain).

  12. From a Mere Clean-up Contract to Changing Lives - Engaging the Local Stakeholders during the Remediation of Christmas Island, Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Steadman, J.P.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the work undertaken by Safety and Ecology Corporation Ltd (SEC) on Kiritimati, formerly known as Christmas Island. The discussion describes the project growing from merely removing the remains of the nuclear testing, to appreciating the sensitivities of its economic impact on the island and developing a programme of redevelopment and community involvement. The remediation work has had a number of positive effects on the island, notably upgrading the infrastructure and removing more than 23,000 cubic meters of waste material, primarily metal scrap in the form of vehicles, in addition to spent batteries, extensive areas of tar contaminated soils and radioactive luminous vehicle dials. (authors)

  13. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE MOST PROMISING ALTERNATIVES TO USING GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TO TREAT 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER AND 200-PW-1 SOIL VAPOR

    SciTech Connect

    BYRNES ME, KALMAR JA

    2007-11-26

    This document presents a detailed evaluation of selected alternative treatment options to granular activated carbon (GAC) for removing carbon tetrachloride generated from the groundwater pump-and-treat system at the 200-ZP-I Operable Unit (OU) in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation of alternative treatment options to GAC is also applicable to the vadose zone soil vapor extraction (SVE) system at the 200-PW-l OU, which is also located in the Hanford Site's 200 West Area.

  14. QuEChERS-based extraction with dispersive solid phase extraction clean-up using PSA and ZrO2-based sorbents for determination of pesticides in bovine milk samples by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Rejczak, Tomasz; Tuzimski, Tomasz

    2017-02-15

    In this study, a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction technique was adapted to develop a simple sample treatment for multi-residue pesticide analysis in milk samples. The proposed method is based on liquid-liquid partitioning with acetonitrile followed by dispersive solid phase extraction clean-up using primary secondary amine along with zirconia-coated silica particles for extract purification. Identification and quantification of 30 pesticides was conducted via high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Recoveries were from 70 to 100% for the vast majority of the analytes, with relative standard deviations less than 20% being observed. HPLC-DAD provided suitable linearity, precision and accuracy. For 28 of 30 analytes in the study method limit of quantification values (mLOQs) comply with the most recent European Union guidelines for the maximum residue levels (MRLs) in milk. Negligible matrix effect was observed due to efficient extract clean-up with ZrO2-based sorbents.

  15. QuEChERS-based extraction with dispersive solid phase extraction clean-up using PSA and ZrO2-based sorbents for determination of pesticides in bovine milk samples by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Rejczak, Tomasz; Tuzimski, Tomasz

    2017-02-15

    In this study, a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction technique was adapted to develop a simple sample treatment for multi-residue pesticide analysis in milk samples. The proposed method is based on liquid-liquid partitioning with acetonitrile followed by dispersive solid phase extraction clean-up using primary secondary amine along with zirconia-coated silica particles for extract purification. Identification and quantification of 30 pesticides was conducted via high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Recoveries were from 70 to 100% for the vast majority of the analytes, with relative standard deviations less than 20% being observed. HPLC-DAD provided suitable linearity, precision and accuracy. For 28 of 30 analytes in the study method limit of quantification values (mLOQs) comply with the most recent European Union guidelines for the maximum residue levels (MRLs) in milk. Negligible matrix effect was observed due to efficient extract clean-up with ZrO2-based sorbents. PMID:27664630

  16. A review of molecular-clock calibrations and substitution rates in liverworts, mosses, and hornworts, and a timeframe for a taxonomically cleaned-up genus Nothoceros.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Renner, Susanne S

    2014-09-01

    Absolute times from calibrated DNA phylogenies can be used to infer lineage diversification, the origin of new ecological niches, or the role of long distance dispersal in shaping current distribution patterns. Molecular-clock dating of non-vascular plants, however, has lagged behind flowering plant and animal dating. Here, we review dating studies that have focused on bryophytes with several goals in mind, (i) to facilitate cross-validation by comparing rates and times obtained so far; (ii) to summarize rates that have yielded plausible results and that could be used in future studies; and (iii) to calibrate a species-level phylogeny for Nothoceros, a model for plastid genome evolution in hornworts. Including the present work, there have been 18 molecular clock studies of liverworts, mosses, or hornworts, the majority with fossil calibrations, a few with geological calibrations or dated with previously published plastid substitution rates. Over half the studies cross-validated inferred divergence times by using alternative calibration approaches. Plastid substitution rates inferred for "bryophytes" are in line with those found in angiosperm studies, implying that bryophyte clock models can be calibrated either with published substitution rates or with fossils, with the two approaches testing and cross-validating each other. Our phylogeny of Nothoceros is based on 44 accessions representing all suspected species and a matrix of six markers of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA. The results show that Nothoceros comprises 10 species, nine in the Americas and one in New Zealand (N. giganteus), with the divergence between the New Zealand species and its Chilean sister species dated to the Miocene and therefore due to long-distance dispersal. Based on the new tree, we formally transfer two species of Megaceros into Nothoceros, resulting in the new combinations N. minarum (Nees) J.C. Villarreal and N. schizophyllus (Gottsche ex Steph.) J.C. Villarreal, and we also

  17. Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities

  18. Simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in nutmeg by ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Shu-Yu; Qiu, Feng; Xiao, Xiao-He; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2013-05-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method based on ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection (USLE-IAC-HPLC-PCD-FLD) has been developed for simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 13 edible and medicinal nutmeg samples marketed in China. AFs and OTA were extracted from nutmeg samples by ultrasonication using a methanol : water (80 : 20, v/v) solution, followed by an IAC clean-up step. Different USL extraction conditions, pre-processing ways for nutmeg sample and clean-up columns for mycotoxins, as well as HPLC-PCD-FLD parameters (mobile phase, column temperature, elution procedure, excitation and emission wavelengths) were optimized. This method, which was appraised for analyzing nutmeg samples, showed satisfactory results with reference to limits of detection (LODs) (from 0.02 to 0.25 μg kg(-1)), limits of quantification (LOQs) (from 0.06 to 0.8 μg kg(-1)), linear ranges (up to 30 ng mL(-1) for AFB1, AFG1 and OTA and 9 ng mL(-1) for AFB2 and AFG2), intra- and inter-day variability (all <2%) and average recoveries (from 79.6 to 90.8% for AFs and from 93.6 to 97.3% for OTA, respectively). The results of the application of developed method in nutmeg samples have elucidated that four samples were detected with contamination of AFs and one with OTA. AFB1 was the most frequently found mycotoxin in 30.8% of nutmeg samples at contamination levels of 0.73-16.31 μg kg(-1). At least two different mycotoxins were co-occurred in three samples, and three AFs were simultaneously detected in one sample.

  19. Simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in nutmeg by ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Shu-Yu; Qiu, Feng; Xiao, Xiao-He; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2013-05-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method based on ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection (USLE-IAC-HPLC-PCD-FLD) has been developed for simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 13 edible and medicinal nutmeg samples marketed in China. AFs and OTA were extracted from nutmeg samples by ultrasonication using a methanol : water (80 : 20, v/v) solution, followed by an IAC clean-up step. Different USL extraction conditions, pre-processing ways for nutmeg sample and clean-up columns for mycotoxins, as well as HPLC-PCD-FLD parameters (mobile phase, column temperature, elution procedure, excitation and emission wavelengths) were optimized. This method, which was appraised for analyzing nutmeg samples, showed satisfactory results with reference to limits of detection (LODs) (from 0.02 to 0.25 μg kg(-1)), limits of quantification (LOQs) (from 0.06 to 0.8 μg kg(-1)), linear ranges (up to 30 ng mL(-1) for AFB1, AFG1 and OTA and 9 ng mL(-1) for AFB2 and AFG2), intra- and inter-day variability (all <2%) and average recoveries (from 79.6 to 90.8% for AFs and from 93.6 to 97.3% for OTA, respectively). The results of the application of developed method in nutmeg samples have elucidated that four samples were detected with contamination of AFs and one with OTA. AFB1 was the most frequently found mycotoxin in 30.8% of nutmeg samples at contamination levels of 0.73-16.31 μg kg(-1). At least two different mycotoxins were co-occurred in three samples, and three AFs were simultaneously detected in one sample. PMID:23486692

  20. Selective clean-up applicable to aqueous acetone extracts for the determination of carbendazim and thiabendazole in fruits and vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Di Muccio, A; Girolimetti, S; Attard Barbini, D; Pelosi, P; Generali, T; Vergori, L; De Merulis, G; Leonelli, A; Stefanelli, P

    1999-02-12

    Fungicide residues in vegetables (benomyl, carbendazim, thiabendazole) are analyzed through a clean-up procedure that uses a portion of the aqueous acetone extract prepared for multiresidue methodology. A portion of the aqueous acetone extract (equivalent to 5 g of vegetables) is loaded onto an Extrelut-20 cartridge (the cartridge is filled with a coarse, large-pore diatomaceous material). Then, acetone is partially removed by an upward stream of nitrogen at 2l/min for 30 min. Benzimidazolic fungicides are recovered by percolating the cartridge with 100 ml of 0.1 M phosphoric acid solution, which also serves to convert benomyl to carbendazim. The percolating acid solution is drained on-line through a strong cation-exchange (SCX) solid-phase extraction cartridge with the aid of a slight vacuum. Benzimidazolic fungicides are retained on the SCX cartridge. The phosphoric acid solution is discarded together with the washings of the SCX cartridge, i.e., water followed by methanol-water (75:25), that remove unwanted coextractives. Finally, benzimidazolic fungicides are recovered by eluting the SCX cartridge with methanol-ammonium formate buffer (75:25). The final extract is then analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection. Recoveries from crops such as apples, lettuce, strawberries and citrus fruits are generally greater than 80% and no interferences were observed. The clean-up is simple and straightforward, requires only disposable items, water solutions and a few milliliters of solvent and a minimum number of manipulations, and does not require concentration steps or electrical equipment. PMID:10074700

  1. A method for the quantification of low concentration sulfamethazine residues in milk based on molecularly imprinted clean-up and surface preconcentration at a Nafion-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Vázquez de Prada, A; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2006-02-13

    An electrochemical method for the determination of sulfamethazine at a low concentration level (25 microgl(-1)) in milk is reported. The method involves sample clean-up and selective preconcentration of sulfamethazine with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), and a further electrode surface preconcentration of the analyte at a Nafion-coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Square wave (SW) oxidative voltammetry of accumulated sulfamethazine was employed for its quantification. Sulfamethazine electrode preconcentration was carried out in 0.1 moll(-1) Britton-Robinson buffer of pH 1.5, and by applying 5 min of accumulation at open circuit. A linear calibration graph was obtained for sulfamethazine at the Nafion-modified GCE over the 1.0x10(-8) to 1.0x10(-6)moll(-1) concentration range, with a detection limit of 6.8x10(-9)moll(-1) (1.9 microgl(-1)). This detection limit is remarkably better than those reported previously in the literature using electroanalytical techniques. Although the detection limit achieved was sufficient to allow the direct determination of sulfamethazine at the concentration level required in milk, a sample clean-up was shown to be necessary to obtain analytically useful SW voltammograms. This was accomplished by processing the deproteinized milk through a cartridge containing a molecularly imprinted polymer for sulfamethazine, also allowing a selective preconcentration of the analyte. Elution of the analyte from the MIP cartridges was carried out with 2 ml of a (9:1) MeOH:acetic acid mixture. Determination of sulfamethazine in milk samples was accomplished by interpolation into a calibration graph constructed with sulfamethazine standard solutions which were subjected to the same procedure than the deproteinized milk samples. Results obtained for five samples, spiked at the 25 microgl(-1) level, showed a mean recovery of (100+/-3)%.

  2. Cleaning up the Streets of Denver

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, R.L.; Wood, T.R.; Hackett, J.R.; Sogue, A.

    2006-07-01

    Between 1913 and 1924, several Denver area facilities extracted radium from carnotite ore mined from the Paradox basin region of Colorado. Tailings or abandoned ores from these facilities were apparently incorporated into asphalt used to pave approximately 7.2 kilometers (4.5 miles) of streets in Denver. A majority of the streets are located in residential areas. The radionuclides are bound within the asphalt matrix and pose minimal risk unless they are disturbed. The City and County of Denver (CCoD) is responsible for controlling repairs and maintenance on these impacted streets. Since 2002, the CCoD has embarked on a significant capital improvement project to remove the impacted asphalt for secure disposal followed by street reconstruction. To date, Parsons has removed approximately 55 percent of the impacted asphalt. This paper discusses the history of the Denver Radium Streets and summarizes on-going project efforts. (authors)

  3. Cleaning up the customer satisfaction waste dump

    SciTech Connect

    Plunkett, C.; Katz, G.M.

    1994-11-01

    Most electric utilities have been measuring Customer Satisfaction for several years now with the explicit goal of inducing their employees to improve their handling of customers. While many companies experienced early improvements, the scores have now leveled off. Increasingly, utilities are finding that their Customer Satisfaction Measurement system has reverted to little more than a {open_quotes}report card,{close_quotes} with no clear connection to business practice or processes. Even more alarming is the fact that many companies are now questioning the value of this complicated and expensive effort. This phenomenon is not unique to the electric utility industry -- it is happening in almost every industry in America. What companies really need is a way to tie customer satisfaction to business practices. To accomplish this, the Southern Company, along with several other utilities, are using the Voice of the Customer Process, which came out of the Japanese auto industry. It combines Customer Satisfaction Measurement with Quality Function Deployment (QFD) in order to guide the company into linking specific customer wants and needs to explicit performance measures and business process improvement efforts.

  4. Cleaning up: Battling Germs in School Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerba, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    Every school year, parents, teachers, and administrators must deal with an overwhelming number of sick children. In fact, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the average child catches at least eight colds a year, and kids in the United States miss as many as 189 million school days annually due to colds. Good hygiene…

  5. Progress and challenges in cleaning up Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents captioned viewgraphs which briefly summarize cleanup efforts at the Hanford Site. Underground waste tank and spent nuclear fuel issues are described. Progress is reported for the Plutonium Finishing Plant, PUREX plant, B-Plant/Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility, and Fast Flux Test Facility. A very brief overview of costs and number of sites remediated and/or decommissioned is given.

  6. Clean Up Your School Custodial Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steller, Arthur W.; Pell, Carroll

    1986-01-01

    Administrators can improve their school's custodial program by following steps that increase productivity, reduce costs, and provide long-term benefits of higher cleanliness standards. Administrators should work toward improved building cleanliness by insisting on a school board policy that establishes objectives for the custodial department.…

  7. Research on Cleaning Up in San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleman, Stanley

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of a set of research programs (dealing with the removal of liquid contaminants from surfaces) used to introduce graduate students to methods of design, evaluation, and modification within the context of a larger research program. Stresses the simultaneity and interaction of theoretical and experimental studies. (JM)

  8. Tanker industry progressing in cleaning up operations

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1993-10-18

    The international tanker industry has made significant strides in improving the safety and environmental awareness of its operations in recent years. With a string of mishaps following the Exxon Valdez spill, public scrutiny focused on the tanker industry and found it lacking. The U.S. government reacted strongly with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. OPA 90 set narrow requirements for tanker construction, forced the creation of a national spill response program, and made tanker operators solely liable for spill damage. The Aegean Sea and Braer accidents around the end of last year forced the pace of European legislation. Since then global initiatives have been announced to improve design and maintenance of tankers and take steps toward eliminating substandard ships and operators. The paper discusses priorities, tanker design, the tanker fleet, OPA status, spill response, the Tampa Bay spill, spill liability, European spills, EC legislation, and the Department of Transportation inquiry.

  9. MHD can clean up the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C.; Crawford, L.W.; Holt, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) involves interactions among electromagnetic fields and electrically conducting gases and liquids. The most developed application for MM in the United States is for central station electric power generation using a coal-fired combined cycle system. Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale demonstration of the downstream components used in this technology is currently being carried out at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Some of the attractive features of MHD include: A potential for increasing overall plant efficiency to 60% as compared to <40% for conventional power plants. Provision of built-in controls to eliminate/reduce the emissions of acid rain precursors, such as SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] well below the existing New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Clean Air Act requirements. Provision of adequate particulate resistivity for easy and efficient capture of submicron sized panicles in dry and wet electrostatic precipitators. Provision of built-in control to eliminate/reduce the Cl[sub 2]/HCl emission problems common to waste incinerators. Producing nearly zero emissions of priority pollutants (inorganics as well as organics on a pound per pound of coal basis) in comparison to conventional coal-fired facilities. Environmentally acceptable solid and liquid waste streams, and release of less CO[sub 2] (a suspected greenhouse gas) per unit of electricity generated than the conventional power plant due to the increased efficiency.

  10. Kinetics of zinc release from ground tire rubber and rubber ash in a calcareous soil as alternatives to Zn fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground rubber contains 15-20 g Zn/kg but very low levels of Cd and could serve as an inexpensive byproduct Zn fertilizer. The aim of this investigation was to test the kinetics of Zn release in a soil treated with ground tire rubber and rubber ash compared with commercial Zn fertilizer and a labora...

  11. Soil pollution by a pyrite mine spill in Spain: evolution in time.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, J; Dorronsoro, C; Fernández, E; Fernández, J; García, I; Martín, F; Simón, M

    2004-12-01

    Soil pollution was studied after the spill of the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine between 1998 and 2001, analyzing As, Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb both in total concentrations as well as in soluble and bioavailable forms. The main remediation measures were: clean-up of the tailings and polluted soils, plus application of amendment materials (liming). The results indicate that, after three years, 50-70% of the acidic soils and 25-30% of the basic soils are still highly polluted in total arsenic. The limit of 0.04 mg kg(-1) for water-soluble arsenic is exceeded in 15-20% of all soils. The EDTA-extractable arsenic (bioavailable) exceeds the limit of 2 mg kg(-1) only in the acidic sectors. After clean-up, the homogenization of the upper 20-25 cm of the soils appears to be the most recommended measure in the reduction of pollution.

  12. An evaluation of alternative insecticides to diazinon for control of tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in soil.

    PubMed

    Stark, John D; Vargas, Roger

    2009-02-01

    Diazinon has been used extensively in the past as part of California eradication programs for tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a soil drench, but it is being phased out for this purpose in the United States. Therefore, in this study, the toxicity of Platinum, Force, Admire, Regent, and Warrior was estimated after application to sand and soil as drenches for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), in Hawaii. Susceptibility of each species differed. In sand, the order of toxicity at LC50 based on the 95% confidence limit overlap approach for C. capitata from most toxic to least toxic was diazinon > Force = Warrior > Admire = Platinum > Regent. The order of toxicity for B. dorsalis was diazinon > Platinum = Warrior = Force > Regent = Admire. The order of toxicity for B. cucurbitae was Warrior = diazinon > Force = Regent = Platinum = Admire. Based on the dose ratio method, Warrior was not significantly different at LC50 than diazinon for B. cucurbitae only. All other insecticides were significantly different from diazinon at LC50. Studies in sand were followed by an evaluation of specific concentrations of Warrior and Force in soil collected from two sites on the island of Kauai. Average concentrations that caused at least 95% mortality in soil in all three fruit fly species were 121 g active ingredient (AI)/ha for Force and 363 g (AI)/ha for Warrior compared with 182 g (AI)/ha for diazinon. These results indicate that Force and Warrior could be used as soil treatments for control of tephritid fruit flies.

  13. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of pesticides and metabolites from soils using 1,3-dipentylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid as an alternative extraction solvent.

    PubMed

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Afonso, María M; Palenzuela, J Antonio; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Ángel

    2012-05-01

    In this work, the use of the ionic liquid (IL) 1,3-dipentylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([PPIm][PF₆]) as an alternative extractant for IL dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) of a group of pesticides and metabolites (2-aminobenzimidazole, carbendazim/benomyl, thiabendazole, fuberidazole, carbaryl, 1-naphthol, and triazophos) from soils is described. After performing an initial ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE), the IL-DLLME procedure was applied for the extraction of these organic analytes from soil extracts. Separation and quantification was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FD). Calibration, precision, and accuracy of the described USE-IL-DLLME-HPLC-FD method using [PPIm][PF₆] as an alternative extractant was evaluated with two soils of different physicochemical properties. Accuracy percentages were in the range 93-118% with RSD values below 20%. A comparison of the performance of [PPIm][PF₆] versus that of the so-common 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([HMIm][PF₆]) was accomplished. Results indicate a comparable extraction efficiency with both ILs, being slightly higher with [HMIm][PF₆] for the metabolite 2-aminobenzimidazole, and slightly higher with [PPIm][PF₆] for triazophos. In all cases, LODs were in the low ng/g range (0.02-14.2 ng/g for [HMIm][PF₆] and 0.02-60.5 ng/g for [PPIm][PF₆]). As a result, the current work constitutes a starting point for the use of the IL [PPIm][PF₆] for further analytical approaches.

  14. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar and biochar amended soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method for the determination of the 16 USEPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biochar and soil amended with biochar was developed. Samples were Soxhlet extracted with acetone:cyclohexane 1:1, and PAHs were analysed by GC-MS after silica gel clean-up. In a comparative study based on reflu...

  15. Determination of carbamates in edible vegetable oils by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a new clean-up based on zirconia for QuEChERS methodology.

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, David; Huertas-Pérez, José F; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2014-10-01

    In this study a fast, selective and sensitive multiresidue method based on QuEChERS methodology has been evaluated and validated for the determination of carbamate pesticides, in edible vegetable oils by UHPLC-MS/MS. A new clean-up sorbent, Supel(TM) QuE Z-Sep(+), has been successfully applied in vegetable oil extracts. Z-Sep(+) was compared with other sorbents (i.e. mixture of C18 and PSA) previously used for dispersive solid phase extraction of these matrices, reducing more effectively matrix effects without a significant decrease of analyte recoveries. Matrix effect was studied in different matrices (extra-virgin olive, sunflower, maize, linseed and sesame oil) being ≤│30│% for most of the studied pesticides. Under optimum conditions, recoveries ranged from 74% to 101%, with relative standard deviations lower than 10%. Limits of quantification ranged from 0.09 to 2.0 µg kg(-1), allowing their determination at the low concentration levels demanding by current legislation.

  16. Determination of carbamates in edible vegetable oils by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a new clean-up based on zirconia for QuEChERS methodology.

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, David; Huertas-Pérez, José F; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2014-10-01

    In this study a fast, selective and sensitive multiresidue method based on QuEChERS methodology has been evaluated and validated for the determination of carbamate pesticides, in edible vegetable oils by UHPLC-MS/MS. A new clean-up sorbent, Supel(TM) QuE Z-Sep(+), has been successfully applied in vegetable oil extracts. Z-Sep(+) was compared with other sorbents (i.e. mixture of C18 and PSA) previously used for dispersive solid phase extraction of these matrices, reducing more effectively matrix effects without a significant decrease of analyte recoveries. Matrix effect was studied in different matrices (extra-virgin olive, sunflower, maize, linseed and sesame oil) being ≤│30│% for most of the studied pesticides. Under optimum conditions, recoveries ranged from 74% to 101%, with relative standard deviations lower than 10%. Limits of quantification ranged from 0.09 to 2.0 µg kg(-1), allowing their determination at the low concentration levels demanding by current legislation. PMID:25059164

  17. Calcium carbonate precipitation by strain Bacillus licheniformis AK01, newly isolated from loamy soil: a promising alternative for sealing cement-based materials.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Ali; Ramezanianpour, Ali Akbar; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Vali, Hojatollah; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2015-01-01

    The relevant experiments were designed to determine the ability of indigenous bacterial strains isolated from limestone caves, mineral springs, and loamy soils to induce calcium carbonate precipitation. Among all isolates examined in this study, an efficient carbonate-precipitating soil bacterium was selected from among the isolates and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences as Bacillus licheniformis AK01. The ureolytic isolate was able to grow well on alkaline carbonate-precipitation medium and precipitate calcium carbonate more than 1 g L(-1). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) examinations were performed in order to confirm the presence of calcium carbonate in the precipitate and to determine which polymorphs were present. The selected isolate was determined to be an appropriate candidate for application in a surface treatment of cement-based material to improve the properties of the mortar. Biodeposition of a layer of calcite on the surface of cement specimens resulted in filling in pore spaces. This could be an alternative method to improve the durability of the mortar. The kind of bacterial culture and medium composition had a profound impact on the resultant CaCO(3) crystal morphology.

  18. Calcium carbonate precipitation by strain Bacillus licheniformis AK01, newly isolated from loamy soil: a promising alternative for sealing cement-based materials.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Ali; Ramezanianpour, Ali Akbar; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Vali, Hojatollah; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2015-01-01

    The relevant experiments were designed to determine the ability of indigenous bacterial strains isolated from limestone caves, mineral springs, and loamy soils to induce calcium carbonate precipitation. Among all isolates examined in this study, an efficient carbonate-precipitating soil bacterium was selected from among the isolates and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences as Bacillus licheniformis AK01. The ureolytic isolate was able to grow well on alkaline carbonate-precipitation medium and precipitate calcium carbonate more than 1 g L(-1). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) examinations were performed in order to confirm the presence of calcium carbonate in the precipitate and to determine which polymorphs were present. The selected isolate was determined to be an appropriate candidate for application in a surface treatment of cement-based material to improve the properties of the mortar. Biodeposition of a layer of calcite on the surface of cement specimens resulted in filling in pore spaces. This could be an alternative method to improve the durability of the mortar. The kind of bacterial culture and medium composition had a profound impact on the resultant CaCO(3) crystal morphology. PMID:25590872

  19. Association between health information, use of protective devices and occurrence of acute health problems in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria (Spain): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, José Miguel; Lope, Virginia; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Suárez, Berta; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Pollán, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper examines the association between use of protective devices, frequency of acute health problems and health-protection information received by participants engaged in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria, Spain. Methods We studied 133 seamen, 135 bird cleaners, 266 volunteers and 265 paid workers selected by random sampling, stratified by type of worker and number of working days. Information was collected by telephone interview conducted in June 2003. The association of interest was summarized, using odds ratios (OR) obtained from logistic regression. Results Health-protection briefing was associated with use of protective devices and clothing. Uninformed subjects registered a significant excess risk of itchy eyes (OR:2.89; 95%CI:1.21–6.90), nausea/vomiting/dizziness (OR:2.25; 95%CI:1.17–4.32) and throat and respiratory problems (OR:2.30; 95%CI:1.15–4.61). There was a noteworthy significant excess risk of headaches (OR:3.86: 95%CI:1.74–8.54) and respiratory problems (OR:2.43; 95%CI:1.02–5.79) among uninformed paid workers. Seamen, the group most exposed to the fuel-oil, were the worst informed and registered the highest frequency of toxicological problems. Conclusion Proper health-protection briefing was associated with greater use of protective devices and lower frequency of health problems. Among seamen, however, the results indicate poorer dissemination of information and the need of specific guidelines for removing fuel-oil at sea. PMID:16390547

  20. Improved method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins in cereals and derived products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after multi-toxin immunoaffinity clean up.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Veronica Maria Teresa; Ciasca, Biancamaria; Powers, Stephen; Visconti, Angelo

    2014-08-01

    An improved method for the quantitative determination of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2), ochratoxin A, fumonisins (B1, B2), zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereals and derived products, at levels comparable with EU maximum permitted levels, was developed. The effective co-extraction of the mycotoxins under investigation was achieved in 4min by a double extraction approach, using water followed by methanol. Clean up of the extract was performed by a new multi-toxin immunoaffinity column. Analytical performance characteristics were evaluated through single laboratory validation. Raw wheat and maize, corn flakes and maize snacks were chosen as representative matrices for method validation. The validation assay was carried out at 50, 100 and 150% of EU maximum permitted levels for each mycotoxin. Statistical analysis of the results (ANOVA) provided the within laboratory reproducibility and the error contributions from repeatability, between day effects, and influences from different matrix composition. Recoveries generally higher than 70% were obtained for all tested mycotoxins with relative standard deviation (within laboratory reproducibility) lesser than 37%. Limits of quantification (calculated as the lowest amount of each analyte which could be determined with a precision of 10%) ranged from 1μg/kg to 30μg/kg. The trueness of generated data was assessed by analysis of reference materials. The proposed method was proven to be suitable to assess, with a single analysis, compliance of the selected cereal based foods with the EU maximum permitted or recommended levels for all regulated mycotoxins.

  1. Fully automated method for the liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric determination of cyproterone acetate in human plasma using restricted access material for on-line sample clean-up.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, B; Fillet, M; Chiap, P; Rbeida, O; Ceccato, A; Streel, B; De Graeve, J; Crommen, J; Hubert, Ph

    2004-11-12

    A new automated method for the quantitative analysis of cyproterone acetate (CPA) in human plasma has been developed using on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to the LC-MS/MS determination. The method was based on the use of a pre-column packed with internal-surface reversed-phase material (LiChrospher RP-4 ADS, 25 mm x 2 mm) for sample clean-up coupled to LC separation on an octadecyl silica stationary phase by means of a column switching system. A 30 microl plasma sample volume was injected directly onto the pre-column using a mixture of water, acetonitrile and formic acid (90:10:0.1 (v/v/v)) adjusted to pH 4.0 with diluted ammonia as washing liquid. The analyte was then eluted in the back-flush mode with the LC mobile phase consisting of water, methanol and formic acid (10:90:0.1 (v/v/v)). The dispensing flow rates of the washing liquid and the LC mobile phase were 300 microl min(-1). Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) was used as internal standard. The MS ionization of the analytes was achieved using electrospray (ESI) in the positive ion mode. The pseudomolecular ionic species of CPA and MPA (417.4 and 387.5) were selected to generate daughter ions at 357.4 and 327.5, respectively. Finally, the developed method was validated according to a new approach using accuracy profiles as a decision tool. Very good results with respect to accuracy, detectability, repeatability, intermediate precision and selectivity were obtained. The LOQ of cyproterone acetate was 300 pg ml(-1).

  2. Development of a simple gel permeation clean-up procedure coupled to a rapid disequilibrium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Sudan I dye in spices and sauces.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska, Michalina; Stevenson, Paul J; Schulz, Claudia; Hartig, Lutz; Elliott, Christopher T

    2011-09-01

    Sudan dyes have been found to be added to chilli and chilli products for illegal colour enhancement purposes. Due to the possible carcinogenic effect, they are not authorized to be used in food in the European Union or the USA. However, over the last few years, many products imported from Asian and African countries have been reported via the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed in the European Union to be contaminated with these dyes. In order to provide fast screening method for the detection of Sudan I (SI), which is the most widely abused member of Sudan dyes family, a unique (20 min without sample preparation) direct disequilibrium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. The assay was based on polyclonal antibodies highly specific to SI. A novel, simple gel permeation chromatography clean-up method was developed to purify extracts from matrices containing high amounts of fat and natural pigments, without the need for a large dilution of the sample. The assay was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. The detection capability was determined to be 15 ng g(-1) in sauces and 50 ng g(-1) in spices. The recoveries found ranged from 81% to 116% and inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation from 6% to 20%. The assay was used to screen a range of products (85 samples) collected from different retail sources within and outside the European Union. Three samples were found to contain high amounts (1,649, 722 and 1,461 ng g(-1)) of SI by ELISA. These results were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The innovative procedure allows for the fast, sensitive and high throughput screening of different foodstuffs for the presence of the illegal colorant SI.

  3. Tetrahydrofuran-water extraction, in-line clean-up and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the quantitation of perfluorinated compounds in food at the low picogram per gram level.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Rubio, Soledad; van Leeuwen, Stefan

    2010-09-17

    A new solvent extraction system was developed for extraction of PFCs from food. The extraction is carried out with 75:25 (v/v) tetrahydrofuran:water, a solvent mixture that provides an appropriate balance of hydrogen bonding, dispersion and dipole-dipole interactions to efficiently extract PFCs with chains containing 4-14 carbon atoms from foods. This mixture provided recoveries above 85% from foods including vegetables, fruits, fish, meat and bread; and above 75% from cheese. Clean-up with a weak anion exchange resin and Envi-carb SPE, which were coupled in line for simplicity, was found to minimize matrix effects (viz. enhancement or suppression of electrospray ionization). The target analytes (PFCs) were resolved on a perfluorooctyl phase column that proved effective in separating mass interferences for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in fish and meat samples. The mass spectrometer was operated in the negative electrospray ionization mode and used to record two transitions per analyte and one per mass-labeled method internal standard. The target PFCs were quantified from solvent based calibration curves. The limits of detection (LODs) were as low as 1-5 pg analyte g(-1) food; by exception, those for C(4) and C(5) PFCs were somewhat higher (25-30 pg g(-1)) owing to their less favourable mass response. To the best of our knowledge these are among the best LODs for PFCs in foods reported to date. The analysis of a variety of foods revealed contamination with PFCs at levels from 4.5 to 75 pg g(-1) in 25% of samples (fish and packaged spinach). C(10)-C(14) PFCs were found in fish, which testifies to the need to control long-chain PFCs in this type of food. The proposed method is a useful tool for the development of a large-scale database for the presence of PFCs in foods. PMID:20709322

  4. Numerical modeling studies on the alternately pulsed infiltration and subsequent evaporation of water in a dry high desert alluvial soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cawlfield, D.E.; Lindstrom, F.T.; Weaver, H.

    1993-12-31

    The concept of no liquid-phase migration of low-level radionuclides is extremely important for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (USDOE/NV) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) in Areas 3 and 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Each site location is situated in an area known for its dry conditions. A series of computer modeling problems were set up to study the effects of pulsing the desert surface with large amounts of water, followed by intense evaporative conditions. The pulsed-water scenarios were run using an in-house model, named {open_quotes}ODRECHB,{close_quotes} which is briefly described. ODRECHB is particularly adapted to model the dry desert alluvium and extreme evaporative conditions found at NTS. Comparable results were obtained using the well known Battelle NW code {open_quotes}UNSAT-H 2.0,{close_quotes} by Fayer and Jones. The realistic-to-overly conservative water applications to a bare soil surface did not cause water to infiltrate below ten meters. The results are shown on the accompanying video tape.

  5. Post-anthesis alternate wetting and moderate soil drying enhances activities of key enzymes in sucrose-to-starch conversion in inferior spikelets of rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Hongwei; Yuan, Liming; Wang, Zhiqin; Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that a post-anthesis moderate soil drying can improve grain filling through regulating the key enzymes in the sucrose-to-starch pathway in the grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Two rice cultivars were field grown and two irrigation regimes, alternate wetting and moderate soil drying (WMD) and conventional irrigation (CI, continuously flooded), were imposed during the grain-filling period. The grain-filling rate and activities of four key enzymes in sucrose-to-starch conversion, sucrose synthase (SuSase), adenosine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), starch synthase (StSase), and starch branching enzyme (SBE), showed no significant difference between WMD and CI regimes for the earlier flowering superior spikelets. However, they were significantly enhanced by the WMD for the later flowering inferior spikelets. The activities of both soluble and insoluble acid invertase in the grains were little affected by the WMD. The two cultivars showed the same tendencies. The activities of SuSase, AGPase, StSase, and SBE in grains were very significantly correlated with the grain-filling rate. The abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in inferior spikelets was remarkably increased in the WMD and very significantly correlated with activities of SuSase, AGPase, StSase, and SBE. Application of ABA on plants under CI produced similar results to those seen in plants receiving WMD. Applying fluridone, an indirect inhibitor of ABA synthesis, produced the opposite effect. The results suggest that post-anthesis WMD could enhance sink strength by regulating the key enzymes involved, and consequently, increase the grain-filling rate and grain weight of inferior spikelets. ABA plays an important role in this process.

  6. Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with ultrasound-assisted extraction and auto solid-phase clean-up method for the determination of Fusarium toxins in animal derived foods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongmei; Cao, Xiaoqin; Tao, Yanfei; Wu, Qinghua; Pan, Yuanhu; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Huang, Lingli; Wang, Yulian; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-10-11

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 Fusarium toxins and their metabolites including deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON), neosolaniol (NEO), fusarenon-X (F-X), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), monoacetoxyscirpenol (MAS), zearalanone (ZAN), zearalenone (ZON), α-Zearalenol (α-ZOL), β-Zearalenol (β-ZOL), a-Zearalanol (α-ZAL), β-Zearalanol (β-ZAL), T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, deepoxy-deoxynialenol (DOM-1) in the muscle, liver, kidney, fat of swine, bovine and sheep, muscle and liver of chicken, muscle and skin of fish, as well as milk and eggs. Sample preparation procedure includes ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile/water (90/10, v/v), defatting with n-hexane and final clean-up with auto solid phase extraction (SPE) on Bond Elut Mycotoxin cartridges. The detection and quantification of the analytes were performed by a reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). DON, NIV, DOM-1, 3-AcDON, 15-AcDON, F-X, ZON, ZAN, α-ZOL, β-ZOL, α-ZAL, β-ZAL, T-2 triol and T-2 tetraol were detected in a negative ion mode, while T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, NEO, DAS and MAS were detected in a positive ion mode. The CCα and CCβ of the analytes in different samples varied from 0.16 to 1.37μg/kg and 0.33 to 2.34μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of spiked sample from 0.5μg/kg to 8μg/kg ranged from 64.8% to 108.2% with the relative standard deviations of less than 19.4%. Performances of the whole analytical procedure meet the criteria established by the European Commission for mass spectrometric detection.

  7. Pyrethroid-Degrading Microorganisms and Their Potential for the Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control pests in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, public health and for indoor home use for more than 20 years. Because pyrethroids were considered to be a safer alternative to organophosphate pesticides (OPs), their applications significantly increased when the use of OPs was banned or limited. Although, pyrethroids have agricultural benefits, their widespread and continuous use is a major problem as they pollute the terrestrial and aquatic environments and affect non-target organisms. Since pyrethroids are not degraded immediately after application and because their residues are detected in soils, there is an urgent need to remediate pyrethroid-polluted environments. Various remediation technologies have been developed for this purpose; however, bioremediation, which involves bioaugmentation and/or biostimulation and is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach, has emerged as the most advantageous method for cleaning-up pesticide-contaminated soils. This review presents an overview of the microorganisms that have been isolated from pyrethroid-polluted sites, characterized and applied for the degradation of pyrethroids in liquid and soil media. The paper is focused on the microbial degradation of the pyrethroids that have been most commonly used for many years such as allethrin, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, and permethrin. Special attention is given to the bacterial strains from the genera Achromobacter, Acidomonas, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Catellibacterium, Clostridium, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Sphingobium, Streptomyces, and the fungal strains from the genera Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, and Trichoderma, which are characterized by their ability to degrade various pyrethroids. Moreover, the current knowledge on the degradation pathways of pyrethroids, the enzymes that are involved in the cleavage of

  8. Pyrethroid-Degrading Microorganisms and Their Potential for the Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control pests in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, public health and for indoor home use for more than 20 years. Because pyrethroids were considered to be a safer alternative to organophosphate pesticides (OPs), their applications significantly increased when the use of OPs was banned or limited. Although, pyrethroids have agricultural benefits, their widespread and continuous use is a major problem as they pollute the terrestrial and aquatic environments and affect non-target organisms. Since pyrethroids are not degraded immediately after application and because their residues are detected in soils, there is an urgent need to remediate pyrethroid-polluted environments. Various remediation technologies have been developed for this purpose; however, bioremediation, which involves bioaugmentation and/or biostimulation and is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach, has emerged as the most advantageous method for cleaning-up pesticide-contaminated soils. This review presents an overview of the microorganisms that have been isolated from pyrethroid-polluted sites, characterized and applied for the degradation of pyrethroids in liquid and soil media. The paper is focused on the microbial degradation of the pyrethroids that have been most commonly used for many years such as allethrin, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, and permethrin. Special attention is given to the bacterial strains from the genera Achromobacter, Acidomonas, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Catellibacterium, Clostridium, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Sphingobium, Streptomyces, and the fungal strains from the genera Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, and Trichoderma, which are characterized by their ability to degrade various pyrethroids. Moreover, the current knowledge on the degradation pathways of pyrethroids, the enzymes that are involved in the cleavage of

  9. Remediation of soils combining soil vapor extraction and bioremediation: benzene.

    PubMed

    Soares, António Alves; Albergaria, José Tomás; Domingues, Valentina Fernandes; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2010-08-01

    This work reports the study of the combination of soil vapor extraction (SVE) with bioremediation (BR) to remediate soils contaminated with benzene. Soils contaminated with benzene with different water and natural organic matter contents were studied. The main goals were: (i) evaluate the performance of SVE regarding the remediation time and the process efficiency; (ii) study the combination of both technologies in order to identify the best option capable to achieve the legal clean up goals; and (iii) evaluate the influence of soil water content (SWC) and natural organic matter (NOM) on SVE and BR. The remediation experiments performed in soils contaminated with benzene allowed concluding that: (i) SVE presented (a) efficiencies above 92% for sandy soils and above 78% for humic soils; (b) and remediation times from 2 to 45 h, depending on the soil; (ii) BR showed to be an efficient technology to complement SVE; (iii) (a) SWC showed minimum impact on SVE when high airflow rates were used and led to higher remediation times for lower flow rates; (b) NOM as source of microorganisms and nutrients enhanced BR but hindered the SVE due the limitation on the mass transfer of benzene from the soil to the gas phase.

  10. Sustainability appraisal tools for soil and groundwater remediation: how is the choice of remediation alternative influenced by different sets of sustainability indicators and tool structures?

    PubMed

    Beames, Alistair; Broekx, Steven; Lookman, Richard; Touchant, Kaat; Seuntjens, Piet

    2014-02-01

    The state-of-the-science in sustainability assessment of soil and groundwater remediation is evaluated with the application of four decision support systems (DSSs) to a large-scale brownfield revitalization case study. The DSSs were used to perform sustainability appraisals of four technically feasible remediation alternatives proposed for the site. The first stage of the review compares the scope of each tool's sustainability indicators, how these indicators are measured and how the tools differ in terms of standardization and weighting procedures. The second stage of the review compares the outputs from the tools and determines the key factors that result in differing results between tools. The evaluation of indicator sets and tool structures explains why the tools generate differing results. Not all crucial impact areas, as identified by sustainable remediation forums, are thoroughly considered by the tools, particularly with regard to the social and economic aspects of sustainability. Variations in boundary conditions defined between technologies, produce distorted environmental impact results, especially when in-situ and ex-situ technologies are compared. The review draws attention to the need for end users to be aware of which aspects of sustainability are considered, how the aspects are measured and how all aspects are ultimately balanced in the evaluation of potential remediation strategies. Existing tools can be improved by considering different technologies within the same boundary conditions and by expanding indicator sets to include indicators deemed to be relevant by remediation forums.

  11. Evaluation of amendments to decrease high strength in southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy multi-attributive comparison of alternatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity of many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils is reduced by cemented subsurface layers that restrict root growth. Though tillage is the usual way to reduce cementation, if soil amendments can develop aggregation, they offer a more permanent solution. To improve soil physical properties a...

  12. Biological Remediation of Soil: An Overview of Global Market and Available Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay; Kuhad, Ramesh C.; Ward, Owen P.

    Due to a wide range of industrial and agricultural activities, a high number of chemical contaminants is released into the environment, causing a significant concern regarding potential toxicity, carcinogenicity, and potential for bioaccumulation in living systems of various chemicals in soil. Although microbial activity in soil accounts for most of the degradation of organic contaminants, chemical and physical mechanisms can also provide significant transformation pathways for these compounds. The specific remediation processes that have been applied to clean up contaminated sites include natural attenuation, landfarming, biopiling or composting, contained slurry bioreactor, bioventing, soil vapor extraction, thermal desorption, incineration, soil washing and land filling (USEPA 2004).

  13. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  14. The application of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, Version 2, to evaluate the impacts of alternative climate change scenarios on runoff and sediment yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, Version 2 (RUSLE2) provides robust estimates of average annual sheet and rill erosion for one-dimensional hillslope representations. Extensive databases describing climate, soils, and management options have been developed and are widely used in the USA for...

  15. Grazing as an alternative for utilization of saline-sodic soils in the San Joaquin Valley: selenium accretion and performance of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Juchem, Sérgio O; Benes, Sharon E; Robinson, P H; Grattan, Stephen R; Vasquez, Pablo; Chilibroste, Pablo; Brito, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate Se accumulation and health of non-pregnant, non-breeding beef cattle grazing on forages with a high Se content due to irrigation with saline drainage water. Heifers grazed experimental pastures of "Jose" tall wheatgrass (TWG; Thinopyrum ponticum var. "Jose") and creeping wildrye (CWR; Leymus triticoides var. "Rio") for 190 days in Experiment 1 (2007) and for 165 days in Experiment 2 (2008). In experiment 1, mean Se concentrations were similar in TWG and CWR herbage (4.0 versus 3.7 ± 0.26 mg/kg dry weight; p=0.34) as was crude protein (113 versus 114 ± 7.9 g/kg dry weight; p=0.94). Concentrations of Se in blood increased by 300% during the grazing period, and were similar for heifers grazing the TWG or CWR pastures (0.94 versus 0.87 ± 0.03 mg/kg; p=0.89). Heifers grazing on TWG gained more body weight than did heifers grazing on CWR (0.59 versus 0.27 ± 0.07 kg/days; p<0.01). In experiment 2, concentration of Se (4.0 versus 2.8 mg/kg ± 0.19 mg/kg dry weight; p<0.01) and crude protein (79 versus 90 ± 5.6 g/kg dry weight; p<0.01) differed, for TWG and CWR, respectively. Within 20 days, Se concentrations in blood had increased by 300% and by nearly 200% in heifers grazing on TWG or CWR. All data cited are least square means ± standard error of the mean. Data from our two grazing seasons are consistent in demonstrating the safety of grazing beef cattle for a period of up to 6 months on TWG and CWR forages having high levels of Se due to irrigation with saline drainage water. This suggests that forage production using saline drainage water is a viable alternative for saline soils with limited potential for producing high value, salt-sensitive, crops.

  16. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated by cadmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watai, H.; Miyazaki, T.; Fujikawa, T.; Mizoguchi, M.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a technique to clean up soils contaminated with heavy metals. Advantages of this method are that (1) This technique is suitable to cleanup soils slightly contaminated with heavy metals in relatively wide area. (2) The expense for clean up is lower than civil engineering techniques. (3) This method can remove heavy metals fundamentally from contaminated. (4) The heavy metals are able to recycle by ashing of plants. Many researches have been done on the phytoremediation up to now, but almost all these researches were devoted to clarify the phytoremediation from the view point of plants themselves. However, few efforts have been devoted to analyze the migrations of heavy metals in soils during the phytoremediation process. The objective of this study is to clarify the features of Cd migration when plant roots are absorbing Cd from the ambient soils. Especially, we focused on finding the Cd migration pattern by changing the soil condition such as plant growing periods, planting densities, and the initial Cd concentration in soils. We planted sunflowers in columns filled with Cd contaminated soils because sunflower is a well-known hyperaccumulator of Cd from soils. By cutting the shoots of plants at the soil surface, and by keeping the plant roots in the soils without disturbance, the Cd concentrations, moisture contents, pH distributions, EC distributions, and dry weight of residual roots in the soils were carefully analyzed. The experimental results showed that (1)The growth of the planted sunflowers were suffered by applying of Cd. (2)The decrease of suction was affected by water uptake by roots at the depth from 0 to 5 cm. Water contents with plants in soils decrease more than without plants. (3)Cd adsorption by roots was predominant within 5cm from soil surface. In addition, it was also shown that there was an optimal Cd concentration where Cd is most effectively adsorbed by the plant. In this experiment we found that 40 to 60 mg kg-1 was the

  17. Simultaneous determination of three alternative flame retardants (dechlorane plus, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane, and decabromodiphenyl ethane) in soils by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengjun; Tao, Bu; Ye, Zhiqiang; Qi, Li; Ren, Yue; Zhou, Zhiguang; Li, Nan; Huang, Yeru; Chen, Jiping

    2015-11-01

    A gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of three alternative flame retardants, dechlorane plus (DP), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in soils. The soil samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction, followed by purification with concentrated sulfuric acid partitioning combined with acid-base silica gel column separation. The gas chromatography featured with a thermostable capillary column of short length and a thin stationary phase was operated in pulse injection mode. A double-focusing magnetic sector high resolution mass spectrometer with electron impact ionization was used for quantification of the analytes. The method detection limits were 0.27-0.33 pg for DPs, 0.41 pg for BTBPE, and 36 pg for DBDPE. The mean recoveries for DPs, BTBPE, and DBDPE in spiked soils were 88-107%, 78-97%, and 74-113%, respectively, with relative standard deviations ranging from 5.2% to 18%. The recoveries of (13)C-labeled standards for DPs, BTBPE, and DBDPE in soil samples were 45-110%, 67-118%, and 27-82%, respectively. These results met the acceptable range of labeled standards for analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers as specified by the USEPA 1614 method. PMID:26452921

  18. Microwave thermal remediation of crude oil contaminated soil enhanced by carbon fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Yazhi

    2009-01-01

    Thermal remediation of the soil contaminated with crude oil using microwave heating enhanced by carbon fiber (CF) was explored. The contaminated soil was treated with 2.45 GHz microwave, and CF was added to improve the conversion of microwave energy into thermal energy to heat the soil. During microwave heating, the oil contaminant was removed from the soil matrix and recovered by a condensation system of ice-salt bath. The experimental results indicated that CF could efficiently enhance the microwave heating of soil even with relatively low-dose. With 0.1 wt.% CF, the soil could be heated to approximately 700 degrees C within 4 min using 800 W of microwave irradiation. Correspondingly, the contaminated soil could be highly cleaned up in a short time. Investigation of oil recovery showed that, during the remediation process, oil contaminant in the soil could be efficiently recovered without causing significant secondary pollution.

  19. Bioremediation potential of diesel-contaminated Libyan soil.

    PubMed

    Koshlaf, Eman; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Taha, Mohamed; Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Makadia, Tanvi H; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2016-11-01

    Bioremediation is a broadly applied environmentally friendly and economical treatment for the clean-up of sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, the application of this technology to contaminated soil in Libya has not been fully exploited. In this study, the efficacy of different bioremediation processes (necrophytoremediation using pea straw, bioaugmentation and a combination of both treatments) together with natural attenuation were assessed in diesel contaminated Libyan soils. The addition of pea straw was found to be the best bioremediation treatment for cleaning up diesel contaminated Libyan soil after 12 weeks. The greatest TPH degradation, 96.1% (18,239.6mgkg(-1)) and 95% (17,991.14mgkg(-1)) were obtained when the soil was amended with pea straw alone and in combination with a hydrocarbonoclastic consortium respectively. In contrast, natural attenuation resulted in a significantly lower TPH reduction of 76% (14,444.5mgkg(-1)). The presence of pea straw also led to a significant increased recovery of hydrocarbon degraders; 5.7log CFU g(-1) dry soil, compared to 4.4log CFUg(-1) dry soil for the untreated (natural attenuation) soil. DGGE and Illumina 16S metagenomic analyses confirm shifts in bacterial communities compared with original soil after 12 weeks incubation. In addition, metagenomic analysis showed that original soil contained hydrocarbon degraders (e.g. Pseudoxanthomonas spp. and Alcanivorax spp.). However, they require a biostimulant (in this case pea straw) to become active. This study is the first to report successful oil bioremediation with pea straw in Libya. It demonstrates the effectiveness of pea straw in enhancing bioremediation of the diesel-contaminated Libyan soil. PMID:27479774

  20. Bioremediation potential of diesel-contaminated Libyan soil.

    PubMed

    Koshlaf, Eman; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Taha, Mohamed; Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Makadia, Tanvi H; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2016-11-01

    Bioremediation is a broadly applied environmentally friendly and economical treatment for the clean-up of sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, the application of this technology to contaminated soil in Libya has not been fully exploited. In this study, the efficacy of different bioremediation processes (necrophytoremediation using pea straw, bioaugmentation and a combination of both treatments) together with natural attenuation were assessed in diesel contaminated Libyan soils. The addition of pea straw was found to be the best bioremediation treatment for cleaning up diesel contaminated Libyan soil after 12 weeks. The greatest TPH degradation, 96.1% (18,239.6mgkg(-1)) and 95% (17,991.14mgkg(-1)) were obtained when the soil was amended with pea straw alone and in combination with a hydrocarbonoclastic consortium respectively. In contrast, natural attenuation resulted in a significantly lower TPH reduction of 76% (14,444.5mgkg(-1)). The presence of pea straw also led to a significant increased recovery of hydrocarbon degraders; 5.7log CFU g(-1) dry soil, compared to 4.4log CFUg(-1) dry soil for the untreated (natural attenuation) soil. DGGE and Illumina 16S metagenomic analyses confirm shifts in bacterial communities compared with original soil after 12 weeks incubation. In addition, metagenomic analysis showed that original soil contained hydrocarbon degraders (e.g. Pseudoxanthomonas spp. and Alcanivorax spp.). However, they require a biostimulant (in this case pea straw) to become active. This study is the first to report successful oil bioremediation with pea straw in Libya. It demonstrates the effectiveness of pea straw in enhancing bioremediation of the diesel-contaminated Libyan soil.

  1. Alternate Alternates: A Medley of Alternate Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Paula J.; Olsen, Ken

    This paper highlights eight states that have implemented alternate assessments for children with disabilities who cannot participate in their state and district-wide assessment programs. The alternate assessment systems in Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Minnesota, North Dakota, Utah, and West Virginia are briefly described, along with their…

  2. Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Soil: Impact on Microbial Biodegradation of Organic Compounds and Possible Improvement Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Olaniran, Ademola O.; Balgobind, Adhika; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Co-contamination of the environment with toxic chlorinated organic and heavy metal pollutants is one of the major problems facing industrialized nations today. Heavy metals may inhibit biodegradation of chlorinated organics by interacting with enzymes directly involved in biodegradation or those involved in general metabolism. Predictions of metal toxicity effects on organic pollutant biodegradation in co-contaminated soil and water environments is difficult since heavy metals may be present in a variety of chemical and physical forms. Recent advances in bioremediation of co-contaminated environments have focussed on the use of metal-resistant bacteria (cell and gene bioaugmentation), treatment amendments, clay minerals and chelating agents to reduce bioavailable heavy metal concentrations. Phytoremediation has also shown promise as an emerging alternative clean-up technology for co-contaminated environments. However, despite various investigations, in both aerobic and anaerobic systems, demonstrating that metal toxicity hampers the biodegradation of the organic component, a paucity of information exists in this area of research. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the problems associated with the degradation of chlorinated organics in co-contaminated environments, owing to metal toxicity and shed light on possible improvement strategies for effective bioremediation of sites co-contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds and heavy metals. PMID:23676353

  3. Bioavailability of heavy metals in soil: impact on microbial biodegradation of organic compounds and possible improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Olaniran, Ademola O; Balgobind, Adhika; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2013-05-15

    Co-contamination of the environment with toxic chlorinated organic and heavy metal pollutants is one of the major problems facing industrialized nations today. Heavy metals may inhibit biodegradation of chlorinated organics by interacting with enzymes directly involved in biodegradation or those involved in general metabolism. Predictions of metal toxicity effects on organic pollutant biodegradation in co-contaminated soil and water environments is difficult since heavy metals may be present in a variety of chemical and physical forms. Recent advances in bioremediation of co-contaminated environments have focussed on the use of metal-resistant bacteria (cell and gene bioaugmentation), treatment amendments, clay minerals and chelating agents to reduce bioavailable heavy metal concentrations. Phytoremediation has also shown promise as an emerging alternative clean-up technology for co-contaminated environments. However, despite various investigations, in both aerobic and anaerobic systems, demonstrating that metal toxicity hampers the biodegradation of the organic component, a paucity of information exists in this area of research. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the problems associated with the degradation of chlorinated organics in co-contaminated environments, owing to metal toxicity and shed light on possible improvement strategies for effective bioremediation of sites co-contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds and heavy metals.

  4. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  5. Identifying suitable land for alternative crops in a drying climate: soil salinity, texture and topographic conditions for the growth of old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, K. W.; Barrett-Lennard, E. G.; Altman, M.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments conducted under controlled conditions clearly show that the growth and survival of plants on saltland is affected by both the levels of salinity and waterlogging (or depth to water-table) in the soil. Different plant species thrive under varying combinations of these growth constraints. However in natural settings, short distance spatial variability in soil properties and subtle topographic features often complicate the definition of saline and soil hydrological conditions; additional factors may also overprint the trends identified under controlled conditions, making it difficult to define the physical settings where planting is economically viable. We investigated the establishment and growth of old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia) in relation to variable soil-landscape conditions across an experimental site in southwestern Australia where the combination of high salinity and occasional seasonal waterlogging ruled out the growth of traditional crops and pastures. Saltbush can be critical supplemental feed in the dry season, providing essential nutrients for sheep in combination with sufficient water and dry feed (hay). We applied a range of modeling approaches including classification and regression trees and generalized linear models to statistically characterize these plant-environment relationships, and extend them spatially using full cover raster covariate datasets. Plant deaths could be consistently predicted (97% correct classification of independent dataset) using a combination of topographic variables, salinity, soil mineralogical information, and depth to the water table. Plant growth patterns were more difficult to predict, particularly after several years of grazing, however variation in plant volume was well-explained with a linear model (r2 = 0.6, P < 0.0001). All types of environmental data were required, supporting the starting hypothesis that saltland pasture success is driven by water movement in the landscape. The final selected

  6. Managing soil remediation problems.

    PubMed

    Okx, J P; Hordijk, L; Stein, A

    1996-12-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history but the problem addressed is a significant one. Cost estimates for the clean-up of contaminated sites in the European Union and the United States are in the order of magnitude of 1,400 billion ECU. Such an enormous operation deserves the best management it can get. Reliable cost estimations per contaminated site are an important prerequisite. This paper addresses the problems related to site-wise estimations.When solving soil remediation problems, we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines. Too often solutions are presented from the viewpoint of only one discipline. In order to benefit from the combined disciplinary knowledge and experience, we think that it is necessary to describe the interrelations between these disciplines. This can be realized by developing an adequate model of the desired process which enables to consider and evaluate the essential factors as interdependent components of the total system.The resulting model provides a binding paradigm to the contributing disciplines which will result in improved efficiency and effectivity of the decision and the cost estimation process. In the near future, we will release the "Biosparging and Bioventing Expert Support System", an expert support system for problem owners, consultants and authorities dealing with the design and operation of a biosparging and/or a bioventing system.

  7. Soil washing enhancement with solid sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    El-Shoubary, Y.M.; Woodmansee, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Soil washing is a dynamic, physical process that remediates contaminated soil through two mechanisms: particle size separation and transfer of the contaminant into the (mostly) liquid stream. The performance of different sorbents and additives to remove motor oil from sea sand was tested. Hydrocyclone, attrition scrubber, and froth flotation equipment were used for the decontamination study. Sorbents and additives were mixed with soils in the attrition scrubber prior to flotation. Sorbents used were granular activated carbon, powder activated carbon, and rubber tires. Chemical additives used were calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, Alconox{reg_sign}, Triton{reg_sign} X-100 and Triton{reg_sign} X-114. When a froth flotation run was performed using no additive, washed soils {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained 4000 ppm of total oil and grease (TOG). However, when carbon or rubber (6% by weight) was added to the contaminated soils the washed soils {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained 4000 ppm of total oil and grease (TOG). The addition of sodium carbonate or calcium hydroxide (6% by weight) had same effects as sorbents. In both cases washed soil {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained total oil and grease of less than 1000 ppm. The use of these non-hazardous additives or sorbent can enhance the soil washing process and consequently saves on time (residence time in equipment design) required to achieve the target clean up levels. 18 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Some aspects of remediation of contaminated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Korobova, Elena; Abreu, Manuela; Bini, Claudio; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roca, Núria

    2014-05-01

    Soils are essential components of the environment, a limited precious and fragile resource, the quality of which should be preserved. The concentration, chemical form and distribution of potential harmful elements in soils depends on parent rocks, weathering, soil type and soil use. However, their concentration can be altered by mismanagement of industrial and mining activities, energy generation, traffic increase, overuse of agrochemicals, sewage sludge and waste disposal, causing contamination, environmental problems and health concerns. Heavy metals, some metalloids and radionuclides are persistent in the environment. This persistence hampers the cost/efficiency of remediation technologies. The choice of the most appropriate soil remediation techniques depends of many factors and essentially of the specific site. This contribution aims to offer an overview of the main remediation methods in contaminated soils. There are two main groups of technologies: the first group dealing with containment and confinement, minimizing their toxicity, mobility and bioavailability. Containment measures include covering, sealing, encapsulation and immobilization and stabilization. The second group, remediation with decontamination, is based on the remotion, clean up and/or destruction of contaminants. This group includes mechanical procedures, physical separations, chemical technologies such as soil washing with leaching or precipitation of harmful elements, soil flushing, thermal treatments and electrokinetic technologies. There are also two approaches of biological nature: bioremediation and phytoremediation. Case studies from Chile, Ecuador, Italy, Korea, Peru, Portugal, Russia and Spain, will be discussed in accordance with the time available.

  9. Alternative strategies: a better alternative.

    PubMed

    Doody, Dennis

    2010-05-01

    Alternatives can be defined as being any financial asset other than traditional stocks and bonds. They include marketable alternatives, private capital, and equity real estate. There are two primary reasons for investing in alternatives: the potential for greater return and the opportunity to diversify a portfolio. Although alternatives were challenged in the highly volatile environment that existed in 2008 and early 2009, they generally lived up to expectations.

  10. Alternate wetting and drying of rice reduced CH4 emissions but triggered N2O peaks in a clayey soil of central Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing CH4 and N2O emissions from rice cropping systems while sustaining production levels with less water requires a better understanding of the key processes involved. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation is one promising practice that has been shown to reduce CH4 emissions. However, li...

  11. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  12. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  13. Remediation of contaminated soils and sediments using Daramend bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Burwell, S.W.; Bucens, P.G.; Seech, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    Soils and sediments containing polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy oils, chlorinated phenols, pesticides, herbicides and phthalates, either individually or in combination, have been difficult to remediate in the past. Not only the species of contaminant, but contaminant concentrations were roadblocks to successful use of bioremediation. Daramend{sup Tm} remediation has removed many of these obstacles through extensive research. Bench-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale demonstrations have been conducted at a variety of industrial sites. At a manufactured gas site, 295 days of Daramend remediation reduced concentrations of chrysene and fluoranthene from 38.9 mg/kg to 5.9 mg/kg and 84.6 mg/kg to 7.8 mg/kg respectively. Elsewhere, the total PAH concentration in a silty soil was reduced from 1,442 mg/kg to 36 mg/kg. Concentrations of even the most refractory PAHs (e.g. pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene) were reduced to below the established clean-up guidelines. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel fuel) have also been reduced from 8,700 mg/kg to 34 mg/kg after 182 days of treatment. Similarly, in a clay soil contaminated by crude oil processing, the concentrations of high molecular weight aliphatic hydrocarbons were rapidly reduced (138 days) to below the remediation criteria. Demonstrations with wood treatment site soils have proven Daramend remediation effective in enhancing the target compound degradation rates. Soils containing 2170 mg PCP/kg were shown to contain only 11 mg PCP/kg after 280 days of Darmend remediation. The issue of toxicity of soil containing increased amounts of pentachlorophenols was solved. Performance data collected during these projects indicate that Daramend remediation provides a cost effective method for clean-up of soils and sediments containing a variety of organic compounds.

  14. Growing Up and Cleaning Up: The Environmental Kuznets Curve Redux

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Rachel S.; Ruth, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Borrowing from the Kuznets curve literature, researchers have coined the term “environmental Kuznets curve” or EKC to characterize the relationship between pollution levels and income: pollution levels will increase with income but some threshold of income will eventually be reached, beyond which pollution levels will decrease. The link between the original Kuznets curve, which posited a similar relationship between income and inequality, and its pollution-concerned offspring lies primarily with the shape of both curves (an upside-down U) and the central role played by income change. Although the EKC literature has burgeoned over the past several years, few concrete conclusions have been drawn, the main themes of the literature have remained constant, and no consensus has been reached regarding the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve. EKC research has used a variety of types of data and a range of geographical units to examine the effects of income levels on pollution. Changes in pollution levels might also be at least partly explained by countries’ position in the demographic transition and their general population structure, however little research has included this important aspect in the analysis. In addition, few analyses confine themselves to an evaluation for one country of the long-term relationship between income and pollution. Using United States CO2 emissions as well as demographic, employment, trade and energy price data, this paper seeks to highlight the potential impact of population and economic structure in explaining the relationship between income and pollution levels. PMID:25214678

  15. Growing Up and Cleaning Up: The Environmental Kuznets Curve Redux.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Rachel S; Ruth, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Borrowing from the Kuznets curve literature, researchers have coined the term "environmental Kuznets curve" or EKC to characterize the relationship between pollution levels and income: pollution levels will increase with income but some threshold of income will eventually be reached, beyond which pollution levels will decrease. The link between the original Kuznets curve, which posited a similar relationship between income and inequality, and its pollution-concerned offspring lies primarily with the shape of both curves (an upside-down U) and the central role played by income change. Although the EKC literature has burgeoned over the past several years, few concrete conclusions have been drawn, the main themes of the literature have remained constant, and no consensus has been reached regarding the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve. EKC research has used a variety of types of data and a range of geographical units to examine the effects of income levels on pollution. Changes in pollution levels might also be at least partly explained by countries' position in the demographic transition and their general population structure, however little research has included this important aspect in the analysis. In addition, few analyses confine themselves to an evaluation for one country of the long-term relationship between income and pollution. Using United States CO2 emissions as well as demographic, employment, trade and energy price data, this paper seeks to highlight the potential impact of population and economic structure in explaining the relationship between income and pollution levels.

  16. Training Workers for Environmental Clean-Up Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Describes the International Union of Operating Engineers (IUOE) Hazmat Training Program (Beckley, WV). It is the largest program in the nation for training skilled workers to safely handle toxic and hazardous wastes. This program has produced more than 450 certified instructors, who, in turn, have trained more than 18,000 workers. (LP)

  17. San Diego perspective on UST clean-ups

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1994, CalEPA State Water Resources Control Board (State Board) contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/University of California (LLNL/UC) to review the current UST regulatory framework and cleanup process. As a result of their review, LLNL/UC recommended changes to expedite the cleanup process at leaking UST sites. The LLNL/UC report concludes that natural attenuation of petroleum is an important factor in stabilizing plumes and may be the only remedial activity necessary in the absence of the source. After a review of existing literature and a study of selected leaking UST cases primarily from Coastal Range sedimentary or valley alluvium hydrogeochemical provinces, the LLNL/UC report found that petroleum plumes tend to stabilize close to the source, generally occur in shallow groundwater, and rarely impact drinking water wells in the state. The study and report recommendations focused solely on fuel petroleum hydrocarbon constituents.

  18. MSO spent salt clean-up recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M G; Brummond, W A; Hipple, D L; Hsu, P C; Summers, L J; Von Holtz, E H; Wang, F T

    1997-02-01

    An effective process has been developed to separate metals, mineral residues, and radionuclides from spent salt, a secondary waste generated by Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). This process includes salt dissolution, pH adjustment, chemical reduction and/or sulfiding, filtration, ion exchange, and drying. The process uses dithionite to reduce soluble chromate and/or sulfiding agent to suppress solubilities of metal compounds in water. This process is capable of reducing the secondary waste to less than 5% of its original weight. It is a low temperature, aqueous process and has been demonstrated in the laboratory [1].

  19. Novel Sorbent to Clean Up Biogas for CHPs

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gökhan O.; Jayataman, Ambalavanan; Schaefer, Matthew; Ware, Michael; Hunt, Jennifer; Dobek, Frank

    2015-05-30

    In this project, TDA Research Inc. (TDA) has developed low-cost (on a per unit volume of gas processed basis), high-capacity expendable sorbents that can remove both the H2S and organic sulfur species in biogas to the ppb levels. The proposed sorbents will operate downstream of a bulk desulfurization system as a polishing bed to provide an essentially sulfur-free gas to a fuel cell (or any other application that needs a completely sulfur-free feed). Our sorbents use a highly dispersed mixed metal oxides active phase with desired modifiers prepared over on a mesoporous support. The support structure allows the large organic sulfur compounds (such as the diethyl sulfide and dipropyl sulfide phases with a large kinetic diameter) to enter the sorbent pores so that they can be adsorbed and removed from the gas stream.

  20. Wet-air oxidation cleans up black wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Sterling Organics produces the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) at its Dudley, England, plant. The wastewater from the batch process contains intermediates such as para-aminophenol (PAP) and byproducts such as thiosulfates, sulfites and sulfides. To stay ahead of increasingly strict environmental legislation, Sterling Organics installed a wet-air oxidation system at the Dudley facility in August 1992. The system is made by Zimpro Environmental Inc. (Rothschild, Wis.). Zimpro's wet-air oxidation system finds a way around the limitations of purely chemical or physical processes. In the process, compressed air at elevated temperature and pressure oxidizes the process intermediates and byproducts and removes the color from the wastewater.

  1. Cleaning up Trumpet Sound: Some Paths to Better Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingara, James J.

    2004-01-01

    Of all the factors used to assess trumpet players, the one that distinguishes the established professional from the student is sound quality. While a good sound may be called "full," "rich," or "dark," poor sound is often described as "constricted," "tight," "thin," or "fuzzy." Although students' concept of good sound is important, many times…

  2. Absorbent agents for clean-up of liquid hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Waldmann, J.J.

    1993-08-24

    A method is described for absorbing liquid hydrocarbon from a liquid hydrocarbon-contaminated substrate comprising applying to said contaminated substrate an effective amount of a chemical absorbent composition of formula: A[sub m]B[sub n]C[sub p] wherein A[sub m] is an acid leached bentonite in a form of hydrous silicate of alumina modified by a hydrophobic alkyl (C[sub 12]-C[sub 24]) amine which has been double protonized by an aliphatic acid with C[sub 1]-C[sub 18] carbon atoms in which m = 0 to 100% by weight of the composition; B[sub n] is a modified aminoplast resin comprised of cyanoguanidine-melamine-urea-formaldehyde in a foam form in which n is 0 to 100% by weight; and C[sub p] is a siliceous support-modified hydrophobic material in which p is 0 to 100% by weight; provided that at least one of m and n is a positive numerical value.

  3. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  4. Beyond Symbiosis: Cleaner Shrimp Clean Up in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Hutson, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to “client” organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  5. Cleaning up That Mess: A Framework for Classifying Educational Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherner, Todd; Dix , Judy; Lee, Corey

    2014-01-01

    As tablet technologies continue to evolve, the emergence of educational applications (apps) is impacting the work of teacher educators. Beyond online lists of best apps for education and recommendations from colleagues, teacher educators have few resources available to support their teaching of how to select educational apps. In response, this…

  6. Growing Up and Cleaning Up: The Environmental Kuznets Curve Redux.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Rachel S; Ruth, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Borrowing from the Kuznets curve literature, researchers have coined the term "environmental Kuznets curve" or EKC to characterize the relationship between pollution levels and income: pollution levels will increase with income but some threshold of income will eventually be reached, beyond which pollution levels will decrease. The link between the original Kuznets curve, which posited a similar relationship between income and inequality, and its pollution-concerned offspring lies primarily with the shape of both curves (an upside-down U) and the central role played by income change. Although the EKC literature has burgeoned over the past several years, few concrete conclusions have been drawn, the main themes of the literature have remained constant, and no consensus has been reached regarding the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve. EKC research has used a variety of types of data and a range of geographical units to examine the effects of income levels on pollution. Changes in pollution levels might also be at least partly explained by countries' position in the demographic transition and their general population structure, however little research has included this important aspect in the analysis. In addition, few analyses confine themselves to an evaluation for one country of the long-term relationship between income and pollution. Using United States CO2 emissions as well as demographic, employment, trade and energy price data, this paper seeks to highlight the potential impact of population and economic structure in explaining the relationship between income and pollution levels. PMID:25214678

  7. Background clean-up in Brillouin microspectroscopy of scattering medium.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhaokai; Traverso, Andrew J; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2014-03-10

    Brillouin spectroscopy is an emerging tool for microscopic optical imaging as it allows for non-contact, non-invasive, direct assessment of the elastic properties of materials. However, strong elastic scattering and stray light from various sources often contaminate the Brillouin spectrum. A molecular absorption cell was introduced into the virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) based Brillouin spectroscopy setup to absorb the Rayleigh component, which resulted in a substantial improvement of the Brillouin spectrum quality.

  8. Background clean-up in Brillouin microspectroscopy of scattering medium

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhaokai; Traverso, Andrew J.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is an emerging tool for microscopic optical imaging as it allows for non-contact, non-invasive, direct assessment of the elastic properties of materials. However, strong elastic scattering and stray light from various sources often contaminate the Brillouin spectrum. A molecular absorption cell was introduced into the virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) based Brillouin spectroscopy setup to absorb the Rayleigh component, which resulted in a substantial improvement of the Brillouin spectrum quality. PMID:24663880

  9. News from Online: Cleaning Up--Soap, Detergent, and More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Carolyn Sweeney

    2002-01-01

    Provides a guide to web resources on cleaning and hygiene. Answers the questions, What do you want to clean--your hair? your carpet? your rusty lawn furniture? Develops special products for different tasks. Focuses on products to use and the environmental impact of our choices. (MM)

  10. 75 FR 62923 - WRC-07 Table Clean-up Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...-Federal space stations) to the bottom of the cell in the non-Federal Table in the bands 148-149.9, 400.15... is also allocated to the meteorological-satellite service (space-to-Earth) on a primary basis,...

  11. Cleaning up: Colleges Do Their Part to Revitalize the Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2011-01-01

    When the deepwater horizon offshore oil drilling rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010, 11 crewmen were killed; the accident led to the largest oil spill in U.S. history. Forty workers on the rig managed to escape the catastrophe, thanks largely to a safety-training program they had taken at community colleges in the Louisiana Community…

  12. Rehabilitative bodywork: cleaning up the dirty work of homecare.

    PubMed

    Meldgaard Hansen, Agnete

    2016-09-01

    Care work for elderly people has been characterised as dirty work, owing to its proximity to the (dys)functions and discharges of aged bodies and the notions of disease, decay and death associated with the idea of old age. However, a wave of reform programmes in Danish municipalities promoting rehabilitative care practices aiming to empower, train and activate elderly citizens provides opportunities for homecare workers to renegotiate their status and reconstruct their work and occupational identities with a cleaner and more optimistic image. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in two Danish homecare units, this article analyses how rehabilitative care practices, drawing on a narrative of the third age, provide an optimistic and anti-ageist framing of homecare work that informs the development of new occupational identities for care workers as coaches rather than carers in relation to citizens. Furthermore, rehabilitation efforts change the bodywork of care, rendering it more distanced and physically passive, and rehabilitation efforts also involve extensive motivational work aiming to help citizens to see themselves as capable, resourceful and self-reliant. However, while rehabilitation efforts become a new resource in care workers' taint management; they also entail potentially negative consequences in terms of responsibilising and disciplinary approaches to elderly citizens. PMID:27132631

  13. Rodent Control: Seal Up! Trap Up! Clean Up!

    MedlinePlus

    ... successfully trapping rodents in and around the home. Seal Up! Seal up holes inside and outside the home to ... infested areas. Before cleaning, trap the rodents and seal up any entryways to ensure that no rodents ...

  14. Cleaning Up the Seas. UNEP Environment Brief No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    While the open oceans remain relatively unpolluted, many coastal areas are suffering from oil, sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural run-off. This document presents some of the key facts related to these kinds of water pollution. It focuses on the major sources of contamination in the world's seas, and provides an overview of how these…

  15. GaAs clean up studied with synchrotron radiation photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallarida, Massimo; Adelmann, Christoph; Delabie, Annelies; van Elshocht, Sven; Caymax, Matty; Schmeisser, Dieter

    2012-12-01

    In this contribution we describe the chemical changes at the surface of GaAs upon adsorption of tri-methyl-aluminum (TMA). TMA is used to grow Al2O3 with atomic layer deposition (ALD) usually using H2O as oxygen source. Recently, it was pointed out that the adsorption of TMA on various III-V surfaces reduces the native oxide, allowing the growth of an abrupt III-V/High-K interface with reduced density of defects. Synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SR-PES) is a powerful method to characterize surfaces and interfaces of many materials, as it is capable to determine their chemical composition as well as the electronic properties. We performed in-situ SR-PES measurements after exposing a GaAs surface to TMA pulses at about 250°C. Upon using the possibility of tuning the incident photon energy we compared the Ga3d spectra at 41 eV, 71 eV, 91 eV and 121 eV, as well as the As3d at 71 eV and 91 eV. Finally, we show that using SR-PES allows a further understanding of the surface composition, which is usually not accessible with other techniques.

  16. DOE and Public Involvement A Key to Successful Clean Up

    SciTech Connect

    Sarten, S.

    2008-07-01

    The combination of two vital elements in the Oak Ridge, TN area are the Department of Energy and the education of the public, at any age, of the necessary work that is and has been going on this region of the country since the setting aside of land during the World War II era. A wide variety of interested citizens from surrounding counties make up a group of individuals that bring different elements of education and involvement to form a committee of whose interest is the Department of Energy's handling of contaminated material. The effort of one of the committees on this board has given the public a resource of material to develop a better understanding of the history and stewardship efforts taking place at the Oak Ridge Reservation. (authors)

  17. Telescope to clean up echo of Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Michele

    2008-12-01

    One of a pair of telescopes that will help in the search for signatures of gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) will be inaugurated next month at the Teide Mountain Observatory on the island of Tenerife in Spain. The project, named Quijote and costing €1.5m, will produce a map of photon polarization of the CMB at frequencies of 10-30 GHz. Although it will not directly detect gravitational waves, Quijote will characterize the signals that contaminate CMB measurements. The second, larger telescope will open later next year.

  18. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections.

  19. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

  20. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination: the heritage of industrial development Contamination is only a part of a whole set of soil degradation processes, but it is one of paramount importance since soil pollution greatly influences the quality of water, food and human health. Soil contamination has been identified as an important issue for action in the European strategy for soil protection, it has been estimated that 3.5 million of sites are potentially contaminated in Europe. Contaminated soils have been essentially discovered in industrial sites landfills and energy production plants, but accumulation of heavy metals and organic compounds can be found also in agricultural land . Remediation strategies. from incineration to bioremediation The assessment of soil contamination is followed by remedial action. The remediation of contaminated soils started using consolidates technologies (incineration inertization etc.) previously employed in waste treatment,. This has contributed to consider a contaminated soil as an hazardous waste. This rough approximation was unfortunately transferred in many legislations and on this basis soil knowledge have been used only marginally in the clean up procedures. For many years soil quality has been identified by a value of concentration of a contaminant and excavation and landfill disposal of soil has been largely used. In the last years the knowledge of remediation technology has rapidly grown, at present many treatment processes appear to be really feasible at field scale, and soil remediation is now based on risk assessment procedures. Innovative technologies, largely dependent on soil properties, such as in situ chemical oxidation, electroremediation, bioventing, soil vapor extraction etc. have been successfully applied. Hazardous organic compounds are commonly treated by biological technologies, biorememdiation and phytoremediation, being the last partially applied also for metals. Technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on

  1. Extraction and analysis of avermectines in agricultural soils by microwave assisted extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Raich-Montiu, J; Prat, M D; Granados, M

    2011-07-01

    A method for the analysis of avermectines (abamectine, doramectine and ivermectine) in soils has been developed. The analytes are extracted with acetonitrile/water (90:10) by using microwave assisted extraction. The extract is cleaned-up through solid phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridges and analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Separation is obtained in 3 min. Extraction of analytes from the soil, that is the most critical point, has been studied in detail, and the effect of soil composition and aging time on the analytes recovery has been investigated. PMID:21641416

  2. Interrupting transmission of soil-transmitted helminths: a study protocol for cluster randomised trials evaluating alternative treatment strategies and delivery systems in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon J; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Halliday, Katherine E; Njenga, Sammy M; Mcharo, Carlos; Gichuki, Paul M; Wasunna, Beatrice; Kihara, Jimmy H; Njomo, Doris; Alusala, Dorcas; Chiguzo, Athuman; Turner, Hugo C; Teti, Caroline; Gwayi-Chore, Claire; Nikolay, Birgit; Truscott, James E; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Balabanova, Dina; Griffiths, Ulla K; Freeman, Matthew C; Allen, Elizabeth; Pullan, Rachel L; Anderson, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, an unprecedented emphasis has been given to the control of neglected tropical diseases, including soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The mainstay of STH control is school-based deworming (SBD), but mathematical modelling has shown that in all but very low transmission settings, SBD is unlikely to interrupt transmission, and that new treatment strategies are required. This study seeks to answer the question: is it possible to interrupt the transmission of STH, and, if so, what is the most cost-effective treatment strategy and delivery system to achieve this goal? Methods and analysis Two cluster randomised trials are being implemented in contrasting settings in Kenya. The interventions are annual mass anthelmintic treatment delivered to preschool- and school-aged children, as part of a national SBD programme, or to entire communities, delivered by community health workers. Allocation to study group is by cluster, using predefined units used in public health provision—termed community units (CUs). CUs are randomised to one of three groups: receiving either (1) annual SBD; (2) annual community-based deworming (CBD); or (3) biannual CBD. The primary outcome measure is the prevalence of hookworm infection, assessed by four cross-sectional surveys. Secondary outcomes are prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, intensity of species infections and treatment coverage. Costs and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated. Among a random subsample of participants, worm burden and proportion of unfertilised eggs will be assessed longitudinally. A nested process evaluation, using semistructured interviews, focus group discussions and a stakeholder analysis, will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and scale-up of each delivery system. Ethics and dissemination Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by the ethics committees of the Kenya Medical Research Institute and National Ethics Review Committee, and

  3. [Alternative medicine].

    PubMed

    Mitello, L

    2001-01-01

    In a critical situation of world official medicine, we can find different alternatives therapies: natural therapy traditional and complementary, survival sometimes, of antique stiles and conditions of life. New sciences presented for them empiricism to the margin of official science. Doctors and sorcerer do the best to defeat the horrible virus that contribute to build symbols categories of sick. The alternatives put dangerously in game the scientific myth of experiment and exhume, if they got lost, antique remedy, almost preserved like cultural wreck very efficient where the medicine is impotent. Besides alternatives and complementary therapies, that are remedies not recognized conventional from official medicine, there are the homeopathic, phytotherapy, pranotherapy, nutritional therapy, the ayurveda, the yoga, ecc. Italians and internationals research show a composite picture of persons that apply that therapies. Object of this work is to understand and know the way that sick lighten their sufferings and role that have o that can assume the nurses to assist this sick. PMID:12146072

  4. Cosmic alternatives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy and Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Detection of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in a Post-Treatment Setting in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kepha, Stella; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods for detection of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in a post-treatment setting in western Kenya. A cost analysis also explores the cost implications of collecting samples during school surveys when compared to household surveys. Methods Stool samples were collected from children (n = 652) attending 18 schools in Bungoma County and diagnosed by the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC coprological methods. Sensitivity and additional diagnostic performance measures were analyzed using Bayesian latent class modeling. Financial and economic costs were calculated for all survey and diagnostic activities, and cost per child tested, cost per case detected and cost per STH infection correctly classified were estimated. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of various survey parameters on cost estimates. Results Both diagnostic methods exhibited comparable sensitivity for detection of any STH species over single and consecutive day sampling: 52.0% for single day Kato-Katz; 49.1% for single-day Mini-FLOTAC; 76.9% for consecutive day Kato-Katz; and 74.1% for consecutive day Mini-FLOTAC. Diagnostic performance did not differ significantly between methods for the different STH species. Use of Kato-Katz with school-based sampling was the lowest cost scenario for cost per child tested ($10.14) and cost per case correctly classified ($12.84). Cost per case detected was lowest for Kato-Katz used in community-based sampling ($128.24). Sensitivity analysis revealed the cost of case detection for any STH decreased non-linearly as prevalence rates increased and was influenced by the number of samples collected. Conclusions The Kato-Katz method was comparable in diagnostic sensitivity to the Mini-FLOTAC method, but afforded greater cost-effectiveness. Future work is required to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of STH surveillance in different settings. PMID

  6. Alternative Conceptualizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in…

  7. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  8. Alternative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

  9. Phytoextraction and phytoexcretion of Cd by the leaves of Tamarix smyrnensis growing on contaminated non-saline and saline soils

    SciTech Connect

    Manousaki, Eleni; Kadukova, Jana; Papadantonakis, Nikolaos; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2008-03-15

    Phytoremediation and more specifically phytoextraction, is an alternative restoration strategy for the clean up of heavy metal contaminated soils. Phytoextraction can only be successful if suitable plant species colonize the contaminated area, extract the toxic substances and accumulate them in their above ground tissues. In this study, the salt cedar Tamarix smyrnensis that is a widespread salt-tolerant plant in the Mediterranean region has been investigated. A pot experiment is conducted with T. smyrnensis grown in polluted soil with 16 ppm of cadmium and at three different salt concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 3.0% NaCl) for a 10-week period. It took place in an open-air area with natural light, at ambient temperature and humidity in an effort to keep the plants under conditions as similar as possible to those in the field. However, care was taken not to let them be rained on. Temperature ranged from 19 to 50 deg. C with 33 and 21 deg. C being the average day and night temperature, respectively. Humidity ranged from 28% to 87% with a 13-14 h photoperiod. The specific aims of this work are to investigate the accumulation of cadmium via root uptake at different saline conditions and cadmium excretion through salt glands on the surface of the leaves as a probable detoxification mechanism of the plant. Furthermore, measurements of chlorophyll content, biomass, and shoot length are used to evaluate the potential of the plant for the removal of cadmium from contaminated saline and non-saline soils. The experimental data suggest that increased soil salinity results in an increase of the cadmium uptake by T. smyrnensis. Analysis of white salt crystals taken from glandular tissue confirmed the fact that this plant excretes cadmium through its salt glands on the surface of the leaves as a possible detoxification mechanism in order to resist metal toxicity. Excreted cadmium is again released into the environment and it is redeposited on the top soil. Furthermore, increased

  10. Determination of selected polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworm (Eisenia fetida) using a QuEChERS-based method and gas chromatography with tandem MS.

    PubMed

    He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wenwen; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-11-01

    Soil and earthworms are important objects in soil pollution assessment and environmental behavior and toxicity study for polychlorinated biphenyls. Accelerated solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction are generally required for the extraction and clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworm, which are tedious and time-consuming. In this work, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure combined with gas chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of 20 selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in soil and earthworm. Different extraction times, solvents, and clean-up adsorbents were compared and optimized. The average recoveries from spiked soils ranged between 70 and 120% with satisfactory relative standard deviations for all the polychlorinated biphenyls. In earthworm, the recoveries of polychlorinated biphenyls 180, 183, and 189 were relatively low (< 70% in some spiking levels) compared to that of the other polychlorinated biphenyls. The limits of quantification were in the range of 0.01-0.05 ng/g. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 66 agricultural soils. To our knowledge, a combined method based on QuEChERS for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworms has not been published before. The procedure proved to be simple, sensitive, efficient, and environmentally friendly.

  11. Influence of low- and high-frequency heating on biodegrading microorganisms in soil: microbial degradation.

    PubMed

    Roland, Ulf; Holzer, Frank; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The influence of low-frequency (50 Hz) resistive and high-frequency (13.56 MHz, radio-frequency) dielectric heating in comparison to conventional heating on the microbial degradation of pollutants in soil was studied. The investigation of the biodegradation of model substances (benzoic acid, acetic acid, glucose, sodium acetate) added to a standard soil showed no significant influence of the electrical heating methods when compared with samples heated to the same temperature in a water bath. Therefore, a hindrance of the microbial degradation could be excluded as it was done for soil respiration in a previous study. This finding is especially relevant for the application of these electrical heating methods for thermally enhanced soil bioremediation as an option for making in situ or ex situ clean-up processes more efficient.

  12. Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in soil and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Reichenauer, Thomas G; Germida, James J

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology for the clean-up of sites contaminated with hazardous chemicals. The term phytoremediation refers to a number of technologies that use photoautotrophic vascular plants for the remediation of sites contaminated with inorganic and organic contaminants. Phytoremediation of organic contaminants can be organized by considering 1) the green liver concept, which elucidates the metabolism of contaminants in planta versus that of contaminants ex planta (e.g. rhizosphere), 2) processes that lead to complete degradation (mineralization) of contaminants as opposed to those that only lead to partial degradation or transformation, and 3) active plant uptake versus passive processes (e.g. sorption). Understanding of these processes needs an interdisciplinary approach involving chemists, biologists, soil scientists, and environmentalists. This Review presents the basic concepts of phytoremediation of organic contaminants in soil and groundwater using selected contaminants as examples.

  13. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  14. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use.

  15. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  16. Vertical distribution of radiocesium in soils of the area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplev, A. V.; Golosov, V. N.; Yoschenko, V. I.; Nanba, K.; Onda, Y.; Takase, T.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Presented are results of the study of radiocesium vertical distribution in the soils of the irrigation pond catchments in the near field 0.25 to 8 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, on sections of the Niida River floodplain, and in a forest ecosystem typical of the territory contaminated after the accident. It is shown that the vertical migration of radiocesium in undisturbed forest and grassland soils in the zone affected by the Fukushima accident is faster than it was in the soils of the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP for a similar time interval after the accident. The effective dispersion coefficients in the Fukushima soils are several times higher than those for the Chernobyl soils. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone. In the forest soils the radiocesium dispersion is faster as compared to grassland soils, both in the Fukushima and Chernobyl zones. The study and analysis of the vertical distribution of the Fukushima origin radiocesium in the Niida gawa floodplain soils has made it possible to identify areas of contaminated sediment accumulation on the floodplain. The average accumulation rate for sediments at the study locations on the Niida gawa floodplain varied from 0.3 to 3.3 cm/year. Taking into account the sediments accumulation leading to an increase in the radiocesium inventory in alluvial soils is key for predicting redistribution of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima accident on the river catchments, as well as for decision-making on contaminated territories remediation and clean-up. Clean-up of alluvial soils does not seem to be worthwhile because of the following accumulation of contaminated sediments originating from more contaminated areas, including the exclusion zone.

  17. When is a soil remediated? Comparison of biopiled and windrowed soils contaminated with bunker-fuel in a full-scale trial.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Frédéric; Al Awadi, Mohammed; Cowie, William; Mardlin, David; Pollard, Simon; Cunningham, Colin; Risdon, Graeme; Arthur, Paul; Semple, Kirk T; Paton, Graeme I

    2010-10-01

    A six month field scale study was carried out to compare windrow turning and biopile techniques for the remediation of soil contaminated with bunker C fuel oil. End-point clean-up targets were defined by human risk assessment and ecotoxicological hazard assessment approaches. Replicate windrows and biopiles were amended with either nutrients and inocula, nutrients alone or no amendment. In addition to fractionated hydrocarbon analysis, culturable microbial characterisation and soil ecotoxicological assays were performed. This particular soil, heavy in texture and historically contaminated with bunker fuel was more effectively remediated by windrowing, but coarser textures may be more amendable to biopiling. This trial reveals the benefit of developing risk and hazard based approaches in defining end-point bioremediation of heavy hydrocarbons when engineered biopile or windrow are proposed as treatment option.

  18. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

  19. Process for reduction of volume of contaminated soil by compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Johanan, W.L.

    1994-12-31

    Burial costs for low-level radioactive waste are assessed by the volume of the waste. These costs are presently at $10 per cubic foot and will continue to increase with time. A reduction in waste volume can be directly converted to a reduction in burial costs. A large amount of low-level contaminated soil exists throughout the DOE complex. The Nuclear Complex Modernization Task Force has identified over 5 million cubic feet of contaminated soil for eventual clean-up at the Mound site ($50,000,000 to bury at FY 1991 costs). By using a combination of a rock separator (trommel), crusher, clay soil compactor, automatic loading system, specially designed dust enclosures, and specifically designed containers for both on-site haulage and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the total waste volume, and burial cost, can be reduced by up to 30% by compacting the soil into high-density bricks (depending upon the compaction quality of the soil). Several tests have been performed on Mound`s cold on-site soils, with resulting densities of 131 pounds per cubic foot. When this is compared to normal LSA metal box filling of 80--90 pounds per cubic foot, one can readily see the savings.

  20. In situ recycling of contaminated soil uses bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Shevlin, P.J.; Reel, D.A.

    1996-04-01

    OxyChem Pipeline Operations, primarily an ethylene and propylene products mover, has determined that substantial savings can be realized by adopting a bioremediation maintenance and recycling approach to hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. By this method, the soil can be recycled in situ, or in containers. To implement the soil-recycling program, OxyChem elected to use a soil remediator and natural absorbent product, Oil Snapper. This field maintenance material, based on an Enhanced Urea Technology, provides a diet to stimulate the growth of hydrocarbon-eating microbes. It works well either with indigenous soil microbes or with commercial microbes. The product is carried in field vehicles, which makes it immediately available when leaks or spills are discovered. Procedure for clean-up is to apply product and mix it into affected soil. Thus the contaminant is contained, preventing further migration; the contaminant is dispersed throughout the product, making it more accessible to the microbes; nutrients are immediately available to the microbes; and the material contributes aeration and moisture-retention properties.

  1. Community assembly: alternative stable states or alternative transient states?

    PubMed Central

    Fukami, Tadashi; Nakajima, Mifuyu

    2011-01-01

    The concept of alternative stable states has long been a dominant framework for studying the influence of historical contingency in community assembly. This concept focuses on stable states, yet many real communities are kept in a transient state by disturbance, and the utility of predictions for stable states in explaining transient states remains unclear. Using a simple model of plant community assembly, we show that the conditions under which historical contingency affects community assembly can differ greatly for stable versus transient states. Differences arise because the contribution of such factors as mortality rate, environmental heterogeneity and plant-soil feedback to historical contingency changes as community assembly proceeds. We also show that transient states can last for a long time relative to immigration rate and generation time. These results argue for a conceptual shift of focus from alternative stable states to alternative transient states for understanding historical contingency in community assembly. PMID:21790934

  2. Water based microwave assisted extraction of thiamethoxam residues from vegetables and soil for determination by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Rajib; Singh, Shashi Bala; Kulshrestha, Gita

    2012-02-01

    A microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method for determination of thiamethoxam residues in vegetable and soil samples was standardized. Insecticide spiked vegetable and soil samples were extracted by MAE using water as an extraction solvent, cleaned up by solid phase extraction and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography on photodiode array detector. The recoveries of the insecticide from various vegetable (tomato, radish, brinjal, okra, French been, sugarbeet) and soil (sandy loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay loam, loamy sand) samples at 0.1 and 0.5 μg g(-1) spiking levels ranged from 79.8% to 86.2% and from 82.1% to 87.0%, respectively. The recoveries by MAE were comparable to those obtained by the conventional blender and shake-flask extraction techniques. The precision of the MAE method was demonstrated by relative standard deviations of <3% for the insecticide.

  3. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P.; Clark, John M.; Reynolds, Stuart E.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Feil, Edward J.; Urrutia, Araxi O.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  4. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation.

  5. Metagenomic Analysis of the Bioremediation of Diesel-Contaminated Canadian High Arctic Soils

    PubMed Central

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Beaumier, Danielle; Greer, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    As human activity in the Arctic increases, so does the risk of hydrocarbon pollution events. On site bioremediation of contaminated soil is the only feasible clean up solution in these remote areas, but degradation rates vary widely between bioremediation treatments. Most previous studies have focused on the feasibility of on site clean-up and very little attention has been given to the microbial and functional communities involved and their ecology. Here, we ask the question: which microorganisms and functional genes are abundant and active during hydrocarbon degradation at cold temperature? To answer this question, we sequenced the soil metagenome of an ongoing bioremediation project in Alert, Canada through a time course. We also used reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) to quantify the expression of several hydrocarbon-degrading genes. Pseudomonas species appeared as the most abundant organisms in Alert soils right after contamination with diesel and excavation (t = 0) and one month after the start of the bioremediation treatment (t = 1m), when degradation rates were at their highest, but decreased after one year (t = 1y), when residual soil hydrocarbons were almost depleted. This trend was also reflected in hydrocarbon degrading genes, which were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria at t = 0 and t = 1m and with Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria at t = 1y. RT-qPCR assays confirmed that Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus species actively expressed hydrocarbon degradation genes in Arctic biopile soils. Taken together, these results indicated that biopile treatment leads to major shifts in soil microbial communities, favoring aerobic bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons. PMID:22253877

  6. Metagenomic analysis of the bioremediation of diesel-contaminated Canadian high arctic soils.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Beaumier, Danielle; Greer, Charles W

    2012-01-01

    As human activity in the Arctic increases, so does the risk of hydrocarbon pollution events. On site bioremediation of contaminated soil is the only feasible clean up solution in these remote areas, but degradation rates vary widely between bioremediation treatments. Most previous studies have focused on the feasibility of on site clean-up and very little attention has been given to the microbial and functional communities involved and their ecology. Here, we ask the question: which microorganisms and functional genes are abundant and active during hydrocarbon degradation at cold temperature? To answer this question, we sequenced the soil metagenome of an ongoing bioremediation project in Alert, Canada through a time course. We also used reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) to quantify the expression of several hydrocarbon-degrading genes. Pseudomonas species appeared as the most abundant organisms in Alert soils right after contamination with diesel and excavation (t = 0) and one month after the start of the bioremediation treatment (t = 1m), when degradation rates were at their highest, but decreased after one year (t = 1y), when residual soil hydrocarbons were almost depleted. This trend was also reflected in hydrocarbon degrading genes, which were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria at t = 0 and t = 1m and with Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria at t = 1y. RT-qPCR assays confirmed that Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus species actively expressed hydrocarbon degradation genes in Arctic biopile soils. Taken together, these results indicated that biopile treatment leads to major shifts in soil microbial communities, favoring aerobic bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons.

  7. Interdependence of soil and agricultural practice in a two - year phytoremediation in situ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaichi, Eucharia; Onyeike, Eugene; Frac, Magdalena; Iwo, Godknows

    2016-04-01

    A two - year plant - based soil clean - up was carried out at a crude oil spill agricultural site in a Niger Delta community in Nigeria to access further clean - up potentials of Cymbopogon citratus. Applied diagnostic ratios identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs. Up to 90.8% sequestration was obtained for carcinogenic PAHs especially Benz (a) pyrene in a 2 - phase manner. A community level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to differentiate spatial and temporal changes in the soil microbial communities. In relation to pollution, soil conditioning notably decreased the lag times and showed mixed effects for colour development rates, maximum absorbance and the overall community pattern. For rate and utilization of different carbon substrates in BIOLOG wells, after day 3, in comparison to control soil communities, contamination with hydrocarbons and associated types increased amines and amides consumption. Consumption of carbohydrates in all polluted and unamended regimes decreased markedlyin comparison to those cultivated with C. citratus. We found a direct relationship between cellulose breakdown, measurable with B-glucosidase activity, organic matter content and CO2 realease within all soils in the present study. Organic amendment rendered most studied contaminants unavailable for uptake in preference to inorganic fertilizer in both study years. Generally, phytoremediation improved significantly the microbial community activity and thus would promote ecosystem restoration in relation to most patronised techniques. Supplementation with required nutrients, in a long - term design would present many ecological benefits. Keywords: Agricultural soils; Recovery; Hydrocarbon pollution; Ecology; Management practice.

  8. Predicting watershed acidification under alternate rainfall conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of alternate rainfall scenarios on acidification of a forested watershed subjected to chronic acidic deposition was assessed using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). The model was calibrated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, near Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. using measured soil properties, wet and dry deposition, and modeled hydrologic routing. Model forecast simulations were evaluated to compare alternate temporal averaging of rainfall inputs and variations in rainfall amount and seasonal distribution. Soil water alkalinity was predicted to decrease to substantially lower concentrations under lower rainfall compared with current or higher rainfall conditions. Soil water alkalinity was also predicted to decrease to lower levels when the majority of rainfall occurred during the growing season compared with other rainfall distributions. Changes in rainfall distribution that result in decreases in net soil water flux will temporarily delay acidification. Ultimately, however, decreased soil water flux will result in larger increases in soil- adsorbed sulfur and soil-water sulfate concentrations and decreases in alkalinity when compared to higher water flux conditions. Potential climate change resulting in significant changes in rainfall amounts, seasonal distribution of rainfall, or evapotranspiration will change net soil water flux and, consequently, will affect the dynamics of the acidification response to continued sulfate loading.

  9. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska.

    PubMed

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2013-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  10. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  11. Enzyumes for enhancing bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils. A brief review

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, C.Y.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1995-06-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, hundreds of thousands of underground storage tanks (and above-ground storage tanks) containing petroleum products and hazardous chemicals were installed. Many of these tanks either have been abandoned or have exceeded their useful lives and are leaking, thereby posing a serious threat to the nation`s surface and groundwater supplies, as well as to public health. Cleaning up releases of petroleum hydrocarbons or other organic chemicals in the subsurface environment is a real-world problem. Biological treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil is considered to be a relatively low-cost and safe technology; however, its potential for effectively treating recalcitrant wastes has not been fully explored. For millions of years, microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, actinomycete, protozoa, and others have performed the function of recycling organic matter from which new plant life can grow. This paper examines the biological treatment technology for cleaning up petroleum product-contaminated soils, with special emphasis on microbial enzyme systems for enhancing the rate of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Classifications and functions of enzymes, as well as the microbes, in degrading the organic contaminants are discussed. In addition, the weathering effect on biodegradation, types of hydrocarbon degraders, advantages associated with enzyme use, methods of enzyme extraction, and future research needs for development and evaluation of enzyme-assisted bioremediation are examined. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. An alternative tensiometer design for deep vadose zone monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, A. B.; Kandelous, M. M.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The conventional tensiometer is among the most accurate devices for soil water matric potential measurements, as well as for estimations of soil water flux from soil water potential gradients. Uncertainties associated with conventional tensiometers such as caused by ambient temperature effects and the draining of the tensiometer tube, as well as their limitation for deep soil monitoring has prevented their widespread use for vadose zone monitoring, despite their superior accuracy, in general. We introduce an alternative tensiometer design that offers the accuracy of the conventional tensiometer, while minimizing afore-mentioned uncertainties and limitations. The proposed alternative tensiometer largely eliminates temperature-induced diurnal fluctuations and uncertainties associated with the draining of the tensiometer tube, and removes the limitation in installation depth. In addition, the manufacturing costs of this alternative tensiometer design is close to that of the conventional tensiometer, while it is especially suited for monitoring of soil water potential gradients as required for soil water flux measurements.

  13. Determination of parabens and endocrine-disrupting alkylphenols in soil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following matrix solid-phase dispersion or in-column microwave-assisted extraction: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pérez, R A; Albero, B; Miguel, E; Sánchez-Brunete, C

    2012-03-01

    Two rapid methods were evaluated for the simultaneous extraction of seven parabens and two alkylphenols from soil based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Soil extracts were derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Extraction and clean-up of samples were carried out by both methods in a single step. A glass sample holder, inside the microwave cell, was used in MAE to allow the simultaneous extraction and clean-up of samples and shorten the MAE procedure. The detection limits achieved by MSPD were lower than those obtained by MAE because the presence of matrix interferences increased with this extraction method. The extraction yields obtained by MSPD and MAE for three different types of soils were compared. Both procedures showed good recoveries and sensitivity for the determination of parabens and alkylphenols in two of the soils assayed, however, only MSPD yielded good recoveries with the other soil. Finally, MSPD was applied to the analysis of soils collected in different sites of Spain. In most of the samples analyzed, methylparaben and butylparaben were detected at levels ranging from 1.21 to 8.04 ng g(-1) dry weight and 0.48 to 1.02 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively.

  14. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) as an alternative general method for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed.

    PubMed

    Pihlström, Tuija; Isaac, Giorgis; Waldebäck, Monica; Osterdahl, Bengt-Göran; Markides, Karin E

    2002-04-01

    A pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) multi-method has been developed for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed. The method was validated for 25 different pesticides and metabolites. The reliability and efficiency of PFE for extracting pesticide residues from rape seed was investigated. The traditional extraction solvent, hexane saturated with acetonitrile, was used at elevated temperature and pressure. With increased temperature, the extraction kinetics were improved but at the same time more co-extractives were obtained in the form of lipids. When 1 g of rape seed was extracted at temperatures from 60 degrees C to 150 degrees C, the lipid content extracted was found to be as high as 17-26%. An additional clean-up step was therefore required and lipid co-extractives were effectively removed by gel permeation chromatography. The interpretation of the chromatograms and the quantification of the results were satisfactorily improved by the removal of interfering lipids. The developed method was used to extract vinclozolin and iprodione from incurred samples, resulting in a concentration in accordance with the results using conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) between hexane and acetonitrile and also supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide. The results of the present study suggest that PEE is a good alternative extraction technique for the determination of pesticide residues in oil seed. Despite the necessity for a lipid-removal clean-up step, the PFE technique facilitated the extraction process by faster extractions and the possibility of automated analysis.

  15. Bioremediation of Petroleum and Radiological Contaminated Soils at the Savannah River Site: Laboratory to Field Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBINL.

    2004-06-07

    In the process of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations limited amounts of waste are generated containing petroleum, and radiological contaminated soils. Currently, this combination of radiological and petroleum contaminated waste does not have an immediate disposal route and is being stored in low activity vaults. SRS developed and implemented a successful plan for clean up of the petroleum portion of the soils in situ using simple, inexpensive, bioreactor technology. Treatment in a bioreactor removes the petroleum contamination from the soil without spreading radiological contamination to the environment. This bioreactor uses the bioventing process and bioaugmentation or the addition of the select hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Oxygen is usually the initial rate-limiting factor in the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Using the bioventing process allowed control of the supply of nutrients and moisture based on petroleum contamination concentrations and soil type. The results of this work have proven to be a safe and cost-effective means of cleaning up low level radiological and petroleum-contaminated soil. Many of the other elements of the bioreactor design were developed or enhanced during the demonstration of a ''biopile'' to treat the soils beneath a Polish oil refinery's waste disposal lagoons. Aerobic microorganisms were isolated from the aged refinery's acidic sludge contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twelve hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge. The predominant PAH degraders were tentatively identified as Achromobacter, Pseudomonas Burkholderia, and Sphingomonas spp. Several Ralstonia spp were also isolated that produce biosurfactants. Biosurfactants can enhance bioremediation by increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic contaminants including hydrocarbons. The results indicated that the diversity of acid-tolerant PAH-degrading microorganisms in acidic oil wastes may be much greater than previously

  16. Biodegradation of fipronil by Paracoccus sp. in different types of soil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajinder; Singh, Balwinder; Gupta, V K

    2012-05-01

    In the present studies potential of microorganisms isolated from the cotton fields was explored for the bioremediation of fipronil contaminated soils. The cultures of microbes were grown in Luria broth as shake culture maintained at 28°C. After that Dorn's broth enrichment culture supplemented with fipronil was used and isolated two bacterial cultures viz. Paracoccus sp. and Gamma Proteobacteria. The performance of both bacteria was evaluated for degradation of fipronil in soil. Paracoccus sp. was found better than the Gamma Proteobacteria as far as degradation of fipronil in soil is concerned. The samples of soil were extracted and cleaned up by following a standardized methodology. Fipronil was quantified by gas liquid chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer. The limit of quantification of fipronil was worked out to be 10 μg kg(-1). By using this methodology, the mean recoveries of fipronil in different types of soil were found to be more than 85%. The residues of fipronil were found to persist only up to 10 days in soils fortified with fipronil @ 20 μg kg(-1) and amended with Paracoccus sp. while in the soils fortified @ 80 μg kg(-1) fipronil, residues persisted up to 20, 30 and 30 days in loamy sand, sandy loam and clay loam, respectively. Therefore, the use of Paracoccus sp. can further be explored for the bioremediation of fipronil contaminated soils.

  17. Soil application of biochar produced from biomass grown on trace element contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Evangelou, Michael W H; Brem, Anette; Ugolini, Fabio; Abiven, Samuel; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-12-15

    Trace element (TE) contamination of soils is a worldwide problem. However, although not considered safe anymore for food production without clean-up, many of these soils may still be used to produce biomass for non-food purposes such as biochar. Exploring the suitability of such biochar for the amendment of low-fertility soil, we investigated growth and metal accumulation of ryegrass (Lolium perenne, var. Calibra) as well as soil microbial abundance on a non-contaminated soil after amendment with biochar from birch (Betula pendula) wood produced on TE contaminated soil in comparison to a treatment with birch wood biochar originating from non-contaminated soil. Biochars were produced from both feedstocks by pyrolysis at two temperatures: 450 and 700 °C. During the pyrolysis, in contrast to Cu, Fe, Mg, K, Mn and P, the elements Cd, Pb, S and Na volatilized. The root biomass of the biochar treated plants was lower than that of the non-amended plants, while that of the shoot was higher. Plant shoot K and Zn concentrations were increased significantly by up to 7- and 3.3-fold respectively. For P, Mg, Mn, Fe and Cu no significant increase in shoot concentration could be detected. Neither the TE-contaminated biochar, nor the non-contaminated biochar had adverse effect on the bacterial community of the soil.

  18. Soil macrofauna webmasters of ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The role of plant roots and microflora in shaping many ecosystem processes is generally appreciated in the contrary rho role of soil mcrofauna in this context is assumed to be negligible and rather anecdotic. But more than half of the litter fall is consumed by soil fauna and soil fauna can also consume and or translocation substantial amount of soil. Here we demonstrate on example of post mining chronosequences how site colonization by soil fauna affect composition of whole soil biota community, plant succession and soil formation. Filed and laboratory experiments show that decomposition of fauna feces may be sped up compare to litter at the very beginning but in long term fauna feces decompose slower than litter. This is also supported by micro morphological observation which shows that fauna feces form substantial part of soil. Fauna feces also induce lover or even negative priming effect when introduced in soil in comparison with litter that triggers positive priming effect. Laboratory experiment show that fauna effect is context sensitive and is more pronounced in systems already affected by soil fauna. Soil mixing by soil fauna consequently affect environmental conditions in soils such as water holding capacity or nutrient availability, it also affect composition of decomposer food web including microbial community (fungal bacterial ratio) which feed back in alternation of plant community composition during succession This fauna activity is not constant everywhere the higher effect of fauna activity on litter layer was observed in temperate soils of deciduous forests and with litter having CN between 20-30. In conclusion soil fauna use directly only small proportion of energy in the litter but can substantially affect soil carbon turnover, soil formation, decomposer food web and plant community.

  19. Bioremediation treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils: influencing parameters.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Masoud; Barabadi, Abbas; Barabady, Javad

    2014-10-01

    The Arctic environment is very vulnerable and sensitive to hydrocarbon pollutants. Soil bioremediation is attracting interest as a promising and cost-effective clean-up and soil decontamination technology in the Arctic regions. However, remoteness, lack of appropriate infrastructure, the harsh climatic conditions in the Arctic and some physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils may reduce the performance and limit the application of this technology. Therefore, understanding the weaknesses and bottlenecks in the treatment plans, identifying their associated hazards, and providing precautionary measures are essential to improve the overall efficiency and performance of a bioremediation strategy. The aim of this paper is to review the bioremediation techniques and strategies using microorganisms for treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils. It takes account of Arctic operational conditions and discusses the factors influencing the performance of a bioremediation treatment plan. Preliminary hazard analysis is used as a technique to identify and assess the hazards that threaten the reliability and maintainability of a bioremediation treatment technology. Some key parameters with regard to the feasibility of the suggested preventive/corrective measures are described as well.

  20. Overview of a large-scale bioremediation soil treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Stechmann, R. )

    1991-02-01

    How long does it take to remediate 290,000 yd{sup 3} of impacted soil containing an average total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 3,000 ppm Approximately 15 months from start to end of treatment using bioremediation. Mittelhauser was retained by the seller of the property (a major oil company) as technical manager to supervise remediation of a 45-ac parcel in the Los Angeles basin. Mittelhauser completed site characterization, negotiated clean-up levels with the regulatory agencies, and prepared the remedial action plan (RAP) with which the treatment approach was approved and permitted. The RAP outlined the excavation, treatment, and recompaction procedures for the impacted soil resulting from leakage of bunker fuel oil from a large surface impoundment. The impacted soil was treated on site in unline Land Treatment Units (LTUs) in 18-in.-thick lifts. Due to space restraints, multiple lifts site. The native microbial population was cultivated using soil stabilization mixing equipment with the application of water and agricultural grade fertilizers. Costs on this multimillion dollar project are broken down as follows: general contractor cost (47%), bioremediation subcontractor cost (35%), site characterization (10%), technical management (7%), analytical services (3%), RAP preparation and permitting (1%), and civil engineering subcontractor cost (1%). Start-up of field work could have been severely impacted by the existence of Red Fox habitation. The foxes were successfully relocated prior to start of field work.