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Sample records for alternating group a4

  1. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefelmeyer, James D.; Koodali, Ranjit; Sereda, Grigoriy; Engebretson, Dan; Fong, Hao; Puszynski, Jan; Shende, Rajesh; Ahrenkiel, Phil

    2012-03-13

    The South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG) is a collaborative project with mission to develop advanced catalysts for energy conversion with two primary goals: (1) develop photocatalytic systems in which polyfunctionalized TiO2 are the basis for hydrogen/oxygen synthesis from water and sunlight (solar fuels group), (2) develop new materials for hydrogen utilization in fuel cells (fuel cell group). In tandem, these technologies complete a closed chemical cycle with zero emissions.

  2. New Groups Giving Teachers Alternative Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the rise of nonunion advocacy groups for teachers which has enabled them to cut their teeth on policy issues that affect the profession. The teachers' unions remain the most visible, powerful, and probably the most important advocates for teachers. But over the past few years, a number of new efforts have sprung up…

  3. Alternative Approaches to Group IV Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedaker, Matthew Loren

    In the pursuit of energy efficiency, there is a demand for systems capable of recovering waste heat. A temperature gradient across a thermoelectric material results in the thermal diffusion of charge carriers from the hot side to the cold side, giving rise to a voltage that can be used to convert waste heat to electricity. Silicon germanium (SiGe) alloys are the standard materials used for thermoelectric generators at high temperatures. We report an alternative method for preparing p-type Si1- xGex alloys from a boron-doped silica-germania nanocomposite. This is the first demonstration of the thermoelectric properties of SiGe-based thermoelectrics prepared at temperatures below the alloy's melting point through a magnesiothermic reduction of the (SiO 2)1-x(GeO2) x. We observe a thermoelectric power factor that is competitive with the literature record for the conventionally prepared SiGe. The large grain size in our hot pressed SiGe limits the thermoelectric figure of merit to 0.5 at 800°C for an optimally doped p-type Si80Ge 20 alloy. A phosphorus-doped oxide can yield n-type Si1- xGex; however, the current processing method introduces a background boron content that compensates ~10% of the donor impurities and limits the thermoelectric power factor. Spark plasma sintering of the nano-Si1-xGe x yields a heterogeneous alloy with thermal conductivity lower than that of the hot pressed homogeneous alloy due to a reduction in the average crystallite size. Magnesiothermic reduction in the presence of molten salts allows some control over crystallite growth and the extent of Si-Ge alloying.

  4. Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens in facial cosmetics is reported along with suitable alternative products for individuals with contact allergy. Conclusion: Data on allergen usage and alternatives for facial cosmetics is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in facial cosmetics, including blushers and bronzers, concealers, eyeliners, eyeshadows, foundations, loose and pressed powders, and mascaras. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779413

  5. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  6. Alternative splicing of the beta A4 amyloid gene of Alzheimer's disease in cortex of control and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    König, G; Salbaum, J M; Wiestler, O; Lang, W; Schmitt, H P; Masters, C L; Beyreuther, K

    1991-02-01

    An S1 nuclease protection assay was designed to study the splicing pattern of the alternatively spliced beta A4 amyloid gene (APP gene) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We determined the splicing pattern of the APP gene in fetal, adult, aged adult and AD human cortex. The results suggest that alternative splicing of the APP gene in AD is not significantly different from age-matched controls, but distinct from the developing fetal brain.

  7. Part 3 of a 4-part series Lip and Common Dental Care Products: Trends and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Kruk, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on the use of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of lip and oral products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain was copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives) were calculated. Results: The use of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives) in various categories of lip and oral products are reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for lip and oral products is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in lip liners, lipsticks, lip moisturizers, mouthwashes, and toothpastes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21938270

  8. A Comparison of Alternative Parent Group Formats in Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinker, Richard P.; Howell, Mary T.

    This study was designed to examine two contrasting types of parent groups in terms of their differential effects on parents and their disabled infants. The first type of parent support group was focused upon the psychological adaptation of mothers to their disabled child. It was hypothesized that the parent-centered group would directly affect the…

  9. Design alternatives for process group membership and multicast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Robert; Gleeson, Barry

    1991-01-01

    Process groups are a natural tool for distributed programming, and are increasingly important in distributed computing environments. However, there is little agreement on the most appropriate semantics for process group membership and group communication. These issues are of special importance in the Isis system, a toolkit for distributed programming. Isis supports several styles of process group, and a collection of group communication protocols spanning a range of atomicity and ordering properties. This flexibility makes Isis adaptable to a variety of applications, but is also a source of complexity that limits performance. This paper reports on a new architecture that arose from an effort to simplify Isis process group semantics. Our findings include a refined notion of how the clients of a group should be treated, what the properties of a multicast primitive should be when systems contain large numbers of overlapping groups, and a new construct called the casuality domain. As an illustration, we apply the architecture to the problem of converting processes into fault-tolerant process groups in a manner that is 'transparent' to other processes in the system.

  10. Inhibitions within Idea Generating Groups: An Alternative Method of Brainstorming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochery, Tim

    Alex F. Osborn's group brainstorming treatment remains the most frequently applied procedure for the creative generation of ideas despite considerable evidence that demonstrates its ineffectiveness. This paper synthesizes many findings that challenge the premise that Osborn's traditional "group" brainstorming treatment is the optimal method for…

  11. Nonparametric Test of Discordance with Ordered Alternatives for "J" Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, T. Mark

    Robustness and power of parametric, semi-parametric, and nonparametric tests of between-group discordance were compared in this simulation study. The empirical Type I error rates and power of nine tests were compared. When data were sampled from the any differences especially favor young women in single-sex Catholic secondary schools, and whether…

  12. Group Medical Practice—An Alternative to Hospital Oligopoly

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, William I.

    1970-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provoke dialogue and to initiate change. Costs of health care are alarming. Our inability to respond effectively to the demand for total health care is frustrating. Some drastic changes are required. This article, the first of a series that will enquire into our present methods for providing health care, suggests that in group medical practice some satisfactory solutions may be found. Imagesp54-a PMID:20468486

  13. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy - Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefelmeyer, James

    2014-10-03

    I. Project Summary Catalytic processes are a major technological underpinning of modern society, and are essential to the energy sector in the processing of chemical fuels from natural resources, fine chemicals synthesis, and energy conversion. Advances in catalyst technology are enormously valuable since these lead to reduced chemical waste, reduced energy loss, and reduced costs. New energy technologies, which are critical to future economic growth, are also heavily reliant on catalysts, including fuel cells and photo-electrochemical cells. Currently, the state of South Dakota is underdeveloped in terms of research infrastructure related to catalysis. If South Dakota intends to participate in significant economic growth opportunities that result from advances in catalyst technology, then this area of research needs to be made a high priority for investment. To this end, a focused research effort is proposed in which investigators from The University of South Dakota (USD) and The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT) will contribute to form the South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG). The multidisciplinary team of the (SDCG) include: (USD) Dan Engebretson, James Hoefelmeyer, Ranjit Koodali, and Grigoriy Sereda; (SDSMT) Phil Scott Ahrenkiel, Hao Fong, Jan Puszynski, Rajesh Shende, and Jacek Swiatkiewicz. The group is well suited to engage in a collaborative project due to the resources available within the existing programs. Activities within the SDCG will be monitored through an external committee consisting of three distinguished professors in chemistry. The committee will provide expert advice and recommendations to the SDCG. Advisory meetings in which committee members interact with South Dakota investigators will be accompanied by individual oral and poster presentations in a materials and catalysis symposium. The symposium will attract prominent scientists, and will enhance the visibility of research in the state of South Dakota. The SDCG requests

  14. Aspirin-Triggered Lipoxin A4 Stimulates Alternative Activation of Microglia and Reduces Alzheimer Disease–Like Pathology in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Rodrigo; Kitazawa, Masashi; Passos, Giselle F.; Baglietto-Vargas, David; Cheng, David; Cribbs, David H.; LaFerla, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Microglia play an essential role in innate immunity, homeostasis, and neurotropic support in the central nervous system. In Alzheimer disease (AD), these cells may affect disease progression by modulating the buildup of β-amyloid (Aβ) or releasing proinflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic substances. Discovering agents capable of increasing Aβ uptake by phagocytic cells is of potential therapeutic interest for AD. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is an endogenous lipid mediator with potent anti-inflammatory properties directly involved in inflammatory resolution, an active process essential for appropriate host responses, tissue protection, and the return to homeostasis. Herein, we demonstrate that aspirin-triggered LXA4 (15 μg/kg) s.c., twice a day, reduced NF-κB activation and levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as increased levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. Such changes in the cerebral milieu resulted in recruitment of microglia in an alternative phenotype, as characterized by the up-regulation of YM1 and arginase-1 and the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Microglia in an alternative phenotype–positive cells demonstrated improved phagocytic function, promoting clearance of Aβ deposits and ultimately leading to reduction in synaptotoxicity and improvement in cognition. Our data indicate that activating LXA4 signaling may represent a novel therapeutic approach for AD. PMID:23506847

  15. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial...-type volumetric field standards and associated test procedures) widely used by weights and measures officials and service companies to test commercial measuring devices as well as proposed alternatives...

  16. Affecting Attitudes toward the Poor through Group Process: The Alternative Break Service Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumpert, Joanne; Kraybill-Greggo, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The intensive group process inherent in alternative break service trips offers a unique opportunity to foster transformative learning in undergraduate students. This exploratory study focuses on a two-year project in which graduate students who were professionally educated in group work led undergraduate students in national and international…

  17. 26 CFR 1.1502-55 - Computation of alternative minimum tax of consolidated groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consolidated groups. 1.1502-55 Section 1.1502-55 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Computation of alternative minimum tax of consolidated groups. (a)-(h)(3) (h)(4) Separate return year minimum... that are included in the consolidated minimum tax credits for all consolidated return years of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1502-55 - Computation of alternative minimum tax of consolidated groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... consolidated groups. 1.1502-55 Section 1.1502-55 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-55 Computation of alternative minimum tax of consolidated groups. (a)-(h)(3) (h)(4) Separate return... arising in SRLYs that are included in the consolidated minimum tax credits for all consolidated...

  19. 77 FR 9882 - Arsenic Small Systems Compliance and Alternative Affordability Criteria Working Group; public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Arsenic Small Systems Compliance and Alternative Affordability Criteria... meeting. SUMMARY: EPA is holding an initial meeting of the Arsenic Small Systems Working Group to provide... Appropriations Act of 2012 directs the Environmental Protection Agency to convene an Arsenic Small...

  20. Video Training of Alternatives to Cross-Gender Identity Behaviors in a 4-Year-Old Boy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowrick, Peter W.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses case in which four-year-old boy displaying extreme girl-stereotyped mannerisms and playing behaviors extended his repertoire of alternative behaviors through self and peer modeling in which the subject observed brief edited videotapes of himself and another boy engaged in playing behaviors that were not girl-stereotyped. (CMG)

  1. Fast Reactor Alternative Studies: Effects of Transuranic Groupings on Metal and Oxide Sodium Fast Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect

    R. Ferrer; M. Asgari; S. Bays; B. Forget

    2007-09-01

    A 1000 MWth commercial-scale Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) design with a conversion ratio (CR) of 0.50 was selected in this study to perform perturbations on the external feed coming from Light Water Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (LWR SNF) and separation groupings in the reprocessing scheme. A secondary SFR design with a higher conversion ratio (CR=0.75) was also analyzed as a possible alternative, although no perturbations were applied to this model.

  2. Subordinate male meerkats prospect for extra-group paternity: alternative reproductive tactics in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew J; Spong, Goran; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2007-07-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, subordinates typically suffer strong constraints on within-group reproduction. While numerous studies have highlighted the additional fitness benefits that subordinates might accrue through helping, few have considered the possibility that subordinates may also seek extra-group matings to improve their chances of actually breeding. Here, we show that subordinate males in cooperative meerkat, Suricata suricatta, societies conduct frequent extraterritorial forays, during periods of peak female fertility, which give rise to matings with females in other groups. Genetic analyses reveal that extra-group paternity (EGP) accrued while prospecting contributes substantially to the reproductive success of subordinates: yielding the majority of their offspring (approx. 70%); significantly reducing their age at first reproduction and allowing them to breed without dispersing. We estimate that prospecting subordinates sire 20-25% of all young in the population. While recent studies on cooperative birds indicate that dominant males accrue the majority of EGP, our findings reveal that EGP can also arise from alternative reproductive tactics employed exclusively by subordinates. It is important, therefore, that future attempts to estimate the fitness of subordinate males in animal societies quantify the distribution of extra-group as well as within-group paternity, because a substantial proportion of the reproductive success of subordinates may otherwise go undetected.

  3. Subordinate male meerkats prospect for extra-group paternity: alternative reproductive tactics in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew J; Spong, Goran; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2007-07-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, subordinates typically suffer strong constraints on within-group reproduction. While numerous studies have highlighted the additional fitness benefits that subordinates might accrue through helping, few have considered the possibility that subordinates may also seek extra-group matings to improve their chances of actually breeding. Here, we show that subordinate males in cooperative meerkat, Suricata suricatta, societies conduct frequent extraterritorial forays, during periods of peak female fertility, which give rise to matings with females in other groups. Genetic analyses reveal that extra-group paternity (EGP) accrued while prospecting contributes substantially to the reproductive success of subordinates: yielding the majority of their offspring (approx. 70%); significantly reducing their age at first reproduction and allowing them to breed without dispersing. We estimate that prospecting subordinates sire 20-25% of all young in the population. While recent studies on cooperative birds indicate that dominant males accrue the majority of EGP, our findings reveal that EGP can also arise from alternative reproductive tactics employed exclusively by subordinates. It is important, therefore, that future attempts to estimate the fitness of subordinate males in animal societies quantify the distribution of extra-group as well as within-group paternity, because a substantial proportion of the reproductive success of subordinates may otherwise go undetected. PMID:17456454

  4. Primary identification of Microbacterium spp. encountered in clinical specimens as CDC coryneform group A-4 and A-5 bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Funke, G; Falsen, E; Barreau, C

    1995-01-01

    Over nearly two decades, 13 yellow- or orange-pigmented, fermentative gram-positive rods belonging to the genus Microbacterium were encountered in clinical specimens. All 13 strains, 10 of which came from blood cultures, were initially identified as CDC coryneform group A-4 and A-5 bacteria according to the scheme of Hollis and Weaver for the identification of gram-positive rods. The clinical isolates were compared with the type strains of the six species constituting the genus Microbacterium as well as with three Microbacterium strains isolated from hospital environments. By biochemical methods only 5 of 13 clinical isolates could be identified to species level. Peptidoglycan analysis proved to be a valuable tool for differentiation between Microbacterium spp. and related genera, whereas cellular fatty acid analysis did not allow species identification within the genus Microbacterium. The 22 Microbacterium strains studied were, in general, susceptible to antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive rods. This report is the first one concerning the isolation of Microbacterium strains from clinical specimens. The sources as well as the mode of transmission remain to be established. PMID:7699039

  5. Reworking therapeutic landscapes: the spatiality of an 'alternative' self-help group.

    PubMed

    Laws, Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    Since Gesler first introduced the concept in 1992, the language of 'therapeutic landscapes' has attained a core position in the toolkit of health/place studies. Whilst many authors using the term acknowledge that therapeutic landscapes are often also spaces of contestation, few if any have extended this to incorporate a serious critique of therapy itself. In this article, I use the case study of an 'alternative' psychiatric survivor (self-help) group in the north of England to attempt just this. Based on a ten month period of ethnography, I engage with the spaces - meeting places and venues - occupied by the group, focusing on the dilapidated and reputedly dangerous city park where the group hosts its most regular meetings. Three qualities of these spaces were found to be particularly embraced by the group: spaces of agency and appropriation; a space in the world; and a non-technical relation with space. The article uses these three themes to explore how the unconventional spaces of the group are not mere products of marginality but a serious aspect of mobilising the dissident and 'anti-psychiatric' recovery sought by its members. Through attending to what the survivors' found helpful in the park, a more sensitive rendition of 'anti-psychiatry' as it relates to the group is developed. The therapeutic landscapes framework as put forward by Gesler retains currency in highlighting the importance of place to the processes and identity of the group. However, it is also suggested that the 'dissident topophilias' of the survivors express a critique of current therapeutic landscapes thinking, challenging the supposition that it is the planned, the pleasant and the professional that provide the best backdrops for recovery.

  6. Novel RNA structural features of an alternatively splicing group II intron from Clostridium tetani.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Bonnie A; Zimmerly, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes in bacterial and organellar genomes that function as self-splicing introns and as retroelements. Previously, we reported that the group II intron C.te.I1 of Clostridium tetani alternatively splices in vivo to produce five distinct coding mRNAs. Accurate fusion of upstream and downstream reading frames requires a shifted 5' splice site located 8 nt upstream of the usual 5' GUGYG motif. This site is specified by the ribozyme through an altered intron/exon-binding site 1 (IBS1-EBS1) pairing. Here we use mutagenesis and self-splicing assays to investigate in more detail the significance of the structural features of the C.te.I1 ribozyme. The shifted 5' splice site is shown to be affected by structures in addition to IBS1-EBS1, and unlike other group II introns, C.te.I1 appears to require a spacer between IBS1 and the GUGYG motif. In addition, the mechanism of 3' exon recognition is modified from the ancestral IIB mechanism to a IIA-like mechanism that appears to be longer than the typical single base-pair interaction and may extend up to 4 bp. The novel ribozyme properties that have evolved for C.te.I1 illustrate the plasticity of group II introns in adapting new structural and catalytic properties that can be utilized to affect gene expression.

  7. Isolation of the Rhizobium leguminosarum NodF nodulation protein: NodF carries a 4'-phosphopantetheine prosthetic group.

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, O; Spaink, H P; Kennedy, E P

    1991-01-01

    Rhizobium species produce a protein product of the nodF gene that has a limited but recognizable homology to the well-characterized acyl carrier protein (ACP) of Escherichia coli. NodF functions together with NodE in generating a host-specific response to the plant host in the interchange of signals leading to the effective nodulation of roots (H.P. Spaink, J. Weinman, M.A. Djordjevic, C.A. Wijffelman, R.J.H. Okker, and B. J.J. Lugtenberg, EMBO J. 8:2811-2818, 1989; B. Scheres, C. van de Wiel, A. Zalensky, B. Horvath, H. Spaink, H. van Eck, F. Zwartkruis, A.M. Wolters, T. Gloudemans, A. van Kammen, and T. Bisseling, Cell 60:281-294, 1990). The nodFE region of Rhizobium leguminosarum has been cloned into a multicopy plasmid and has been shown in R. leguminosarum to code for a flavonoid-inducible protein that is effectively labeled by radioactive beta-alanine added to the growth medium. After purification, the labeled protein migrates as a single band with an apparent molecular weight of 5,000 during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, more rapidly than E. coli ACP. In contrast, in native gels the protein is resolved into two bands, both identified as NodF by analysis of the amino terminus and both migrating more slowly than E. coli ACP. Pulse-chase experiments with labeled beta-alanine suggested that the slower-moving band may be the precursor of the faster band. The NodF protein carries a 4'-phosphopantetheine as a prosthetic group. A NodF fusion protein under the control of the lac promoter is expressed in E. coli and is labeled with beta-alanine, indicating that it is recognized by the ACP synthase of E. coli. The ACP phosphodiesterase of E. coli, which catalyzes the release of phosphopantetheine from E. coli ACP, does not remove phosphopantetheine from NodF. Images PMID:2019559

  8. Reducing legal fees in medical group practices. The role of health care alternative dispute resolution.

    PubMed

    Joseph, D M

    1995-01-01

    Conflict is a growth industry, particularly in an increasingly complex health care system. Litigation is the most common, and most costly, method of settling health care disputes. Highly adversarial, the process of litigation often generates as much, if not more, hostility than the original dispute. In addition, satisfaction with the outcome is very low. The challenge that has arisen is to manage the conflicts so that the underlying needs and interests of all the parties can best be met. Often the techniques and processes of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) can be successfully used in resolving these sorts of conflicts quickly, cheaply and with greater satisfaction for all parties. Various applications of ADR are currently being used or tested in a variety of health care disputes in the United States and Canada. Tremendous success has been achieved in mediating medical malpractice claims, medical staff disputes, economic credentialing conflicts, insurer relations issues and denial of coverage disputes. Professional relations and departmental staff disputes, partnership and employee conflicts, and organizational disputes within clinics, HMOs and large group practices have all been found particularly amenable to ADR. These are all situations in which everyone benefits from quick, non-hostile resolutions and on-going relationships can continue. PMID:10144247

  9. Innovative and Alternative Technologies. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles A.

    Innovative and alternative methods of wastewater treatment can improve the efficiency and lower the cost of waste treatment procedures. Described in this instructor's guide is a one-hour learning session for citizens interested in improving water quality planning and decision making. Among the topics covered are the need for alternative wastewater…

  10. Argus II retinal prosthesis implantation with scleral flap and autogenous temporalis fascia as alternative patch graft material: a 4-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Matet, Alexandre; Amar, Nawel; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Barale, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Argus II retinal prosthesis is composed of an epiretinal electrode array positioned over the macula and connected to an extrascleral electronics case via a silicone cable, running through a sclerotomy. During implantation, the manufacturer recommends to cover the sclerotomy site with a patch of processed human pericardium to prevent postoperative hypotony and conjunctival erosion by the underlying electronics case. Due to biomedical regulations prohibiting the use of this material in France, we developed an alternative technique combining a scleral flap protecting the sclerotomy and an autogenous graft of superior temporalis fascia overlying the electronics case. Methods The purpose of this study is to describe the 4-year outcomes of this modified procedure in three subjects who underwent Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System implantation. Clinical data consisting of intraocular pressure measurements and tolerance in terms of conjunctival erosion or inflammation were retrospectively assessed over a 4-year postoperative follow-up. Results None of the three patients implanted with the modified technique developed ocular hypotony over 4 years. A normal, transient conjunctival inflammation occurred during the first postoperative month but conjunctival erosion was not observed in any of the three patients over 4 years. Four years after implantation, the autogenous temporalis fascia graft remained well tolerated and the retinal prosthesis was functional in all three patients. Conclusion The combination of an autograft of superficial temporalis fascia and a scleral flap efficiently prevented leakage through the sclerotomy site, ocular hypotony, and conjunctival erosion by the extrascleral electronics case. This modified technique is suitable for the implantation of existing and forthcoming retinal prostheses. Superficial temporalis fascia may also be used as alternative to commercial tectonic tissues for scleral wound repair in clinical settings where they

  11. After Group Home Living--What Alternatives? Results of a Two Year Mobility Followup Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitkei, E. George

    1980-01-01

    A national survey of 104 community residence homes for the developmentally disabled attempted to monitor the exodus from such homes and to determine what alternatives are available to those who leave them. (DLS)

  12. Chiroptical properties of an alternatingly functionalized cellotriose bearing two porphyrin groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternatingly functionalized cellulose molecules have potential applications in optoelectronics and molecular receptors. For example, cellulose-based solar cells have been proposed. As a prototype for such molecules, the trisaccharide fragment of cellulose was modified by attachment of porphyrin gro...

  13. Identification of some clinical strains of CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 bacteria as Cellulomonas species and proposal of Cellulomonas hominis sp. nov. for some group A-3 strains.

    PubMed Central

    Funke, G; Ramos, C P; Collins, M D

    1995-01-01

    CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 bacteria were defined by Hollis and Weaver in 1981, but their taxonomic position is still unclear. By using biochemical and chemotaxonomical methods, four clinical strains belonging to CDC coryneform groups A-3 (n = 2) and A-4 (n = 2) were studied and could be assigned to the genus Cellulomonas, resulting in the first description of Cellulomonas strains isolated from clinical specimens. CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 strains were compared with the type strains of the seven species constituting the genus Cellulomonas at present as well as with the closely related species Oerskovia turbata, Oerskovia xanthineolytica, and Jonesia denitrificans, but their biochemical patterns were not compatible with the patterns of any of those species. Almost the entire sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of one representative strain of both CDC taxa were determined, and comparative sequence analysis confirmed the placement of the CDC coryneform group A-3 and A-4 strains studied in the Cellulomonas-Oerskovia subbranch of the actinomycetes. Both CDC taxa exhibited > 99% base pair homology within their 16S rDNAs. On the basis of phenotypic and molecular data, we formally propose a new species, Cellulomonas hominis sp. nov., for the CDC coryneform group A-3 bacteria examined. The type strain is DSM 9581. The precise taxonomic status of the CDC coryneform group A-4 strains studied remains to be established by quantitative DNA-DNA hybridizations. PMID:7559954

  14. Racial Differences in CYP3A4 Genotype and Survival Among Men Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9202: A Phase III Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Mack Silvio, Michelle de; Rebbick, Timothy; Grignon, David; Rotman, Marvin; Wolkov, Harvey; Fisher, Barbara; Hanks, Gerald; Shipley, William U.; Pollack, Alan; Sandler, Howard; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah Ph.D.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Inherited genotypes may explain the inferior outcomes of African American (AA) men with prostate cancer. To understand how variation in CYP3A4 correlated with outcomes, a retrospective examination of the CYP3A4*1B genotype was performed on men treated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02. Methods and Materials: From 1,514 cases, we evaluated 56 (28.4%) of 197 AA and 54 (4.3%) of 1,274 European American (EA) patients. All patients received goserelin and flutamide for 2 months before and during RT (STAD-RT) {+-} 24 months of goserelin (long-term androgen deprivation plus radiation [LTAD-RT]). Events studied included overall survival and biochemical progression using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus guidelines. Results: There were no differences in outcome in patients in with or without CYP3A4 data. There was an association between race and CYP3A4 polymorphisms with 75% of EAs having the Wild Type compared to only 25% of AA men (p <0.0001). There was no association between CYP3A4 classification or race and survival or progression. Conclusions: The samples analyzed support previously reported observations about the distribution of CYP3A4*1B genotype by race, but race was not associated with poorer outcome. However, patient numbers were limited, and selection bias cannot be completely ruled out.

  15. Comparing Treatment and Control Groups on Multiple Outcomes: Robust Procedures for Testing a Directional Alternative Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…

  16. The Group Setting: A Viable Mental Health Alternative for the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel C.

    Group settings offer the elderly a unique outlet for interpersonal communication and can alleviate social isolation and aloneness. Group cohesiveness and instillation of hope are two curative factors in the group setting. Persons working with the elderly must be aware of their special problems and also be sensitive to their own age bias. Group…

  17. Evaluation of final waste forms and recommendations for baseline alternatives to group and glass

    SciTech Connect

    Bleier, A.

    1997-09-01

    An assessment of final waste forms was made as part of the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement/Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (FFCA/DDT&E) Program because supplemental waste-form technologies are needed for the hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes of concern to the Department of Energy and the problematic wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal objective was to identify a primary waste-form candidate as an alternative to grout (cement) and glass. The effort principally comprised a literature search, the goal of which was to establish a knowledge base regarding four areas: (1) the waste-form technologies based on grout and glass, (2) candidate alternatives, (3) the wastes that need to be immobilized, and (4) the technical and regulatory constraints on the waste-from technologies. This report serves, in part, to meet this goal. Six families of materials emerged as relevant; inorganic, organic, vitrified, devitrified, ceramic, and metallic matrices. Multiple members of each family were assessed, emphasizing the materials-oriented factors and accounting for the fact that the two most prevalent types of wastes for the FFCA/DDT&E Program are aqueous liquids and inorganic sludges and solids. Presently, no individual matrix is sufficiently developed to permit its immediate implementation as a baseline alternative. Three thermoplastic materials, sulfur-polymer cement (inorganic), bitumen (organic), and polyethylene (organic), are the most technologically developed candidates. Each warrants further study, emphasizing the engineering and economic factors, but each also has limitations that regulate it to a status of short-term alternative. The crystallinity and flexible processing of sulfur provide sulfur-polymer cement with the highest potential for short-term success via encapsulation. Long-term immobilization demands chemical stabilization, which the thermoplastic matrices do not offer. Among the properties of the remaining

  18. MgI2 -mediated chemoselective cleavage of protecting groups: an alternative to conventional deprotection methodologies.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Mathéo; Davanier, Florian; Dujardin, Gilles; Martinez, Jean; Parrot, Isabelle

    2015-07-27

    The scope of MgI2 as a valuable tool for quantitative and mild chemoselective cleavage of protecting groups is described here. This novel synthetic approach expands the use of protecting groups, widens the concept of orthogonality in synthetic processes, and offers a facile opportunity to release compounds from solid supports.

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine research initiatives in the Children's Oncology Group and the role of the pediatric oncology nurse.

    PubMed

    Hawks, Ria

    2006-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has emerged as a new area of investigation in cancer research and treatment. CAM modalities are widely used, but little is known about their efficacy. The Children's Oncology Group has made a major commitment to CAM research in childhood and adolescent cancer, beginning with studies of CAM in the area of supportive care. Pediatric oncology nurses, as implementing clinicians and collaborating researchers, are critical to the success of these studies.

  20. A characterization of some alternating groups A p+8 of degree p + 8 by OD.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shitian; Zhang, Zhanghua

    2016-01-01

    Let [Formula: see text] be an alternating group of degree n. We know that [Formula: see text] is 2-fold OD-characterizable and [Formula: see text] is 6-fold OD-characterizable. In this note, we first show that [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are 14-fold and 7-fold OD-characterizable, respectively, and second show that certain groups [Formula: see text] with that [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], are OD-characterizable. The first gives a negative answer to Open Problem of Kogani-Moghaddam and Moghaddamfar.

  1. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation

    PubMed Central

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as “individual publications”). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, P<0.0001), and publicly viewed (11.1% vs 1.3%, P=0.05) than individual publications. These results support the importance of multidisciplinary research groups in the impact of scientific literature; the interaction and synergy among the research participants allowed the obtainment of high impact-literature in the field of personalized pain medicine. Finally, our findings demonstrate the potential of altmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group. PMID:27358575

  2. Evaluation of an alternative in vitro test battery for detecting reproductive toxicants in a grouping context.

    PubMed

    Kroese, E Dinant; Bosgra, Sieto; Buist, Harrie E; Lewin, Geertje; van der Linden, Sander C; Man, Hai-yen; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Schulpen, Sjors H W; Schwarz, Michael; Uibel, Frederik; van Vugt-Lussenburg, Barbara M A; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; van der Burg, Bart

    2015-08-01

    Previously we showed a battery consisting of CALUX transcriptional activation assays, the ReProGlo assay, and the embryonic stem cell test, and zebrafish embryotoxicity assay as 'apical' tests to correctly predict developmental toxicity for 11 out of 12 compounds, and to explain the one false negative [7]. Here we report on applying this battery within the context of grouping and read across, put forward as a potential tool to fill data gaps and avoid animal testing, to distinguish in vivo non- or weak developmental toxicants from potent developmental toxicants within groups of structural analogs. The battery correctly distinguished 2-methylhexanoic acid, monomethyl phthalate, and monobutyltin trichloride as non- or weak developmental toxicants from structurally related developmental toxicants valproic acid, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate, and tributyltin chloride, respectively, and, therefore, holds promise as a biological verification model in grouping and read across approaches. The relevance of toxicokinetic information is indicated.

  3. Lepton mixing from the interplay of the alternating group A 5 and CP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Iura, Andrea; Hagedorn, Claudia; Meloni, Davide

    2015-08-01

    Assuming three generations of Majorana neutrinos, we study the different mixing patterns that arise from the non-trivial breaking of the flavor group A 5 and CP to the residual symmetries Z 3, Z 5 or Z 2 × Z 2 in the charged lepton and to Z 2 × CP in the neutrino sector. All patterns contain only one free parameter θ and thus mixing angles as well as the Dirac and the two Majorana phases are strongly correlated. We perform an analytical and a numerical study of all possible mixing patterns. It turns out that only four patterns can describe the experimentally measured values of the mixing angles for a particular choice of θ well. All of them predict trivial Majorana phases, while the Dirac phase δ is maximal for two patterns and trivial for the two remaining ones. If δ is maximal, also the atmospheric mixing angle is fixed to be maximal.

  4. Applications of multivariate modeling to neuroimaging group analysis: a comprehensive alternative to univariate general linear model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Adleman, Nancy E; Saad, Ziad S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Cox, Robert W

    2014-10-01

    All neuroimaging packages can handle group analysis with t-tests or general linear modeling (GLM). However, they are quite hamstrung when there are multiple within-subject factors or when quantitative covariates are involved in the presence of a within-subject factor. In addition, sphericity is typically assumed for the variance-covariance structure when there are more than two levels in a within-subject factor. To overcome such limitations in the traditional AN(C)OVA and GLM, we adopt a multivariate modeling (MVM) approach to analyzing neuroimaging data at the group level with the following advantages: a) there is no limit on the number of factors as long as sample sizes are deemed appropriate; b) quantitative covariates can be analyzed together with within-subject factors; c) when a within-subject factor is involved, three testing methodologies are provided: traditional univariate testing (UVT) with sphericity assumption (UVT-UC) and with correction when the assumption is violated (UVT-SC), and within-subject multivariate testing (MVT-WS); d) to correct for sphericity violation at the voxel level, we propose a hybrid testing (HT) approach that achieves equal or higher power via combining traditional sphericity correction methods (Greenhouse-Geisser and Huynh-Feldt) with MVT-WS. To validate the MVM methodology, we performed simulations to assess the controllability for false positives and power achievement. A real FMRI dataset was analyzed to demonstrate the capability of the MVM approach. The methodology has been implemented into an open source program 3dMVM in AFNI, and all the statistical tests can be performed through symbolic coding with variable names instead of the tedious process of dummy coding. Our data indicates that the severity of sphericity violation varies substantially across brain regions. The differences among various modeling methodologies were addressed through direct comparisons between the MVM approach and some of the GLM implementations in

  5. The FC-1D: The profitable alternative Flying Circus Commercial Aviation Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meza, Victor J.; Alvarez, Jaime; Harrington, Brook; Lujan, Michael A.; Mitlyng, David; Saroughian, Andy; Silva, Alex; Teale, Tim

    1994-01-01

    The FC-1D was designed as an advanced solution for a low cost commercial transport meeting or exceeding all of the 1993/1994 AIAA/Lockheed request for proposal requirements. The driving philosophy behind the design of the FC-1D was the reduction of airline direct operating costs. Every effort was made during the design process to have the customer in mind. The Flying Circus Commercial Aviation Group targeted reductions in drag, fuel consumption, manufacturing costs, and maintenance costs. Flying Circus emphasized cost reduction throughout the entire design program. Drag reduction was achieved by implementation of the aft nacelle wing configuration to reduce cruise drag and increase cruise speeds. To reduce induced drag, rather than increasing the wing span of the FC-1D, spiroids were included in the efficient wing design. Profile and friction drag are reduced by using riblets in place of paint around the fuselage and empennage of the FC-1D. Choosing a single aisle configuration enabled the Flying Circus to optimize the fuselage diameter. Thus, reducing fuselage drag while gaining high structural efficiency. To further reduce fuel consumption a weight reduction program was conducted through the use of composite materials. An additional quality of the FC-1D is its design for low cost manufacturing and assembly. As a result of this design attribute, the FC-1D will have fewer parts which reduces weight as well as maintenance and assembly costs. The FC-1D is affordable and effective, the apex of commercial transport design.

  6. Comparative clinical profile of mirtazapine and duloxetine in practical clinical settings in Japan: a 4-week open-label, parallel-group study of major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Kei; Kishi, Taro; Moriwaki, Masatsugu; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Hirano, Shigeki; Yamanouchi, Yoshio; Funahashi, Toshihiko; Iwata, Nakao

    2013-01-01

    No studies have compared mirtazapine with duloxetine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Fifty-six patients were nonrandomly assigned to a 4-week treatment with either 15 to 45 mg/day of mirtazapine (n = 22) or 20 to 60 mg/day of duloxetine (n = 34). The primary efficacy measurements were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression 6-point Rating Scale (MADRS) scores. The second efficacy measurements were the response and remission rates of treatment. Tolerability assessments were also performed. Fifty-six patients (43 male; age, 43.6 years) were recruited. There was no significant difference in the discontinuation rate between the mirtazapine and duloxetine treatment groups (P = 0.867). Both mirtazapine and duloxetine significantly improved the HRSD and MADRS scores from baseline (P < 0.0001–0.0004). While mirtazapine was superior to duloxetine in the reduction of HRSD scores (P = 0.0421), there was no significant change in MADRS scores in terms of between-group differences (P = 0.171). While more somnolence was observed with mirtazapine (P = 0.0399), more nausea was associated with duloxetine (P = 0.0089). No serious adverse events were observed for either antidepressant. Mirtazapine and duloxetine were safe and well-tolerated treatments for Japanese patients with MDD. Double-blind controlled studies are needed to further explore the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine and duloxetine in Japanese patients with MDD. PMID:23766648

  7. Is sociality required for the evolution of communicative complexity? Evidence weighed against alternative hypotheses in diverse taxonomic groups.

    PubMed

    Ord, Terry J; Garcia-Porta, Joan

    2012-07-01

    Complex social communication is expected to evolve whenever animals engage in many and varied social interactions; that is, sociality should promote communicative complexity. Yet, informal comparisons among phylogenetically independent taxonomic groups seem to cast doubt on the putative role of social factors in the evolution of complex communication. Here, we provide a formal test of the sociality hypothesis alongside alternative explanations for the evolution of communicative complexity. We compiled data documenting variations in signal complexity among closely related species for several case study groups--ants, frogs, lizards and birds--and used new phylogenetic methods to investigate the factors underlying communication evolution. Social factors were only implicated in the evolution of complex visual signals in lizards. Ecology, and to some degree allometry, were most likely explanations for complexity in the vocal signals of frogs (ecology) and birds (ecology and allometry). There was some evidence for adaptive evolution in the pheromone complexity of ants, although no compelling selection pressure was identified. For most taxa, phylogenetic null models were consistently ranked above adaptive models and, for some taxa, signal complexity seems to have accumulated in species via incremental or random changes over long periods of evolutionary time. Becoming social presumably leads to the origin of social communication in animals, but its subsequent influence on the trajectory of signal evolution has been neither clear-cut nor general among taxonomic groups.

  8. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels. PMID:26897576

  9. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels.

  10. A Response to "Time-Limited Service Alternatives: Using Therapeutic Enactment in Open Group Therapy": A Dramatic Effort to Redefine Short-Term and Time-Limited Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagley, John C.; Thomas, Chippewa M.

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic Enactment (TE) groups, as presented in the article, "Time-Limited Service Alternatives: Using Therapeutic Enactment in Open Group Therapy," offer an exciting and promising addition to the types of groups traditionally offered in university counseling centers. The brevity of member participation, the lack of empirical evidence of…

  11. Numerical solutions of two-point fuzzy boundary value problem using half-sweep alternating group explicit method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahalan, A. A.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Sulaiman, J.

    2013-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the application of complexity reduction approach based on half-sweep iteration concept with Alternating Group Explicit (AGE) method namely Half-Sweep AGE (HSAGE) method for solving system of linear equations generated from the discretization of two-point fuzzy boundary value problems (FBVPs). To form the linear system, the corresponding second order finite difference scheme has been used to derive the half-sweep finite difference approximation equation of the problems. The formulation and implementation of the proposed iterative method are discussed. Furthermore, numerical results of two test problems are also included in order to verify performance of the method compared to Full-Sweep Gauss-Seidel (FSGS) and Full-Sweep AGE (FSAGE) methods. The findings show that the proposed HSAGE method is superior to other tested methods in the sense of number of iterations, execution time and Hausdorff distance.

  12. Is sociality required for the evolution of communicative complexity? Evidence weighed against alternative hypotheses in diverse taxonomic groups

    PubMed Central

    Ord, Terry J.; Garcia-Porta, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Complex social communication is expected to evolve whenever animals engage in many and varied social interactions; that is, sociality should promote communicative complexity. Yet, informal comparisons among phylogenetically independent taxonomic groups seem to cast doubt on the putative role of social factors in the evolution of complex communication. Here, we provide a formal test of the sociality hypothesis alongside alternative explanations for the evolution of communicative complexity. We compiled data documenting variations in signal complexity among closely related species for several case study groups—ants, frogs, lizards and birds—and used new phylogenetic methods to investigate the factors underlying communication evolution. Social factors were only implicated in the evolution of complex visual signals in lizards. Ecology, and to some degree allometry, were most likely explanations for complexity in the vocal signals of frogs (ecology) and birds (ecology and allometry). There was some evidence for adaptive evolution in the pheromone complexity of ants, although no compelling selection pressure was identified. For most taxa, phylogenetic null models were consistently ranked above adaptive models and, for some taxa, signal complexity seems to have accumulated in species via incremental or random changes over long periods of evolutionary time. Becoming social presumably leads to the origin of social communication in animals, but its subsequent influence on the trajectory of signal evolution has been neither clear-cut nor general among taxonomic groups. PMID:22641820

  13. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Stefanie; Musselmann, Berthold; Miksch, Antje; Rosemann, Thomas; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners), some general practitioners (GPs) provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of 'Heilpraktiker' as a competing CAM

  14. Oligonucleotides containing an acridine group covalently bonded to the nucleotide flanking the 3'-3' phosphodiester junction for alternate strand triple helix formation.

    PubMed

    Catalanotti, Bruno; Fattorusso, Caterina; Mayol, Luciano; Oliviero, Giorgia; Piccialli, Gennaro; Varra, Michela

    2003-01-01

    Oligonucleotides with a 3'-3' inversion of polarity and containing an acridine group attached to nucleotide base flanking the 3'-3' phosphodiester bon have been synthesized, characterized and used as third strand in alternate triple helix formation. CD melting studies and molecular mechanics calculations have been carried out to investigate these triplex structures.

  15. Promoting Student Achievement and Exemplary Classroom Practices through Cluster Grouping: A Research-Based Alternative to Heterogeneous Elementary Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Marcia Lynne

    In this monograph, a causal-comparative, longitudinal study of cluster grouping at the elementary level is described and recommendations are made based on the findings. This study employed both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an existing cluster grouping program on the…

  16. Positive Peer Group Interventions: An Alternative to Individualized Interventions for Promoting Prosocial Behavior in Potentially Disaffected Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mclouglin, Caven S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Most approaches to reducing the socially inappropriate behavior of adolescents target the individual rather than a group. Evidence suggests greater efficiency and longlasting effects may be achieved when groups of peers work together to make meaningful contributions to their communities through service learning projects. In the…

  17. Highlights of Self-Employment of Ethnocultural Groups in Canada, Reports 1 to 4 = Les Travailleurs Independants Chez Les Groupes Ethnoculturels Du Canada--Faits Saillants, Rapports 1 a 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Secretary of State, Ottawa (Ontario). Multiculturalism Directorate.

    This document consists of both English and French versions of four reports which highlight the self-employment status of various ethnocultural groups in Canada. The first report introduces the publication by discussing the role of the small business sector and self-employment in Canada's economy as a whole. The importance of the ethnic groups to…

  18. Use of Alternative Medications for Menopause-Related Symptoms in Three Major Ethnic Groups of Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ohn Mar, Saw; Malhi, Fatehpal; Syed Rahim, Syed Hamid; Chua, Chin Tong; Sidhu, Sarjeet Singh; Sandheep, Sugathan

    2015-11-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the use of alternative medications to alleviate menopause-related symptoms among Malay, Chinese, and Indian women of Ipoh city. The prevalence, types, effectiveness, and associated factors were determined. The prevalence of alternative medication use was 41.4%. Evening primrose oil (EPO) was the most popular medication used (18.1%), followed by soy-based products (12.3%), green tea (6.8%), and gingko (5.8%). The medication was reported to be highly effective by 58.3% of soya bean diet users and 41.1% of EPO users. Significant variables associated with the use were Chinese or Indian ethnicity (P < .001), age between 50 and 54 years (P < .01), lower self-health rating (P < .05), education level of diploma or professional degree (P < .05), employment as professionals or entrepreneurs (P < .05), and the use of hormone replacement therapy (P < .05). Regression analysis showed that Chinese and Indians had significantly higher odds for the use than Malays (Chinese: odds ratio [OR] = 4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.392-7.837; Indians: OR = 3.248, 95% CI = 1.586-6.654). PMID:25972428

  19. An alternative approach for estimating stature from long bones that is not population- or group-specific.

    PubMed

    Albanese, John; Tuck, Andrew; Gomes, José; Cardoso, Hugo F V

    2016-02-01

    An accurate and precise estimate of stature can be very useful in the analysis of human remains in forensic cases. A problem with many stature estimation methods is that an unknown individual must first be assigned to a specific group before a method can be applied. Group membership has been defined by sex, age, year of birth, race, ancestry, continental origin, nationality or a combination of these criteria. Univariate and multivariate sex-specific and generic equations are presented here that do not require an unknown individual to be assigned to a group before stature is estimated. The equations were developed using linear regression with a sample (n=244) from the Terry Collection and tested using independent samples from the Forensic Anthropology Databank (n=136) and the Lisbon Collection (n=85). Tests with these independent samples show that (1) the femur provides the best univariate results; (2) the best multivariate equation includes the humerus, femur and tibia lengths; (3) a generic equation that does not require an unknown to first be assigned to a given category provides the best results most often; (4) a population-specific equation does not provide better results for estimating stature; (5) sex-specific equations can provide slightly better results in some cases; however, estimating the wrong sex can have a negative impact on precision and accuracy. With these equations, stature can be estimated independently of age at death, sex or group membership. PMID:26750990

  20. Alternative group V sources for growth of GaAs and AlGaAs by MOMBE (CBE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abernathy, C. R.; Wisk, P. W.; Pearton, S. J.; Ren, F.; Bohling, D. A.; Muhr, G. T.

    1992-11-01

    We have investigated the use of phenylarsine (PhAsH 2) and trisdimethylaminoarsenic (DMAAs) as potential replacements for AsH 3 during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE), alternatively known as chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). PhAsH 2 was found to decompose rather inefficiently on the surface at a growth temperature of 525°C. However, GaAs and AlGaAs growth rates up to ˜ 95 Å/min could still be obtained at this temperature without incurring any degradation in morphology. The hydrogen generated by the decomposition of the PhAsH 2 did not appear to getter carbon from the surface as both GaAs and AlGaAs grown from PhAsH 2 contained ten times more carbon than layers grown under the same flux of AsH 3. By contrast, DMAAs was found to decompose readily on the wafer surface allowing growth rates up to 220 Å/min and growth temperatures as low as 375°C. Furthermore, DMAAs was found to getter carbon more efficiently than cracked AsH 3, probably as a result of tertiary amine formation at the wafer surface. As a result, comparable carbon backgrounds were obtained at 525°C from either TEG or TMG. By using these sources in tandem, it appears that AsH 3 may no longer be required for growth of GaAs or AlGaAs by MOMBE. In addition, these sources allow new flexibility for selective growth as well. The stability of PhAsH 2 allows for selective deposition of pAlGaAs even at temperatures as low as 525°C. While the same effect is not observed for GaAs growth from TEG at these temperatures, it is possible through the use of DMAAs to deposit high purity GaAs selectivity from TMG since the DMAAs getters the carbon without inducing deposition on the mask. Thus the use of PhAsH 2 and DMAAs will allow selective deposition of device structures such as Pnp HBTs at their optimum growth temperature of ˜ 525°C.

  1. 13th Meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC): alternative testing methodologies for ecotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, C; Kaiser, K; Klein, W; Lagadic, L; Peakall, D; Sheffield, S; Soldan, T; Yasuno, M

    1998-01-01

    There is growing public pressure to minimize the use of vertebrates in ecotoxicity testing; therefore, effective alternatives to toxicity tests causing suffering are being sought. This report discusses alternatives and differs in some respects from the reports of the other three groups because the primary concern is with harmful effects of chemicals at the level of population and above rather than with harmful effects upon individuals. It is concluded that progress toward the objective of minimizing testing that causes suffering would be served by the following initiatives--a clearer definition of goals and strategies when undertaking testing procedures; development of alternative assays, including in vitro test systems, that are based on new technology; development of nondestructive assays for vertebrates (e.g., biomarkers) that do not cause suffering; selection of most appropriate species, strains, and developmental stages for testing procedures (but no additional species for basic testing); better integrated and more flexible testing procedures incorporating biomarker responses, ecophysiological concepts, and ecological end points (progress in this direction depends upon expert judgment). In general, testing procedures could be made more realistic, taking into account problems with mixtures, and with volatile or insoluble chemicals. PMID:9599690

  2. The influence of expert opinions on the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives: a group decision-making approach.

    PubMed

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Karmakar, Subhankar; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2013-10-15

    The application of multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM) to real life decision problems suggests that avoiding the loss of information through scenario-based approaches and including expert opinions in the decision-making process are two major challenges that require more research efforts. Recently, a wastewater treatment technology selection effort has been made with a 'scenario-based' method of MADM. This paper focuses on a novel approach to incorporate expert opinions into the scenario-based decision-making process, as expert opinions play a major role in the selection of treatment technologies. The sets of criteria and the indicators that are used consist of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. The group decision-making (GDM) approach that is implemented for aggregating expert opinions is based on an analytical hierarchy process (AHP), which is the most widely used MADM method. The pairwise comparison matrices (PCMs) for qualitative criteria are formed based on expert opinions, whereas, a novel approach is proposed for generating PCMs for quantitative criteria. It has been determined that the experts largely prefer natural treatment systems because they are more sustainable in any scenario. However, PCMs based on expert opinions suggest that advanced technologies such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) can also be appropriate for a given decision scenario. The proposed GDM approach is a rationalized process that will be more appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders with local and regional societal priorities are involved in the selection of treatment technology.

  3. The influence of expert opinions on the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives: a group decision-making approach.

    PubMed

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Karmakar, Subhankar; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2013-10-15

    The application of multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM) to real life decision problems suggests that avoiding the loss of information through scenario-based approaches and including expert opinions in the decision-making process are two major challenges that require more research efforts. Recently, a wastewater treatment technology selection effort has been made with a 'scenario-based' method of MADM. This paper focuses on a novel approach to incorporate expert opinions into the scenario-based decision-making process, as expert opinions play a major role in the selection of treatment technologies. The sets of criteria and the indicators that are used consist of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. The group decision-making (GDM) approach that is implemented for aggregating expert opinions is based on an analytical hierarchy process (AHP), which is the most widely used MADM method. The pairwise comparison matrices (PCMs) for qualitative criteria are formed based on expert opinions, whereas, a novel approach is proposed for generating PCMs for quantitative criteria. It has been determined that the experts largely prefer natural treatment systems because they are more sustainable in any scenario. However, PCMs based on expert opinions suggest that advanced technologies such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) can also be appropriate for a given decision scenario. The proposed GDM approach is a rationalized process that will be more appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders with local and regional societal priorities are involved in the selection of treatment technology. PMID:23872214

  4. A new Hg(2+) -selective fluorescent sensor based on a 1,3-alternate thiacalix[4]arene anchored with four 8-quinolinoloxy groups.

    PubMed

    Praveen, L; Ganga, V B; Thirumalai, R; Sreeja, T; Reddy, M L P; Varma, R Luxmi

    2007-08-01

    A new thiacalix [4]arene derivative in a 1,3-alternate conformation bearing four quinolinoloxy groups through propyl chains has been synthesized, and its metal ion-binding and fluorescence-sensing properties were investigated in both THF and 10% H2O-THF systems. The designed ligand exhibited pronounced Hg2+ -selective on-off type fluoroionophoric properties among the representative transition and heavy metal ions including Cu2+. The detection limit for Hg2+ was found to be 2.0 x 10(-6) M in the mixed H2O-THF system. Detailed spectral studies including 1H NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy reveal the unusual formation of a tetramercury complex with the ligand, in which the four propyl arms containing the quinolinoloxy groups adopt a "tetrapodand" conformation enclosing one Hg2+ ion each in the four cavities thus formed. PMID:17608414

  5. Cold-air investigation of a 4 1/2 stage turbine with stage-loading factor of 4.66 and high specific work output. 2: Stage group performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.; Behning, F. P.; Moffitt, T. P.; Hotz, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The stage group performance of a 4 1/2 stage turbine with an average stage loading factor of 4.66 and high specific work output was determined in cold air at design equivalent speed. The four stage turbine configuration produced design equivalent work output with an efficiency of 0.856; a barely discernible difference from the 0.855 obtained for the complete 4 1/2 stage turbine in a previous investigation. The turbine was designed and the procedure embodied the following design features: (1) controlled vortex flow, (2) tailored radial work distribution, and (3) control of the location of the boundary-layer transition point on the airfoil suction surface. The efficiency forecast for the 4 1/2 stage turbine was 0.886, and the value predicted using a reference method was 0.862. The stage group performance results were used to determine the individual stage efficiencies for the condition at which design 4 1/2 stage work output was obtained. The efficiencies of stages one and four were about 0.020 lower than the predicted value, that of stage two was 0.014 lower, and that of stage three was about equal to the predicted value. Thus all the stages operated reasonably close to their expected performance levels, and the overall (4 1/2 stage) performance was not degraded by any particularly inefficient component.

  6. Synthesis and Structure of a New Copper(II) Coordination Polymer Alternately Bridged by Oxamido and Carboxylate Groups: Evaluation of DNA/BSA Binding and Cytotoxic Activities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao-Ting; Zheng, Kang; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

    2015-08-01

    A new one-dimensional (1D) copper(II) coordination polymer {[Cu2 (dmaepox)(dabt)](NO3) · 0.5 H2 O}n , where H3 dmaepox and dabt denote N-benzoato-N'-(3-methylaminopropyl)oxamide and 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-bithiazole, respectively, was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and other methods. The crystal structure analysis revealed that the two copper(II) ions are bridged alternately by cis-oxamido and carboxylato groups to form a 1-D coordination polymer with the corresponding Cu · · · Cu separations of 5.1946(19) and 5.038(2) Å. There is a three-dimensional supramolecular structure constructed by hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions in the crystal. The reactivity towards herring sperm DNA (HS-DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) indicated that the copper(II) polymer can interact with the DNA in the mode of intercalation, and bind to BSA responsible for quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by the static quenching mechanism. The in vitro cytotoxicity suggested that the copper(II) polymer exhibits cytotoxic effects against the selected tumor cell lines.

  7. 13th Meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC): alternative testing methodologies for organ toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Spielmann, H; Bochkov, N P; Costa, L; Gribaldo, L; Guillouzo, A; Heindel, J J; Karol, M; Parchment, R; Pfaller, W; Peraita, P P; Zacharewski, T

    1998-01-01

    In the past decade in vitro tests have been developed that represent a range of anatomic structure from perfused whole organs to subcellular fractions. To assess the use of in vitro tests for toxicity testing, we describe and evaluate the current status of organotypic cultures for the major target organs of toxic agents. This includes liver, kidney, neural tissue, the hematopoietic system, the immune system, reproductive organs, and the endocrine system. The second part of this report reviews the application of in vitro culture systems to organ specific toxicity and evaluates the application of these systems both in industry for safety assessment and in government for regulatory purposes. Members of the working group (WG) felt that access to high-quality human material is essential for better use of in vitro organ and tissue cultures in the risk assessment process. Therefore, research should focus on improving culture techniques that will allow better preservation of human material. The WG felt that it is also important to develop and make available relevant reference compounds for toxicity assessment in each organ system, to organize and make available via the Internet complete in vivo toxicity data, including human data, containing dose, end points, and toxicokinetics. The WG also recommended that research should be supported to identify and to validate biological end points for target organ toxicity to be used in alternative toxicity testing strategies. PMID:9599689

  8. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes. [Public fleet groups--information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available practical''. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  9. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  10. Who Are the Students Who May Qualify for an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS)?: Focus Group Results. Synthesis Report 79

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Sandra; Ebben, Barbara; Kubinski, Eva; Sim, Grant; Liu, Kristin; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christian, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2007, federal regulations to two major education laws gave state departments of education the option to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The regulations stated that the AA-MAS was intended for students who were being instructed in the grade-level…

  11. Is treatment in groups a useful alternative for psychiatry in low-income countries? An evaluation of a psychiatric outpatient unit in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Caldera, T; Kullgren, G; Penayo, U; Jacobsson, L

    1995-11-01

    Centro de Atención Psicosocial in León, Nicaragua is a psychiatric outpatient unit that has developed a group-oriented model of working, in which 80% of all visits are in groups: first-admission groups, insight-oriented group psychotherapy, psycho-educative, family groups and relatives groups. The aim of the present study was to analyze patient characteristics and make a preliminary study of improvement, compliance and patient satisfaction in a 1-year perspective. One hundred consecutive visits were assessed, 44 of them first admissions. They were assessed according to all axes of DSM-III-R plus the Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-III Disorders. A 1-year follow up was conducted on 39 of 41 selected patients within the major diagnostic groups. One of 4 patients had a psychotic disorder where schizophrenia dominated. Among nonpsychotics major depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders were most frequent. Personality disorders were common (80%) among nonpsychotic patients, paranoid, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive and masochistic personality disorders dominating. The illiteracy rate was 10%, but 50% had high school or university background. Severity of mental disorders and functional level did not differ between educational levels. There was a strong male dominance in all diagnostic, socioeconomic and educational level strata and few old patients. Improvement in functional level was clinically and statistically significant in all groups, and more than two thirds were very satisfied with the group treatment offered.

  12. A quantum mechanical alternative to the Arrhenius equation in the interpretation of proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in solids.

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, Piotr; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Osior, Agnieszka; Kamieński, Bohdan; Szymański, Sławomir

    2015-11-21

    The theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in methyl groups in solids has been a recurring problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The current view is that, except for extreme cases of low torsional barriers where special quantum effects are at stake, the relaxation behaviour of the nuclear spins in methyl groups is controlled by thermally activated classical jumps of the methyl group between its three orientations. The temperature effects on the relaxation rates can be modelled by Arrhenius behaviour of the correlation time of the jump process. The entire variety of relaxation effects in protonated methyl groups have recently been given a consistent quantum mechanical explanation not invoking the jump model regardless of the temperature range. It exploits the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory originally developed to describe NMR line shape effects for hindered methyl groups. In the DQR model, the incoherent dynamics of the methyl group include two quantum rate (i.e., coherence-damping) processes. For proton relaxation only one of these processes is relevant. In this paper, temperature-dependent proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in polycrystalline methyltriphenyl silane and methyltriphenyl germanium, both deuterated in aromatic positions, are reported and interpreted in terms of the DQR model. A comparison with the conventional approach exploiting the phenomenological Arrhenius equation is made. The present observations provide further indications that incoherent motions of molecular moieties in the condensed phase can retain quantum character over much broader temperature range than is commonly thought. PMID:26451661

  13. Alternate Alternates: A Medley of Alternate Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Paula J.; Olsen, Ken

    This paper highlights eight states that have implemented alternate assessments for children with disabilities who cannot participate in their state and district-wide assessment programs. The alternate assessment systems in Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Minnesota, North Dakota, Utah, and West Virginia are briefly described, along with their…

  14. Nucleosides and nucleotides. 208. Alternate-strand triple-helix formation by the 3'-3'-linked oligodeoxynucleotides with the anthraquinonyl group at the junction point.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Y; Mikawa, M; Hoshika, S; Matsuda, A

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of 3'-3'-linked oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) with the anthraquinonyl group at the junction point is described. The ODNs were synthesized on a DNA synthesizer using a controlled pore glass (CPG) carrying pentaerythritol that has an intercalator at one of the four hydroxymethyl groups. Stability of the triplexes with the target duplexes was studied by thermal denaturation. The 3'-3'-linked ODNs with the anthraquinonyl group enhanced the thermal stability of the triplexes when compared with those without the intercalator and the unmodified nonamer 10. It was found that the ODNs 12 and 13 carrying the anthraquinonyl groups can form thermally stable triplexes by skipping two or three extra base pairs between two binding domains of the target duplexes. The ability of the 3'-3'-linked ODNs to inhibit cleavage of the target DNA 22 by the restriction enzyme Hind III was tested. It was found that the 3'-3'-linked ODN 16 with the anthraquinonyl group at the junction point inhibited the cleavage by the enzyme more effectively than the nonamer 14 and the 3'-3'-linked ODN 15 without the intercalator.

  15. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  16. Attributions of the "causes" of group performance as an alternative explanation of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and organizational performance.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, D G; Bendoly, E; Podsakoff, P M

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility that feedback regarding team performance may influence team members' reports of organizational citizenship behaviors. Ninety-five teams of business students (N = 412) participated in a labor-scheduling simulation over a local area network. Teams were provided with false negative, false positive, or neutral feedback regarding their performance. Results support the hypothesis that the perception of 2 forms of organizational citizenship behavior (helping behavior and civic virtue) in work groups may, in part. be a function of the nature of the performance feedback that group members receive. However, negative feedback appears to play a more critical role than positive feedback in this attributional process. Possible reasons for these findings, as well as their implications, are discussed.

  17. Alternative strategies: a better alternative.

    PubMed

    Doody, Dennis

    2010-05-01

    Alternatives can be defined as being any financial asset other than traditional stocks and bonds. They include marketable alternatives, private capital, and equity real estate. There are two primary reasons for investing in alternatives: the potential for greater return and the opportunity to diversify a portfolio. Although alternatives were challenged in the highly volatile environment that existed in 2008 and early 2009, they generally lived up to expectations.

  18. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

  19. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

  20. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  1. [Alternative medicine].

    PubMed

    Mitello, L

    2001-01-01

    In a critical situation of world official medicine, we can find different alternatives therapies: natural therapy traditional and complementary, survival sometimes, of antique stiles and conditions of life. New sciences presented for them empiricism to the margin of official science. Doctors and sorcerer do the best to defeat the horrible virus that contribute to build symbols categories of sick. The alternatives put dangerously in game the scientific myth of experiment and exhume, if they got lost, antique remedy, almost preserved like cultural wreck very efficient where the medicine is impotent. Besides alternatives and complementary therapies, that are remedies not recognized conventional from official medicine, there are the homeopathic, phytotherapy, pranotherapy, nutritional therapy, the ayurveda, the yoga, ecc. Italians and internationals research show a composite picture of persons that apply that therapies. Object of this work is to understand and know the way that sick lighten their sufferings and role that have o that can assume the nurses to assist this sick. PMID:12146072

  2. Cosmic alternatives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  3. Alternative Conceptualizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in…

  4. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  5. Alternative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

  6. Prospective Study of Alternating Chemoradiotherapy Consisting of Extended-Field Dynamic Conformational Radiotherapy and Systemic Chemotherapy Using 5-FU and Nedaplatin for Patients in High-Risk Group With Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kodaira, Takeshi Fuwa, Nobukazu; Nakanishi, Toru; Tachibana, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Tomita, Natsuo; Nakahara, Rie; Inokuchi, Haruo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of alternating chemoradiotherapy combined with extended-field conformal radiotherapy for patients with high-risk cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with previously untreated cervical cancer, with Stage III/IVA disease, or Stage IB/II with high-risk factor (primary tumor diameter {>=}50 mm or positive lymph node) were entered into this study. Three cycles of chemotherapy with 3,500 mg/m{sup 2} of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and nedaplatin (NDP) were accompanied with pelvic irradiation of 45.6-51.3 Gy in 24-27 fractions over 6 weeks. Prophylactic (36 Gy/20 fractions) or definitive (45-56 Gy) irradiation for para-aortic region was followed by pelvic irradiation. Results: Between 1998 and 2004, 40 patients were recruited for this protocol study. Eighteen patients from Phase I setting were registered. Twenty-two patients were treated with NDP of 140 mg/m{sup 2} (the recommended dose) in the Phase II segment. Twenty-five patients had T3 disease, and 25 patients had nodal disease including para-aortic involvement (n = 5). Overall/progression-free survival rates at 5 years were 78.8 and 66.5%, respectively. The median follow-up time was 61.8 months (25.5-106.7). Hematologic and gastrointestinal Grade 3 or more toxicities were relatively high rate (27.5-45%); however, they were well manageable. Two for bladder toxicity of Grade 3 were noted. Comparing the data from historical control group evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging, alternating chemoradiotherapy revealed a significant favorable factor for survival and disease recurrence in multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Acquired results from our unique protocol for cervical cancer with high-risk factor were thought to be promising, considering that the majority of our cohort consisted of high-risk population.

  7. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  8. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  9. Alternative fuel information: Alternative fuel vehicle outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Major automobile manufacturers continue to examine a variety of alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) options in an effort to provide vehicles that meet the fleet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The current generation of AFVs available to consumers is somewhat limited as the auto industry attempts to respond to the presently uncertain market. At the same time, however, the automobile industry must anticipate future demand and is therefore engaged in research, development, and production programs on a wide range of alternative fuels. The ultimate composition of the AFV fleet may be determined by state and local regulations which will have the effect of determining demand. Many state and regional groups may require vehicles to meet emission standards more stringent than those required by the federal government. Therefore, a significant impact on the market could occur if emission classifications begin serving as the benchmark for vehicles, rather than simply certifying a vehicle as capable of operating on an ``alternative`` to gasoline. Vehicles classified as Zero-Emissions, or even Inherently Low-Emissions, could most likely be met only by electricity or natural gas, thereby dictating that multi-fuel vehicles would be unable to participate in some clean air markets. In the near-term, the Clinton Administration desires to accelerate the use of alternative fuels as evidenced by an executive order directing the federal government to increase the rate of conversion of the federal fleet beyond that called for in EPACT. The Administration has expressed particular interest in using more compressed natural gas (CNG) as a motor fuel, which has resulted in the auto industry`s strong response of concentrating short-term efforts on CNG vehicles. For the 1994 model year, a number of CNG cars and trucks will be available from major automobile manufacturers.

  10. Making Group Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drennen, Nancy Hungerford

    1982-01-01

    For greater effectiveness, attention should be paid to how group decisions are made. The process of consensus-seeking encourages appraisal of more information and provides a broader range of potential alternatives. (SK)

  11. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P.; Clark, John M.; Reynolds, Stuart E.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Feil, Edward J.; Urrutia, Araxi O.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  12. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation.

  13. Potential alternate life biochemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2013-09-01

    While life on Earth continues to be discovered in unlikely environments, the underlying biochemistry is all very similar, based on the element carbon, and requiring liquid water. We consider alternate biochemistries based on elements other than carbon, including other group IVA elements, such as silicon and germanium, and solvents other than water. Terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen are also discussed. A fundamental issue is raised related to the detection of, and even the definition of life, whether it is carbon or non-carbon based. An extreme example of this issue would be in consideration of speculative life based on electrically charged dusty plasmas, which may have no physical body.

  14. An Alternative Triangle Area Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockey, T. L.; Zhang, P.; Brosnan, P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the mathematics engagement of a group of mathematics coaches, working in k-12 mathematics education. The incenter of a triangle is used to derive an alternative formula for the area of a triangle inspired by Usiskin, Peressini, Marhisotto, and Stanley (2002).

  15. ChlVPP alternating with PABlOE is superior to PABlOE alone in the initial treatment of advanced Hodgkin's disease: results of a British National Lymphoma Investigation/Central Lymphoma Group randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, B W; Gregory, W M; Cullen, M H; Hudson, G Vaughan; Burton, A; Selby, P; Maclennan, K A; Jack, A; Bessell, E M; Smith, P; Linch, D C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized trial was to compare the efficacy of 6 cycles of prednisolone, Adriamycin (doxorubicin), bleomycin, vincristine (Oncovin) and etoposide (PABlOE) with 3 cycles of PABIOE that alternate with 3 cycles of chlorambucil, vinblastine, procarbazine and prednisone (ChlVPP) in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease. Between October 1992 and April 1996, 679 patients were entered onto the study. 41 of these did not match the protocol requirements on review and were excluded from further analysis, most of these being reclassified as NHL on histological review. Of the remaining 638 patients, 319 were allocated to receive PABIOE and 319 were allocated to receive ChlVPP/PABlOE. The complete remission (CR) rates were 78% and 64%, for ChlVPP/PABlOE and PABIOE respectively after initial chemotherapy (P< 0.0001). 124 patients were re-evaluated subsequently following radiotherapy to residual masses. The CR rates changed from 78% to 88% for ChlVPP/PABlOE and from 64% to 77% for PABlOE when re-evaluated in this manner (treatment difference still significant P = 0.0002). The treatment associated mortality in the PABlOE arm was 2.2% (7 deaths), while there were no such deaths in the ChlVPP/PABlOE arm (P = 0.015). The failure-free survival was significantly greater in the ChlVPP/PABlOE arm (P< 0.0001) as was the overall survival (P = 0.01). The failure-free and overall survival rates at 3 years were 77% and 91% in the ChlVPP/PABlOE arm, compared with 58% and 85% in the PABIOE arm, respectively. These results indicate that ChlVPP alternating with PABIOE is superior to PABIOE alone as initial treatment for advanced Hodgkin's disease.© 2001 Cancer Research Campaign www.bjcancer.com PMID:11355937

  16. Teaching Arithmetic Combinations of Multiplication and Division to Students with Learning Disabilities or Mild Intellectual Disability: The Impact of Alternative Fact Grouping and the Role of Cognitive and Learning Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agaliotis, Ioannis; Teli, Afroditi

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of two instructional interventions was investigated in the context of teaching Arithmetic Combinations (ACs) of multiplication and division to students with Learning Disabilities (LD) or Mild Intellectual Disability (MID). The intervention for the control group (LD = 20, MID = 10) was based on principles of effective instruction,…

  17. Combretastatin A-4 and Derivatives: Potential Fungicides Targeting Fungal Tubulin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhong-lin; Yan, Xiao-jing; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Jiu-jiu; Pang, Wan; Kai, Zhen-peng; Wu, Fan-hong

    2016-02-01

    Combretastatin A-4, first isolated from the African willow tree Combretum caffrum, is a tubulin polymerization inhibitor in medicine. It was first postulated as a potential fungicide targeting fungal tubulin for plant disease control in this study. Combretastatin A-4 and its derivatives were synthesized and tested against Rhizoctonia solani and Pyricularia oryzae. Several compounds have EC50 values similar to or better than that of isoprothiolane, which is widely used for rice disease control. Structure-activity relationship study indicated the the cis configuration and hydroxyl group in combretastatin A-4 are crucial to the antifungal effect. Molecular modeling indicated the binding sites of combretastatin A-4 and carbendazim on fungal tubulin are totally different. The bioactivity of combretastatin A-4 and its derivatives against carbendazim-resistant strains was demonstrated in this study. The results provide a new approach for fungicide discovery and fungicide resistance management.

  18. Combretastatin A-4 and Derivatives: Potential Fungicides Targeting Fungal Tubulin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhong-lin; Yan, Xiao-jing; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Jiu-jiu; Pang, Wan; Kai, Zhen-peng; Wu, Fan-hong

    2016-02-01

    Combretastatin A-4, first isolated from the African willow tree Combretum caffrum, is a tubulin polymerization inhibitor in medicine. It was first postulated as a potential fungicide targeting fungal tubulin for plant disease control in this study. Combretastatin A-4 and its derivatives were synthesized and tested against Rhizoctonia solani and Pyricularia oryzae. Several compounds have EC50 values similar to or better than that of isoprothiolane, which is widely used for rice disease control. Structure-activity relationship study indicated the the cis configuration and hydroxyl group in combretastatin A-4 are crucial to the antifungal effect. Molecular modeling indicated the binding sites of combretastatin A-4 and carbendazim on fungal tubulin are totally different. The bioactivity of combretastatin A-4 and its derivatives against carbendazim-resistant strains was demonstrated in this study. The results provide a new approach for fungicide discovery and fungicide resistance management. PMID:26711170

  19. Optimized immunohistochemistry in combination with image analysis: a reliable alternative to quantitative ELISA determination of uPA and PAI-1 for routine risk group discrimination in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, D S; Heilenkötter, U; Schumm, W; Behrens, O; Simon, R; Vollmer, E; Goldmann, T

    2013-10-01

    The determination of the invasion markers urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has further improved the possibilities for individualized therapy of breast cancer. To date, quantitative measurement by ELISA, that needs large amounts of fresh, frozen material, is the only standardized procedure for diagnostic purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was the establishment of a reliable alternative method based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) and image analysis requiring only small amounts of fixed tumor tissue. Protein expression of uPA and PAI-1 was analyzed in HOPE-fixed tumor samples using tissue microarrays (TMAs) and semiquantitative image analysis. The results of both methods were significantly correlated and risk assessment showed an overall concordance of 78% (83/107; high- and low-risk) and of 94% (74/79) regarding only high-risk patients. The data demonstrate that optimized IHC in combination with image analysis can provide adequate clinical significance compared to ELISA-derived determination of uPA and PAI-1.

  20. Training Groups, Encounter Groups, Sensitivity Groups and Group Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Louis A.; Pattison, E. Mansell; Schafer, Donald W.

    1971-01-01

    Descriptions and comparison of group therapies and the new group procedures (training groups and sensitivity groups—an outgrowth of the so-called Laboratory Movement methods of the mid-1930's) have been provided for the better understanding of non-psychiatric physicians. A group leader must have proper training and must help his group in its search for its avowed goals, whether he is a group therapist, a sensitivity trainer, or anyone else interested in utilizing group processes. Those goals are either the therapeutic benefit of the individual, as defined in group psychotherapy, or a better understanding of how one functions in groups, as in T-groups or the other group processes in the area of sensitive living. All group situations contain powerful tools which must be handled with proper respect. When so handled by experienced leaders, the individuals involved can achieve their goals in these group experiences. PMID:18730582

  1. Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Clarence A.

    1971-01-01

    This article reviews the major concerns of group counseling and differentiates among group guidance, group counseling, and group therapy. It also evaluates the research status of group counseling and presents implications for the future of this approach. Comment by Carl E. Thoresen follows. (Author)

  2. Renewal, resurgence, and alternative reinforcement context.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Mary M; Shahan, Timothy A

    2015-07-01

    Resurgence, relapse induced by the removal of alternative reinforcement, and renewal, relapse induced by a change in contextual stimuli, are typically studied separately in operant conditioning paradigms. In analogous treatments of operant problem behavior, aspects of both relapse phenomena can operate simultaneously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine a novel method for studying resurgence and renewal in the same experimental preparation. An alternative source of reinforcement was available during extinction for one group of rats (a typical resurgence preparation). Another group experienced an operant renewal preparation in which the extinction context was distinguished via olfactory and visual stimuli. A third group experienced alternative reinforcement delivery in the new context, a novel combination of typical resurgence and renewal preparations. Removal of alternative reinforcement and/or a change in context induced relapse relative to an extinction-only control group. When alternative reinforcement was delivered in a novel context, the alternative response was less persistent relative to when extinction of the alternative response took place in the context in which it was trained. This methodology might be used to illustrate shared (or distinct) mechanisms of resurgence and renewal, and to determine how delivering alternative reinforcement in another context may affect persistence and relapse.

  3. Alternatives to Suspension: A Government Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Zoldy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Student discipline and the ineffectiveness of out-of-school suspension is examined in light of the Ontario (Canada) legislative reform that supported a greater emphasis on progressive discipline alternatives to out-of-school suspension. Alternative discipline herein is explored via the behavior education plan, the school survival group, and…

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  5. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall...

  6. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall...

  7. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall...

  8. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall...

  9. 38 CFR 8a.4 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coverage. 8a.4 Section 8a.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.4 Coverage. (a) The amount of VMLI in force on his or her life at any one time shall...

  10. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  11. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... State shall follow the standards in E.O. 11652 and the provisions of 22 CFR 9.5 through 9.8. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4,...

  12. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... State shall follow the standards in E.O. 11652 and the provisions of 22 CFR 9.5 through 9.8. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4,...

  13. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  14. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  15. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  16. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... State shall follow the standards in E.O. 11652 and the provisions of 22 CFR 9.5 through 9.8. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4,...

  17. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... State shall follow the standards in E.O. 11652 and the provisions of 22 CFR 9.5 through 9.8. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4,...

  18. 32 CFR 383a.4 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Organization. 383a.4 Section 383a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.4 Organization. (a) The DeCA is established as an...

  19. 32 CFR 383a.4 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Organization. 383a.4 Section 383a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.4 Organization. (a) The DeCA is established as an...

  20. 32 CFR 383a.4 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organization. 383a.4 Section 383a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.4 Organization. (a) The DeCA is established as an...

  1. 32 CFR 383a.4 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Organization. 383a.4 Section 383a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.4 Organization. (a) The DeCA is established as an...

  2. 32 CFR 383a.4 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Organization. 383a.4 Section 383a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.4 Organization. (a) The DeCA is established as an...

  3. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  4. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... State shall follow the standards in E.O. 11652 and the provisions of 22 CFR 9.5 through 9.8. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4,...

  5. Assessment "Honest Alternatives".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Susan Glazer

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the challenge of finding or creating alternatives to tests and traditional grading systems. Reflects on and describes the experience of creating an assessment tool and cautions against choosing alternatives that merely camouflage the grades. Encourages educators to find authentic alternatives to describe children's growth. (BAC)

  6. Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mary Lou

    2002-01-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies are increasingly used by many pregnant women in the United States; however, limited research is available on many therapies. The number of studies should increase with the establishment of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine by the National Institutes of Health. This column reviews recent studies of both herbal medicines and alternative therapies used in pregnancy. PMID:17273285

  7. Alternative Teacher Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Carol; Thomas, Kay

    This paper examines issues related to alternative teacher certification, discussing teacher certification in Texas and noting that most researchers agree that both traditional and alternative routes to teacher preparation need improvement. For over a decade, alternative certification has become increasingly available in Texas. This paper…

  8. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-7 - Imputation of permitted disparity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-7... under the plan satisfies the alternative safe harbor for flat benefit plans under § 1.401(a)(4)-3(b)(4... not covered by any of the taxes under section 3111(a), section 3221, or section 1401. (3)...

  9. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring... to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated, in... members of groups (including minorities, women, and disabled persons) that historically have...

  10. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring... to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated, in... members of groups (including minorities, women, and disabled persons) that historically have...

  11. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring... to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated, in... members of groups (including minorities, women, and disabled persons) that historically have...

  12. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring... to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated, in... members of groups (including minorities, women, and disabled persons) that historically have...

  13. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring... to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated, in... members of groups (including minorities, women, and disabled persons) that historically have...

  14. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  15. Group Flow and Group Genius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  16. Alternative nuclear technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, E.

    1981-10-01

    The lead times required to develop a select group of nuclear fission reactor types and fuel cycles to the point of readiness for full commercialization are compared. Along with lead times, fuel material requirements and comparative costs of producing electric power were estimated. A conservative approach and consistent criteria for all systems were used in estimates of the steps required and the times involved in developing each technology. The impact of the inevitable exhaustion of the low- or reasonable-cost uranium reserves in the United States on the desirability of completing the breeder reactor program, with its favorable long-term result on fission fuel supplies, is discussed. The long times projected to bring the most advanced alternative converter reactor technologies the heavy water reactor and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor into commercial deployment when compared to the time projected to bring the breeder reactor into equivalent status suggest that the country's best choice is to develop the breeder. The perceived diversion-proliferation problems with the uranium plutonium fuel cycle have workable solutions that can be developed which will enable the use of those materials at substantially reduced levels of diversion risk.

  17. Isopermutation group

    SciTech Connect

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  18. Alternative Certification Isn't Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate; Jacobs, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    While nearly all states now have something on their books labeled "alternate route to certification," these programs defy standard definition due to their enormous variability. States differ in the types of candidates allowed to apply (e.g., career changers or recent college graduates) and in the academic backgrounds these individuals must…

  19. Hot Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived, and goal…

  20. Alternative Solar Indices

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  1. Alternative solar indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, L. J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  2. Alternate drop pulse polarography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

  3. Piston engine configuration alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a technological assessment of alternate engine component configuration and material alternatives. It includes a comparative analysis of key characteristics of Gasoline, Diesel and Gas Turbine engines built by Daihatsu, Honda, Isuzu, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Suburu, Suzuki and Toyota. The piston engines range from two to ten cylinders with inline, vee and opposed configurations. Furthermore, additional special features and alternative choices include variable compression ratio, ceramic structural components, supercharger, turbocharger, twin turbocharger, supercharger-turbocharger combined and the regenerative gas turbine.

  4. Alternator insulation evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

  5. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  6. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Religious activities. 54a.4 Section 54a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE...

  7. 42 CFR 54a.4 - Religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Religious activities. 54a.4 Section 54a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS RECEIVING...

  8. GROUP INEQUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727

  9. System Alternatives Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrait, James A.

    1977-01-01

    The Systems Alternatives Project is an attempt to develop open classroom alternatives within a modular scheduling system. Biology students are given both action and test objectives that emphasize individualization. Structure of the project is detailed and an attempt to analyze the project evaluation data statistically is included. (MA)

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  11. Alternative Schools, Mainstream Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Jan; Conner, Evguenia

    2007-01-01

    Alternative education has its own history. Having emerged in the sixties as a response to the social crisis, its goal was primarily to fight increasing bureaucracy and the depersonalization of public education by giving students more freedom and minimal adult supervision. In the eighties, the understanding of "alternative education" narrowed to…

  12. Alternatives: Project Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brier, Norman

    Alternatives is a project designed for youngsters, ages 11-15, who display serious conduct problems and severe learning deficiencies. The primary goal of the project is to prevent the development of a chronic antisocial orientation among youngsters who are at high risk for such an outcome. The interventions employed at Alternatives are based on…

  13. Alternative Automobile Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Gordon

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

  14. Alternative Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Kerri L.

    2004-01-01

    Employers are feeling the strain of needing to offer alternative work arrangements to retain and recruit employees. Due to a change in demographics, dual-career couples and increased technology; people are demanding a transformation in the workplace environment. Two alternatives, which are being offered by employers, are flextime and…

  15. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  16. Group Intervention in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Group intervention in pediatric physical and occupational therapy is an alternative to individual intervention allowing the therapist to meet the needs of multiple children at one time. Survey research indicates that approximately 40% to 60% of pediatric physical and occupational therapists use group intervention at least occasionally in practice,…

  17. Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Sandra M; Briscoe, Jessica; Cross, Raymond K

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a complex, chronic, multifactorial inflammatory disorder of the digestive tract. Standard therapies include immunosuppressive and biological treatments, but there is increasing interest in the potential benefit of complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Given the high prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine among inflammatory bowel disease patients, gastroenterologists must remain knowledgeable regarding the risks and benefits of these treatment options. This article reviews the updated scientific data on the use of biologically based complementary and alternative therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Alternative approaches to epilepsy treatment.

    PubMed

    McElroy-Cox, Caitlin

    2009-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a diverse group of health care practices and products that fall outside the realm of traditional Western medical theory and practice and that are used to complement or replace conventional medical therapies. The use of CAM has increased over the past two decades, and surveys have shown that up to 44% of patients with epilepsy are using some form of CAM treatment. This article reviews the CAM modalities of meditation, yoga, relaxation techniques, biofeedback, nutritional and herbal supplements, dietary measures, chiropractic care, acupuncture, Reiki, and homeopathy and what is known about their potential efficacy in patients with epilepsy.

  19. A 4-Day Work Week That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kenneth; Timmerman, Linda

    1980-01-01

    Describes Navarro College's (Corsicana, TX) program to reduce kilowatt hour consumption through alternative energy sources and energy costs through transition to a four-day/40-hour work week. Presents results of studies of employee performance levels, community response, and the cost effectiveness of the program. Lists benefits for the student,…

  20. Evaluation of Expenditure Alternates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlein, Gary W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Illustrates a system of calculating dollar expenditures over periods of time in terms of present value. The system enables planners, school boards, and administrators to compare expenditure alternatives as a decisionmaking factor. (Author)

  1. GLOBAL ALTERNATIVE FUTURE SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One way to examine possible future outcomes for environmental protection is through the development and analysis of alternative future scenarios. This type of assessment postulates two or more different paths that social and environmental development might take, using correspond...

  2. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  3. Alternative and Complementary Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... always designed to treat a particular illness: Some alternative therapies treat the whole person, not an illness. They might restore harmony, balance, or normal energy flow. Acupuncturists, for example, use the pulse to ...

  4. SOLVENT WASTE REDUCTION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication contains edited versions of presentations on this subject made at five Technology Transfer seminars in 1988. Chapters are included on land disposal regulations and requirements; waste solvent disposal alternatives from various industries such as process equipment...

  5. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  6. Alternative fuel information sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  7. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  8. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  9. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-09-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

  10. 44 CFR Appendix A(4) to Part 61 - Appendix A(4) to Part 61

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appendix A(4) to Part 61 A(4) Appendix A(4) to Part 61 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES Pt. 61, App....

  11. Group dynamics.

    PubMed

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  12. Alternatives for NASTRAN maintenance, modification and dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffer, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    Various alternatives to direct NASA support of the program are considered ranging from no support at one end of the spectrum to subsidizing a non profit user's group at the other. Of all the alternatives that are developed, the user group appears to be most viable. NASA's past and future roles in the development of computerized technology are also considered. The need for an institute for computational analysis is identified and NASA's possible involvement is described. The goals of the proposed institute and research funds to support an activity that has the potential of a much larger impact on the technical community are identified.

  13. Chromatin and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Alló, M; Schor, I E; Muñoz, M J; de la Mata, M; Agirre, E; Valcárcel, J; Eyras, E; Kornblihtt, A R

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing affects more than 90% of human genes. Coupling between transcription and splicing has become crucial in the complex network underlying alternative splicing regulation. Because chromatin is the real template for nuclear transcription, changes in its structure, but also in the "reading" and "writing" of the histone code, could modulate splicing choices. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting these ideas, from the first proposal of chromatin affecting alternative splicing, performed 20 years ago, to the latest findings including genome-wide evidence that nucleosomes are preferentially positioned in exons. We focus on two recent reports from our laboratories that add new evidence to this field. The first report shows that a physiological stimulus such as neuron depolarization promotes intragenic histone acetylation (H3K9ac) and chromatin relaxation, causing the skipping of exon 18 of the neural cell adhesion molecule gene. In the second report, we show how specific histone modifications can be created at targeted gene regions as a way to affect alternative splicing: Using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), we increased the levels of H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 in the proximity of alternative exon 33 of the human fibronectin gene, favoring its inclusion into mature messenger RNA (mRNA) through a mechanism that recalls RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing.

  14. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of...

  15. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of...

  16. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of...

  17. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of...

  18. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall... of: (1) The Secretary of Labor, or his duly authorized representative; or (2) The Secretary of...

  19. 7 CFR 15a.4 - Assurance required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 15a.4 Assurance required. (a) General. Every application for Federal financial assistance for any education program or activity shall as condition of its approval... Federal financial assistance to a transferee which operates any education program or activity, and...

  20. Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  1. Biodiesel: an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Manzanera, Maximino; Molina-Muñoz, Maria L; González-López, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative energy source and could be a substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Most of the sources, methods and apparatus to produce biodiesel are reviewed here. Some of the patents propose the use of oils and fats of animal or vegetal origin and other kind of sources. Many others focus on the methods for the production or oxidation stability of the biofuel in order to make its production economically competitive. Several apparatus comprising reactors and refineries are also presented. This review article summarizes recent and important patents relating to the production of biodiesel to make its production a viable alternative.

  2. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  3. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A. B.; Abeel, Thomas; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regions (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically. PMID:27659065

  4. The energy cane alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the conceptual and theoretical background of Saccharum botany, which underlies the growing of cane as a total growth commodity. Management details are provided for energy cane planting, cultivation, harvest, and postharvest operations. Chapters on energy cane utilization stress new developments in lignocellulose conversion plus alternative options for fermentable solids usage. Chapters are also included for the management of alternative grasses to supplement energy cane, and the breeding of new hybrid canes with high biomass attributes at the intergeneric and interspecific levels.

  5. Solvent alternatives guide

    SciTech Connect

    Elion, J.M.; Monroe, K.R.; Hill, E.A.

    1996-06-01

    It is no longer legal to manufacture or import chlorofluorocarbon 113 or methyl chloroform solvents, and companies that currently clean their parts with either material are now required to implement environmentally safe substitutes. To help find alternative methods, Research Triangle Institute`s Surface Cleaning Technology Program has designed a Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE), an online tool that enables access to practical information and recommendations for acceptable solvents. Developed in partnership with the US Environmental Protection Agency, SAGE is available free of charge on the Internet`s World Wide Web.

  6. Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  7. Underrepresented groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem with the shortage of under represented groups in science and engineering is absolutely crucial, especially considering that U.S. will experience a shortage of 560,000 science and engineering personnel by the year 2010. Most studies by the National Science Foundation also concluded that projected shortages cannot be alleviated without significant increases in the involvement of Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, handicapped persons, and women.

  8. PEAT: an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Schora, F. C.; Punwani, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    Even though peat is a low-heating value and low-bulk density fossil fuel which in its natural state contains over 80 percent moisture, it can be an economical alternative to coal, and fuel oil, as is the case in Iceland and Finland for direct combustion applications. This is because of the relative ease with which peat can be harvested, and the generally low sulfur and ash content of peat. Recent studies show that peat also has very favorable characteristics for conversion to synthetic fuels. Tests show that on the basis of chemistry and kinetics, peat is a better raw material than coal for production of synthetic fuels. Recent estimates also show that conversion of peat to high-Btu gas (>950 Btu/scf) is competitive with other alternatives of synthetic high-Btu gas. Therefore, peat can be an economical energy alternative depending upon location of peat deposits, region of energy need, scale of operation and cost of other energy alternatives.

  9. Making room for alternatives.

    PubMed

    Edelberg, D

    1994-07-01

    Alternative healing is an idea whose time has come, and 1993 was the critical year for that recognition. So believes internist David Edelberg, founder of the Chicago Holistic Center. There patients can see one of four allopathic physicians as well as practitioners in 37 additional therapies, including acupuncture, infant massage, homeopathy, nutrition counseling, and Ayurvedic medicine. PMID:10136509

  10. Alternative Energy Busing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  11. Publishing: Alternatives and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penchansky, Mimi; And Others

    The Library Association of the City University of New York presents an annotated bibliography on the subject of small and alternative publishing. In the first section directories, indexes, catalogs, and reviews are briefly described. Book distributors for small publishers are listed next. The major portion of the bibliography is a listing of books…

  12. Alternatives to Traditional Notation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaare, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Provides a introduction and overview to alternative music notation systems. Describes guitar tablature, accordion tablature, klavarskribo (a keyboard notational system developed by Cornelius Pot, a Dutch engineer), and the digital piano roll. Briefly discusses the history of notation reform and current efforts. Includes examples from scores. (MJP)

  13. Alternative Approaches to Negotiating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramming, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    The wait-and-react and laundry-list approaches to combating teachers' collective-bargaining demands are ineffective. An alternative goals-setting approach requires management and the district negotiations team to identify important needs and objectives. West Seneca Central School District ended contentious negotiations by presenting unions with…

  14. Alternatives in solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  15. Finding alternatives to antibiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. The availability of new antibiotics has severely declined, and so alternatives to antibiotics need to be considered in both animal agriculture and human medicine. Products for disease prevention are different than products for d...

  16. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  17. Alternatives in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Bruce, Ed.

    These six lectures explore alternative approaches to education both within and outside the educational system. The contributions and their authors include: "Telling It Like It Ain't: An Examination of the Language of Education," by Neil Postman; "The Psychology of J. Piaget and Its Relevance to Education," by Vinh Bang (presented also in French);…

  18. Augmentative & Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2007-01-01

    There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

  19. Alternatives for Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBlois, Robert; Place, Patti

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about two alternative schools that have adapted to be a better fit for at-risk students than a comprehensive middle or high school might be. It is easy to suggest that an increase in the dropout rate is merely a natural result of the recent preoccupation with test scores. Whatever truth there may be to this, educators must still…

  20. Alternatives to Traditional Lecturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Alternatives to traditional, large-class lecturing are discussed. They include using canned lectures, demonstrations and lecture experiments, computer simulations, problem-solving strategies, breaks during lectures, and movies. Moving out of large classrooms to laboratories and resource rooms (or giving an examination) is also suggested. (JN)

  1. Compensated pulsed alternator

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F.; Driga, Mircea D.; Woodson, Herbert H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

  2. Alternative Break Service Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Even as educators understand how their millennial students learn in such different ways than previous generations (watching how-to videos downloaded from YouTube or engaging in experiential learning adventures), colleges still rely heavily on in-the-classroom learning. The author can't offer an alternative to this classroom format, but she…

  3. Alternative Education Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide deals with various areas of alternative education programs, including current practices and different options available to school and community personnel. Steps are outlined to assess present educational settings, design new programs, select the participants, and implement and evaluate the new program. The first appendix contains…

  4. The SOLAR Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, E. H., Jr.; Walton, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Only when the sun's energy can be captured at a comparable or lower opportunity cost than that of competing sources will solar energy systems become viable alternatives. Economic issues of solar energy are discussed. The legitimate role of government is also examined. (RM)

  5. Alternatives to Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  6. Alternatives to Evolutionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses alternative theories to evolutionism. Five theories are mentioned, but most attention is given to the steady state theory of species which the author considers the most suitable partner for Darwinism in O- and A-level biology courses in the United Kingdom. (HM)

  7. Alternatives; A Filmography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covert, Nadine, Comp.; And Others

    Over 120 films are listed which deal with alternatives in education, lifestyles, work, religion, crafts, and politics. Among topics covered are open classrooms, communes, changing family structures, day care, and racial problems. Each film is summarized; length, copyrights, date, producer, and distributor are listed. A brief bibliography, subject…

  8. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-7 - Imputation of permitted disparity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401... under the plan satisfies the alternative safe harbor for flat benefit plans under § 1.401(a)(4)-3(b)(4... not covered by any of the taxes under section 3111(a), section 3221, or section 1401. (3)...

  9. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-13 - Effective dates and fresh-start rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Example 2, that the plan may apply the alternative method). (e) Determination of initial theoretical...(b)(3), as permitted under § 1.401(a)(4)-8(b)(3)(vii), the theoretical reserve as of the... determination date, is determined as follows: (i) Determine the actuarial present value, as of...

  10. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-13 - Effective dates and fresh-start rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Example 2, that the plan may apply the alternative method). (e) Determination of initial theoretical...(b)(3), as permitted under § 1.401(a)(4)-8(b)(3)(vii), the theoretical reserve as of the... determination date, is determined as follows: (i) Determine the actuarial present value, as of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-13 - Effective dates and fresh-start rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Example 2, that the plan may apply the alternative method). (e) Determination of initial theoretical...(b)(3), as permitted under § 1.401(a)(4)-8(b)(3)(vii), the theoretical reserve as of the... determination date, is determined as follows: (i) Determine the actuarial present value, as of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-13 - Effective dates and fresh-start rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Example 2, that the plan may apply the alternative method). (e) Determination of initial theoretical...(b)(3), as permitted under § 1.401(a)(4)-8(b)(3)(vii), the theoretical reserve as of the... determination date, is determined as follows: (i) Determine the actuarial present value, as of...

  13. Maternal Nutrition and Four-Alternative Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Michael; Krageloh, Christian U.; Fraser, Mhoyra; Breier, Bernhard H.

    2007-01-01

    Two groups of 10 male rats were trained to nose poke for food pellets at four alternatives that provided differing rates of pellet delivery on aperiodic schedules. After a fixed number of pellets had been delivered, 5, 10 or 20 in different conditions of the experiment, a 10-s blackout occurred, and the locations of the differing rates of pellet…

  14. Housing the Elderly: Alternative Approaches. Reprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Evon H., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This issue of the official magazine of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is written to stimulate nationwide interest in solving housing and urban problems by dealing with housing alternatives available to the elderly, e.g., shared housing and small group homes. HUD policies which help the elderly to maintain or upgrade…

  15. [Alternatives for Reading Teacher Educator Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    The "Epistle" is the publication forum of Professors of Reading Teacher Educators, a special-interest group of the International Reading Association. The topic considered in this issue is alternatives or positive approaches for dealing with current concerns in graduate education in reading. In "Speculations on the Management of Retrenchment in…

  16. 7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... alternate member may not act in the place and stead of such member. In the event a member and his or her... group (grower or handler) as the member. In the event of the death, removal, resignation...

  17. Literacy, Numeracy and Alternative Dispute Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, J. Joy; Wilson, Janice M.

    2005-01-01

    The formal court system in Australia has long been criticised for its adversarial nature. As a result, there has been an increase in the use of alternative dispute resolution processes such as mediation. These are promoted as a means of increasing access to justice by disadvantaged groups and as an inexpensive way of solving legal or quasi-legal…

  18. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  19. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    PubMed

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  20. Alternative population futures.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    Alternative population scenarios to the year 2000 are presented and policy implications of the various scenarios are discussed. Population models are described. Projections are made based on different sets of assumptions regarding changes in birth, death, marriage and migration rates. A "high" series, "medium" series and "low" series of projections are made for total population. Projections are also made regarding urban and rural population, families and households, and the labor force.

  1. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gushee, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  3. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  4. MANOVA versus alternative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatim, Bidin; Ismail, Suzilah

    2014-12-01

    Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a powerful tool in analysing multivariate data of multi-factorial experiments. However one of the assumptions in MANOVA requires the data to be normally distributed. This study concerned with the violation of this assumption, particularly when the data are either moderately non-normal or extremely non-normal. Possible alternative methods of handling such data are (i) permutational MANOVA (PMANOVA) or (ii) analysis of distance (AoD). Both of these alternative methods were compared with MANOVA via Monte Carlo experiments using the power of tests. The experiments focussed on testing interaction effects by incorporating different data types (i.e. having multivariate normal distribution, moderately non-normal and extremely non-normal), three level of inter-variable correlations (low: 0.25, medium: 0.5 and high: 0.75), two designs (small: 3×3 and large: 7×7) and two sample sizes (2 and 5 replicates). Overall, the results revealed that irrespective of the data types and the level of inter-variable correlations MANOVA performed satisfactorily in situations having larger sample size (5 replicates). In these situations, no alternative method is necessary. However, in small design with high inter-variable correlations PMANOVA performed slightly better. In small samples (2 replicates), AoD outperformed both MANOVA and PMANOVA. This is especially true in situation having small sample (2 replicates), large design and highly correlated inter-variables.

  5. Group evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion process is greatly affected by the rate of droplet evaporation. The heat and mass exchanges between gas and liquid couple the dynamics of both phases in all aspects: mass, momentum, and energy. Correct prediction of the evaporation rate is therefore a key issue in engineering design of liquid combustion devices. Current analytical tools for characterizing the behavior of these devices are based on results from a single isolated droplet. Numerous experimental studies have challenged the applicability of these results in a dense spray. To account for the droplets' interaction in a dense spray, a number of theories have been developed in the past decade. Herein, two tasks are examined. One was to study how to implement the existing theoretical results, and the other was to explore the possibility of experimental verifications. The current theoretical results of group evaporation are given for a monodispersed cluster subject to adiabatic conditions. The time evolution of the fluid mechanic and thermodynamic behavior in this cluster is derived. The results given are not in the form of a subscale model for CFD codes.

  6. Alternate fusion fuels workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The workshop was organized to focus on a specific confinement scheme: the tokamak. The workshop was divided into two parts: systems and physics. The topics discussed in the systems session were narrowly focused on systems and engineering considerations in the tokamak geometry. The workshop participants reviewed the status of system studies, trade-offs between d-t and d-d based reactors and engineering problems associated with the design of a high-temperature, high-field reactor utilizing advanced fuels. In the physics session issues were discussed dealing with high-beta stability, synchrotron losses and transport in alternate fuel systems. The agenda for the workshop is attached.

  7. THE ALTERNATIVE FOR SURVIVAL*

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The need of the time is to develop the traditional health care systems as a people oriented health care system. The factors that dominated the health care structure of our nation has been systematically pushing the traditional systems of medicine away from the people. In this background, an attempt has been made to reflect upon one's own experience, to understand the pattern of domination and to probe and suggest further on what could be the possible alternative development strategy and suggest specific tasks that would help define the development problematique in a meaningful manner in order to progress further in a self-determined manner PMID:22557469

  8. Alternate transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zertuche, Tony; Mckinnie, James

    1988-01-01

    Three missions have been identified by NASA for a Space Shuttle-supplementing Alternate Transportation System (ATS) encompassing combinations of booster vehicles, crew modules, and service modules: (1) to achieve manned access to orbit for Space Station crew rotation every 90 days, (2) the lofting of a logistics module resupplying the Space Station every 180 days, and (3) the simultaneous launch of both crews and logistics to the Space Station. A reentry glider is considered, in conjunction with the Space Shuttle's unmanned cargo version and the Apollo manned capsule, as an important ATS element. The Titan IV/NUS is used as a booster.

  9. Complementary Alternation Discourse Constructions in English: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iza Erviti, Aneider

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the essential features of a group of constructions that belong to the family of complementary alternation discourse constructions in English. In this group of constructions, X and Y are two situations such that Y is less likely (or more likely) to happen than X. Each member of this group (X Let Alone Y, X Much Less Y, X Never…

  10. Supporting Female Students in Mathematics for Alternative Certification Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a follow-up to the last editor's perspective article about supporting new alternative certification teachers as they teach students from underrepresented groups in mathematics (Evans, 2013). The focus for this article narrows the scope to emphasize support needed for female mathematics students. Alternative certification teachers…

  11. Constructing Alternate Assessment Cohorts: An Oregon Perspective. Research Brief 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saven, Jessica L.; Farley, Dan; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinally modeling the growth of students with significant cognitive disabilities (SWSCDs) on alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) presents many challenges for states. The number of students in Grades 3-8 who remain in a cohort group varies over time, depending on the methods used to construct the…

  12. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Ali E; Mayo, Nathanael K; Jung de Andrade, Monica; Robles, Raquel O; Fang, Shaoli; Baughman, Ray H; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Yongsheng; Lee, Jae Ah; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-05-26

    Thermophones are highly promising for applications such as high-power SONAR arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets provide the most attractive performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large-size freestanding carbon nanotube aerogel sheets and other even more exotic materials recently investigated hampers the field. We describe alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high-energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanostructured materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. We demonstrate that the heat capacity of aerogel-like nanostructures can be extracted by a thorough analysis of the sound pressure spectra. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high-power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed.

  13. Plasma fatty acid profile and alternative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Klvanová, J

    1997-01-01

    Plasma profile of fatty acids was examined in a group of children consisting of 7 vegans, 15 lactoovovegetarians and 10 semivegetarians. The children were 11-15 years old and the average period of alternative nutrition was 3.4 years. The results were compared with a group of 19 omnivores that constituted an average sample with respect to biochemical and hematological parameters from a larger study of health and nutritional status of children in Slovakia. Alternative nutrition groups had significantly lower values of saturated fatty acids. The content of oleic acid was identical to omnivores. A significant increase was observed for linoleic and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acids. The dihomo-gamma-linolenic (n-6) acid and arachidonic (n-6) acid values were comparable to omnivores for all alternative nutrition groups. Values of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lactoovovegetarians were identical to those of omnivores whereas they were significantly increased in semivegetarians consuming fish twice a week. Due to the total exclusion of animal fats from the diet, vegans had significantly reduced values of palmitoleic acid as well as eicosapentaenoic (n-3) acid and docosahexaenoic (n-3) acid resulting in an increased n-6/n-3 ratio. Values of plasma fatty acids found in alternative nutrition groups can be explained by the higher intake of common vegetable oils (high content of linoleic acid), oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid (cereal germs, soybean oil, walnuts), as well as in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish). The results of fatty acids (except n-3 in vegans) and other lipid parameters confirm the beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Parents > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... works. previous continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  15. Alternatives for Jet Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, R. J.; Sain, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    Approaches are developed as alternatives to current design methods which rely heavily on linear quadratic and Riccati equation methods. The main alternatives are discussed in two broad categories, local multivariable frequency domain methods and global nonlinear optimal methods.

  16. Extending the Alternating Series Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuura, Hidefumi

    2012-01-01

    Alternating series have the simplest of sign patterns. What about series with more complicated patterns? By inspecting the alternating series test closely, we find a theorem that applies to more complicated sign patterns, and beyond.

  17. Where there's smoke there's fire--ear candling in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Hornibrook, Jeremy

    2012-12-14

    It is estimated that one-third of the United States population subscribes to alternative medical therapies (Eisenberg et al, NEJM 1993;328:246-252). Ear candles are popular products promoted by alternative health practitioners, and sold by health shops and even over the Internet. They have been promoted for ear and sinus discomfort, rhinitis, sinusitis, glue ear, colds, flu, migraine, tinnitus, but particularly for removal of ear wax (cerumen). In this case report, a 4-year-old girl in New Zealand presents with otitis media and during the course of the ear examination white deposits were noticed on her eardrum; this was confirmed as being caused by ear candling.

  18. Genetic testing and disability insurance: an alternative opinion.

    PubMed

    Dodge, John H; Christianson, David J

    2007-01-01

    As members of the Working Group on Genetic Testing in Disability Insurance, the authors of this alternative opinion describe their areas of disagreement with some of the conclusions in the paper written by Susan M. Wolf and Jeffrey P. Kahn.

  19. Alternative Schools. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This article examines so-called "alternative schools," taking care to define precisely what is meant by this designation. There are many types of alternative education available to the public, including those programs intended for special-education students, advanced-placement students, and home-schooled children. The first alternative schools…

  20. Why lupus patients use alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Leong, K P; Pong, L Y; Chan, S P

    2003-01-01

    It is unclear whether patients use alternative medicine because of psychological distress associated with their disease or philosophical congruence with this form of treatment. Therefore, we have studied why patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) employ alternative medicine. We interviewed 192 consecutive Chinese SLE outpatients in a tertiary-care rheumatology centre. We recorded their demographic data, usage of traditional Chinese medication, the predominant form of alternative medicine in this group, and the Rheumatology Attitudes Index score. We distinguished two types of alternative medicine users: those who use it with intent to treat SLE (disease-specific users; 73 users, 38.0%) and those who use it for cultural and other reasons (general-health users; 55 users, 28.6%). Users regarded their disease as mild compared to nonusers. Disease-specific users were distinguished from nonusers by having Chinese as a first language (odds ratio, 2.14-8.83), greater learned helplessness (odds ratio, 1.02-1.29), and an earlier age of diagnosis (odds ratio, 0.92-0.98 for older age). In conclusion, the majority of our lupus patients have used alternative medicine. The motivations of general-health and disease-specific users are different. The patients' first language and perceived helplessness influenced the disease-specific users, while general-health users were subject to neither of these. PMID:14514127

  1. Histone methylation, alternative splicing and neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fiszbein, Ana; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing, as well as chromatin structure, greatly contributes to specific transcriptional programs that promote neuronal differentiation. The activity of G9a, the enzyme responsible for mono- and di-methylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2) in mammalian euchromatin, has been widely implicated in the differentiation of a variety of cell types and tissues. In a recent work from our group (Fiszbein et al., 2016) we have shown that alternative splicing of G9a regulates its nuclear localization and, therefore, the efficiency of H3K9 methylation, which promotes neuronal differentiation. We discuss here our results in the light of a report from other group (Laurent et al. 2015) demonstrating a key role for the alternative splicing of the histone demethylase LSD1 in controlling specific gene expression in neurons. All together, these results illustrate the importance of alternative splicing in the generation of a proper equilibrium between methylation and demethylation of histones for the regulation of neuron-specific transcriptional programs. PMID:27606339

  2. Histone methylation, alternative splicing and neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fiszbein, Ana; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing, as well as chromatin structure, greatly contributes to specific transcriptional programs that promote neuronal differentiation. The activity of G9a, the enzyme responsible for mono- and di-methylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2) in mammalian euchromatin, has been widely implicated in the differentiation of a variety of cell types and tissues. In a recent work from our group (Fiszbein et al., 2016) we have shown that alternative splicing of G9a regulates its nuclear localization and, therefore, the efficiency of H3K9 methylation, which promotes neuronal differentiation. We discuss here our results in the light of a report from other group (Laurent et al. 2015) demonstrating a key role for the alternative splicing of the histone demethylase LSD1 in controlling specific gene expression in neurons. All together, these results illustrate the importance of alternative splicing in the generation of a proper equilibrium between methylation and demethylation of histones for the regulation of neuron-specific transcriptional programs.

  3. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF POLICY OPTIONS ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES: AN ALTERNATIVE-FUTURES APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative-futures analysis was used to analyze different scenarios of future growth patterns and attendant resource allocations on the agricultural system of Oregon's Willamette River Basin. A stakeholder group formulated three policy alternatives: a continuation of current tr...

  4. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  5. Alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, R. W.

    1982-04-01

    Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

  6. Alternative Fuels Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Nakley, Leah M.; Yen, Chia H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn has invested over $1.5 million in engineering, and infrastructure upgrades to renovate an existing test facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), which is now being used as an Alternative Fuels Laboratory. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis and thermal stability testing. This effort is supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing project. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale F-T catalyst screening experiments. These experiments require the use of a synthesis gas feedstock, which will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics, product yields and hydrocarbon distributions. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor for catalyst activation studies. Product gas composition and performance data can be continuously obtained with an automated gas sampling system, which directly connects the reactors to a micro-gas chromatograph (micro GC). Liquid and molten product samples are collected intermittently and are analyzed by injecting as a diluted sample into designated gas chromatograph units. The test facility also has the capability of performing thermal stability experiments of alternative aviation fuels with the use of a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) (Ref. 1) in accordance to ASTM D 3241 "Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels" (JFTOT method) (Ref. 2). An Ellipsometer will be used to study fuel fouling thicknesses on heated tubes from the HLPS experiments. A detailed overview of the test facility systems and capabilities are described in this paper.

  7. 44 CFR Appendix A(4) to Part 61 - Appendix A(4) to Part 61

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... notice sent to you in conjunction with the community inspection procedure established under 44 CFR 59.30... procedure set forth in National Flood Insurance Program Regulations (44 CFR 59.30). During the several years... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appendix A(4) to Part 61...

  8. Alternative techniques in root canal debridement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luca, Ruxandra; Todea, Carmen; Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Nica, Luminita; Armani, Giacomo; Locovei, Cosmin

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that conventional chemo-mechanical preparation is limited regarding the decontamination of the endodontic space, which is why alternative techniques such as laser radiation have their importance in the modern endodontic treatment. The present study aims to assess the possibility of improving the debridement of the root canals by removing smear layer using Er: YAG laser radiation. We used 18 extracted teeth, which were subjected to the same initial protocol and then divided into 5 study groups: the control group has not been treated with laser; the other 4 groups were exposed to laser radiation using two different geometries peaks of quartz and two energy levels. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed an increased efficiency in the debridement of all interested areas when using PIPS and XPulse tips at proper energy. In the two groups treated with inferior laser energy, the debridement didn't prove to be superior to the conventional treatment.

  9. Diesel Engine Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T

    2003-08-24

    There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

  10. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival. PMID:3300300

  11. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  12. A new quenching alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R.J.; Faulkner, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The quenching of ferrous alloys implies the controlled extraction of heat from a part at a rate sufficient to harden the part and still control the desired dimensional limitations. Quenchants in common use today are: molten metals, molten salts, petroleum oils, polymer solutions, water, and salt/water solutions. Each type of quenchant has its benefits and limitations. With current waste legislation and the trends toward environmentally friendlier industrial working fluids, many of these quenching products are coming under close scrutiny by the users and legislators. The most widely used quenchant is petroleum oil due to its favorable heat extraction characteristics. The dependence upon imports, price vulnerability, and contamination potential have caused suppliers and users to look into alternative products. Research into renewable resource, non-petroleum, vegetable oils has been going on globally for several years. The drawbacks encountered with many vegetable oils were widely known and only years of research enabled them to be overcome. The presently formulated product not only performs as well as petroleum oil but shows some characteristics better than those of the petroleum products, especially in the biodegradability and ecological aspects of the products. Stability and reproducible quenching properties have been proven with over two and one half years of field testing.

  13. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival.

  14. Detecting alternative graph clusterings.

    PubMed

    Mandala, Supreet; Kumara, Soundar; Yao, Tao

    2012-07-01

    The problem of graph clustering or community detection has enjoyed a lot of attention in complex networks literature. A quality function, modularity, quantifies the strength of clustering and on maximization yields sensible partitions. However, in most real world networks, there are an exponentially large number of near-optimal partitions with some being very different from each other. Therefore, picking an optimal clustering among the alternatives does not provide complete information about network topology. To tackle this problem, we propose a graph perturbation scheme which can be used to identify an ensemble of near-optimal and diverse clusterings. We establish analytical properties of modularity function under the perturbation which ensures diversity. Our approach is algorithm independent and therefore can leverage any of the existing modularity maximizing algorithms. We numerically show that our methodology can systematically identify very different partitions on several existing data sets. The knowledge of diverse partitions sheds more light into the topological organization and helps gain a more complete understanding of the underlying complex network.

  15. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Sujay; Mikati, Mohamad A; Vigevano, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a very rare disease characterized by recurrent attacks of loss of muscular tone resulting in hypomobility of one side of the body. The etiology of the disease due to ATP1A3 gene mutations in the majority of patients. Few familial cases have been described. AHC has an onset in the first few months of life. Hemiplegic episodes are often accompanied by other paroxysmal manifestations, such as lateral eyes and head deviation toward the hemiplegic side and a very peculiar monocular nystagmus. As the attack progresses, hemiplegia can shift to the other side of the body. Sometimes the attack can provoke bilateral paralysis, and these patients may have severe clinical impairment, with difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Hemiplegic attacks may be triggered by different stimuli, like bath in warm water, motor activity, or emotion. The frequency of attacks is high, usually several in a month or in a week. The duration is variable from a few minutes to several hours or even days. Sleep can stop the attack. Movement disorders such as dystonia and abnormal movements are frequent. Cognitive delay of variable degree is a common feature. Epilepsy has been reported in 50% of the cases, but seizure onset is usually during the third or fourth year of life. Many drugs have been used in AHC with very few results. Flunarizine has the most supportive anecdotal evidence regarding efficacy. PMID:23622289

  16. Alternative Compression Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

  17. [Alternative oxidase in industrial fungi].

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuai; Liu, Qiang; He, Hao; Li, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi have been used in industrial fermentation extensively. Based on non-phosphorylating electron transport process, alternative respiration pathway (ARP) acts as an energy overflow, which can balance carbon metabolism and electron transport, allow the continuance of tricarboxylic acid cycle without the formation of ATP, and permit the turnover of carbon skeletons. Alternative respiration pathway also plays an important role in the stress response of fungi and the physiological function of conditioned pathogen. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase responsible for the activity of alternative respiration pathway, which exists widely in higher plants, parts of fungi and algae. Owing to the property that alternative oxidase (AOX) is sensitive to salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and insensitive to conventional inhibitors of cytochrome respiration, alternative respiration pathway by AOX is also named as cyanide-resistant respiration (CRR). In recent years, the study of the alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase has been a hot topic in the area involving cellular respiration metabolism. In this review we summarized the latest research advances about the functions of alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase in industrial fungi.

  18. CYP3A4 drug interactions: correlation of 10 in vitro probe substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kenworthy, K E; Bloomer, J C; Clarke, S E; Houston, J B

    1999-01-01

    Aims Many substrates of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 are used for in vitro investigations of drug metabolism and potential drug–drug interactions. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between 10 commonly used CYP3A4 probes using modifiers with a range of inhibitory potency. Methods The effects of 34 compounds on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism were investigated in a recombinant CYP3A4 expression system. Inhibition of erythromycin, dextromethorphan and diazepam N-demethylation, testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, midazolam 1-hydroxylation, triazolam 4-hydroxylation, nifedipine oxidation, cyclosporin oxidation, terfenadine C-hydroxylation and N-dealkylation and benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylation was evaluated at the apparent Km or S50 (for substrates showing sigmoidicity) value for each substrate and at an inhibitor concentration of 30 μm. Results While all CYP3A4 probe substrates demonstrate some degree of similarity, examination of the coefficients of determination, together with difference and cluster analysis highlighted that seven substrates can be categorized into two distinct substrate groups. Erythromycin, cyclosporin and testosterone form the most closely related group and dextromethorphan, diazepam, midazolam and triazolam form a second group. Terfenadine can be equally well placed in either group, while nifedipine shows a distinctly different relationship. Benzyloxyresorufin shows the weakest correlation with all the other CYP3A4 probes. Modifiers that caused negligible inhibition or potent inhibition are generally comparable in all assays, however, the greatest variability is apparent with compounds causing, on average, intermediate inhibition. Modifiers of this type may cause substantial inhibition, no effect or even activation depending on the substrate employed. Conclusions It is recommended that multiple CYP3A4 probes, representing each substrate group, are used for the in vitro assessment of CYP3A4-mediated drug interactions. PMID

  19. Principles of alternative gerontology

    PubMed Central

    Bilinski, Tomasz; Bylak, Aneta; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Surveys of taxonomic groups of animals have shown that contrary to the opinion of most gerontologists aging is not a genuine trait. The process of aging is not universal and its mechanisms have not been widely conserved among species. All life forms are subject to extrinsic and intrinsic destructive forces. Destructive effects of stochastic events are visible only when allowed by the specific life program of an organism. Effective life programs of immortality and high longevity eliminate the impact of unavoidable damage. Organisms that are capable of agametic reproduction are biologically immortal. Mortality of an organism is clearly associated with terminal specialisation in sexual reproduction. The longevity phenotype that is not accompanied by symptoms of senescence has been observed in those groups of animals that continue to increase their body size after reaching sexual maturity. This is the result of enormous regeneration abilities of both of the above-mentioned groups. Senescence is observed when: (i) an organism by principle switches off the expression of existing growth and regeneration programs, as in the case of imago formation in insect development; (ii) particular programs of growth and regeneration of progenitors are irreversibly lost, either partially or in their entirety, in mammals and birds. “We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” (Ascribed to Albert Einstein) PMID:27017907

  20. Principles of alternative gerontology.

    PubMed

    Bilinski, Tomasz; Bylak, Aneta; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-04-01

    Surveys of taxonomic groups of animals have shown that contrary to the opinion of most gerontologists aging is not a genuine trait. The process of aging is not universal and its mechanisms have not been widely conserved among species. All life forms are subject to extrinsic and intrinsic destructive forces. Destructive effects of stochastic events are visible only when allowed by the specific life program of an organism. Effective life programs of immortality and high longevity eliminate the impact of unavoidable damage. Organisms that are capable of agametic reproduction are biologically immortal. Mortality of an organism is clearly associated with terminal specialisation in sexual reproduction. The longevity phenotype that is not accompanied by symptoms of senescence has been observed in those groups of animals that continue to increase their body size after reaching sexual maturity. This is the result of enormous regeneration abilities of both of the above-mentioned groups. Senescence is observed when: (i) an organism by principle switches off the expression of existing growth and regeneration programs, as in the case of imago formation in insect development; (ii) particular programs of growth and regeneration of progenitors are irreversibly lost, either partially or in their entirety, in mammals and birds. PMID:27017907

  1. Reproductive effects of alternative disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, B.D.; Barlett, P.; Basaran, A.; Colling, K.; Osis, I.; Smith, M.K.

    1986-11-01

    Organohalides formed through the reaction of chlorine and organic compounds in natural and waste waters pose potential health hazards. For this reason, alternative water disinfectants that do not form organohalides are being investigated with great interest. In this laboratory, the authors have examined the reproductive effects of chloramine and chlorine administered by gavage in Long-Evans rats. Animals were treated for a total of 66 to 76 days. Males were treated for 56 days and females for 14 days prior to breeding and throughout the 10-day breeding period. Females were treated throughout gestation and lactation. Following breeding, the males were necropsied and evaluated for sperm parameters and reproductive tract histopathology. Adult females and some pups were necropsied at weaning on postnatal day 21. Other pups were treated postweaning until 28 or 40 days of age. These pups were evaluated for the day of vaginal patency and thyroid hormone levels. No differences were observed between control rats and those rats exposed to up to 5 mg/kg/day chlorine or 10 mg/kg/day chloramine when fertility, viability, litter size, day of eye opening, or day of vaginal patency were evaluated. No alterations in sperm count, sperm direct progressive movement percent motility, or sperm morphology were observed among adult male rats. In addition, male and female reproductive organ weights were comparable to their respective control groups, and no significant histopathologic changes were observed among chlorine- or chloramine-treated male and female rats.

  2. Analysis of Pulsed Flow Modification Alternatives, Lower Missouri River, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    The graphical, tabular, and statistical data presented in this report resulted from analysis of alternative flow regime designs considered by a group of Missouri River managers, stakeholders, and scientists during the summer of 2005. This plenary group was charged with designing a flow regime with increased spring flow pulses to support reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon. Environmental flow components extracted from the reference natural flow regime were used to design and assess performance of alternative flow regimes. The analysis is based on modeled flow releases from Gavins Point Dam (near Yankton, South Dakota) for nine design alternatives and two reference scenarios; the reference scenarios are the run-of-the-river and the water-control plan implemented in 2004. The alternative designs were developed by the plenary group with the goal of providing pulsed spring flows, while retaining traditional social and economic uses of the river.

  3. Facebook Groups as LMS: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meishar-Tal, Hagit; Kurtz, Gila; Pieterse, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study in using Facebook as an alternative to a learning management system (LMS). The paper reviews the current research on the use of Facebook in academia and analyzes the differences between a Facebook group and a regular LMS. The paper reports on a precedent-setting attempt to use a Facebook group as a course…

  4. Bacterial alternative nitrogen fixation systems.

    PubMed

    Joerger, R D; Bishop, P E

    1988-01-01

    The introduction briefly reviews some of the salient features of the well-characterized conventional molybdo-enzyme system for N2 fixation. This is followed by a brief account of the discovery of an alternative N2 fixation system that does not require molybdenum in the N2-fixing bacterum Azotobacter vinelandii. The next section cites observations from the early literature on N2 fixation suggesting may not always require molybdenum. Next, recent evidence for an alternative N2 fixation system in A. vinelandii is discussed. A brief description of our discovery of an alternative nitrogenase which is not a molybdenum or vanadium enzyme is presented, followed by a summary of recent papers describing an alternative vanadium-containing nitrogenase. Available information on the genetics and regulation of alternative N2 fixation systems is discussed. Finally, the possible/probable presence of alternative N2 fixation systems in bacteria other than Azotobacter species is covered.

  5. Helping Families Explore Parenthood Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Goodbody, Sandra Toll

    1979-01-01

    As many more couples are choosing childlessness as a lifestyle, physicians are more frequently being consulted about alternatives. Changing cultural values as well as changing attitudes to women have opened up these alternatives; the physician must ensure that he or she does not steer patients towards an alternative that may not be for them. Examples of six couples illustrate how childfree couples cope with the implications of their decision. PMID:21297712

  6. Alternative display and interaction devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolas, M. T.; McDowall, I. E.; Mead, R. X.; Lorimer, E. R.; Hackbush, J. E.; Greuel, C.

    1995-01-01

    While virtual environment systems are typically thought to consist of a head mounted display and a flex-sensing glove, alternative peripheral devices are beginning to be developed in response to application requirements. Three such alternatives are discussed: fingertip sensing gloves, fixed stereoscopic viewers, and counterbalanced head mounted displays. A subset of commercial examples that highlight each alternative is presented as well as a brief discussion of interesting engineering and implementation issues.

  7. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  8. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  9. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-04-25

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  10. Vials: Visualizing Alternative Splicing of Genes

    PubMed Central

    Strobelt, Hendrik; Alsallakh, Bilal; Botros, Joseph; Peterson, Brant; Borowsky, Mark; Pfister, Hanspeter; Lex, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a process by which the same DNA sequence is used to assemble different proteins, called protein isoforms. Alternative splicing works by selectively omitting some of the coding regions (exons) typically associated with a gene. Detection of alternative splicing is difficult and uses a combination of advanced data acquisition methods and statistical inference. Knowledge about the abundance of isoforms is important for understanding both normal processes and diseases and to eventually improve treatment through targeted therapies. The data, however, is complex and current visualizations for isoforms are neither perceptually efficient nor scalable. To remedy this, we developed Vials, a novel visual analysis tool that enables analysts to explore the various datasets that scientists use to make judgments about isoforms: the abundance of reads associated with the coding regions of the gene, evidence for junctions, i.e., edges connecting the coding regions, and predictions of isoform frequencies. Vials is scalable as it allows for the simultaneous analysis of many samples in multiple groups. Our tool thus enables experts to (a) identify patterns of isoform abundance in groups of samples and (b) evaluate the quality of the data. We demonstrate the value of our tool in case studies using publicly available datasets. PMID:26529712

  11. Hemopericardium with tamponade following rivaroxaban administration and its attenuation by CYP3A4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Denisse

    2016-01-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants including the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban are important alternatives to warfarin for the prevention of thromboembolic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The pharmacology and metabolism of these agents differ from those of the vitamin K antagonists used over the decades preceding their introduction. We present a case of spontaneous hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade following administration of rivaroxaban. A review of the patient's medications revealed a total of seven agents known to be metabolized through cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major pathway for rivaroxaban metabolism. While most physicians are familiar with recommendations to monitor renal function in patients prescribed rivaroxaban, we suspect that many fail to evaluate possible interactions with other agents having CYP3A4 inhibitory or inducer activity. PMID:27695181

  12. Hemopericardium with tamponade following rivaroxaban administration and its attenuation by CYP3A4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Denisse

    2016-01-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants including the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban are important alternatives to warfarin for the prevention of thromboembolic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The pharmacology and metabolism of these agents differ from those of the vitamin K antagonists used over the decades preceding their introduction. We present a case of spontaneous hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade following administration of rivaroxaban. A review of the patient's medications revealed a total of seven agents known to be metabolized through cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major pathway for rivaroxaban metabolism. While most physicians are familiar with recommendations to monitor renal function in patients prescribed rivaroxaban, we suspect that many fail to evaluate possible interactions with other agents having CYP3A4 inhibitory or inducer activity.

  13. UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISM OF CYTOCHROME P450 3A4: RECENT ADVANCES AND REMAINING PROBLEMS

    PubMed Central

    Sevrioukova, Irina F.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) represent a diverse group of heme-thiolate proteins found in almost all organisms. CYPs share a common protein fold but differ in substrate selectivity and catalyze a wide variety of monooxygenation reactions via activation of molecular oxygen. Among 57 human P450s, the 3A4 isoform (CYP3A4) is the most abundant and the most important because it metabolizes the majority of the administered drugs. A remarkable feature of CYP3A4 is its extreme promiscuity in substrate specificity and cooperative substrate binding, which often leads to undesirable drug-drug interactions and toxic side effects. Owing to its importance in drug development and therapy, CYP3A4 has been the most extensively studied mammalian P450. In this review we provide an overview on recent progress and remaining problems in the CYP3A4 research. PMID:23018626

  14. Nonrandom Assignment in ANCOVA: The Alternate Ranks Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Starrett; Overall, John E.

    1977-01-01

    A specific form of nonrandom assignment to treatment groups, the "alternate ranks" design, was investigated. This design eliminates the possibility of a correlation between the covariate and the treatment, and rules out experimenter bias in assignment of subjects to groups. (Editor)

  15. Introduction to sporadic groups for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boya, Luis J.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the collection of finite simple groups, with a view to physical applications. We recall first the prime cyclic groups Zp and the alternating groups Altn > 4. After a quick revision of finite fields {F}_q, q = pf, with p prime, we consider the 16 families of finite simple groups of Lie type. There are also 26 extra ‘sporadic’ groups, which gather in three interconnected ‘generations’ (with 5+7+8 groups) plus the pariah groups (6). We point out a couple of physical applications, including constructing the biggest sporadic group, the ‘Monster’ group, with close to 1054 elements from arguments of physics, and also the relation of some Mathieu groups with compactification in string and M-theory. This article is dedicated to the memory of Juan Sancho Guimerá.

  16. Acceptability of Alternatives to Traditional Emergency Care: Patient Characteristics, Alternate Transport Modes, and Alternate Destinations.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Shah, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    To determine the acceptability of alternatives to traditional emergency care, we assessed the proportion of subjects willing to consider alternative modes of transportation and alternative destinations. We further identified patient characteristics associated with willingness to consider these alternatives. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study in the emergency department (ED) of an academic medical center. Research assistants screened all non-critically ill ED patients for eligibility and willingness to participate and administered an interview-based survey that included questions on demographic and clinical characteristics, perceived illness severity, and acceptability of alternatives to traditional emergency care for acute illness and injuries. We calculated the proportions and 95% confidence intervals for subjects who found alternative transport modes and destinations acceptable and developed a log-binomial regression model to identify patient characteristics associated with acceptability of alternative modes of transport and alternative destinations. Complete data were available on 1,058 subjects. Forty-two percent of the study sample arrived to the ED via emergency medical services (EMS). Over two-thirds of the study sample (68.2%) was willing to consider transport via either taxi or medical transport van and 69.0% was willing to consider either transportation to an urgent care center or their primary care physician's office. Other alternatives, including delayed EMS response time, were less frequently endorsed as acceptable alternatives. Subject characteristics associated with willingness to accept alternative modes of transportation included younger age, chief complaint, previous ED use, and place of residence (p < 0.05). Subject characteristics associated with willingness to accept alternative destinations included younger age, non-white race, lower patient acuity, and lower self-perceived illness severity (p < 0.05). In our ED, some patients found

  17. A comparative study of CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Mexican Amerindian and Mestizo populations.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Hernández, Octavio D; Lares-Asseff, Ismael; Sosa-Macias, Martha; Vega, Libia; Albores, Arnulfo; Elizondo, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of the CYP3A4*1B, *2, *4, *5, and *18 alleles amongst both Tepehuan Amerindians, a native group that has inhabited northern Mexico for thousands of years, and Mestizo Mexicans, and to compare the data with those of other populations. Genotyping experiments revealed that 8.8 and 8.0% of the Mestizo and Tepehuano subjects, respectively, carried the CYP3A4*1B allele. Only one Mestizo subject was heterozygous for the CYP3A4*2 variant, while CYP3A4*4, *5 and *18 allelic variants were not detected in either group. On the other hand, the frequencies of the CYP3A4*1B variant in Mestizos and Tepehuanos were similar to those reported for Caucasians, but different from those observed for African and Asian populations.

  18. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  19. Saving Money with Menu Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David

    1998-01-01

    Menu alternatives are substitute meals, whereas menu additions are dishes that complement the main meal. Both should be vegetarian dishes that are less expensive than the main offering and attractive to 20-40% of the camp population. By offering alternatives and additions, one can eliminate complaints, save money, and change eating patterns.…

  20. Alternate Semester 1972. An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Barry D.; And Others

    Five students from a Boston high school and 35 from Lincoln-Sudbury took part in an alternate semester consisting of 5 units: Outward Bound, environmental issues, urban, rural, and river/building. Students had to be juniors or seniors, have parental permission, and meet graduation requirements. The alternate semester began with Outward Bound, a…

  1. An Alternative in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Rick L.

    1996-01-01

    To meet increased technical demands, alternative engineering and technical degree programs are needed, such as four-year programs in engineering technology. A technical college and university in Florence, SC, are collaborating on such a 1+2+1 alternative degree program. (SK)

  2. The Alternative Press in Microform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Daniel C.

    Presented is an analysis of what has been done regarding the preservation of alternative publications in microfilm. The alternative press was defined, for the purposes of this study, as "nonstandard, nonestablishment publications." Two projects undertaken to microfilm such publications, one by the Microphoto Division of Bell and Howell and the…

  3. Curricular Implications of Alternate Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane; Flowers, Claudia; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn; Karvonen, Meagan; Spooner, Fred; Algozzine, Robert

    The 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) required that states provide alternate assessments for students unable to participate in the statewide assessment systems (e.g., those with severe disabilities). IDEA mandated that alternate assessments access the general curriculum. This study examined the curricular…

  4. Difficulties of Alternatively Certified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Feinman, Samantha J.

    2012-01-01

    This daily diary study followed, over a 2-week period, 252 beginning New York City public school teachers. Seventy percent were alternatively certified (New York City Teaching Fellows) and the rest, traditionally certified teachers. Alternatively certified teachers were more likely to experience stressors such as violent incidents and classroom…

  5. How did alternative splicing evolve?

    PubMed

    Ast, Gil

    2004-10-01

    Alternative splicing creates transcriptome diversification, possibly leading to speciation. A large fraction of the protein-coding genes of multicellular organisms are alternatively spliced, although no regulated splicing has been detected in unicellular eukaryotes such as yeasts. A comparative analysis of unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic 5' splice sites has revealed important differences - the plasticity of the 5' splice sites of multicellular eukaryotes means that these sites can be used in both constitutive and alternative splicing, and for the regulation of the inclusion/skipping ratio in alternative splicing. So, alternative splicing might have originated as a result of relaxation of the 5' splice site recognition in organisms that originally could support only constitutive splicing. PMID:15510168

  6. Our favourite alternative splice site.

    PubMed

    Lerivray, Hubert; Méreau, Agnès; Osborne, H Beverley

    2006-05-01

    Alternative splicing is a widespread mechanism in mammals that generates several mRNAs from one gene, thereby creating genetic diversity of the genome. Variant splice patterns are often specific to different stages of development or particular tissues, and alternative splicing defects are being more frequently detected in genetic diseases and cancers. The increasingly important role of alternative splicing in the function and the regulation of cellular process makes it critical to have an easy-to-use data repository for the biological and medical research communities. We have compared web resources that give access to information on alternatively spliced genes, and the FAST DB (Friendly Alternative Splicing and Transcripts DataBase) site came out as our favourite.

  7. Mitigation alternatives for L Lake. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.B.

    1988-11-03

    L-Lake was built in 1985 to receive and cool the thermal effluents from the L-Reactor. The lake was constructed by impounding approximately 7 km of the upper portions of Steel Creek to form a 1000-acre reservoir. Dam construction and reservoir filling were completed in October 1985 and L-Reactor resumed operations at the end of the same month. Since 1985, this system has been developing a biological community comprised of representatives of all trophic levels. The system is impacted by both temperature from the operating reactor and nutrient inputs from the Savannah River ecosystem. A preliminary evaluation of the technical and monetary feasibilities of a number of thermal and/or nutrient mitigation alternatives for the L-Lake ecosystem has been performed by the Ecology Group of SRL/ESD. This report is a summary of the alternatives considered and their applicability.

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  9. Origin of Spliceosomal Introns and Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Manuel; Roy, Scott William

    2014-01-01

    In this work we review the current knowledge on the prehistory, origins, and evolution of spliceosomal introns. First, we briefly outline the major features of the different types of introns, with particular emphasis on the nonspliceosomal self-splicing group II introns, which are widely thought to be the ancestors of spliceosomal introns. Next, we discuss the main scenarios proposed for the origin and proliferation of spliceosomal introns, an event intimately linked to eukaryogenesis. We then summarize the evidence that suggests that the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) had remarkably high intron densities and many associated characteristics resembling modern intron-rich genomes. From this intron-rich LECA, the different eukaryotic lineages have taken very distinct evolutionary paths leading to profoundly diverged modern genome structures. Finally, we discuss the origins of alternative splicing and the qualitative differences in alternative splicing forms and functions across lineages. PMID:24890509

  10. Group Work Publication-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  11. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  12. PZT-5A4/PA and PZT-5A4/PDMS piezoelectric composite bimorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, I.; Hendrix, M. M. R. M.; de With, G.

    2014-02-01

    Disc type reinforced piezoelectric composite bimorphs with series connection were designed and the performance was investigated. The composite bimorphs (PZT/PA and PZT/PDMS (40/60 vol%)) were successfully fabricated by a compression molding and solution casting technique. The charge developed at an applied force of 150 N is 18150 pC (PZT/PA) and 2310 pC (PZT/PDMS), respectively. Electric force microscopy (EFM) is used to study the structural characterization and piezoelectric properties of the materials realized. A clear inverse piezoelectric effect was observed when the bimorphs were subjected to an electric field stepped up through 2, 6 and 10 V, indicating the net polarization direction of the different ferroelectric domains. The as-developed bimorphs have the basic structure of a sensor and actuator, and, since they do not use any bonding agent for bonding, they can provide a valuable alternative to the present bimorphs where bonding processes are required for their realization that can limit their application at high temperature.

  13. 42 CFR 68a.4 - Who is eligible to participate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who is eligible to participate? 68a.4 Section 68a.4... DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUNDS (CR-LRP) § 68a.4 Who is eligible to participate? To be eligible to participate in the... the Program is contingent, in part, upon employment with NIH, a Program contract may not be awarded...

  14. 32 CFR 352a.4 - Responsibilities and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities and functions. 352a.4 Section 352a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.4 Responsibilities and functions. (a) The Director, Defense...

  15. 32 CFR 809a.4 - Use of Government facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of Government facilities. 809a.4 Section 809a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION... § 809a.4 Use of Government facilities. Commanders are prohibited from authorizing demonstrations...

  16. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  17. Small group discussion: Students perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    Context: Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. Aims: The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Subjects and Methods: Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1st year medical students of 2014–2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Results: Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. Conclusions: The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods. PMID:26380202

  18. Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Galbičková, Blanka; Ševčíková, Janka; Soldán, Maroš

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.

  19. The arranged marriage of allopathic and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Maniccia, M D

    1999-01-01

    The degree to which Americans are seeking and paying for alternative health care has caused some hospitals and medical groups to consider incorporating these services within the umbrella of their traditional care. The challenge is to find a standard of care that is consistent with allopathic traditions, but not so restrictive as to undercut the financial and patient satisfaction motives that prompted the interest in alternative care. By focusing on subjective complaints and chronic conditions, it may be possible to walk a path that leaves traditional medical standards intact while gaining the opportunity to attract the dollars and track the effectiveness of alternative care.

  20. Comparative Transcriptomics of Alternative Developmental Phenotypes in a Marine Gastropod.

    PubMed

    Lesoway, Maryna Pauline; Abouheif, Ehab; Collin, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    Alternative phenotypes are discrete phenotypic differences that develop in response to both genetic and environmental cues. Nutritive embryos, which arrest their development to serve as nutrition for their viable siblings, are an example of an alternative developmental phenotype found in many animal groups. Females of the marine snail, Crepidula navicella, produce broods that consist mainly of nutritive embryos and a small number of viable embryos. In order to better understand the genetic mechanisms that lead to the development of alternative phenotypes in this species, we compared the transcriptomes of viable and nutritive embryos at the earliest stage that we were able to distinguish visually between the two. Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing, we assembled and annotated a de novo transcriptome and compared transcript levels in viable and nutritive embryos. Viable embryos express high levels of transcripts associated with known developmental events, while nutritive embryos express high levels of apoptosis-related transcripts. Gene Ontology term enrichment with GOSeq found that these are associated with the negative regulation of apoptotic processes. This enrichment, combined with morphological evidence, suggests that apoptosis is important in the formation of gastrula-like nutritive embryos. Apoptosis has been implicated in the development of alternative phenotypes in other animal groups, raising the possibility that this mechanism's role in alternative phenotypes is conserved in gastropod development. We suggest possible alternative mechanisms of nutritive embryo development. Most importantly, we contribute further evidence to the hypothesis that nutritive embryos are an alternative developmental phenotype.

  1. Alternative Perspectives on Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Jeannie; Orasanu, J.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the commercial air transport system is to provide air transportation to the flying public at an acceptable cost with minimal risk. in an ideal situation these three goals would support each other. In fact, it is sometimes the case that the goals conflict: getting passengers to their destinations on time may conflict with fixing a minor mechanical malfunction that may or may not impact safety; flying a route that will avoid turbulence, thereby providing passengers with a more comfortable ride, may consume more fuel; managing traffic density may mean aircraft are delayed or must use an approach that will result in a long taxi to their gates, costing time and fuel. Various players in the system--pilots, dispatchers, controllers, as well as managers in the airline carriers and traffic management system--make decisions every day that involve trade-offs of benefits and costs. The prospect of revisions in the air traffic management system, with shifts in responsibilities from controllers to users, including airline operations center personnel and pilots, means that individuals may be performing either new jobs or old jobs under new guidance. It will be essential to know how the various players (a) perceive the risks and benefits associated with the decisions they will make under the old and new control structures, and (b) how much risk they are willing to accept in making decisions. Risk is here defined as the probability and magnitude of negative events (after Slovic, 1987). Of primary interest are risks associated with traffic, weather, and operational factors such as schedule, fuel consumption, and passenger service. Previous research has documented differences between groups in perceptions of risks associated with both everyday and aviation related situations. Risk perception varies as a function of familiarity with the situation, degree to which one is potentially affected by the risk, the level of control one has over the situation, and one's level of

  2. Three Novel Lantibiotics, Ticins A1, A3, and A4, Have Extremely Stable Properties and Are Promising Food Biopreservatives.

    PubMed

    Xin, Bingyue; Zheng, Jinshui; Xu, Ziya; Li, Congzhi; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2015-10-01

    Lantibiotics are antimicrobial peptides with potential applications as the next generation of antimicrobials in the food industry and/or the pharmaceutical industry. Nisin has successfully been used as a food preservative for over 40 years, but its major drawback is its limited stability under neutral and alkaline pH conditions. To identify alternatives with better biochemical properties, we screened more than 100 strains of the Bacillus cereus group. Three novel lantibiotics, ticins A1 (4,062.98 Da), A3 (4,048.96 Da), and A4 (4,063.02 Da), which were highly thermostable (121°C for 30 min) and extremely pH tolerant (pH 2.0 to 9.0), were identified in Bacillus thuringiensis BMB3201. They all showed potent antimicrobial activities against all tested Gram-positive bacteria and greater activities than those of nisin A against Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, two important foodborne pathogens. These three novel lantibiotics, with their extremely stable properties and potent antimicrobial activities, have the potential for use as biopreservatives.

  3. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 1. A 4-week feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Verschuren, P M

    1989-01-01

    The nutritional properties of jojoba oil (JO) were examined in a 4-wk feeding study of rats fed a diet with JO at dose levels of 2.2, 4.5 and 9%, supplemented with a conventional fat up to 18%. General health, survival and food intake were not adversely affected. Body-weight gains showed a dose-related decline, which amounted to 20% of the body weight in the high-dose group of both sexes. Clinical chemistry revealed significantly increased levels of various enzymes that were indicative of cell damage. Haematology showed a dose-related increase in white blood cells. On necropsy an apparent distension of the small intestine was found. Histopathological evaluation revealed marked intestinal changes characterized by massive vacuolization and lipid deposition in the enterocytes, accompanied by distension of the villi and an increased cell turnover of small intestinal cells. Faeces production and faeces lipid content were increased with increasing JO levels. The recovery of JO in the faeces also increased in a dose-related manner and was found to be correlated with the intestinal histopathological changes. The significant adverse clinical and histopathological effects observed in this study imply that JO cannot be considered as a promising alternative dietary fat with a low digestibility.

  4. Three Novel Lantibiotics, Ticins A1, A3, and A4, Have Extremely Stable Properties and Are Promising Food Biopreservatives

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Bingyue; Zheng, Jinshui; Xu, Ziya; Li, Congzhi; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai

    2015-01-01

    Lantibiotics are antimicrobial peptides with potential applications as the next generation of antimicrobials in the food industry and/or the pharmaceutical industry. Nisin has successfully been used as a food preservative for over 40 years, but its major drawback is its limited stability under neutral and alkaline pH conditions. To identify alternatives with better biochemical properties, we screened more than 100 strains of the Bacillus cereus group. Three novel lantibiotics, ticins A1 (4,062.98 Da), A3 (4,048.96 Da), and A4 (4,063.02 Da), which were highly thermostable (121°C for 30 min) and extremely pH tolerant (pH 2.0 to 9.0), were identified in Bacillus thuringiensis BMB3201. They all showed potent antimicrobial activities against all tested Gram-positive bacteria and greater activities than those of nisin A against Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, two important foodborne pathogens. These three novel lantibiotics, with their extremely stable properties and potent antimicrobial activities, have the potential for use as biopreservatives. PMID:26231642

  5. Three Novel Lantibiotics, Ticins A1, A3, and A4, Have Extremely Stable Properties and Are Promising Food Biopreservatives.

    PubMed

    Xin, Bingyue; Zheng, Jinshui; Xu, Ziya; Li, Congzhi; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2015-10-01

    Lantibiotics are antimicrobial peptides with potential applications as the next generation of antimicrobials in the food industry and/or the pharmaceutical industry. Nisin has successfully been used as a food preservative for over 40 years, but its major drawback is its limited stability under neutral and alkaline pH conditions. To identify alternatives with better biochemical properties, we screened more than 100 strains of the Bacillus cereus group. Three novel lantibiotics, ticins A1 (4,062.98 Da), A3 (4,048.96 Da), and A4 (4,063.02 Da), which were highly thermostable (121°C for 30 min) and extremely pH tolerant (pH 2.0 to 9.0), were identified in Bacillus thuringiensis BMB3201. They all showed potent antimicrobial activities against all tested Gram-positive bacteria and greater activities than those of nisin A against Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, two important foodborne pathogens. These three novel lantibiotics, with their extremely stable properties and potent antimicrobial activities, have the potential for use as biopreservatives. PMID:26231642

  6. Context-Dependent Gait Choice Elicited by EphA4 Mutation in Lbx1 Spinal Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Daisuke; Pudenz, Christiane; Arber, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    The most commonly used locomotor strategy in rodents is left-right limb alternation. Mutation of the axon guidance molecule EphA4 profoundly alters this basic locomotor pattern to synchrony. Here we report that conditional mutation of EphA4 in spinal interneurons expressing the transcription factor Lbx1 degrades the robustness in the expression of left-right alternating gait during development. Lbx1 EphA4 conditional mice exhibit alternating gait when walking on ground, but synchronous gait in environments with decreased weight-load, like swimming and airstepping. Using cell-type-specific, transient pharmacogenetic silencing approaches, we attribute this behavioral gait switch to neuronal activity of dorsal Lbx1 spinal interneurons. We also found that in Lbx1 EphA4 conditional mice these dorsal interneurons form aberrant bilateral connections to motor neurons, thereby indirectly transmitting received unilateral proprioceptive sensory information to both spinal sides. Together, our findings reveal the behavioral and circuit-level impact of conditional EphA4 mutation in a transcriptionally defined spinal interneuron subpopulation. PMID:26924434

  7. Alternative medicine among college students.

    PubMed

    Gaedeke, R M; Tootelian, D H; Holst, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of "alternative" medicine has become increasingly popular in the United States. Books devoted to alternative medicine, e.g., Spontaneous Healing and 8 Weeks to Optimum Health, have become best sellers. Nevertheless, relatively few research studies have focused on the subject. This study examined the role of alternative medicine among college students. Issues addressed included students' familiarity with, use of, and perceptions regarding unconventional health therapies. The study substantiated a phenomenon health care providers across the country are discovering: a growing number of Americans with interest and financial resources support the development of "mainstream" alternative medicine programs. Results of the study also suggest that well-respected traditional health care organizations would not suffer reputation damage if they were to offer such programs.

  8. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  9. Alternative splicing and muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Pistoni, Mariaelena; Ghigna, Claudia; Gabellini, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is a major contributor to proteomic diversity and to the control of gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells. For this reasons, alternative splicing is tightly regulated in different tissues and developmental stages and its disruption can lead to a wide range of human disorders. The aim of this review is to focus on the relevance of alternative splicing for muscle function and muscle disease. We begin by giving a brief overview of alternative splicing, muscle-specific gene expression and muscular dystrophy. Next, to illustrate these concepts we focus on two muscular dystrophy, myotonic muscular dystrophy and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, both associated to disruption of splicing regulation in muscle. PMID:20603608

  10. Peat as an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Punwani, D.V.

    1980-07-01

    The importance of developing alternative energy sources to augment supplies of fossil fuels is growing all over the world. Coal, oil shale, tar sands, biomass, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power have received considerable attention as alternative energy sources. One large energy resource, however, has received little attention until recently. That resource is peat. Although peat is used as an energy source in some countries such as Russia, Ireland, and Finland, it is virtually unexploited in many countries including the United States. This paper provides an understanding of peat: its varieties, abundance, and distribution; its value as an energy alternative; its current and future role as an energy alternative; and the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of large-scale peat utilization.

  11. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  12. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  13. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The potential applications of fusion reactors, the desirable properties of reactors intended for various applications, and the limitations of the Tokamak concept are discussed. The principles and characteristics of 20 distinct alternative confinement concepts are described, each of which may be an alternative to the Tokamak. The devices are classed as Tokamak-like, stellarator-like, mirror machines, bumpy tori, electrostatically assisted, migma concept, and wall-confined plasma.

  14. Merger acquisition or independence--small group decision--large group impact.

    PubMed

    Erins, D C

    1995-01-01

    As this group practice looked to the future, two alternatives were considered--remain independent or merge with another entity. Remaining independent, although desirable, would be extremely difficult, so this group looked for a mutually beneficial affiliation. This case study details the beginning-to-end affiliation process--from seeking potential partners to signing the papers: the keys to success and potential dealbreakers.

  15. Divorcing the puzzles: When group identities foster in-group cooperation.

    PubMed

    Seewald, Daniel; Hechler, Stefanie; Kessler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We argue that general social psychological mechanisms (e.g., common group identity) can account for prosocial behavior and cooperative norms without the need for punishing Big Gods. Moreover, prosocial religions often do not prevent conflict within their religious groups. Hence, we doubt whether Big Gods and prosocial religions are more effective than alternative identities in enhancing high-level cooperation. PMID:26948741

  16. Introducing linear functions: an alternative statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Caroline; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of linear functions is the turning point where many students decide if mathematics is useful or not. This means the role of parameters and variables in linear functions could be considered to be `threshold concepts'. There is recognition that linear functions can be taught in context through the exploration of linear modelling examples, but this has its limitations. Currently, statistical data is easily attainable, and graphics or computer algebra system (CAS) calculators are common in many classrooms. The use of this technology provides ease of access to different representations of linear functions as well as the ability to fit a least-squares line for real-life data. This means these calculators could support a possible alternative approach to the introduction of linear functions. This study compares the results of an end-of-topic test for two classes of Australian middle secondary students at a regional school to determine if such an alternative approach is feasible. In this study, test questions were grouped by concept and subjected to concept by concept analysis of the means of test results of the two classes. This analysis revealed that the students following the alternative approach demonstrated greater competence with non-standard questions.

  17. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  18. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  19. Facilitating Reminiscence Groups: Perceptions of Group Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Teresa M.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana; Salgado, Roy A.; Thornton, Mark D.; Miller, Jason L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a two-year qualitative investigation in which group leaders provided their perceptions of the process of facilitating reminiscence groups with elderly persons in a residential care facility. Group Culture emerged as the dominant construct. Findings from this study can serve guide leaders who are interested in…

  20. Exonal deletion of SLC24A4 causes hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Seymen, F; Lee, K-E; Tran Le, C G; Yildirim, M; Gencay, K; Lee, Z H; Kim, J-W

    2014-04-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions affecting enamel formation. Recently, mutations in solute carrier family 24 member 4 (SLC24A4) have been identified to cause autosomal recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. We recruited a consanguineous family with hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta with generalized brown discoloration. Sequencing of the candidate genes identified a 10-kb deletion, including exons 15, 16, and most of the last exon of the SLC24A4 gene. Interestingly, this deletion was caused by homologous recombination between two 354-bp-long homologous sequences located in intron 14 and the 3' UTR. This is the first report of exonal deletion in SLC24A4 providing confirmatory evidence that the function of SLC24A4 in calcium transport has a crucial role in the maturation stage of amelogenesis.

  1. Tribimaximal mixing from small groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parattu, Krishna Mohan; Wingerter, Akın

    2011-07-01

    Current experimental data on the neutrino parameters are in good agreement with tribimaximal mixing and may indicate the presence of an underlying family symmetry. For 76 flavor groups, we perform a systematic scan for models: The particle content is that of the standard model plus up to three flavon fields, and the effective Lagrangian contains all terms of mass dimension ≤6. We find that 44 groups can accommodate models that are consistent with experiment at 3σ, and 38 groups can have models that are tribimaximal. For A4×Z3, T7, and T13 we look at correlations between the mixing angles and make a prediction for θ13 that will be testable in the near future. We present the details of a model with θ12=33.9°, θ23=40.9°, θ13=5.1° to show that the recent tentative hints of a nonzero θ13 can easily be accommodated. The smallest group for which we find tribimaximal mixing is T7. We argue that T7 and T13 are as suited to produce tribimaximal mixing as A4 and should therefore be considered on equal footing. In the appendixes, we present some new mathematical methods and results that may prove useful for future model building efforts.

  2. Loss of EphA4 impairs short-term spatial recognition memory performance and locomotor habituation.

    PubMed

    Willi, R; Winter, C; Wieske, F; Kempf, A; Yee, B K; Schwab, M E; Singer, P

    2012-11-01

    EphA4 receptor (EphA4) tyrosine kinase is an important regulator of central nervous system development and synaptic plasticity in the mature brain, but its relevance to the control of normal behavior remains largely unexplored. This study is the first attempt to obtain a behavioral profile of constitutive homozygous and heterozygous EphA4 knockout mice. A deficit in locomotor habituation in the open field, impairment in spatial recognition in the Y-maze and reduced probability of spatial spontaneous alternation in the T-maze were identified in homozygous EphA4(-/-) mice, while heterozygo us EphA4(+/-) mice appeared normal on these tests in comparison with wild-type (WT) controls. The multiple phenotypes observed in EphA4(-/-) mice might stem from an underlying deficit in habituation learning, reflecting an elementary form of nonassociative learning that is in contrast to Pavlovian associative learning, which appeared unaffected by EphA4 disruption. A deficit in motor coordination on the accelerating rotarod was also demonstrated only in EphA4(-/-) mice--a finding in keeping with the presence of abnormal gait in EphA4(-/-) mice--although they were able to improve performance over training. There was no evidence for substantial changes in major neurochemical markers in various brain regions rich in EphA4 as shown by post-mortem analysis. This excludes the possibility of major neurochemical compensation in the brain of EphA4(-/-) mice. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time the behavioral significance of EphA4 disruption, supporting further investigation of EphA4 as a possible target for behavioral interventions where habituation deficits are prominent.

  3. Characterization of the genetic variation present in CYP3A4 in three South African populations.

    PubMed

    Drögemöller, Britt; Plummer, Marieth; Korkie, Lundi; Agenbag, Gloudi; Dunaiski, Anke; Niehaus, Dana; Koen, Liezl; Gebhardt, Stefan; Schneider, Nicol; Olckers, Antonel; Wright, Galen; Warnich, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is the most abundant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) and is regarded as the most important enzyme involved in drug metabolism. Inter-individual and inter-population variability in gene expression and enzyme activity are thought to be influenced, in part, by genetic variation. Although Southern African individuals have been shown to exhibit the highest levels of genetic diversity, they have been under-represented in pharmacogenetic research to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genetic variation within CYP3A4 in three South African population groups comprising of 29 Khoisan, 65 Xhosa and 65 Mixed Ancestry (MA) individuals. To identify known and novel CYP3A4 variants, 15 individuals were randomly selected from each of the population groups for bi-directional Sanger sequencing of ~600 bp of the 5'-upstream region and all thirteen exons including flanking intronic regions. Genetic variants detected were genotyped in the rest of the cohort. In total, 24 SNPs were detected, including CYP3A4(*)12, CYP3A4(*)15, and the reportedly functional CYP3A4(*)1B promoter polymorphism, as well as two novel non-synonymous variants. These putatively functional variants, p.R162W and p.Q200H, were present in two of the three populations and all three populations, respectively, and in silico analysis predicted that the former would damage the protein product. Furthermore, the three populations were shown to exhibit distinct genetic profiles. These results confirm that South African populations show unique patterns of variation in the genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. This research suggests that population-specific genetic profiles for CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing genes would be essential to make full use of pharmacogenetics in Southern Africa. Further investigation is needed to determine if the identified genetic variants influence CYP3A4 metabolism phenotype in these populations. PMID:23423246

  4. State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State

    DOE Data Explorer

    This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

  5. Community assembly: alternative stable states or alternative transient states?

    PubMed Central

    Fukami, Tadashi; Nakajima, Mifuyu

    2011-01-01

    The concept of alternative stable states has long been a dominant framework for studying the influence of historical contingency in community assembly. This concept focuses on stable states, yet many real communities are kept in a transient state by disturbance, and the utility of predictions for stable states in explaining transient states remains unclear. Using a simple model of plant community assembly, we show that the conditions under which historical contingency affects community assembly can differ greatly for stable versus transient states. Differences arise because the contribution of such factors as mortality rate, environmental heterogeneity and plant-soil feedback to historical contingency changes as community assembly proceeds. We also show that transient states can last for a long time relative to immigration rate and generation time. These results argue for a conceptual shift of focus from alternative stable states to alternative transient states for understanding historical contingency in community assembly. PMID:21790934

  6. Plexin a4 expression in adult rat cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Gross, Robert E

    2014-11-01

    PlexinsA1-A4 participate in class 3 semaphorin signaling as co-receptors to neuropilin 1 and 2. PlexinA4 is the latest member of the PlexinA subfamily to be identified. In previous studies, we described the expression of PlexinA4 in the brain and spinal cord of the adult rat. Here, antibodies to PlexinA4 were used to reveal immunolabeling in most of the cranial nerve surveyed. Labeling was found in the olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, and hypoglossal nerves. This is the first detailed description of the cellular and subcellular distribution of PlexinA4 in the adult cranial nerves. The findings will set the basis for future studies on the potential role of PlexinA4 in regeneration and repair of the adult central and peripheral nervous system.

  7. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-01-22

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  8. Alternative fuels for maritime use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to review the potential fuels which may be available to the marine industry from the present to the year 2000 and to define the economic, technical, and environmental/social impacts of these alternative fuels on marine power plants. Thus, this study is aimed at the fuels/prime mover combination. This study should help to guide the industry in choosing the proper power plant for the future - recognizing that a new power plant installed in 1980 will still be in service in the 21st century. The importance of the marine transportation industry and the need to consider alternate fuels are examined. An overview of potential alternate fuels for marine applications is presented, and power plant/fuel interaction is discussed. An in-depth discussion is presented on the impact of the most likely alternate fuels from the viewpoint of maintenance, retrofit capability, safety, and air-quality impacts. Two nonfossil-fuel alternatives sailing ships and nuclear-powered vessels, are discussed. It is concluded that: there is a high probability of using synfuels from tar sands shale, or coal liquids in both existing and future ships; coal and coal/oil slurries have a high probability of use in future ships and medium probability in existing ships; nuclear and sail-power future ships have a medium probability of commercial development; and is a low probability of commercial maritime use of alcohol fuels, methane, or coal/methanol combinations. (LCL)

  9. Discussion groups on the Internet: journaling.

    PubMed

    Till, J E

    1995-09-01

    Interactive communication on the Internet, as illustrated by the e-mail-based breast cancer discussion group, provides an alternative to the telephone, the fax machine and regular mail, and is a resource for communications research, the potential of which is only beginning to be appreciated. At least some of the messages posted to such discussion groups could be regarded as a form of "journaling". Such messages are eminently suitable for qualitative data analysis.

  10. The PreA4(695) precursor protein of Alzheimer's disease A4 amyloid is encoded by 16 exons.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, H G; Salbaum, J M; Multhaup, G; Kang, J; Bayney, R M; Unterbeck, A; Beyreuther, K; Müller-Hill, B

    1989-01-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the cerebral deposition of fibrillar aggregates of the amyloid A4 protein. Complementary DNA's coding for the precursor of the amyloid A4 protein have been described. In order to identify the structure of the precursor gene relevant clones from several human genomic libraries were isolated. Sequence analysis of the various clones revealed 16 exons to encode the 695 residue precursor protein (PreA4(695] of Alzheimer's disease amyloid A4 protein. The DNA sequence coding for the amyloid A4 protein is interrupted by an intron. This finding supports the idea that amyloid A4 protein arises by incomplete proteolysis of a larger precursor, and not by aberrant splicing.

  11. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    SciTech Connect

    Juenger, M.C.G.; Winnefeld, F.; Provis, J.L.; Ideker, J.H.

    2011-12-15

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  12. Alternative treatments for the menopause.

    PubMed

    Rees, Margaret

    2009-02-01

    Concerns about the safety of oestrogen-based hormone replacement therapy after publication of the Women's Health Initiative study and Million Women Study has led to women turning to alternative therapies, erroneously believing that they are safer and 'more natural'. Evidence from randomized trials that alternative and complementary therapies improve menopausal symptoms or have the same benefits as conventional pharmacopoeia is poor. There are no recognized international criteria for the design of clinical trials of alternative therapies as there are for standard medicines and medical devices for endpoints of treatment and safety evaluations. Studies may have limitations such as design, sample size and duration. There is a wide range of different preparations, making comparison difficult. The evidence regarding botanicals, homeopathy, steroids, vitamin supplements, dietary changes and functional foods, and physical interventions are discussed in this chapter. Standard pharmacopoeia such as clonidine, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and progestogens are also examined.

  13. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  14. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    PubMed

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666

  15. Gasohol - Analysis and biomass alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The economics of fermentation ethanol as a near-term alternative to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are analyzed and alternatives to grain-fermented ethanol are examined. Based on estimates of raw material and production costs and energy consumption, it is shown that net production costs for alcohol fuel from corn amount to $2.14/gallon, with no significant net consumption or gain in energy. It is also pointed out that the use of grain for alcohol production will influence quantities available for livestock production and export, and that land available for grain production is limited. Consideration is then given to the economic potential of using cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forest residues in the production of ethanol fuels and coal gasification for methanol production, and it is pointed out that these alternatives offer economic, energy and oil-savings advantages over ethanol production from grains.

  16. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkiewicz, M.

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  17. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  18. Evaluating a Group Repeated Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klubnik, Cynthia Adele

    2009-01-01

    Fluency has been identified as an important component of effective reading instruction, and repeated reading has been shown to improve oral reading fluency. In order to improve the efficiency of repeated reading interventions, more research is needed on the effectiveness of small group reading interventions. An alternating treatments, single…

  19. Peer Led Process Groups in Freshman Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Don; Maxwell, Roy

    The basic purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of using trained peers to lead small process groups in freshman orientation. The College and University Environment Scale (CUES) was the basic instrument used to determine whether perceptions of the college campus climate differed after an alternate freshman orientation program.…

  20. The Minority Group Teacher: An Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tewel, Kenneth J.; Trubowitz, Sidney

    1987-01-01

    Reasons for the decrease in the number of minority group teachers are the following: (1) low status and salaries; (2) alternative career possibilities; (3) desegregation; (4) teacher competency tests; (5) limited career advancement opportunities; and (6) reduction in government supported programs. Recruitment programs, financial incentives, and…

  1. Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.

    PubMed

    Okasha, S; Paternotte, C

    2012-06-01

    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis.

  2. Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) is important for secondary bile acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L; Selwyn, Felcy Pavithra; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2013-08-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (human: OATPs; rodent: Oatps) were thought to have important functions in bile acid (BA) transport. Oatp1a1, 1a4, and 1b2 are the three major Oatp1 family members in rodent liver. Our previous studies have characterized the BA homeostasis in Oatp1a1-null and Oatp1b2-null mice. The present study investigated the physiological role of Oatp1a4 in BA homeostasis by using Oatp1a4-null mice. Oatp1a4 expression is female-predominant in livers of mice, and thereby it was expected that female Oatp1a4-null mice will have more prominent changes than males. Interestingly, the present study demonstrated that female Oatp1a4-null mice had no significant alterations in BA concentrations in serum or liver, though they had increased mRNA of hepatic BA efflux transporters (Mrp4 and Ostα/β) and ileal BA transporters (Asbt and Ostα/β). In contrast, male Oatp1a4-null mice showed significantly altered BA homeostasis, including increased concentrations of deoxycholic acid (DCA) in serum, liver and intestinal contents. After feeding a DCA-supplemented diet, male but not female Oatp1a4-null mice had higher concentrations of DCA in serum and livers than their WT controls. This suggested that Oatp1a4 is important for intestinal absorption of secondary BAs in male mice. Furthermore, loss of Oatp1a4 function did not decrease BA accumulation in serum or livers of bile-duct-ligated mice, suggesting that Oatp1a4 is not likely a BA uptake transporter. In summary, the present study for the first time demonstrates that Oatp1a4 does not appear to mediate the hepatic uptake of BAs, but plays an important male-predominant role in secondary BA metabolism in mice.

  3. What Do We Put in the Place of Ability Grouping? (When the Principal Asks).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Presents two alternatives to ability grouping--flexible grouping (based on students' level of independence as learners), and cooperative learning groups. Discusses the benefits of cooperative learning, and provides a sample cooperative learning lesson. (MM)

  4. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  5. Multipebble Simulations for Alternating Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Lorenzo; Mayr, Richard

    We study generalized simulation relations for alternating Büchi automata (ABA), as well as alternating finite automata. Having multiple pebbles allows the Duplicator to "hedge her bets" and delay decisions in the simulation game, thus yielding a coarser simulation relation. We define (k 1,k 2)-simulations, with k 1/k 2 pebbles on the left/right, respectively. This generalizes previous work on ordinary simulation (i.e., (1,1)-simulation) for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA)[4] in and ABA in [5], and (1,k)-simulation for NBA in [3].

  6. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  7. Two alternative versions of strangeness

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Kazuhikoa

    2008-01-01

    The concept of strangeness emerged from the low energy phenomenology before the entry of quarks in particle physics. The connection between strangeness and isospin is rather accidental and loose and we recognize later that the definition of strangeness is model-dependent. Indeed, in Gell-Mann’s triplet quark model we realize that there is a simple alternative representation of strangeness. When the concept of generations is incorporated into the quark model we find that only the second alternative version of strangeness remains meaningful, whereas the original one does no longer keep its significance. PMID:18997448

  8. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Celine K.; Black, Douglas L.; Zheng, Sika

    2016-01-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that regulate splicing, both during development and in the adult brain. PMID:27094079

  9. 49 CFR 178.33a-4 - Duties of inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duties of inspector. 178.33a-4 Section 178.33a-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for...

  10. 49 CFR 178.33a-4 - Duties of inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duties of inspector. 178.33a-4 Section 178.33a-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for...

  11. 49 CFR 178.33a-4 - Duties of inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duties of inspector. 178.33a-4 Section 178.33a-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for...

  12. 49 CFR 178.33a-4 - Duties of inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duties of inspector. 178.33a-4 Section 178.33a-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for...

  13. 12 CFR 708a.4 - Disclosures and communications to members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SAVINGS. If your credit union converts to a bank, you may experience changes in your loan and savings... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosures and communications to members. 708a.4 Section 708a.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING...

  14. 17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 Section 240.16a-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  15. 17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 Section 240.16a-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-4 - Leased property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leased property. 1.167(a)-4 Section 1.167(a)-4... property. Capital expenditures made by a lessee for the erection of buildings or the construction of other permanent improvements on leased property are recoverable through allowances for depreciation...

  17. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of application; in general. 2a.4 Section 2a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS... valid certification submitted in accordance with 45 CFR part 46. (b) The location of the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6038A-4 - Monetary penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monetary penalty. 1.6038A-4 Section 1.6038A-4... maintaining records under section 6038A if the taxpayer has a reasonable belief that it is not owned by a 25... know that it is owned by a 25-percent foreign shareholder. For example, a reporting corporation...

  19. 26 CFR 1.6038A-4 - Monetary penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monetary penalty. 1.6038A-4 Section 1.6038A-4... maintaining records under section 6038A if the taxpayer has a reasonable belief that it is not owned by a 25... know that it is owned by a 25-percent foreign shareholder. For example, a reporting corporation...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6038A-4 - Monetary penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monetary penalty. 1.6038A-4 Section 1.6038A-4... maintaining records under section 6038A if the taxpayer has a reasonable belief that it is not owned by a 25... know that it is owned by a 25-percent foreign shareholder. For example, a reporting corporation...

  1. 17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 Section 240.16a-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  2. 17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 Section 240.16a-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  3. 17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 Section 240.16a-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  4. Antidepressant Efficacy of Adjunctive Aerobic Activity and Associated Biomarkers in Major Depression: A 4-Week, Randomized, Single-Blind, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Cristiana Carvalho; Valiengo, Leandro L.; Carvalho, André F.; Santos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Missio, Giovani; de Sousa, Rafael T.; Di Natale, Georgia; Gattaz, Wagner F.; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent, heterogeneous and systemic medical condition. Treatment options are limited, and recent studies have suggested that physical exercise can play an important role in the therapeutics of MDD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant efficacy of adjunctive aerobic activity in association with pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) in symptomatic MDD as well as its association with physiological biomarkers. Methods In this randomized, single-blind, add-on, controlled clinical trial, 57 patients (18–55 years of age) were followed-up for 28 days. All patients were drug-free, had been diagnosed with symptomatic MDD and received flexible dose of sertraline during the trial. Patients were randomized to either a 4-week program (4x/week) of add-on aerobic exercise (exercise group, N = 29) or no activity (control group, N = 28). Depression severity was assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) as the primary outcome. At baseline and endpoint, all patients underwent a comprehensive metabolic/cardiopulmonary exercise testing—including determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), VO2 at the second ventilatory threshold (VO2-VT2), and oxygen pulse (O2 pulse). Results Depression scores significantly decreased in both groups after intervention. Importantly, patients in the aerobic exercise group required lower sertraline dose compared to the control group (sertraline monotherapy). The VO2max and O2 pulse parameters increased over time only in the exercise group and remained unchanged in the control group. Conclusions The present findings suggest that a 4-week training of aerobic exercise significantly improves functional capacity in patients with MDD and may be associated with antidepressant efficacy. This approach may also decrease the need for higher doses of antidepressants to achieve response. Further studies in unmedicated and treatment-resistant MDD

  5. A Fossil Group in Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Eric D.; Rappaport, Saul A.; McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Mark W.; Grant, Catherine E.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    In the current picture of hierarchical structure formation, galaxy groups play a vital role as the seeds from which large assemblies of matter form. Compact groups are also important environments in which to watch the fueling of star formation and AGN activity, as the conditions are ideal for galaxy-galaxy interactions. We have identified a galaxy system that may represent an intermediate or transition stage in group evolution. Shakhbazyan 1 (or SHK 1) is a remarkably compact collection of about ten massive, red-sequence galaxies within a region 100 kpc across. Several of these galaxies show signs of AGN activity, and new, deep optical observations with the Discovery Channel Telescope reveal an extended stellar envelope surrounding the galaxies. This envelope is much more extended than what would be expected from a superposition of normal galaxy envelopes, and it indicates a large amount of intra-group starlight, evidence that the galaxies in SHK 1 are dynamically interacting.We here present new Chandra spectral imaging observations of this unusual system that confirm the presence of an X-ray-emitting diffuse intra-group medium (IGM), with a temperature of 1.5 keV and X-ray luminosity of 1043 erg/s. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, the system is about 1/3 as massive as expected from the optical richness. In addition, three of the ten central galaxies exhibit signatures of X-ray AGN. The under-luminous IGM, high density of bright galaxies, and evidence for galaxy-galaxy interaction indicate that this system may be in a transition stage of galaxy merging, similar to that expected in the formation of a fossil group. Alternatively, SHK 1 may consist of multiple poor groups in the final stages of merging along our line of sight. We explore these scenarios and outline paths of future study for this enigmatic system.

  6. First-line treatment with rituximab-hyperCVAD alternating with rituximab-methotrexate-cytarabine and followed by consolidation with 90Y-ibritumomab-tiuxetan in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. Results of a multicenter, phase 2 pilot trial from the GELTAMO group

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Reyes; García-Noblejas, Ana; Grande, Carlos; Cannata-Ortiz, Jimena; Sánchez, José J.; García-Marco, José-Antonio; Aláez, Concepción; Pérez-Calvo, Javier; Martínez-Sánchez, Pilar; Sánchez-González, Blanca; Canales, Miguel-Angel; Conde, Eulogio; Martín, Alejandro; Arranz, Eva; Terol, María-José; Salar, Antonio; Caballero, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis for fit patients with mantle cell lymphoma has improved with intensive strategies. Currently, the role of maintenance/consolidation approaches is being tested as relapses continue to appear. In this trial we evaluated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of rituximab-hyperCVAD alternating with rituximab-methotrexate-cytarabine followed by consolidation with 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan. Patients received six cycles followed by a single dose of 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan. Thirty patients were enrolled; their median age was 59 years. Twenty-four patients finished the induction treatment, 23 achieved complete remission (77%, 95% confidence interval 60–93) and one patient had progressive disease (3%). Eighteen patients (60%), all in complete remission, received consolidation therapy. In the intent-to-treat population, failure-free, progression-free and overall survival rates at 4 years were 40% (95% confidence interval 20.4–59.6), 52% (95% confidence interval 32.4–71.6) and 81% (95% confidence interval 67.28–94.72), respectively. For patients who received consolidation, failure-free and overall survival rates were 55% (95% confidence interval 31.48–78.52) and 87% (95% confidence interval 70–100), respectively. Hematologic toxicity was significant during induction and responsible for one death (3.3%). After consolidation, grade 3–4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were observed in 72% and 83% of patients, with a median duration of 5 and 12 weeks, respectively. Six (20%) patients died, three due to secondary malignancies (myelodysplastic syndrome and bladder and rectum carcinomas). In conclusion, in our experience, rituximab-hyperCVAD alternated with rituximab-methotrexate-cytarabine and followed by consolidation with 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan was efficacious although less feasible than expected. The unacceptable toxicity observed, especially secondary malignancies, advise against the use of this strategy. Trial registration: clinical.gov identifier

  7. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000 this month to find cures. Loading... Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies SHARE: Print Glossary ...

  8. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  9. MSUD Family Support Group

    MedlinePlus

    ... Group The MSUD Family Support Group is a non-profit 501 (c)(3) organization for those with MSUD ... Family Support Group is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with no paid staff. Funds are needed ...

  10. Alternatives To Dissection. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill, Ed.; Winiarskyj, Lesia, Ed.

    This packet attempts to provide educationally sound alternatives to dissection in the classroom, thereby making it possible for teachers to eliminate dissection from the curriculum. This packet can also be used by educators who include dissection in their curricula but consider it important to respect the expression of students' ethical, moral, or…

  11. An Alternative to Process Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joan; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Some disadvantages in the use of process recordings as an assessment and teaching tool for evaluating the communication skills of the student in nurse-client interactions are discussed. A more useful alternative process requires actual observation and subsequent participation by the instructor during student-client interviews. (EC)

  12. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  13. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  14. Providers issue brief: alternative providers.

    PubMed

    Rothouse, M

    1999-06-29

    Access by managed care plan enrollees, scope of practice issues and fee reimbursement by Medicaid and third parties such as insurance carriers is the engine that drives legislation recognizing alternative health care providers--chiropractors, acupuncturists, physical therapists, naturopaths, massage therapists, homeopaths, and dietitians and nutritionists. PMID:11073386

  15. "Partial Vision" in Alternative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ron

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the philosophies and pedagogies of Waldorf and Montessori schools points out that no single educational perspective can encompass all possibilities of human growth. Educators should attend to the "seed qualities" of alternative educational philosophies rather than their dogmas. A caring relationship between teachers and students is…

  16. The Alternate Route to Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1990-01-01

    Alternative certification programs are needed to address the projected teacher shortage by 2000. Only two-thirds of prepared graduates enter the profession, half who do enter leave after five years, and teacher salaries are 25 percent lower than the salaries of college graduates in other fields. Afternoon, evening, and weekend preparation programs…

  17. Alternative Models for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, John G.

    Higher education is beset from all sides by criticism, fear, doubt, uncertainty, and prophecies of doom. While the young call for change, the faculty often resist anything that might reduce their privileges and prerogatives. Before alternative models to the present system of higher education can be considered, it is useful to question present…

  18. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control is reported. Extensive numerical testing is included. It is indicated that optimal inputs contribute significantly to the process of calculating tensor approximations for nonlinear systems, and that the resulting approximations may be order-reduced in a systematic way.

  19. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The technical progress of researches Alternatives for Jet Engine Control is reported. A numerical study employing feedback tensors for optimal control of nonlinear systems was completed. It is believed that these studies are the first of their kind. State regulation, with a decrease in control power is demonstrated. A detailed treatment follows.

  20. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The technical progress of researches on alternatives for jet engine control, is reported. The principal new activities involved the initial testing of an input design method for choosing the inputs to a non-linear system to aid the approximation of its tensor parameters, and the beginning of order reduction studies designed to remove unnecessary monomials from tensor models.

  1. An Overview of Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Laudan Y.

    2006-01-01

    This publication represents the first in a series of papers on alternative education for the U.S. Department of Labor. The main focus of this review is community- or district-based programs that have as their primary focus the re-engagement of out-of-school youth in learning in order to better prepare these youth to successfully enter high growth…

  2. Student Loans: Alternatives for Reauthorization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    The papers presented at the symposium include: Student Loans: Some Practical Radical Alternatives (D. Bruce Johnstone); Solving the Student Loan Problem by Supplementing Government Loan Policy--An Expanded Role for Institutional Aid Administrators in the 1980's (Kurt L. Kendis); Estimating Manageable Educational Loan Limits for Graduate and…

  3. Not Just Another Alternative School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we problematize the establishment of an Africentric Alternative School in Toronto, Canada. We argue that policy, and race and racializations cannot be understood outside of, or immune to, neoliberalism. We contend that policy is a form of racial biopolitics, and race is now produced through neoliberal markets, in conjunction with…

  4. The Centre for Alternative Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randle, Joan; Randle, Damian

    1983-01-01

    Describes operation and activities of The National Center for Alternative Technology (NCAT), built on the site of a former quarry. A major center function involves encouraging and assisting students toward a holistic approach to their environment. Also describes and includes a map of major center exhibits. (JN)

  5. Alternative Certification: Effectively Preparing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Christopher; Bishop, Carolyn A.; Hernandez, David A.

    2008-01-01

    This study addresses questions related to teacher preparation through online supported learning in an alternative certification program, CalStateTEACH. Specifically, this study analyzes and reports survey responses of 130 teachers and 84 supervisors related to preparedness of program completers to teach in a multiple subject classroom. The…

  6. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  7. Alternatives to Afrocentrism. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John J., Ed.

    The essays in this collection place the current Afrocentric movement in its historical context and offer alternative suggestions about how to teach African American students about their history. The first section deals with the roots of Afrocentrism, analyzes the content of Afrocentric books and curricula, and discusses the impact of Afrocentrism…

  8. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  9. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  10. Lecture Alternatives in Teaching English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judy, Stephen, Ed.

    The five sections of the document are: General Discussion; Classroom Experiences; Evaluation and Non-Lecture Teaching; A Closing Note; and Appendix. The ten papers presented are as follows: "Lecture Alternatives and the English Class" by Stephen Judy; "Let's See How it Goes: A View of the Teacher as Manager of Student-Initiated Activities" by…

  11. Science Literacy and Alternative Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, George T.

    Presented is an operational definition of science literacy including knowledge of science, the processes of science, the nature of science and the social implications of science. Future-oriented supplemental teaching materials are proposed as the most viable alternative available for achieving literacy in science within the present school…

  12. Alternative Careers in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Charlotte

    Several alternate definitions of "physical education" can be presented to illustrate the fact that changes in name or definition open the way to new opportunities and new ways of thinking of career options. Traditional definitions of physical education have limited it to a profession of teaching in the traditional school system normal children…

  13. Alternative Education: The Cutting Edge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jay

    2004-01-01

    Miami Valley Career Technology Youth Connections, an alternative high school located in Dayton, Ohio, has an enrollment of 160 students and was created as a joint venture among local politicians to address the high dropout rates in Montgomery County, Ohio. To achieve this, the Montgomery County commissioners created a task force to develop…

  14. An Alternative School Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lee A.

    This model is designed to serve as a conceptual framework for alternative programs with primary emphasis on provisioning (the way in which time, space, material, equipment, and activities are used in the learning environment). The model's concern is to assess concrete examples or tendencies of teachers, students, and the education program. The…

  15. Plain Talk about Alternative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    Testing is a technology, a socially mediated, value-laden endeavor. Technologies embody trade-offs between what is desired and real-world constraints of cost, time, thought, and energy. Although alternative assessments offer exciting prospects for middle schools, these new forms must not be misused or naively accepted as defensible, consummate…

  16. Complementary and alternative medicine--a business opportunity?

    PubMed

    Hofgard, M W; Zipin, M L

    1999-01-01

    This desire for health and well-being is driving the rapid growth of the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) industry and points to a new role for health care professionals, including business opportunities for medical groups. CAM represents the opportunity to grow practice revenues, expand a group's tool kit for assisting patients with health care issues, and retain or increase market share by proactively responding to consumers. With respect to CAM, physician practices can lead their market, follow it or ignore it.

  17. Toward a Communication Competency Model of Group Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barge, J. Kevin; Hirokawa, Randy Y.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that current models of group leadership fail to illuminate the relationship between leadership and group performance. Presents an alternative model of leadership based on communication competencies, which are influenced by task complexity, group climate, and role relationships. A series of heuristic propositions are offered linking…

  18. Language Ability Groups in Bilingual Children: A Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gray, Shelley; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Classifying children into two language ability groups, with and without language impairment, may underestimate the number of groups with distinct language ability patterns, or, alternatively, there may be only a single group characterized by a continuum of language performance. The purpose of the current study was to identify the number…

  19. Teachers Perceptions of Ability Grouping Practices in Middle Level Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Data from 31 middle school teachers were categorized through the use of qualitative research to determine what teachers perceive to be the advantages and disadvantages of ability grouping as well as alternative grouping practices. Found that most teachers were knowledgeable about ability grouping through experience or professional development;…

  20. Homotropic cooperativity of monomeric cytochrome P450 3A4

    SciTech Connect

    Baas, Bradley J.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-11-16

    Mechanistic studies of mammalian cytochrome P450s are often obscured by the phase heterogeneity of solubilized preparations of membrane enzymes. The various protein-protein aggregation states of microsomes, detergent solubilized cytochrome or a family of aqueous multimeric complexes can effect measured substrate binding events as well as subsequent steps in the reaction cycle. In addition, these P450 monooxygenases are normally found in a membrane environment and the bilayer composition and dynamics can also effect these catalytic steps. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of a homogeneous monomeric population of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) in a soluble nanoscale membrane bilayer, or Nanodisc [Nano Lett. 2 (2002) 853]. Cytochrome P450 3A4:Nanodisc assemblies were formed and purified to yield a 1:1 ratio of CYP 3A4 to Nanodisc. Solution small angle X-ray scattering was used to structurally characterize this monomeric CYP 3A4 in the membrane bilayer. The purified CYP 3A4:Nanodiscs showed a heretofore undescribed high level of homotropic cooperativity in the binding of testosterone. Soluble CYP 3A4:Nanodisc retains its known function and shows prototypic hydroxylation of testosterone when driven by hydrogen peroxide. This represents the first functional characterization of a true monomeric preparation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in a phospholipid bilayer and elucidates new properties of the monomeric form.

  1. Propensity Score Analysis: An Alternative Statistical Approach for HRD Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiffer, Greggory L.; Lane, Forrest C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to introduce matching in propensity score analysis (PSA) as an alternative statistical approach for researchers looking to make causal inferences using intact groups. Design/methodology/approach: An illustrative example demonstrated the varying results of analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and PSA on a heuristic…

  2. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  3. Indigenous Representation and Alternative Schooling: Prioritising an Epistemology of Relationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on a case study of a small alternative Indigenous school in Queensland, Australia. From the perspective of several of the school's Indigenous Elders, the paper foregrounds the significance of group differentiation at the school on the basis of Indigenous representation. However, it also considers how such…

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  5. An Alternative Undergraduate Teacher Preparation Program in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yaoying; Gelfer, Jeffrey; Filler, John

    2003-01-01

    The realities of a multi-racial, multi-ethnic, and multi-ability student population demand a unique and nontraditional approach characterized by an individualization sensitive to group identity. The primary goal of this alternative Early Childhood Studies/Education Program with a degree of Bachelor of Science is to provide a comprehensive…

  6. Effects of Alternate Test Formats in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare differences in methods of testing for two undergraduate online courses to determine the effect of alternate test formats in relation to participant grades. Specific purposes of this study were to determine whether a difference existed in student test scores between the control and treatment groups and…

  7. Federal Aid to Postsecondary Students: Tax Allowances and Alternative Subsidies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Congressional Budget Office.

    Various aspects of tax allowances for the expenses of higher education, and alternative subsidies are analyzed. A tax allowance for education is presented as one way to give more financial relief to middle-income families. The current distribution of student aid among income groups is discussed and data on college enrollment rates, family incomes,…

  8. An Analysis of Indiana Schools Implementing Alternative Teacher Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Corey Wade

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this content analysis research project was to determine if there were predictive qualities of the demographic groupings; student population, free and reduced percentage, and geographic setting on the teacher evaluation tools that are an alternative to the Indiana RISE model. This study surveyed Indiana superintendents regarding…

  9. Potential role of UGT1A4 promoter SNPs in anastrozole pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Edavana, Vineetha Koroth; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Williams, Suzanne; Penney, Rosalind; Boysen, Gunnar; Yao-Borengasser, Aiwei; Kadlubar, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Anastrozole belongs to the nonsteroidal triazole-derivative group of aromatase inhibitors. Recently, clinical trials demonstrated improved antitumoral efficacy and a favorable toxicity with third-generation aromatase inhibitors, compared with tamoxifen. Anastrozole is predominantly metabolized by phase I oxidation with the potential for further phase II glucuronidation. It also, however, is subject to direct N-glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A4 (UGT1A4). Anastrozole pharmacokinetics vary widely among patients, but pharmacogenomic studies of patients treated with anastrozole are sparse. In this study, we examined individual variability in the glucuronidation of anastrozole and its association with UGT1A4 promoter and coding region polymorphisms. In vitro assays using liver microsomal preparations from individual subjects (n = 96) demonstrated 235-fold variability in anastrozole glucuronidation. Anastrozole glucuronidation was correlated (r = 0.99; P < 0.0001) with lamotrigine glucuronidation (a diagnostic substrate for UGT1A4) and with UGT1A4 mRNA expression levels in human liver microsomes (r = 0.99; P < 0.0001). Recombinant UGT1A4 catalyzed anastrozole glucuronidation, which was inhibited by hecogenin (IC50 = 15 µM), a UGT1A4 specific inhibitor. The promoter region of UGT1A4 is polymorphic, and compared with those homozygous for the common allele, lower enzymatic activity was observed in microsomes from individuals heterozygous for -163G

  10. Use of alternative treatments by chronic fatigue syndrome discordant twins.

    PubMed

    Afari; Eisenberg; Herrell; Goldberg; Kleyman; Ashton; Buchwald

    2000-03-21

    Background: Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been faced with difficulties in diagnosis and lack of effective treatments. Anecdotal evidence suggests that use of alternative treatments may be common in these patients. Our primary objective was to compare the prevalence and patterns of alternative medicine use among twins who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) CFS criteria to that of their non-CFS co-twins. Secondary goals were to assess how often alternative medicine use was discussed with physicians and the perceived benefit of these therapies. Methods: Sixty-three twin pairs discordant for CFS completed a survey about their use of 22 alternative therapies. Matched pair odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to examine differences in the use between CFS twins and their non-CFS co-twins. Results: 91% of twins with CFS and 71% of non-CFS twins had used at least 1 alternative treatment in their lifetime. Twins with CFS were more likely to use homeopathy, mega-vitamins, herbal therapies, biofeedback, relaxation/meditation, guided imagery, massage therapy, energy healing, religious healing by others, and self-help groups than their non-CFS counterparts. A large proportion of all twins found alternative therapies helpful; however, only 42% of those with CFS and 23% of those without CFS discussed their use of alternative medicine with a physician. Conclusions: Individuals with CFS frequently used alternative medical treatments yet rarely communicated this use to their medical doctor. Future research should ascertain the usefulness of alternative practices in the management of CFS.

  11. 42 CFR 59a.4 - How are grant applications evaluated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants for Establishing, Expanding, and Improving Basic Resources § 59a.4 How... coordination with other libraries and related facilities, and (d) Potential for testing or demonstration of...

  12. Air density measurement with a falling A4 sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladyshkin, Ivan V.; Oladyshkina, Anastasia A.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a simple experiment on the air density measurement which does not require any special equipment: just an A4 sheet of paper, a stopwatch and a ruler. The discussed method uses the most basic air resistance model.

  13. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST, AS OPERATOR WATCHES TO ENSURE QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING EXTRACTED FROM CASTING MACHINE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Academic Programs in Alternative Education: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzzi, Betsy Brown; Kraemer, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    This paper, second in a series of papers on alternative education, examines the academic programming in alternative education programs by reviewing the literature specifically focused on the academic programs in alternative education and summarizing a survey of fifteen alternative education programs. It suggests options for further research on…

  16. Group action in topos quantum physics

    SciTech Connect

    Flori, C.

    2013-03-15

    Topos theory has been suggested first by Isham and Butterfield, and then by Isham and Doering, as an alternative mathematical structure within which to formulate physical theories. In particular, it has been used to reformulate standard quantum mechanics in such a way that a novel type of logic is used to represent propositions. In this paper, we extend this formulation to include the notion of a group and group transformation in such a way that we overcome the problem of twisted presheaves. In order to implement this we need to change the type of topos involved, so as to render the notion of continuity of the group action meaningful.

  17. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... §§ 1.401(a)(4)-1 through 1.401(a)(4)-13. Accumulation plan. Accumulation plan means a defined benefit... that is within the transition period defined in section 410(b)(6)(C)(ii). In addition, in the case of a... transition period defined in section 410(b)(6)(C)(ii). Actuarial equivalent. An amount or benefit is...

  18. Structure and nucleosome interaction of the yeast NuA4 and Piccolo-NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes.

    PubMed

    Chittuluru, Johnathan R; Chaban, Yuriy; Monnet-Saksouk, Julie; Carrozza, Michael J; Sapountzi, Vasileia; Selleck, William; Huang, Jiehuan; Utley, Rhea T; Cramet, Myriam; Allard, Stephane; Cai, Gang; Workman, Jerry L; Fried, Michael G; Tan, Song; Côté, Jacques; Asturias, Francisco J

    2011-10-09

    We have used EM and biochemistry to characterize the structure of NuA4, an essential yeast histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex conserved throughout eukaryotes, and we have determined the interaction of NuA4 with the nucleosome core particle (NCP). The ATM-related Tra1 subunit, which is shared with the SAGA coactivator complex, forms a large domain joined to a second region that accommodates the catalytic subcomplex Piccolo and other NuA4 subunits. EM analysis of a NuA4-NCP complex shows the NCP bound at the periphery of NuA4. EM characterization of Piccolo and Piccolo-NCP provided further information about subunit organization and confirmed that histone acetylation requires minimal contact with the NCP. A small conserved region at the N terminus of Piccolo subunit enhancer of Polycomb-like 1 (Epl1) is essential for NCP interaction, whereas the subunit yeast homolog of mammalian Ing1 2 (Yng2) apparently positions Piccolo for efficient acetylation of histone H4 or histone H2A tails. Taken together, these results provide an understanding of the NuA4 subunit organization and the NuA4-NCP interactions.

  19. Contemporary Alternatives to Plant Estrogens for Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Stacie E.; Studee, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Every year, millions of women begin the peri-menopause and may experience a number of symptoms related to this transition. Many women are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for treatment of menopausal symptoms and are turning to botanical and dietary supplements (BDS) for relief. This paper reviews the literature on alternatives to plant estrogens for relief of menopausal symptoms. Methods The MEDLINE database was searched for clinical trials of non-estrogenic plant extracts for menopausal symptoms. To be included, studies had to include peri- or postmenopausal women as subjects. All clinical trials (randomized-controlled trials, open trials, and comparison group studies) were included for this review. Results Black Cohosh appears to be one of the most effective botanicals for relief of vasomotor symptoms, while St. John’s wort can improve mood disorders related to the menopausal transition. Many other botanicals have limited evidence to demonstrate safety and efficacy for relief of symptoms related to menopause. Conclusions A growing body of evidence suggests that some botanicals and dietary supplements could result in improved clinical outcomes. Health care providers should discuss these issues with their patients so they can assist them in managing these alternative therapies through an evidence-based approach. PMID:16884867

  20. Alternatives for jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Schafer, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Alternatives to linear quadratic regulator theory in the linear case are examined along with nonlinear modelling and optimization approaches for global control. Context for the studies has been set by the DYNGEN digital simulator and by models generated for various phases of the F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis Program. With respect to the linear alternatives, the multivariable frequency domain is stressed. Progress is reported in both the direct algebraic approach to exact model matching, by means of stimulating work on the basic computational issues, and in the indirect generalized Nyquist approach. With respect to nonlinear modelling and optimization, the emphasis is twofold: the development of analytical nonlinear models of the jet engine and the use of these models in conjunction with techniques of mathematical programming in order to study global control over nonincremental portions of the flight envelope. The possibility of using tensor methods is explored.

  1. Potential alternative approaches to xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Mou, Lisha; Chen, Fengjiao; Dai, Yifan; Cai, Zhiming; Cooper, David K C

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing worldwide shortage of organs and cells for transplantation in patients with end-stage organ failure or cellular dysfunction. This shortage could be resolved by the transplantation of organs or cells from pigs into humans. What competing approaches might provide support for the patient with end-stage organ or cell failure? Four main approaches are receiving increasing attention - (i) implantable mechanical devices, although these are currently limited almost entirely to devices aimed at supporting or replacing the heart, (ii) stem cell technology, at present directed mainly to replace absent or failing cells, but which is also fundamental to progress in (iii) tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in which the ultimate aim is to replace an entire organ. A final novel potential approach is (iv) blastocyst complementation. These potential alternative approaches are briefly reviewed, and comments added on their current status and whether they are now (or will soon become) realistic alternative therapies to xenotransplantation.

  2. Alternative Splicing in Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shengming; Tang, Fang; Zhu, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) occurs widely in plants and can provide the main source of transcriptome and proteome diversity in an organism. AS functions in a range of physiological processes, including plant disease resistance, but its biological roles and functional mechanisms remain poorly understood. Many plant disease resistance (R) genes undergo AS, and several R genes require alternatively spliced transcripts to produce R proteins that can specifically recognize pathogen invasion. In the finely-tuned process of R protein activation, the truncated isoforms generated by AS may participate in plant disease resistance either by suppressing the negative regulation of initiation of immunity, or by directly engaging in effector-triggered signaling. Although emerging research has shown the functional significance of AS in plant biotic stress responses, many aspects of this topic remain to be understood. Several interesting issues surrounding the AS of R genes, especially regarding its functional roles and regulation, will require innovative techniques and additional research to unravel. PMID:24918296

  3. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  4. Criteria for evaluating alternative MEDLINE search engines.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M; Edwards, A; Graves, R S; Johnson, E D

    1998-01-01

    With so many options available for searching MEDLINE on the World Wide Web or as a component of an online service, evaluation criteria are suggested as a means of assisting librarians in determining the positive and negative aspects of alternative MEDLINE sites. A set of searches was utilized to systematically compare MEDLINE sites. Sites evaluated included Avicenna, America Online, HealthGate, PubMed, Medscape, and Physicians' Online. Some features used to evaluate these sites were: default fields; operators (default); access to MeSH; subheadings; stop words protected in MeSH; truncation; and stemming. This article will describe the group process used to arrive at the evaluation criteria, as well as some general conclusions which will help librarians in directing their users to a particular MEDLINE site.

  5. Alternative indicators for measuring hospital productivity.

    PubMed

    Serway, G D; Strum, D W; Haug, W F

    1987-08-01

    This article explores the premise that the appropriateness and usefulness of typical hospital productivity measures have been affected by three changes in delivery: Organizational restructuring and other definition and data source changes that make full-time equivalent employee (FTE) measurements ambiguous. Transition to prospective payment (diagnosis-related groups). Increase in capitation (prepaid, at risk) programs. The effects of these changes on productivity management indicate the need for alternative productivity indicators. Several productivity measures that complement these changes in internal operations and the external hospital business environment are presented. These are based on an analysis of four hospitals within a multihospital system, and an illustration and interpretation of an array of measures, based on ten months of actual data, is provided. In conclusion, the recommendation is made for hospital management to collect an expanded set of productivity measures and review them in light of changing expense and revenue management schemes inherent in new payment modes.

  6. Ambitious Philippine alternative energy plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-07

    The Philippines is to spend $5.4 billion over the next ten years for the development of alternative sources of energy. These would include the development of fuel woods and other biomass, and the commercialization of a coconut/diesel-oil fuel. It is hoped that the Philippines' dependence on imported oil will be reduced from about 80% today to around 50% by the end of the decade.

  7. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  8. Alternative models in developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-yul; Inselman, Amy L; Kanungo, Jyotshnabala; Hansen, Deborah K

    2012-02-01

    In light of various pressures, toxicologists have been searching for alternative methods for safety testing of chemicals. According to a recent policy in the European Union (Regulation, Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, REACH), it has been estimated that over the next twelve to fifteen years, approximately 30,000 chemicals may need to be tested for safety, and under current guidelines such testing would require the use of approximately 7.2 million laboratory animals [ Hofer et al. 2004 ]. It has also been estimated that over 80% of all animals used for safety testing under REACH legislation would be used for examining reproductive and developmental toxicity [Hofer et al., 2004]. In addition to REACH initiatives, it has been estimated that out of 5,000 to 10,000 new drug entities that a pharmaceutical company may start with, only one is finally approved by the Food and Drug Administration at a cost of over one billion dollars [ Garg et al. 2011 ]. A large portion of this cost is due to animal testing. Therefore, both the pharmaceutical and chemical industries are interested in using alternative models and in vitro tests for safety testing. This review will examine the current state of three alternative models - whole embryo culture (WEC), the mouse embryonic stem cell test (mEST), and zebrafish. Each of these alternatives will be reviewed, and advantages and disadvantages of each model will be discussed. These models were chosen because they are the models most commonly used and would appear to have the greatest potential for future applications in developmental toxicity screening and testing.

  9. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  10. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  11. Large Independent Primary Care Medical Groups

    PubMed Central

    Casalino, Lawrence P.; Chen, Melinda A.; Staub, C. Todd; Press, Matthew J.; Mendelsohn, Jayme L.; Lynch, John T.; Miranda, Yesenia

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE In the turbulent US health care environment, many primary care physicians seek hospital employment. Large physician-owned primary care groups are an alternative, but few physicians or policy makers realize that such groups exist. We wanted to describe these groups, their advantages, and their challenges. METHODS We identified 21 groups and studied 5 that varied in size and location. We conducted interviews with group leaders, surveyed randomly selected group physicians, and interviewed external observers—leaders of a health plan, hospital, and specialty medical group that shared patients with the group. We triangulated responses from group leaders, group physicians, and external observers to identify key themes. RESULTS The groups’ physicians work in small practices, with the group providing economies of scale necessary to develop laboratory and imaging services, health information technology, and quality improvement infrastructure. The groups differ in their size and the extent to which they engage in value-based contracting, though all are moving to increase the amount of financial risk they take for their quality and cost performance. Unlike hospital-employed and multispecialty groups, independent primary care groups can aim to reduce health care costs without conflicting incentives to fill hospital beds and keep specialist incomes high. Each group was positively regarded by external observers. The groups are under pressure, however, to sell to organizations that can provide capital for additional infrastructure to engage in value-based contracting, as well as provide substantial income to physicians from the sale. CONCLUSIONS Large, independent primary care groups have the potential to make primary care attractive to physicians and to improve patient care by combining human scale advantages of physician autonomy and the small practice setting with resources that are important to succeed in value-based contracting. PMID:26755779

  12. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  13. Necessary alternatives: patients’ views of asthma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kopnina, Helen; Haafkens, Joke

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on semistructured interviews and focus groups conducted with 27 asthma patients in The Netherlands who chose complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of their condition. All subjects were contacted through an online forum for asthma patients hosted by the Dutch Asthma Foundation. Nineteen subjects (12 women and seven men) between the ages of 29 and 65 years participated in the interviews, held between June 2009 and January 2010. All of the participating subjects had experience with conventional medications, including anti-inflammatory corticosteroids and bronchodilators. For the focus group meeting, held in February 2010, the sample included seven subjects (four women and three men) between the ages of 31 and 46 years, none of whom had ever used conventional medication and all of whom were using CAM. All subjects in the sample had been diagnosed with asthma by their physician or lung specialist. The study examined the causes of patient noncompliance with the prescribed medical regime. It is argued that evidence-based rationality on the part of subjects is an overlooked dimension of their experience of asthma. This study demonstrates the role that the patients’ social network, including medical practitioners, friends, and family, and other asthmatics, plays in the process of decision-making and choices about treating asthma. It also demonstrates the role of patients’ information-searching strategies. The author concludes that patient noncompliance with commonly prescribed medication and selection of alternative medical treatment is less a matter of denial of their diagnosis or the severity of their illness, but more a matter of choice informed by evidence-based rationality. PMID:20622919

  14. An update on testing of CFC alternatives for electronics manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Higbie, E.

    1995-12-31

    The Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF) is a U.S. Navy Center of Excellence tasked to do research in electronics manufacturing. The EMPF has performed extensive research on various cleaning materials and processes for printed circuit board assemblers. The flagship of the EMPF cleaning projects has been a joint effort with other Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits (IPC) to find alternatives to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based solvents for cleaning electronics. The group established a 3-phase test plan that is used to evaluate new alternative materials and processes. Phase 1 characterizes the cleaning ability of a CFC-based solvent and establishes the cleanliness results as a benchmark to which alternative candidates are compared. Phase 2 uses the same manufacturing processes and procedures that were established in Phase 1, changing only the cleaning process to the alternative candidate. Phase 3 examines the potential use of alternative manufacturing processes such as, water soluble fluxes with aqueous cleaning, low residue fluxes with no cleaning and Controlled Atmosphere Soldering (CAS) using adipic and formic acids as a {open_quotes}flux{close_quotes} with no cleaning. This paper is an update on the ongoing study and description of some of the alternative processes.

  15. Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Dunning, Russell; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2010-12-01

    Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity. This study examined the effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on maximum throwing velocity. Thirty-four youth baseball players (11-15 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (each 75 minutes) weekly for 4 weeks, which comprised a sport specific warm-up, resistance training with elastic tubing, a throwing program, and stretching. Throwing velocity was assessed initially and at the end of the 4-week conditioning program for both control and training groups. The level of significance used was p < 0.05. After the 4-week conditioning program, throwing velocity increased significantly (from 25.1 ± 2.8 to 26.1 ± 2.8 m·s) in the training group but did not significantly increase in the control group (from 24.2 ± 3.6 to 24.0 ± 3.9 m·s). These results demonstrate that the short-term 4-week baseball conditioning program was effective in increasing throwing velocity in youth baseball players. Increased throwing velocity may be helpful for pitchers (less time for hitters to swing) and position players (decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base). PMID:21068687

  16. Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Dunning, Russell; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2010-12-01

    Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity. This study examined the effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on maximum throwing velocity. Thirty-four youth baseball players (11-15 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (each 75 minutes) weekly for 4 weeks, which comprised a sport specific warm-up, resistance training with elastic tubing, a throwing program, and stretching. Throwing velocity was assessed initially and at the end of the 4-week conditioning program for both control and training groups. The level of significance used was p < 0.05. After the 4-week conditioning program, throwing velocity increased significantly (from 25.1 ± 2.8 to 26.1 ± 2.8 m·s) in the training group but did not significantly increase in the control group (from 24.2 ± 3.6 to 24.0 ± 3.9 m·s). These results demonstrate that the short-term 4-week baseball conditioning program was effective in increasing throwing velocity in youth baseball players. Increased throwing velocity may be helpful for pitchers (less time for hitters to swing) and position players (decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base).

  17. Visual Reconciliation of Alternative Similarity Spaces in Climate Modeling.

    PubMed

    Poco, Jorge; Dasgupta, Aritra; Wei, Yaxing; Hargrove, William; Schwalm, Christopher R; Huntzinger, Deborah N; Cook, Robert; Bertini, Enrico; Silva, Cláudio T

    2014-12-01

    Visual data analysis often requires grouping of data objects based on their similarity. In many application domains researchers use algorithms and techniques like clustering and multidimensional scaling to extract groupings from data. While extracting these groups using a single similarity criteria is relatively straightforward, comparing alternative criteria poses additional challenges. In this paper we define visual reconciliation as the problem of reconciling multiple alternative similarity spaces through visualization and interaction. We derive this problem from our work on model comparison in climate science where climate modelers are faced with the challenge of making sense of alternative ways to describe their models: one through the output they generate, another through the large set of properties that describe them. Ideally, they want to understand whether groups of models with similar spatio-temporal behaviors share similar sets of criteria or, conversely, whether similar criteria lead to similar behaviors. We propose a visual analytics solution based on linked views, that addresses this problem by allowing the user to dynamically create, modify and observe the interaction among groupings, thereby making the potential explanations apparent. We present case studies that demonstrate the usefulness of our technique in the area of climate science.

  18. EphA4 is Necessary for Spatially Selective Peripheral Somatosensory Topography

    PubMed Central

    North, HA; Karim, A; Jacquin, MF; Donoghue, MJ

    2009-01-01

    Somatosensation is the primary sensory modality employed by rodents in navigating their environments, and mystacial vibrissae on the snout are the primary conveyors of this information to the murine brain. The layout of vibrissae is spatially stereotyped and topographic connections faithfully maintain this layout throughout the neuraxis. Several factors have been shown to influence general vibrissal innervation by trigeminal neurons. Here, the role of a cell surface receptor, EphA4, in directing position-dependent vibrissal innervation is examined. EphA4 is expressed in the ventral region of the presumptive whisker pad and EphA4−/− mice lack the ventroposterior-most vibrissae. Analyses reveal that ventral trigeminal axons are abnormal, failing to innervate emerging vibrissae, and resulting in the absence of a select group of vibrissae in EphA4−/− mice. EphA4’s selective effect on a subset of whiskers implicates cell based signaling in the establishment of position-dependent connectivity and topography in the peripheral somatosensory system. PMID:20014408

  19. A Novel SLC27A4 Splice Acceptor Site Mutation in Great Danes with Ichthyosis

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Julia; Wöhlke, Anne; Mischke, Reinhard; Hoffmann, Annalena; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Küch, Eva-Maria; Naim, Hassan Y.; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyoses are a group of various different types of hereditary disorders affecting skin cornification. They are characterized by hyperkeratoses of different severity levels and are associated with a dry and scaling skin. Genome-wide association analysis of nine affected and 13 unaffected Great Danes revealed a genome-wide significant peak on chromosome 9 at 57–58 Mb in the region of SLC27A4. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA of SLC27A4 revealed the non-synonymous SNV SLC27A4:g.8684G>A in perfect association with ichthyosis-affection in Great Danes. The mutant transcript of SLC27A4 showed an in-frame loss of 54 base pairs in exon 8 probably induced by a new splice acceptor site motif created by the mutated A- allele of the SNV. Genotyping 413 controls from 35 different breeds of dogs and seven wolves revealed that this mutation could not be found in other populations except in Great Danes. Affected dogs revealed high amounts of mutant transcript but only low levels of the wild type transcript. Targeted analyses of SLC27A4 protein from skin tissues of three affected and two unaffected Great Danes indicated a markedly reduced or not detectable wild type and truncated protein levels in affected dogs but a high expression of wild type SLC27A4 protein in unaffected controls. Our data provide evidence of a new splice acceptor site creating SNV that results in a reduction or loss of intact SLC27A4 protein and probably explains the severe skin phenotype in Great Danes. Genetic testing will allow selective breeding to prevent ichthyosis-affected puppies in the future. PMID:26506231

  20. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  1. Alternating copolymers and alternative device geometries for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Inganäs, Olle; Zhang, Fengling; Andersson, Mats R

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of conversion of light to electrical energy with the help of conjugated polymers and molecules is rapidly improving. The optical absorption properties of these materials can be designed, and implemented via molecular engineering. Full coverage of the solar spectrum is thus feasible. Narrow absorption spectra allow construction of tandem solar cells. The poor transport properties of these materials require thin devices, which limits optical absorption. Alternative device geometries for these flexible materials compensate for the optical absorption by light trapping, and allow tandem cells. PMID:22434441

  2. SLC26A4 Targeted to the Endolymphatic Sac Rescues Hearing and Balance in Slc26a4 Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangming; Sanneman, Joel D.; Harbidge, Donald G.; Zhou, Fei; Ito, Taku; Nelson, Raoul; Picard, Nicolas; Chambrey, Régine; Eladari, Dominique; Miesner, Tracy; Griffith, Andrew J.; Marcus, Daniel C.; Wangemann, Philine

    2013-01-01

    Mutations of SLC26A4 are a common cause of human hearing loss associated with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct. SLC26A4 encodes pendrin, an anion exchanger expressed in a variety of epithelial cells in the cochlea, the vestibular labyrinth and the endolymphatic sac. Slc26a4 Δ/Δ mice are devoid of pendrin and develop a severe enlargement of the membranous labyrinth, fail to acquire hearing and balance, and thereby provide a model for the human phenotype. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line that expresses human SLC26A4 controlled by the promoter of ATP6V1B1. Crossing this transgene into the Slc26a4 Δ/Δ line restored protein expression of pendrin in the endolymphatic sac without inducing detectable expression in the cochlea or the vestibular sensory organs. The transgene prevented abnormal enlargement of the membranous labyrinth, restored a normal endocochlear potential, normal pH gradients between endolymph and perilymph in the cochlea, normal otoconia formation in the vestibular labyrinth and normal sensory functions of hearing and balance. Our study demonstrates that restoration of pendrin to the endolymphatic sac is sufficient to restore normal inner ear function. This finding in conjunction with our previous report that pendrin expression is required for embryonic development but not for the maintenance of hearing opens the prospect that a spatially and temporally limited therapy will restore normal hearing in human patients carrying a variety of mutations of SLC26A4. PMID:23874234

  3. Visual preference and ecological assessments for designed alternative brownfield rehabilitations.

    PubMed

    Lafortezza, Raffaele; Corry, Robert C; Sanesi, Giovanni; Brown, Robert D

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes an integrative method for quantifying, analyzing, and comparing the effects of alternative rehabilitation approaches with visual preference. The method was applied to a portion of a major industrial area located in southern Italy. Four alternative approaches to rehabilitation (alternative designs) were developed and analyzed. The scenarios consisted of the cleanup of the brownfields plus: (1) the addition of ground cover species; (2) the addition of ground cover species and a few trees randomly distributed; (3) the addition of ground cover species and a few trees in small groups; and (4) the addition of ground cover species and several trees in large groups. The approaches were analyzed and compared to the baseline condition through the use of cost-surface modeling (CSM) and visual preference assessment (VPA). Statistical results showed that alternatives that were more ecologically functional for forest bird species dispersal were also more visually preferable. Some differences were identified based on user groups and location of residence. The results of the study are used to identify implications for enhancing both ecological attributes and visual preferences of rehabilitating landscapes through planning and design.

  4. Nonlinear, nonbinary cyclic group codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    New cyclic group codes of length 2(exp m) - 1 over (m - j)-bit symbols are introduced. These codes can be systematically encoded and decoded algebraically. The code rates are very close to Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and are much better than Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes (a former alternative). The binary (m - j)-tuples are identified with a subgroup of the binary m-tuples which represents the field GF(2 exp m). Encoding is systematic and involves a two-stage procedure consisting of the usual linear feedback register (using the division or check polynomial) and a small table lookup. For low rates, a second shift-register encoding operation may be invoked. Decoding uses the RS error-correcting procedures for the m-tuple codes for m = 4, 5, and 6.

  5. Neuroactive steroids with perfluorobenzoyl group.

    PubMed

    Cerný, Ivan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Pouzar, Vladimír; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Krausová, Barbora; Vyklický, Ladislav

    2012-10-01

    During an initial study in searching for the alternative derivatives suitable for photolabeling of neuroactive steroids, perfluorobenzoates and perfluorobenzamides in position 17 of 5β-androstan-3α-ol were synthesized from the corresponding 17-hydroxy and 17-amino derivatives. After transformation into glutamates or sulfates, 17α-epimers had comparable inhibitory activity at NMDA receptors to the natural neurosteroid (20-oxo-5β-pregnan-3β-yl sulfate), however, were more potent (2- to 36-fold) than their 17β-substituted analogs. In one case, fluorine in position 4' of perfluorobenzoate group was substituted with azide and activity of the final glutamate was retained comparing with the corresponding perfluorobenzoate. The series was expanded with perfluorobenzoyl derivatives of pregnanolone: Perfluorobenzamide of glutamate and perfluorobenzoate of 11α-hydroxy pregnanolone were prepared and tested. From nine tested compounds, four of them exhibit very good inhibition activity and can serve as promising leads for photolabeling experiments.

  6. Characterization of the human ephrin-A4 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Munthe, Else; Aasheim, Hans-Christian

    2002-01-01

    Expression of the ephrin-A4 ligand, a family member of ligands binding the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases, is induced after an antigen-receptor stimulation of lymphocytes. To understand the transcription regulation of the ephrin-A4 gene, its promoter was identified and regulating elements were characterized. The ephrin-A4 promoter contains cis elements directing the cell-specific expression. By deletion studies, three specific regions, which were contributing to the transcription activity in lymphoid cells, were localized. In one of these regions, an inverted CCAAT box was identified and shown to bind the transcription activator nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y). The importance of NF-Y binding for the ephrin-A4 promoter activity is shown by a total abrogation of promoter activity after destruction of its binding site. NF-Y binding and activity are also crucially dependent on the integrity of the surrounding sequence. In addition, electrophoretic mobility-shift assay and serial-mutation analysis of the two remaining regulating regions revealed cis regulatory elements contributing to the transcription activity of the ephrin-A4 promoter. PMID:12030849

  7. Interactions between CYP3A4 and Dietary Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Basheer, Loai; Kerem, Zohar

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) catalyze oxidative reactions of a broad spectrum of substrates and play a critical role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs and dietary compounds. CYP3A4 is known to be the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and most other xenobiotics. Dietary compounds, of which polyphenolics are the most studied, have been shown to interact with CYP3A4 and alter its expression and activity. Traditionally, the liver was considered the prime site of CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolic extraction, but in vitro and in vivo studies now suggest that the small intestine can be of equal or even greater importance for the metabolism of polyphenolics and drugs. Recent studies have pointed to the role of gut microbiota in the metabolic fate of polyphenolics in human, suggesting their involvement in the complex interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4. Last but not least, all the above suggests that coadministration of drugs and foods that are rich in polyphenols is expected to stimulate undesirable clinical consequences. This review focuses on interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4 as they relate to structural considerations, food-drug interactions, and potential negative consequences of interactions between CYP3A4 and polyphenols. PMID:26180597

  8. Interactions between CYP3A4 and Dietary Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Loai; Kerem, Zohar

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) catalyze oxidative reactions of a broad spectrum of substrates and play a critical role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs and dietary compounds. CYP3A4 is known to be the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and most other xenobiotics. Dietary compounds, of which polyphenolics are the most studied, have been shown to interact with CYP3A4 and alter its expression and activity. Traditionally, the liver was considered the prime site of CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolic extraction, but in vitro and in vivo studies now suggest that the small intestine can be of equal or even greater importance for the metabolism of polyphenolics and drugs. Recent studies have pointed to the role of gut microbiota in the metabolic fate of polyphenolics in human, suggesting their involvement in the complex interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4. Last but not least, all the above suggests that coadministration of drugs and foods that are rich in polyphenols is expected to stimulate undesirable clinical consequences. This review focuses on interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4 as they relate to structural considerations, food-drug interactions, and potential negative consequences of interactions between CYP3A4 and polyphenols. PMID:26180597

  9. The GROOP Effect: Groups Mimic Group Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Research on perception-action links has focused on an interpersonal level, demonstrating effects of observing individual actions on performance. The present study investigated perception-action matching at an inter-group level. Pairs of participants responded to hand movements that were performed by two individuals who used one hand each or they…

  10. Risk allocation and competition in foraging groups: reversed effects of competition if group size varies under risk of predation.

    PubMed Central

    Bednekoff, Peter A.; Lima, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Animals often feed more quickly when in larger groups. This group-size effect is often explained by safety advantages for groups but an alternative explanation is that animals feed faster in larger groups because of greater scramble competition for limited food. We show that predation risk enhances the group-size effect if groups vary in size. By contrast, competition leads to the group-size effect only when individuals feed in groups of constant size. When individuals feed in groups that vary in size, the best strategy for dealing with competition is to feed intensely when in smaller groups and feed little when in larger (more competitive) groups. In all situations, the effects of competition interact with the effects of predation risk in a simple multiplicative way. Our results suggest that scramble competition is not a general explanation for the group-size effect on vigilance in situations where group size changes relatively rapidly. PMID:15306321

  11. [Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].

    PubMed

    Happle, R

    2000-06-01

    Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension. PMID:10907162

  12. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  13. What Makes Groups Tick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allcorn, Seth

    1985-01-01

    By reviewing this analysis of the behavior of both groups and individuals in groups, human resources managers can learn to tell whether committees, task forces, and departments may be encouraging or inhibiting the work they set out to do. (Author)

  14. Nilpotent -local finite groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarero, José; Scherer, Jérôme; Viruel, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    We provide characterizations of -nilpotency for fusion systems and -local finite groups that are inspired by known result for finite groups. In particular, we generalize criteria by Atiyah, Brunetti, Frobenius, Quillen, Stammbach and Tate.

  15. Internet minimal group paradigm.

    PubMed

    Amichai-Hamburger, Yair

    2005-04-01

    Over many years, social psychologists have sought to understand what causes individuals to form themselves into groups. Initially, it was believed that groups were formed when people bonded around a common goal. Later, it was found that, when individuals were divided into groups on a random basis, this in itself was sufficient for them to feel part of a group and show a preference for their own group over others. Since the environment in cyberspace is different from that of the offline world, for example, there is no physical proximity between participants; it may be assumed that it would be difficult to achieve feelings of affiliation among potential or actual group members. This pioneer study seeks to discover which components are requisite to the creation of a group identity among individuals surfing the Internet. For this experiment, 24 people were divided into two Internet chat groups according to their intuitive preference in a decision-making task. It was found that group members perceived their own group performance as superior on a cognitive task as compared with that of the other group. These results demonstrate that for surfers, the Internet experience is very real and even a trivial allocation of people to a group is likely to create a situation of ingroup favoritism. PMID:15938653

  16. Practice and Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although learning has always been a central topic for philosophy of education, little attention has been paid to the notion of group learning. This article outlines and discusses some plausible examples of group learning. Drawing on these examples, various principles and issues that surround the notion of group learning are identified and…

  17. Infant Group Care Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.

    Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to…

  18. Internet Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses newsgroups, listservs, and Web-based discussion groups. Highlights include major categories of international USENET discussion groups; newsgroups versus mailing lists; newsreaders; news servers; newsgroup subscriptions; newsgroups versus Web discussion groups; linking newsgroups, mailing lists, and the Web; and setting up a news host. A…

  19. Integrated Play Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovak, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    As an occupational therapist running social play groups with sensory integration for children on the autism spectrum, the author frequently doubted the wisdom of combining several children on the spectrum into a group. In fact, as the owner of a clinic she said, "No more!" The groups seemed like a waste of parents' time and money, and she refused…

  20. Working Group 7 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev S.; Berg J.

    2012-06-10

    The primary subject of working group 7 at the 2012 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop was muon accelerators for a muon collider or neutrino factory. Additionally, this working group included topics that did not fit well into other working groups. Two subjects were discussed by more than one speaker: lattices to create a perfectly integrable nonlinear lattice, and a Penning trap to create antihydrogen.

  1. Parent Group Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parenting for High Potential, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This issue's "Parent Group Spotlight" features Deborah Simon, president of West Sound Gifted, Talented & Twice-Exceptional (WSGT2e), who started a parent group in Washington in 2013. In just one year, this small, but mighty group has held community forums, attended school board meetings, and helped influence local gifted programming.…

  2. Thermoelectric converters for alternating current standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatychuk, L. I.; Taschuk, D. D.

    2012-06-01

    Thermoelectric converters of alternating current remain priority instruments when creating standard equipment. This work presents the results of design and manufacture of alternating current converter for a military standard of alternating current in Ukraine. Results of simulation of temperature distribution in converter elements, ways of optimization to improve the accuracy of alternating current signal reproduction are presented. Results of metrological trials are given. The quality of thermoelectric material specially created for alternating current metrology is verified. The converter was used in alternating current standard for the frequency range from 10 Hz to 30 MHz. The efficiency of using thermoelectric signal converters in measuring instruments is confirmed.

  3. Bayesian Alternation during Tactile Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar M.; Planera, Serena; Finger, Holger; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well-described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study, we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC) task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition), rotation only (native condition), and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition). Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants' responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND). Then, we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67) than the Bayesian integration model (χred2 = 4.34). Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all (WTA) model (χred2 = 1.64), which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However, the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2 = 1.09) utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  4. Synergistic epistasis and alternative hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Trouve, S; Ding, A; Goudet, J

    2004-11-01

    Inbreeding generally results in deleterious shifts in mean fitness. If the fitness response to increasing inbreeding coefficient is non-linear, this suggests a contribution of epistasis to inbreeding depression. In a cross-breeding experiment, Salathe & Ebert (2003. J. Evol. Biol. 16: 976-985) tested and found the presence of this non-linearity in Daphnia magna. They argue that epistatic interactions cause this non-linearity. We argue here that their experimental protocol does not allow disentangling the effect of synergistic epistasis from two alternative hypotheses, namely hybrid vigour and statistical non-independence of data.

  5. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  6. Towards an alternative gravitational theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, J. A.; Beltrán, L. A.

    2015-03-01

    In 1680, Cassini proposed oval curves as alternative trajectories for the visible planets around the sun. The Cassini ovals were of course overshadowed by the Kepler's first law (1609), namely the planets move around the sun describing conic orbits. Here, we describe the possibility that the Cassini's idea works at larger or smaller scales. Indeed, we consider the Spiric curves (which are a generalization of the Cassini oval) and present the first steps towards a Spiric gravitational theory. We show that from our formalism an ellipse associated with a planet can be obtained as a particular case.

  7. Joint Individual-Group Modeling for Tracking.

    PubMed

    Bazzani, Loris; Zanotto, Matteo; Cristani, Marco; Murino, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel probabilistic framework that jointly models individuals and groups for tracking. Managing groups is challenging, primarily because of their nonlinear dynamics and complex layout which lead to repeated splitting and merging events. The proposed approach assumes a tight relation of mutual support between the modeling of individuals and groups, promoting the idea that groups are better modeled if individuals are considered and vice versa. This concept is translated in a mathematical model using a decentralized particle filtering framework which deals with a joint individual-group state space. The model factorizes the joint space into two dependent subspaces, where individuals and groups share the knowledge of the joint individual-group distribution. The assignment of people to the different groups (and thus group initialization, split and merge) is implemented by two alternative strategies: using classifiers trained beforehand on statistics of group configurations, and through online learning of a Dirichlet process mixture model, assuming that no training data is available before tracking. These strategies lead to two different methods that can be used on top of any person detector (simulated using the ground truth in our experiments). We provide convincing results on two recent challenging tracking benchmarks. PMID:26353291

  8. Structure and nucleosome interaction of the yeast NuA4 and Piccolo-NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes

    PubMed Central

    Chittuluru, Johnathan R.; Chaban, Yuriy; Monnet-Saksouk, Julie; Carrozza, Michael J.; Sapountzi, Vasileia; Selleck, William; Huang, Jiehuan; Utley, Rhea T.; Cramet, Myriam; Allard, Stephane; Cai, Gang; Workman, Jerry L.; Fried, Michael G.; Tan, Song; Côté, Jacques; Asturias, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    We have used electron microscopy (EM) and biochemistry to characterize the structure and nucleosome core particle (NCP) interaction of NuA4, an essential yeast histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex conserved throughout eukaryotes. The ATM-related Tra1 subunit, shared with the SAGA coactivator, forms a large domain joined to a second portion that accommodates the Piccolo catalytic subcomplex and other NuA4 subunits. EM analysis of an NuA4–NCP complex shows the NCP bound at NuA4's periphery. EM characterization of Piccolo and Piccolo–NCP provided further information about subunit organization and confirmed that histone acetylation requires minimal contact with the NCP. A small conserved region at the N-terminus of Piccolo subunit Epl1 is essential for NCP interaction, whereas subunit Yng2 apparently positions Piccolo for efficient acetylation of H4 or H2A tails. Taken together, these results provide an understanding of NuA4 subunit organization and NCP interactions. PMID:21984211

  9. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  10. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  11. Work group diversity.

    PubMed

    van Knippenberg, Daan; Schippers, Michaéla C

    2007-01-01

    Work group diversity, the degree to which there are differences between group members, may affect group process and performance positively as well as negatively. Much is still unclear about the effects of diversity, however. We review the 1997-2005 literature on work group diversity to assess the state of the art and to identify key issues for future research. This review points to the need for more complex conceptualizations of diversity, as well as to the need for more empirical attention to the processes that are assumed to underlie the effects of diversity on group process and performance and to the contingency factors of these processes.

  12. Work group diversity.

    PubMed

    van Knippenberg, Daan; Schippers, Michaéla C

    2007-01-01

    Work group diversity, the degree to which there are differences between group members, may affect group process and performance positively as well as negatively. Much is still unclear about the effects of diversity, however. We review the 1997-2005 literature on work group diversity to assess the state of the art and to identify key issues for future research. This review points to the need for more complex conceptualizations of diversity, as well as to the need for more empirical attention to the processes that are assumed to underlie the effects of diversity on group process and performance and to the contingency factors of these processes. PMID:16903805

  13. 40 CFR 97.613 - Authorization of designated representative and alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.613 Authorization of designated representative and alternate designated representative. (a) Except as provided under § 97.615, each TR SO2 Group 1 source, including all TR SO2 Group 1 units at the source, shall have one and only one...

  14. 40 CFR 97.613 - Authorization of designated representative and alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.613 Authorization of designated representative and alternate designated representative. (a) Except as provided under § 97.615, each TR SO2 Group 1 source, including all TR SO2 Group 1 units at the source, shall have one and only one...

  15. 40 CFR 97.613 - Authorization of designated representative and alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.613 Authorization of designated representative and alternate designated representative. (a) Except as provided under § 97.615, each TR SO2 Group 1 source, including all TR SO2 Group 1 units at the source, shall have one and only one...

  16. 75 FR 29810 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... March 16-17, 2009, RTCA Paper No. 080-10/SC221-017 Leadership Comments Review of Threat Work Group--Status Report Review of Alternative Methods Work Group--Status Report Review of Installed Physical Secondary Barrier (IPSB) Work Group--Status Report Presentation/Discussion of SC-221 tentative...

  17. Categorization of Alternative Conceptions in Electricity and Magnetism: the Case of Ethiopian Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega, Bekele Gashe; Kriek, Jeanne; Mogese, Temesgen Fereja

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to categorize 35 Ethiopian undergraduate physics students' alternative conceptions in the concepts of electric potential and energy. A descriptive qualitative research design was used to categorize the students' alternative conceptions. Four independently homogeneous ability focus groups were formed to elicit the students' conceptual perceptions. A five-stage thematic (categorical) framework analysis—familiarization, identifying a thematic framework, coding, charting, and interpretation—was made to analyze data of the focus group discussions. The categories of alternative conceptions were based on the students' epistemological and ontological descriptions of the concepts investigated. Consequently, the following categories were diagnosed: naive physics, lateral alternative conceptions, ontological alternative conceptions, Ohm's phenomenological primitives, mixed conceptions, and loose ideas. The extensiveness of the alternative conceptions from the epistemological and ontological perspectives was comparable and considerable. The naïve physics and lateral alternative conceptions were more extensive than the others. The alternative conceptions were less frequently and inconsistently revealed within and across the categories. In general, it was concluded that the categories have common characteristics of diversified distribution of alternative conceptions and multiple alternative conceptions of specific concepts within and across the categories. Finally, instructional and theoretical implications are forwarded.

  18. Categorization of Alternative Conceptions in Electricity and Magnetism: The Case of Ethiopian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dega, Bekele Gashe; Kriek, Jeanne; Mogese, Temesgen Fereja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to categorize 35 Ethiopian undergraduate physics students' alternative conceptions in the concepts of electric potential and energy. A descriptive qualitative research design was used to categorize the students' alternative conceptions. Four independently homogeneous ability focus groups were formed to…

  19. Ping-pong polymerization by allylation and hydroformylation for alternating vinyl alcohol-vinyl monomer copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shingo; Noguchi, Masaki; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2012-11-01

    Inspired by the enzymatic ping-pong mechanism, we designed a novel "ping-pong polymerization", which employs allylation and hydroformylation in an iterative and alternating manner. Thus, alternating and regioregular vinyl alcohol-vinyl monomer copolymers possessing multiple hydroxy groups in a periodical manner were successfully synthesized.

  20. From Geocentric to Heliocentric Model of the Universe, and the Alternative Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu

    2005-01-01

    A recent study (Liu, 2005a, 2005b) revealed a limited number of alternative models of the universe held by young students in Taiwan and in Germany. In line with the previous findings, these alternative models frequently fall into two groups: earth-centred and sun-centred views, which draw a correspondence to the ideas in the European history of…

  1. A Primer on Alternative Investments: Free Lunches, Magic, and the Four Ps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Jay A.

    1998-01-01

    A discussion of alternative investments for colleges and universities looks at the kinds of investments that comprise this group, rationales for making such investments, the advantages of diversification, risk issues, and ways to reduce risk, including careful selection of managers. Several strategies for getting started in alternative investments…

  2. Alternative Energy Projects in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Chris

    1981-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments which a group of 12- to 14-year-old students developed and conducted as they attempted to design a solar panel. Includes an outline of their building procedures. (DC)

  3. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... valid certification submitted in accordance with 45 CFR part 46. (b) The location of the research... research project and the general research methods to be used. (e) The date on which research will begin or... PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any...

  4. Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

  5. 17 CFR 260.7a-4 - Calculation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... eastern daylight-saving time, whichever is in effect at the principal office of the Commission on the date... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calculation of time. 260.7a-4... time. Saturdays, Sundays and holidays shall be counted in computing the effective date of...

  6. 17 CFR 260.7a-4 - Calculation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... eastern daylight-saving time, whichever is in effect at the principal office of the Commission on the date... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of time. 260.7a-4... time. Saturdays, Sundays and holidays shall be counted in computing the effective date of...

  7. 17 CFR 260.7a-4 - Calculation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... eastern daylight-saving time, whichever is in effect at the principal office of the Commission on the date... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of time. 260.7a-4... time. Saturdays, Sundays and holidays shall be counted in computing the effective date of...

  8. 17 CFR 260.7a-4 - Calculation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... eastern daylight-saving time, whichever is in effect at the principal office of the Commission on the date... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calculation of time. 260.7a-4... time. Saturdays, Sundays and holidays shall be counted in computing the effective date of...

  9. 17 CFR 260.7a-4 - Calculation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... eastern daylight-saving time, whichever is in effect at the principal office of the Commission on the date... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calculation of time. 260.7a-4... time. Saturdays, Sundays and holidays shall be counted in computing the effective date of...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-4 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use considered sale. 48.4161(a)-4 Section 48... sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof, see section 4218 relating to use by a manufacturer being considered a sale, and...

  11. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-4 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use considered sale. 48.4161(a)-4 Section 48... sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof, see section 4218 relating to use by a manufacturer being considered a sale, and...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-4 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use considered sale. 48.4161(a)-4 Section 48... sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof, see section 4218 relating to use by a manufacturer being considered a sale, and...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-4 - Use considered sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use considered sale. 48.4161(a)-4 Section 48... sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or importer thereof, see section 4218 relating to use by a manufacturer being considered a sale, and...

  14. 42 CFR 59a.4 - How are grant applications evaluated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants for Establishing, Expanding, and Improving Basic Resources § 59a.4 How... Secretary's evaluation shall consider the scope of library or related services for the population and... coordination with other libraries and related facilities, and (d) Potential for testing or demonstration of...

  15. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... valid certification submitted in accordance with 45 CFR part 46. (b) The location of the research... research project and the general research methods to be used. (e) The date on which research will begin or... PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any...

  16. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... valid certification submitted in accordance with 45 CFR part 46. (b) The location of the research... research project and the general research methods to be used. (e) The date on which research will begin or... PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any...

  17. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... valid certification submitted in accordance with 45 CFR part 46. (b) The location of the research... research project and the general research methods to be used. (e) The date on which research will begin or... PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any...

  18. 32 CFR 352a.4 - Responsibilities and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.4 Responsibilities and functions. (a) The Director, Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS), is the principal DoD executive for finance and accounting requirements, systems, and functions identified in DoD Directive 5118.3, 1...

  19. 32 CFR 352a.4 - Responsibilities and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.4 Responsibilities and functions. (a) The Director, Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS), is the principal DoD executive for finance and accounting requirements, systems, and functions identified in DoD Directive 5118.3, 1...

  20. 32 CFR 352a.4 - Responsibilities and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.4 Responsibilities and functions. (a) The Director, Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS), is the principal DoD executive for finance and accounting requirements, systems, and functions identified in DoD Directive 5118.3, 1...