Science.gov

Sample records for alternative approaches volume

  1. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 2: Analytical approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerlaugh, H. E.; Hall, E. W.; Brown, D. H.; Priestley, R. R.; Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    The use of various advanced energy conversion systems were compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. The ground rules established by NASA and assumptions made by the General Electric Company in performing this cogeneration technology alternatives study are presented. The analytical methodology employed is described in detail and is illustrated with numerical examples together with a description of the computer program used in calculating over 7000 energy conversion system-industrial process applications. For Vol. 1, see 80N24797.

  2. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Identification of problems and alternative approaches. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multi-disciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The final phase of the project focused on identification of the most significant human factors problems with respect to safe and effective operation of the teletherapy system and an identification and assessment of alternative approaches for resolving the problems. This report presents the findings of this final phase.

  3. TRADABLE CREDITS FOR STORM WATER VOLUME: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased storm water runoff rate and volume caused by urbanization, and their detrimental effects on stream habitat and morphology, is well documented. In most cases, current storm water management policies are focused on attenuating peak flow rates. While these policies may...

  4. Alternative Approaches to Negotiating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramming, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    The wait-and-react and laundry-list approaches to combating teachers' collective-bargaining demands are ineffective. An alternative goals-setting approach requires management and the district negotiations team to identify important needs and objectives. West Seneca Central School District ended contentious negotiations by presenting unions with…

  5. Approaches to Alternative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamayan, Else V.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the major characteristics of nontraditional or alternative assessment in language learning, the uses of alternative assessment procedures, and different types of alternative assessment. An annotated bibliography discusses eight important works in the field. (75 references) (MDM)

  6. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  7. Alternative Approaches to Introductory Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonello, Frank J.; And Others

    This document examines the educational output of three alternative approaches to introductory macroeconomics at the University of Notre Dame. The framework for evaluation consists of the cognitive and affective tradeoffs entailed by using a new experimental course as opposed to two more traditional courses. The experimental course is a freshman…

  8. ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO ESTIMATING CANCER ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The alternative approach for estimating cancer potency from inhalation exposure to asbestos seeks to improve the methods developed by USEPA (1986). This efforts seeks to modify the the current approach for estimating cancer potency for lung cancer and mesothelioma to account for the current scientific consensus that cancer risk from asbestos depends both on mineral type and on particle size distribution. In brief, epidemiological exposure-response data for lung cancer and mesothelioma in asbestos workers are combined with estimates of the mineral type(s) and partical size distribution at each exposure location in order to estimate potency factors that are specific to a selected set of mineral type and size

  9. 18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section 281.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination § 281.304 Computation of alternative fuel volume. (a) General rule. For purposes of §...

  10. 18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section 281.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination § 281.304 Computation of alternative fuel volume. (a) General rule. For purposes of §...

  11. 18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section 281.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination § 281.304 Computation of alternative fuel volume. (a) General rule. For purposes of §...

  12. 18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section 281.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination § 281.304 Computation of alternative fuel volume. (a) General rule. For purposes of §...

  13. 18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section 281.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination § 281.304 Computation of alternative fuel volume. (a) General rule. For purposes of §...

  14. Boom Rendezvous Alternative Docking Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    Space rendezvous and docking has always been attempted with primarily one philosophic methodology. The slow matching of one vehicle's orbit by a second vehicle and then a final closing sequence that ends in matching the orbits with perfect precision and with near zero relative velocities. The task is time consuming, propellant intensive, risk inherent (plume impingement, collisions, fuel depletion, etc.) and requires substantial hardware mass. The historical background and rationale as to why this approach is used is discussed in terms of the path-not-taken and in light of an alternate methodology. Rendezvous and docking by boom extension is suggested to have inherent advantages that today s technology can readily exploit. Extension from the primary spacecraft, beyond its inherent large inertia, allows low inertia connections to be made rapidly and safely. Plume contamination issues are eliminated as well as the extra propellant mass and risk required for the final thruster (docking) operations. Space vehicle connection hardware can be significantly lightened. Also, docking sensors and controls require less fidelity; allowing them to be more robust and less sensitive. It is the potential safety advantage and mission risk reduction that makes this approach attractive, besides the prospect of nominal time and mass savings.

  15. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The potential applications of fusion reactors, the desirable properties of reactors intended for various applications, and the limitations of the Tokamak concept are discussed. The principles and characteristics of 20 distinct alternative confinement concepts are described, each of which may be an alternative to the Tokamak. The devices are classed as Tokamak-like, stellarator-like, mirror machines, bumpy tori, electrostatically assisted, migma concept, and wall-confined plasma.

  16. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  17. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 2 - CANDU heavy water reactor alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Spellman, D.J.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 2 of a four volume report, summarizes the results of these analyses for the CANDU reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  18. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 3 - partially complete LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Fisher, S.E.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 3 of a four volume report summarizes the results of these analyses for the partially complete LWR (PCLWR) reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  19. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  20. Alternative approaches to epilepsy treatment.

    PubMed

    McElroy-Cox, Caitlin

    2009-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a diverse group of health care practices and products that fall outside the realm of traditional Western medical theory and practice and that are used to complement or replace conventional medical therapies. The use of CAM has increased over the past two decades, and surveys have shown that up to 44% of patients with epilepsy are using some form of CAM treatment. This article reviews the CAM modalities of meditation, yoga, relaxation techniques, biofeedback, nutritional and herbal supplements, dietary measures, chiropractic care, acupuncture, Reiki, and homeopathy and what is known about their potential efficacy in patients with epilepsy.

  1. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  2. Introducing linear functions: an alternative statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Caroline; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of linear functions is the turning point where many students decide if mathematics is useful or not. This means the role of parameters and variables in linear functions could be considered to be `threshold concepts'. There is recognition that linear functions can be taught in context through the exploration of linear modelling examples, but this has its limitations. Currently, statistical data is easily attainable, and graphics or computer algebra system (CAS) calculators are common in many classrooms. The use of this technology provides ease of access to different representations of linear functions as well as the ability to fit a least-squares line for real-life data. This means these calculators could support a possible alternative approach to the introduction of linear functions. This study compares the results of an end-of-topic test for two classes of Australian middle secondary students at a regional school to determine if such an alternative approach is feasible. In this study, test questions were grouped by concept and subjected to concept by concept analysis of the means of test results of the two classes. This analysis revealed that the students following the alternative approach demonstrated greater competence with non-standard questions.

  3. Alternative approach to general coupled linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2005-11-29

    The Twiss parameters provide a convenient description of beam optics in uncoupled linear beamlines. For coupled beamlines, a variety of approaches are possible for describing the linear optics; here, we propose an approach and notation that naturally generalizes the familiar Twiss parameters to the coupled case in three degrees of freedom. Our approach is based on an eigensystem analysis of the matrix of second-order beam moments, or alternatively (in the case of a storage ring) on an eigensystem analysis of the linear single-turn map. The lattice functions that emerge from this approach have an interpretation that is conceptually very simple: in particular, the lattice functions directly relate the beam distribution in phase space to the invariant emittances. To emphasize the physical significance of the coupled lattice functions, we develop the theory from first principles, using only the assumption of linear symplectic transport. We also give some examples of the application of this approach, demonstrating its advantages of conceptual and notational simplicity.

  4. Spacelab cost reduction alternatives study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Alternative approaches to payload operations planning and control and flight crew training are defined for spacelab payloads with the goal of: lowering FY77 and FY 78 costs for new starts; lowering costs to achieve Spacelab operational capability; and minimizing the cost per Spacelab flight. These alternatives attempt to minimize duplication of hardware, software, and personnel, and the investment in supporting facility and equipment. Of particular importance is the possible reduction of equipment, software, and manpower resources such as comtational systems, trainers, and simulators.

  5. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-01-22

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  6. An alternative approach to symmetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véron, Alain

    2016-11-01

    We propose an alternative approach to treat problems with axial or spherical symmetry. Its main characteristic consists of using Cartesian coordinates instead of curvilinear coordinates as usual. To this end, we derive general mathematical expressions giving the spatial derivatives of tensors of arbitrary order along the direction normal to an arbitrary meridian plane for systems with axial symmetry, or along two orthogonal directions normal to an arbitrary radius for systems with spherical symmetry. These relations allow the reduction of the initial three-dimensional problem to a domain with a lower dimension (two for axial symmetry, one for spherical symmetry), while keeping Cartesian coordinates within this domain. The method is illustrated for the flow of a Newtonian fluid between two coaxial cylinders (Couette cell), the Weissenberg effect for viscoelastic fluids and the flow of complex fluids like liquid crystals.

  7. Alternative Abeta immunotherapy approaches for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Town, Terrence

    2009-04-01

    In a seminal report in 1999, Schenk and colleagues demonstrated that vaccination of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with amyloid-beta(1-42) peptide (Abeta(1-42)) and adjuvant resulted in striking mitigation of AD-like pathology - giving rise to the field of AD immunotherapy. Later studies confirmed this result in other mouse models of AD and additionally showed cognitive improvement after Abeta vaccination. Based on these results, early developmental clinical trials ensued to immunize AD patients with Abeta(1-42) plus adjuvant (so-called "active" Abeta immunotherapy; trade name AN-1792; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Dublin, Ireland). However, the phase IIa trial was halted after 6 % of patients developed aseptic meningoencephalitis. Despite occurrence of this adverse event, many individuals demonstrated high serum antibody titres to Abeta and histological evidence of clearance of the hallmark AD pathology, beta-amyloid plaques. While raising justifiable safety concerns, these important results nonetheless demonstrated the feasibility of the active Abeta immunotherapy approach. This review focuses on alternative approaches to active Abeta vaccination that are currently in various stages of development - from pre-clinical studies in animal models to current clinical trials. Specifically, the focus is on those strategies that target inflammatory and immune aspects of AD, and can therefore be classified as immunotherapeutic in a broad sense.

  8. Alternative Approach to Vehicle Element Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huether, Jacob E.; Otto, Albert E.

    1995-01-01

    The National Space Transportation Policy (NSTP), describes the challenge facing today's aerospace industry. 'Assuring reliable and affordable access to space through U.S. space transportation capabilities is a fundamental goal of the U.S. space program'. Experience from the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) tells us that launch and mission operations are responsible for approximately 45 % of the cost of each shuttle mission. Reducing these costs is critical to NSTP goals in the next generation launch vehicle. Based on this, an innovative alternative approach to vehicle element processing was developed with an emphasis on reduced launch costs. State-of-the-art upgrades to the launch processing system (LPS) will enhance vehicle ground operations. To carry this one step further, these upgrade could be implemented at various vehicle element manufacturing sites to ensure system compatibility between the manufacturing facility and the launch site. Design center vehicle stand alone testing will ensure system integrity resulting in minimized checkout and testing at the launch site. This paper will addresses vehicle test requirements, timelines and ground checkout procedures which enable concept implementation.

  9. Evaluating health knowledge: an alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Power, J G

    1996-01-01

    Health campaigns concerned with HIV and AIDS confront two important barriers: the stigmatized nature of the disease and cultural values that exacerbate the taboo nature of the information disseminated. The use of surveys in HIV and AIDS research requires respondents to provide descriptions of sexual acts and body parts as measures of their knowledge. Focus groups and interviews require respondents to speak publicly about these topics. Although many young people know about HIV and AIDS, they may not have the vocabulary to express their complete knowledge either textually or verbally. This article describes an alternative approach designed to evaluate HIV and AIDS knowledge among 587 adolescents in Mexico, where the number of official cases of AIDS has increased steadily since 1981. Participants stratified on sex and social class were required to draw modes of HIV transmission. The drawings were categorized into drawings of objects and persons, focusing on behaviors or cognitions, with a relational or contextual emphasis. The utility of this method for measuring knowledge about HIV infection and AIDS in education campaigns and evaluation research is discussed.

  10. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  11. Alternative Assessment Approaches for Online Learning Environments in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the need and prospects for alternative assessment approaches in online learning environments in higher education. Explains the difference between assessment and evaluation and discusses three approaches to integrating alternative assessment approaches into online learning environments: cognitive assessment, performance assessment, and…

  12. Alternate Approaches to Exploration: The Single Crew Module Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2011-01-01

    The Cx Program envisioned exploration of the moon and mars using an extrapolation of the Apollo approach. If new technology development initiatives are successful, they will provide capabilities that can enable alternate approaches. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the Cx approaches for lunar and Mars missions and some of the alternatives that were considered. Then an alternative approach referred to as a Single Crew Module approach is described. The SCM concept employs new technologies in a way that could reduce exploration cost and possibly schedule. Options to the approaches will be presented and discussed.

  13. Predicting Attrition: A Test of Alternative Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    entry to the poorer riskEs. There are two bases for screening. The first one is actuarial . With a sufficiently large recruit cohort, actual loss rates...predicting attrition overcome the drawbacks of the actuarial approach. They let us know what the significant combinations of characteristics are that...terms of their character- istics and average first-year attrition rate, which was about 17.5 percent. Then, each of the four approaches or models was

  14. Training Curriculum for Alternative Clothes Cleaning. Volume I: Curriculum [and] Volume II: Instructor's Manual [and Presentation Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luskin, Jack; Manning, Teena; Siegel, Jodie

    This two-volume document consists of a curriculum and an instructor's manual for a learner-centered workshop on alternative clothes cleaning that is intended for operators of dry-cleaning establishments and individuals who are interested in opening a garment wet cleaning facility. Volume 1, the curriculum, contains 11 learning modules. Each module…

  15. Alternative Approach to Nuclear Data Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Brown, D; Beck, B; McNabb, D P

    2005-07-27

    This paper considers an approach for representing nuclear data that is qualitatively different from the approach currently adopted by the nuclear science community. Specifically, they examine a representation in which complicated data is described through collections of distinct and self contained simple data structures. This structure-based representation is compared with the ENDF and ENDL formats, which can be roughly characterized as dictionary-based representations. A pilot data representation for replacing the format currently used at LLNL is presented. Examples are given as is a discussion of promises and shortcomings associated with moving from traditional dictionary-based formats to a structure-rich or class-like representation.

  16. 'Medical ethics'--an alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Haldane, J J

    1986-09-01

    Contemporary medical ethics is generally concerned with the application of ethical theory to medico-moral dilemmas and with the critical analysis of the concepts of medicine. This paper presents an alternative programme: the development of a medical philosophy which, by taking as its starting point the two questions: what is man? and, what constitutes goodness in life? offers an account of health as one of the primary concepts of value. This view of the subject resembles that implied by ancient theories of goodness, and in later sections of the paper it is shown how Aristotle points us towards a coherent theory of human nature as psycho-physical, which overcomes the inadequacies of dualism and physicalist reductionism. What is on offer therefore, is the prospect of an integrated account of human nature and of what constitutes its flourishing: to be healthy is to be an active unity-of-parts in equilibrium.

  17. Family Systems and Catechetics: An Alternative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Describes the incorporation of family-systems theory into the catechetical process by Blessed Sacrament/St. Charles Borromeo Church. This approach recognizes the role of the family in this area. Faith formation is holistic and simultaneously addresses the main areas of faith development and the context of an individual's life. Thus, family…

  18. Domain Approach: An Alternative Approach in Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vengadasalam, Chander; Mamat, Wan Hasmah Wan; Mail, Fauziah; Sudramanian, Munimah

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the domain approach in moral education in an upper secondary school in Malaysia. Moral Education needs a creative and an innovative approach. Therefore, a few forms of approaches are used in the teaching-learning of Moral Education. This research describes the use of domain approach which comprises the moral domain…

  19. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  20. Teaching the Sociology of Law: Alternative Approaches to Course Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    Explores subject matter of law-related undergraduate courses which arose from social and political upheavals of the 1960s. Emphasizes course content and organization in both conventional and alternative approaches to studying the role of law in society. Examines alternatives based upon varying theoretical perspectives and those organized around…

  1. Alternative approach to percolation in microemulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Skaf, M.S.; Stell, G. )

    1992-09-15

    An approach to study correlated percolation in lattice models of microemulsions is presented. Mean-field-like equations for the percolation locus for each of the molecular species are obtained, whose only input are the structure functions of the microemulsion model. Using a spin-1 Hamiltonian considered by Gompper and Schick (Phys. Rev. B 41, 9148 (1990)) as a model for microemulsions, we find that the water-percolation threshold increases as the surfactant becomes more lipophilic. This is in qualitative agreement with the behavior found in real microemulsions as salt is added to the system.

  2. Alternative Approaches to Group IV Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedaker, Matthew Loren

    In the pursuit of energy efficiency, there is a demand for systems capable of recovering waste heat. A temperature gradient across a thermoelectric material results in the thermal diffusion of charge carriers from the hot side to the cold side, giving rise to a voltage that can be used to convert waste heat to electricity. Silicon germanium (SiGe) alloys are the standard materials used for thermoelectric generators at high temperatures. We report an alternative method for preparing p-type Si1- xGex alloys from a boron-doped silica-germania nanocomposite. This is the first demonstration of the thermoelectric properties of SiGe-based thermoelectrics prepared at temperatures below the alloy's melting point through a magnesiothermic reduction of the (SiO 2)1-x(GeO2) x. We observe a thermoelectric power factor that is competitive with the literature record for the conventionally prepared SiGe. The large grain size in our hot pressed SiGe limits the thermoelectric figure of merit to 0.5 at 800°C for an optimally doped p-type Si80Ge 20 alloy. A phosphorus-doped oxide can yield n-type Si1- xGex; however, the current processing method introduces a background boron content that compensates ~10% of the donor impurities and limits the thermoelectric power factor. Spark plasma sintering of the nano-Si1-xGe x yields a heterogeneous alloy with thermal conductivity lower than that of the hot pressed homogeneous alloy due to a reduction in the average crystallite size. Magnesiothermic reduction in the presence of molten salts allows some control over crystallite growth and the extent of Si-Ge alloying.

  3. Alternate Concepts Study Extension. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An analysis of alternate space shuttle concepts is presented. The two main program alternatives are: (1) phased booster development with an interim solid rocket engine cluster preceding the reusable booster and (2) phased orbiter development with modified avionics, vehicle subsystems, thermal protection system, and redesigned rocket engines. Diagrams of the various concepts are provided. The predicted spacecraft performance capabilities are reported. Project management proposals are submitted.

  4. Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts. Volume 2, Part 2: Concept Analysis and Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final report of a Phase A Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts by the Lockheed Missiles & Space Company (LMSC) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The eleven-month study, which began on 30 June 1970, is to examine the stage-and-one-half and other Space Shuttle configurations and to establish feasibility, performance, cost, and schedules for the selected concepts. This final report consists of four volumes as follows: Volume I - Executive Summary, Volume II - Concept Analysis and Definition, Volume III - Program Planning, and Volume IV - Data Cost Data. This document is Volume II, Concept Analysis and Definition.

  5. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag. The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag-2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed-power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NTF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  6. Exactly Solvable Quantum Mechanical Potentials: An Alternative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pronchik, Jeremy N.; Williams, Brian W.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an alternative approach to finding exactly solvable, one-dimensional quantum mechanical potentials. Differs from the usual approach in that instead of starting with a particular potential and seeking solutions to the related Schrodinger equations, it begins with known solutions to second-order ordinary differential equations and seeks to…

  7. Propensity Score Analysis: An Alternative Statistical Approach for HRD Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiffer, Greggory L.; Lane, Forrest C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to introduce matching in propensity score analysis (PSA) as an alternative statistical approach for researchers looking to make causal inferences using intact groups. Design/methodology/approach: An illustrative example demonstrated the varying results of analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and PSA on a heuristic…

  8. Organizing a Campus Activity: An Alternative Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bee, Mary Tracy; Montante, James; Lanigan, Kate; Andrzejak, Michelle; Grabowski, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Alternative teaching styles provide a unique and rewarding approach to reinforcing student knowledge and developing social skills. An approach that we implemented required students from the ecology class to organize and present information at the university-wide Earth Day celebration and exposition. In addition to the informational and research…

  9. Towards a strategic approaches in alternative tests for pesticide safety.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yoonjeong; Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-09-01

    Pesticides have provided significant benefits including plant disease control and increased crop yields since people developed and utilized them. However, pesticide use is associated with many adverse effects, which necessitate precise toxicological tests and risk assessment. Most of these methods are based on animal studies, but considerations of animal welfare and ethics require the development of alternative methods for the evaluation of pesticide toxicity. Although the usage of laboratory animals is inevitable in scientific evaluation and alternative approaches have limitations in the whole coverage, continuous effort is necessary to minimize animal use and to develop reliable alternative tests for pesticide evaluation. This review discusses alternative approaches for pesticide toxicity tests and hazard evaluation that have been used in peer-reviewed reports and could be applied in future studies based on the critical animal research principles of reduction, replacement, and refinement.

  10. Alternate concepts study extension. Volume 2: Part 4: Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A recommended baseline system is presented along with alternate avionics systems, Mark 2 avionics, booster avionics, and a cost summary. Analyses and discussions are included on the Mark 1 orbiter avionics subsystems, electrical ground support equipment, and the computer programs. Results indicate a need to define all subsystems of the baseline system, an installation study to determine the impact on the crew station, and a study on access for maintenance.

  11. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  12. Alternative Environments for Army Recruiting, 1987-2001. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    8217Flo.ruI7?-,4 P4Bs/DO-r 45" 0 0 2.I F7103. 0h.7*’,J /4oi -to 0 0 / 3 2 Ewoel. AAR’admoT~L PErb ~-5-CO I I II FrSo. Ag’xco -P c1#4 Ef o$- Pfic &’ v’rA 7...I1TIc FR E C’OP’ ,- * Research Report 1493 00 Alternative Environments for Army Recruiting, IN 1987-2001 NVolume 3 I Wayne I. Boucher Benton...2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3 . DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF REPORT Approved for public release; distribution Zb. DECLASSIFICATION

  13. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 6: Computer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential technical capabilities of energy conversion systems in the 1985 - 2000 time period were defined with emphasis on systems using coal, coal-derived fuels or alternate fuels. Industrial process data developed for the large energy consuming industries serve as a framework for the cogeneration applications. Ground rules for the study were established and other necessary equipment (balance-of-plant) was defined. This combination of technical information, energy conversion system data ground rules, industrial process information and balance-of-plant characteristics was analyzed to evaluate energy consumption, capital and operating costs and emissions. Data in the form of computer printouts developed for 3000 energy conversion system-industrial process combinations are presented.

  14. An alternative approach to characterize nonlinear site effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, R.R.; Hartzell, S.; Liang, J.; Hu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale of a method of nonstationary processing and analysis, referred to as the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), for its application to a recording-based approach in quantifying influences of soil nonlinearity in site response. In particular, this paper first summarizes symptoms of soil nonlinearity shown in earthquake recordings, reviews the Fourier-based approach to characterizing nonlinearity, and offers justifications for the HHT in addressing nonlinearity issues. This study then uses the HHT method to analyze synthetic data and recordings from the 1964 Niigata and 2001 Nisqually earthquakes. In doing so, the HHT-based site response is defined as the ratio of marginal Hilbert amplitude spectra, alternative to the Fourier-based response that is the ratio of Fourier amplitude spectra. With the Fourier-based approach in studies of site response as a reference, this study shows that the alternative HHT-based approach is effective in characterizing soil nonlinearity and nonlinear site response.

  15. Derivation of the Hypergeometric Distribution: An Alternative Reasoning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broca, D. S.

    2008-01-01

    This note presents an alternative approach to the reasoning process and derivation of the hypergeometric probability mass function (pmf), and contrasts it with a binomial model. It utilizes the essential concept of sampling without replacement directly in the development of the mass function.

  16. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS SUMMARY REPORT [VOLUME 1

    SciTech Connect

    FREDERICKSON JR; ROURK RJ; HONEYMAN JO; JOHNSON ME; RAYMOND RE

    2009-01-19

    Highly radioactive sludge (containing up to 300,000 curies of actinides and fission products) resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in temporary containers located in the 105-K West storage basin near the Columbia River. The background, history, and known characteristics of this sludge are discussed in Section 2 of this report. There are many compelling reasons to remove this sludge from the K-Basin. These reasons are discussed in detail in Section1, and they include the following: (1) Reduce the risk to the public (from a potential release of highly radioactive material as fine respirable particles by airborne or waterborn pathways); (2) Reduce the risk overall to the Hanford worker; and (3) Reduce the risk to the environment (the K-Basin is situated above a hazardous chemical contaminant plume and hinders remediation of the plume until the sludge is removed). The DOE-RL has stated that a key DOE objective is to remove the sludge from the K-West Basin and River Corridor as soon as possible, which will reduce risks to the environment, allow for remediation of contaminated areas underlying the basins, and support closure of the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The environmental and nuclear safety risks associated with this sludge have resulted in multiple legal and regulatory remedial action decisions, plans,and commitments that are summarized in Table ES-1 and discussed in more detail in Volume 2, Section 9.

  17. Calculation of plantar pressure time integral, an alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Melai, Tom; IJzerman, T Herman; Schaper, Nicolaas C; de Lange, Ton L H; Willems, Paul J B; Meijer, Kenneth; Lieverse, Aloysius G; Savelberg, Hans H C M

    2011-07-01

    In plantar pressure measurement, both peak pressure and pressure time integral are used as variables to assess plantar loading. However, pressure time integral shows a high concordance with peak pressure. Many researchers and clinicians use Novel software (Novel GmbH Inc., Munich, Germany) that calculates this variable as the summation of the products of peak pressure and duration per time sample, which is not a genuine integral of pressure over time. Therefore, an alternative calculation method was introduced. The aim of this study was to explore the relevance of this alternative method, in different populations. Plantar pressure variables were measured in 76 people with diabetic polyneuropathy, 33 diabetic controls without polyneuropathy and 19 healthy subjects. Peak pressure and pressure time integral were obtained using Novel software. The quotient of the genuine force time integral over contact area was obtained as the alternative pressure time integral calculation. This new alternative method correlated less with peak pressure than the pressure time integral as calculated by Novel. The two methods differed significantly and these differences varied between the foot sole areas and between groups. The largest differences were found under the metatarsal heads in the group with diabetic polyneuropathy. From a theoretical perspective, the alternative approach provides a more valid calculation of the pressure time integral. In addition, this study showed that the alternative calculation is of added value, along peak pressure calculation, to interpret adapted plantar pressures patterns in particular in patients at risk for foot ulceration.

  18. Alternative approaches for vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimised wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organisms for environmental risk assessments (ERA) has even been banned, and in other situations the numbers of organisms tested has been dramatically reduced, or the severity of the procedure refined. However, there is still a long way to go to achieve replacement of vertebrate organisms to generate environmental hazard data. The development of animal alternatives is not just based on ethical considerations but also to reduce the cost of performing vertebrate ecotoxicity tests and in some cases to provide better information aimed at improving ERAs. The present focus paper provides an overview of the considerable advances that have been made towards alternative approaches for ecotoxicity assessments over the last few decades. The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimised wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organi

  19. Microlaminate composites: An alternate approach to thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunshah, R. F.; Deshpandey, C. V.; Obrien, B. P.

    1985-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings suffer from a major drawback, i.e., brittle behavior. An alternate approach is microlaminate composite coatings consisting of alternate layers of metal and oxide. As the thickness of the individual laminae decrease while keeping the total thickness of the coating constant, the thermal conductivity drops markedly. Data on the Fe-Cu system will be presented. A model is proposed for an MCrAlY-Al2O3 microlaminate coating for thermal barriers. The methods of fabrication will also be discussed.

  20. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  1. A review of alternative approaches to healthcare resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Petrou, S; Wolstenholme, J

    2000-07-01

    The resources available for healthcare are limited compared with demand, if not need, and all healthcare systems, regardless of their financing and organisation, employ mechanisms to ration or prioritise finite healthcare resources. This paper reviews alternative approaches that can be used to allocate healthcare resources. It discusses the problems encountered when allocating healthcare resources according to free market principles. It then proceeds to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of alternative resource allocation approaches that can be applied to public health systems. These include: (i) approaches based on the concept of meeting the needs of the population to maximising its capacity to benefit from interventions; (ii) economic approaches that identify the most efficient allocation of resources with the view of maximising health benefits or other measures of social welfare; (iii) approaches that seek to ration healthcare by age; and (iv) approaches that resolve resource allocation disputes through debate and bargaining. At present, there appears to be no consensus about the relative importance of the potentially conflicting principles that can be used to guide resource allocation decisions. It is concluded that whatever shape tomorrow's health service takes, the requirement to make equitable and efficient use of finite healthcare resources will remain.

  2. Alternative approaches to setting up donor cows for superstimulation.

    PubMed

    Bó, G A; Guerrero, D C; Adams, G P

    2008-01-01

    Protocols that controlled follicular wave emergence and ovulation have had a great impact on the application of on-farm embryo transfer, as they permitted the initiation of superstimulatory treatments at a self-appointed time. However, the most commonly used approach for synchronization of follicular wave emergence involved estradiol, which cannot be used in many countries. Therefore, alternative treatments are required. Mechanical removal of the dominant follicle by ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration was effective, but required the use of specialized equipment and trained technical staff, which made it difficult to utilize in the field. Exogenous GnRH or pLH have also been used to induce ovulation of a dominant follicle, synchronizing follicular wave emergence, but their efficacy was dependent on the stage of the dominant follicle at treatment; thus, the emergence of the ensuing follicular wave may be too variable for superstimulation. An alternative approach could be initiating treatments at the time of emergence of the first follicular wave, but the need to synchronize ovulation may be a disadvantage in groups of donors at random stages of the estrous cycle. The final alternative may be to use FSH or eCG to initiate a new wave, without regard to the presence of a dominant follicle, followed by superstimulatory treatment at a predetermined time. All alternatives need to be thoroughly investigated in order to confirm their utility in the superstimulation of donor cows, regardless of the stage of the estrous cycle and without compromising ova/embryo production.

  3. Alternative approaches to environmental regulation: Prescription, process, incentives and space

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, R.D.

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic, comparative analysis of several approaches to environmental regulation and planning. These include such approaches as prescription (Command-Control), process (EMS), incentives (Market Mechanisms), and space (New Urbanism). The wider analysis is timely given the attention that has been recently directed toward such new approaches as Environmental Management Systems (EMS) under ISO 14001. This paper will initially examine the aim, purpose, requirements, and outcomes of each of these alternative regimes. Doing this in terms of common considerations will facilitate a constructive analysis across all regimes. In turn, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches will be analyzed. Relevant examples will be utilized to illustrate points. Rather than emphasizing the merits or demerits of one approach vs. another, it will be shown that a more constructive strategy would be to consider contextual factors when determining which regime or combination of regimes to apply. In this way, better guidance can be provided when considering possible regulatory alternatives thereby contributing to the more effective attainment of environmental planning goals.

  4. Determination of the Molar Volume of Hydrogen from the Metal-Acid Reaction: An Experimental Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berg, Kevin; Chapman, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Describes an alternative technique for determining the molar volume of hydrogen from the metal-acid reaction in which the metal sample is encased in a specially prepared cage and a pipette filler is used to fill an inverted burette with water. Eliminates some difficulties encountered with the conventional technique. (JRH)

  5. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had seven tasks defined that are reported under this contract deliverable. The tasks were: FAA Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development. SSME Upper Stage Use. CERs for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Advanced Low Cost Engines, and Tripropellant Comparison Study. The two restart studies, F-1A and J-2S, generated program plans for restarting production of each engine. Special emphasis was placed on determining changes to individual parts due to obsolete materials, changes in OSHA and environmental concerns, new processes available, and any configuration changes to the engines. The Propulsion Database Development task developed a database structure and format which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database structure included extensive engine information and allows for parametric data generation for conceptual engine concepts. The SSME Upper Stage Use task examined the changes needed or desirable to use the SSME as an upper stage engine both in a second stage and in a translunar injection stage. The CERs for Liquid Engines task developed qualitative parametric cost estimating relationships at the engine and major subassembly level for estimating development and production costs of chemical propulsion liquid rocket engines. The Advanced Low Cost Engines task examined propulsion systems for SSTO applications including engine concept definition, mission analysis. trade studies. operating point selection, turbomachinery alternatives, life cycle cost, weight definition. and point design conceptual drawings and component design. The task concentrated on bipropellant engines, but also examined tripropellant engines. The Tripropellant Comparison Study task provided an unambiguous comparison among various tripropellant implementation approaches and cycle choices, and then compared them to similarly designed bipropellant engines in the

  6. Feasibility of Quantifying Arterial Cerebral Blood Volume Using Multiphase Alternate Ascending/Descending Directional Navigation (ALADDIN)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sung-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) is associated with many physiologic and pathologic conditions. Recently, multiphase balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) readout was introduced to measure labeled blood signals in the arterial compartment, based on the fact that signal difference between labeled and unlabeled blood decreases with the number of RF pulses that is affected by blood velocity. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of a new 2D inter-slice bSSFP-based arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique termed, alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN), to quantify aCBV using multiphase acquisition in six healthy subjects. A new kinetic model considering bSSFP RF perturbations was proposed to describe the multiphase data and thus to quantify aCBV. Since the inter-slice time delay (TD) and gap affected the distribution of labeled blood spins in the arterial and tissue compartments, we performed the experiments with two TDs (0 and 500 ms) and two gaps (300% and 450% of slice thickness) to evaluate their roles in quantifying aCBV. Comparison studies using our technique and an existing method termed arterial volume using arterial spin tagging (AVAST) were also separately performed in five subjects. At 300% gap or 500-ms TD, significant tissue perfusion signals were demonstrated, while tissue perfusion signals were minimized and arterial signals were maximized at 450% gap and 0-ms TD. ALADDIN has an advantage of visualizing bi-directional flow effects (ascending/descending) in a single experiment. Labeling efficiency (α) of inter-slice blood flow effects could be measured in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) (20.8±3.7%.) and was used for aCBV quantification. As a result of fitting to the proposed model, aCBV values in gray matter (1.4–2.3 mL/100 mL) were in good agreement with those from literature. Our technique showed high correlation with AVAST, especially when arterial signals were accentuated (i.e., when TD = 0 ms) (r = 0

  7. Revisiting the returns-volume relationship: Time variation, alternative measures and the financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Steve; Watson, Duncan

    2017-03-01

    Following its introduction in the seminal study of Osborne (1959), a voluminous literature has emerged examining the returns-volume relationship for financial assets. The present paper revisits this relationship in an examination of the FTSE100 which extends the existing literature in two ways. First, alternative daily measures of the FTSE100 index are used to create differing returns and absolute returns series to employ in an examination of returns-volume causality. Second, rolling regression analysis is utilised to explore potential time variation in the returns-volume relationship. The findings obtained depict a hitherto unconsidered complexity in this relationship with the type of returns series considered and financial crisis found to be significant underlying factors. The implications of the newly derived results for both the understanding of the nature of the returns-volume relationship and the development of theories in connection to it are discussed.

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 2, Exhibits

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    The overall objective of the study in this report was to gather data on waste management technologies to allow comparison of various alternatives for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objectives of the study were to: 1. Compile detailed data for existing waste management technologies on costs, environmental releases, energy requirements and production, and coproducts such as recycled materials and compost. Identify missing information necessary to make energy, economic, and environmental comparisons of various MSW management technologies, and define needed research that could enhance the usefulness of the technology. 3. Develop a data base that can be used to identify the technology that best meets specific criteria defined by a user of the data base. Volume I contains the report text. Volume II contains supporting exhibits. Volumes III through X are appendices, each addressing a specific MSW management technology. Volumes XI and XII contain project bibliographies.

  9. An Interdisciplinary and Alternative Approach to Assess Carcinogenicity of Chlorobenzenes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to tr-e Office ot" Managiement ant 00" 𔃻. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 12. REPORT DATE 13. RtFUK, I FINAL 01J•un 94 To 31 ...Aug 97I ! 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS AN INTERDISCIPLINARY AND ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO ASSESS CARCINOGENICITY OF CHLOROBENZENES F49620-94-1...MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING’MON_ TORING AFOSR/NL AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 110 DUNCAN AVE ROOM B115 BOLLING AFB DC 20332- 8050 DR

  10. Femoral approach: an exceptional alternative for permanent pacemaker implantation.

    PubMed

    Tereno Valente, Bruno; Conceição, José M; Nogueira da Silva, Manuel; M Oliveira, Mário; S Cunha, Pedro; Lousinha, Ana; Galrinho, Ana; C Ferreira, Rui

    2014-05-01

    The classic transvenous implantation of a permanent pacemaker in a pectoral location may be precluded by obstruction of venous access through the superior vena cava or recent infection at the implant site. When these barriers to the procedure are bilateral and there are also contraindications or technical difficulties to performing a thoracotomy for an epicardial approach, the femoral vein, although rarely used, can be a viable alternative. We describe the case of a patient with occlusion of both subclavian veins and a high risk for mini-thoracotomy or videothoracoscopy, who underwent implantation of a permanent single-chamber pacemaker via the right femoral vein.

  11. Trees of trees: an approach to comparing multiple alternative phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Nye, Tom M W

    2008-10-01

    Phylogenetic analysis very commonly produces several alternative trees for a given fixed set of taxa. For example, different sets of orthologous genes may be analyzed, or the analysis may sample from a distribution of probable trees. This article describes an approach to comparing and visualizing multiple alternative phylogenies via the idea of a "tree of trees" or "meta-tree." A meta-tree clusters phylogenies with similar topologies together in the same way that a phylogeny clusters species with similar DNA sequences. Leaf nodes on a meta-tree correspond to the original set of phylogenies given by some analysis, whereas interior nodes correspond to certain consensus topologies. The construction of meta-trees is motivated by analogy with construction of a most parsimonious tree for DNA data, but instead of using DNA letters, in a meta-tree the characters are partitions or splits of the set of taxa. An efficient algorithm for meta-tree construction is described that makes use of a known relationship between the majority consensus and parsimony in terms of gain and loss of splits. To illustrate these ideas meta-trees are constructed for two datasets: a set of gene trees for species of yeast and trees from a bootstrap analysis of a set of gene trees in ray-finned fish. A software tool for constructing meta-trees and comparing alternative phylogenies is available online, and the source code can be obtained from the author.

  12. Hanford spent nuclear fuel project recommended path forward, volume III: Alternatives and path forward evaluation supporting documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Volume I of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project - Recommended Path Forward constitutes an aggressive series of projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to safely retrieve, package, transport, process, and store K Basins fuel and sludge. Volume II provided a comparative evaluation of four Alternatives for the Path Forward and an evaluation for the Recommended Path Forward. Although Volume II contained extensive appendices, six supporting documents have been compiled in Volume III to provide additional background for Volume II.

  13. Addressing the right targets in oncology: challenges and alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Stock, Julie K; Jones, Neil P; Hammonds, Tim; Roffey, Jon; Dillon, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Translating existing and emerging knowledge of cancer biology into effective novel therapies remains a great challenge in drug discovery. A firm understanding of the target biology, confidence in the supporting preclinical research, and access to diverse chemical matter is required to lower attrition rates and prosecute targets effectively. Understanding past successes and failures will aid in refining this process to deliver further therapeutic benefit to patients. In this review, we suggest that early oncology drug discovery should focus on selection and prosecution of cancer targets with strong disease biology rather than on more chemically "druggable" targets with only modest disease-linkage. This approach offers higher potential benefit but also increases the need for innovative and alternative approaches. These include using different methods to validate novel targets and identify chemical matter, as well as raising the standards and our interpretation of the scientific literature. The combination of skills required for this emphasizes the need for broader early collaborations between academia and industry.

  14. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives.

  15. An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

    2014-09-01

    Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

  16. Waste management R&D Quality Assurance: An alternative approach

    SciTech Connect

    Brosseau, D.A.; Harlan, C.P.; Cochrell, R.C.

    1991-02-01

    This paper summarizes the development and initial implementation of a Quality Assurance (QA) Program for technical activities associated with assessing compliance of an existing DOE nuclear waste site with applicable environmental regulations. The requirements for establishing the QA program are defined, along with the approach and emphasis used to develop the program. The structure of the program and the various levels of QA plans and procedures are briefly discussed. Initial implementation efforts are summarized. The QA program was developed by and for the project participants and was structured according to the major technical requirements of the project. The QA plans and procedures are written for the convenience and use of the technical staff and not merely to satisfy auditor expectations. Every effort was made to avoid an 18-point approach typical of many QA programs patterned after the dictates of the industry recognized ``national consensus standards.`` Flexibility is emphasized due to the nature of the research and development activities associated with the technical program. Recommendations are provided for using this alternative approach to QA program development for similar technical efforts elsewhere. 10 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  17. Management of radioactive waste gases from the nuclear fuel cycle. Volume I. Comparison of alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.G.; Prout, W.E.; Buckner, J.T.; Buckner, M.R.

    1980-12-01

    Alternatives were compared for collection and fixation of radioactive waste gases released during normal operation of the nuclear fuel cycle, and for transportation and storage/disposal of the resulting waste forms. The study used a numerical rating scheme to evaluate and compare the alternatives for krypton-85, iodine-129, and carbon-14; whereas a subjective evaluation, based on published reports and engineering judgement, was made for transportation and storage/disposal options. Based on these evaluations, certain alternatives are recommended for an integrated scheme for waste management of each of the subject waste gases. Phase II of this project, which is concerned with the development of performance criteria for the waste forms associated with the subject gases, will be completed by the end of 1980. This work will be documented as Volume II of this report.

  18. Complementary and Alternative Therapies as Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Kristene E

    2002-01-01

    The management of interstitial cystitis (IC) is predominantly the reduction of the symptoms of frequency, urgency, and pain. Multimodal treatment approaches for IC are helpful in customizing therapy for individual patients. Complementary and alternative therapies are a quintessential addition to the therapeutic armamentarium and frequently include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, neuromodulation, stress reduction, and sex therapy. Dietary modification involves elimination of bladder irritants, fluid regulation, and a bowel regimen. Nutraceuticals studied for the treatment of IC include calcium glycerophosphate, L-arginine, mucopolysaccharides, bioflavinoids, and Chinese herbs. Bladder training is effective after pain reduction. The neuromodulation of high-tone pelvic-floor muscle dysfunction is achieved with physical therapy and acupuncture. Stress reduction and sex therapy are best administered by a qualified stress manager and sex therapist. Multimodal, nonconventional management may add efficacy to the treatment of IC. PMID:16986031

  19. Conventional and alternative treatment approaches for Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Aljarallah, Khalid M.

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated disease continues to be one of the leading health concerns worldwide. C. difficile is considered as a causative agent of nosocomial diarrhea that causes serious infection, which may result in death. The incidences of C. difficile infection (CDI) in developed countries have become increasingly high which may be attributed to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, extensive use of antibiotics, and limited alternative therapies. The available treatment options against CDI are expensive and promote resistance. Therefore, there is urgent need for new approaches to meet these challenges. This review discusses the current understanding of CDI, the existing clinical treatment strategies and future potential options as antidifficile agents based on the available published works. PMID:28293151

  20. Alternative Therapeutic Approach in the Treatment of Oral Pyogenic Granuloma

    PubMed Central

    Bugshan, Amr; Patel, Harsh; Garber, Karen; Meiller, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Pyogenic granulomas (PGs) in the oral cavity present as an inflammatory hyperplasia usually caused by trauma, hormonal imbalance, chronic irritation, or as the response to a wide variety of drugs. PGs with atypical presentation and behavior may clinically mimic malignant tumors. Thus, histological examination is required to rule out cancer development. Lesions in the oral cavity have been described to be either an isolated entity or present in multiple forms and with multiple recurrences. Conservative surgical excision is the standard choice of treatment in almost every scenario. However, the severity of the lesions and the affected sites often challenge surgical treatment. In this report, we describe the clinical scenario of a recurrent PG, where surgical excision of the lesion was questioned. As an alternative, we describe a noninvasive approach with lesional steroid injections. PMID:26668570

  1. A thermodynamic analysis of alternative approaches to chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; Daw, C Stuart; Pihl, Josh A

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review and clarify some of the points made by previous authors regarding chemical looping combustion (CLC). While much of the recent interest in chemical looping combustion has been associated with carbon sequestration, our primary interest here is its potential to increase the thermodynamic efficiency of converting fuel chemical energy into useful work. We expand on several points about the details of CLC that we feel have not previously been sufficiently explored, and suggest alternative (and possibly more practical) approaches that exploit some of the same thermodynamic concepts. We illustrate our key points with {First} and {Second} Law analyses of ideal conceptual processes, which in addition to {CLC} also include isothermal, non-equilibrium, preheated combustion and combustion with thermochemical recuperation. Our results suggest that a significant portion of the potential efficiency benefit of CLC might be achieved without the need to handle and transport large quantities of solid oxygen storage material. Exploitation of this fact may lead to higher efficiency approaches for power generation from hydrocarbon fuels combustion.

  2. An Alternative Approach to Understanding the Observed Positron Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Martin H.

    2014-10-01

    Space-based observations by PAMELA (Adriani et al., Nature 458, 607, 2009), Fermi-LAT (Ackerman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 01103, 2012), and AMS (Aguilar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 141102, 2013) have demonstrated that the positron fraction (e+/total-e) increases with increasing energy above about 10 GeV. According to the propagation model for Galactic cosmic rays in widespread use (Moskalenko & Strong, Astrophys. J. 493, 693, 1998), the production of secondary positrons from interaction of cosmic-ray protons and heavier nuclei with the interstellar medium gives a generally falling positron fraction between 10 and 100 GeV, with secondary positrons accounting for only ˜20 % of the observed positron fraction at 100 GeV; so some other physical phenomena have been proposed to explain the data. An alternative approach to interpreting the positron observations is to consider these data as presenting an opportunity for re-examining models of Galactic cosmic-ray propagation. Following release of the PAMELA data, three groups published propagation models (Shaviv, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 111302, 2009, Cowsik and Burch, Phys. Rev. D. 82, 023009, 2010, Katz et al., Mon. Not. R. Aston. Soc. 405, 1458 2010) in which the observed positron fraction is explained entirely by secondary positrons produced in the interstellar medium. In May of this year, stimulated by the AMS extension of the positron data to higher energy with excellent statistics, two of those groups presented further development of their calculations (Cowsik et al. 2013, Blum et al. 2013), again concluding that the observed positrons can be understood as secondaries. None of the authors of these five papers was registered for the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC). Although I am not an author of any of these papers, I have some close familiarity with one of these recent papers, so the conference organizers invited me to bring this alternative approach to the attention of the conference. The

  3. Morphological study of transpterional-insula approach using volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Jia, Linpei; Su, Lue; Sun, Wei; Wang, Lina; Yao, Jihang; Li, Youqiong; Luo, Qi

    2012-11-01

    This study describes the measurements of inferior circular insular sulcus (ICIS) and the shortest distance from ICIS to the temporal horn and determines the position of the incision, which does less harm to the temporal stem in the transpterional-insula approach using volume-rendering technique. Results of the research showed that one-third point over the anterior side of ICIS may be the ideal penetration point during operation. And there is no difference between 2 hemispheres (P < 0.05). The comparison with the results of ICIS from other Chinese researches demonstrated that volume rendering is a reliable method in insular research that enables mass measurements.

  4. Integrating Exposure into Chemical Alternatives Assessment Using a Qualitative Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that i...

  5. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  6. A multi-criteria approach to camera motion design for volume data animation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Hsien; Zhang, Yubo; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2013-12-01

    We present an integrated camera motion design and path generation system for building volume data animations. Creating animations is an essential task in presenting complex scientific visualizations. Existing visualization systems use an established animation function based on keyframes selected by the user. This approach is limited in providing the optimal in-between views of the data. Alternatively, computer graphics and virtual reality camera motion planning is frequently focused on collision free movement in a virtual walkthrough. For semi-transparent, fuzzy, or blobby volume data the collision free objective becomes insufficient. Here, we provide a set of essential criteria focused on computing camera paths to establish effective animations of volume data. Our dynamic multi-criteria solver coupled with a force-directed routing algorithm enables rapid generation of camera paths. Once users review the resulting animation and evaluate the camera motion, they are able to determine how each criterion impacts path generation. In this paper, we demonstrate how incorporating this animation approach with an interactive volume visualization system reduces the effort in creating context-aware and coherent animations. This frees the user to focus on visualization tasks with the objective of gaining additional insight from the volume data.

  7. Heat Transfer and Thermal Stability of Alternative Aircraft Fuels. Volume 2. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    AD-A137 405 HEAT TRANSFER AND THERMAL STABILITY OF ALTERNATIVE s AIRCRAFT FUELS VOLUME 2.-(U) PRATT AND WHITNEY AIRCRAFT GROUP WEST PALM BEACH FL...Whitney Aircraft PE63724N Government Products Division Project No. Z0838 P. O. Box 2691, West Palm Beach, FL 33402 Work Unit NAPC-617 11. CONTROLLING...Division, located in Palm Beach County, Florida. The work ws conducted under Contract No. N00140-80-C-0097, Lot III, for the Naval Air Propulsion Center

  8. Alternative approach of cell encapsulation by Volvox spheres.

    PubMed

    Teong, Benjamin; Manousakas, Ioannis; Chang, Shwu Jen; Huang, Han Hsiang; Ju, Kuen-Cheng; Kuo, Shyh Ming

    2015-10-01

    Volvox sphere is a bio-mimicking concept of a biomaterial structure design able to encapsulate chemicals, drugs and/or cells. The aim of this study was to prepare Volvox spheres encapsulating AML12 liver cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) via a high voltage electrostatic field system. The results demonstrated that AML12 liver cells and MSCs could be successfully encapsulated into the inner spheres and the outer sphere of the Volvox spheres. The improved cell viability of MSCs was achieved by the addition of collagen and polyethylene glycol into the preparation components of the Volvox spheres. Collagen material potentially provides extracellular matrix-like structure for cell adhesion while polyethylene glycol provides a void/loose space for permeability of metabolites. The encapsulated MSCs were able to differentiate into hepatocytes or hepatocyte-like cells and express liver cell markers including albumin, alpha feto-protein and cytokeratin 18. The encapsulated cells secreted albumin to about 140 ng on day 14. Based on these observations, we conclude that Volvox spheres can be used as an alternative approach to encapsulate multiple types of cells, here AML12 hepatocyte cell line and MSCs. Nevertheless, efforts are still needed to improve the viability of the encapsulated cells and increase the differentiation of MSCs into functional liver cells.

  9. Thresholds for the cost-effectiveness of interventions: alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Marseille, Elliot; Larson, Bruce; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kahn, James G; Rosen, Sydney

    2015-02-01

    Many countries use the cost-effectiveness thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization's Choosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective project (WHO-CHOICE) when evaluating health interventions. This project sets the threshold for cost-effectiveness as the cost of the intervention per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted less than three times the country's annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Highly cost-effective interventions are defined as meeting a threshold per DALY averted of once the annual GDP per capita. We argue that reliance on these thresholds reduces the value of cost-effectiveness analyses and makes such analyses too blunt to be useful for most decision-making in the field of public health. Use of these thresholds has little theoretical justification, skirts the difficult but necessary ranking of the relative values of locally-applicable interventions and omits any consideration of what is truly affordable. The WHO-CHOICE thresholds set such a low bar for cost-effectiveness that very few interventions with evidence of efficacy can be ruled out. The thresholds have little value in assessing the trade-offs that decision-makers must confront. We present alternative approaches for applying cost-effectiveness criteria to choices in the allocation of health-care resources.

  10. Alternative approach for cavitation damage study utilizing repetitive laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fei; Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Cavitation is a common phenomenon in fluid systems that can lead to dramatic degradation of solid materials surface in contact with the cavitating media. Study of cavitation damage has great significance in many engineering fields. Current techniques for cavitation damage study either require large scale equipments or tend to introduce damages from other mechanisms. In this project, we utilized the cavitation phenomenon induced by laser optical breakdown and developed a prototype apparatus for cavitation damage study. In our approach, cavitation was generated by the repetitive pressure waves induced by high-power laser pulses. As proof of principal study, stainless steel and aluminum samples were tested using the novel apparatus. Surface characterization via scanning electron microscopy revealed damages such as indentation and surface pitting, which were similar to those reported in literature using other state-of-the-art techniques. These preliminary results demonstrated the new device was capable of generating cavitation damages and could be used as an alternative method for cavitation damage study.

  11. A single-volume approach for vacancy formation thermodynamics calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, A. S.; Zamulko, S. O.; Gorbatov, O. I.; Sidorenko, S. I.; Puschnig, P.; Ruban, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The vacancy formation Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy in fcc Al, Ag, Pd, Cu, and bcc Mo are determined by first-principles calculations using the quasi-harmonic approximation to account for vibrational contributions. We show that the Gibbs free energy can be determined with sufficient accuracy in a single-volume approach using the fixed equilibrium volume of the defect-free supercell. Although the partial contributions to the Gibbs free energy, namely, the formation enthalpy and entropy exhibit substantial errors when obtained directly in this approach, they can be computed from the Gibbs free energy using the proper thermodynamic relations. Compared to experimental data, the temperature dependence of the vacancy formation Gibbs free energy is accounted for at low temperatures, while it overestimates the measurements at high temperature, which is attributed to the neglect of anharmonic effects.

  12. Entrainment and motor emulation approaches to joint action: Alternatives or complementary approaches?

    PubMed Central

    Colling, Lincoln J.; Williamson, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    Joint actions, such as music and dance, rely crucially on the ability of two, or more, agents to align their actions with great temporal precision. Within the literature that seeks to explain how this action alignment is possible, two broad approaches have appeared. The first, what we term the entrainment approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of the behavioral dynamics of the system of two agents. The second, what we term the emulator approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of mechanisms, such as forward and inverse models, that are implemented in the brain. They have often been pitched as alternative explanations of the same phenomena; however, we argue that this view is mistaken, because, as we show, these two approaches are engaged in distinct, and not mutually exclusive, explanatory tasks. While the entrainment approach seeks to uncover the general laws that govern behavior the emulator approach seeks to uncover mechanisms. We argue that is possible to do both and that the entrainment approach must pay greater attention to the mechanisms that support the behavioral dynamics of interest. In short, the entrainment approach must be transformed into a neuroentrainment approach by adopting a mechanistic view of explanation and by seeking mechanisms that are implemented in the brain. PMID:25309403

  13. A Volume Flux Approach to Cryolava Dome Emplacement on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Hurford, Terry A.; Prockter, Louise M.

    2017-01-01

    We previously modeled a subset of domes on Europa with morphologies consistent with emplacement by viscous extrusions of cryolava. These models assumed instantaneous emplacement of a fixed volume of fluid onto the surface, followed by relaxation to form domes. However, this approach only allowed for the investigation of late-stage eruptive processes far from the vent and provided little insight into how cryolavas arrived at the surface. Consideration of dome emplacement as cryolavas erupt at the surface is therefore pertinent. A volume flux approach, in which lava erupts from the vent at a constant rate, was successfully applied to the formation of steep-sided volcanic domes on Venus. These domes are believed to have formed in the same manner as candi-date cryolava domes on Europa. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the potential for the emplacement of Europa domes via extrusive volcanism, we have applied this new volume flux approach to the formation of putative cryovolcanic domes on Europa. Assuming as in that europan cryolavas are briny, aqueous solutions which may or may not contain some ice crystal fraction, we present the results of this modeling and explore theories for the formation of low-albedo moats that surround some domes.

  14. A piecewise linear approach to volume tracking a triple point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Benjamin Y.; Bussmann, Markus

    2007-02-01

    An approach to volume tracking three materials is presented that, in contrast with the so-called onion-skin methodology, assumes the existence of a triple point at which two interfaces between three materials intersect. The reconstruction of any cell that contains three materials is iterative: the approach is to locate a point of intersection between two interfaces that minimizes a given error expression. The advantages and limitations of the algorithm are presented via a series of advection tests that demonstrate that triple points can be reconstructed and advected just as well as simpler interfaces in typical applications.

  15. ALTERNATE APPROACH TO HAZARD CATEGORIZATION FOR SALTSTONE FACILITY AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, B.

    2009-04-28

    3 Nuclear Facility with no segmentation. Since it was the first time any facility at SRS tried this alternate approach safety analyst had to face substantial resistance and reservations from both the facility and local DOE customers which were eventually overcome with approval and acceptance from DOE-HQ.

  16. An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.

    2008-01-01

    Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching rule…

  17. Zero-Tolerance Discipline Approaches: Perspectives from Exemplary Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore alternative school administrator, teacher, and student perceptions of the factors that surround zero-tolerance discipline policies and practices, and to identify discipline alternatives that do not remove or exclude students from the school setting. A case study was…

  18. An alternative approach to solar system exploration planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Daniel H.; Niehoff, John C.; Spadoni, Daniel J.

    accomplishing the mission with one launch. An alternate approach would be to break the mission into two separate elements. We could, for example, launch a Saturn orbiter carrying a Saturn entry probe. After serving as a communications relay system for the Saturn probe, the orbiter would then be specialized to map the magnetosphere of Saturn. A second launch would involve the delivery of a Titan probe by another orbiter where after delivery the orbiter would conduct the planetological observation of Saturn and its satellites. For the split-launch option, the runout cost for the two missions would be greater than the single launch option. However, optimum structuring of the two missions could materially reduce the peak annual funding. This paper presents data on the estimated cost on a year by year basis of a mission set structured to minimize the runout cost with no concern as to the peak annual funding as compared to a mission set that would yield the same scientific objectives in a slightly longer time span wherein the annual peak funding would be minimized. The consequences of this revised plan are analyzed.

  19. Regional Urban Planning for Energy Conservation: Alternative Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohar, Shri

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the role of urban and regional planners in redesigning land use patterns which reinforce energy conservation while preserving satisfying living conditions. A model for evaluating energy conservation planning alternatives for Perth, Australia is described. (AM)

  20. An Alternative Approach to Teaching Statistics to Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Jack G., Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Literature on statistics instruction in dental education indicates course guidelines are available, and computer-assisted instruction is recommended. Self-instruction with programed materials is recommended as an effective and less costly alternative. (Author/MSE)

  1. Transnasal TOE: An alternate approach in the setting of difficult probe placement for seated spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, Michael G; Kamdar, Brinda; Eyvazzadeh, Johnica; Heidi, B

    2010-01-01

    Transnasal transoesophageal echocardiography may be an effective alternative approach when difficulty is encountered while placing a probe for patients with severe kyphoscoliosis. We describe a successful approach in a patient presenting for orthopaedic fixation and review the current literature.

  2. An Alternative Approach to Test Analysis and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    This reflection paper challenges current test scoring practices on the grounds that most wrong-answer selections are thoughtful not random, presenting research supporting this proposition. An alternative test scoring system is presented, described and its outcomes discussed. This new scoring system increases the number of variables considered,…

  3. Alternative Education for the 21st Century: Philosophies, Approaches, Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Philip A., Ed.; Woods, Glenys J., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This is a unique collection of leading examples of education grounded in alternative philosophies and cultures--from initiatives to create more democratic schools, through Quaker, Buddhist, Islamic, Montessori and Steiner/Waldorf schools, to Maori and First Nations education in Canada and Palestinian Jewish schools in Israel. Aimed at educational…

  4. Measuring the Impact of an Alternative Approach to School Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domino, Meg

    2013-01-01

    Background: National estimates of middle school bullying approximate 40%, making it the leading form of school violence. Meta-analysis of conventional anti-bullying efforts have shown mixed results, averaging small reductions in bullying behavior. Social-Emotional Learning and PositiveYouth Development provide a theory-driven alternative for…

  5. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process.

  6. Complementary and alternative approaches to pain relief during labor.

    PubMed

    Tournaire, Michel; Theau-Yonneau, Anne

    2007-12-01

    This review evaluated the effect of complementary and alternative medicine on pain during labor with conventional scientific methods using electronic data bases through 2006 were used. Only randomized controlled trials with outcome measures for labor pain were kept for the conclusions. Many studies did not meet the scientific inclusion criteria. According to the randomized control trials, we conclude that for the decrease of labor pain and/or reduction of the need for conventional analgesic methods: (i) There is an efficacy found for acupressure and sterile water blocks. (ii) Most results favored some efficacy for acupuncture and hydrotherapy. (iii) Studies for other complementary or alternative therapies for labor pain control have not shown their effectiveness.

  7. Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Pain Relief During Labor

    PubMed Central

    Theau-Yonneau, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This review evaluated the effect of complementary and alternative medicine on pain during labor with conventional scientific methods using electronic data bases through 2006 were used. Only randomized controlled trials with outcome measures for labor pain were kept for the conclusions. Many studies did not meet the scientific inclusion criteria. According to the randomized control trials, we conclude that for the decrease of labor pain and/or reduction of the need for conventional analgesic methods: (i) There is an efficacy found for acupressure and sterile water blocks. (ii) Most results favored some efficacy for acupuncture and hydrotherapy. (iii) Studies for other complementary or alternative therapies for labor pain control have not shown their effectiveness. PMID:18227907

  8. SU-E-J-35: Using CBCT as the Alternative Method of Assessing ITV Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Y; Turian, J; Templeton, A; Redler, G; Chu, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To study the accuracy of Internal Target Volumes (ITVs) created on cone beam CT (CBCT) by comparing the visible target volume on CBCT to volumes (GTV, ITV, and PTV) outlined on free breathing (FB) CT and 4DCT. Methods A Quasar Cylindrical Motion Phantom with a 3cm diameter ball (14.14 cc) embedded within a cork insert was set up to simulate respiratory motion with a period of 4 seconds and amplitude of 2cm superioinferiorly and 1cm anterioposteriorly. FBCT and 4DCT images were acquired. A PTV-4D was created on the 4DCT by applying a uniform margin of 5mm to the ITV-CT. PTV-FB was created by applying a margin of the motion range plus 5mm, i.e. total of 1.5cm laterally and 2.5cm superioinferiorly to the GTV outlined on the FBCT. A dynamic conformal arc was planned to treat the PTV-FB with 1mm margin. A CBCT was acquired before the treatment, on which the target was delineated. During the treatment, the position of the target was monitored using the EPID in cine mode. Results ITV-CBCT and ITV-CT were measured to be 56.6 and 62.7cc, respectively, with a Dice Coefficient (DC) of 0.94 and disagreement in center of mass (COM) of 0.59 mm. On the other hand, GTV-FB was 11.47cc, 19% less than the known volume of the ball. PTV-FB and PTV-4D were 149 and 116 cc, with a DC of 0.71. Part of the ITV-CT was not enclosed by the PTV-FB despite the large margin. The cine EPID images have confirmed geometrical misses of the target. Similar under-coverage was observed in one clinical case and captured by the CBCT, where the implanted fiducials moved outside PTV-FB. Conclusion ITV-CBCT is in good agreement with ITV-CT. When 4DCT was not available, CBCT can be an effective alternative in determining and verifying the PTV margin.

  9. Alternative Approaches to Outcomes Assessment for Postsecondary Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D., Ed.

    This document describes six different approaches to outcomes assessments, approaches that are named in the titles of chapters 2 through 7. The chapters and authors are as follows: "Perspectives on Assessment Policy and Practice" (Bragg, Harmon); "Total Quality Management" (Bragg); "Assessing Student Success" (Harmon);…

  10. Alternatives to surgical approach for giant spinal schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Onen, Mehmet R.; Simsek, Mehmet; Naderi, Sait

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the diagnoses and surgical approach characteristics of giant spinal schwannomas (GSS) patients. Methods: We reviewed the preoperative and postoperative radiological and clinical data, and the surgical aspects of 18 GSS patients who underwent surgery in the Department of Neurosurgery, Umraniye Teaching Hospital and Research State Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey between January 2008 and December 2013. Results: There were 15 (83.3%) female and 3 (16.6%) male patients. The age range was 16-70 years (average: 45.8). Average symptom duration was 1.5 months: (range: 1-48). There was local pain in 15 cases, and radicular pain in 6 cases. The GSSs were most frequently located in the lumbosacral area (11 cases, 61.1%). An extraforaminal surgical approach was employed in 7 cases, a posterior approach was employed in 6 cases, a combined anterior transabdominal and posterior approach was employed in 2 cases, a combined posterior and extraforaminal approach was employed in 2 cases, and a retroperitoneal approach was applied in one case. The tumors were completely excised in all cases. The mean follow-up period was 38.5 months (range: 20-68). Conclusion: Giant spinal schwannomas exhibit unique diagnostic and surgical factors. The selection of an appropriate approach significantly influences the success of the treatment. PMID:26818164

  11. An Alternative Approach to Human Servicing of Crewed Earth Orbiting Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularski, John R.; Alpert, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    As crewed spacecraft have grown larger and more complex, they have come to rely on spacewalks, or Extravehicular Activities (EVA), for mission success and crew safety. Typically, these spacecraft maintain all of the hardware and trained personnel needed to perform an EVA on-board at all times. Maintaining this capability requires volume and up-mass for storage of EVA hardware, crew time for ground and on-orbit training, and on-orbit maintenance of EVA hardware. This paper proposes an alternative methodology, utilizing launch on-need hardware and crew to provide EVA capability for space stations in Earth orbit after assembly complete, in the same way that one would call a repairman to fix something at their home. This approach would reduce ground training requirements, save Intravehicular Activity (IVA) crew time in the form of EVA hardware maintenance and on-orbit training, and lead to more efficient EVAs because they would be performed by specialists with detailed knowledge and training stemming from their direct involvement in the development of the EVA. The on-orbit crew would then be available to focus on the immediate response to the failure as well as the day-to-day operations of the spacecraft and payloads. This paper will look at how current unplanned EVAs are conducted, including the time required for preparation, and offer alternatives for future spacecraft. As this methodology relies on the on-time and on-need launch of spacecraft, any space station that utilized this approach would need a robust transportation system including more than one launch vehicle capable of carrying crew. In addition, the fault tolerance of the space station would be an important consideration in how much time was available for EVA preparation after the failure. Each future program would have to weigh the risk of on-time launch against the increase in available crew time for the main objective of the spacecraft.

  12. Teaching about Radioactivity and Ionising Radiation: An Alternative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Robin; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Children's ideas about radiation and radioactivity are reviewed and several common areas of misunderstanding are identified. An approach to teaching the topic at the secondary school level which seeks to specifically address known difficulties is outlined. (CW)

  13. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLIER SYNTHETIC ALTERNATIVES USING NON-TRADITIONAL APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic organic transformations performed under non-traditional conditions are becoming popular primarily to circumvent the growing environmental concerns. A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) either in presence of a cataly...

  14. Alternate Sources of Revenues for Public Schools: A Marketing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembowski, Frederick; Biros, Janice

    1984-01-01

    After analyzing the causes of public education's current fiscal crisis, this article offers a marketing approach to educational management as a possible long range solution. A model marketing plan is outlined and some applications for raising revenues are identified. (MJL)

  15. Alternative Approaches to Outcomes Assessment: Beyond Psychometric Tests

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jack M.

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes assessments in clinical trials involving cognition and behavior rely upon IQ and neuropsychological assessments. These procedures provide limited evaluations of everyday functions. Some participants cannot perform cognitive tasks because they are low functioning or may represent missing data because of inability to travel. Interview-based assessments of adaptive behavior yield results that reflect everyday functions and can be done by telephone regardless of level of cognitive functioning. The design of the neurobehavioral component of the follow-up study for the Management of Myelomeningocele fetal surgery trial is as an example of a clinical trial that incorporates these alternatives. PMID:24174385

  16. Alternative approaches to outcomes assessment: beyond psychometric tests.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jack M

    2014-10-01

    Outcomes assessments in clinical trials involving cognition and behavior rely upon IQ and neuropsychological assessments. These procedures provide limited evaluations of everyday functions. Some participants cannot perform cognitive tasks because they are low functioning or may represent missing data because of inability to travel. Interview-based assessments of adaptive behavior yield results that reflect everyday functions and can be done by telephone regardless of level of cognitive functioning. The design of the neurobehavioral component of the follow-up study for the management of myelomeningocele fetal surgery trial is as an example of a clinical trial that incorporates these alternatives.

  17. An evaluation of some alternative approaches for reducing fan tone noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of two alternative approaches for reducing fan ton noise was investigated in this study. One of these approaches increases the number of rotor blades to shift the tone noise to higher frequencies that are not rated as strongly by the perceived noise scale. This alternative fan also would have a small number of long chord stator vanes which would reduce the stator response and lower rotor-stator interaction noise. Comparison of the conventional and alternative fan concepts showed that this alternative approach has as large or larger a perceived tone noise reduction potential as the conventional approach. The other alternative, a high Mach number inlet, is evaluated both for its noise attenuation and for its change in noise directivity.

  18. An evaluation of some alternative approaches for reducing fan tone noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1992-02-01

    The potential of two alternative approaches for reducing fan ton noise was investigated in this study. One of these approaches increases the number of rotor blades to shift the tone noise to higher frequencies that are not rated as strongly by the perceived noise scale. This alternative fan also would have a small number of long chord stator vanes which would reduce the stator response and lower rotor-stator interaction noise. Comparison of the conventional and alternative fan concepts showed that this alternative approach has as large or larger a perceived tone noise reduction potential as the conventional approach. The other alternative, a high Mach number inlet, is evaluated both for its noise attenuation and for its change in noise directivity.

  19. Frost Formation: Optimizing solutions under a finite volume approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartrons, E.; Perez-Segarra, C. D.; Oliet, C.

    2016-09-01

    A three-dimensional transient formulation of the frost formation process is developed by means of a finite volume approach. Emphasis is put on the frost surface boundary condition as well as the wide range of empirical correlations related to the thermophysical and transport properties of frost. A study of the numerical solution is made, establishing the parameters that ensure grid independence. Attention is given to the algorithm, the discretised equations and the code optimization through dynamic relaxation techniques. A critical analysis of four cases is carried out by comparing solutions of several empirical models against tested experiments. As a result, a discussion on the performance of such parameters is started and a proposal of the most suitable models is presented.

  20. A Rule Based Approach to ISS Interior Volume Control and Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Brian; Maida, Jim; Fitts, David; Dory, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Traditional human factors design involves the development of human factors requirements based on a desire to accommodate a certain percentage of the intended user population. As the product is developed human factors evaluation involves comparison between the resulting design and the specifications. Sometimes performance metrics are involved that allow leniency in the design requirements given that the human performance result is satisfactory. Clearly such approaches may work but they give rise to uncertainty and negotiation. An alternative approach is to adopt human factors design rules that articulate a range of each design continuum over which there are varying outcome expectations and interactions with other variables, including time. These rules are based on a consensus of human factors specialists, designers, managers and customers. The International Space Station faces exactly this challenge in interior volume control, which is based on anthropometric, performance and subjective preference criteria. This paper describes the traditional approach and then proposes a rule-based alternative. The proposed rules involve spatial, temporal and importance dimensions. If successful this rule-based concept could be applied to many traditional human factors design variables and could lead to a more effective and efficient contribution of human factors input to the design process.

  1. Expert System Approach For Generating And Evaluating Engine Design Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Stewart N. T.; Chew, Meng-Sang; Issa, Ghassan F.

    1989-03-01

    Artificial intelligence is becoming an increasingly important subject of study for computer scientists, engineering designers, as well as professionals in other fields. Even though AI technology is a relatively new discipline, many of its concepts have already found practical applications. Expert systems, in particular, have made significant contributions to technologies in such fields as business, medicine, engineering design, chemistry, and particle physics. This paper describes an expert system developed to aid the mechanical designer with the preliminary design of variable-stroke internal-combustion engines. The expert system accomplished its task by generating and evaluating a large number of design alternatives represented in the form of graphs. Through the application of structural and design rules directly to the graphs, optimal and near optimal preliminary design configurations of engines are deduced.

  2. An activity systemic approach to augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Hedvall, Per-Olof; Rydeman, Bitte

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and highlight how Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) can contribute to the understanding of the different factors at play when a person is using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). It is based on data from a 3-year project concerning activity-based vocabulary design of voice output communication aids (VOCAs). Four persons who used AAC and their assistants were interviewed about shopping activities and their views about a vocabulary that included pre-stored phrases. A CHAT model, the Activity Diamond, was applied in an analysis of the data. The result was a multiplicity of human, artifactual, and natural factors, in which six themes were identified: Attitude/Preference, Expectation/Trust, Goal/Power, Place/Space, Time/Learning, and Usability/Accessibility. The themes are exemplified and discussed in relation to AAC.

  3. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  4. A uniform laminar air plasma plume with large volume excited by an alternating current voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Bao, Wenting; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Jia, Pengying

    2015-12-01

    Using a plasma jet composed of two needle electrodes, a laminar plasma plume with large volume is generated in air through an alternating current voltage excitation. Based on high-speed photography, a train of filaments is observed to propagate periodically away from their birth place along the gas flow. The laminar plume is in fact a temporal superposition of the arched filament train. The filament consists of a negative glow near the real time cathode, a positive column near the real time anode, and a Faraday dark space between them. It has been found that the propagation velocity of the filament increases with increasing the gas flow rate. Furthermore, the filament lifetime tends to follow a normal distribution (Gaussian distribution). The most probable lifetime decreases with increasing the gas flow rate or decreasing the averaged peak voltage. Results also indicate that the real time peak current decreases and the real time peak voltage increases with the propagation of the filament along the gas flow. The voltage-current curve indicates that, in every discharge cycle, the filament evolves from a Townsend discharge to a glow one and then the discharge quenches. Characteristic regions including a negative glow, a Faraday dark space, and a positive column can be discerned from the discharge filament. Furthermore, the plasma parameters such as the electron density, the vibrational temperature and the gas temperature are investigated based on the optical spectrum emitted from the laminar plume.

  5. Surgical correction of the webbed neck: an alternative lateral approach

    PubMed Central

    Mehri Turki, Imen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The webbed neck deformity or pterygium colli is the number one symptom of the Turner syndrome that leads the patient to consult a doctor. Various but rare surgical approaches have been described to correct this deformity. We reviewed our experience with the surgical correction of the pterygium colli. Methods: Through five clinical cases, we describe the surgical technique with a lateral approach which provides a better control of the operative site, allows for the excision of the underlying trapezial fascial web, thus preventing recurrence seen in the posterior approach, and restores a normal hairline. Results: No postoperative wound infection occurred. No recurrence was observed through 24 months. Three patients developed hypertrophic scars. Conclusion: The lateral approach associated with an advanced flap and a Z-plasty is an effective technique for correction of this neck deformity. The presence of a multidisciplinary team, formed with maxillofacial and plastic surgeons, endocrinologists and psychologists, is required to treat these patients allowing reintegration into society and family. PMID:28275532

  6. Counselling--Alternative Approaches. Information Bank Working Paper No. 2476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Jeannie

    This document looks at various types of counseling approaches and includes sections on Rogerian counseling, Gestalt therapy, and rational emotive therapy. The section on Rogerian counseling includes a discussion of the principles of counseling from Rogers'"Client Centered Therapy." Gestalt therapy is explained in more detail and a…

  7. An ecological approach to language development: an alternative functionalism.

    PubMed

    Dent, C H

    1990-11-01

    I argue for a new functionalist approach to language development, an ecological approach. A realist orientation is used that locates the causes of language development neither in the child nor in the language environment but in the functioning of perceptual systems that detect language-world relationships and use them to guide attention and action. The theory requires no concept of innateness, thus avoiding problems inherent in either the innate ideas or the genes-as-causal-programs explanations of the source of structure in language. An ecological explanation of language is discussed in relation to concepts and language, language as representation, problems in early word learning, metaphor, and syntactic development. Finally, problems incurred in using the idea of innateness are summarized: History prior to the chosen beginning point is ignored, data on organism-environment mutuality are not collected, and the explanation claims no effect of learning, which cannot be tested empirically.

  8. UAV-based NDVI calculation over grassland: An alternative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham; Tomelleri, Enrico; Asam, Sarah; Zebisch, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is one of the most widely used indicators for monitoring and assessing vegetation in remote sensing. The index relies on the reflectance difference between the near infrared (NIR) and red light and is thus able to track variations of structural, phenological, and biophysical parameters for seasonal and long-term monitoring. Conventionally, NDVI is inferred from space-borne spectroradiometers, such as MODIS, with moderate resolution up to 250 m ground resolution. In recent years, a new generation of miniaturized radiometers and integrated hyperspectral sensors with high resolution became available. Such small and light instruments are particularly adequate to be mounted on airborne unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used for monitoring services reaching ground sampling resolution in the order of centimetres. Nevertheless, such miniaturized radiometers and hyperspectral sensors are still very expensive and require high upfront capital costs. Therefore, we propose an alternative, mainly cheaper method to calculate NDVI using a camera constellation consisting of two conventional consumer-grade cameras: (i) a Ricoh GR modified camera that acquires the NIR spectrum by removing the internal infrared filter. A mounted optical filter additionally obstructs all wavelengths below 700 nm. (ii) A Ricoh GR in RGB configuration using two optical filters for blocking wavelengths below 600 nm as well as NIR and ultraviolet (UV) light. To assess the merit of the proposed method, we carry out two comparisons: First, reflectance maps generated by the consumer-grade camera constellation are compared to reflectance maps produced with a hyperspectral camera (Rikola). All imaging data and reflectance maps are processed using the PIX4D software. In the second test, the NDVI at specific points of interest (POI) generated by the consumer-grade camera constellation is compared to NDVI values obtained by ground spectral measurements using a

  9. Multidimensional Programming Methods for Energy Facility Siting: Alternative Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, B. D.; Haynes, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of multidimensional optimization methods in solving power plant siting problems, which are characterized by several conflicting, noncommensurable objectives is addressed. After a discussion of data requirements and exclusionary site screening methods for bounding the decision space, classes of multiobjective and goal programming models are discussed in the context of finite site selection. Advantages and limitations of these approaches are highlighted and the linkage of multidimensional methods with the subjective, behavioral components of the power plant siting process is emphasized.

  10. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.

  11. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin

    2004-01-21

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.

  12. Feminist ethic of care: a third alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Maeckelberghe, Els

    2004-12-01

    A man with Alzheimer's who wanders around, a caregiver who disconnects the alarm, a daughter acting on het own, and a doctor who is not consulted set the stage for a feminist reflection on capacity/competence assessment. Feminist theory attempts to account for gender inequality in the political and in the epistemological realm. One of its tasks is to unravel the settings in which actual practices, i.c. capacity/competence assessment take place and offer an alternative. In this article the focus will be on a feminist ethics of care in which relationality, care, vulnerability, and responsibility are privileged concepts and attitudes. The emphasis on these notions leads to a specific view of autonomy that has consequences for both carereceivers (patients, clients) and caregivers (professional and not professional). These concepts constitute a default setting that shapes the context for capacity/competence assessment. Whereas this notion is meant to distinguish between those who need to be taken care of and those who do not, reflection on what it means to say 'those who need to be taken care of is also required. The feminist analysis presented here emphasizes the necessity of the contextualization of assessment of competence. It sketches the multifold and complex grid that comprehends capacity assessment.

  13. Alternative Approaches for Incentivizing the Frequency Responsive Reserve Ancillary Service

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Tuohy, A.; Brooks, D.

    2012-03-01

    Frequency responsive reserve is the autonomous response of generators and demand response to deviations of system frequency, usually as a result of the instantaneous outage of a large supplier. Frequency responsive reserve arrests the frequency decline resulting in the stabilization of system frequency, and avoids the triggering of under-frequency load-shedding or the reaching of unstable frequencies that could ultimately lead to system blackouts. It is a crucial service required to maintain a reliable and secure power system. Regions with restructured electricity markets have historically had a lack of incentives for frequency responsive reserve because generators inherently provided the response and on large interconnected systems, more than sufficient response has been available. This may not be the case in future systems due to new technologies and declining response. This paper discusses the issues that can occur without proper incentives and even disincentives, and proposes alternatives to introduce incentives for resources to provide frequency responsive reserve to ensure an efficient and reliable power system.

  14. Estimating Lake Volume from Limited Data: A Simple GIS Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake volume provides key information for estimating residence time or modeling pollutants. Methods for calculating lake volume have relied on dated technologies (e.g. planimeters) or used potentially inaccurate assumptions (e.g. volume of a frustum of a cone). Modern GIS provid...

  15. Different Approaches for Teaching Volume and Students' Visualization Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Enochs, Larry G.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a study which was designed to examine if spatial-visual skills are related to learning the volume concept and if a particular mode of presentation for teaching volume is preferable for students of differing spatial ability. Results indicate that students of low visual orientation benefit if volume is taught before area and length. (ML)

  16. The Mind-Body Connection - Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Health Past ... To Find Out More At medlineplus.gov , type "mind-body" or "emotions" into the Search box. There is ...

  17. An Alternative Approach to the Teaching of Systematic Transition Metal Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Brian

    1979-01-01

    Presents an alternative approach to teaching Systematic Transition Metal Chemistry with the transition metal chemistry skeleton features of interest. The "skeleton" is intended as a guide to predicting the chemistry of a selected compound. (Author/SA)

  18. Alternate approaches to future electron-positron linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this article is two-fold: to review the current international status of various design approaches to the next generation of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear colliders, and on the occasion of his 80th birthday, to celebrate Richard B. Neal`s many contributions to the field of linear accelerators. As it turns out, combining these two tasks is a rather natural enterprise because of Neal`s long professional involvement and insight into many of the problems and options which the international e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider community is currently studying to achieve a practical design for a future machine.

  19. Rank regression: an alternative regression approach for data with outliers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; Tang, Wan; Lu, Ying; Tu, Xin

    2014-10-01

    Linear regression models are widely used in mental health and related health services research. However, the classic linear regression analysis assumes that the data are normally distributed, an assumption that is not met by the data obtained in many studies. One method of dealing with this problem is to use semi-parametric models, which do not require that the data be normally distributed. But semi-parametric models are quite sensitive to outlying observations, so the generated estimates are unreliable when study data includes outliers. In this situation, some researchers trim the extreme values prior to conducting the analysis, but the ad-hoc rules used for data trimming are based on subjective criteria so different methods of adjustment can yield different results. Rank regression provides a more objective approach to dealing with non-normal data that includes outliers. This paper uses simulated and real data to illustrate this useful regression approach for dealing with outliers and compares it to the results generated using classical regression models and semi-parametric regression models.

  20. An alternate approach to space missions involving a long tether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzer, Ehud

    1992-07-01

    Uses of tethers for a variety of purposes in space have been investigated extensively for many years. Currently, interest is focused on two NASA missions, TSS-1 and TSS-2, in which, a satellite is to be deployed, by means of a tether, from the Shuttle, and performs a series of experiments. The tethers to be used in TSS-1 and TSS-2 are very long, namely 20 km and 100 km, respectively. Hence, significant problems of dynamics and control arise in connection with all mission phases, and it is not yet clear that all of these problems possess satisfactory solutions. This must be a source of concern, given the fact that TSS-1 and TSS-2 are manned missions involving the very valuable Shuttle. It is the purpose of this dissertation to propose alternative means to accomplish the goals of missions such as those of TSS-1 and TSS-2, a way that involves the Shuttle and astronauts either minimally or not at all. Stated most simply, the proposal is this: replace the Shuttle with an unmanned spacecraft. Although this idea was mentioned in early papers on tethered systems, its feasibility remained to be investigated. A comprehensive study of such a system is the topic of the present dissertation. The system is composed of a primary satellite, a tether, and a secondary satellite. The primary satellite carries scientific instruments, whereas the secondary one is equipped with a set of thrusters for purposes of control. First, a 3D model, in which the tether is represented by two segments, is analyzed. Thereafter, multi-segment models for the tether are considered; only part of the system states are measured, and the other states are estimated by means of a reduced order estimator. To optimize the deployment and retrieval phases, a multi-controller, MATLAB based algorithm, is employed. The result is improved performance and a significant reduction in fuel consumption. Finally, to use electrodynamic forces for orbit transfer without exciting tether bending motions, the notion of

  1. [Psychosomatic approach to patients with headache: alternative or integrated diagnoses?].

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, Giuseppina; Ruberto, Stefania; Firenze, Caterina; Quartesan, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Each person has an inseparable body-mind unity, with psychic factors that can also manifest themselves through changes in the functions of the body, and with changing somatic states that contribute to mental experience. This explains why somatic symptoms fall within psychiatry. When a patient complains about physical symptoms, it is essentially an integrated, multidisciplinary diagnosis which is used to identify the various factors (biological and psychological) which worsen the disorder, and a psychiatric dimensional approach is used to integrate the descriptive symptomatic diagnosis with the psychostructural diagnosis. The same symptoms, in fact, may underlie different psychological dynamics that direct the treatment and determine the prognosis, as explained in three clinical cases that we described. The literature on headaches reports a high rate of co-morbidity between migraines and psychiatric disorders, but doesn't take into account the fact that often the symptom of headache is part of the disorder, even when it presents on its own. In conclusion, a holistic approach is needed for the patient to be diagnosed as having a "psychiatric" form of headache. A medical examination of the illness leading to a diagnoses is essential, according to the criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disease (ICHD-II). In clinical practice, we have integrated the descriptive diagnosis (ICHD-II mini-Plus) with the psychological (Diagnostic Criteria of Psychosomatic Research - DCPR) and psycho-structural (Kenberg's interview, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - MMPI) diagnoses. The clarification of the dynamics underlying the definition of symptoms and the role played by psychological factors has influenced the identification of therapeutic objectives and in the identification of the most appropriate strategies.

  2. Peatland geoengineering: an alternative approach to terrestrial carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Christopher; Fenner, Nathalie; Shirsat, Anil H

    2012-09-13

    Terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems contribute almost equally to the sequestration of ca 50 per cent of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions, and already play a role in minimizing our impact on Earth's climate. On land, the majority of the sequestered carbon enters soil carbon stores. Almost one-third of that soil carbon can be found in peatlands, an area covering just 2-3% of the Earth's landmass. Peatlands are thus well established as powerful agents of carbon capture and storage; the preservation of archaeological artefacts, such as ancient bog bodies, further attest to their exceptional preservative properties. Peatlands have higher carbon storage densities per unit ecosystem area than either the oceans or dry terrestrial systems. However, despite attempts over a number of years at enhancing carbon capture in the oceans or in land-based afforestation schemes, no attempt has yet been made to optimize peatland carbon storage capacity or even to harness peatlands to store externally captured carbon. Recent studies suggest that peatland carbon sequestration is due to the inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds that create an 'enzymic latch' on decomposition. Here, we propose to harness that mechanism in a series of peatland geoengineering strategies whereby molecular, biogeochemical, agronomical and afforestation approaches increase carbon capture and long-term sequestration in peat-forming terrestrial ecosystems.

  3. An alternative approach to computerized tomography (CT) in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Asser H; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Uhrenholt, Lars; Vesterby, Annie

    2009-01-10

    Computerized Tomography (CT) is used by some forensic pathology departments as a supplement to the forensic autopsy. Departments with a limited number of autopsies may find it relatively expensive to acquire and operate a CT-scanner. Furthermore, it requires a great deal of training and experience to interpret the radiological data. We are currently evaluating CT in order to decide whether the benefits match the efforts. In selected death-investigations the Department of Radiology at Aarhus University Hospital performs CT of the body on behalf of the Institute of Forensic Medicine at Aarhus University and a skilled radiologist interprets the data. We present our radiological findings in the 20 cases where we have used CT and compare them to the autopsy findings. The cases include fatalities from beatings, stabbings, gunshots, fires and traffic accidents. CT is an excellent tool for documenting and illustrating certain lesions, such as gunshot wounds and bone fractures, where we can obtain information that possibly would have been missed at the autopsy. We believe, however, that further research is required before we can recommend CT as a part of a standard forensic autopsy. The cooperation between forensic and radiological departments is a good approach for smaller forensic departments that insures a skilled interpretation without having to divert a lot of resources to equipment and training.

  4. Alternative approaches to ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention.

    PubMed

    Berra, L; Sampson, J; Fumagalli, J; Panigada, M; Kolobow, T

    2011-03-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which develops in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, is the most common nosocomial infection in patients with acute respiratory failure. The major mechanism of lower respiratory tract colonization is aspiration of bacteria-colonized secretions from the oropharynx into the lower airways. The hydrostatic pressure of the secretions that collect in the subglottic space, which is the area above the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff, or aerosolization of bacteria from the secretions collected within the respiratory tubing may facilitate the leakage into the lower airways. Ideally, the elimination of the mechanisms responsible for aspiration would decrease the incidence of VAP. Several preventive measures have been tested in clinical trials with little success.Here we present the results of our efforts to develop novel approaches for the prevention of VAP. Specifically, we found that keeping ventilated patients in a lateral position, which eliminates gravitational forces, is feasible and possibly advantageous. Additionally, several novel medical devices have been recently developed to prevent bacterial biofilm formation from the ETT and breathing tubing. These devices include coated ETTs, mucus shavers and mucus slurpers. Prevention of ETT bacterial colonization showed decreased bacterial colonization of the respiratory circuit and of the lower respiratory tract in laboratory studies and clinical trials. Future large studies should be designed to test the hypothesis that VAP can be prevented with these novel strategies. While there is a current focus on the use of respiratory devices to prevent biofilm formation and microaspiration, it is important to remember that lower respiratory tract colonization is multifactorial. Prevention of VAP cannot be achieved solely by eliminating bacterial biofilm on respiratory devices, and more comprehensive care of the intubated patient needs to be implemented.

  5. An Alternative Approach to Human Servicing of Manned Earth Orbiting Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularski, John; Alpert, Brian

    2011-01-01

    As manned spacecraft have grown larger and more complex, they have come to rely on spacewalks or Extravehicular Activities (EVA) for both mission success and crew safety. Typically these spacecraft maintain all of the hardware and trained personnel needed to perform an EVA on-board at all times. Maintaining this capability requires volume and up-mass for storage of EVA hardware, crew time for ground and on-orbit training, and on-orbit maintenance of EVA hardware . This paper proposes an alternative methodology to utilize launch-on-need hardware and crew to provide EVA capability for space stations in Earth orbit after assembly complete, in the same way that most people would call a repairman to fix something at their home. This approach would not only reduce ground training requirements and save Intravehicular Activity (IVA) crew time in the form of EVA hardware maintenance and on-orbit training, but would also lead to more efficient EVAs because they would be performed by specialists with detailed knowledge and training stemming from their direct involvement in the development of the EVA. The on-orbit crew would then be available to focus on the immediate response to the failure as well as the day-to-day operations of the spacecraft and payloads. This paper will look at how current ISS unplanned EVAs are conducted, including the time required for preparation, and offer alternatives for future spacecraft utilizing lessons learned from ISS. As this methodology relies entirely on the on-time and on-need launch of spacecraft, any space station that utilized this approach would need a robust transportation system including more than one launch vehicle capable of carrying crew. In addition the fault tolerance of the space station would be an important consideration in how much time was available for EVA preparation after the failure. Each future program would have to weigh the risk of on-time launch against the increase in available crew time for the main objective of

  6. School Before Six: A Diagnostic Approach. Volume II (Revised Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgden, Laurel; And Others

    This collection of learning activities, appropriate for preschool and kindergarten children, is the second volume of a 2-volume manual which describes a diagnostic method of teaching young children. The activities are organized according to program areas. A description of each activity includes information on its uses, materials needed, and final…

  7. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  8. Alternative single-reference coupled cluster approaches for multireference problems: the simpler, the better.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Francesco A

    2011-06-14

    We report a general implementation of alternative formulations of single-reference coupled cluster theory (extended, unitary, and variational) with arbitrary-order truncation of the cluster operator. These methods are applied to compute the energy of Ne and the equilibrium properties of HF and C(2). Potential energy curves for the dissociation of HF and the BeH(2) model computed with the extended, variational, and unitary coupled cluster approaches are compared to those obtained from the multireference coupled cluster approach of Mukherjee et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 6171 (1999)] and the internally contracted multireference coupled cluster approach [F. A. Evangelista and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 114102 (2011)]. In the case of Ne, HF, and C(2), the alternative coupled cluster approaches yield almost identical bond length, harmonic vibrational frequency, and anharmonic constant, which are more accurate than those from traditional coupled cluster theory. For potential energy curves, the alternative coupled cluster methods are found to be more accurate than traditional coupled cluster theory, but are three to ten times less accurate than multireference coupled cluster approaches. The most challenging benchmark, the BeH(2) model, highlights the strong dependence of the alternative coupled cluster theories on the choice of the Fermi vacuum. When evaluated by the accuracy to cost ratio, the alternative coupled cluster methods are not competitive with respect to traditional CC theory, in other words, the simplest theory is found to be the most effective one.

  9. Alternative Models of Service, Centralized Machine Operations. Phase II Report. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Management Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was conducted to determine if the centralization of playback machine operations for the national free library program would be feasible, economical, and desirable. An alternative model of playback machine services was constructed and compared with existing network operations considering both cost and service. The alternative model was…

  10. Complementary and alternative approaches used by parents of children with epilepsy on epilepsy management.

    PubMed

    Işler, Ayşegül; Turan, Fatma Dilek; Gözüm, Sebahat; Oncel, Selma

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the complementary and alternative approaches used by parents of children with epilepsy on epilepsy management. This descriptive study included a total of 304 parents of children with epilepsy aged between 0 and 18years evaluated at the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Akdeniz University Hospital in Turkey between January and May 2013. Data were collected by using a questionnaire developed by the researchers. It was determined that all the parents use complementary and alternative approaches for their children with epilepsy, and the most common approaches are praying (99.3%); keeping their children away from the effects of smoking (79.8%); feeding their children walnuts (79.6%), butter (59.2%), and bone marrow (58.6%); providing their children with good quality sleep (58.6%); and enabling their children to play games (51%). The approaches commonly applied during seizures include praying (96.2%), comforting their children in their arms and showing affection (55.6%), waiting for seizures to finish at home (45.7%), and laying children on their side (41.1%). Of parents, 98% stated that alternative approaches enable them to control their child's seizures, 100% said that alternative approaches have no adverse effect, and 98.4% stated that they will continue to use these approaches. The children's approaches to cope with epilepsy included looking after pets (72.7%), listening to music (70.1%), watching television (64.5%), playing games (55.3%), praying (51%), and spending time with friends (48.7%). Most of the approaches used by parents and children with epilepsy for the management of illness are determined to consist of complementary approaches that may contribute to management of epilepsy. Knowing the approaches of parents and children with epilepsy that could adversely affect disease management is important for educating parents and children to avoid these potentially harmful interventions.

  11. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-01-06

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants.

  12. Different approaches to assess the volume of debris-flows deposits: are results comparable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, T.; Bertoldi, G.; D'Agostino, V.

    2012-04-01

    methods have been tested to estimate the volume of debris-flow deposits: a) interpolation of the deposit depths over depositional area via the ArcView tool "Topo to Raster"; (b) simple multiplication of the mean deposit thickness by the depositional area; (c) estimation of a multi-parametric linear regression to compute the deposit depth as function of deposit slope and distance from the fan apex; (d) use of an empirical relation depending on the planimetric area of the deposit raised to an exponent, equal to 2/3, and on a dimensionless mobility coefficient derived from adaptation of literature data; (e) previous method but with the exponent calculated as function of the fan and channel slope; (f) hydrological-hydraulic approach which transforms the reconstructed flow hydrograph into a debris-graph. Results show a large variability about volumes estimation, but some important key points emerge. The hydrological approach appears weak, being strongly dependent on rainfall data quality and on basin activity before the event. Geomorphic/field-survey-based approaches are more concordant and consistent. Even if the spatial interpolation of deposit thicknesses is over-simplified, such methods results the best alternative to the empirical formulas.

  13. Comparing alternative approaches to establishing regulatory levels for reproductive toxicants: DBCP as a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Pease, W; Vandenberg, J; Hooper, K

    1991-01-01

    This paper compares four alternative approaches for deriving regulatory levels for reproductive toxicants by applying them to the available data on the human spermatotoxicant 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). The alternatives examined include the Proposition 65 approach (application of a mandatory 1000-fold uncertainty factor to a no-observed-adverse-effect level [NOAEL]), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approach (application of flexible uncertainty factors to a NOAEL), the Benchmark Dose approach (application of flexible uncertainty factors to a dose associated with a known level of change in a reproductive parameter), and the Quantitative Risk Estimation approach (using low-dose linear extrapolation and a model of the relationship between sperm count and infertility). Applied to DBCP, these approaches do not produce substantially different estimates of allowable exposure levels. However, the approaches do have different data requirements and provide different amounts of information on reproductive hazards to risk managers and the public. Neither the Proposition 65 nor the EPA approach provides information about the extent of health risk remaining at a regulatory level. In contrast, the Benchmark Dose approach can provide estimates of the magnitude of sperm count reduction at a regulatory level, and the Quantitative Risk Estimation approach can provide estimates of exposure-induced infertility. PMID:2040244

  14. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Selecting an Analysis Approach

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An approach for selecting statistical analyses to inform causal analysis. Describes methods for determining whether test site conditions differ from reference expectations. Describes an approach for estimating stressor-response relationships.

  15. Alternative Endpoints and Approaches Selected for the Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater at Complex Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, R. A.; Hawley, E.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation will focus on findings, statistics, and case studies from a recently-completed report for the Department of Defense's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) (Project ER-0832) on alternative endpoints and alternative remedial strategies for groundwater remediation under a variety of Federal and state cleanup programs, including technical impracticability (TI) and other Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirement (ARAR) waivers, state and local designations such as groundwater management zones, Alternate Concentration Limits (ACLs), use of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) over long timeframes, and more. The primary objective of the project was to provide environmental managers and regulators with tools, metrics, and information needed to evaluate alternative endpoints for groundwater remediation at complex sites. A statistical analysis of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites receiving TI waivers will be presented as well as case studies of other types of alternative endpoints and alternative remedial strategies to illustrate the variety of approaches used at complex sites and the technical analyses used to predict and document cost, timeframe, and potential remedial effectiveness. Case studies provide examples of the flexible, site-specific, application of alternative endpoints and alternative remedial strategies that have been used in the past to manage and remediate groundwater contamination at complex sites. For example, at least 13 states consider some designation for groundwater containment in their corrective action policies, such as groundwater management zones, containment zones, and groundwater classification exemption areas. These designations typically indicate that groundwater contamination is present above permissible levels. Soil and groundwater within these zones are managed to protect human health and the environment. Lesson learned for the analyses

  16. Alternative approaches for medical countermeasures to biological and chemical terrorism and warfare.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; Zurlo, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The desire to develop and evaluate drugs as potential countermeasures for biological and chemical threats requires test systems that can also substitute for the clinical trials normally crucial for drug development. Animal models have limited predictivity for drug efficacy, as is well known from many disappointments in clinical trials. Traditional in vitro and in silico approaches are not really game changers here, but the substantial investment into novel tools now underway might bring about a second generation of alternative approaches. The avenue pursued focuses primarily on the development of a Human on a Chip, i.e., the combination of different three-dimensional (stem) cell-based organ equivalents combined with microfluidics. The prospects of such approaches, their impact on the field of alternative approaches, and necessary complementary activities are discussed. The need to adapt quality assurance measures and experiences from validation is stressed.

  17. Treatment of holocord spinal epidural abscess via alternating side unilateral approach for bilateral laminectomy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Roy; Yung, Brian H; Sedney, Cara; Miele, Vincent J

    2015-01-01

    To date, this is the first reported case of the surgical management of a holocord epidural abscess done through level-skipping laminectomies. It is also the first reported case of these laminectomies being performed via an alternating side unilateral approach for this condition. A 51-year-old patient presenting with progressive lower extremity weakness secondary to a spinal epidural abscess extending from C4 to S1. A minimally disruptive method of relieving the spinal cord compression via evacuation of the abscess was employed successfully. This report demonstrates the efficacy of level skipping laminectomies via a unilateral approach for holocord epidural abscesses (extending 20 vertebral levels). Performing the laminectomies via a unilateral approach as well as alternating the side of the approach minimized iatrogenic instability risk. Both strategies were designed to minimize incision size, tissue disruption, and the amount of muscular weakness/imbalance postoperatively.

  18. A computational and experimental approach toward a priori identification of alternatively spliced exons

    PubMed Central

    PHILIPPS, DANA L.; PARK, JUNG W.; GRAVELEY, BRENTON R.

    2004-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a powerful means of regulating gene expression and enhancing protein diversity. In fact, the majority of metazoan genes encode pre-mRNAs that are alternatively spliced to produce anywhere from two to tens of thousands of mRNA isoforms. Thus, an important part of determining the complete proteome of an organism is developing a catalog of all mRNA isoforms. Alternatively spliced exons are typically identified by aligning EST clusters to reference mRNAs or genomic DNA. However, this approach is not useful for genomes that lack robust EST coverage, and tools that enable accurate prediction of alternatively spliced exons would be extraordinarily useful. Here, we use comparative genomics to identify, and experimentally verify, potential alternative exons based solely on their high degree of conservation between Drosophila melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura. At least 40% of the exons that fit our prediction criteria are in fact alternatively spliced. Thus, comparative genomics can be used to accurately predict certain classes of alternative exons without relying on EST data. PMID:15525709

  19. Space station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 3: Safety impact of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockoff, L. A.; Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (IOC) during the early 1990's was considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris. Of particular interest here is volume three (of five volumes) pertaining to the safety impact of human factors.

  20. Communicative Approach: An Alternative Method Used in Improving Students' Academic Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irmawati, Noer Doddy

    2012-01-01

    Academic reading is a difficult subject to be mastered. It is needed because most of books or references are written in English. The emphasis is on academic reading which becomes a compulsory subject that must be taught and understood in Faculty of Letters UAD Yogyakarta. Communicative approach is used and applied as an alternative method in the…

  1. "Iitaohkanao'pi--The Meeting Place Project": An Alternative Approach to Young People's Concerts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasiak, Edwin B.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored alternative approaches to young people's concerts aimed at extending musical appreciations and cultural understandings while promoting interest in concert attendance among upper elementary students. The project, an artistic and cross-cultural collaboration grounded in a spirit of mutual respect, consisted of three components:…

  2. Hermeneutic-Narrative Approach to Career Counselling: An Alternative to Postmodernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrif, Erin; Amundson, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Postmodern approaches to career counselling have been suggested as a viable alternative to traditional career theories that rely on modernist assumptions. However, some of the assumptions that underlie postmodernism may prove to be unhelpful to career development practice in the long run. In this article we examine critiques of postmodern…

  3. A Half-Flipped Classroom or an Alternative Approach?: Primary Sources and Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermann, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines an alternate approach to the "flipped" classroom paradigm for an upper level history class using a blended on-line and in-class format. The concept of the flipped classroom has received increasing emphasis based on its potential to create a student-centered learning environment that incorporates practical instruction…

  4. 7 CFR 1412.72 - Availability and election of alternative approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....41(b). (e) If all of the producers on a farm fail to make an election under paragraphs (a) and (d... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability and election of alternative approach...-CYCLICAL PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS...

  5. Alternative Approaches for Allocating Federal Funds for the Education of Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; Irwin, Paul M.

    This paper analyzes alternative approaches to allocating Chapter I funds for the education of disadvantaged children. The paper begins with a short discussion of the traditional method of distributing funds to districts on the basis of low-income student representation and then considers how changes in the poverty count from the 1970 to the 1980…

  6. Overcoming Acculturation: Physical Education Recruits' Experiences of an Alternative Pedagogical Approach to Games Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Brendan; Renshaw, Ian; Davids, Keith; Brymer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher education (PETE) programmes have been identified as a critical platform to encourage the exploration of alternative teaching approaches by pre-service teachers. However, the socio-cultural constraint of acculturation or past physical education and sporting experiences results in the maintenance of the status…

  7. Flexible and Alternative Approaches to Providing School Infrastructure in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matichuk, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Like many other jurisdictions, the western Canadian province of Alberta is seeking cost-effective and creative ways of providing school infrastructure that meets the needs of 21st century learning. Solutions are being found through the use of alternative financing and procurement arrangements and through innovative approaches to creating flexible…

  8. A Computer-Assisted Multiliteracies Programme as an Alternative Approach to EFL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyungmee; Ardeshiri, Minoo; Cummins, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce a computer-assisted multiliteracies programme (CaMP) as an alternative approach to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instruction in order to overcome the educational limitations that are inherent in most EFL settings. In a number of monolingual societies with a dominant language other than English,…

  9. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLIER ALTERNATIVES TO CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS USING NON-TRADITIONAL APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmentally Friendlier Synthetic Alternatives
    Using Non-traditional Approaches

    Rajender S. Varma

    Synthetic organic transformations performed under non-traditional conditions are becoming popular primarily to circumvent the growing environmental concerns. A so...

  10. Final cost reduction study for the Geysers Recharge Alternative. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cost reduction opportunities exist for the Geysers Recharge Alternative as defined in the Santa Rosa Subregional Long-Term Wastewater Project EIR/EIS. The City of Santa Rosa has been directed to have a plan for reclaimed water disposal in place by 1999 which will meet future capacity needs under all weather conditions. A Draft EIR/EIS released in July 1996 and a Final EIR certified in June 1997 examine four primary alternatives plus the No Action Alternative. Two of the primary alternatives involve agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water, either in western or southern Sonoma County. Another involves increased discharge of reclaimed water into the Russian River. The fourth involves using reclaimed water to replenish the geothermal reservoir at the Geysers. The addition of this water source would enable the Geysers operators to produce more steam from the geothermal area and thereby prolong the life and economic production level of the steamfield and the geothermal power plants supplied by the steamfield. This study provides additional refined cost estimates for new scenarios which utilize an alternative pipeline alignment and a range of reclaimed water flows, which deliver less water to the Geysers than proposed in the EIR/EIS (by distributing flow to other project components). Also, electrical power rates were revised to reflect the recent changes in costs associated with deregulation of the power industry. In addition, this report provides information on sources of potential public and private funding available and future environmental documentation required if the cost reduction scenarios were to be selected by the City as part of their preferred alternative.

  11. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  13. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  14. What the Research Says about Alternative Teacher Certification Programs. Information Capsule. Volume 1104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2012-01-01

    The shortage of qualified teachers across the U.S. has contributed to the popularity of alternative certification programs. These programs are designed to attract individuals into the teaching profession by allowing candidates to become certified without having to complete a traditional teacher education program. This Information Capsule reviewed…

  15. Program Evaluation in Alternative Education: An Annotated Bibliography. Teacher Education Forum; Volume 4, Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esp, Barbara

    The Forum Series is a collection of papers dealing with all phases of teacher education including inservice training and graduate study. This selection is an annotated bibliography in two parts: (1) Evaluation Issues and Methods; and (2) Studies of Alternative Environments. (DMT)

  16. An Alternative School Teacher Education Program. Teacher Education Forum; Volume 3, Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D.

    The Alternative School Teacher Education Program, cooperatively developed by participating public schools and Indiana University, is a field-based masters degree program designed for completion in one calendar year. Students spend two summers on campus pursuing graduate course work. During the academic year between these summers, students earn…

  17. Challenging the Giant, Volume IV: The Best of SKOLE, the Journal of Alternative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leue, Mary M., Ed.

    This book compiles articles, interviews, student writings, and other offerings first published in SKOLE, the Journal of Alternative Education, 1995-99. Sections include: (1) talking about education (seven interviews on the foundations of learning, the Modern School movement, educational philosophy at the Albany Free School, life at a Japanese free…

  18. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  19. Comparative Orbital Volumes between a Single Incisional Approach and a Double Incisional Approach in Patients with Combined Blowout Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Wook; Seo, Bommie F.; Rhie, Jong Won; Ahn, Sang Tae; Oh, Deuk Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Blowout fracture characterized by concurrent floor and medial wall fractures is a rare entity. We compared surgical outcomes between a single approach and a double approach in patients with orbital fracture by measuring the postoperative orbital volume. Methods. We confirmed that 21 (8.5%) of a total of 246 patients with orbital fractures had fractures of the medial wall and floor through a retrospective chart review. Of these, 10 patients underwent the single approach and the remaining 11 patients had the double approach. We performed a statistical analysis of changes between the preoperative and postoperative orbital volumes at a 6-month follow-up. Results. Compared with the contralateral, nonaffected side, the orbital volume was 115.3 (±6.09)% preoperatively and 106.5 (±6.15)% postoperatively in the single approach group and 118.2 (±11.16)% preoperatively and 108.6 (±13.96)% postoperatively in the double approach. These results indicated that there was a significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative orbital volumes in each group (P < 0.05). However there was no significant difference between the single approach and the double approach (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Our results showed that there were no significant differences in surgical outcomes between the two modalities. The treatment modality may be selected based on the surgeons' preference, as well as the fracture type. PMID:25961049

  20. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, appendix E: Alternate flight systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The functional requirements of stowage, preparation, serving, consumption, and cleanup were applied to each of the five food mixes selected for study in terms of the overall design of the space shuttle food system. The analysis led to a definition of performance requirements for each food mix, along with a definition of equipment to meet those requirements. Weight and volume data for all five systems, in terms of food and packaging, support equipment, and galley installation penalties, are presented.

  1. Tumor Volume as an Alternative Response Measurement for Imatinib Treated GIST Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Gaia; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Schöffski, Patrick; van der Holt, Bronno; Bekers, Dave J.; Eechoute, Karel; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Verweij, Jaap; Sleijfer, Stefan; Mathijssen, Ron H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of tumor size changes is crucial in clinical trials and patient care. We compared imatinib-induced volume changes of liver metastases (LM) from gastro-intestinal stromal tumors (GIST) to RECIST and Choi criteria and their association with overall survival (OS). Methods LM from 84 GIST patients (training and validation set) were evaluated using manual and semi-automated Computed Tomography measurements at baseline, after 3, 6 and 12 months of imatinib. The ability of uni-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) measurements to detect size changes (increase/decrease) ≥20% was evaluated. Volumetric response cut-offs were derived from minimally relevant changes (+20/−30%) by RECIST, considering lesions as spherical or ellipsoidal. Results 3D measurements detected size changes ≥20% more frequently than 1D at every time-point (P≤0.008). 3D and Choi criteria registered more responses than RECIST at 3 and 6 months for 3D-spheres (P≤0.03) and at all time-points for 3D-ellipsoids and Choi criteria (P<0.001). Progressive disease by 3D criteria seems to better correlate to OS at late time-points than other criteria. Conclusion Volume criteria (especially ellipsoids) classify a higher number of patients as imatinib-responders than RECIST. Volume discriminates size changes better than diameter in GIST and constitutes a feasible and robust method to evaluate response and predict patient benefit. PMID:23133631

  2. Space station systems analysis study. Part 3: Documentation. Volume 7: SCB alternate EPS evaluation, task 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Power levels up to 100 kWe average were baselined for the electrical power system of the space construction base, a long-duration manned facility capable of supporting manufacturing and large scale construction projects in space. Alternatives to the solar array battery systems discussed include: (1) solar concentrator/brayton; (2) solar concentrator/thermionic; (3) isotope/brayton; (4) nuclear/brayton; (5) nuclear thermoelectric; and (6) nuclear thermionic.

  3. Air Force Flight Feeding. Volume 1. Evaluation of Current System and Alternative Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    Model 171 Thermosafe (Insulated Carrier) Polyfoam 79 18. Alternative Onboard Subsystems and Menu Expansion Capabilities 80 19. Microwave Oven...34blue ice" would be satisfactory as a substitute for dry ice. While the disposable, hinged, thermoformed trays used by the European carriers for...used was a Model 171 Thermosafe (Figure 17), front opening transporter, with 2 inches of insulation, manufac- tured by Polyfoam Packers Corporation

  4. Imaging of Temporomandibular Joint: Approach by Direct Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Caradonna, Carola; Bruschetta, Daniele; Vaccarino, Gianluigi; Milardi, Demetrio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to conduct a morphological analysis of the temporomandibular joint, a highly specialized synovial joint that permits movement and function of the mandible. Materials and Methods: We have studied the temporom-andibular joint anatomy, directly on the living, from 3D images obtained by medical imaging Computed Tomography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance acquisition, and subsequent re-engineering techniques 3D Surface Rendering and Volume Rendering. Data were analysed with the goal of being able to isolate, identify and distinguish the anatomical structures of the joint, and get the largest possible number of information utilizing software for post-processing work. Results: It was possible to reproduce anatomy of the skeletal structures, as well as through acquisitions of Magnetic Resonance Imaging; it was also possible to visualize the vascular, muscular, ligamentous and tendinous components of the articular complex, and also the capsule and the fibrous cartilaginous disc. We managed the Surface Rendering and Volume Rendering, not only to obtain three-dimensional images for colour and for resolution comparable to the usual anatomical preparations, but also a considerable number of anatomical, minuter details, zooming, rotating and cutting the same images with linking, graduating the colour, transparency and opacity from time to time. Conclusion: These results are encouraging to stimulate further studies in other anatomical districts. PMID:25664280

  5. Alternative Endpoints and Approaches for the Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater at Complex Sites - 13426

    SciTech Connect

    Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elisabeth L.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE)'s environmental remediation programs is to restore groundwater to beneficial use, similar to many other Federal and state environmental cleanup programs. Based on past experience, groundwater remediation to pre-contamination conditions (i.e., drinking water standards or non-detectable concentrations) can be successfully achieved at many sites. At a subset of the most complex sites, however, complete restoration is not likely achievable within the next 50 to 100 years using today's technology. This presentation describes several approaches used at complex sites in the face of these technical challenges. Many complex sites adopted a long-term management approach, whereby contamination was contained within a specified area using active or passive remediation techniques. Consistent with the requirements of their respective environmental cleanup programs, several complex sites selected land use restrictions and used risk management approaches to accordingly adopt alternative cleanup goals (alternative endpoints). Several sites used long-term management designations and approaches in conjunction with the alternative endpoints. Examples include various state designations for groundwater management zones, technical impracticability (TI) waivers or greater risk waivers at Superfund sites, and the use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or other passive long-term management approaches over long time frames. This presentation will focus on findings, statistics, and case studies from a recently-completed report for the Department of Defense's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) (Project ER-0832) on alternative endpoints and approaches for groundwater remediation at complex sites under a variety of Federal and state cleanup programs. The primary objective of the project was to provide environmental managers and regulators with tools, metrics, and information needed to evaluate

  6. Model‐Based Assessment of Alternative Study Designs in Pediatric Trials. Part I: Frequentist Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Smania, G; Baiardi, P; Ceci, A; Magni, P

    2016-01-01

    Alternative designs can increase the feasibility of pediatric trials when compared to classical parallel designs (PaD). In this work we present a model‐based approach based on clinical trial simulations for the comparison of PaD with the alternative sequential, crossover, and randomized withdrawal (RWD) designs. Study designs were evaluated in terms of: type I and II errors, sample size per arm (SS), trial duration (TD), treatment exposures, and parameter estimate precision (EP). The crossover requires the lowest SS and TD, although it implies higher placebo and no treatment exposures. RWD maximizes exposure to active treatment while minimizing that to placebo, but requires the largest SS. SS of sequential designs can sometimes be smaller than the crossover one, although with poorer EP. This pharmacometric framework allows a multiscale comparison of alternative study designs that can be used for design selection in future pediatric trials. PMID:27300083

  7. Office of Exploration: Exploration studies technical report. Volume 2: Studies approach and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Bland, Dan

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Office of Exploration has been tasked with defining and recommending alternatives for an early 1990's national decision on a focused program of human exploration of the solar system. The Mission Analysis and System Engineering (MASE) group, which is managed by the Exploration Studies Office at the Johnson Space Center, is responsible for coordinating the technical studies necessary for accomplishing such a task. This technical report describes the process that has been developed in a case study approach. The four case studies that were developed in FY88 include: (1) human expedition to Phobos; (2) human expeditions to Mars; (3) lunar observatory; and (4) lunar outpost to early Mars evolution. The final outcome of this effort is a set of programmatic and technical conclusions and recommendations for the following year's work. Volume 2 describes the case study process, the technical results of each of the case studies, and opportunities for additional study. Included in the discussion of each case study is a description of the mission key features and profile. Mission definition and manifesting are detailed, followed by a description of the mission architecture and infrastructure. Systems concepts for the required orbital nodes, transportation systems, and planetary surface systems are discussed. Prerequisite implementation plans resulting from the synthesized case studies are described and in-depth assessments are presented.

  8. Alternative understanding for the enthalpy vs volume change upon structural relaxation of metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khonik, V. A.; Kobelev, N. P.

    2014-03-01

    It has been argued that the densification observed upon structural relaxation of metallic glasses can be explained not by the "free volume annihilation," as it is custom to consider, but by the annealing of interstitialcy-like "defects" frozen-in upon glass production. A simple expression for the enthalpy release due to relaxation of defect-induced dilatational energy has been proposed. The expression is shown to be in agreement with recent detailed experimental data on the heat release occurring upon structural relaxation of Au-based metallic glass [J. Bünz and G. Wilde, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 223503 (2013)].

  9. Liquid rocket booster study. Volume 2, book 5, appendix 9: LRB alternate applications and evolutionary growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The analyses performed in assessing the merit of the Liquid Rocket Booster concept for use in alternate applications such as for Shuttle C, for Standalone Expendable Launch Vehicles, and possibly for use with the Air Force's Advanced Launch System are presented. A comparison is also presented of the three LRB candidate designs, namely: (1) the LO2/LH2 pump fed, (2) the LO2/RP-1 pump fed, and (3) the LO2/RP-1 pressure fed propellant systems in terms of evolution along with design and cost factors, and other qualitative considerations. A further description is also presented of the recommended LRB standalone, core-to-orbit launch vehicle concept.

  10. Psychological Approaches to Problems of Children and Adolescents. [Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jeff, Ed.; Thomas, Alex, Ed.

    This document contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of adolescents and children and is intended as a resource tool for school psychologists. Articles include background information, approaches regarding assessment of the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities, monitoring methods, and references.…

  11. Heat transfer characteristics of alternate refrigerants: Volume 2, Condenser inside tube. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, B.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental facility was constructed to determine the condensing heat transfer coefficients of alternative refrigerants in horizontal, enhanced tubes. The experimental facility was designed to handle a wide range of operating conditions while demanding a minimal refrigerant charge. Gas chromatography was utilized to measure the composition of refrigerant mixtures and the oil concentration. Measurements were obtained for six R-22 replacements and four R-502 replacements along with baseline data for R-22 and R-502. Each refrigerant was tested at 0% and 1% oil by weight, four different mass flow rates (75, 150, 250, and 400 lb{sub m}/hr), and three different heat fluxes (corresponding to full condensation in 18.5, 37, and 55.5-ft.). All tests were performed in a 3/8 in. Wolverine Turbo A microgrooved tube. The data for R-22 compared well with published data and correlations. The measured heat transfer coefficients for most of the alternatives were very close to the heat transfer coefficient of the refrigerant they would be replacing. It was found that some of the zeotropic refrigerants performed poorly at low heat fluxes and low mass flow rates, as expected. 1% oil in the refrigerant flow had very little impact on heat transfer coefficients. Also, it was found that at the highest mass flow rates the data compare well with published data for smooth tubes, indicating that very little enhancement occurs in this regime.

  12. A review of alternative approaches in the management of iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, G. J.; Ray, S. A.; Lewis, J. S.; Lopez, A. J.; Powell, B. W.; Moss, A. H.; Dormandy, J. A.; Belli, A. M.; Buckenham, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    The management of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms (IPAs) demands close co-operation between radiologist, vascular surgeon and plastic surgeon. Ideally, each patient should be reviewed employing a team approach. Many IPAs require only observation; those with a volume greater than 6 cm3 will require treatment as spontaneous thrombosis is uncommon. Radiological treatment options include ultrasound guided compression repair (UGCR), embolisation, and covered stenting. Occasionally, these are unsuccessful or contra-indicated, and the vascular surgical approach is discussed in detail. Finally, the role of the plastic surgeon in dealing with skin ischaemia is detailed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10615187

  13. Classifying personality disorders: an evolution-based alternative to an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Millon, Theodore

    2011-06-01

    The study of personality disorders, no less psychology as a wole, remains divorced from broader spheres of scientific knowledge. Development of a conceptual schema for classifying personality disorders should include the examination of research limitations and inductive inconsistences that undermine the likely achievements of the evidential approach. An alternative course of action is outlined here, one that looks to evolutionary theory rather than evidence-based methods for classification guidance.

  14. An alternative approach for femtosecond laser induced black silicon in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuncan; Ren, Hai; Si, Jinhai; Sun, Xuehui; Shi, Haitao; Chen, Tao; Chen, Feng; Hou, Xun

    2012-11-01

    An alternative approach for femtosecond laser induced black silicon in ambient air is proposed, in which, black silicon is fabricated on a tellurium coated silicon substrate via femtosecond laser irradiation in ambient air, and selectively etching with hydrofluoric acid is employed to remove the incorporated oxygen. Results of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and absorption measurement show that oxygen is effectively eliminated via etching, and the optical absorption of the black silicon is enhanced.

  15. Functionally tailored transcortical approach of deep-seated lesions: an alternative to the transulcal approach? a technical case report.

    PubMed

    Bresson, D; Madadaki, C; Poisson, I; Habas, C; Mandonnet, E

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly believed that sulci offer a natural path to reach deep-seated lesions. However, it has also been argued that this approach carries a risk of damaging the vessels during the opening of the sulcus.We therefore were prompted to test the possibility of finding a transcortical path identified as non-functional by intraoperative brain mapping. A successful resection is presented of a left posterior is thmusclear cell ependymoma through a selected corridor based on functional mapping in an awake patient.MRI performed at 12 months showed no tumour recurrence. Pre- and postoperative extensive testing confirmed an improvement of the patient's cognitive functions. Therefore, we were able to demonstrate the feasibility of a functionally tailored transcortical approach as an alternative to the transulcal approach for deep-seated lesions. This concept should be validated in a larger patient series.

  16. Communicating with parents of children with autism about vaccines and complementary and alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vidya Bhushan

    2010-05-01

    Despite incontrovertible evidence that vaccines do not cause autism, some parents continue to refuse them and many parents of children with autism seek hope in unproven and potentially harmful complementary and alternative (CAM) approaches. This commentary explores the reasons for such behaviors and proposes that pediatricians may support parents in their pursuit of hope in unproven treatments as long as these are not potentially harmful to the child or prohibitively expensive. While respecting parental autonomy and hope the pediatricians should share with parents their concerns about lack of scientific evidence about CAM and potential for harm by some approaches.

  17. EIIP volume 4: Mobile sources preferred and alternative methods. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This volume presents guidance on the use of three specific data sources for use in developing distributions used in the MOBILE emission factor model. These distributions include registration, mileage accumulation, travel distributions, fuel consumption, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT). In this document, methodologies and example calculations of the estimation of local on-road vehicle fleet characteristics and activity from inspection and maintenance (I/M) program, remote sensing, and fuel sales data are presented. Specific evaluations include the estimation of mileage accumulation rates, registration distributions, diurnal travel distributions and regional vehicle miles traveled (VMT). This guidance is separated into three topics according to the type of data being evaluated: develoment of regestration distributions and mileage accumulation rates from I/M program data; development of registration distributions, diurnal travel distributions, VMT mix, fleet registration information, and I/M program status from remote sensing program data; and development of fuel consumption and VMT from tax revenue and other data sources.

  18. NLT and extrapolated DLT:3-D cinematography alternatives for enlarging the volume of calibration.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, R N; McLean, S P

    1995-10-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of the direct linear transformation (DLT) and non-linear transformation (NLT) methods of 3-D cinematography/videography. A comparison of standard DLT, extrapolated DLT, and NLT calibrations showed the standard (non-extrapolated) DLT to be the most accurate, especially when a large number of control points (40-60) were used. The NLT was more accurate than the extrapolated DLT when the level of extrapolation exceeded 100%. The results indicated that when possible one should use the DLT with a control object, sufficiently large as to encompass the entire activity being studied. However, in situations where the activity volume exceeds the size of one's DLT control object, the NLT method should be considered.

  19. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

  20. Space Station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 5: Space Station safety plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, G. H.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Raasch, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Station Safety Plan has been prepared as an adjunct to the subject contract final report, suggesting the tasks and implementation procedures to ensure that threats are addressed and resolution strategy options identified and incorporated into the space station program. The safety program's approach is to realize minimum risk exposure without levying undue design and operational constraints. Safety objectives and risk acceptances are discussed.

  1. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

  2. Comparing a volume based template approach and ultrasound guided freehand approach in multicatheter interstitial accelerated partial breast irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Vicky Y.; Buhari, Shaik A.; Tan, Poh Wee; Tan, Yun Inn; Leong, Yuh Fun; Earnest, Arul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Currently, there are two described methods of catheter insertion for women undergoing multicatheter interstitial accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). These are a volume based template approach (template) and a non-template ultrasound guidance freehand approach (non-template). We aim to compare dosimetric endpoints between the template and non-template approach. Material and methods Twenty patients, who received adjuvant multicatheter interstitial APBI between August 2008 to March 2010 formed the study cohort. Dosimetric planning was based on the RTOG 04-13 protocol. For standardization, the planning target volume evaluation (PTV-Eval) and organs at risk were contoured with the assistance of the attending surgeon. Dosimetric endpoints include D90 of the PTV-Eval, Dose Homogeneity Index (DHI), V200, maximum skin dose (MSD), and maximum chest wall dose (MCD). A median of 18 catheters was used per patient. The dose prescribed was 34 Gy in 10 fractions BID over 5 days. Results The average breast volume was 846 cm3 (526-1384) for the entire cohort and there was no difference between the two groups (p = 0.6). Insertion time was significantly longer for the non-template approach (mean 150 minutes) compared to the template approach (mean: 90 minutes) (p = 0.02). The planning time was also significantly longer for the non-template approach (mean: 240 minutes) compared to the template approach (mean: 150 minutes) (p < 0.01). The template approach yielded a higher D90 (mean: 95%) compared to the non-template approach (mean: 92%) (p < 0.01). There were no differences in DHI (p = 0.14), V200 (p = 0.21), MSD (p = 0.7), and MCD (p = 0.8). Conclusions Compared to the non-template approach, the template approach offered significant shorter insertion and planning times with significantly improved dosimetric PTV-Eval coverage without significantly compromising organs at risk dosimetrically. PMID:25097558

  3. Alternative approaches for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep farming: a review.

    PubMed

    Šimpraga, Miljenko; Ljubičić, Iva; Hlede, Jadranka Pejaković; Vugrovečki, Ana Shek; Marinculić, Albert; Tkalčić, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a serious health problem and represent the most significant constraint in sheep grazing operations. Problems tend to be worse in organic sheep farming systems, as a consequence of a less restricted access of animals to outdoor environment with a higher exposure to infective larvae. In domestic animals, GIN are effectively controlled by an aggressive prophylactic administration of commercially available anthelmintics. As a consequence to a common overdose and misuse of readily available antiparasitic treatments, there is an inevitable development of populations of GIN resistant to all major classes of anthelmintics. Also, the control of GIN that is based entirely on the anthelmintic use, threatens sustainability of the sheep farming worldwide. The combination of the optimized use of anthelmintic drugs and alternative approaches seem to be a reasonable choice in sustainable parasitic control programs that offer a substantial reduction of anthelmintic treatments and conservation of anthelmintic efficacy. In that aspect, a "targeted selective treatment (TST)" directed towards animals clinically diagnosed with GIN, seems to be an effective approach to leave some parasite populations unexposed to anthelmintics (refugia) and to reduce development of anthelmintic resistance. Also, many current research efforts aim to find and validate sustainable non-chemotherapeutic approaches to GIN control, including changes in grazing management, optimized nutrition, dietary supplementation, consumption of plants with anthelmintic properties, biological control by nematophagous fungi, copper oxide wire particles (COWP), and homeopathic treatments. This manuscript outlines (outlines) and discusses relevant alternative approaches for GIN control in modern sheep farming systems.

  4. Comparative and alternative approaches and novel animal models for aging research

    PubMed Central

    Kristan, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    This special issue of AGE showcases powerful alternative or unconventional approaches to basic aging research, including the use of exceptionally long-lived animal model species and comparative methods from evolutionary biology. In this opening paper, we introduce several of these alternative aging research themes, including the comparative phylogenetic approach. This approach applies modern inferential methods for dissecting basic physiological and biochemical mechanisms correlated with phenotypic traits including longevity, slow aging, sustained somatic maintenance, and repair of molecular damage. Comparative methods can be used to assess the general relevance of specific aging mechanisms—including oxidative processes—to diverse animal species, as well as to assess their potential clinical relevance to humans and other mammals. We also introduce several other novel, underexploited approaches with particular relevance to biogerontology, including the use of model animal species or strains that retain natural genetic heterogeneity, studies of effects of infectious disease and parasites on aging and responses to caloric restriction, studies of reproductive aging, and naturally occurring sex differences in aging. We emphasize the importance of drawing inferences from aging phenomena in laboratory studies that can be applied to clinically relevant aging syndromes in long-lived, outbred animals, including humans. PMID:19424857

  5. Alternative method for determining the original drop volume of bloodstains on knit fabrics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingyao; Li, Xingyu; Michielsen, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Bloodstains are often observed at violent crime scenes and on the skin and clothing of persons involved. The diameters of the blood drops that created these stains are related to the force or energy that caused these drops to become airborne. This has resulted in several attempts to determine the diameter of the original drops, beginning with the methods reported in the pioneering work of Henry Lee [6]. However, his methods destroyed the bloodstain during the measurement. Other methods described in the literature cannot be applied to bloodstains on textiles. A new, rapid, reliable, non-destructive method for determining the diameter of the original drop of blood that results in a stain has been developed for bloodstains on cotton single jersey knit (tee-shirt) fabrics, which is one of the most common fabrics analyzed for BPA both at crime scenes and in forensic laboratories. In this method, a drop of known volume of an appropriate artificial blood substitute is applied to a region similar to the stained region but in an area away from any stains/areas of interest. The areas of the original stain and the artificial blood substitute stain are determined, from which the original drop diameter can be calculated. Errors in the drop diameters, the Reynolds numbers and the Weber numbers resulting from this procedure are less than approximately 6%. This procedure has only been verified on cotton single jersey knit fabrics with 30μL≤drop volume≤80μL. It should not be applied to other materials.

  6. Alternative material to mitigate chrome degradation on high volume ArF layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Gopalakrishnan, Selvi; Thamm, Thomas; Oleynik, Nikolay; Ackmann, Paul; Riviere, Remi; Maelzer, Stephanie; Foong, Yee Mei

    2013-09-01

    One of the objectives of a robust optical proximity correction (OPC) model is to simulate the process variation including 3D mask effects or mask models for different mask blanks. Assuming that the data of different reticle blanks is the same, the wafer data should be a close match for the same OPC model. In order to enhance the robustness of the OPC model, the 3D mask effects need to be reduced. A test of this would be to ensure a close match of the so called fingerprints of different reticle blanks at the wafer level. Features for fingerprint test patterns include "critical dimension through pitch" (CDTP), "inverse CDTP", and "linearity patterns" and critical dimension (CD) difference of disposition structures. In this manuscript the proximity matching of implant layers on chrome on glass (COG) and advance binary reticle blanks will be demonstrated. We will also investigate the influence of reticle blank material including reticle process on isolated and dense features upon the proximity matching for 28 nm high volumes ArF layers such as implant and 2X metal layers. The OPC model verification has been done successfully for both bare wafer and full field wafer for implant layers. There is comparable OPC model for advanced binary and COG reticle. Moreover, the wafer critical dimension uniformity (CDU) results show that advance binary has much better wafer CDU then COG. In spite of higher reticle cost when switching over to advanced binary, there is a considerable cost reduction for the wafer fab which includes a 39% savings in total reticle cost as well as cost reduction due to minimal line holds (LH), wafer reworks and scraps due to Chrome degradation.

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  8. Advanced neuroprotection for brain ischemia: an alternative approach to minimize stroke damage.

    PubMed

    Ayuso, Maria Irene; Montaner, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research on neuroprotectants in the fight against ischemic stroke, no successful results have been obtained and new alternative approaches are urgently needed. Translation of effective candidate drugs in experimental studies to patients has systematically failed. However, some of those treatments or neuroprotectant diets which demonstrated only beneficial effects if given before (but not after) ischemia induction and discarded for conventional neuroprotection, could be rescued in order to apply an 'advanced neuroprotection strategy' (ADNES). Herein, the authors discuss how re-profiling those neuroprotective candidate drugs and diets with the best potential, some of which are mentioned in this article as an ADNES, may be a good approach for developing successful treatments that protect the brain against ischemic damage. This novel approach would try to protect the brain of patients who are at high risk of suffering a stroke, before damage occurs, in order to minimize brain injury by having the neuroprotectant drug or diet 'on board' if unfortunately stroke occurs.

  9. Flared landing approach flying qualities. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingarten, Norman C.; Berthe, Charles J., Jr.; Rynaski, Edmund G.; Sarrafian, Shahan K.

    1986-01-01

    An in-flight research study was conducted utilizing the USAF/Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) to investigate longitudinal flying qualities for the flared landing approach phase of flight. A consistent set of data were generated for: determining what kind of command response the pilot prefers/requires in order to flare and land an aircraft with precision, and refining a time history criterion that took into account all the necessary variables and the characteristics that would accurately predict flying qualities. Seven evaluation pilots participated representing NASA Langley, NASA Dryden, Calspan, Boeing, Lockheed, and DFVLR (Braunschweig, Germany). The results of the first part of the study provide guidelines to the flight control system designer, using MIL-F-8785-(C) as a guide, that yield the dynamic behavior pilots prefer in flared landings. The results of the second part provide the flying qualities engineer with a derived flying qualities predictive tool which appears to be highly accurate. This time-domain predictive flying qualities criterion was applied to the flight data as well as six previous flying qualities studies, and the results indicate that the criterion predicted the flying qualities level 81% of the time and the Cooper-Harper pilot rating, within + or - 1%, 60% of the time.

  10. Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen A; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Background Biology has increasingly recognized the necessity to build and utilize larger phylogenies to address broad evolutionary questions. Large phylogenies have facilitated the discovery of differential rates of molecular evolution between trees and herbs. They have helped us understand the diversification patterns of mammals as well as the patterns of seed evolution. In addition to these broad evolutionary questions there is increasing awareness of the importance of large phylogenies for addressing conservation issues such as biodiversity hotspots and response to global change. Two major classes of methods have been employed to accomplish the large tree-building task: supertrees and supermatrices. Although these methods are continually being developed, they have yet to be made fully accessible to comparative biologists making extremely large trees rare. Results Here we describe and demonstrate a modified supermatrix method termed mega-phylogeny that uses databased sequences as well as taxonomic hierarchies to make extremely large trees with denser matrices than supermatrices. The two major challenges facing large-scale supermatrix phylogenetics are assembling large data matrices from databases and reconstructing trees from those datasets. The mega-phylogeny approach addresses the former as the latter is accomplished by employing recently developed methods that have greatly reduced the run time of large phylogeny construction. We present an algorithm that requires relatively little human intervention. The implemented algorithm is demonstrated with a dataset and phylogeny for Asterales (within Campanulidae) containing 4954 species and 12,033 sites and an rbcL matrix for green plants (Viridiplantae) with 13,533 species and 1,401 sites. Conclusion By examining much larger phylogenies, patterns emerge that were otherwise unseen. The phylogeny of Viridiplantae successfully reconstructs major relationships of vascular plants that previously required many more genes

  11. Evolving the Principles and Practice of Validation for New Alternative Approaches to Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Maurice; Eskes, Chantra

    Validation is essential for the translation of newly developed alternative approaches to animal testing into tools and solutions suitable for regulatory applications. Formal approaches to validation have emerged over the past 20 years or so and although they have helped greatly to progress the field, it is essential that the principles and practice underpinning validation continue to evolve to keep pace with scientific progress. The modular approach to validation should be exploited to encourage more innovation and flexibility in study design and to increase efficiency in filling data gaps. With the focus now on integrated approaches to testing and assessment that are based on toxicological knowledge captured as adverse outcome pathways, and which incorporate the latest in vitro and computational methods, validation needs to adapt to ensure it adds value rather than hinders progress. Validation needs to be pursued both at the method level, to characterise the performance of in vitro methods in relation their ability to detect any association of a chemical with a particular pathway or key toxicological event, and at the methodological level, to assess how integrated approaches can predict toxicological endpoints relevant for regulatory decision making. To facilitate this, more emphasis needs to be given to the development of performance standards that can be applied to classes of methods and integrated approaches that provide similar information. Moreover, the challenge of selecting the right reference chemicals to support validation needs to be addressed more systematically, consistently and in a manner that better reflects the state of the science. Above all however, validation requires true partnership between the development and user communities of alternative methods and the appropriate investment of resources.

  12. Placing the mountain goat: a total evidence approach to testing alternative hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Aaron B A; Hall, Jocelyn C

    2010-04-01

    The interpretation of a group's evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) epitomize a 'rogue taxon' as many placements within the Caprini tribe have been suggested. Using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the Caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as an independent lineage sister to all Caprini except muskox and goral. Maximum parsimony placed mountain goats in a derived Caprini clade. Closer examination revealed that parsimony analysis failed to integrate over phylogenetic uncertainty. We then tested our mountain goat placement against nine published alternatives using non-parametric tests, and the parametric SOWH test. Non-parametric tests returned ambiguous results, but the SOWH test rejected all alternative hypotheses. Our study represents the first explicit testing of all hypotheses for the placement of mountain goats and supports a relatively basal position for the taxon.

  13. Optical approach for the efficient data volume handling in experimentally encrypted data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trejos, Sorayda; Fredy Barrera, John; Velez, Alejandro; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Experimental optical procedures generate a tremendous amount of data, which must be then processed for any practical application. We present a new optical approach in terms of the data volume for the efficient handling of multiple data obtained from an experimental cryptosystem. In order to achieve this goal, we use the combination of optical filtering and optical scaling of the experimentally registered data. The intention is to reduce by optical means the amount of data to be managed. We define a so called ‘efficiency factor’ to describe the effectiveness of the approach. We find that volume reduction depends on this factor and the number of objects to be processed. We achieved substantial data volume reductions up to 94.24%. We introduce the basic concepts as well as experimental results that support both the feasibility and the applicability of our approach.

  14. Research on help-seeking for mental illness in Africa: Dominant approaches and possible alternatives.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sara

    2016-12-01

    There is growing concern within the global mental health arena that interventions currently being executed to scale up mental health services in Africa will be ineffective unless simultaneous steps are taken to address people's help-seeking behaviour. Drawing upon two conceptual tools arising from science and technology studies (STS), those of a "classification system" and "the black box," this paper looks critically at discursive constructions of help-seeking in Africa within mental health research over the last decade. Research in this area can be divided into two dominant traditions: the knowledge-belief-practice survey and indigenous-knowledge-system approaches. Although the content and value-codes between these approaches differ, structurally they are very similar. Both are mediated by the same kind of system of classification, which demarcates the world into homogenous entities and binary oppositions. This system of ordering is one of the most stubborn and powerful forms of classification buried in the "black box" of the modernist/colonial knowledge archive and is fraught with many questionable Eurocentric epistemological assumptions. I consider whether there might be other ways of understanding help-seeking for mental illness in Africa and discuss two studies that illustrate such alternative approaches. In conclusion, I discuss some of the challenges this alternative kind of research faces in gaining more influence within contemporary global mental health discourse and practice.

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 8, Appendix F, Landfills

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    While the preceding appendices have focused on the thermochemical approaches to managing municipal solid waste (MSW), this appendix and those that follow on composting and anaerobic digestion address more of the bioconversion process technologies. Landfilling is the historical baseline MSW management option central to every community`s solid waste management plan. It generally encompasses shredfills, balefills, landfill gas recovery, and landfill mining. While landfilling is virtually universal in use, it continues to undergo intense scrutiny by the public and regulators alike. Most recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on criteria for designing, operating, monitoring, and closing municipal solid waste landfills. While the Federal government has established nationwide standards and will assist the States in planning and developing their own practices, the States and local governments will carry out the actual planning and direct implementation. The States will also be authorized to devise programs to deal with their specific conditions and needs. While the main body of this appendix and corresponding research was originally prepared in July of 1991, references to the new RCRA Subtitle D, Part 258 EPA regulations have been included in this resubmission (908). By virtue of timing, this appendix is, necessarily, a ``transition`` document, combining basic landfill design and operation information as well as reference to new regulatory requirements. Given the speed with which landfill practices are and will be changing, the reader is encouraged to refer to Part 258 for additional details. As States set additional requirements and schedules and owners and operators of MSW landfills seek to comply, additional guidance and technical information, including case studies, will likely become available in the literature.

  16. Data Summary of Municipal Solid Waste Management Alternatives. Volume VIII: Appendix F - Landfills

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    While the preceding appendices have focused on the thermochemical approaches to managing municipal solid waste (MSW), this appendix and those that follow on composting and anaerobic digestion address more of the bioconversion process technologies. Landfilling is the historical baseline MSW management option central to every community's solid waste management plan. It generally encompasses shredfills, balefills, landfill gas recovery, and landfill mining. While landfilling is virtually universal in use, it continues to undergo intense scrutiny by the public and regulators alike. Most recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on criteria for designing, operating, monitoring, and closing municipal solid waste landfills. While the Federal government has established nationwide standards and will assist the States in planning and developing their own practices, the States and local governments will carry out the actual planning and direct implementation. The States will also be authorized to devise programs to deal with their specific conditions and needs. While the main body of this appendix and corresponding research was originally prepared in July of 1991, references to the new RCRA Subtitle D, Part 258 EPA regulations have been included in this resubmission (908). By virtue of timing, this appendix is, necessarily, a transition'' document, combining basic landfill design and operation information as well as reference to new regulatory requirements. Given the speed with which landfill practices are and will be changing, the reader is encouraged to refer to Part 258 for additional details. As States set additional requirements and schedules and owners and operators of MSW landfills seek to comply, additional guidance and technical information, including case studies, will likely become available in the literature.

  17. An Alternative Approach to Atopic Dermatitis: Part I—Case-Series Presentation

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex disease of obscure pathogenesis. A substantial portion of AD patients treated with conventional therapy become intractable after several cycles of recurrence. Over the last 20 years we have developed an alternative approach to treat many of these patients by diet and Kampo herbal medicine. However, as our approach is highly individualized and the Kampo formulae sometimes complicated, it is not easy to provide evidence to establish usefulness of this approach. In this Review, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method of individualized Kampo therapy, results are presented for a series of patients who had failed with conventional therapy but were treated afterwards in our institution. Based on these data, we contend that there exist a definite subgroup of AD patients in whom conventional therapy fails, but the ‘Diet and Kampo’ approach succeeds, to heal. Therefore, this approach should be considered seriously as a second-line treatment for AD patients. In the Discussion, we review the evidential status of the current conventional strategies for AD treatment in general, and then specifically discuss the possibility of integrating Kampo regimens into it, taking our case-series presented here as evidential basis. We emphasize that Kampo therapy for AD is more ‘art’ than technology, for which expertise is an essential pre-requisite. PMID:15257326

  18. An alternative data filling approach for prediction of missing data in soft sets (ADFIS).

    PubMed

    Sadiq Khan, Muhammad; Al-Garadi, Mohammed Ali; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Herawan, Tutut

    2016-01-01

    Soft set theory is a mathematical approach that provides solution for dealing with uncertain data. As a standard soft set, it can be represented as a Boolean-valued information system, and hence it has been used in hundreds of useful applications. Meanwhile, these applications become worthless if the Boolean information system contains missing data due to error, security or mishandling. Few researches exist that focused on handling partially incomplete soft set and none of them has high accuracy rate in prediction performance of handling missing data. It is shown that the data filling approach for incomplete soft set (DFIS) has the best performance among all previous approaches. However, in reviewing DFIS, accuracy is still its main problem. In this paper, we propose an alternative data filling approach for prediction of missing data in soft sets, namely ADFIS. The novelty of ADFIS is that, unlike the previous approach that used probability, we focus more on reliability of association among parameters in soft set. Experimental results on small, 04 UCI benchmark data and causality workbench lung cancer (LUCAP2) data shows that ADFIS performs better accuracy as compared to DFIS.

  19. Imaging MALDI MS of Dosed Brain Tissues Utilizing an Alternative Analyte Pre-extraction Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiason, Cristine M.; Shahidi-Latham, Sheerin K.

    2015-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry has been adopted in the pharmaceutical industry as a useful tool to detect xenobiotic distribution within tissues. A unique sample preparation approach for MALDI imaging has been described here for the extraction and detection of cobimetinib and clozapine, which were previously undetectable in mouse and rat brain using a single matrix application step. Employing a combination of a buffer wash and a cyclohexane pre-extraction step prior to standard matrix application, the xenobiotics were successfully extracted and detected with an 8 to 20-fold gain in sensitivity. This alternative approach for sample preparation could serve as an advantageous option when encountering difficult to detect analytes.

  20. Commentary: The failure of social inclusion: an alternative approach through community development.

    PubMed

    Mandiberg, James M

    2012-01-01

    Mental health services have not resulted in broad-based inclusion of people with psychiatric disabilities. Rather, many maintain their community lives only through the support of formal mental health services, which is financially unsustainable given current fiscal realities. Fundamental assumptions about sources of support for everyday life need to be reassessed. The economic and social development of the mental health recovery community provides an alternative approach to helping people maintain successful community lives and shifts some of the supports from mental health providers to business infrastructure within the mental health recovery identity community. Some projects that have utilized this approach, such as business incubators and work integration social enterprises, are described, and community development that builds on concepts of recovery is discussed.

  1. Testing goodness of fit in regression: a general approach for specified alternatives.

    PubMed

    Solari, Aldo; le Cessie, Saskia; Goeman, Jelle J

    2012-12-10

    When fitting generalized linear models or the Cox proportional hazards model, it is important to have tools to test for lack of fit. Because lack of fit comes in all shapes and sizes, distinguishing among different types of lack of fit is of practical importance. We argue that an adequate diagnosis of lack of fit requires a specified alternative model. Such specification identifies the type of lack of fit the test is directed against so that if we reject the null hypothesis, we know the direction of the departure from the model. The goodness-of-fit approach of this paper allows to treat different types of lack of fit within a unified general framework and to consider many existing tests as special cases. Connections with penalized likelihood and random effects are discussed, and the application of the proposed approach is illustrated with medical examples. Tailored functions for goodness-of-fit testing have been implemented in the R package global test.

  2. A volume-based hydrodynamic approach to sound wave propagation in a monatomic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadzie, S. Kokou; Reese, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate sound wave propagation in a monatomic gas using a volume-based hydrodynamic model. In Dadzie et al. [Physica A 387, 6079 (2008)], a microscopic volume-based kinetic approach was proposed by analyzing molecular spatial distributions; this led to a set of hydrodynamic equations incorporating a mass-density diffusion component. Here we find that these new mass-density diffusive flux and volume terms mean that our hydrodynamic model, uniquely, reproduces sound wave phase speed and damping measurements with excellent agreement over the full range of Knudsen number. In the high Knudsen number (high frequency) regime, our volume-based model predictions agree with the plane standing waves observed in the experiments, which existing kinetic and continuum models have great difficulty in capturing. In that regime, our results indicate that the "sound waves" presumed in the experiments may be better thought of as "mass-density waves," rather than pressure waves.

  3. Urinary concentrations of toxic substances: an assessment of alternative approaches to adjusting for specific gravity.

    PubMed

    Sorahan, Tom; Pang, Dong; Esmen, Nurtan; Sadhra, Steven

    2008-11-01

    Alternative approaches of adjusting urinary concentration of cadmium for differences in specific gravity of biological samples were assessed. The main analysis used 2922 cadmium-in-urine samples collected in the period 1968-1989 from workers at a UK nickel-cadmium battery facility. Geometric means of cadmium-in-urine, adjusted and unadjusted for specific gravity, were obtained for 21 different values of specific gravity ranging from 1.010 to 1.030. There was a highly significant positive trend (P < 0.001) of unadjusted cadmium-in-urine with specific gravity. Conventional adjustment for specific gravity led to a highly significant negative trend (P < 0.001) of adjusted cadmium-in-urine with specific gravity, SG. An approach proposed by Vij and Howell, involving the introduction of a z coefficient, led to satisfactory adjustment. Conventional adjustment of specific gravity leads to overcompensation of the confounding effects of specific gravity. An alternative method is available and should probably be adopted when interpreting urine biological samples for all chemical substances.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Kk of... - Data Quality Objective and Lower Confidence Limit Approaches for Alternative Capture Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Confidence Limit Approaches for Alternative Capture Efficiency Protocols and Test Methods A Appendix A to...) National Emission Standards for the Printing and Publishing Industry Pt. 63, Subpt. KK, App. A Appendix A... procedures can also be used in an alternative CE protocol. For example, a traditional liquid/gas mass...

  5. Volume overview: Working with assumptions. Existing and emerging approaches for improved program design, monitoring and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nkwake, Apollo M; Morrow, Nathan

    2016-12-01

    This volume attempts to systematically capture the state of practice, highlight commonalities linking existing and emerging approaches to assumption-making and evaluation. It tries to organize existing and emerging knowledge, tools and terminology into an emergent but useful typology for working with assumptions and complexity in program designs, monitoring and evaluation.

  6. Then and Now: Approaches to Understanding Children's Literature in Two Volumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bani-Khair, Baker M.; Khawaldeh, Imad M.

    2016-01-01

    This research paper investigates two main volumes taken from "Children's Literature Association Quarterly"; the earlier one is Vol. 11 published in 1986, and the other one, a more recent one, Vol. 32 published in 2007, as to understand the differences and similarities regarding the approaches used in the articles to understand Children's…

  7. Thermodynamic evaluation of transonic compressor rotors using the finite volume approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, John; Nicholson, Stephen; Moore, Joan G.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a computational capability to handle viscous flow with an explicit time-marching method based on the finite volume approach is summarized. Emphasis is placed on the extensions to the computational procedure which allow the handling of shock induced separation and large regions of strong backflow. Appendices contain abstracts of papers and whole reports generated during the contract period.

  8. Renal Response to Volume Expansion: Learning the Experimental Approach in the Context of Integrative Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Robert L.; Dukacz, Stephen A. W.; Stavraky, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experience for upper-level science students that provides a hands-on approach to understanding the basics of experimental physiology. Students design an experiment to determine the relative importance of dilution of plasma proteins in the overall renal excretory response following volume expansion with intravenous saline.…

  9. New Approach to Self Achievement (N.A.S.A.) Project Students are provided an overview of alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    New Approach to Self Achievement (N.A.S.A.) Project Students are provided an overview of alternative energy options for a lunar base at the Aerospace Education Center Return to the Moon Discovery Path Power and Light Module

  10. New Approach to Self Achievement (N.A.S.A.) Project Students are provided an overview of alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    New Approach to Self Achievement (N.A.S.A.) Project Students are provided an overview of alternative energy options for a lunar base at the Aerospace Education Center Return to the Moon Discovery Pat Power and Light Module

  11. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS) Volume 5: Analytical approach and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Data and information in the area of advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985 to 2000 time period are provided. Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a framework for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. Various cogeneration strategies were analyzed and both topping and bottoming (using industrial by-product heat) applications were included. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Typically fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual cost savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasification systems.

  12. Development of Alternative Continuing Educational Systems for Preventing the Technological Obsolescence of Air Force Scientists and Engineers. Volume 1. Basic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slebodnick, Edward B.; And Others

    Volume 1 of the study reports a work effort to define and give guidelines for the acquisition of cost-effective alternative continuing education (CE) systems to prevent the technological obsolescence of Air Force military scientific and engineering officer personnel. A detailed background survey of the problem was conducted using questionnaires,…

  13. Simplified Approach for the Stability Study, Application to the Damped Alternator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumi, Ahmed; Ben Ali Kamoun, Mohamed; Poloujadoff, Michel

    1995-10-01

    This paper deals with the stability of the damped alternator. Unlike the undamped alternator, we have found that the unstable region located around the zero value of the internal angle disappears when inertia takes normal values. However, this unstable region remains for low values of inertia. This result can not be shown by the simplified approaches given by previous authors for which inertia is not taken into account in the formulae. Our method can be much wore simplified in the case for large values of inertia, where the stability study is reduced to the discussion of two parameters. This result meets the one given by Tamura approach which we extended to the damped alternator. This extensive approach remains much more complicated than our method which turns, in this case, to an elementary calculation. Ce travail traite de la stabilité d'un alternateur muni de circuits amortisseurs. Contrairement à l'alternateur non amorti, nous avons constaté que la zone instable autour de la valeur nulle de l'angle interne disparaît lorsque l'inertie de la partie tournante prend des valeurs courantes. Cependant, cette zone instable demeure pour de faibles valeurs du moment d'inertie. Ce résultat peut être conclu par les approches antérieures simplifiées proposées par certains auteurs, en particulier celle de J. Tamura, dans laquelle l'inertie n'intervient pas dans la formulation. La méthode proposée peut être largement simplifiée pour les valeurs de l'inertie où l'étude de la stabilité se réduit à la discussion des signes de deux paramètres obtenus par un calcul élémentaire. Le résultat de cette méthode simplifiée est identique à celui donné par l'approche de Tamura que nous avons étendue à l'alternateur amorti. Cette approche étendue reste compliquée à utiliser, malgré la structure matricielle que nous lui avons donnée.

  14. Precise segmentation of multiple organs in CT volumes using learning-based approach and information theory.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Zheng, Yefeng; Birkbeck, Neil; Zhang, Jingdan; Kohlberger, Timo; Tietjen, Christian; Boettger, Thomas; Duncan, James S; Zhou, S Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method by incorporating information theory into the learning-based approach for automatic and accurate pelvic organ segmentation (including the prostate, bladder and rectum). We target 3D CT volumes that are generated using different scanning protocols (e.g., contrast and non-contrast, with and without implant in the prostate, various resolution and position), and the volumes come from largely diverse sources (e.g., diseased in different organs). Three key ingredients are combined to solve this challenging segmentation problem. First, marginal space learning (MSL) is applied to efficiently and effectively localize the multiple organs in the largely diverse CT volumes. Second, learning techniques, steerable features, are applied for robust boundary detection. This enables handling of highly heterogeneous texture pattern. Third, a novel information theoretic scheme is incorporated into the boundary inference process. The incorporation of the Jensen-Shannon divergence further drives the mesh to the best fit of the image, thus improves the segmentation performance. The proposed approach is tested on a challenging dataset containing 188 volumes from diverse sources. Our approach not only produces excellent segmentation accuracy, but also runs about eighty times faster than previous state-of-the-art solutions. The proposed method can be applied to CT images to provide visual guidance to physicians during the computer-aided diagnosis, treatment planning and image-guided radiotherapy to treat cancers in pelvic region.

  15. An alternative approach to establishing trade-offs among greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Manne, A S; Richels, R G

    2001-04-05

    The Kyoto Protocol permits countries to meet part of their emission reduction obligations by cutting back on gases other than CO2 (ref. 1). This approach requires a definition of trade-offs among the radiatively active gases. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has suggested global warming potentials for this purpose, which use the accumulated radiative forcing of each gas by a set time horizon to establish emission equivalence. But it has been suggested that this approach has serious shortcomings: damages or abatement costs are not considered and the choice of time horizon for calculating cumulative radiative force is critical, but arbitrary. Here we describe an alternative framework for determining emission equivalence between radiatively active gases that addresses these weaknesses. We focus on limiting temperature change and rate of temperature change, but our framework is also applicable to other objectives. For a proposed ceiling, we calculate how much one should be willing to pay for emitting an additional unit of each gas. The relative prices then determine the trade-off between gases at each point in time, taking into account economical as well as physical considerations. Our analysis shows that the relative prices are sensitive to the lifetime of the gases, the choice of target and the proximity of the target, making short-lived gases more expensive to emit as we approach the prescribed ceiling.

  16. From statistical non-significance to statistical equivalence: An alternative approach for whole effluent toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, R.; Yu Daohai; Fulk, F.

    1995-12-31

    Short-term toxicity tests with aquatic organisms are a valuable measurement tool in the assessment of the toxicity of effluents, environmental samples and single chemicals. Currently toxicity tests are utilized in a wide range of US EPA regulatory activities including effluent discharge compliance. In the current approach for determining the No Observed Effect Concentration, an effluent concentration is presumed safe if there is no statistically significant difference in toxicant response versus control response. The conclusion of a safe concentration may be due to the fact that it truly is safe, or alternatively, that the ability of the statistical test to detect an effect, given its existence, is inadequate. Results of research of a new statistical approach, the basis of which is to move away from a demonstration of no difference to a demonstration of equivalence, will be discussed. The concept of observed confidence distributions, first suggested by Cox, is proposed as a measure of the strength of evidence for practically equivalent responses between a given effluent concentration and the control. The research included determination of intervals of practically equivalent responses as a function of the variability of control response. The approach is illustrated using reproductive data from tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and survival and growth data from tests with fathead minnow. The data are from the US EPA`s National Reference Toxicant Database.

  17. Alternative community structures in a kelp-urchin community: A qualitative modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montano-Moctezuma, G.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Shifts in interaction patterns within a community may result from periodic disturbances and climate. The question arises as to the extent and significance of these shifting patterns. Using a novel approach to link qualitative mathematical models and field data, namely using the inverse matrix to identify the community matrix, we reconstructed community networks from kelp forests off the Oregon Coast. We simulated all ecologically plausible interactions among community members, selected the models whose outcomes match field observations, and identified highly frequent links to characterize the community network from a particular site. We tested all possible biologically reasonable community networks through qualitative simulations, selected those that matched patterns observed in the field, and further reduced the set of possibilities by retaining those that were stable. We found that a community can be represented by a set of alternative structures, or scenarios. From 11,943,936 simulated models, 0.23% matched the field observations; moreover, only 0.006%, or 748 models, were highly reliable in their predictions and met conditions for stability. Predator-prey interactions as well as non-predatory relationships were consistently found in most of the 748 models. These highly frequent connections were useful to characterize the community network in the study site. We suggest that alternative networks provide the community with a buffer to disturbance, allowing it to continuously reorganize to adapt to a variable environment. This is possible due to the fluctuating capacities of foraging species to consume alternate resources. This suggestion is sustained by our results, which indicate that none of the models that matched field observations were fully connected. This plasticity may contribute to the persistence of these communities. We propose that qualitative simulations represent a powerful technique to raise new hypotheses concerning community dynamics and to

  18. Intranasal Volume Changes Caused by the Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach and Their Effects on Nasal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Hyun; Hong, Yong-Kil; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Park, Yong Jin; Kim, Soo Whan; Cho, Jin Hee; Kim, Boo Young; Han, Sungwoo; Lee, Yong Joo; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Kim, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated postoperative changes in nasal cavity volume and their effects on nasal function and symptoms after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for antero-central skull base surgery. Study Design Retrospective chart review at a tertiary referral center. Methods We studied 92 patients who underwent binostril, four-hand, endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach surgery using the bilateral modified nasoseptal rescue flap technique. Pre- and postoperative paranasal computed tomography and the Mimics® program were used to assess nasal cavity volume changes at three sections. We also performed several pre- and postoperative tests, including the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test, Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test, Nasal Obstruction Symptoms Evaluation, and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20. In addition, a visual analog scale was used to record subjective symptoms. We compared these data with the pre- and postoperative nasal cavity volumes. Results Three-dimensional, objective increases in nasal passage volumes were evident between the inferior and middle turbinates (p<0.001) and between the superior turbinate and choana (p = 0.006) postoperatively. However, these did not correlate with subjectively assessed symptoms (NOSE, SNOT-20 and VAS; all nasal cavity areas; p≥0.05) or olfactory dysfunction (CCCRC and CCSIT test; all nasal cavity areas; p≥0.05). Conclusion Skull base tumor surgery via an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach altered the patients’ nasal anatomy, but the changes in nasal cavity volumes did not affect nasal function or symptoms. These results will help surgeons to appropriately expose the surgical field during an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. PMID:27010730

  19. Extracorporeal staple technique: an alternative approach to the treatment of critical colostomy stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Skokowski, Jarosław; Kalinowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    We describe an extracorporeal staple technique used to treat severe colostomy stenosis under analgo-sedation, thus avoiding relaparotomy. The surgery is performed under short-term sedation. The orifice of the stoma is widened and overgrowing skin is excised. The volume and diameter of the stoma are assessed. The anvil of a circular stapler device is inserted into the lumen of the colostomy. First bowel layers and then skin are closed with purse-string sutures. One firing of the stapler is used to reshape the stoma. The procedure takes around 20–30 min. One circular stapler is used. The patient can be discharged the same day or a day after surgery. No complications were noted in operated patients. At 6- and 12-month follow-ups, a slight narrowing of the colostomy was visible, but no recurrence of the stricture was noted. The described technique is an interesting, easy and safe alternative to previous methods of treatment for stenosed end-colostomy. Importantly, it is an extra-abdominal procedure and may be offered to patients with a history of multiple abdominal operations or with serious coexisting medical conditions in the one-day surgery setting. PMID:26240635

  20. A computational approach to map nucleosome positions and alternative chromatin states with base pair resolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xu; Blocker, Alexander W; Airoldi, Edoardo M; O'Shea, Erin K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding chromatin function requires knowing the precise location of nucleosomes. MNase-seq methods have been widely applied to characterize nucleosome organization in vivo, but generally lack the accuracy to determine the precise nucleosome positions. Here we develop a computational approach leveraging digestion variability to determine nucleosome positions at a base-pair resolution from MNase-seq data. We generate a variability template as a simple error model for how MNase digestion affects the mapping of individual nucleosomes. Applied to both yeast and human cells, this analysis reveals that alternatively positioned nucleosomes are prevalent and create significant heterogeneity in a cell population. We show that the periodic occurrences of dinucleotide sequences relative to nucleosome dyads can be directly determined from genome-wide nucleosome positions from MNase-seq. Alternatively positioned nucleosomes near transcription start sites likely represent different states of promoter nucleosomes during transcription initiation. Our method can be applied to map nucleosome positions in diverse organisms at base-pair resolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16970.001 PMID:27623011

  1. Case Report: Modified Laparoscopic Subtotal Cholecystectomy: An Alternative Approach to the “Difficult Gallbladder”

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Michael S.; Huynh, Richard H.; Wright, George O.

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 56 Final Diagnosis: Acute cholecystitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain Medication:— Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure. In certain situations visualization of the Callot triangle can become difficult due to inflammation, adhesions, and sclerosing of the anatomy. Without being able to obtain the “critical view of safety” (CVS), there is increased risk of damage to vital structures. An alternative approach to the conventional conversion to an open cholecystectomy (OC) would be a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (LSC). Case Report: We present a case of a 56-year-old male patient with acute cholecystitis with a “difficult gallbladder” managed with LSC. Due to poor visualization of the Callot triangle due to adhesions, safe dissection was not feasible. In an effort to avoid injury to the common bile duct (CBD), dissection began at the dome of the gallbladder allowing an alternative view while ensuring safety of critical structures. Conclusions: We discuss the potential benefits and risks of LSC versus conversion to OC. Our discussion incorporates the pathophysiology that allows LSC in this particular circumstance to be successful, and the considerations a surgeon faces in making a decision in management. PMID:28220035

  2. Pharmacoinformatics approach for investigation of alternative potential hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5B inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Muhammad Usman; Ghori, Noor-Ul-Huda; Ikram, Nazia; Adil, Abdur Rehman; Manzoor, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major viruses affecting the world today. It is a highly variable virus, having a rapid reproduction and evolution rate. The variability of genomes is due to hasty replication catalyzed by nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) which is also a potential target site for the development of anti-HCV agents. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration approved sofosbuvir as a novel oral NS5B inhibitor for the treatment of HCV. Unfortunately, it is much highlighted for its pricing issues. Hence, there is an urgent need to scrutinize alternate therapies against HCV that are available at affordable price and do not have associated side effects. Such a need is crucial especially in underdeveloped countries. The search for various new bioactive compounds from plants is a key part of pharmaceutical research. In the current study, we applied a pharmacoinformatics-based approach for the identification of active plant-derived compounds against NS5B. The results were compared to docking results of sofosbuvir. The lead compounds with high-binding ligands were further analyzed for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters based on in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profile. The results showed the potential alternative lead compounds that can be developed into commercial drugs having high binding energy and promising ADMET properties. PMID:25848219

  3. Alternative Approaches to Calculate Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2012-06-01

    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Authority Areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive loads has resulted in a proposal for an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM). This paper extends prior work to estimate the reserve requirements for regulation, spinning, and non-spinning reserves with and without the EIM. We also discuss alternative approaches to allocating reserve requirements and show that some apparently attractive allocation methods have undesired consequences.

  4. Introduction and Testing of an Alternative Control Approach for a Robotic Prosthetic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Lauren; Fahimi, Farbod

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available robotic prosthetic arms currently use independent joint control. An alternative controller involving only control of the hand in a Cartesian frame rather than controlling each joint independently is proposed and tested. An experimental 4DOF robotic arm was used as the platform for testing the proposed control approach. As opposed to joint control, Cartesian control requires the solution to the inverse kinematics problem. The inverse kinematics solution was developed for the robotic arm using the extended Jacobian method. The two control methodologies, joint control and Cartesian control, were tested on five able-bodied human subjects. Improvement of one control methodology over the other was measured by the time it took for the subjects to complete a simple motor task. The timed trial results indicated that Cartesian control was both more intuitive and more effective than joint control. So, the results suggest that much improvement can be achieved by using the proposed Cartesian control methodology. PMID:25400714

  5. Q-methodology: an alternative approach to research in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Barker, Janet H

    2008-11-01

    An understanding of student experiences and perspectives are central to the delivery of quality nurse education programmes; implicit with this is a need to understand the attributes and characteristics of such individuals, their subjectivity. Traditional such inquiry has taken the form of questionnaires or interviews and focus groups. Q-methodology is offered as an alternative approach which provides insight into, and a method for studying, individual subjectivity through the use of factor analysis. Within Q-methodology, individuals are asked to rank-order (Q-sort) statements, which are then intercorrelated and subjected to factor analysis. In this way groups of individuals holding similar expressed subjectivities are identified. The factors are interpreted to provide an understanding of underlying subjectivities. This paper explores the theoretical underpinnings of Q-methodology and its application as a research method in the field of nurse education, providing a brief illustration of its use in mental health nurse education.

  6. Towards electromechanical computation: An alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-08-01

    Electromechanical computing based on micro/nano resonators has recently attracted significant attention. However, full implementation of this technology has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex logic circuits. We report here an alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits based on multiple MEMS resonators. As case studies, we report the construction of a single-bit binary comparator, a single-bit 4-to-2 encoder, and parallel XOR/XNOR and AND/NOT logic gates. Toward this, several microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned through an electrothermal modulation scheme. The microresonators operating in the linear regime do not require large excitation forces, and work at room temperature and at modest air pressure. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, tunable resonator, several essential complex logic functions can be achieved.

  7. A micro-CT approach for determination of insect respiratory volume.

    PubMed

    Shaha, Rajib Krishna; Vogt, Jessica Ruth; Han, Chung-Souk; Dillon, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Variation in the morphology of the insect tracheal system can strongly affect respiratory physiology, with implications for everything from pest control to evolution of insect body size. However, the small size of most insects has made measuring the morphology of their tracheal systems difficult. Historical approaches including light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) are technically difficult, labor intensive, and can introduce preparation artifacts. More recently, synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SR-μCT) has allowed for detailed analysis of tracheal morphology of diverse insects. However, linear accelerators required for SR-μCT are not readily available, making the approach unavailable for most labs. Recent advancements in microcomputed tomography (μCT) have made possible fine resolution of internal morphology of very small insects. However, μCT has never been used to quantify insect tracheal system dimensions. We measured respiratory volume of a grasshopper (Schistocerca americana) by analysis of high resolution μCT scans. Volume estimates from μCT closely matched volume estimates by water displacement as well as literature estimates for this species. The μCT approach may thus provide a widely available, cost-effective, and straightforward approach to characterizing the internal morphology of insect respiratory systems.

  8. A Cost Comparison of Alternative Approaches to Distance Education in Developing Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventre, Gerard G.; Kalu, Alex

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a cost comparison of three approaches to two-way interactive distance learning systems for developing countries. Included are costs for distance learning hardware, terrestrial and satellite communication links, and designing instruction for two-way interactive courses. As part of this project, FSEC is developing a 30-hour course in photovoltaic system design that will be used in a variety of experiments using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). A primary goal of the project is to develop an instructional design and delivery model that can be used for other education and training programs. Over two-thirds of the world photovoltaics market is in developing countries. One of the objectives of this NASA-sponsored project was to develop new and better energy education programs that take advantage of advances in telecommunications and computer technology. The combination of desktop video systems and the sharing of computer applications software is of special interest. Research is being performed to evaluate the effectiveness of some of these technologies as part of this project. The design of the distance learning origination and receive sites discussed in this paper were influenced by the educational community's growing interest in distance education. The following approach was used to develop comparative costs for delivering interactive distance education to developing countries: (1) Representative target locations for receive sites were chosen. The originating site was assumed to be Cocoa, Florida, where FSEC is located; (2) A range of course development costs were determined; (3) The cost of equipment for three alternative two-way interactive distance learning system configurations was determined or estimated. The types of system configurations ranged from a PC-based system that allows instructors to originate instruction from their office using desktop video and shared application software, to a high cost system that uses a

  9. Hankin and Reeves' approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams: Limitations and alternatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Hankin and Reeves' (1988) approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams has been applied in stream fish studies across North America. However, their population estimator relies on two key assumptions: (1) removal estimates are equal to the true numbers of fish, and (2) removal estimates are highly correlated with snorkel counts within a subset of sampled stream units. Violations of these assumptions may produce suspect results. To determine possible sources of the assumption violations, I used data on the abundance of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Hankin and Reeves' (1988) in a simulation composed of 50,000 repeated, stratified systematic random samples from a spatially clustered distribution. The simulation was used to investigate effects of a range of removal estimates, from 75% to 100% of true fish abundance, on overall stream fish population estimates. The effects of various categories of removal-estimates-to-snorkel-count correlation levels (r = 0.75-1.0) on fish population estimates were also explored. Simulation results indicated that Hankin and Reeves' approach may produce poor results unless removal estimates exceed at least 85% of the true number of fish within sampled units and unless correlations between removal estimates and snorkel counts are at least 0.90. A potential modification to Hankin and Reeves' approach is the inclusion of environmental covariates that affect detection rates of fish into the removal model or other mark-recapture model. A potential alternative approach is to use snorkeling combined with line transect sampling to estimate fish densities within stream units. As with any method of population estimation, a pilot study should be conducted to evaluate its usefulness, which requires a known (or nearly so) population of fish to serve as a benchmark for evaluating bias and precision of estimators.

  10. Challenges and implications of global modeling approaches that are alternatives to using constant plant functional types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodegom, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years a number of approaches have been developed to provide alternatives to the use of plant functional types (PFTs) with constant vegetation characteristics for simulating vegetation responses to climate changes. In this presentation, an overview of those approaches and their challenges is given. Some new approaches aim at removing PFTs altogether by determining the combination of vegetation characteristics that would fit local conditions best. Others describe the variation in traits within PFTs as a function of environmental drivers, based on community assembly principles. In the first approach, after an equilibrium has been established, vegetation composition and its functional attributes can change by allowing the emergence of a new type that is more fit. In the latter case, changes in vegetation attributes in space and time as assumed to be the result intraspecific variation, genetic adaptation and species turnover, without quantifying their respective importance. Hence, it is assumed that -by whatever mechanism- the community as a whole responds without major time lags to changes in environmental drivers. Recently, we showed that intraspecific variation is highly species- and trait-specific and that none of the current hypotheses on drivers of this variation seems to hold. Also genetic adaptation varies considerably among species and it is uncertain whether it will be fast enough to cope with climate change. Species turnover within a community is especially fast in herbaceous communities, but much slower in forest communities. Hence, it seems that assumptions made may not hold for forested ecosystems, but solutions to deal with this do not yet exist. Even despite the fact that responsiveness of vegetation to environmental change may be overestimated, we showed that -upon implementation of trait-environment relationships- major changes in global vegetation distribution are projected, to similar extents as to those without such responsiveness.

  11. Light clusters in nuclear matter: Excluded volume versus quantum many-body approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen; Typel, Stefan; Röpke, Gerd

    2011-11-01

    The formation of clusters in nuclear matter is investigated, which occurs, e.g., in low-energy heavy-ion collisions or core-collapse supernovae. In astrophysical applications, the excluded volume concept is commonly used for the description of light clusters. Here we compare a phenomenological excluded volume approach to two quantum many-body models, the quantum statistical model and the generalized relativistic mean-field model. All three models contain bound states of nuclei with mass number A≤4. It is explored to which extent the complex medium effects can be mimicked by the simpler excluded volume model, regarding the chemical composition and thermodynamic variables. Furthermore, the role of heavy nuclei and excited states is investigated by use of the excluded volume model. At temperatures of a few MeV the excluded volume model gives a poor description of the medium effects on the light clusters, but there the composition is actually dominated by heavy nuclei. At larger temperatures there is a rather good agreement, whereas some smaller differences and model dependencies remain.

  12. Total soil DNA quantification as an alternative microbial biomass determination approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    .87 indicated slight (about 13%) underestimation of microbial biomass-C obtained by the CFE approach. Thus, quantification of microbial dsDNA is an alternative option to determine soil microbial biomass under extreme conditions, e.g., in frozen and alkaline soils. In contrast to approaches based on indirect characteristics (respiration, etc.), the DNA-based approach enables evaluating microbial biomass using the immediate content of basic cell compounds universal to all living organisms. This research was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Project No 14-14-00625.

  13. Report on noninvasive prenatal testing: classical and alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Pantiukh, Kateryna S; Chekanov, Nikolay N; Zaigrin, Igor V; Zotov, Alexei M; Mazur, Alexander M; Prokhortchouk, Egor B

    2016-01-01

    Concerns of traditional prenatal aneuploidy testing methods, such as low accuracy of noninvasive and health risks associated with invasive procedures, were overcome with the introduction of novel noninvasive methods based on genetics (NIPT). These were rapidly adopted into clinical practice in many countries after a series of successful trials of various independent submethods. Here we present results of own NIPT trial carried out in Moscow, Russia. 1012 samples were subjected to the method aimed at measuring chromosome coverage by massive parallel sequencing. Two alternative approaches are ascertained: one based on maternal/fetal differential methylation and another based on allelic difference. While the former failed to provide stable results, the latter was found to be promising and worthy of conducting a large-scale trial. One critical point in any NIPT approach is the determination of fetal cell-free DNA fraction, which dictates the reliability of obtained results for a given sample. We show that two different chromosome Y representation measures-by real-time PCR and by whole-genome massive parallel sequencing-are practically interchangeable (r=0.94). We also propose a novel method based on maternal/fetal allelic difference which is applicable in pregnancies with fetuses of either sex. Even in its pilot form it correlates well with chromosome Y coverage estimates (r=0.74) and can be further improved by increasing the number of polymorphisms.

  14. Alternate approaches to verifying the structural adequacy of the Defense High Level Waste Shipping Cask

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, A.; Koploy, M.

    1991-12-01

    In the early 1980s, the US Department of Energy/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) initiated a project to develop a safe and efficient transportation system for defense high level waste (DHLW). A long-standing objective of the DHLW transportation project is to develop a truck cask that represents the leading edge of cask technology as well as one that fully complies with all applicable DOE, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. General Atomics (GA) designed the DHLW Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The analytical techniques include two approaches, inelastic analysis and elastic analysis. This topical report presents the results of the two analytical approaches and the model testing results. The purpose of this work is to show that there are two viable analytical alternatives to verify the structural adequacy of a Type B package and to obtain an NRC license. It addition, this data will help to support the future acceptance by the NRC of inelastic analysis as a tool in packaging design and licensing.

  15. Integrating knowledge exchange and the assessment of dryland management alternatives - A learning-centered participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Susana; Llovet, Joan; Ocampo-Melgar, Anahí; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Mayor, Ángeles G; Murias, Cristina; Vallejo, V Ramón; Orr, Barron J

    2016-12-08

    The adoption of sustainable land management strategies and practices that respond to current climate and human pressures requires both assessment tools that can lead to better informed decision-making and effective knowledge-exchange mechanisms that facilitate new learning and behavior change. We propose a learning-centered participatory approach that links land management assessment and knowledge exchange and integrates science-based data and stakeholder perspectives on both biophysical and socio-economic attributes. We outline a structured procedure for a transparent assessment of land management alternatives, tailored to dryland management, that is based on (1) principles of constructivism and social learning, (2) the participation of stakeholders throughout the whole assessment process, from design to implementation, and (3) the combination of site-specific indicators, identified by local stakeholders as relevant to their particular objectives and context conditions, and science-based indicators that represent ecosystem services of drylands worldwide. The proposed procedure follows a pattern of eliciting, challenging, and self-reviewing stakeholder perspectives that aims to facilitate learning. The difference between the initial baseline perspectives and the final self-reviewed stakeholder perspectives is used as a proxy of learning. We illustrate the potential of this methodology by its application to the assessment of land uses in a Mediterranean fire-prone area in East Spain. The approach may be applied to a variety of socio-ecological systems and decision-making and governance scales.

  16. Soil conservation planning in the People's Republic of China: An alternative approach

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, L.

    1991-01-01

    The severe environmental, social, and economic consequences of soil erosion have lead to the development of many soil erosion and conservation planning models. This study presents an alternative approach to soil conservation planning, one based explicitly on the types of data available and the social and economic conditions that apply in the People's Republic of China. The method has three major parts: (1) identification of available land characteristic and socio-economic goals, the potential soil conservation measures, and the production rules which link the two; (2) building of a computer model based on series of decision trees that express the above relationships; and (3) evaluation of the output of the above model using linear programming. This approach is applied to the Dingxi Region of Gansu province in the northwestern China, and its results are compared to those of the planning methods currently used in that region. The method is found to potentially enable conservation planners to easily generate a number of different soil conservation plans and gain insight into the challenges and possible solutions to rural development problems.

  17. Hazard assessment of nitrosamine and nitramine by-products of amine-based CCS: alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Buist, H E; Devito, S; Goldbohm, R A; Stierum, R H; Venhorst, J; Kroese, E D

    2015-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are considered vital and economic elements for achieving global CO2 reduction targets, and is currently introduced worldwide (for more information on CCS, consult for example the websites of the International Energy Agency (http://www.iea.org/topics/ccs/) and the Global CCS Institute (http://www.globalccsinstitute.com/)). One prominent CCS technology, the amine-based post-combustion process, may generate nitrosamines and their related nitramines as by-products, the former well known for their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. In order to efficiently assess the carcinogenic potency of any of these by-products this paper reviews and discusses novel prediction approaches consuming less time, money and animals than the traditionally applied 2-year rodent assay. For this, available animal carcinogenicity studies with N-nitroso compounds and nitramines have been used to derive carcinogenic potency values, that were subsequently used to assess the predictive performance of alternative prediction approaches for these chemicals. Promising cancer prediction models are the QSARs developed by the Helguera group, in vitro transformation assays, and the in vivo initiation-promotion, and transgenic animal assays. All these models, however, have not been adequately explored for this purpose, as the number of N-nitroso compounds investigated is yet too limited, and therefore further testing with relevant N-nitroso compounds is needed.

  18. Alternative Approach to the Management of Postoperative Pain after Pediatric Surgical Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Juliana; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Pansani, Cyneu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: This paper reports two clinical cases in which the application of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) enhanced the postoperative symptoms after pediatric surgical procedures. Background: The uses of novel technologies allow more comfort to the patients and ensure a rapid procedure, and LLLT application has shown a positive effect in the prevention of discomfort after invasive procedures. Case description: Low-level laser therapy protocol was applied after surgical removal of supernumerary tooth and frenectomy resulting in less swallow and pain with no need of medication intake. Conclusion: The laser application was well accepted by both children and parents and showed a clinical efficiency in the follow-up examinations beyond the satisfactory quality of wound healing. Clinical significance: The LLLT approach is an excellent adjuvant therapy resource for delivery an optimal postoperative after surgical procedures in children. How to cite this article: Paschoal M, Souza J, Santos-Pinto L, Pansani C. Alternative Approach to the Management of Postoperative Pain after Pediatric Surgical Procedures. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):125-129. PMID:25356012

  19. 1-D Heat Transfer in Multilayer Materials Using a Finite Volume Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TR-2014-01128 1-D Heat Transfer in Multilayer Materials Using a Finite Volume Approach January 1, 2014 Marcus A...unlimited. The cost to prepare this document: $395 This report was submitted by The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo...project officer for the Development Planning (XR) program. This report has been reviewed by the Public Affairs Office (PAS) and is releasable to the

  20. Comparison of Marine Spatial Planning Methods in Madagascar Demonstrates Value of Alternative Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Allnutt, Thomas F.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Andréfouët, Serge; Baker, Merrill; Lagabrielle, Erwann; McClennen, Caleb; Rakotomanjaka, Andry J. M.; Tianarisoa, Tantely F.; Watson, Reg; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value). The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the “strict protection” class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative approaches during

  1. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, Thomas F; McClanahan, Timothy R; Andréfouët, Serge; Baker, Merrill; Lagabrielle, Erwann; McClennen, Caleb; Rakotomanjaka, Andry J M; Tianarisoa, Tantely F; Watson, Reg; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value). The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative approaches during

  2. Consistency of the free-volume approach to the homogeneous deformation of metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blétry, Marc; Thai, Minh Thanh; Champion, Yannick; Perrière, Loïc; Ochin, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    One of the most widely used approaches to model metallic-glasses high-temperature homogeneous deformation is the free-volume theory, developed by Cohen and Turnbull and extended by Spaepen. A simple elastoviscoplastic formulation has been proposed that allows one to determine various parameters of such a model. This approach is applied here to the results obtained by de Hey et al. on a Pd-based metallic glass. In their study, de Hey et al. were able to determine some of the parameters used in the elastoviscoplastic formulation through DSC modeling coupled with mechanical tests, and the consistency of the two viewpoints was assessed.

  3. A mixed volume grid approach for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coirier, William J.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    1996-01-01

    An approach for solving the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations upon meshes composed of nearly arbitrary polyhedra is described. Each polyhedron is constructed from an arbitrary number of triangular and quadrilateral face elements, allowing the unified treatment of tetrahedral, prismatic, pyramidal, and hexahedral cells, as well the general cut cells produced by Cartesian mesh approaches. The basics behind the numerical approach and the resulting data structures are described. The accuracy of the mixed volume grid approach is assessed by performing a grid refinement study upon a series of hexahedral, tetrahedral, prismatic, and Cartesian meshes for an analytic inviscid problem. A series of laminar validation cases are made, comparing the results upon differing grid topologies to each other, to theory, and experimental data. A computation upon a prismatic/tetrahedral mesh is made simulating the laminar flow over a wall/cylinder combination.

  4. Lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers: ten case studies of rejected programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This volume, Volume 3, contains ten case studies of non-implemented programs. It is noted that in Volume 2, the implemented lifeline programs, evolved as policy closely after the 1973 oil embargo; in contrast, the rejected programs were initiated about 4 years later and considered in a more-complex policy environment - after which time alternate methods of assisting low-income people had been developed. Specifically presented here are program summary, issue development, governmental process, and impact for the following: (a) Delaware Senate Bill 202; (b) Illinois House Bill 83; (c) Maine Legislative Document No. 1043; (d) Minnesota House File 1243; (e) New York Assembly Bill 12214; (f) New York Senate Bill 7013-A; (g) Rhode Island Resolution 79-H 5770-A; (h) South Dakota Senate Joint Resolution 9; (i) West Virginia House Bill 943; and (j) Wisconsin Assembly Bill 1250. 4 figures, 24 tables.

  5. The study of wear behaviors on abducted hip joint prostheses by an alternate finite element approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Tsung; Wu, James Shih-Shyn; Chen, Jian-Horng

    2016-07-01

    An acetabular cup with larger abduction angles is able to affect the normal function of the cup seriously that may cause early failure of the total hip replacement (THR). Complexity of the finite element (FE) simulation in the wear analysis of the THR is usually concerned with the contact status, the computational effort, and the possible divergence of results, which become more difficult on THRs with larger cup abduction angles. In the study, we propose a FE approach with contact transformation that offers less computational effort. Related procedures, such as Lagrangian Multiplier, partitioned matrix inversion, detection of contact forces, continuity of contact surface, nodal area estimation, etc. are explained in this report. Through the transformed methodology, the computer round-off error is tremendously reduced and the embedded repetitive procedure can be processed precisely and quickly. Here, wear behaviors of THR with various abduction angles are investigated. The most commonly used combination, i.e., metal-on-polyethylene, is adopted in the current study where a cobalt-chromium femoral head is paired with an Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) cup. In all illustrations, wear coefficients are estimated by self-averaging strategy with available experimental datum reported elsewhere. The results reveal that the THR with larger abduction angles may produce deeper depth of wear but the volume of wear presents an opposite tendency; these results are comparable with clinical and experimental reports. The current approach can be widely applied easily to fields such as the study of the wear behaviors on ante-version, impingement, and time-dependent behaviors of prostheses etc.

  6. Nonstationary porosity evolution in mixing zone in coastal carbonate aquifer using an alternative modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Laabidi, Ezzeddine; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2015-07-01

    In the last few decades, hydrogeochemical problems have benefited from the strong interest in numerical modeling. One of the most recognized hydrogeochemical problems is the dissolution of the calcite in the mixing zone below limestone coastal aquifer. In many works, this problem has been modeled using a coupling algorithm between a density-dependent flow model and a geochemical model. A related difficulty is that, because of the high nonlinearity of the coupled set of equations, high computational effort is needed. During calcite dissolution, an increase in permeability can be identified, which can induce an increase in the penetration of the seawater into the aquifer. The majority of the previous studies used a fully coupled reactive transport model in order to model such problem. Romanov and Dreybrodt (J Hydrol 329:661-673, 2006) have used an alternative approach to quantify the porosity evolution in mixing zone below coastal carbonate aquifer at steady state. This approach is based on the analytic solution presented by Phillips (1991) in his book Flow and Reactions in Permeable Rock, which shows that it is possible to decouple the complex set of equation. This equation is proportional to the square of the salinity gradient, which can be calculated using a density driven flow code and to the reaction rate that can be calculated using a geochemical code. In this work, this equation is used in nonstationary step-by-step regime. At each time step, the quantity of the dissolved calcite is quantified, the change of porosity is calculated, and the permeability is updated. The reaction rate, which is the second derivate of the calcium equilibrium concentration in the equation, is calculated using the PHREEQC code (Parkhurst and Apello 1999). This result is used in GEODENS (Bouhlila 1999; Bouhlila and Laabidi 2008) to calculate change of the porosity after calculating the salinity gradient. For the next time step, the same protocol is used but using the updated porosity

  7. An alternative approach to congressional control: The case of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    This study is about congressional control of bureaucracy. It is an effort to explain the incidence of congressional control. The analysis examines how different policy environments, defined as the technical and political characteristics surrounding a policy issue, influence legislators' decisions about control and the subsequent level of intent to control incorporated into legislation. To do so, the author first elaborates on a theoretical perspective which describes how policy environments give rise to or constrain congressional efforts to control bureaucracy through the design of statutes and characterizes the conditions under which more versus less congressional control might be found. Then it is shown that the relationships in the model do, in fact, capture the thought processes and behavior of individual legislators quite well. Third, to test this alternate approach in a general sense, the author compares the influence of policy environments of various air pollution issues on efforts by Congress to control the Environmental Protection Agency in provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Finally, to provide additional support for this perspective, the author explores the role of policy environments at different levels of policy making within Congress. The study concludes that the model is an effective way to illustrate the links between the characteristics of a policy issue, legislators' attributes, and intent to control. As a result, the model furthers the level of understanding that exists about congressional decisions to control bureaucracy.

  8. Considering ERP difference scores as individual difference measures: Issues with subtraction and alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Alexandria; Lerner, Matthew D; De Los Reyes, Andres; Laird, Robert D; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in psychophysiological and neural correlates of psychopathology, personality, and other individual differences. Many studies correlate a criterion individual difference variable (e.g., anxiety) with a psychophysiological measurement derived by subtracting scores taken from two within-subject conditions. These subtraction-based difference scores are intended to increase specificity by isolating variability of interest. Using data on the error-related negativity (ERN) and correct response negativity (CRN) in relation to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), we highlight several conceptual and practical issues with subtraction-based difference scores and propose alternative approaches based on regression. We show that ERN and CRN are highly correlated, and that the ΔERN (i.e., ERN - CRN) is correlated in opposite directions both with ERN and CRN. Bivariate analyses indicate that GAD is related to ΔERN and ERN, but not CRN. We first show that, by using residualized scores, GAD relates both to a larger ERN and smaller CRN. Moreover, by probing the interaction of ERN and CRN, we show that the relationship between GAD and ERN varies by CRN. These latter findings are not evident when using traditional subtraction-based difference scores. We then completed follow-up analyses that suggested that an increased P300 in anxious individuals gave rise to the apparent anxiety/CRN relationship observed. These findings have important conceptual implications for facilitating the interpretability of results from individual difference studies of psychophysiology.

  9. Allosteric Modulation: An Alternate Approach Targeting the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Jun-Xu; Thomas, Brian F; Wiley, Jenny L; Kenakin, Terry P; Zhang, Yanan

    2016-11-23

    The cannabinoid CB1 receptor is a G protein coupled receptor and plays an important role in many biological processes and physiological functions. A variety of CB1 receptor agonists and antagonists, including endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids, have been discovered or developed over the past 20 years. In 2005, it was discovered that the CB1 receptor contains allosteric site(s) that can be recognized by small molecules or allosteric modulators. A number of CB1 receptor allosteric modulators, both positive and negative, have since been reported and importantly, they display pharmacological characteristics that are distinct from those of orthosteric agonists and antagonists. Given the psychoactive effects commonly associated with CB1 receptor agonists and antagonists/inverse agonists, allosteric modulation may offer an alternate approach to attain potential therapeutic benefits while avoiding inherent side effects of orthosteric ligands. This review details the complex pharmacological profiles of these allosteric modulators, their structure-activity relationships, and efforts in elucidating binding modes and mechanisms of actions of reported CB1 allosteric modulators. The ultimate development of CB1 receptor allosteric ligands could potentially lead to improved therapies for CB1-mediated neurological disorders.

  10. The computational complexity of alternative updating approaches for an SVD-encoded indexing scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, M.W.; O`Brien, G.W.; Dumais, S.T.

    1995-12-01

    Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) is a conceptual indexing technique which uses the truncated SVD to estimate the underlying latent semantic structure of word to document association. By computing a lower-rank approximation to the original term-document matrix, LSI dampens the effects of word choice variability by representing terms and documents using (orthogonal) left and right singular vectors. Current methods for adding new documents to an LSI database (folding-in documents) can have deteriorating effects on the orthogonality of the vectors used to represent documents in high-dimensional subspaces. An alternative approach which updates the original truncated SVD so as to preserve the orthogonality among document vectors corresponding to the new term-document matrix is presented. The cost of the numerical computations and available memory needed to update the SVD versus the potential inaccuracy of former updating methods presents an interesting tradeoff for LSI database management. The computational cost of recomputing the truncated SVD of perturbed term-document matrices, updating current truncated SVD`s of term-document matrices, and the folding-in of new documents into an existing LSI model is presented.

  11. An alternative approach to measure similarity between two deterministic transient signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kihong

    2016-06-01

    In many practical engineering applications, it is often required to measure the similarity of two signals to gain insight into the conditions of a system. For example, an application that monitors machinery can regularly measure the signal of the vibration and compare it to a healthy reference signal in order to monitor whether or not any fault symptom is developing. Also in modal analysis, a frequency response function (FRF) from a finite element model (FEM) is often compared with an FRF from experimental modal analysis. Many different similarity measures are applicable in such cases, and correlation-based similarity measures may be most frequently used among these such as in the case where the correlation coefficient in the time domain and the frequency response assurance criterion (FRAC) in the frequency domain are used. Although correlation-based similarity measures may be particularly useful for random signals because they are based on probability and statistics, we frequently deal with signals that are largely deterministic and transient. Thus, it may be useful to develop another similarity measure that takes the characteristics of the deterministic transient signal properly into account. In this paper, an alternative approach to measure the similarity between two deterministic transient signals is proposed. This newly proposed similarity measure is based on the fictitious system frequency response function, and it consists of the magnitude similarity and the shape similarity. Finally, a few examples are presented to demonstrate the use of the proposed similarity measure.

  12. The impasses of modern "physically-based" hydrological modelling: example of an alternative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Yu. B.; Semenova, O.

    2009-04-01

    The following five stubborn problems are distinguished in physically based distributed hydrological modelling (K.Beven, 2001) - nonlinearity, uniqueness, uncertainty, equifinality and scale. Mainly they are related to methods of mathematical description of water movement from the places of runoff generation to the basin outlet. Three main tasks of which a correct methodological solution has principal significance are: 1) infiltration, water movement in the soil layer, formation of classical surface and subsurface flow; 2) slope (surface, subsurface and underground) inflow to channel network; 3) channel flow and lag time. An initial and at the same time an important stage of mathematical model construction is getting a clear idea about the modelling object formulated in the language of hydrology. The chief requirement (as a matter of fact, the modelling law) which can be demanded of the mathematical model is its adequacy to a real object, process, or phenomena. Therefore, it is inadmissible to apply the principles and approaches which are successfully used for description of phenomena of completely different character to the specification of other processes that have only formal resemblance. We consider the use of the following equations widely spread in hydrology - the Richard's equation, the Saint-Venant or kinematic wave equations and the Boussinesq equation - to be the direct violation of this law. We believe that the idea of developing approaches to calculate the runoff movement at the slopes, channel net and aquifers using non-existent data about inclinations, morphometry, roughness and etc. is utopic. The methodology of reverse estimation leads to unreserved illusions since parameters of applied models evaluated in such a way are the subject not of systematization, nor generalization, neither normalization; often they are not even realistic. Different idealization of runoff generation and its transformation phenomena is the basis of alternative approach which

  13. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  14. Analyzing initial geomorphologic processes and structures: An alternative remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwin, Werner; Raab, Thomas; Seiffert, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The initial phase of the ecosystem development is usually characterized by overall imbalances and, thus, a huge dynamic of the ongoing processes. Especially the formation of surface structures due to erosion and sedimentation processes alters both the morphology and behaviour of the system. However, the quantification of these processes is not trivial. Some methods like classical terrestrial erosion measurement techniques might have undesirable effects on the ecosystem itself. Others, like laser scanning techniques do not influence the system but are very cost-intensive. An alternative method might be the photogrammetric analysis of aerial photographs. This technique allows for the calculation of precise digital elevation models not only with a high spatial but also temporal resolution. The amount of erosion and sedimentation processes can be quantified if digital elevation models calculated for different moments are compared. A pilot study for an innovative and cost efficient approach was carried out to study the evolution of small-scaled landforms with special emphasis on erosion gullies. The test site for this technique was an approximately 1 ha sub-site of an artificial catchment which represents the initial stage of an establishing ecosystem with still ongoing erosive landform evolution processes. Due to the fact that the investigated catchment has been left to an unrestricted succession, disturbances by scientific measurements have to be minimized. Therefore, the comparatively cost efficient remote sensing tool was tested to overcome this methodological problem. The study was conducted in summer 2009, four years after final levelling of the catchments' surface. Aerial photographs were taken by a commercial digital camera using an innovative microdrone-based tool. The pictures were analysed using a commercial remote sensing software for digital photogrammetry to calculate digital elevation models of the site. The results of this pilot study are promising

  15. A fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian segmentation approach for volume determination in PET.

    PubMed

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze le Rest, Catherine; Turzo, Alexandre; Roux, Christian; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2009-06-01

    Accurate volume estimation in positron emission tomography (PET) is crucial for different oncology applications. The objective of our study was to develop a new fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) segmentation for automatic lesion volume delineation. FLAB was compared with a threshold approach as well as the previously proposed fuzzy hidden Markov chains (FHMC) and the fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithms. The performance of the algorithms was assessed on acquired datasets of the IEC phantom, covering a range of spherical lesion sizes (10-37 mm), contrast ratios (4:1 and 8:1), noise levels (1, 2, and 5 min acquisitions), and voxel sizes (8 and 64 mm(3)). In addition, the performance of the FLAB model was assessed on realistic nonuniform and nonspherical volumes simulated from patient lesions. Results show that FLAB performs better than the other methodologies, particularly for smaller objects. The volume error was 5%-15% for the different sphere sizes (down to 13 mm), contrast and image qualities considered, with a high reproducibility (variation < 4%). By comparison, the thresholding results were greatly dependent on image contrast and noise, whereas FCM results were less dependent on noise but consistently failed to segment lesions < 2 cm. In addition, FLAB performed consistently better for lesions < 2 cm in comparison to the FHMC algorithm. Finally the FLAB model provided errors less than 10% for nonspherical lesions with inhomogeneous activity distributions. Future developments will concentrate on an extension of FLAB in order to allow the segmentation of separate activity distribution regions within the same functional volume as well as a robustness study with respect to different scanners and reconstruction algorithms.

  16. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  17. Programs and Practices for Special Education Students in Alternative Education Settings. Research to Practice Brief. Volume 6, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Todis, Bonnie; Waintrup, Miriam; Atkins, Trent

    2007-01-01

    This brief presents a review of alternative education programs targeting students with disabilities. Because there is no clear picture of how alternative education programs operate, specifically regarding youth with disabilities, the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) funded three grants to develop a…

  18. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improvng the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness.

  19. Backscattering interferometry: an alternative approach for the study of hydrogen bonding interactions in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Pesciotta, Esther N; Bornhop, Darryl J; Flowers, Robert A

    2011-05-20

    Intermolecular interactions involving hydrogen bonds are responsible for catalysis and recognition. Traditional methods used to study hydrogen-bonding interactions are generally limited to relatively large volumes and high substrate concentrations. Backscattering Interferometry (BSI) provides a microfluidic platform to study these interactions in nonaqueous media at micromolar to nanomolar concentrations in picoliter volumes by monitoring changes in the refractive index.

  20. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine approaches to mental health care and psychological wellbeing in India and China.

    PubMed

    Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Zhou, Liang; Kumar, Kishore; Gao, Jie; Vaid, Henna; Liu, Huiming; Hankey, Alex; Wang, Guojun; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Nie, Jing-Bao; Nichter, Mark

    2016-07-01

    India and China face the same challenge of having too few trained psychiatric personnel to manage effectively the substantial burden of mental illness within their population. At the same time, both countries have many practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine who are a potential resource for delivery of mental health care. In our paper, part of The Lancet and Lancet Psychiatry's Series about the China-India Mental Health Alliance, we describe and compare types of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine in India and China. Further, we provide a systematic overview of evidence assessing the effectiveness of these alternative approaches for mental illness and discuss challenges in research. We suggest how practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine and mental health professionals might forge collaborative relationships to provide more accessible, affordable, and acceptable mental health care in India and China. A substantial proportion of individuals with mental illness use traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine, either exclusively or with biomedicine, for reasons ranging from faith and cultural congruence to accessibility, cost, and belief that these approaches are safe. Systematic reviews of the effectiveness of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine find several approaches to be promising for treatment of mental illness, but most clinical trials included in these systematic reviews have methodological limitations. Contemporary methods to establish efficacy and safety-typically through randomised controlled trials-need to be complemented by other means. The community of practice built on collaborative relationships between practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine and providers of mental health care holds promise in bridging the treatment gap in mental health care in India and China.

  1. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  2. Sumerian: The Descendant of a Proto-Historical Creole? An Alternative Approach to the "Sumerian Problem." ROLIG-papir 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyrup, Jens

    Problems in determining the origins of Sumerian, an ancient language, are described, and an alternative approach is examined. Sumerian was spoken in southern Iraq in the third millennium B.C. and later used by Babylonian and Assyrian scribes as a classical language. While early texts in Sumerian are considered a better reflection of the original…

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Kk of... - Data Quality Objective and Lower Confidence Limit Approaches for Alternative Capture Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... approach. 2.2An alternative CE protocol must consist of at least three valid test runs. Each test run must be at least 20 minutes long. No test run can be longer than 24 hours. 2.3All test runs must be... each run. The final liquid VOC sample from one run cannot be the initial sample for another run....

  4. Energy Education. Volume I of the Proceedings of the International Conference on Energy Alternatives/Risk Education (Lake Balaton, Hungary, September 7-13, 1989). Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, George, Ed.

    The proceedings of the International Conference on Energy Alternatives and Risk Education contains papers which examine science teaching in relation to societal aspects of risk assessment. A challenge for the conference was to show how science education can help students learn the concepts of acceptable and unacceptable risks, leading to rational…

  5. Excluded Volume Approach for Ultrathin Carbon Nanotube Network Stabilization: A Mesoscopic Distinct Element Method Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuezhou; Drozdov, Grigorii; Hobbie, Erik K; Dumitrica, Traian

    2017-04-04

    Ultrathin carbon nanotube films have gathered attention for flexible electronics applications. Unfortunately, their network structure changes significantly even under small applied strains. We perform mesoscopic distinct element method simulations and develop an atomic-scale picture of the network stress relaxation. On this basis, we put forward the concept of mesoscale design by the addition of excluded-volume interactions. We integrate silicon nanoparticles into our model and show that the nanoparticle-filled networks present superior stability and mechanical response relative to those of pure films. The approach opens new possibilities for tuning the network microstructure in a manner that is compatible with flexible electronics applications.

  6. Alternative therapies for metastatic breast cancer: multimodal approach targeting tumor cell heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Sambi, Manpreet; Haq, Sabah; Samuel, Vanessa; Qorri, Bessi; Haxho, Fiona; Hill, Kelli; Harless, William; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2017-01-01

    One of the primary challenges in developing effective therapies for malignant tumors is the specific targeting of a heterogeneous cancer cell population within the tumor. The cancerous tumor is made up of a variety of distinct cells with specialized receptors and proteins that could potentially be viable targets for drugs. In addition, the diverse signals from the local microenvironment may also contribute to the induction of tumor growth and metastasis. Collectively, these factors must be strategically studied and targeted in order to develop an effective treatment protocol. Targeted multimodal approaches need to be strategically studied in order to develop a treatment protocol that is successful in controlling tumor growth and preventing metastatic burden. Breast cancer, in particular, presents a unique problem because of the variety of subtypes of cancer that can arise and the multiple drug targets that could be exploited. For example, the tumor stage and subtypes often dictate the appropriate treatment regimen. Alternate multimodal therapies should consider the importance of time-dependent drug administration, as well as targeting the local and systemic tumor environment. Many reviews and papers have briefly touched on the clinical implications of this cellular heterogeneity; however, there has been very little discussion on the development of study models that reflect this diversity and on multimodal therapies that could target these subpopulations. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the origins of intratumoral heterogeneity in breast cancer subtypes, and its implications for tumor progression, metastatic potential, and treatment regimens. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing specific breast cancer models for research, including in vitro monolayer systems and three-dimensional mammospheres, as well as in vivo murine models that may have the capacity to encompass this heterogeneity. Lastly, we summarize some of the current

  7. Morphological study of surgical approach by superior temporal sulcus-temporal horn of lateral ventricle approach using volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Jia, Linpei; Dong, Yidian; Zhao, Hang; Liu, Haoyuan; Yang, Kerong; Li, Youqiong

    2014-03-01

    In this research, we acquired the length of the superior temporal sulcus, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, and the approach angle between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle measuring 98 specimens by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the point of the superior temporal sulcus, which is closest to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, aimed at finding out the best entrance point of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and reducing the damage to optic radiation as well as other nerve fibers during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 3/5 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point, and there is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  8. An alternative synthetic approach for efficient catalytic conversion of syngas to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hairong; Ma, Xinbin; Gong, Jinlong

    2014-05-20

    Ethanol is an attractive end product and a versatile feedstock because a widespread market exists for its commercial use as a fuel additive or a potential substitute for gasoline. Currently, ethanol is produced primarily by fermentation of biomass-derived sugars, particularly those containing six carbons, but coproducts 5-carbon sugars and lignin remain unusable. Another major process for commercial production of ethanol is hydration of ethylene over solid acidic catalysts, yet not sustainable considering the depletion of fossil fuels. Catalytic conversion of synthetic gas (CO + H2) could produce ethanol in large quantities. However, the direct catalytic conversion of synthetic gas to ethanol remains challenging, and no commercial process exists as of today although the research has been ongoing for the past 90 years, since such the process suffers from low yield and poor selectivity due to slow kinetics of the initial C-C bond formation and fast chain growth of the C2 intermediates. This Account describes recent developments in an alternative approach for the synthesis of ethanol via synthetic gas. This process is an integrated technology consisting of the coupling of CO with methanol to form dimethyl oxalate and the subsequent hydrogenation to yield ethanol. The byproduct of the second step (methanol) can be separated and used in circulation as the feedstock for the coupling step. The coupling reaction of carbon monoxide for producing dimethyl oxalate takes place under moderate reaction conditions with high selectivity (∼95%), which ideally leads to a self-closing, nonwaste, catalytic cycling process. This Account also summarizes the progress on the development of copper-based catalysts for the hydrogenation reaction with remarkable efficiencies and stability. The unique lamellar structure and the cooperative effect between surface Cu(0) and Cu(+) species are responsible for the activity of the catalyst with high yield of ethanol (∼91%). The understanding of

  9. Quantitative Approach To Seamount Volumes And Eruption Rates For Serpentinite Mud Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedenczuk, T.; Fryer, P.

    2008-12-01

    Serpentinite mud volcanoes in the Mariana forearc are formed by the hydration of mantle peridotite with slab- derived fluids. We calculated the volumes of five seamounts (Pacman, Celestial, Conical, Turquoise, and Big Blue Seamounts) using bathymetric, and (where available) multi-channel seismic reflection data. We interpolated the underlying pre-emplacent surfaces of each seamount using three methods (kriging, harmonic, and multiquadratic radial function), and three estimation techniques to define the pre-eruption seafloor surface beneath the seamounts (perimeter outline, wide area grid, and a geologically interpreted subsurface). We compared the percent difference between each. The interpolation methods produced volume results that differ as follows: 1.9% between kriging and the multiquadratic radial function, 3.6% between kriging and the harmonic function, and 3.8% between multiquadratic radial and the harmonic function. The techniques for determining the subsurface had larger percent differences as follows: 22% between the wide area grid and the geologic interpretation, 20% between geologic interpretation and the perimeter technique, and 18% between wide area grid and the perimeter technique. Based on linear regression results with a high R2, we conclude that there is a strong correlation between the results provided by all three methods. Based on the similarity of all of the regression slopes and their proximity to 1, we can conclude that no method will consistently over- or underestimate the volumes. The geologic interpretation technique should be used when subsurface data (seismic, drill cores, etc.) is available, or when workers have a strong geologic understanding and/or experience in the area. The other two techniques (perimeter and wide area grid) may be useful for large scale comparison studies that include many tens or hundreds of seamounts (or other features), where time constraints and a need for a systematic and repeatable approach is required, or

  10. Alternative Education Models--Interim Findings from the Replication of Career Intern Programs. Education and Training Approaches. Youth Knowledge Development Report 5.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Office of Youth Programs.

    This volume contains four interim reports of the Career Intern Program (CIP) replication portion of the Alternative Education Demonstration operated by Opportunities Industrialization Centers of America and evaluated by the National Institute of Education. (The CIP is an alternative high school serving dropouts and students at a high risk of…

  11. Alternative approaches of SiC & related wide bandgap materials in light emitting & solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellmann, Peter; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Ou, Haiyan

    2014-03-01

    Materials for optoelectronics give a fascinating variety of issues to consider. Increasingly important are white light emitting diode (LED) and solar cell materials. Profound energy savings can be done by addressing new materials. White light emitting diodes are becoming common in our lighting scene. There is a great energy saving in the transition from the light bulb to white light emitting diodes via a transition of fluorescent light tubes. However, the white LEDs still suffer from a variety of challenges in order to be in our daily use. Therefore there is a great interest in alternative lighting solutions that could be part of our daily life. All materials create challenges in fabrication. Defects reduce the efficiency of optical transitions involved in the light emitting diode materials. The donor-acceptor co-doped SiC is a potential light converter for a novel monolithic all-semiconductor white LED. In spite of considerable research, the internal quantum efficiency is far less than theoretically predicted and is likely a fascinating scientific field for studying materials growth, defects and optical transitions. Still, efficient Si-based light source represents an ongoing research field in photonics that requires high efficiency at room temperature, wavelength tuning in a wide wavelength range, and easy integration in silicon photonic devices. In some of these devices, rare earth doped materials is considered as a potential way to provide luminescence spanning in a wide wavelength range. Divalent and trivalent oxidation states of Eu provide emitting centers in the visible region. In consideration, the use of Eu in photonics requires Eu doped thin films that are compatible with CMOS technology but for example faces material science issues like a low Eu solid solubility in silica. Therefore approaches aim to obtain efficient light emission from silicon oxycarbide which has a luminescence in the visible range and can be a host material for rare earth ions. The

  12. A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Approach to Analyzing Large Volumes of Tissue to Detect Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, Paul J.; Thakor, Avnesh S.; Zavaleta, Cristina; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Sinclair, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer requires the complete characterization of their toxicity, including accurately locating them within biological tissues. Owing to their size, traditional light microscopy techniques are unable to resolve them. Transmission electron microscopy provides the necessary spatial resolution to image individual nanoparticles in tissue but is severely limited by the very small analysis volume, usually on the order of tens of cubic microns. In this work we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) approach to analyze large volumes of tissue for the presence of polyethylene glycol coated Raman-active-silica-gold-nanoparticles (PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs). This approach utilizes the simultaneous bright and dark field imaging capabilities of STEM along with careful control of the image contrast settings to readily identify PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs in mouse liver tissue without the need for additional time consuming analytical characterization. We utilized this technique to analyze 243,000 µm3 of mouse liver tissue for the presence of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs. Nanoparticles injected into the mice intravenously via the tail-vein accumulated in the liver while those injected intrarectally did not, indicating that they remain in the colon and do not pass through the colon wall into the systemic circulation. PMID:23803218

  13. A scanning transmission electron microscopy approach to analyzing large volumes of tissue to detect nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kempen, Paul J; Thakor, Avnesh S; Zavaleta, Cristina; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer requires the complete characterization of their toxicity, including accurately locating them within biological tissues. Owing to their size, traditional light microscopy techniques are unable to resolve them. Transmission electron microscopy provides the necessary spatial resolution to image individual nanoparticles in tissue, but is severely limited by the very small analysis volume, usually on the order of tens of cubic microns. In this work, we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) approach to analyze large volumes of tissue for the presence of polyethylene glycol-coated Raman-active-silica-gold-nanoparticles (PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs). This approach utilizes the simultaneous bright and dark field imaging capabilities of STEM along with careful control of the image contrast settings to readily identify PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs in mouse liver tissue without the need for additional time-consuming analytical characterization. We utilized this technique to analyze 243,000 mm³ of mouse liver tissue for the presence of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs. Nanoparticles injected into the mice intravenously via the tail vein accumulated in the liver, whereas those injected intrarectally did not, indicating that they remain in the colon and do not pass through the colon wall into the systemic circulation.

  14. Showing their true colors: a practical approach to volume rendering from serial sections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In comparison to more modern imaging methods, conventional light microscopy still offers a range of substantial advantages with regard to contrast options, accessible specimen size, and resolution. Currently, tomographic image data in particular is most commonly visualized in three dimensions using volume rendering. To date, this method has only very rarely been applied to image stacks taken from serial sections, whereas surface rendering is still the most prevalent method for presenting such data sets three-dimensionally. The aim of this study was to develop standard protocols for volume rendering of image stacks of serial sections, while retaining the benefits of light microscopy such as resolution and color information. Results Here we provide a set of protocols for acquiring high-resolution 3D images of diverse microscopic samples through volume rendering based on serial light microscopical sections using the 3D reconstruction software Amira (Visage Imaging Inc.). We overcome several technical obstacles and show that these renderings are comparable in quality and resolution to 3D visualizations using other methods. This practical approach for visualizing 3D micro-morphology in full color takes advantage of both the sub-micron resolution of light microscopy and the specificity of histological stains, by combining conventional histological sectioning techniques, digital image acquisition, three-dimensional image filtering, and 3D image manipulation and visualization technologies. Conclusions We show that this method can yield "true"-colored high-resolution 3D views of tissues as well as cellular and sub-cellular structures and thus represents a powerful tool for morphological, developmental, and comparative investigations. We conclude that the presented approach fills an important gap in the field of micro-anatomical 3D imaging and visualization methods by combining histological resolution and differentiation of details with 3D rendering of whole

  15. A New Volume-Based Approach for Predicting Thermophysical Behavior of Ionic Liquids and Ionic Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Nelyubina, Yulia V; Shaplov, Alexander S; Lozinskaya, Elena I; Buzin, Mikhail I; Vygodskii, Yakov S

    2016-08-17

    Volume-based prediction of melting points and other properties of ionic liquids (ILs) relies on empirical relations with volumes of ions in these low-melting organic salts. Here we report an accurate way to ionic volumes by Bader's partitioning of electron densities from X-ray diffraction obtained via a simple database approach. For a series of 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium salts, the volumes of different anions are found to correlate linearly with melting points; larger anions giving lower-melting ILs. The volume-based concept is transferred to ionic liquid crystals (ILs that adopt liquid crystalline mesophases, ILCs) for predicting the domain of their existence from the knowledge of their constituents. For 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ILCs, linear correlations of ionic volumes with the occurrence of LC mesophase and its stability are revealed, thus paving the way to rational design of ILCs by combining suitably sized ions.

  16. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities.

  17. Flow-volume loops derived from three-dimensional echocardiography: a novel approach to the assessment of left ventricular hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Shahgaldi, Kambiz; Söderqvist, Emil; Gudmundsson, Petri; Winter, Reidar; Nowak, Jacek; Brodin, Lars-Åke

    2008-01-01

    Background This study explores the feasibility of non-invasive evaluation of left ventricular (LV) flow-volume dynamics using 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, and the capacity of such an approach to identify altered LV hemodynamic states caused by valvular abnormalities. Methods Thirty-one patients with moderate-severe aortic (AS) and mitral (MS) stenoses (21 and 10 patients, respectively) and 10 healthy volunteers underwent 3D echocardiography with full volume acquisition using Philips Sonos 7500 equipment. The digital 3D data were post- processed using TomTec software. LV flow-volume loops were subsequently constructed for each subject by plotting instantaneous LV volume data sampled throughout the cardiac cycle vs. their first derivative representing LV flow. After correction for body surface area, an average flow-volume loop was calculated for each subject group. Results Flow-volume loops were obtainable in all subjects, except 3 patients with AS. The flow-volume diagrams displayed clear differences in the form and position of the loops between normal individuals and the respective patient groups. In patients with AS, an "obstructive" pattern was observed, with lower flow values during early systole and larger end-systolic volume. On the other hand, patients with MS displayed a "restrictive" flow-volume pattern, with reduced diastolic filling and smaller end-diastolic volume. Conclusion Non-invasive evaluation of LV flow-volume dynamics using 3D-echocardiographic data is technically possible and the approach has a capacity to identify certain specific types of alteration of LV flow-volume pattern caused by valvular abnormalities, thus reflecting underlying hemodynamic states specific for these abnormalities. PMID:18394157

  18. Assessment of Energy Storage Alternatives in the Puget Sound Energy System Volume 2: Energy Storage Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2013-12-01

    This volume presents the battery storage evaluation tool developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which is used to evaluate benefits of battery storage for multiple grid applications, including energy arbitrage, balancing service, capacity value, distribution system equipment deferral, and outage mitigation. This tool is based on the optimal control strategies to capture multiple services from a single energy storage device. In this control strategy, at each hour, a look-ahead optimization is first formulated and solved to determine battery base operating point. The minute by minute simulation is then performed to simulate the actual battery operation. This volume provide background and manual for this evaluation tool.

  19. Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor.

  20. A GWAS sequence variant for platelet volume marks an alternative DNM3 promoter in megakaryocytes near a MEIS1 binding site.

    PubMed

    Nürnberg, Sylvia T; Rendon, Augusto; Smethurst, Peter A; Paul, Dirk S; Voss, Katrin; Thon, Jonathan N; Lloyd-Jones, Heather; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Tijssen, Marloes R; Italiano, Joseph E; Deloukas, Panos; Gottgens, Berthold; Soranzo, Nicole; Ouwehand, Willem H

    2012-12-06

    We recently identified 68 genomic loci where common sequence variants are associated with platelet count and volume. Platelets are formed in the bone marrow by megakaryocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells by a process mainly controlled by transcription factors. The homeobox transcription factor MEIS1 is uniquely transcribed in megakaryocytes and not in the other lineage-committed blood cells. By ChIP-seq, we show that 5 of the 68 loci pinpoint a MEIS1 binding event within a group of 252 MK-overexpressed genes. In one such locus in DNM3, regulating platelet volume, the MEIS1 binding site falls within a region acting as an alternative promoter that is solely used in megakaryocytes, where allelic variation dictates different levels of a shorter transcript. The importance of dynamin activity to the latter stages of thrombopoiesis was confirmed by the observation that the inhibitor Dynasore reduced murine proplatelet for-mation in vitro.

  1. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, Ralph; Schindler, Anton; Duke, Steve; Burch, Thom; Bransby, David; Stafford, Don

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  2. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team . Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage (horizontal and vertical tail). This report contains the Appendices to Volume I.

  3. Assessment of wastewater treatment alternatives for small communities: An analytic network process approach.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Gómez, Trinidad; Caballero, Rafael; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2015-11-01

    The selection of the most appropriate wastewater treatment (WWT) technology is a complex problem since many alternatives are available and many criteria are involved in the decision-making process. To deal with this challenge, the analytic network process (ANP) is applied for the first time to rank a set of seven WWT technology set-ups for secondary treatment in small communities. A major advantage of ANP is that it incorporates interdependent relationships between elements. Results illustrated that extensive technologies, constructed wetlands and pond systems are the most preferred alternatives by WWT experts. The sensitivity analysis performed verified that the ranking of WWT alternatives is very stable since constructed wetlands are almost always placed in the first position. This paper showed that ANP analysis is suitable to deal with complex decision-making problems, such as the selection of the most appropriate WWT system contributing to better understand the multiple interdependences among elements involved in the assessment.

  4. Selection of process alternatives for lignocellulosic bioethanol production using a MILP approach.

    PubMed

    Scott, Felipe; Venturini, Fabrizio; Aroca, Germán; Conejeros, Raúl

    2013-11-01

    This work proposes a decision-making framework for the selection of processes and unit operations for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Process alternatives are described by its capital and operating expenditures, its contribution to process yield and technological availability information. A case study in second generation ethanol production using Eucalyptus globulus as raw material is presented to test the developed process synthesis tool. Results indicate that production cost does not necessarily decrease when yield increases. Hence, optimal processes can be found at the inflexion point of total costs and yield. The developed process synthesis tool provides results with an affordable computational cost, existing optimization tools and an easy-to-upgrade description of the process alternatives. These features made this tool suitable for process screening when incomplete information regarding process alternatives is available.

  5. The DYNAMO Simulation Language--An Alternate Approach to Computer Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronson, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Suggests the use of computer simulation of continuous systems as a problem solving approach to computer languages. Outlines the procedures that the system dynamics approach employs in computer simulations. Explains the advantages of the special purpose language, DYNAMO. (ML)

  6. An evaluation of alternative selection indexes for a non-linear profit trait approaching its economic optimum.

    PubMed

    Martin-Collado, D; Byrne, T J; Visser, B; Amer, P R

    2016-12-01

    This study used simulation to evaluate the performance of alternative selection index configurations in the context of a breeding programme where a trait with a non-linear economic value is approaching an economic optimum. The simulation used a simple population structure that approximately mimics selection in dual purpose sheep flocks in New Zealand (NZ). In the NZ dual purpose sheep population, number of lambs born is a genetic trait that is approaching an economic optimum, while genetically correlated growth traits have linear economic values and are not approaching any optimum. The predominant view among theoretical livestock geneticists is that the optimal approach to select for nonlinear profit traits is to use a linear selection index and to update it regularly. However, there are some nonlinear index approaches that have not been evaluated. This study assessed the efficiency of the following four alternative selection index approaches in terms of genetic progress relative to each other: (i) a linear index, (ii) a linear index updated regularly, (iii) a nonlinear (quadratic) index, and (iv) a NLF index (nonlinear index below the optimum and then flat). The NLF approach does not reward or penalize animals for additional genetic merit beyond the trait optimum. It was found to be at least comparable in efficiency to the approach of regularly updating the linear index with short (15 year) and long (30 year) time frames. The relative efficiency of this approach was slightly reduced when the current average value of the nonlinear trait was close to the optimum. Finally, practical issues of industry application of indexes are considered and some potential practical benefits of efficient deployment of a NLF index in highly heterogeneous industries (breeds, flocks and production environments) such as in the NZ dual purpose sheep population are discussed.

  7. Voxel-Based Approach for Estimating Urban Tree Volume from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonderach, C.; Voegtle, T.; Adler, P.

    2012-07-01

    The importance of single trees and the determination of related parameters has been recognized in recent years, e.g. for forest inventories or management. For urban areas an increasing interest in the data acquisition of trees can be observed concerning aspects like urban climate, CO2 balance, and environmental protection. Urban trees differ significantly from natural systems with regard to the site conditions (e.g. technogenic soils, contaminants, lower groundwater level, regular disturbance), climate (increased temperature, reduced humidity) and species composition and arrangement (habitus and health status) and therefore allometric relations cannot be transferred from natural sites to urban areas. To overcome this problem an extended approach was developed for a fast and non-destructive extraction of branch volume, DBH (diameter at breast height) and height of single trees from point clouds of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). For data acquisition, the trees were scanned with highest scan resolution from several (up to five) positions located around the tree. The resulting point clouds (20 to 60 million points) are analysed with an algorithm based on voxel (volume elements) structure, leading to an appropriate data reduction. In a first step, two kinds of noise reduction are carried out: the elimination of isolated voxels as well as voxels with marginal point density. To obtain correct volume estimates, the voxels inside the stem and branches (interior voxels) where voxels contain no laser points must be regarded. For this filling process, an easy and robust approach was developed based on a layer-wise (horizontal layers of the voxel structure) intersection of four orthogonal viewing directions. However, this procedure also generates several erroneous "phantom" voxels, which have to be eliminated. For this purpose the previous approach was extended by a special region growing algorithm. In a final step the volume is determined layer-wise based on the extracted

  8. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

  9. Finite volume approach for the instationary Cosserat rod model describing the spinning of viscous jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arne, Walter; Marheineke, Nicole; Meister, Andreas; Schiessl, Stefan; Wegener, Raimund

    2015-08-01

    The spinning of slender viscous jets can be asymptotically described by one-dimensional models that consist of systems of partial and ordinary differential equations. Whereas well-established string models only possess solutions for certain choices of parameters and configurations, the more sophisticated rod model is not limited by restrictions. It can be considered as an ɛ-regularized string model, but containing the slenderness ratio ɛ in the equations complicates its numerical treatment. We develop numerical schemes for fixed or enlarging (time-dependent) domains, using a finite volume approach in space with mixed central, up- and down-winded differences and stiffly accurate Radau methods for the time integration. For the first time, results of instationary simulations for a fixed or growing jet in a rotational spinning process are presented for arbitrary parameter ranges.

  10. Transitioning From Volume to Value: A Strategic Approach to Design and Implementation.

    PubMed

    Randazzo, Geralyn; Brown, Zenobia

    2016-01-01

    As the health care delivery system migrates toward a model based on value rather than volume, nursing leaders play a key role in assisting in the design and implementation of new models of care to support this transition. This article provides an overview of one organization's approach to evolve in the direction of value while gaining the experience needed to scope and scale cross-continuum assets to meet this growing demand. This article outlines the development and deployment of an organizational structure, information technology integration, clinical implementation strategies, and tools and metrics utilized to evaluate the outcomes of value-based programs. Experience in Bundled Payments for Care Improvement program is highlighted. The outcomes and lessons learned are incorporated for those interested in advancing value-based endeavors in their own organizations.

  11. Alternatives approaches to the sub-occipital transtentorial route for pineal tumors: How and when I do it?

    PubMed

    MBaye, M; Jouanneau, E; Mottolese, C; Simon, E

    2015-01-01

    Deeply located beneath the corpus callosum and surrounding by crucial veins, the pineal and tectal structures still challenge the surgeon. Either anterior or posterior, many surgical approaches have been developed to reach the pineal region. Most popular are likely the posterior sub-occipital or occipito-parietal transtentorial routes. Others, primarily transcallosal or supracerebellar, may be indicated depending of the extension of the tumors while the transcortical routes (frontal, parietal or atrial) have been almost given up. Our purpose in this article is give a practical overview of how to do and what are the respective indications of all these alternatives approaches developed for pineal tumors.

  12. Estimation and Inference for the Causal Effect of Receiving Treatment on a Multinomial Outcome: An Alternative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Stuart G.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Recently Cheng (Biometrics, 2009) proposed a model for the causal effect of receiving treatment when there is all-or-none compliance in one randomization group, with maximum likelihood estimation based on convex programming. We discuss an alternative approach that involves a model for all-or-none compliance in two randomization groups and estimation via a perfect fit or an EM algorithm for count data. We believe this approach is easier to implement, which would facilitate the reproduction of calculations. PMID:20560933

  13. Alternative Approach to Nuclear Data Representation: Building the infrastructure to support QMU and next-generation simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Brown, D A; Beck, B; McNabb, D P

    2006-01-17

    The nuclear data infrastructure currently relies on punch-card era formats designed some five decades ago. Though this system has worked well, recent interest in non-traditional and complicated physics processes has demanded a change. Here we present an alternative approach under development at LLNL. In this approach data is described through collections of distinct and self-contained simple data structures. This structure-based format is compared with traditional ENDF and ENDL, which can roughly be characterized as dictionary-based representations.

  14. Concept Mapping: An Approach for Evaluating a Public Alternative School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streeter, Calvin L.; Franklin, Cynthia; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how concept mapping techniques were applied to evaluate the development of a solution-focused, public alternative school program. Concept Systems software was used to create 15 cluster maps based on statements generated from students, teachers, and school staff. In addition, pattern matches were analyzed to examine the…

  15. Alternative/Complementary Approaches to Treatment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews common complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatments used to address symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders, including vitamin supplements, medications, antibiotics, antifungals, diet strategies, chelation/mercury detoxification, and nonbiologic treatments. Strategies that professionals may use in assessing the…

  16. Alternative Differential Identification Approaches for 2 Similar Bacilli Commonly Studied in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.

    1991-01-01

    Alternatives to the traditional unknown tests that permit a clear and unequivocal differential identification decision between Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium are presented. Plates of Phenylethyl Alcohol agar with Blood (PEAB), slants of Bile Esculin agar and plates of DNA agar are used. The materials, methods, results, and conclusions…

  17. INDOOR RADON REDUCTION IN CRAWL-SPACE HOUSES: A REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis has been completed of the performance, mechanisms, and costs of alternative technologies for preventing radon entry into the living areas of houses having crawl-space foundations. Sub-membrane depressurization (SMD) is consistently the most effective technique, often ...

  18. Brief Report: Alternative Approaches to the Development of Effective Treatments for Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimland, Bernard; Baker, Sidney M.

    1996-01-01

    The most widely used "alternative" biomedical treatments for autism are reviewed, including: nutritional supplements, especially megadose vitamin B6 and magnesium; treatment of food allergies and intolerances; treatment of microbial infections; and treatment of immune system dysfunction. The Defeat Autism Now! project is briefly…

  19. Communicative Competence Inventory for Students Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication: A Team Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yun-Ching; Douglas, Karen H.

    2014-01-01

    Students who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) represent a heterogonous group with complex communication needs. AAC--including aided communication means (e.g., pictures, devices) and unaided (e.g., signs, gestures)--is often used to support students who have difficulties with speech production, language comprehension, and…

  20. Alternative Approaches for the Communication Theorist: Problems in the Laws-Rules-Systems Trichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronen, Vernon E.; Davis, Leslie K.

    1978-01-01

    Argues against the laws-system-rules trichotomy which Cushman and Pearce use to organize theoretical options in the communication field, and offers in place of the laws-rule-systems trichotomy a multilevel analytic framework for organizing theoretical alternatives in communication. (Authors)

  1. Alternative Management Structures--A Cautious Approach. Information Bank Working Paper Number 2579.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, D. J.

    In order for a college to thrive in the education/training situation likely to prevail in the 1990s, it may need to move from its existing management structure--which is probably hierarchical--to an alternative management structure. A hierarchical structure has some strengths, such as a clear delineation of responsibilities, the division of work…

  2. A PRELIMINARY METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATIVE INDOOR AIR QUALITY APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report defines a simplified methodology that can be used by indoor air quality (IAQ) diagnosticians, architects/engineers, building owners/operators, and the scientific community for preliminary comparison of the cost-effectiveness of alternative IAQ control measures for any ...

  3. Dropping the Other U: An Alternative Approach to U-Shaped Developmental Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce readers to an alternative way of applying U-shaped functions to understand development, especially cognitive development. In classical developmental applications, age is the abscissa; that is, in the fundamental equation B = f(A), some behavioral variable (B) plots as a U-shaped or inverted U-shaped function…

  4. Advanced Placement Chemistry: A Feasible, Alternative Approach to Advanced Placement Chemistry Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmeier, Brian D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two factors to consider when initiating advanced placement (AP) chemistry, namely, the quality of those teaching the program and the time necessary to teach the relevant concepts. Suggests offering laboratory sessions during evening hours as an alternative to traditional daytime arrangements for laboratory blocks. (JN)

  5. Volume averaging: Local and nonlocal closures using a Green’s function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian D.; Valdés-Parada, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling transport phenomena in discretely hierarchical systems can be carried out using any number of upscaling techniques. In this paper, we revisit the method of volume averaging as a technique to pass from a microscopic level of description to a macroscopic one. Our focus is primarily on developing a more consistent and rigorous foundation for the relation between the microscale and averaged levels of description. We have put a particular focus on (1) carefully establishing statistical representations of the length scales used in volume averaging, (2) developing a time-space nonlocal closure scheme with as few assumptions and constraints as are possible, and (3) carefully identifying a sequence of simplifications (in terms of scaling postulates) that explain the conditions for which various upscaled models are valid. Although the approach is general for linear differential equations, we upscale the problem of linear convective diffusion as an example to help keep the discussion from becoming overly abstract. In our efforts, we have also revisited the concept of a closure variable, and explain how closure variables can be based on an integral formulation in terms of Green’s functions. In such a framework, a closure variable then represents the integration (in time and space) of the associated Green’s functions that describe the influence of the average sources over the spatial deviations. The approach using Green’s functions has utility not only in formalizing the method of volume averaging, but by clearly identifying how the method can be extended to transient and time or space nonlocal formulations. In addition to formalizing the upscaling process using Green’s functions, we also discuss the upscaling process itself in some detail to help foster improved understanding of how the process works. Discussion about the role of scaling postulates in the upscaling process is provided, and poised, whenever possible, in terms of measurable properties of (1) the

  6. An Integrated Approach to Seismic Event Location. 1. Evaluating How Method of Location Affects the Volume of Groups of Hypocenters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-12

    1985: and Pujol , 1988). 3) Methods for evaluating errors in event locations. The classical approach to error analysis utilizes a formal statistical...minimum volume polyhedron as a practical enclosure for a set of points has not been suggested previously in the seismological or geological literature. 4 2...Set of Points in Space Background: There exist’numerous applications in seismology and geology where it is useful to define a volume in space which

  7. Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure: a scientific statement from the american heart association.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Appel, Lawrence J; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Bisognano, John D; Elliott, William J; Fuchs, Flavio D; Hughes, Joel W; Lackland, Daniel T; Staffileno, Beth A; Townsend, Raymond R; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Many antihypertensive medications and lifestyle changes are proven to reduce blood pressure. Over the past few decades, numerous additional modalities have been evaluated in regard to their potential blood pressure-lowering abilities. However, these nondietary, nondrug treatments, collectively called alternative approaches, have generally undergone fewer and less rigorous trials. This American Heart Association scientific statement aims to summarize the blood pressure-lowering efficacy of several alternative approaches and to provide a class of recommendation for their implementation in clinical practice based on the available level of evidence from the published literature. Among behavioral therapies, Transcendental Meditation (Class IIB, Level of Evidence B), other meditation techniques (Class III, Level of Evidence C), yoga (Class III, Level of Evidence C), other relaxation therapies (Class III, Level of Evidence B), and biofeedback approaches (Class IIB, Level of Evidence B) generally had modest, mixed, or no consistent evidence demonstrating their efficacy. Between the noninvasive procedures and devices evaluated, device-guided breathing (Class IIA, Level of Evidence B) had greater support than acupuncture (Class III, Level of Evidence B). Exercise-based regimens, including aerobic (Class I, Level of Evidence A), dynamic resistance (Class IIA, Level of Evidence B), and isometric handgrip (Class IIB, Level of Evidence C) modalities, had relatively stronger supporting evidence. It is the consensus of the writing group that it is reasonable for all individuals with blood pressure levels >120/80 mm Hg to consider trials of alternative approaches as adjuvant methods to help lower blood pressure when clinically appropriate. A suggested management algorithm is provided, along with recommendations for prioritizing the use of the individual approaches in clinical practice based on their level of evidence for blood pressure lowering, risk-to-benefit ratio, potential

  8. Conditions for energy generation as an alternative approach to compost utilization.

    PubMed

    Raclavska, H; Juchelkova, D; Skrobankova, H; Wiltowski, T; Campen, A

    2011-01-01

    Very strict limits constrain the current possibilities for compost utilization in agriculture and for land reclamation, thus creating a need for other compost utilization practices. A favourable alternative can be compost utilization as a renewable heat source - alternative fuel. The changes of the basic physical-chemical parameters during the composting process are evaluated. During the composting process, energy losses of 920 kJ/kg occur, caused by carbohydrate decomposition (loss of 12.64% TOC). The net calorific value for mature compost was 11.169 kJ/kg dry matter. The grain size of compost below 0.045 mm has the highest ash content. The energetic utilization of compost depended on moisture, which can be influenced by paper addition or by prolonging the time of maturation to six months.

  9. Alternative Approaches to Conventional Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    Foxman, Betsy; Buxton, Miatta

    2013-01-01

    The increasing resistance of uropathogens to antibiotics, and recognition of generally self-limiting nature of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) suggests that it is time to reconsider empirical treatment of UTI using antibiotics. Identifying new and effective strategies to prevent recurrences and alterative treatment strategies are a high priority. We review the recent literature regarding the effects of functional food products, probiotics, vaccines, and alternative treatments on treating and preventing UTI. PMID:23378124

  10. An alternative treatment approach to gingival recession: gingiva-colored partial porcelain veneers: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Capa, Nuray

    2007-08-01

    This clinical report describes the treatment of excessive gingival recession involving maxillary right and left central incisors in a 30-year-old woman. The loss of the gingival soft tissue caused an increase in crown length. Gingiva-colored partial porcelain laminate veneers were applied to imitate the lost gingiva and to provide a natural anatomical tooth length. This method may be a minimally invasive alternative treatment method for gingival soft tissue loss, providing esthetic results and patient satisfaction.

  11. Exploring Alternative Characteristic Curve Approaches to Linking Parameter Estimates from the Generalized Partial Credit Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.; Bao, Han; Huang, Chun-Wei; Gagne, Phill

    Characteristic curve approaches for linking parameters from the generalized partial credit model were examined for cases in which common (anchor) items are calibrated separately in two groups. Three of these approaches are simple extensions of the test characteristic curve (TCC), item characteristic curve (ICC), and operating characteristic curve…

  12. Alternative Curriculum Evaluation: A Critical Approach To Assess Social Engineering Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.

    A curriculum evaluation approach has been proposed that can enhance educators' understanding of how curriculum designed to effect social and vocational change in market economy cultures interacts with students, schools, and society. This method combines elements of a social evaluation approach fashioned by M.W. Apple and L.E. Beyer (1985) with a…

  13. Micro Blowing Simulations Using a Coupled Finite-Volume Lattice-Boltzman n L ES Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, S.; Feiz, H.

    1990-01-01

    Three dimensional large-eddy simulations (LES) of single and multiple jet-in-cross-flow (JICF) are conducted using the 19-bit Lattice Boltzmann Equation (LBE) method coupled with a conventional finite-volume (FV) scheme. In this coupled LBE-FV approach, the LBE-LES is employed to simulate the flow inside the jet nozzles while the FV-LES is used to simulate the crossflow. The key application area is the use of this technique is to study the micro blowing technique (MBT) for drag control similar to the recent experiments at NASA/GRC. It is necessary to resolve the flow inside the micro-blowing and suction holes with high resolution without being restricted by the FV time-step restriction. The coupled LBE-FV-LES approach achieves this objectives in a computationally efficient manner. A single jet in crossflow case is used for validation purpose and the results are compared with experimental data and full LBE-LES simulation. Good agreement with data is obtained. Subsequently, MBT over a flat plate with porosity of 25% is simulated using 9 jets in a compressible cross flow at a Mach number of 0.4. It is shown that MBT suppresses the near-wall vortices and reduces the skin friction by up to 50 percent. This is in good agreement with experimental data.

  14. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: eye irritation.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Pauline; Hibatallah, Jalila; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Goebel, Carsten; Araki, Daisuke; Dufour, Eric; Hewitt, Nicola J; Jones, Penny; Kirst, Annette; Le Varlet, Béatrice; Macfarlane, Martin; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Rowland, Joanna; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    The need for alternative approaches to replace the in vivo rabbit Draize eye test for evaluation of eye irritation of cosmetic ingredients has been recognised by the cosmetics industry for many years. Extensive research has lead to the development of several assays, some of which have undergone formal validation. Even though, to date, no single in vitro assay has been validated as a full replacement for the rabbit Draize eye test, organotypic assays are accepted for specific and limited regulatory purposes. Although not formally validated, several other in vitro models have been used for over a decade by the cosmetics industry as valuable tools in a weight of evidence approach for the safety assessment of ingredients and finished products. In light of the deadlines established in the EU Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision-tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how remaining data gaps and research needs can be addressed.

  15. A Comparison of Two Different Approaches to Hydrazine Loading of Spacecraft: The Use of SCAPE and Alternative Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John; Patzold, Jack D.; Jackson, Julie R.; Brown, Pamela R.

    1999-01-01

    The loading of spacecraft with Hydrazine type fuels has long been recognized as a hazardous operation. This has led to safety strategies that include the use of SCAPE protective suits for personnel. The use of SCAPE suits have an excellent safety record, however there are associated drawbacks. Drawbacks include the high cost of maintaining and cleaning the suits, reduced mobility and dexterity when wearing the suits, the requirement for extensive specialized health and safety training, and the need to rotate personnel every two hours. A study was undertaken to look at procedures and/or equipment to eliminate or reduce the time spent in SCAPE-type operations. The major conclusions are drawn from observations of the loading of the JPL/NASA spacecraft Deep Space One (DS1) at KSC and the loading of a commercial communications satellite by Motorola at Vandenberg AF Base. The DS1 operations require extensive use of SCAPE suits, while the Motorola operation uses only SPLASH attire with a two-man team on standby in SCAPE. The Motorola team used very different loading equipment and procedures based on an integrated approach involving the propellant supplier. Overall, the Motorola approach was very clean, much faster and simpler than the DS1 procedure. The DS1 spacecraft used a bladder in the propellant tank, whereas the Motorola spacecraft used a Propellant Management Device (PMD). The Motorola approach cannot be used for tanks with bladders. To overcome this problem, some new procedures and new equipment are proposed to enable tanks with bladders to be loaded without using SCAPE, using a modified Motorola approach. Overall, it appears feasible to adopt the non-SCAPE approach while maintaining a very high degree of safety and reliability.

  16. An integrated approach for detecting embryotoxicity and developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants using in vitro alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Sogorb, Miguel A; Pamies, David; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Estevan, Carmen; Estévez, Jorge; Vilanova, Eugenio

    2014-10-15

    The main available alternatives for testing embryotoxicity are cellular tests with stem cells and in vitro-ex vivo tests with embryos. In cellular tests, the most developed alternative is the embryonic stem cell test, while the most developed tests involving embryos are the zebrafish and whole embryo culture test. They are technically more complex than cellular tests, but offer the advantage of determining the expectable phenotypic alteration caused by the exposure. Many efforts are currently being made, basically through proteomic and genomic approaches, in order to obtain improvements in predictivity of these tests. Development is a very complex process, and it is highly unlikely that a single alternative test can yield satisfactory performance with all types of chemicals. We propose a step-wise approach where model complexity, and consequently technical skills and economical costs, gradually increase if needed. The first level would be run short cellular assays to detect effects in early differentiation stages. The second level would involve longer cellular embryotoxicity tests to search embryotoxicants that have an effect on late differentiation stages. The third stage would consider tests with embryos because they allow the determination of hazards based on molecular and morphological alterations, and not only on differentiating cells.

  17. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.

  18. Monte Carlo Computation of the Finite-Size Scaling Function: an Alternative Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Kwon; de Souza, Adauto J. F.; Landau, D. P.

    1996-03-01

    We show how to compute numerically a finite-size-scaling function which is particularly effective in extracting accurate infinite- volume -limit values (bulk values) of certain physical quantities^1. We illustrate our procedure for the two and three dimensional Ising models, and report our bulk values for the correlation lenth, magnetic susceptibility, and renormalized four-point coupling constant. Based on these bulk values we extract the values of various critical parameters. ^1 J.-K. Kim, Euro. Phys. Lett. 28, 211 (1994) Research supported in part by the NSF ^Permanent address: Departmento de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, 52171-900, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

  19. Atmospheric emissions modeling of energetic biomass alternatives using system dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szarka, Nora; Kakucs, Orsolya; Wolfbauer, Jürgen; Bezama, Alberto

    To simulate the quantitative effects of regional biomass alternatives for energetic purpose (BfE) on air pollutant emissions, a system dynamics model was developed and applied for the EuRegion Austrian-Hungarian cross-border area. The dynamic simulation program Vensim ® was used to build an overall regional model with economic, social and environmental sectors. Within this model, the here-introduced regional air pollution sub-model (RegAir) includes the important human-made emissions of 10 pollutants resulting from all relevant source sectors within the region investigated. Emissions from activities related to biomass production, transport, conversion and final energy consumption were built in detail. After building and calibrating the RegAir model, seven quantitative test scenarios were defined and implemented into the model. Through the scenarios simulation, effects on air emissions were followed and compared over time. The results of these simulations show a significant reduction of CO 2 emissions, especially in cases where fossil fuel displacement in heating devices is achieved on the largest scale. On the contrary, traditional air pollutants increase by most BfE options. The results of the RegAir model simulations of BfE alternatives over two decades provide useful quantifications of various air emissions and identify the less pollutant BfE alternatives in the dynamic context of the relevant air pollution sources of the region. After minor structural modifications and appropriate calibration, RegAir can be applied to other regions as well. However, it is stated that, to finally decide on the overall most-appropriate options at a regional level, other environmental as well as economic and social effects must be taken into consideration, being the latter the goal of the mentioned overall regional model which serves as a model frame to the RegAir tool.

  20. Approaches to Develop Alternative Testing Strategies to Inform Human Health Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Stone, Vicki; Johnston, Helinor J; Balharry, Dominique; Gernand, Jeremy M; Gulumian, Mary

    2016-08-01

    The development of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for hazard assessment of new and emerging materials is high on the agenda of scientists, funders, and regulators. The relatively large number of nanomaterials on the market and under development means that an increasing emphasis will be placed on the use of reliable, predictive ATS when assessing their safety. We have provided recommendations as to how ATS development for assessment of nanomaterial hazard may be accelerated. Predefined search terms were used to identify the quantity and distribution of peer-reviewed publications for nanomaterial hazard assessment following inhalation, ingestion, or dermal absorption. A summary of knowledge gaps relating to nanomaterial hazard is provided to identify future research priorities and areas in which a rich data set might exist to allow ATS identification. Consultation with stakeholders (e.g., academia, industry, regulators) was critical to ensure that current expert opinion was reflected. The gap analysis revealed an abundance of studies that assessed the local and systemic impacts of inhaled particles, and so ATS are available for immediate use. Development of ATS for assessment of the dermal toxicity of chemicals is already relatively advanced, and these models should be applied to nanomaterials as relatively few studies have assessed the dermal toxicity of nanomaterials to date. Limited studies have investigated the local and systemic impacts of ingested nanomaterials. If the recommendations for research prioritization proposed are adopted, it is envisioned that a comprehensive battery of ATS can be developed to support the risk assessment process for nanomaterials. Some alternative models are available for immediate implementation, while others require more developmental work to become widely adopted. Case studies are included that can be used to inform the selection of alternative models and end points when assessing the pathogenicity of fibers and mode of

  1. A Systems Approach to Finding Cost-Effective Alternatives to European Ballistic Missile Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    components. Program Activity Component 1 Aegis AN/ TPY -2 6 PAC-3 Total R&D Costs $111,470,727 $710,333,127 $418,638,759 Total P& C Costs $1,322,766,392...Alternative A Program Activity Component 2 Aegis 1 AN/ TPY -2 1 THAAD Total R&D Costs $222,941,453 $710,333,127 $33,148,803 Total P& C Costs... c . Detection Systems The AN/ TPY -2, the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS), the Sea-Based X-Band (SBX) Radar, and Upgraded Early Warning

  2. The small volume particle microsampler (SVPM): a new approach to particle size distribution and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, Marie-Claude; Grant, Jon; Hatcher, Annamarie

    2001-10-01

    The characterization of trophically and geochemically important suspended particulate matter (SPM) has traditionally relied on bottle sampling and subsequent analysis with Coulter Multisizers and other instruments, which are not sufficient in preserving the in situ size, shape and composition of aggregated particles. The small volume particle microsampler (SVPM) is a sampling device that captures individual particles on filters with minimal disturbance for microscope image analysis of size distribution and composition. Sand grains, microalga ( Dunaliella tertiolecta) and laboratory cultivated flocs were used to test the SVPM's ability to determine particle size. For statistical analysis of the SVPM's capabilities, sand grain and algal size distribution, calculated as equivalent spherical diameter (ESD), were compared to Multisizer data while video images provided a comparison for the flocs. Non-aggregated sand particles sampled by the SVPM showed a size distribution that was similar to that of the Multisizer. Aggregated D. tertiolecta flocs were broken up by the Multisizer, and SVPM data indicated a significantly greater mean ESD. The SVPM showed significantly smaller mean ESDs than the video images because of the higher resolution of the sampler for small particles. In terms of particle concentration, the microsampler measured values similar to those of the Multisizer and video camera. The most important feature of the SVPM is its ability to capture aggregates for the analysis of composition, by histological stains or other means. The SVPM is an alternative method of sampling that is more effective in preserving aggregates for laboratory analyses and is less complicated and expensive than in situ optical sampling techniques, especially in documenting the lower end of the particle size spectrum.

  3. Potential of MALDI-TOF MS as an alternative approach for capsular typing Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Tatiana C. A.; Costa, Natalia S.; Castro, Luciana F. S.; Ribeiro, Rachel L.; Botelho, Ana Caroline N.; Neves, Felipe P. G.; Peralta, Jose Mauro; Teixeira, Lucia M.

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae can be classified in more than 90 capsular types, as traditionally determined by serological methods and more recently by PCR-based techniques. Such methods, however, can be expensive, laborious or unable to accurately discriminate among certain serotypes. Therefore, determination of capsular types, although extremely important for epidemiological purposes and for estimating the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, is mainly restricted to research laboratories, being rarely performed in the clinical setting. In the present study, MALDI-TOF MS was evaluated as an alternative tool to characterize 416 pneumococcal isolates belonging to serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, 9N, 9V or 14. For MALDI-TOF MS analysis, each isolate was submitted to an extraction protocol using formic acid and acetonitrile. Measurements were performed with a Bruker Microflex LT mass spectrometer using default parameters and generating spectra in the range of 2,000–20,000 m/z. Spectra were analyzed with the BioNumerics software v7.6. Isolates were mainly distributed according to the capsular type in a Neighbor Joining tree and serotypes investigated were successfully discriminated by the presence/absence of 14 selected biomarkers. The results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS is a promising alternative for typing pneumococcal strains, highlighting its usefulness for rapid and cost-effective routine application in clinical laboratories. PMID:28349999

  4. An information theoretic approach to select alternate subsets of predictors for data-driven hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, R.; Galelli, S.; Karakaya, G.; Ahipasaoglu, S. D.

    2016-11-01

    This work investigates the uncertainty associated to the presence of multiple subsets of predictors yielding data-driven models with the same, or similar, predictive accuracy. To handle this uncertainty effectively, we introduce a novel input variable selection algorithm, called Wrapper for Quasi Equally Informative Subset Selection (W-QEISS), specifically conceived to identify all alternate subsets of predictors in a given dataset. The search process is based on a four-objective optimization problem that minimizes the number of selected predictors, maximizes the predictive accuracy of a data-driven model and optimizes two information theoretic metrics of relevance and redundancy, which guarantee that the selected subsets are highly informative and with little intra-subset similarity. The algorithm is first tested on two synthetic test problems and then demonstrated on a real-world streamflow prediction problem in the Yampa River catchment (US). Results show that complex hydro-meteorological datasets are characterized by a large number of alternate subsets of predictors, which provides useful insights on the underlying physical processes. Furthermore, the presence of multiple subsets of predictors-and associated models-helps find a better trade-off between different measures of predictive accuracy commonly adopted for hydrological modelling problems.

  5. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annett, Larry D.

    A model is presented for the categorizing of alternative schools, then the nature of the free school, which represents the essence of the alternative school movement, is examined. Strengths and weaknesses of court, legislative, and administrative approaches to resolve governance issues are set forth. This is followed by an analysis of three…

  6. A chemical-biological similarity-based grouping of complex substances as a prototype approach for evaluating chemical alternatives.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Fabian A; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Sirenko, Oksana; Chappell, Grace A; Wright, Fred A; Reif, David M; Braisted, John; Gerhold, David L; Yeakley, Joanne M; Shepard, Peter; Seligmann, Bruce; Roy, Tim; Boogaard, Peter J; Ketelslegers, Hans B; Rohde, Arlean M; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-08-21

    Comparative assessment of potential human health impacts is a critical step in evaluating both chemical alternatives and existing products on the market. Most alternatives assessments are conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis and it is seldom acknowledged that humans are exposed to complex products, not individual substances. Indeed, substances of Unknown or Variable composition, Complex reaction products, and Biological materials (UVCBs) are ubiquitous in commerce yet they present a major challenge for registration and health assessments. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and computational approach to categorize UVCBs according to global similarities in their bioactivity using a suite of in vitro models. We used petroleum substances, an important group of UVCBs which are grouped for regulatory approval and read-across primarily on physico-chemical properties and the manufacturing process, and only partially based on toxicity data, as a case study. We exposed induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes to DMSO-soluble extracts of 21 petroleum substances from five product groups. Concentration-response data from high-content imaging in cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, as well as targeted high-throughput transcriptomic analysis of the hepatocytes, revealed distinct groups of petroleum substances. Data integration showed that bioactivity profiling affords clustering of petroleum substances in a manner similar to the manufacturing process-based categories. Moreover, we observed a high degree of correlation between bioactivity profiles and physico-chemical properties, as well as improved groupings when chemical and biological data were combined. Altogether, we demonstrate how novel in vitro screening approaches can be effectively utilized in combination with physico-chemical characteristics to group complex substances and enable read-across. This approach allows for rapid and scientifically-informed evaluation of health impacts of

  7. An alternative approach to confidence interval estimation for the win ratio statistic.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaodong; Tian, Hong; Mohanty, Surya; Tsai, Wei Yann

    2015-03-01

    Pocock et al. (2012, European Heart Journal 33, 176-182) proposed a win ratio approach to analyzing composite endpoints comprised of outcomes with different clinical priorities. In this article, we establish a statistical framework for this approach. We derive the null hypothesis and propose a closed-form variance estimator for the win ratio statistic in all pairwise matching situation. Our simulation study shows that the proposed variance estimator performs well regardless of the magnitude of treatment effect size and the type of the joint distribution of the outcomes.

  8. Intramolecular catalytic asymmetric carbon-hydrogen insertion reactions. Synthetic advantages in total synthesis in comparison with alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Michael P; Ratnikov, Maxim; Liu, Yu

    2011-06-07

    The synthetic potential of highly directional formal insertion of a carbene between carbon and hydrogen of a carbon-hydrogen bond has recently been developed for intramolecular reactions that lead to compounds of biological and medicinal interest. Stereoselective and regiocontrolled intramolecular processes from diazoacetate reactants, catalyzed by dirhodium(II) compounds with chiral carboxamidate ligands, provide efficient and selective access to compounds as diverse as enterolactone, baclofen, imperanene, xylolactone, and rolipram. A comparison of the C-H insertion methodology with alternative approaches is presented.

  9. Lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers. Ten case studies of implemented programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Program summaries, issue developments, governmental processes, and impacts are discussed for 10 case studies dealing with lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers, namely; the Boston Edison rate freeze; the California lifeline; Florida Power and Light conservation rate; the Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric small-use rate; the Maine demonstration lifeline program; the Massachusetts Electric Company A-65 rate; the Michigan optional senior citizen rate; the Narragansett Electric Company A-65 SSI rate; the Northern States Power Company conservation rate break; and the Potomac Electric Power Company rate freeze. (MCW)

  10. Array-based sensing using nanoparticles: an alternative approach for cancer diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Le, Ngoc DB; Yazdani, Mahdieh; Rotello, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Array-based sensing using nanoparticles (NPs) provides an attractive alternative to specific biomarker-focused strategies for cancer diagnosis. The physical and chemical properties of NPs provide both the recognition and transduction capabilities required for biosensing. Array-based sensors utilize a combined response from the interactions between sensors and analytes to generate a distinct pattern (fingerprint) for each analyte. These interactions can be the result of either the combination of multiple specific biomarker recognition (specific binding) or multiple selective binding responses, known as chemical nose sensing. The versatility of the latter array-based sensing using NPs can facilitate the development of new personalized diagnostic methodologies in cancer diagnostics, a necessary evolution in the current healthcare system to better provide personalized treatments. This review will describe the basic principle of array-based sensors, along with providing examples of both invasive and noninvasive samples used in cancer diagnosis. PMID:25253497

  11. An Alternative Approach to Monitoring Fish and Fish Habitat in the Inland Northwest, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, James T.

    1999-09-01

    The development of efficient and effective monitoring protocols will depend, in part, upon successfully incorporating multiple research and management goals across several disciplines. Decision analysis has these abilities and can be used to examine the potential effects of alternative management activities, identify candidate monitoring variables, and estimate the value of monitoring or conducting additional studies. The author demonstrates the utility of decision analysis for monitoring and adaptive (i.e., experimental) management with an example of a timber harvest decision. Example models were generated using previously reported relationships and Monte Carlo simulation and the value of sampling (e.g., monitoring) was estimated via Baye's Rule. He concludes that the decision analysis can be a powerful tool for developing a future effectiveness monitoring protocols and should be considered by natural resource managers prior to adopting a monitoring strategy.

  12. The Chinese approach to complementary and alternative medicine treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) remains a challenge due to poor understanding on its etiology. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as an optional treatment, has been widely used, because no definitive conventional therapy is available. The different domain of CAM provides miscellaneous treatments for IC/BPS, which mainly include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, biofeedback, yoga, massage, physical therapy, Qigong, traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Clinical evidence has shown that each therapy can certainly benefit a portion of IC/BPS patients. However, the target patient group of each therapy has not been well studied and randomized, controlled trials are needed to further confirm the efficacy and reliability of CAM on managing IC/BPS. Despite these limitations, CAM therapeutic characteristics including non-invasive and effectiveness for specific patients allow clinicians and patients to realize multimodal and individualized therapy for IC/BPS. PMID:26816867

  13. Computed Tomography-guided Pericardiocentesis: An alternative approach for accessing the pericardium.

    PubMed

    Melvan, John Nicholas; Madden, David; Vasquez, Julio C; DeLaRosa, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Pericardial effusions compress the heart, decrease cardiac output, and lead to haemodynamic collapse. Ultrasound (US)-guided pericardiocentesis is the gold standard for treating pericardial effusions. Recently, the incorporation of computed tomography (CT) guidance has increased patient safety while entering the pericardium. Despite the superior performance of CT-guided pericardiocentesis in smaller, complex effusions, this procedure is not routinely performed by cardiologists and surgeons. Unlike those with an intact pericardium, patients with mediastinal trauma, pericardial adhesions, temporary pacing wires, and vascular conduits are high risk for pericardiocentesis. Tamponade physiology also increases patient susceptibility to the hypotensive effects of anaesthesia during surgical drainage. Here we illustrate the technique of CT-guided pericardiocentesis and demonstrate its application in specific clinical scenarios. We conclude that CT-guided pericardiocentesis provides a useful, alternative strategy for treating cardiac tamponade in high risk patients.

  14. Valuation of imaging centers: alternative methods and detailed description of the discounted cash flow approach.

    PubMed

    Russell, Philip J

    2007-01-01

    Medical imaging centers are an increasingly integral part of the medical services landscape in America. There are many instances in which owners and potential buyers of these enterprises want to ascertain the value of the businesses. There is an industry of professionals who provide expert valuation services for many types of businesses using various recognized alternative methods, some of which are more appropriate than others when valuing an imaging center. The federal government has prescribed parameters for all valuations if they lead to transactions in which fair market value is mandated, and it also expects transactions to adhere to more generalized laws relating to entities that provide services to Medicare patients. Radiologists who own, or who are contemplating ownership of, imaging center operations need to understand the principles of valuation, specifically the factors that are involved in a discounted cash flow determination of fair market value.

  15. Responsiveness to Intervention: An Alternative Approach to the Identification of Learning Disabilities. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank

    This executive summary discusses the definition of learning disabilities (LD) and how students are identified as having a learning disability. It begins by outlining four major methods that are used to compute the discrepancy-based definition of LD and the flaws of the discrepancy-based model. It then describes an approach to defining LD that is…

  16. Seconding Teachers to the Academy: An Alternative to Traditional Approaches of Sessional Staff Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkingtion, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    There is a multiplicity of challenges related to employing, supporting and retaining quality sessional (casual) academic staff in higher education. An approach trialled in an Australian education faculty specifically addressed issues of quality and quantity, support and inclusion, motivation and engagement, efficiency and effectiveness. While…

  17. The Process Genre Writing Approach; An Alternative Option for the Modern Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Emma

    2017-01-01

    "Writing involves knowledge about the language, the context in which writing happens and skills in using language. Writing development happens by drawing out the learners' potential and providing input to which learners respond" (Badger & White, 2000.) Taking this in to account, the Process Genre Approach in writing classes can be…

  18. Progeny Review: An Alternative Approach for Examining the Replication of Intervention Studies in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrien, William J.; Mathews, Hannah M.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Solis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of replication for building an evidence base, there has been no formal examination to date of replication research in special education. In this review, we examined the extent and nature of replication of intervention research in special education using an "article progeny" approach and a three-pronged definition…

  19. An Alternative Expert Knowledge Transfer Model: A Case Study of an Indigenous Storytelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Roderick Jay

    2010-01-01

    The increasing complexity of technical work, the demand for highly skilled workers, and the vital challenges facing the world at large have combined to create a need for better ways to transfer knowledge, especially expert knowledge. In this dissertation, I attempted to see if an approach to this process that is more holistic than is typical in…

  20. Alternative Approaches to Setting Performance Standards for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E.; Linn, Robert L.; Bohrnstedt, George W.

    2012-01-01

    The judgmental approaches used by the Governing Board to set National Assessment of Educational Progress achievement levels have been the subject of a great deal of controversy and have sometimes led to results that were considered "unreasonable." The NCES requirement that the achievement levels be used on a trial basis and be…

  1. Critical Pedagogy in an EFL Teaching Context: An Ignis Fatuus or an Alternative Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Sima

    2008-01-01

    Language teaching has, for much of its history, been subject to the heavy "evangelical zeal" of the centers who have exported their theories, methods derived from these, approaches, materials, and books to the developing countries "often with doubtful relevance to the sociological, educational and economic context of the Outer…

  2. A Partnership Model for Evaluation: Considering an Alternate Approach to the Internal-External Evaluation Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Menestrel, Suzanne M.; Walahoski, Jill S.; Mielke, Monica B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H youth development organization is a complex public--private partnership between the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Institute of Food and Agriculture, the nation's Cooperative Extension system and National 4-H Council, a private, nonprofit partner. The current article is focused on a partnership approach to the…

  3. Words as Species: An Alternative Approach to Estimating Productive Vocabulary Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meara, Paul M.; Alcoy, Juan Carlos Olmos

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how we might be able to assess productive vocabulary size in second language learners. It discusses some previous attempts to develop measures of this sort, and argues that a fresh approach is needed in order to overcome some persistent problems that dog research in this area. The paper argues that there might be…

  4. Synthesis of Single-Case Experimental Data: A Comparison of Alternative Multilevel Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferron, John; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Beretvas, Tasha; Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Petit-Bois, Merlande; Baek, Eun Kyeng

    2013-01-01

    Single-case or single-subject experimental designs (SSED) are used to evaluate the effect of one or more treatments on a single case. Although SSED studies are growing in popularity, the results are in theory case-specific. One systematic and statistical approach for combining single-case data within and across studies is multilevel modeling. The…

  5. Alternative Approaches to the Family Life Cycle in the Analysis of Housing Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, P. B.; Ellis, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Used loan-approval data to analyze the effects of life-cycle stage on housing consumption. The detailed typologies were not generally superior to the more simplified approaches, except for per capita consumption. For per capita consumption, price, and quality, clear evidence is found for structural nonhomogeneity across life-cycle stages. (JAC)

  6. An Alternative Approach for MBA Mentor Programs: Empower the Protégé

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artis, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to maximize the benefits of mentor relationships between master of business administration (MBA) students and executives by empowering students to select and recruit their own mentors, and then be responsible for managing those relationships. This mentor program is designed to be short but intensive. First-year MBA…

  7. Instantaneous and controllable integer ambiguity resolution: review and an alternative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Wu, Meiping; Li, Tao; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-11-01

    In the high-precision application of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), integer ambiguity resolution is the key step to realize precise positioning and attitude determination. As the necessary part of quality control, integer aperture (IA) ambiguity resolution provides the theoretical and practical foundation for ambiguity validation. It is mainly realized by acceptance testing. Due to the constraint of correlation between ambiguities, it is impossible to realize the controlling of failure rate according to analytical formula. Hence, the fixed failure rate approach is implemented by Monte Carlo sampling. However, due to the characteristics of Monte Carlo sampling and look-up table, we have to face the problem of a large amount of time consumption if sufficient GNSS scenarios are included in the creation of look-up table. This restricts the fixed failure rate approach to be a post process approach if a look-up table is not available. Furthermore, if not enough GNSS scenarios are considered, the table may only be valid for a specific scenario or application. Besides this, the method of creating look-up table or look-up function still needs to be designed for each specific acceptance test. To overcome these problems in determination of critical values, this contribution will propose an instantaneous and CONtrollable (iCON) IA ambiguity resolution approach for the first time. The iCON approach has the following advantages: (a) critical value of acceptance test is independently determined based on the required failure rate and GNSS model without resorting to external information such as look-up table; (b) it can be realized instantaneously for most of IA estimators which have analytical probability formulas. The stronger GNSS model, the less time consumption; (c) it provides a new viewpoint to improve the research about IA estimation. To verify these conclusions, multi-frequency and multi-GNSS simulation experiments are implemented. Those results show that IA

  8. An Adaptive Prediction-Based Approach to Lossless Compression of Floating-Point Volume Data.

    PubMed

    Fout, N; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we address the problem of lossless compression of scientific and medical floating-point volume data. We propose two prediction-based compression methods that share a common framework, which consists of a switched prediction scheme wherein the best predictor out of a preset group of linear predictors is selected. Such a scheme is able to adapt to different datasets as well as to varying statistics within the data. The first method, called APE (Adaptive Polynomial Encoder), uses a family of structured interpolating polynomials for prediction, while the second method, which we refer to as ACE (Adaptive Combined Encoder), combines predictors from previous work with the polynomial predictors to yield a more flexible, powerful encoder that is able to effectively decorrelate a wide range of data. In addition, in order to facilitate efficient visualization of compressed data, our scheme provides an option to partition floating-point values in such a way as to provide a progressive representation. We compare our two compressors to existing state-of-the-art lossless floating-point compressors for scientific data, with our data suite including both computer simulations and observational measurements. The results demonstrate that our polynomial predictor, APE, is comparable to previous approaches in terms of speed but achieves better compression rates on average. ACE, our combined predictor, while somewhat slower, is able to achieve the best compression rate on all datasets, with significantly better rates on most of the datasets.

  9. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  10. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  11. An Eco-Behavioral Approach to Research in Special Education. The Juniper Gardens Children's Project. [Volume 2].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreaga-Mayer, Carmen, Ed.; And Others

    The papers comprising this volume discuss research based on an ecobehavioral interaction approach to special education. Six papers are included, which range from a highly conceptual discussion of second language instruction/learning to research concerning interventions to reviews of the research literature. The papers have the following titles and…

  12. Clean option: An alternative strategy for Hanford Tank Waste Remediation. Volume 2, Detailed description of first example flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Disposal of high-level tank wastes at the Hanford Site is currently envisioned to divide the waste between two principal waste forms: glass for the high-level waste (HLW) and grout for the low-level waste (LLW). The draft flow diagram shown in Figure 1.1 was developed as part of the current planning process for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), which is evaluating options for tank cleanup. The TWRS has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to safely manage the Hanford tank wastes. It includes tank safety and waste disposal issues, as well as the waste pretreatment and waste minimization issues that are involved in the ``clean option`` discussed in this report. This report describes the results of a study led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine if a more aggressive separations scheme could be devised which could mitigate concerns over the quantity of the HLW and the toxicity of the LLW produced by the reference system. This aggressive scheme, which would meet NRC Class A restrictions (10 CFR 61), would fit within the overall concept depicted in Figure 1.1; it would perform additional and/or modified operations in the areas identified as interim storage, pretreatment, and LLW concentration. Additional benefits of this scheme might result from using HLW and LLW disposal forms other than glass and grout, but such departures from the reference case are not included at this time. The evaluation of this aggressive separations scheme addressed institutional issues such as: radioactivity remaining in the Hanford Site LLW grout, volume of HLW glass that must be shipped offsite, and disposition of appropriate waste constituents to nonwaste forms.

  13. The use of survey data to study migration–environment relationships in developing countries: alternative approaches to data collection

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Sabine J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Growing interest in the environmental aspects of migration is not matched by research on their interrelationships, due partly to the lack of adequate data sets on the two together. Focusing on the microlevel, we describe the data required to effectively investigate these interrelationships. Data sources are discussed, be collected, focusing on household surveys and remote sensing. The main section of the paper describes three alternative approaches to data collection: (a) using existing population and environmental data from different sources, illustrated by Burkina Faso; (b) adding questions to a survey developed for another purpose, illustrated for Guatemala using a DHS survey; and (c) designing a new survey specifically to collect both migration and environmental data to investigate interrelationships, illustrated by Ecuador. Methods used and summary findings are described, followed by a discussion of their advantages and limitations. We conclude with recommendations as to effective use of each approach as research on migration–environment linkages moves forward. PMID:24701002

  14. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, Mark S; Tsiagkouris, James A

    2011-02-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, is capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.

  15. To the Right of Constructive Engagement: An Alternative Approach toward South Africa.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-05

    relationship of the United States with the South African government. It was decided that a new approach was in order, and after several months the...now focus more closely on our relationship with South Africa and the issue of apartheid. First, what has been the opinion of the American public...provide fresh drinking water, sanitation and roads. Laws prohibiting interracial sex and marriage have been repealed. Black labor unions are not only

  16. Shear-wave velocity profiling according to three alternative approaches: A comparative case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Moro, G.; Keller, L.; Al-Arifi, N. S.; Moustafa, S. S. R.

    2016-11-01

    The paper intends to compare three different methodologies which can be used to analyze surface-wave propagation, thus eventually obtaining the vertical shear-wave velocity (VS) profile. The three presented methods (currently still quite unconventional) are characterized by different field procedures and data processing. The first methodology is a sort of evolution of the classical Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) here accomplished by jointly considering Rayleigh and Love waves (analyzed according to the Full Velocity Spectrum approach) and the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR). The second method is based on the joint analysis of the HVSR curve together with the Rayleigh-wave dispersion determined via Miniature Array Analysis of Microtremors (MAAM), a passive methodology that relies on a small number (4 to 6) of vertical geophones deployed along a small circle (for the common near-surface application the radius usually ranges from 0.6 to 5 m). Finally, the third considered approach is based on the active data acquired by a single 3-component geophone and relies on the joint inversion of the group-velocity spectra of the radial and vertical components of the Rayleigh waves, together with the Radial-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (RVSR). The results of the analyses performed while considering these approaches (completely different both in terms of field procedures and data analysis) appear extremely consistent thus mutually validating their performances. Pros and cons of each approach are summarized both in terms of computational aspects as well as with respect to practical considerations regarding the specific character of the pertinent field procedures.

  17. Unbiased Combinatorial Genomic Approaches to Identify Alternative Therapeutic Targets within the TSC Signaling Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    As we were in the process of generating these reagents, breakthrough methods became available based on TALENS and CRISPR approaches to engineer genome...generating the cell lines and should be able to initiate the combinatorial screen this fall. TAL Effector Nucleases (TALENs) and CRISPRs are two newly...nucleases, TALENs and CRISPRs can be used to generate double stranded breaks (DSBs) at user-defined locations in the genome. This can be exploited in a

  18. Unbiased Combinatorial Genomic Approaches to Identify Alternative Therapeutic Targets within the TSC Signaling Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Specifically, we combined the CRISPR genome editing system with a novel approach allowing efficient single cell cloning of Drosophila cells with the aim of...2014). To enable the use of the CRISPR system to generate mutant cell lines, we first assessed the specificity of mutation in Drosophila S2R...gene immediately following the start codon. A fixed proportion of indels induced by the CRISPR system at this site therefore lead to frame shift of the

  19. An alternative approach to calculate the posterior probability of GNSS integer ambiguity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xianwen; Wang, Jinling; Gao, Wang

    2017-03-01

    When precise positioning is carried out via GNSS carrier phases, it is important to make use of the property that every ambiguity should be an integer. With the known float solution, any integer vector, which has the same degree of freedom as the ambiguity vector, is the ambiguity vector in probability. For both integer aperture estimation and integer equivariant estimation, it is of great significance to know the posterior probabilities. However, to calculate the posterior probability, we have to face the thorny problem that the equation involves an infinite number of integer vectors. In this paper, using the float solution of ambiguity and its variance matrix, a new approach to rapidly and accurately calculate the posterior probability is proposed. The proposed approach consists of four steps. First, the ambiguity vector is transformed via decorrelation. Second, the range of the adopted integer of every component is directly obtained via formulas, and a finite number of integer vectors are obtained via combination. Third, using the integer vectors, the principal value of posterior probability and the correction factor are worked out. Finally, the posterior probability of every integer vector and its error upper bound can be obtained. In the paper, the detailed process to calculate the posterior probability and the derivations of the formulas are presented. The theory and numerical examples indicate that the proposed approach has the advantages of small amount of computations, high calculation accuracy and strong adaptability.

  20. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: an effective alternative approach to control fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Baltazar, Ludmila M.; Ray, Anjana; Santos, Daniel A.; Cisalpino, Patrícia S.; Friedman, Adam J.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Skin mycoses are caused mainly by dermatophytes, which are fungal species that primarily infect areas rich in keratin such as hair, nails, and skin. Significantly, there are increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance among dermatophytes, especially for Trichophyton rubrum, the most frequent etiologic agent worldwide. Hence, investigators have been developing new therapeutic approaches, including photodynamic treatment. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes a photosensitive substance activated by a light source of a specific wavelength. The photoactivation induces cascades of photochemicals and photobiological events that cause irreversible changes in the exposed cells. Although photodynamic approaches are well established experimentally for the treatment of certain cutaneous infections, there is limited information about its mechanism of action for specific pathogens as well as the risks to healthy tissues. In this work, we have conducted a comprehensive review of the current knowledge of PDT as it specifically applies to fungal diseases. The data to date suggests that photodynamic treatment approaches hold great promise for combating certain fungal pathogens, particularly dermatophytes. PMID:25821448

  1. An alternative approach to calculate the posterior probability of GNSS integer ambiguity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xianwen; Wang, Jinling; Gao, Wang

    2016-10-01

    When precise positioning is carried out via GNSS carrier phases, it is important to make use of the property that every ambiguity should be an integer. With the known float solution, any integer vector, which has the same degree of freedom as the ambiguity vector, is the ambiguity vector in probability. For both integer aperture estimation and integer equivariant estimation, it is of great significance to know the posterior probabilities. However, to calculate the posterior probability, we have to face the thorny problem that the equation involves an infinite number of integer vectors. In this paper, using the float solution of ambiguity and its variance matrix, a new approach to rapidly and accurately calculate the posterior probability is proposed. The proposed approach consists of four steps. First, the ambiguity vector is transformed via decorrelation. Second, the range of the adopted integer of every component is directly obtained via formulas, and a finite number of integer vectors are obtained via combination. Third, using the integer vectors, the principal value of posterior probability and the correction factor are worked out. Finally, the posterior probability of every integer vector and its error upper bound can be obtained. In the paper, the detailed process to calculate the posterior probability and the derivations of the formulas are presented. The theory and numerical examples indicate that the proposed approach has the advantages of small amount of computations, high calculation accuracy and strong adaptability.

  2. The British Climate Change Act: a critical evaluation and proposed alternative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielke, Roger A., Jr.

    2009-04-01

    This paper evaluates the United Kingdom's Climate Change Act of 2008 in terms of the implied rates of decarbonization of the UK economy for a short-term and a long-term target established in law. The paper uses the Kaya identity to structure the evaluation, employing both a bottom up approach (based on projections of future UK population, economic growth, and technology) and a top down approach (deriving implied rates of decarbonization consistent with the targets and various rates of projected economic growth). Both approaches indicate that the UK economy would have to achieve annual rates of decarbonization in excess of 4 or 5%. To place these numbers in context, the UK would have to achieve the 2006 carbon efficiency of France by about 2015, a level of effort comparable to the building of about 30 new nuclear power plants, displacing an equivalent amount of fossil energy. The paper argues that the magnitude of the task implied by the UK Climate Change Act strongly suggests that it is on course to fail, and discusses implications.

  3. SMART layers: a simple and robust alternative to PML approaches for elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tago, J.; Métivier, L.; Virieux, J.

    2014-11-01

    For considering elastic seismic wave propagation in large domains, efficient absorbing boundary conditions are required with numerical modelling in finite domains. Since their introduction by Bérenger, the perfectly matched layers (PML) has become the state-of-the art method because of its efficiency and ease of implementation. However, for anisotropic media, theoretical analysis and numerical experiments show that the PML method is amplifying, that is it exhibits numerical instabilities. Numerical experiments can also exhibit numerical instabilities of the PML when dealing with long time simulations even for isotropic media, especially for finite element methods in unstructured grids. Recently, a new method, called SMART layers approach, has been proposed. This method is shown to be stable even for anisotropic media. The drawback is that the SMART layers are not perfectly matched. We have implemented this new approach in a discontinuous Galerkin method and we illustrate that this method does not exhibit numerical instabilities while PML do for an isotropic elastodynamic simulation. We show that this approach is also competitive with respect to the PML method in terms of efficiency and computational cost.

  4. Alternatives to relational databases in precision medicine: Comparison of NoSQL approaches for big data storage using supercomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Enrique Israel

    Improvements in medical and genomic technologies have dramatically increased the production of electronic data over the last decade. As a result, data management is rapidly becoming a major determinant, and urgent challenge, for the development of Precision Medicine. Although successful data management is achievable using Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS), exponential data growth is a significant contributor to failure scenarios. Growing amounts of data can also be observed in other sectors, such as economics and business, which, together with the previous facts, suggests that alternate database approaches (NoSQL) may soon be required for efficient storage and management of big databases. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to test in the Precision Medicine field since alternate database architectures are complex to assess and means to integrate heterogeneous electronic health records (EHR) with dynamic genomic data are not easily available. In this dissertation, we present a novel set of experiments for identifying NoSQL database approaches that enable effective data storage and management in Precision Medicine using patients' clinical and genomic information from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). The first experiment draws on performance and scalability from biologically meaningful queries with differing complexity and database sizes. The second experiment measures performance and scalability in database updates without schema changes. The third experiment assesses performance and scalability in database updates with schema modifications due dynamic data. We have identified two NoSQL approach, based on Cassandra and Redis, which seems to be the ideal database management systems for our precision medicine queries in terms of performance and scalability. We present NoSQL approaches and show how they can be used to manage clinical and genomic big data. Our research is relevant to the public health since we are focusing on one of the main

  5. Cryopreservation of kangaroo spermatozoa using alternative approaches that reduce cytotoxic exposure to glycerol.

    PubMed

    McClean, Rhett; Zee, Yeng Peng; Holt, William V; Johnston, Stephen D

    2008-12-01

    Alternative techniques for the cryopreservation of kangaroo spermatozoa that reduced or eliminated the need for glycerol were investigated including; (1) freezing spermatozoa with 20% glycerol in pre-packaged 0.25 mL Cassou straws to enable rapid dilution of the glycerol post-thaw, (2) investigating the efficacy of 20% (v/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and dimethylacetamide (DMA-10%, 15% and 20% v/v) as cryoprotectants and (3) vitrification of spermatozoa with or without cryoprotectant (20% v/v glycerol, 20% v/v DMSO and 20% v/v DMA). Immediate in-straw post-thaw dilution of 20% glycerol and cryopreservation of spermatozoa in 20% DMSO produced no significant improvement in post-thaw viability of kangaroo spermatozoa. Spermatozoa frozen in 20% DMA showed post-thaw motility and plasma membrane integrity of 12.7+/-1.9% and 22.7+/-5.4%, respectively, while kangaroo spermatozoa frozen by ultra-rapid freezing techniques showed no evidence of post-thaw viability. The use of 10-20% DMA represents a modest but significant improvement in the development of a sperm cryopreservation procedure for kangaroos.

  6. Advance commitment: an alternative approach to the family veto problem in organ procurement.

    PubMed

    De Wispelaere, Jurgen; Stirton, Lindsay

    2010-03-01

    This article tackles the current deficit in the supply of cadaveric organs by addressing the family veto in organ donation. The authors believe that the family veto matters-ethically as well as practically-and that policies that completely disregard the views of the family in this decision are likely to be counterproductive. Instead, this paper proposes to engage directly with the most important reasons why families often object to the removal of the organs of a loved one who has signed up to the donor registry-notably a failure to understand fully and deliberate on the information and a reluctance to deal with this sort of decision at an emotionally distressing time. To accommodate these concerns it is proposed to separate radically the process of information, deliberation and agreement about the harvesting of a potential donor's organs from the event of death and bereavement through a scheme of advance commitment. This paper briefly sets out the proposal and discusses in some detail its design as well as what is believed to be the main advantages compared with the leading alternatives.

  7. Pyrite oxidation in saturated and Unsaturated Porous Media Flow: AComparison of alternative mathematical modeling approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; White, Stephen P.; Pruess, Karsten

    1998-02-15

    Pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) is one of the most common naturally occurring minerals that is present in many subsurface environments. It plays an important role in the genesis of enriched ore deposits through weathering reactions, is the most abundant sulfide mineral in many mine tailings, and is the primary source of acid drainage from mines and waste rock piles. The pyrite oxidation reaction serves as a prototype for oxidative weathering processes with broad significance for geoscientific, engineering, and environmental applications. Mathematical modeling of these processes is extremely challenging because aqueous concentrations of key species vary over an enormous range, oxygen inventory and supply are typically small in comparison to pyrite inventory, and chemical reactions are complex, involving kinetic control and microbial catalysis. We present the mathematical formulation of a general multi-phase advective-diffusive reactive transport model for redox processes. Two alternative implementations were made in the TOUGHREACT and TOUGH2-CHEM simulation codes which use sequential iteration and simultaneous solution, respectively. The simulators are applied to reactive consumption of pyrite in (1) saturated flow of oxidizing water, and (2) saturated-unsaturated flow in which oxygen transport occurs in both aqueous and gas phases. Geochemical evolutions predicted from different process models are compared, and issues of numerical accuracy and efficiency are discussed.

  8. The Journal Impact Factor: Moving Toward an Alternative and Combined Scientometric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nurmashev, Bekaidar

    2017-01-01

    The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is a single citation metric, which is widely employed for ranking journals and choosing target journals, but is also misused as the proxy of the quality of individual articles and academic achievements of authors. This article analyzes Scopus-based publication activity on the JIF and overviews some of the numerous misuses of the JIF, global initiatives to overcome the ‘obsession’ with impact factors, and emerging strategies to revise the concept of the scholarly impact. The growing number of articles on the JIF, most of which are in English, reflects interest of experts in journal editing and scientometrics toward its uses, misuses, and options to overcome related problems. Solely displaying values of the JIFs on the journal websites is criticized by experts as these average metrics do not reflect skewness of citation distribution of individual articles. Emerging strategies suggest to complement the JIFs with citation plots and alternative metrics, reflecting uses of individual articles in terms of downloads and distribution of related information through social media and networking platforms. It is also proposed to revise the original formula of the JIF calculation and embrace the concept of the impact and importance of individual articles. The latter is largely dependent on ethical soundness of the journal instructions, proper editing and structuring of articles, efforts to promote related information through social media, and endorsements of professional societies. PMID:28049225

  9. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaf extract: An alternative approach for the treatment of staphylococcal bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Mordmuang, Auemphon; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic residues in dairy products as well as emergence of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens have been recognized as global public health concerns. The present work was aimed to study a potent antibacterial extract from natural product as an alternative treatment for staphylococcal bovine mastitis. Staphylococcal isolates (n=44) were isolated from milk samples freshly squeezed from individual cows. All staphylococcal isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin, except vancomycin. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf ethanolic extract was accessed for its antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory potential. The extract exhibited profound antibacterial activity against all of staphylococcal isolates with MIC and MBC values ranged from 16-64 μg/ml and 64->128 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the extract also exerted anti-protein denaturation and human red blood cell membrane stabilizing activity. The results support the use of R. tomentosa extract that could be applied to cure bovine mastitis and to reduce inflammatory injury caused by the bacterial infections.

  10. Alternative Approaches to Land Initialization for Seasonal Precipitation and Temperature Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Liu, Ping; Jambor, Urszula

    2004-01-01

    The seasonal prediction system of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office is used to generate ensembles of summer forecasts utilizing realistic soil moisture initialization. To derive the realistic land states, we drive offline the system's land model with realistic meteorological forcing over the period 1979-1993 (in cooperation with the Global Land Data Assimilation System project at GSFC) and then extract the state variables' values on the chosen forecast start dates. A parallel series of forecast ensembles is performed with a random (though climatologically consistent) set of land initial conditions; by comparing the two sets of ensembles, we can isolate the impact of land initialization on forecast skill from that of the imposed SSTs. The base initialization experiment is supplemented with several forecast ensembles that use alternative initialization techniques. One ensemble addresses the impact of minimizing climate drift in the system through the scaling of the initial conditions, and another is designed to isolate the importance of the precipitation signal from that of all other signals in the antecedent offline forcing. A third ensemble includes a more realistic initialization of the atmosphere along with the land initialization. The impact of each variation on forecast skill is quantified.

  11. Development of a healthy biscuit: an alternative approach to biscuit manufacture

    PubMed Central

    Boobier, WJ; Baker, JS; Davies, B

    2006-01-01

    Objective Obesity (BMI >30) and related health problems, including coronary heart disease (CHD), is without question a public health concern. The purpose of this study was to modify a traditional biscuit by the addition of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, Folic Acid, Vitamin C and Prebiotic fibre, while reducing salt and sugar. Design Development and commercial manufacture of the functional biscuit was carried out in collaboration with a well known and respected biscuit manufacturer of International reputation. The raw materials traditionally referred to as essential in biscuit manufacture, i.e. sugar and fat, were targeted for removal or reduction. In addition, salt was completely removed from the recipe. Participants University students of both sexes (n = 25) agreed to act as subjects for the study. Ethical approval for the study was granted by the University ethics committee. The test was conducted as a single blind crossover design, and the modified and traditional biscuits were presented to the subjects under the same experimental conditions in a random fashion. Results No difference was observed between the original and the modified product for taste and consistency (P > 0.05). The modified biscuit was acceptable to the consumer in terms of eating quality, flavour and colour. Commercial acceptability was therefore established. Conclusion This study has confirmed that traditional high-fat and high-sugar biscuits which are not associated with healthy diets by most consumers can be modified to produce a healthy alternative that can be manufactured under strict commercial conditions. PMID:16539719

  12. Baby unplugged: a novel, market-based approach to reducing screen time and promoting healthy alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hutton, John S

    2013-01-01

    The issue of electronic media use by young children is increasingly important in pediatrics, a major risk factor for numerous chronic conditions. Despite guidelines in place since 1999, screen time is on the rise, aided by new formats removing practically all barriers of use. Key drivers are technological allure, confusion about developmental readiness, and perception of educational value, fueled by potent marketing. This article describes the development of Baby Unplugged, a series of children's board books celebrating "old-school," screen-free childhood. Written by a pediatrician who also owns a children's bookstore, the books were inspired and informed by advocacy projects in the areas of media use and early literacy as a pediatric resident. They reinforce AAP Electronic Media Guidelines, notably discouraging screen-based media under 2 years old, largely by encouraging healthy, fun alternatives. Examples include Pets, Book, and Yard. Multi-sensorial exploration and parent-child engagement are emphasized in a non-prescriptive way, featuring gender and ethnic diversity and activities that are accessible and inexpensive. The author describes challenges faced by pediatricians providing anticipatory guidance for media use, given limited time and resources and the perception that we are out of touch. This is heightened by oft-deceptive marketing of screen-based products more likely to be perceived as "cool." Reach Out and Read is cited as an example of a successful, "cool" intervention, though limited to select populations. Baby Unplugged takes advocacy to the marketplace, where the screen time battle is being lost.

  13. The Journal Impact Factor: Moving Toward an Alternative and Combined Scientometric Approach.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Nurmashev, Bekaidar; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Udovik, Elena E; Baryshnikov, Aleksandr A; Kitas, George D

    2017-02-01

    The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is a single citation metric, which is widely employed for ranking journals and choosing target journals, but is also misused as the proxy of the quality of individual articles and academic achievements of authors. This article analyzes Scopus-based publication activity on the JIF and overviews some of the numerous misuses of the JIF, global initiatives to overcome the 'obsession' with impact factors, and emerging strategies to revise the concept of the scholarly impact. The growing number of articles on the JIF, most of which are in English, reflects interest of experts in journal editing and scientometrics toward its uses, misuses, and options to overcome related problems. Solely displaying values of the JIFs on the journal websites is criticized by experts as these average metrics do not reflect skewness of citation distribution of individual articles. Emerging strategies suggest to complement the JIFs with citation plots and alternative metrics, reflecting uses of individual articles in terms of downloads and distribution of related information through social media and networking platforms. It is also proposed to revise the original formula of the JIF calculation and embrace the concept of the impact and importance of individual articles. The latter is largely dependent on ethical soundness of the journal instructions, proper editing and structuring of articles, efforts to promote related information through social media, and endorsements of professional societies.

  14. Laminin Receptor-Avid Nanotherapeutic EGCg-AuNPs as a Potential Alternative Therapeutic Approach to Prevent Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Khoobchandani, Menka; Katti, Kavita; Maxwell, Adam; Fay, William P.; Katti, Kattesh V.

    2016-01-01

    In our efforts to develop new approaches to treat and prevent human vascular diseases, we report herein our results on the proliferation and migration of human smooth muscles cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) using epigallocatechin-3-gallate conjugated gold nanoparticles (EGCg-AuNPs) as possible alternatives to drug coated stents. Detailed in vitro stability studies of EGCg-AuNPs in various biological fluids, affinity and selectivity towards SMCs and ECs have been investigated. The EGCg-AuNPs showed selective inhibitory efficacy toward the migration of SMCs. However, the endothelial cells remained unaffected under similar experimental conditions. The cellular internalization studies have indicated that EGCg-AuNPs internalize into the SMCs and ECs within short periods of time through laminin receptor mediated endocytosis mode. Favorable toxicity profiles and selective affinity toward SMCs and ECs suggest that EGCg-AuNPs may provide attractive alternatives to drug coated stents and therefore offer new therapeutic approaches in treating cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26938531

  15. Biomechanical Loading as an Alternative Treatment for Tremor: A Review of Two Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rocon, Eduardo; Gallego, Juan Álvaro; Belda-Lois, Juan Manuel; Benito-León, Julián; Luis Pons, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Tremor is the most common movement disorder and strongly increases in incidence and prevalence with aging. Although not life threatening, upper-limb tremors hamper the independence of 65% of people suffering from them affected persons, greatly impacting their quality of life. Current treatments include pharmacotherapy and surgery (thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation). However, these options are not sufficient for approximately 25% of patients. Therefore, further research and new therapeutic options are required to effectively manage pathological tremor. Methods This paper presents findings of two research projects in which two different wearable robots for tremor management were developed based on force loading and validated. The first consisted of a robotic exoskeleton that applied forces to tremulous limbs and consistently attenuated mild and severe tremors. The second was a neuroprosthesis based on transcutaneous neurostimulation. A total of 22 patients suffering from parkinsonian or essential tremor (ET) of different severities were recruited for experimental validation, and both systems were evaluated using standard tasks employed for neurological examination. The inclusion criterion was a postural and/or kinetic pathological upper-limb tremor resistant to medication. Results The results demonstrate that both approaches effectively suppressed tremor in most patients, although further research is required. The work presented here is based on clinical evidence from a small number of patients (n = 10 for robotic exoskeleton and n = 12 for the neuroprosthesis), but most had a positive response to the approaches. In summary, biomechanical loading is non-invasive and painless. It may be effective in patients who are insufficiently responsive (or have adverse reactions) to drugs or in whom surgery is contraindicated. Discussion This paper identifies and evaluates biomechanical loading approaches to tremor management and discusses their potential

  16. SMART Layers: A Simple and Robust Alternative to PML Approaches for Elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tago Pacheco, J.; Metivier, L.; Virieux, J.

    2014-12-01

    Absorbing boundary conditions are required for elastodynamic simulations in finite domains. The Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) have become the state-of-the-art method since its introduction (Berenger 1994). PML approaches have been proved to be very efficient and easy to implement. However, sometimes numerical instabilities originated in the PML layers can appear, even for isotropic media. For anisotropic media, it has been proven that PML have an amplifying behaviour, i.e. numerical instabilities (Becache et al. 2003). For delaying the appearance of these PML instabilities, different pragmatic approaches has been proposed (Meza-Fajarado & Papageorgiou 2008; Martin et al. 2008; Etienne et al. 2010). Yet, there are no guarantee for long-term stabilities and one can observe less efficient absorptions for these adhoc approaches. Recently, a new method, called SMART-layer method, has been proposed and has been shown theoretically to be stable even for anisotropic media (Halpern et al. 2011; Metivier et al. 2013). The SMART-layer method is a robust and simple to design method. However boundary conditions are not perfectly matched even for the continuous case for the SMART-layer method while it is for the PML method. Therefore, stronger reflections are observed at the interface between the domain of interest and the absorbing layers.. We implement this absorbing boundary conditions for the elastodynamics equations in a discontinuous Galerkin scheme and we will show that this numerical implementation does not exhibit numerical instabilities when using different mesh designs while the PML method does for the same simulation of wave propagation in isotropic medium. We finally show how SMART-layer method is competitive with respect to the PML method in terms of efficiency and computational cost, opening roads for systematic implementation of such absorbing boundary conditions in available seismic wave propagation tools.

  17. An Alternative and Validated Injection Method for Accessing the Subretinal Space via a Transcleral Posterior Approach.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sachin; Le, Andrew; Davenport, Julian; Gorin, Michael B; Nusinowitz, Steven; Matynia, Anna

    2016-12-07

    Subretinal injections have been successfully used in both humans and rodents to deliver therapeutic interventions of proteins, viral agents, and cells to the interphotoreceptor/subretinal compartment that has direct exposure to photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Subretinal injections of plasminogen as well as recent preclinical and clinical trials have demonstrated safety and/or efficacy of delivering viral vectors and stem cells to individuals with advanced retinal disease. Mouse models of retinal disease, particularly hereditary retinal dystrophies, are essential for testing these therapies. The most common injection procedure in rodents is to use small transcorneal or transcleral incisions with an anterior approach to the retina. With this approach, the injection needle penetrates the neurosensory retina disrupting the underlying RPE and on insertion can easily nick the lens, causing lens opacification and impairment of noninvasive imaging. Accessing the subretinal space via a transcleral, posterior approach avoids these problems: the needle crosses the sclera approximately 0.5 mm from the optic nerve, without retinal penetration and avoids disrupting the vitreous. Collateral damage is limited to that associated with the focal sclerotomy and the effects of a transient, serous retinal detachment. The simplicity of the method minimizes ocular injury, ensures rapid retinal reattachment and recovery, and has a low failure rate. The minimal damage to the retina and RPE allows for clear assessment of the efficacy and direct effects of the therapeutic agents themselves. This manuscript describes a novel subretinal injection technique that can be used to target viral vectors, pharmacological agents, stem cells or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to the subretinal space in mice with high efficacy, minimal damage, and fast recovery.

  18. Alternative Surgical Approach to Repairing a Giant Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Cucchietti, Cristina; Pisano, Calogera; Hyde, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We report our method of surgically repairing an unruptured giant aneurysm of the right coronary sinus of Valsalva, a lesion that caused moderate aortic regurgitation but no symptoms in a 61-year-old woman. We excised the aneurysm, reconstructed the right sinus of Valsalva with use of a patch, performed mechanical aortic valve replacement directly through the excised aneurysm's cavity, and constructed a single bypass graft to the right coronary artery. The patient was discharged from the hospital after 5 days. Twelve months postoperatively, her clinical and echocardiographic results were normal, and she was doing well. To our knowledge, our surgical approach to this repair has not been described previously. PMID:27047284

  19. Orotracheal Intubation Using the Retromolar Space: A Reliable Alternative Intubation Approach to Prevent Dental Injury

    PubMed Central

    Thakar, Sudip D.; Truong, Angela T.; Truong, Dam-Thuy

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in airway management, perianesthetic dental injury remains one of the most common anesthesia-related adverse events and cause for malpractice litigation against anesthesia providers. Recommended precautions for prevention of dental damage may not always be effective because these techniques involve contact and pressure exerted on vulnerable teeth. We describe a novel approach using the retromolar space to insert a flexible fiberscope for tracheal tube placement as a reliable method to achieve atraumatic tracheal intubation. Written consent for publication has been obtained from the patient. PMID:28116174

  20. An alternative medical approach for the neuroprotective therapy to slow the progression of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Muroyama, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the core symptoms such as bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity and postural instability. Currently, pharmacotherapy and surgical approaches for the treatments of PD can only improve the neurological symptoms. Therefore, to search neuroprotective therapies using pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches could be important to delay the progression of pathogenesis in PD. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a component of the electron transport chain as well as an important antioxidant in mitochondrial and lipid membranes. The central role of CoQ10 in two areas implicated in the pathogenesis of PD, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damages, suggest that it may be useful for treatment to slow the progression of PD. The neuroprotective effect of CoQ10 has been reported in several in vivo and in vitro models of neurodegenerative disorders. Although CoQ10 attenuated the toxin-induced reduction of dopamine content and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the striatum of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model, it is still unknown how this nutrition affects the mitochondrial function. We demonstrated that oral administration of CoQ10 significantly attenuated the loss of dopaminergic nerve terminals induced by MPTP treatment. Furthermore, our experimental data indicate that an inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c release is one of the primary targets for CoQ10 and may lead to a potent neuroprotection.

  1. Fractional volume integration in two-dimensional NMR spectra: CAKE, a Monte Carlo approach.

    PubMed

    Romano, Rocco; Paris, Debora; Acernese, Fausto; Barone, Fabrizio; Motta, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Quantitative information from multi-dimensional NMR experiments can be obtained by peak volume integration. The standard procedure (selection of a region around the chosen peak and addition of all values) is often biased by poor peak definition because of peak overlap. Here we describe a simple method, called CAKE, for volume integration of (partially) overlapping peaks. Assuming the axial symmetry of two-dimensional NMR peaks, as it occurs in NOESY and TOCSY when Lorentz-Gauss transformation of the signals is carried out, CAKE estimates the peak volume by multiplying a volume fraction by a factor R. It represents a proportionality ratio between the total and the fractional volume, which is identified as a slice in an exposed region of the overlapping peaks. The volume fraction is obtained via Monte Carlo Hit-or-Miss technique, which proved to be the most efficient because of the small region and the limited number of points within the selected area. Tests on simulated and experimental peaks, with different degrees of overlap and signal-to-noise ratios, show that CAKE results in improved volume estimates. A main advantage of CAKE is that the volume fraction can be flexibly chosen so as to minimize the effect of overlap, frequently observed in two-dimensional spectra.

  2. Global change and soil functions - long-term experiments and alternative approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerzabek, M. H.

    2009-04-01

    Soils are practically a non-renewable resource and provide numerous functions for humans and the environment. Both managed and natural soils are under constant development. Soil use changes, however, have the most considerable impact on soil properties. Changes of the nutrient status and productivity were already in the focus of long-term experiments since the middle of the 19th century. From them we learned that equilibrium conditions after management changes in many cases need more than 150 years to be reached. Today, humus dynamics and the impact of soil management on greenhouse gas emission and trapping have gained considerable importance. Investigations in Austria have shown that carbon stocks on average differ by a factor of two between arable land and extensive pasture. Soil tillage regimes and mineral and organic fertilization have additional impacts on humus stocks and dynamics. The long-term changes in humus contents influence different soil functions. Enzyme activities e.g. increase with increasing soil organic matter contents, as does the aggregate stability, just as an example for several physical soil functions. The retention of heavy metals and organic pollutants is heavily influenced by long-term changes of soil organic matter. A variability of a factor of 3 to 5 was observed in long-term experiments in Sweden and Austria. Another aspect is the long-term development of soils and their properties and especially their impact on ecological soil functions. Soil development leads to significant alterations of soil properties, especially accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM), weathering and secondary soil minerals and influence nutrient dynamics and contaminant retention. Soil development itself is distinctly altered by soil use and management resulting e.g. in different SOM accumulation patterns. Such investigations call for additional methodological approaches as e.g. chronosequence and climosequence approaches, which will be exemplified by studies

  3. Registration of 3D spectral OCT volumes combining ICP with a graph-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; Lee, Kyungmoo; Garvin, Mona K.; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan

    2012-02-01

    The introduction of spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) scanners has enabled acquisition of high resolution, 3D cross-sectional volumetric images of the retina. 3D-OCT is used to detect and manage eye diseases such as glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. To follow-up patients over time, image registration is a vital tool to enable more precise, quantitative comparison of disease states. In this work we present a 3D registrationmethod based on a two-step approach. In the first step we register both scans in the XY domain using an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) based algorithm. This algorithm is applied to vessel segmentations obtained from the projection image of each scan. The distance minimized in the ICP algorithm includes measurements of the vessel orientation and vessel width to allow for a more robust match. In the second step, a graph-based method is applied to find the optimal translation along the depth axis of the individual A-scans in the volume to match both scans. The cost image used to construct the graph is based on the mean squared error (MSE) between matching A-scans in both images at different translations. We have applied this method to the registration of Optic Nerve Head (ONH) centered 3D-OCT scans of the same patient. First, 10 3D-OCT scans of 5 eyes with glaucoma imaged in vivo were registered for a qualitative evaluation of the algorithm performance. Then, 17 OCT data set pairs of 17 eyes with known deformation were used for quantitative assessment of the method's robustness.

  4. Antihypertensive therapy versus alternative therapeutic options for prehypertension: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Gaddam, Krishna K; Ventura, Hector; Lavie, Carl J

    2012-01-01

    The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-7) defines hypertension as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg. The JNC-7 defines 'prehypertension' to include systolic BP values between 120 and 139 mmHg and diastolic BP values between 80 and 89 mmHg. Individuals with blood pressure in the prehypertension range are clearly at increased risk of developing hypertension in the future and have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, compared with those with normal BP. However, there is paucity of evidence to intervene in these patients. In this article we discuss an evidence-based approach to therapeutic options in patients with prehypertension.

  5. Hybridization probe pairs and single-labeled probes: an alternative approach for genotyping and quantification.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Thomas; Geulen, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a standard tool in both quantitative gene expression and genetic variation analysis. Data collection is performed throughout the PCR process, thus combining amplification and detection into a single step. This can be achieved by combining a variety of different fluorescent chemistries that correlate the concentration of an amplified PCR product to changes in fluorescence intensity. Hybridization probe pairs and single-labeled probes are sequence-specific, dye-labeled oligonucleotides, used in real-time PCR approaches, in particular for genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In that case, a detector probe is designed to cover the polymorphism. Allelic variants are identified and differentiated via post-PCR melting curve analysis. A single melting curve can distinguish different T (m)s, and differently labeled probes may be used, theoretically allowing multiplexed genotyping of several SNPs.

  6. Yoga as an alternative and complementary approach for arthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 21% of the adults suffer from arthritis. Yoga offers one possible way of managing arthritis. The purpose of this study was to look at studies from 2010 to June 2013 and examine whether yoga can be an efficacious approach for managing arthritis. A systematic search from Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and Alt HealthWatch databases was conducted for quantitative articles involving all schools of yoga. A total of 9 articles met the inclusion criteria. Five of these were from the United States and 4 from India. Of the 9 studies, 6 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to arthritis. Despite the limitations not all studies using randomized controlled design, having smaller sample sizes, having different outcomes, having nonstandardized yoga intervention, not using behavioral theory, and having varying lengths, yoga appears to be a promising modality for arthritis.

  7. An alternate approach to ensemble ENSO forecast spread: Application to the 2014 forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Sarah M.; Kirtman, Ben P.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating the 2014 El Niño forecast as a "bust" may be tapping into a bigger issue, namely that forecast "overconfidence" from single-model ensembles could affect the retrospective assessment of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) predictions. The present study proposes a new approach to quantifying an "expected" spread and uncertainty from noise-driven processes and supplementing these measures with actual ENSO forecasts. Expanding on a previously developed coupled model framework that isolates noise-driven ENSO-like errors, an experimental design is implemented to generate an expected December Niño-3.4 spread from March initial condition sea surface temperature errors that have similar structure to the 2014 and 2015 observed. Results reveal that the 2014 ENSO forecast falls within the expected uncertainty generated by ENSO-independent, forecast-independent, noise-driven errors.

  8. Modeling from Theory and Modeling from Data: Complementary or Alternative Approaches? The Case of Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Paternò, Alessio; Goracci, Laura; Scire, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the field of ionic liquids (ILs), theory‐driven modeling approaches aimed at the best fit for all available data by using a unique, and often nonlinear, model have been widely adopted to develop quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) models. In this context, we propose chemoinformatic and chemometric data‐driven procedures that lead to QSPR soft models with local validity that are able to predict relevant physicochemical properties of ILs, such as viscosity, density, decomposition temperature, and conductivity. These models, which use readily available and easily interpretable VolSurf+ descriptors, represent an unexploited opportunity for experimentalists to model and predict the physicochemical properties of ILs in industrial R&D design. PMID:28168154

  9. Alternative Approaches to Mission Control Automation at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, Michael; Cooter, Miranda; Davis, George; Mackey, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    To meet its objective of reducing operations costs without incurring a corresponding increase in risk, NASA is seeking new methods to automate mission operations. This paper examines the state of the art in automating ground operations for space missions. A summary of available technologies and methods for automating mission operations is provided. Responses from interviews with several space mission FOTs (Flight Operations Teams) to assess the degree and success of those technologies and methods implemented are presented. Mission operators that were interviewed approached automation using different tools and methods resulting in varying degrees of success - from nearly completely automated to nearly completely manual. Two key criteria for successful automation are the active participation of the FOT in the planning, designing, testing, and implementation of the system and the relative degree of complexity of the mission.

  10. Development and evaluation of alternative approaches for exposure assessment of multiple air pollutants in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Dionisio, Kathie L; Isakov, Vlad; Baxter, Lisa K; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Burke, Janet; Rosenbaum, Arlene; Graham, Stephen E; Cook, Rich; Mulholland, James; Özkaynak, Halûk

    2013-01-01

    Measurements from central site (CS) monitors are often used as estimates of exposure in air pollution epidemiological studies. As these measurements are typically limited in their spatiotemporal resolution, true exposure variability within a population is often obscured, leading to potential measurement errors. To fully examine this limitation, we developed a set of alternative daily exposure metrics for each of the 169 ZIP codes in the Atlanta, GA, metropolitan area, from 1999 to 2002, for PM(2.5) and its components (elemental carbon (EC), SO(4)), O(3), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Metrics were applied in a study investigating the respiratory health effects of these pollutants. The metrics included: (i) CS measurements (one CS per pollutant); (ii) air quality model results for regional background pollution; (iii) local-scale AERMOD air quality model results; (iv) hybrid air quality model estimates (a combination of (ii) and (iii)); and (iv) population exposure model predictions (SHEDS and APEX). Differences in estimated spatial and temporal variability were compared by exposure metric and pollutant. Comparisons showed that: (i) both hybrid and exposure model estimates exhibited high spatial variability for traffic-related pollutants (CO, NO(x), and EC), but little spatial variability among ZIP code centroids for regional pollutants (PM(2.5), SO(4), and O(3)); (ii) for all pollutants except NO(x), temporal variability was consistent across metrics; (iii) daily hybrid-to-exposure model correlations were strong (r>0.82) for all pollutants, suggesting that when temporal variability of pollutant concentrations is of main interest in an epidemiological application, the use of estimates from either model may yield similar results; (iv) exposure models incorporating infiltration parameters, time-location-activity budgets, and other exposure factors affect the magnitude and spatiotemporal distribution of exposure, especially for local pollutants. The

  11. System analysis approach to deriving design criteria (loads) for Space Shuttle and its payloads. Volume 1: General statement of approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.; Bullock, T.; Holland, W. B.; Kross, D. A.; Kiefling, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    Space shuttle, the most complex transportation system designed to date, illustrates the requirement for an analysis approach that considers all major disciplines simultaneously. Its unique cross coupling and high sensitivity to aerodynamic uncertainties and high performance requirements dictated a less conservative approach than those taken in programs. Analyses performed for the space shuttle and certain payloads, Space Telescope and Spacelab, are used a examples. These illustrate the requirements for system analysis approaches and criteria, including dynamic modeling requirements, test requirements control requirements and the resulting design verification approaches. A survey of the problem, potential approaches available as solutions, implications for future systems, and projected technology development areas are addressed.

  12. Paradigm Change: Alternate Approaches to Constitutive and Necking Models for Sheet Metal Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoughton, Thomas B.; Yoon, Jeong Whan

    2011-08-01

    This paper reviews recent work proposing paradigm changes for the currently popular approach to constitutive and failure modeling, focusing on the use of non-associated flow rules to enable greater flexibility to capture the anisotropic yield and flow behavior of metals using less complex functions than those needed under associated flow to achieve that same level of fidelity to experiment, and on the use of stress-based metrics to more reliably predict necking limits under complex conditions of non-linear forming. The paper discusses motivating factors and benefits in favor of both associated and non-associated flow models for metal forming, including experimental, theoretical, and practical aspects. This review is followed by a discussion of the topic of the forming limits, the limitations of strain analysis, the evidence in favor of stress analysis, the effects of curvature, bending/unbending cycles, triaxial stress conditions, and the motivation for the development of a new type of forming limit diagram based on the effective plastic strain or equivalent plastic work in combination with a directional parameter that accounts for the current stress condition.

  13. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Amy; Crook, Nathan; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-04-13

    The widespread use of antibiotics in the past 80 years has saved millions of human lives, facilitated technological progress and killed incalculable numbers of microbes, both pathogenic and commensal. Human-associated microbes perform an array of important functions, and we are now just beginning to understand the ways in which antibiotics have reshaped their ecology and the functional consequences of these changes. Mounting evidence shows that antibiotics influence the function of the immune system, our ability to resist infection, and our capacity for processing food. Therefore, it is now more important than ever to revisit how we use antibiotics. This review summarizes current research on the short-term and long-term consequences of antibiotic use on the human microbiome, from early life to adulthood, and its effect on diseases such as malnutrition, obesity, diabetes, and Clostridium difficile infection. Motivated by the consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use, we explore recent progress in the development of antivirulence approaches for resisting infection while minimizing resistance to therapy. We close the article by discussing probiotics and fecal microbiota transplants, which promise to restore the microbiota after damage of the microbiome. Together, the results of studies in this field emphasize the importance of developing a mechanistic understanding of gut ecology to enable the development of new therapeutic strategies and to rationally limit the use of antibiotic compounds.

  14. Paradigm Change: Alternate Approaches to Constitutive and Necking Models for Sheet Metal Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Stoughton, Thomas B.; Yoon, Jeong Whan

    2011-08-22

    This paper reviews recent work proposing paradigm changes for the currently popular approach to constitutive and failure modeling, focusing on the use of non-associated flow rules to enable greater flexibility to capture the anisotropic yield and flow behavior of metals using less complex functions than those needed under associated flow to achieve that same level of fidelity to experiment, and on the use of stress-based metrics to more reliably predict necking limits under complex conditions of non-linear forming. The paper discusses motivating factors and benefits in favor of both associated and non-associated flow models for metal forming, including experimental, theoretical, and practical aspects. This review is followed by a discussion of the topic of the forming limits, the limitations of strain analysis, the evidence in favor of stress analysis, the effects of curvature, bending/unbending cycles, triaxial stress conditions, and the motivation for the development of a new type of forming limit diagram based on the effective plastic strain or equivalent plastic work in combination with a directional parameter that accounts for the current stress condition.

  15. Education and microfinance: an alternative approach to the empowerment of the poor people in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Rizali; Wahyudin, Uyu; Ardiwinata, Jajat S; Abdu, Wamaungo Juma

    2015-01-01

    There is good reason to combine education with microcredit for poverty alleviation in the poor communities of the developing world, including in Indonesia. Poverty is dangerous, it deprives people of their right to education, their right to good health, their right to freedom of speech, their right to democracy, their right to financial services and of course their right to knowledge enhancement, which are all crucial to living a better life. We must therefore, provide services beyond, credits for the poor. In this case, education should be included to each and every development agenda for the poor since it is key to any positive change and sustainable development of people. If well planned and well integrated within the microcredit services, education can serve a good purpose in poverty alleviation. This paper describes how education and microfinance have been used in combination to alleviate poverty in Indonesia, especially in the areas studied. The study uses a multi-cases approach to examine the purposively selected baitul maal tamwil (BMTs) organisations, which are sharia based semiformal microfinance institutions regarded to be among those few integrating education with their financial services.

  16. Alternative Modelling Approach to Spatial Harvest Scheduling with Respect to Fragmentation of Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marušák, Róbert; Kašpar, Jan; Hlavatý, Robert; Kotek, Václav; Kuželka, Karel; Vopěnka, Petr

    2015-11-01

    Fragmentation of the forests affects forest ecosystems by changing the composition, shape, and configuration of the resulting patches. Subsequently, the prevailing conditions vary between patches. The exposure to the sun decreases from the patch boundary to the patch interior and this forms core and edge areas within each patch. Forest harvesting and, in particular, the clear-cut management system which is still preferred in many European countries has a significant impact on forest fragmentation. There are many indices of measuring fragmentation: non-spatial and spatial. The non-spatial indices measure the composition of patches, while the spatial indices measure both the shape and configuration of the resulting patches. The effect of forest harvesting on fragmentation, biodiversity, and the environment is extensively studied; however, the integration of fragmentation indices in the harvest scheduling model is a new, novel approach. This paper presents a multi-objective integer model of harvest scheduling for clear-cut management system and presents a case study demonstrating its use. Harvest balance and sustainability are ensured by the addition of constraints from the basic principle of the regulated forest model. The results indicate that harvest balance and sustainability can be also achieved in minimizing fragmentation of forest ecosystems. From the analyses presented in this study, it can be concluded that integration of fragmentation into harvest scheduling can provide better spatial structure. It depends on the initial spatial and age structure. It was confirmed that it is possible to find compromise solution while minimizing fragmentation and maximizing harvested area.

  17. On Alternative Approaches to 3D Image Perception: Monoscopic 3D Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, Barry G.

    2015-06-01

    In the eighteenth century, techniques that enabled a strong sense of 3D perception to be experienced without recourse to binocular disparities (arising from the spatial separation of the eyes) underpinned the first significant commercial sales of 3D viewing devices and associated content. However following the advent of stereoscopic techniques in the nineteenth century, 3D image depiction has become inextricably linked to binocular parallax and outside the vision science and arts communities relatively little attention has been directed towards earlier approaches. Here we introduce relevant concepts and terminology and consider a number of techniques and optical devices that enable 3D perception to be experienced on the basis of planar images rendered from a single vantage point. Subsequently we allude to possible mechanisms for non-binocular parallax based 3D perception. Particular attention is given to reviewing areas likely to be thought-provoking to those involved in 3D display development, spatial visualization, HCI, and other related areas of interdisciplinary research.

  18. Alternatives to relational database: comparison of NoSQL and XML approaches for clinical data storage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ken Ka-Yin; Tang, Wai-Choi; Choi, Kup-Sze

    2013-04-01

    Clinical data are dynamic in nature, often arranged hierarchically and stored as free text and numbers. Effective management of clinical data and the transformation of the data into structured format for data analysis are therefore challenging issues in electronic health records development. Despite the popularity of relational databases, the scalability of the NoSQL database model and the document-centric data structure of XML databases appear to be promising features for effective clinical data management. In this paper, three database approaches--NoSQL, XML-enabled and native XML--are investigated to evaluate their suitability for structured clinical data. The database query performance is reported, together with our experience in the databases development. The results show that NoSQL database is the best choice for query speed, whereas XML databases are advantageous in terms of scalability, flexibility and extensibility, which are essential to cope with the characteristics of clinical data. While NoSQL and XML technologies are relatively new compared to the conventional relational database, both of them demonstrate potential to become a key database technology for clinical data management as the technology further advances.

  19. An Alternative Approach to Analyze Ipsative Data. Revisiting Experiential Learning Theory.

    PubMed

    Batista-Foguet, Joan M; Ferrer-Rosell, Berta; Serlavós, Ricard; Coenders, Germà; Boyatzis, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    The ritualistic use of statistical models regardless of the type of data actually available is a common practice across disciplines which we dare to call type zero error. Statistical models involve a series of assumptions whose existence is often neglected altogether, this is specially the case with ipsative data. This paper illustrates the consequences of this ritualistic practice within Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) operationalized through its Learning Style Inventory (KLSI). We show how using a well-known methodology in other disciplines-compositional data analysis (CODA) and log ratio transformations-KLSI data can be properly analyzed. In addition, the method has theoretical implications: a third dimension of the KLSI is unveiled providing room for future research. This third dimension describes an individual's relative preference for learning by prehension rather than by transformation. Using a sample of international MBA students, we relate this dimension with another self-assessment instrument, the Philosophical Orientation Questionnaire (POQ), and with an observer-assessed instrument, the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI-U). Both show plausible statistical relationships. An intellectual operating philosophy (IOP) is linked to a preference for prehension, whereas a pragmatic operating philosophy (POP) is linked to transformation. Self-management and social awareness competencies are linked to a learning preference for transforming knowledge, whereas relationship management and cognitive competencies are more related to approaching learning by prehension.

  20. Right adrenal gland prospective evaluation through transgastric endoscopic ultrasound: an alternative approach

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Pedro C.; Pinto-Marques, Pedro; Almeida, Ines; Gomes, Pedro C.; Serra, David

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided right adrenal gland (RAG) evaluation is frequently unsuccessful and, when feasible, requires a cumbersome maneuver through the duodenum. In our experience, the use of a recent ultrasound platform has enabled transgastric detection of the RAG with a simple maneuver. The aim of this study was to determine the RAG transgastric EUS detection rate and identify predictive factors for failure. Methods: Consecutive patients referred to EUS in a single center were prospectively included over a 6-month period. Success was defined as RAG transgastric EUS detection within 180 seconds. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with failure. Results: Among 100 patients, the success rate for RAG transgastric EUS detection was 75 %, with a median maneuver duration of 45 seconds [interquartile range, 25 – 70 seconds]. Two incidental RAG lesions were detected. Of possible demographic and anthropometric predictive factors for failure, only age (OR 1.04; P = 0.04) was statistically significant on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The transgastric EUS approach for RAG detection is simple, fast and effective. PMID:27853745

  1. An Alternative Approach to Analyze Ipsative Data. Revisiting Experiential Learning Theory

    PubMed Central

    Batista-Foguet, Joan M.; Ferrer-Rosell, Berta; Serlavós, Ricard; Coenders, Germà; Boyatzis, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The ritualistic use of statistical models regardless of the type of data actually available is a common practice across disciplines which we dare to call type zero error. Statistical models involve a series of assumptions whose existence is often neglected altogether, this is specially the case with ipsative data. This paper illustrates the consequences of this ritualistic practice within Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) operationalized through its Learning Style Inventory (KLSI). We show how using a well-known methodology in other disciplines—compositional data analysis (CODA) and log ratio transformations—KLSI data can be properly analyzed. In addition, the method has theoretical implications: a third dimension of the KLSI is unveiled providing room for future research. This third dimension describes an individual's relative preference for learning by prehension rather than by transformation. Using a sample of international MBA students, we relate this dimension with another self-assessment instrument, the Philosophical Orientation Questionnaire (POQ), and with an observer-assessed instrument, the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI-U). Both show plausible statistical relationships. An intellectual operating philosophy (IOP) is linked to a preference for prehension, whereas a pragmatic operating philosophy (POP) is linked to transformation. Self-management and social awareness competencies are linked to a learning preference for transforming knowledge, whereas relationship management and cognitive competencies are more related to approaching learning by prehension. PMID:26617561

  2. Bioacoustics of human whistled languages: an alternative approach to the cognitive processes of language.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Julien

    2004-06-01

    Whistled languages are a valuable heritage of human culture. This paper gives a first survey about a new multidisciplinary approach to these languages. Previous studies on whistled equivalents of languages have already documented that they can provide significant information about the role of rhythm and melody in language. To substantiate this, most whistles are represented by modulations of frequency, centered around 2000 Hz (+/- 1000 Hz) and often reach a loudness of about 130 dB (measured at 1m from the source). Their transmission range can reach up to 10 km (as verified in La Gomera, Canary Island), and the messages can remain understandable, even if the signal is deteriorated. In some cultures the use of whistled language is associated with some "talking musical instruments" (e.g. flutes, guitars, harps, gongs, drums, khens). Finally, whistles as a means of conveying information have some analogues in the animal kingdom (e.g. some birds, cetaceans, primates), providing opportunities to compare the acoustic characteristics of the respective signals. With such properties as a reference, the project reported here has two major tasks: to further elucidate the many facets of whistled language and, above all, help to immediately stop the process of its gradual disappearance.

  3. Art and architecture as experience: an alternative approach to bridging art history and the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Zschocke, Nina

    2012-08-01

    In 1972, Michael Baxandal characterizes the processes responsible for the cultural relativism of art experience as highly complex and unknown in their physiological detail. While art history still shows considerable interest in the brain sciences forty years later, most cross-disciplinary studies today are referring to the neurosciences in an attempt to seek scientific legitimization of variations of a generalized and largely deterministic model of perception, reducing interaction between a work of art and its observers to a set of biological automatisms. I will challenge such an approach and take up art theory's interest in the historico-cultural and situational dimensions of art experience. Looking at two examples of large-scale installation and sculptural post-war American art, I will explore instable perceptions of depth and changing experiences of space that indicate complex interactions between perceptual and higher cognitive processes. The argument will draw on recent theories describing neuronal processes underlying multistable phenomena, eye movement, visual attention and decision-making. As I will show a large number of neuroscientific studies provide theoretical models that help us analyse not the anthropological constants but the influence of cultural, individual and situational variables on aesthetic experience.

  4. Renormalization of the periodic Anderson model: An alternative analytical approach to heavy-fermion behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübsch, A.; Becker, K. W.

    2005-04-01

    In this paper a recently developed projector-based renormalization method (PRM) for many-particle Hamiltonians is applied to the periodic Anderson model with the aim to describe heavy-fermion behavior. In this method high-energetic excitation operators instead of high energetic states are eliminated. We arrive at an effective Hamiltonian for a quasifree system which consists of two noninteracting heavy-quasiparticle bands. The resulting renormalization equations for the parameters of the Hamiltonian are valid for large as well as small degeneracy νf of the angular momentum. An expansion in 1/νf is avoided. Within an additional approximation which adapts the idea of a fixed renormalized f level ɛ˜f , we obtain coupled equations for ɛ˜f and the averaged f occupation ⟨nf⟩ . These equations resemble to a certain extent those of the usual slave boson mean-field (SB) treatment. In particular, for large νf the results for the PRM and the SB approach agree perfectly whereas considerable differences are found for small νf .

  5. Murine fundus fluorescein angiography: An alternative approach using a handheld camera.

    PubMed

    Ehrenberg, Moshe; Ehrenberg, Scott; Schwob, Ouri; Benny, Ofra

    2016-07-01

    In today's modern pharmacologic approach to treating sight-threatening retinal vascular disorders, there is an increasing demand for a compact, mobile, lightweight and cost-effective fluorescein fundus camera to document the effects of antiangiogenic drugs on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice and other experimental animals. We have adapted the use of the Kowa Genesis Df Camera to perform Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA) in mice. The 1 kg, 28 cm high camera has built-in barrier and exciter filters to allow digital FFA recording to a Compact Flash memory card. Furthermore, this handheld unit has a steady Indirect Lens Holder that firmly attaches to the main unit, that securely holds a 90 diopter lens in position, in order to facilitate appropriate focus and stability, for photographing the delicate central murine fundus. This easily portable fundus fluorescein camera can effectively record exceptional central retinal vascular detail in murine laser-induced CNV, while readily allowing the investigator to adjust the camera's position according to the variable head and eye movements that can randomly occur while the mouse is optimally anesthetized. This movable image recording device, with efficiencies of space, time, cost, energy and personnel, has enabled us to accurately document the alterations in the central choroidal and retinal vasculature following induction of CNV, implemented by argon-green laser photocoagulation and disruption of Bruch's Membrane, in the experimental murine model of exudative macular degeneration.

  6. Alternative Modelling Approach to Spatial Harvest Scheduling with Respect to Fragmentation of Forest Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Marušák, Róbert; Kašpar, Jan; Hlavatý, Robert; Kotek, Václav; Kuželka, Karel; Vopěnka, Petr

    2015-11-01

    Fragmentation of the forests affects forest ecosystems by changing the composition, shape, and configuration of the resulting patches. Subsequently, the prevailing conditions vary between patches. The exposure to the sun decreases from the patch boundary to the patch interior and this forms core and edge areas within each patch. Forest harvesting and, in particular, the clear-cut management system which is still preferred in many European countries has a significant impact on forest fragmentation. There are many indices of measuring fragmentation: non-spatial and spatial. The non-spatial indices measure the composition of patches, while the spatial indices measure both the shape and configuration of the resulting patches. The effect of forest harvesting on fragmentation, biodiversity, and the environment is extensively studied; however, the integration of fragmentation indices in the harvest scheduling model is a new, novel approach. This paper presents a multi-objective integer model of harvest scheduling for clear-cut management system and presents a case study demonstrating its use. Harvest balance and sustainability are ensured by the addition of constraints from the basic principle of the regulated forest model. The results indicate that harvest balance and sustainability can be also achieved in minimizing fragmentation of forest ecosystems. From the analyses presented in this study, it can be concluded that integration of fragmentation into harvest scheduling can provide better spatial structure. It depends on the initial spatial and age structure. It was confirmed that it is possible to find compromise solution while minimizing fragmentation and maximizing harvested area.

  7. Alternative wavefunction ansatz for including explicit electron-proton correlation in the nuclear-electronic orbital approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Chaehyuk; Pak, Michael V.; Swalina, Chet; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-08-01

    The nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) approach treats specified nuclei quantum mechanically on the same level as the electrons with molecular orbital techniques. The explicitly correlated Hartree-Fock (NEO-XCHF) approach was developed to incorporate electron-nucleus dynamical correlation directly into the variational optimization of the nuclear-electronic wavefunction. In the original version of this approach, the Hartree-Fock wavefunction is multiplied by (1 + hat G), where hat G is a geminal operator expressed as a sum of Gaussian type geminal functions that depend on the electron-proton distance. Herein, a new wavefunction ansatz is proposed to avoid the computation of five- and six-particle integrals and to simplify the computation of the lower dimensional integrals involving the geminal functions. In the new ansatz, denoted NEO-XCHF2, the Hartree-Fock wavefunction is multiplied by √ {1 + hat G} rather than (1 + hat G). Although the NEO-XCHF2 ansatz eliminates the integrals that are quadratic in the geminal functions, it introduces terms in the kinetic energy integrals with no known analytical solution. A truncated expansion scheme is devised to approximate these problematic terms. An alternative hybrid approach, in which the kinetic energy terms are calculated with the original NEO-XCHF ansatz and the potential energy terms are calculated with the NEO-XCHF2 ansatz, is also implemented. Applications to a series of model systems with up to four electrons provide validation for the NEO-XCHF2 approach and the treatments of the kinetic energy terms.

  8. Reducing Uncertainty In Ecosystem Structure Inventories From Spaceborne Lidar Using Alternate Spatial Sampling Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefsky, M. A.; Ramond, T.; Weimer, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    Current and proposed spaceborne lidar sensors sample the land surface using observations along transects in which consecutive observations in the along-track dimension are either contiguous (e.g. VCL, DESDynI, Livex) or spaced (ICESat). These sampling patterns are inefficient because multiple observations are made of a spatially autocorrelated phenomenon (i.e. vegetation patches) while large areas of the landscape are left un-sampled. This results in higher uncertainty in estimates of average ecosystem structure than would be obtained using either random sampling or sampling in regular grids. We compared three sampling scenarios for spaceborne lidar: five transects spaced every 850 m across-track with contiguous 25m footprints along-track, the same number of footprints distributed randomly, and a hybrid approach that retains the central transect of contiguous 25m footprints and distributes the remainder of the footprints into a grid with 178 m spacing. We used simulated ground tracks at four latitudes for a realistic spaceborne lidar mission and calculated the amount of time required to achieve 150 m spacing between transects and the number of near-coincident observations for each scenario. We used four lidar height datasets collected using the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (La Selva, Costa Rica, Sierra Nevada, California, Duke Forest, North Carolina and Harvard Forest, Massachusetts) to calculate the standard error of estimates of landscape height for each scenario. We found that a hybrid sampling approach reduced the amount of time required to reach a transect spacing of 150 m by a factor of three at all four latitudes, and that the number of near-coincident observations was greater by a factor of five at the equator and at least equal throughout the range of latitudes sampled. The standard error of landscape height was between 2 and 2.5 times smaller using either hybrid or random sampling than using transect sampling. As the pulses generated by a spaceborne

  9. Accounting for water management issues within hydrological simulation: Alternative modelling options and a network optimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Nalbantis, Ioannis; Rozos, Evangelos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2010-05-01

    In mixed natural and artificialized river basins, many complexities arise due to anthropogenic interventions in the hydrological cycle, including abstractions from surface water bodies, groundwater pumping or recharge and water returns through drainage systems. Typical engineering approaches adopt a multi-stage modelling procedure, with the aim to handle the complexity of process interactions and the lack of measured abstractions. In such context, the entire hydrosystem is separated into natural and artificial sub-systems or components; the natural ones are modelled individually, and their predictions (i.e. hydrological fluxes) are transferred to the artificial components as inputs to a water management scheme. To account for the interactions between the various components, an iterative procedure is essential, whereby the outputs of the artificial sub-systems (i.e. abstractions) become inputs to the natural ones. However, this strategy suffers from multiple shortcomings, since it presupposes that pure natural sub-systems can be located and that sufficient information is available for each sub-system modelled, including suitable, i.e. "unmodified", data for calibrating the hydrological component. In addition, implementing such strategy is ineffective when the entire scheme runs in stochastic simulation mode. To cope with the above drawbacks, we developed a generalized modelling framework, following a network optimization approach. This originates from the graph theory, which has been successfully implemented within some advanced computer packages for water resource systems analysis. The user formulates a unified system which is comprised of the hydrographical network and the typical components of a water management network (aqueducts, pumps, junctions, demand nodes etc.). Input data for the later include hydraulic properties, constraints, targets, priorities and operation costs. The real-world system is described through a conceptual graph, whose dummy properties

  10. Monitoring of enamel lesion remineralization by optical coherence tomography: an alternative approach towards signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadr, Alireza; Mandurah, Mona; Nakashima, Syozi; Shimada, Yasushi; Kitasako, Yuichi; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    Early detection, monitoring and remineralization repair of enamel lesions are top research priorities in the modern dentistry focusing on minimal intervention concept for caries management. We investigate the use of swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) without polarization-sensing at 1319 nm wavelength developed for clinical dentistry (Dental OCT System Prototype 2, Panasonic Healthcare Co., Ltd., Japan) in quantitative assessment of artificial enamel lesions and their remineralization. Bovine enamel blocks were subjected to demineralization to create subsurface lesions approximately 130 μm in depth over 2 weeks, and subjected to remineralization in solution containing bioavailable calcium and 1ppm fluoride at pH 6.5 for 2 weeks. Cross-sectional images of sound, demineralized and remineralized specimens were captured under hydrated conditions by the OCT. Finally, the specimens were cut into sections for nanoindentation to measure hardness through the lesion under 2mN load. Reflectivity had increased with demineralization. OCT images of lesions showed a boundary closely suggesting the lesion depth that gradually progressed with demineralization time. After remineralization, the boundary depth gradually decreased and nanoindentation showed over 60% average hardness recovery rate. A significant negative correlation was found between the slope power-law regression as a measure of attenuation and overall nanohardness for a range of data covering sound, demineralized and remineralized areas. In conclusion, OCT could provide clear images of early enamel lesion extent and signal attenuation could indicate its severity and recovery. Clinical data of natural lesions obtained using Dental OCT and analyzed by this approach will also be presented. Study supported by GCOE IRCMSTBD and NCGG.

  11. The influence of trading volume on market efficiency: The DCCA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukpitak, Jessada; Hengpunya, Varagorn

    2016-09-01

    For a single market, the cross-correlation between market efficiency and trading volume, which is an indicator of market liquidity, is attentively analysed. The study begins with creating time series of market efficiency by applying time-varying Hurst exponent with one year sliding window to daily closing prices. The time series of trading volume corresponding to the same time period used for the market efficiency is derived from one year moving average of daily trading volume. Subsequently, the detrended cross-correlation coefficient is employed to quantify the degree of cross-correlation between the two time series. It was found that values of cross-correlation coefficient of all considered stock markets are close to 0 and are clearly out of range in which correlation being considered significant in almost every time scale. Obtained results show that the market liquidity in term of trading volume hardly has effect on the market efficiency.

  12. Feed Forward Programming of Car Drivers’ Eye Movement Behavior: A System Theoretical Approach. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    CONCLUDING REMARKS 196 REFEBENGBS 203 • SDIOIAET The Final Report consists of two volumes. The first volume is concerned with contemporary research...processing centers than do adults, also have a slight ten- dency toward prolonged fixation times (e.g., MACKWORTH and BRUNER , 1970). The results...yet, fully developed (MACKWORTH and BRUNER , 1970). TheLC and other findings on fixation times are of importance. However, when one summarizes the

  13. Analysis of variance is easily misapplied in the analysis of randomized trials: a critique and discussion of alternative statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method that is widely used in the psychosomatic literature to analyze the results of randomized trials, yet ANOVA does not provide an estimate for the difference between groups, the key variable of interest in a randomized trial. Although the use of ANOVA is frequently justified on the grounds that a trial incorporates more than two groups, the hypothesis tested by ANOVA for these trials--"Are all groups equivalent?"--is often scientifically uninteresting. Regression methods are not only applicable to trials with many groups, but can be designed to address specific questions arising from the study design. ANOVA is also frequently used for trials with repeated measures, but the consequent reporting of "group effects," "time effects," and "time-by-group interactions" is a distraction from statistics of clinical and scientific value. Given that ANOVA is easily misapplied in the analysis of randomized trials, alternative approaches such as regression methods should be considered in preference.

  14. Insight into Alternative Approaches for Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry, with Emphasis on Highly Pathogenic H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwhab, E. M.; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2012-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 causes a devastating disease in poultry but when it accidentally infects humans it can cause death. Therefore, decrease the incidence of H5N1 in humans needs to focus on prevention and control of poultry infections. Conventional control strategies in poultry based on surveillance, stamping out, movement restriction and enforcement of biosecurity measures did not prevent the virus spreading, particularly in developing countries. Several challenges limit efficiency of the vaccines to prevent outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 in endemic countries. Alternative and complementary approaches to reduce the current burden of H5N1 epidemics in poultry should be encouraged. The use of antiviral chemotherapy and natural compounds, avian-cytokines, RNA interference, genetic breeding and/or development of transgenic poultry warrant further evaluation as integrated intervention strategies for control of HPAIV H5N1 in poultry. PMID:23202521

  15. Interactive Volume Exploration of Petascale Microscopy Data Streams Using a Visualization-Driven Virtual Memory Approach.

    PubMed

    Hadwiger, M; Beyer, J; Jeong, Won-Ki; Pfister, H

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the first volume visualization system that scales to petascale volumes imaged as a continuous stream of high-resolution electron microscopy images. Our architecture scales to dense, anisotropic petascale volumes because it: (1) decouples construction of the 3D multi-resolution representation required for visualization from data acquisition, and (2) decouples sample access time during ray-casting from the size of the multi-resolution hierarchy. Our system is designed around a scalable multi-resolution virtual memory architecture that handles missing data naturally, does not pre-compute any 3D multi-resolution representation such as an octree, and can accept a constant stream of 2D image tiles from the microscopes. A novelty of our system design is that it is visualization-driven: we restrict most computations to the visible volume data. Leveraging the virtual memory architecture, missing data are detected during volume ray-casting as cache misses, which are propagated backwards for on-demand out-of-core processing. 3D blocks of volume data are only constructed from 2D microscope image tiles when they have actually been accessed during ray-casting. We extensively evaluate our system design choices with respect to scalability and performance, compare to previous best-of-breed systems, and illustrate the effectiveness of our system for real microscopy data from neuroscience.

  16. Differentiating SIADH from Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting: Failure of the Volume Approach and Need for a New Approach to Hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Maesaka, John K; Imbriano, Louis; Mattana, Joseph; Gallagher, Dympna; Bade, Naveen; Sharif, Sairah

    2014-12-08

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Its diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are in a state of flux. It is evident that hyponatremic patients are symptomatic with a potential for serious consequences at sodium levels that were once considered trivial. The recommendation to treat virtually all hyponatremics exposes the need to resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma of deciding whether to water restrict a patient with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or administer salt and water to a renal salt waster. In this review, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of SIADH and renal salt wasting (RSW), and the difficulty in differentiating SIADH from RSW, and review the origin of the perceived rarity of RSW, as well as the value of determining fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) in differentiating both syndromes, the high prevalence of RSW which highlights the inadequacy of the volume approach to hyponatremia, the importance of changing cerebral salt wasting to RSW, and the proposal to eliminate reset osmostat as a subtype of SIADH, and finally propose a new algorithm to replace the outmoded volume approach by highlighting FEurate. This algorithm eliminates the need to assess the volume status with less reliance on determining urine sodium concentration, plasma renin, aldosterone and atrial/brain natriuretic peptide or the BUN to creatinine ratio.

  17. Differentiating SIADH from Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting: Failure of the Volume Approach and Need for a New Approach to Hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Maesaka, John K.; Imbriano, Louis; Mattana, Joseph; Gallagher, Dympna; Bade, Naveen; Sharif, Sairah

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Its diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are in a state of flux. It is evident that hyponatremic patients are symptomatic with a potential for serious consequences at sodium levels that were once considered trivial. The recommendation to treat virtually all hyponatremics exposes the need to resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma of deciding whether to water restrict a patient with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or administer salt and water to a renal salt waster. In this review, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of SIADH and renal salt wasting (RSW), and the difficulty in differentiating SIADH from RSW, and review the origin of the perceived rarity of RSW, as well as the value of determining fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) in differentiating both syndromes, the high prevalence of RSW which highlights the inadequacy of the volume approach to hyponatremia, the importance of changing cerebral salt wasting to RSW, and the proposal to eliminate reset osmostat as a subtype of SIADH, and finally propose a new algorithm to replace the outmoded volume approach by highlighting FEurate. This algorithm eliminates the need to assess the volume status with less reliance on determining urine sodium concentration, plasma renin, aldosterone and atrial/brain natriuretic peptide or the BUN to creatinine ratio. PMID:26237607

  18. Understanding alternative fluxes/effluxes through comparative metabolic pathway analysis of phylum actinobacteria using a simplified approach.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mansi; Lal, Devi; Saxena, Anjali; Anand, Shailly; Kaur, Jasvinder; Kaur, Jaspreet; Lal, Rup

    2013-12-01

    Actinobacteria are known for their diverse metabolism and physiology. Some are dreadful human pathogens whereas some constitute the natural flora for human gut. Therefore, the understanding of metabolic pathways is a key feature for targeting the pathogenic bacteria without disturbing the symbiotic ones. A big challenge faced today is multiple drug resistance by Mycobacterium and other pathogens that utilize alternative fluxes/effluxes. With the availability of genome sequence, it is now feasible to conduct the comparative in silico analysis. Here we present a simplified approach to compare metabolic pathways so that the species specific enzyme may be traced and engineered for future therapeutics. The analyses of four key carbohydrate metabolic pathways, i.e., glycolysis, pyruvate metabolism, tri carboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway suggest the presence of alternative fluxes. It was found that the upper pathway of glycolysis was highly variable in the actinobacterial genomes whereas lower glycolytic pathway was highly conserved. Likewise, pentose phosphate pathway was well conserved in contradiction to TCA cycle, which was found to be incomplete in majority of actinobacteria. The clustering based on presence and absence of genes of these metabolic pathways clearly revealed that members of different genera shared identical pathways and, therefore, provided an easy method to identify the metabolic similarities/differences between pathogenic and symbiotic organisms. The analyses could identify isoenzymes and some key enzymes that were found to be missing in some pathogenic actinobacteria. The present work defines a simple approach to explore the effluxes in four metabolic pathways within the phylum actinobacteria. The analysis clearly reflects that actinobacteria exhibit diverse routes for metabolizing substrates. The pathway comparison can help in finding the enzymes that can be used as drug targets for pathogens without effecting symbiotic organisms

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Red Yeast Rice: An Effective and Relatively Safe Alternative Approach for Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinhua; Jiang, Long; Jia, Zhangrong; Xin, Wei; Yang, Shiwei; Yang, Qiu; Wang, Luya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore whether red yeast rice is a safe and effective alternative approach for dyslipidemia. Methods Pubmed, the Cochrane Library, EBSCO host, Chinese VIP Information (VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Databases were searched for appropriate articles. Randomized trials of RYR (not including Xuezhikang and Zhibituo) and placebo as control in patients with dyslipidemia were considered. Two authors read all papers and independently extracted all relevant information. The primary outcomes were serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The secondary outcomes were increased levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, creatinine and fasting blood glucose. Results A total of 13 randomized, placebo-controlled trials containing 804 participants were analyzed. Red yeast rice exhibited significant lowering effects on serum TC [WMD = −0.97 (95% CI: −1.13, −0.80) mmol/L, P<0.001], TG [WMD = −0.23 (95% CI: −0.31, −0.14) mmol/L, P<0.001], and LDL-C [WMD = −0.87 (95% CI: −1.03, −0.71) mmol/L, P<0.001] but no significant increasing effect on HDL-C [WMD = 0.08 (95% CI: −0.02, 0.19) mmol/L, P = 0.11] compared with placebo. No serious side effects were reported in all trials. Conclusions The meta-analysis suggests that red yeast rice is an effective and relatively safe approach for dyslipidemia. However, further long-term, rigorously designed randomized controlled trials are still warranted before red yeast rice could be recommended to patients with dyslipidemia, especially as an alternative to statins. PMID:24897342

  20. Dual-Frequency Alternating Current Designer Waveform for Reliable Voltammetric Determination of Electrode Kinetics Approaching the Reversible Limit.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiezhen; Bentley, Cameron L; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie

    2016-02-16

    Alternating current (ac) voltammetry provides access to faster electrode kinetics than direct current (dc) methods. However, difficulties in ac and other methods arise when the heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant (k(0)) approaches the reversible limit, because the voltammetric characteristics become insensitive to electrode kinetics. Thus, in this near-reversible regime, even small uncertainties associated with bulk concentration (C), diffusion coefficient (D), electrode area (A), and uncompensated resistance (Ru) can lead to significant systematic error in the determination of k(0). In this study, we have introduced a kinetically sensitive dual-frequency designer waveform into the Fourier-transformed large-amplitude alternating current (FTAC) voltammetric method that is made up of two sine waves having the same amplitude but with different frequencies (e.g., 37 and 615 Hz) superimposed onto a dc ramp to quantify the close-to-reversible Fc(0/+) process (Fc = ferrocene) in two nonhaloaluminate ionic liquids. The concept is that from a single experiment the lower-frequency data set, collected on a time scale where the target process is reversible, can be used as an internal reference to calibrate A, D, C, and Ru. These calibrated values are then used to calculate k(0) from analysis of the harmonics of the higher-frequency data set, where the target process is quasi-reversible. With this approach, k(0) values of 0.28 and 0.11 cm·s(-1) have been obtained at a 50 μm diameter platinum microdisk electrode for the close-to-diffusion-controlled Fc(0/+) process in two ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, respectively.

  1. Language acquisition for deaf children: Reducing the harms of zero tolerance to the use of alternative approaches

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire language without instruction as long as they are regularly and meaningfully engaged with an accessible human language. Today, 80% of children born deaf in the developed world are implanted with cochlear devices that allow some of them access to sound in their early years, which helps them to develop speech. However, because of brain plasticity changes during early childhood, children who have not acquired a first language in the early years might never be completely fluent in any language. If they miss this critical period for exposure to a natural language, their subsequent development of the cognitive activities that rely on a solid first language might be underdeveloped, such as literacy, memory organization, and number manipulation. An alternative to speech-exclusive approaches to language acquisition exists in the use of sign languages such as American Sign Language (ASL), where acquiring a sign language is subject to the same time constraints of spoken language development. Unfortunately, so far, these alternatives are caught up in an "either - or" dilemma, leading to a highly polarized conflict about which system families should choose for their children, with little tolerance for alternatives by either side of the debate and widespread misinformation about the evidence and implications for or against either approach. The success rate with cochlear implants is highly variable. This issue is still debated, and as far as we know, there are no reliable predictors for success with implants. Yet families are often advised not to expose their child to sign language. Here absolute positions based on ideology create pressures for parents that might jeopardize the real developmental needs of deaf children. What we do know is that cochlear implants do not offer accessible language to many deaf children. By the time it is clear that the deaf child is not acquiring spoken language with cochlear devices, it might already be past the critical period, and

  2. Language acquisition for deaf children: Reducing the harms of zero tolerance to the use of alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Tom; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Napoli, Donna Jo; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian; Smith, Scott R

    2012-04-02

    Children acquire language without instruction as long as they are regularly and meaningfully engaged with an accessible human language. Today, 80% of children born deaf in the developed world are implanted with cochlear devices that allow some of them access to sound in their early years, which helps them to develop speech. However, because of brain plasticity changes during early childhood, children who have not acquired a first language in the early years might never be completely fluent in any language. If they miss this critical period for exposure to a natural language, their subsequent development of the cognitive activities that rely on a solid first language might be underdeveloped, such as literacy, memory organization, and number manipulation. An alternative to speech-exclusive approaches to language acquisition exists in the use of sign languages such as American Sign Language (ASL), where acquiring a sign language is subject to the same time constraints of spoken language development. Unfortunately, so far, these alternatives are caught up in an "either - or" dilemma, leading to a highly polarized conflict about which system families should choose for their children, with little tolerance for alternatives by either side of the debate and widespread misinformation about the evidence and implications for or against either approach. The success rate with cochlear implants is highly variable. This issue is still debated, and as far as we know, there are no reliable predictors for success with implants. Yet families are often advised not to expose their child to sign language. Here absolute positions based on ideology create pressures for parents that might jeopardize the real developmental needs of deaf children. What we do know is that cochlear implants do not offer accessible language to many deaf children. By the time it is clear that the deaf child is not acquiring spoken language with cochlear devices, it might already be past the critical period, and

  3. Evaluation of simulation alternatives for the brute-force ray-tracing approach used in backlight design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnijder, Karel; Hanselaer, Peter; Meuret, Youri

    2016-04-01

    A key requirement to obtain a uniform luminance for a side-lit LED backlight is the optimised spatial pattern of structures on the light guide that extract the light. The generation of such a scatter pattern is usually performed by applying an iterative approach. In each iteration, the luminance distribution of the backlight with a particular scatter pattern is analysed. This is typically performed with a brute-force ray-tracing algorithm, although this approach results in a time-consuming optimisation process. In this study, the Adding-Doubling method is explored as an alternative way for evaluating the luminance of a backlight. Due to the similarities between light propagating in a backlight with extraction structures and light scattering in a cloud of light scatterers, the Adding-Doubling method which is used to model the latter could also be used to model the light distribution in a backlight. The backlight problem is translated to a form upon which the Adding-Doubling method is directly applicable. The calculated luminance for a simple uniform extraction pattern with the Adding-Doubling method matches the luminance generated by a commercial raytracer very well. Although successful, no clear computational advantage over ray tracers is realised. However, the dynamics of light propagation in a light guide as used the Adding-Doubling method, also allow to enhance the efficiency of brute-force ray-tracing algorithms. The performance of this enhanced ray-tracing approach for the simulation of backlights is also evaluated against a typical brute-force ray-tracing approach.

  4. The United States Remains Unprepared for Oil Import Disruptions. Volume II. Detailed Review of Current Emergency Programs and Alternative Approaches.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-29

    and Development OECP Office of Energy Contingency Planning OMB Office of Management and Budget OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries PEMEX ...Petroleos Mejicanos ( PEMEX ), Mexico’s State oil company, to acquire up to 110 MMB of oil for the SPR. DOE officials estimate that, depending on...by mutual agreement. IF DOE and PEMEX fail to agree on prices within 10 days after the begin- ning of each quarter, PEMEX may suspend deliveries for

  5. Reconstructing the Soviet National Economic Balance, 1965 - 1984: An Alternative Approach to Estimating Soviet Military Expenditures. Volume 1. Technical Discussion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-11

    based method of estimating military expenditures differs3 considerably from the method by proposed Western researchers who, like Soviet 1-9 I I academic... researchers , the problem of inflation would still be open to competing interpretations since one can design different, equally valid methods , for...I-1 1.2 Comparison of Soviet Accounting Methods ......................................... 1-4 1.3 The NEB Coverage of Military Expenditures

  6. Wetting Kinetics: an Alternative Approach Towards Understanding the Enhanced Dissolution Rate for Amorphous Solid Dispersion of a Poorly Soluble Drug.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sanjay; Rudraraju, Varma S

    2015-10-01

    Developing amorphous solid dispersions of water-insoluble molecules using polymeric materials is a well-defined approach to improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability. While the selected polymer plays a vital role in stabilizing the amorphous solid dispersion physically, it is equally important to improve the dissolution profile by inhibiting crystallization from the supersaturated solution generated by dissolution of the amorphous material. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism of dissolution rate enhancement is of vital importance. In this work, wetting kinetics was taken up as an alternative approach for understanding the enhanced dissolution rate for amorphous solid dispersion of a poorly soluble drug. While cilostazol (CIL) was selected as the model drug, povidone (PVP), copovidone, and hypromellose (HPMC) were the polymers of choice. The concentrations against time profiles were evaluated for the supersaturated solutions of CIL in the presence and absence of the selected polymers. The degree of supersaturation increased significantly with increase in polymer content within the solid dispersion. While povidone was found to maintain the highest level of supersaturation for the greatest length of time both in dissolution and solution crystallization experiments, copovidone and hypromellose were found to be the less effective as crystallization inhibitor. The ability of polymers to generate and maintain supersaturated drug solutions was assessed by dissolution studies. The wetting kinetics was compared against the solid dispersion composition to establish a correlation with enhanced dissolution rate.

  7. An Alternative Approach for Registration of High-Resolution Satellite Optical Imagery and ICESat Laser Altimetry Data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shijie; Lv, Yi; Tong, Xiaohua; Xie, Huan; Liu, Jun; Chen, Lei

    2016-11-27

    Satellite optical images and altimetry data are two major data sources used in Antarctic research. The integration use of these two datasets is expected to provide more accurate and higher quality products, during which data registration is the first issue that needs to be solved. This paper presents an alternative approach for the registration of high-resolution satellite optical images and ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry data. Due to the sparse distribution characteristic of the ICESat laser point data, it is difficult and even impossible to find same-type conjugate features between ICESat data and satellite optical images. The method is implemented in a direct way to correct the point-to-line inconsistency in image space through 2D transformation between the projected terrain feature points and the corresponding 2D image lines, which is simpler than discrepancy correction in object space that requires stereo images for 3D model construction, and easier than the indirect way of image orientation correction via photogrammetric bundle adjustment. The correction parameters are further incorporated into imaging model through RPCs (Rational Polynomial Coefficients) generation/regeneration for the convenience of photogrammetric applications. The experimental results by using the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) images and ZY-3 (Ziyuan-3 satellite) images for registration with ICESat data showed that sub-pixel level registration accuracies were achieved after registration, which have validated the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented approach.

  8. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Approaches for Pediatric Pain: A Review of the State-of-the-science

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in pediatric populations has increased considerably, especially for chronic conditions such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and cystic fibrosis in which pain may be a significant problem. Despite the growing popularity of CAM approaches for pediatric pain, questions regarding the efficacy of these interventions remain. This review critically evaluates the existing empirical evidence for the efficacy of CAM interventions for pain symptoms in children. CAM modalities that possess a published literature, including controlled trials and/or multiple baseline studies, that focused on either chronic or acute, procedural pain were included in this review. The efficacy of the CAM interventions was evaluated according to the framework developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 12 Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. According to these criteria, only one CAM approach reviewed herein (self-hypnosis/guided imagery/relaxation for recurrent pediatric headache) qualified as an empirically supported therapy (EST), although many may be considered possibly efficacious or promising treatments for pediatric pain. Several methodological limitations of the existing literature on CAM interventions for pain problems in children are highlighted and future avenues for research are outlined. PMID:15937555

  9. An Alternative Approach for Registration of High-Resolution Satellite Optical Imagery and ICESat Laser Altimetry Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shijie; Lv, Yi; Tong, Xiaohua; Xie, Huan; Liu, Jun; Chen, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Satellite optical images and altimetry data are two major data sources used in Antarctic research. The integration use of these two datasets is expected to provide more accurate and higher quality products, during which data registration is the first issue that needs to be solved. This paper presents an alternative approach for the registration of high-resolution satellite optical images and ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry data. Due to the sparse distribution characteristic of the ICESat laser point data, it is difficult and even impossible to find same-type conjugate features between ICESat data and satellite optical images. The method is implemented in a direct way to correct the point-to-line inconsistency in image space through 2D transformation between the projected terrain feature points and the corresponding 2D image lines, which is simpler than discrepancy correction in object space that requires stereo images for 3D model construction, and easier than the indirect way of image orientation correction via photogrammetric bundle adjustment. The correction parameters are further incorporated into imaging model through RPCs (Rational Polynomial Coefficients) generation/regeneration for the convenience of photogrammetric applications. The experimental results by using the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) images and ZY-3 (Ziyuan-3 satellite) images for registration with ICESat data showed that sub-pixel level registration accuracies were achieved after registration, which have validated the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented approach. PMID:27898048

  10. A multiobjective optimization approach for combating Aedes aegypti using chemical and biological alternated step-size control.

    PubMed

    Dias, Weverton O; Wanner, Elizabeth F; Cardoso, Rodrigo T N

    2015-11-01

    Dengue epidemics, one of the most important viral disease worldwide, can be prevented by combating the transmission vector Aedes aegypti. In support of this aim, this article proposes to analyze the Dengue vector control problem in a multiobjective optimization approach, in which the intention is to minimize both social and economic costs, using a dynamic mathematical model representing the mosquitoes' population. It consists in finding optimal alternated step-size control policies combining chemical (via application of insecticides) and biological control (via insertion of sterile males produced by irradiation). All the optimal policies consists in apply insecticides just at the beginning of the season and, then, keep the mosquitoes in an acceptable level spreading into environment a few amount of sterile males. The optimization model analysis is driven by the use of genetic algorithms. Finally, it performs a statistic test showing that the multiobjective approach is effective in achieving the same effect of variations in the cost parameters. Then, using the proposed methodology, it is possible to find, in a single run, given a decision maker, the optimal number of days and the respective amounts in which each control strategy must be applied, according to the tradeoff between using more insecticide with less transmission mosquitoes or more sterile males with more transmission mosquitoes.

  11. Marker-assisted selection to improve drought adaptation in maize: the backcross approach, perspectives, limitations, and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Ribaut, Jean-Marcel; Ragot, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A number of different marker-assisted selection (MAS) approaches do exist for the improvement of polygenic traits. Results of a marker-assisted backcross (MABC) selection experiment aimed at improving grain yield under drought conditions in tropical maize are presented and compared with alternative MAS strategies. The introgression of favourable alleles at five target regions involved in the expression of yield components and flowering traits increased grain yield and reduced the asynchrony between male and female flowering under water-limited conditions. Eighty-five per cent of the recurrent parent's genotype at non-target loci was recovered in only four generations of MABC by screening large segregating populations (2200 individuals) for three of the four generations. Selected MABC-derived BC(2)F(3) families were crossed with two testers and evaluated under different water regimes. Mean grain yield of MABC-derived hybrids was consistently higher than that of control hybrids (crosses from the recurrent parent to the same two testers as the MABC-derived families) under severe water stress conditions. Under those conditions, the best five MABC-derived hybrids yielded, on average, at least 50% more than control hybrids. Under mild water stress, defined as resulting in <50% yield reduction, no difference was observed between MABC-derived hybrids and the control plants, thus confirming that the genetic regulation for drought tolerance is dependent on stress intensity. MABC conversions involving several target regions are likely to result in partial rather than complete line conversion. Simulations were conducted to assess the utility of such partial conversions, i.e. containing favourable donor alleles at non-target regions, for subsequent phenotypic selection. The results clearly showed that selecting several genotypes (10-20) at each MABC cycle was most efficient. In the light of these results, alternative approaches to MABC are discussed, including recurrent

  12. Different approaches to synovial membrane volume determination by magnetic resonance imaging: manual versus automated segmentation.

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, M

    1997-11-01

    Automated fast (5-20 min) synovial membrane volume determination by MRI, based on pre-set post-gadolinium-DTPA enhancement thresholds, was evaluated as a substitute for a time-consuming (45-120 min), previously validated, manual segmentation method. Twenty-nine knees [rheumatoid arthritis (RA) 13, osteoarthritis (OA) 16] and 17 RA wrists were examined. At enhancement thresholds between 30 and 60%, the automated volumes (Syn(x%)) were highly significantly correlated to manual volumes (SynMan) (knees: rho = 0.78-0.91, P < 10(-5) to < 10(-9); wrists: rho = 0.87-0.95, P < 10(-4) to < 10(-6)). The absolute values of the automated estimates were extremely dependent on the threshold chosen. At the optimal threshold of 45%, the median numerical difference from SynMan was 7 ml (17%) in knees and 2 ml (25%) in wrists. At this threshold, the difference was not related to diagnosis, clinical inflammation or synovial membrane volume, e.g. no systematic errors were found. The inter-MRI variation, evaluated in three knees and three wrists, was higher than by manual segmentation, particularly due to sensitivity to malalignment artefacts. Examination of test objects proved the high accuracy of the general methodology for volume determinations (maximal error 6.3%). Preceded by the determination of reproducibility and the optimal threshold at the available MR unit, automated 'threshold' segmentation appears to be acceptable when changes rather than absolute values of synovial membrane volumes are most important, e.g. in clinical trials.

  13. A new insight into interfaces of immiscible binary polymer blends from the free volume approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya, P.; Meghala, D.; Pasang, T.; Raj, J. M.; Chandrashekara, M. N.; Ranganathaiah, C.

    2012-06-01

    The interface width in an immiscible (PVC/PS) polymer blend is determined using hydrodynamic interaction parameter (α) derived from free volume data measured using Positron lifetime spectrometer. CONTIN program has been employed to get the free volume hole size distribution. A new definition of interface width is presented, which originates from the Kirkwood-Riseman theory and friction coefficient as per Stokes equation. Friction at the interface of a binary blend decides how close the surfaces come or stay farther resulting in narrow or broad interface width respectively.

  14. A three-dimensional single-scan approach for the measurement of changes in cerebral blood volume, blood flow, and blood oxygenation-weighted signals during functional stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; Qin, Qin; van Zijl, Peter C M; Pekar, James J; Hua, Jun

    2017-02-15

    The blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) effect reflects ensemble changes in several physiological parameters such as cerebral blood volume (CBV), blood flow (CBF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2). Quantitative BOLD approaches have been developed to estimate CMRO2 dynamics from BOLD, CBF and CBV responses, generally using separate scans. The ability to detect changes in these parameters in a single scan would shorten the total scan time and reduce temporal variations in physiology or neuronal responses. Here, an acquisition strategy, named 3D TRiple-acquisition after Inversion Preparation (3D-TRIP), is demonstrated for 3D acquisition of CBV, CBF, and BOLD signal changes in a single scan by incorporating VASO, FAIR-ASL and T2-prepared BOLD fMRI methods. Using a visual stimulation paradigm, we demonstrate that the activation patterns, relative signal changes, temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and estimated CMRO2 changes during visual stimulation are all comparable between the concurrent imaging proposed here and the separate scans conventionally applied. This approach is expected to provide a useful alternative for quantitative BOLD fMRI studies where information about oxygen metabolism alterations can be extracted from changes in hemodynamic signals associated with CBV, CBF, and blood oxygenation.

  15. New Approach to Purging Monitoring Wells: Lower Flow Rates Reduce Required Purging Volumes and Sample Turbidity

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally accepted that monitoring wells must be purged to access formation water to obtain “representative” ground water quality samples. Historically anywhere from 3 to 5 well casing volumes have been removed prior to sample collection to evacuate the standing well water...

  16. Classification of SD-OCT volumes for DME detection: an anomaly detection approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, S.; Sidibé, D.; Cheung, Y.; Wong, T. Y.; Lamoureux, E.; Milea, D.; Meriaudeau, F.

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) is the leading cause of blindness amongst diabetic patients worldwide. It is characterized by accumulation of water molecules in the macula leading to swelling. Early detection of the disease helps prevent further loss of vision. Naturally, automated detection of DME from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) volumes plays a key role. To this end, a pipeline for detecting DME diseases in OCT volumes is proposed in this paper. The method is based on anomaly detection using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It starts with pre-processing the B-scans by resizing, flattening, filtering and extracting features from them. Both intensity and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) features are considered. The dimensionality of the extracted features is reduced using PCA. As the last stage, a GMM is fitted with features from normal volumes. During testing, features extracted from the test volume are evaluated with the fitted model for anomaly and classification is made based on the number of B-scans detected as outliers. The proposed method is tested on two OCT datasets achieving a sensitivity and a specificity of 80% and 93% on the first dataset, and 100% and 80% on the second one. Moreover, experiments show that the proposed method achieves better classification performances than other recently published works.

  17. An alternative approach for the use of water solubility of nonionic pesticides in the modeling of the soil sorption coefficients.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Ralpho Rinaldo; Sampaio, Silvio César; de Melo, Eduardo Borges

    2014-04-15

    The collection of data to study the damage caused by pesticides to the environment and its ecosystems is slowly acquired and costly. Large incentives have been established to encourage research projects aimed at building mathematical models for predicting physical, chemical or biological properties of environmental interest. The organic carbon normalized soil sorption coefficient (K(oc)) is an important physicochemical property used in environmental risk assessments for compounds released into the environment. Many models for predicting logK(oc) that have used the parameters logP or logS as descriptors have been published in recent decades. The strong correlation between these properties (logP and logS) prevents them from being used together in multiple linear regressions. Because the sorption of a chemical compound in soil depends on both its water solubility and its water/organic matter partitioning, we assume that models capable of combining these two properties can generate more realistic results. Therefore, the objective of this study was to propose an alternative approach for modeling logK(oc), using a simple descriptor of solubility, here designated as the logarithm of solubility corrected by octanol/water partitioning (logS(P)). Thus, different models were built with this descriptor and with the conventional descriptors logP and logS, alone or associated with other explanatory variables representing easy-to-interpret physicochemical properties. The obtained models were validated according to current recommendations in the literature, and they were compared with other previously published models. The results showed that the use of logS(p) instead of conventional descriptors led to simple models with greater statistical quality and predictive power than other more complex models found in the literature. Therefore, logS(P) can be a good alternative to consider for the modeling of logK(oc) and other properties that relate to both solubility and water

  18. An Alternative Approach to Estimating the Geothermal Potential of an Area: Applications to the Northeast and Elsewhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, J. M.; Koteas, C.; Mabee, S. B.

    2011-12-01

    Conventionally, heat flow data is the prime parameter for estimating the potential of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). From this, together with knowledge, or assumptions, regarding the stratigraphy, heat production and thermal conductivity, it is possible to calculate temperature - depth profiles and assess the geothermal potential of an area. According to conventional wisdom, Massachusetts (and most of the northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada) has little or no geothermal resources. This is based on the low values of very sparse heat flow measurements from mainly shallow wells. There may, however, be local pockets with geothermal potential missed by the regional heat flow coverage. For example, granite bodies constitute about 30% of the bedrock of Massachusetts and are abundant throughout New England. We suspect that some granites may provide potential local geothermal resources, especially when covered by thick sediments. This is because granites and meta-granites typically contain more of the heat-producing elements K, U, Th than other crustal rocks. We have therefore adopted an alternative approach for estimating the geothermal potential of an area. We are systematically sampling these granite bodies and measuring the concentrations of their heat-producing elements and their density, in order to determine their heat production. Not all granites are created equal and some are potentially hotter than others. Then, with measurements of thermal conductivity and knowledge, or assumptions, about stratigraphy and heat flow from the lower crust and mantle, we can estimate temperature-depth profiles and the geothermal potential of the area. A useful outcome of this approach is an estimate of heat flow, which could serve as a test of the method if appropriate targets are discovered. To date, we estimate that the temperatures of most granites at depths between 4 and 6 km range from 70 to 110 degrees C (see Koteas et al., this session). These are possible low

  19. Direct evaluation of radiobiological parameters from clinical data in the case of ion beam therapy: an alternative approach to the relative biological effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Cometto, A; Russo, G; Bourhaleb, F; Milian, F M; Giordanengo, S; Marchetto, F; Cirio, R; Attili, A

    2014-12-07

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) concept is commonly used in treatment planning for ion beam therapy. Whether models based on in vitro/in vivo RBE data can be used to predict human response to treatments is an open issue. In this work an alternative method, based on an effective radiobiological parameterization directly derived from clinical data, is presented. The method has been applied to the analysis of prostate cancer trials with protons and carbon ions.Prostate cancer trials with proton and carbon ion beams reporting 5 year-local control (LC5) and grade 2 (G2) or higher genitourinary toxicity rates (TOX) were selected from literature to test the method. Treatment simulations were performed on a representative subset of patients to produce dose and linear energy transfer distribution, which were used as explicative physical variables for the radiobiological modelling. Two models were taken into consideration: the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) and a linear model (LM). The radiobiological parameters of the LM and MKM were obtained by coupling them with the tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability models to fit the LC5 and TOX data through likelihood maximization. The model ranking was based on the Akaike information criterion.Results showed large confidence intervals due to the limited variety of available treatment schedules. RBE values, such as RBE = 1.1 for protons in the treated volume, were derived as a by-product of the method, showing a consistency with current approaches. Carbon ion RBE values were also derived, showing lower values than those assumed for the original treatment planning in the target region, whereas higher values were found in the bladder. Most importantly, this work shows the possibility to infer the radiobiological parametrization for proton and carbon ion treatment directly from clinical data.

  20. Thermodynamic evaluation of transonic compressor rotors using the finite volume approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, S.; Moore, J.

    1986-01-01

    A method was developed which calculates two-dimensional, transonic, viscous flow in ducts. The finite volume, time marching formulation is used to obtain steady flow solutions of the Reynolds-averaged form of the Navier Stokes equations. The entire calculation is performed in the physical domain. The method is currently limited to the calculation of attached flows. The features of the current method can be summarized as follows. Control volumes are chosen so that smoothing of flow properties, typically required for stability, is now needed. Different time steps are used in the different governing equations to improve the convergence speed of the viscous calculations. A new pressure interpolation scheme is introduced which improves the shock capturing ability of the method. A multi-volume method for pressure changes in the boundary layer allows calculations which use very long and thin control volumes. A special discretization technique is also used to stabilize these calculations. A special formulation of the energy equation is used to provide improved transient behavior of solutions which use the full energy equation. The method is then compared with a wide variety of test cases. The freestream Mach numbers range from 0.075 to 2.8 in the calculations. Transonic viscous flow in a converging diverging nozzle is calculated with the method; the Mach number upstream of the shock is approximately 1.25. The agreement between the calculated and measured shock strength and total pressure losses is good. Essentially incompressible turbulent boundary layer flow in a adverse pressure gradient is calculated and the computed distribution of mean velocity and shear stress are in good agreement with the measurements. At the other end of the Mach number range, a flat plate turbulent boundary layer with a freestream Mach number of 2.8 is calculated using the full energy equation; the computed total temperature distribution and recovery factor agree well with the measurements when a

  1. Thermodynamic evaluation of transonic compressor rotors using the finite volume approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J.; Nicholson, S.; Moore, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Research at NASA Lewis Research Center gave the opportunity to incorporate new control volumes in the Denton 3-D finite-volume time marching code. For duct flows, the new control volumes require no transverse smoothing and this allows calculations with large transverse gradients in properties without significant numerical total pressure losses. Possibilities for improving the Denton code to obtain better distributions of properties through shocks were demonstrated. Much better total pressure distributions through shocks are obtained when the interpolated effective pressure, needed to stabilize the solution procedure, is used to calculate the total pressure. This simple change largely eliminates the undershoot in total pressure down-stream of a shock. Overshoots and undershoots in total pressure can then be further reduced by a factor of 10 by adopting the effective density method, rather than the effective pressure method. Use of a Mach number dependent interpolation scheme for pressure then removes the overshoot in static pressure downstream of a shock. The stability of interpolation schemes used for the calculation of effective density is analyzed and a Mach number dependent scheme is developed, combining the advantages of the correct perfect gas equation for subsonic flow with the stability of 2-point and 3-point interpolation schemes for supersonic flow.

  2. Hypoxemic reperfusion of ischemic states: an alternative approach for the attenuation of oxidative stress mediated reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Tasoulis, Marios-Konstantinos; Douzinas, Emmanuel E

    2016-01-19

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) - induced injury has been described as one of the main factors that contribute to the observed morbidity and mortality in a variety of clinical entities, including myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, cardiac arrest and trauma. An imbalance between oxygen demand and supply, within the organ beds during ischemia, results in profound tissue hypoxia. The subsequent abrupt oxygen re-entry upon reperfusion, may lead to a burst of oxidative aggression through production of reactive oxygen species by the primed cells. The predominant role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of I/R mediated injury, has been well established. A number of strategies that target the attenuation of the oxidative burst have been tested both in the experimental and the clinical setting. Despite these advances, I/R injury continues to be a major problem in everyday medical practice. The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature regarding an alternative approach, termed hypoxemic reperfusion, that has exhibited promising results in the attenuation of I/R injury, both in the experimental and the clinical setting. Further research to clarify its underlying mechanisms and to assess its efficacy in the clinical setting is warranted.

  3. Effect of dense plasmas on exchange-energy shifts in highly charged ions: An alternative approach for arbitrary perturbation potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Rosmej, F.; Bennadji, K.; Lisitsa, V. S.

    2011-09-15

    An alternative method of calculation of dense plasma effects on exchange-energy shifts {Delta}E{sub x} of highly charged ions is proposed which results in closed expressions for any plasma or perturbation potential. The method is based on a perturbation theory expansion for the inner atomic potential produced by charged plasma particles employing the Coulomb Green function method. This approach allows us to obtain analytic expressions and scaling laws with respect to the electron temperature T, density n{sub e}, and nuclear charge Z. To demonstrate the power of the present method, two specific models were considered in detail: the ion sphere model (ISM) and the Debye screening model (DSM). We demonstrate that analytical expressions can be obtained even for the finite temperature ISM. Calculations have been carried out for the singlet 1s2p{sup 1} P{sub 1} and triplet 1s2p{sup 3} P{sub 1} configurations of He-like ions with charge Z that can be observed in dense plasmas via the He-like resonance and intercombination lines. Finally we discuss recently available purely numerical calculations and experimental data.

  4. Variational reduced-density-matrix calculations on radicals: An alternative approach to open-shell ab initio quantum chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Jeff R.; Mazziotti, David A.

    2006-01-15

    An alternative approach to open-shell molecular calculations using the variational two-electron reduced-density-matrix (2-RDM) theory [Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213001 (2004)] is presented. The energy and 2-RDM of the open-shell molecule (or radical) are computed from the limit of dissociating one or more hydrogen atoms from a molecule in a singlet state. Because the ground-state energy of an 'infinitely' separated hydrogen atom in a given finite basis is known, we can determine the energy of the radical by subtracting the energy of one or more hydrogen atoms from the energy of the total dissociated system. The 2-RDM is constrained to have singlet symmetry in all calculations. Two sets of N-representability conditions are employed: (i) two-positivity conditions, and (ii) two-positivity conditions plus the T{sub 2} condition, which is a subset of the three-positivity conditions. Optimization of the energy with respect to the 2-RDM is performed with a first-order algorithm for solving the semidefinite program within the variational 2-RDM method. We present calculations of several radicals near equilibrium as well as the dissociation curves of the diatomic radicals CH and OH.

  5. Approaching a more Complete Picture of Rockfall Activity: Seismic and LiDAR Detection, Loaction and Volume Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Michael; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Turowski, Jens; Ehlers, Todd; Hovius, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall activity in steep alpine landscapes is often difficult to survey due to its infrequent nature. Classic approaches are limited by temporal and spatial resolution. In contrast, seismic monitoring provides access to catchment-wide analysis of activity patterns in rockfall-dominated environments. The deglaciated U-shaped Lauterbrunnen Valley in the Bernese Oberland, Switzerland, is a perfect example of such landscapes. It was instrumented with up to six broadband seismometers and repeatedly surveyed by terrestrial LiDAR to provide independent validation data. During August-October 2014 and April-June 2015 more than 23 (LiDAR) to hundred (seismic) events were detected. Their volumes range from < 0.01 to 5.80 cubic metres as detected by LiDAR. The evolution of individual events (i.e., precursor activity, detachment, falling phase, impact, talus cone activity) can be quantified in terms of location and duration. For events that consist of single detachments rather than a series of releases, volume scaling relationships are possible. Seismic monitoring approaches are well-suited for studying not only the rockfall process but also for understanding the geomorphic framework and boundary conditions that control such processes in a comprehensive way. Taken together, the combined LiDAR and seismic monitoring approach provides high fidelity spatial and temporal resolution of individual events.

  6. A knowledge-based approach to arterial stiffness estimation using the digital volume pulse.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dae-Geun; Farooq, Umar; Park, Seung-Hun; Goh, Choong-Won; Hahn, Minsoo

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a knowledge based approach for arterial stiffness estimation. The proposed new approach reliably estimates arterial stiffness based on the analysis of age and heart rate normalized reflected wave arrival time. The proposed new approach reduces cost, space, technical expertise, specialized equipment, complexity, and increases the usability compared to recently researched noninvasive arterial stiffness estimators. The proposed method consists of two main stages: pulse feature extraction and linear regression analysis. The new approach extracts the pulse features and establishes a linear prediction equation. On evaluating proposed methodology with pulse wave velocity (PWV) based arterial stiffness estimators, the proposed methodology offered the error rate of 8.36% for men and 9.52% for women, respectively. With such low error rates and increased benefits, the proposed approach could be usefully applied as low cost and effective solution for ubiquitous and home healthcare environments.

  7. An investigation of wing buffeting response at subsonic and transonic speeds: Phase 1: F-111A flight data analysis. Volume 1: Summary of technical approach, results and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benepe, D. B.; Cunningham, A. M., Jr.; Dunmyer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    The structural response to aerodynamic buffet during moderate to high-g maneuvers at subsonic and transonic speeds was investigated. The investigation is reported in three volumes. This volume presents a summary of the investigation with a complete description of the technical approach, description of the aircraft, its instrumentation, the data reduction procedures, results and conclusion.

  8. Wildland fire management. Volume 1: Prevention methods and analysis. [systems engineering approach to California fire problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissenberger, S. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A systems engineering approach is reported for the problem of reducing the number and severity of California's wildlife fires. Prevention methodologies are reviewed and cost benefit models are developed for making preignition decisions.

  9. Thermodynamic evaluation of transonic compressor rotors using the finite volume approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, S.; Moore, J.

    1986-01-01

    The finite volume explicit time marching method was refined and improved. Previously, extension had been made to the finite volume method to improve the accuracy of the calculation of total pressure in inviscid flow, extend the method to allow the calculation of laminar and turbulent boundary layers in internal flows, and improve the shock capturing properties of the method by introducing a Mach number dependent interpolation scheme for the pressure used in the calculating the density. The current work extends these developments by using the new pressure interpolation scheme in two dimensional viscous calculations, including a more complete description of the viscous stresses, introducing a criteria for the transverse upwind differencing which is a function of the ratio of transverse and streamwise mass fluxes, and allowing the calculation of internal flow where boundary layers are present on both walls of the duct. The manner in which the viscous stresses are evaluated in the nonorthogonal, nonuniform grid is detailed. The convergence is investigated and results for calculations of laminar flow in a converging duct are presented. Results for calculations of transonic flow in a converging-diverging nozzle are presented and the results are compared with Sajben's measurements and calculations by others.

  10. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  11. An advanced approach for the generation of complex cellular material representative volume elements using distance fields and level sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonon, B.; François, B.; Massart, T. J.

    2015-08-01

    A general and widely tunable method for the generation of representative volume elements for cellular materials based on distance and level set functions is presented. The approach is based on random tessellations constructed from random inclusion packings. A general methodology to obtain arbitrary-shaped tessellations to produce disordered foams is presented and illustrated. These tessellations can degenerate either in classical Voronoï tessellations potentially additively weighted depending on properties of the initial inclusion packing used, or in Laguerre tessellations through a simple modification of the formulation. A versatile approach to control the particular morphology of the obtained foam is introduced. Specific local features such as concave triangular Plateau borders and non-constant thickness heterogeneous coatings can be built from the tessellation in a straightforward way and are tuned by a small set of parameters with a clear morphological interpretation.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of lake eutrophication responses under alternative water diversion scenarios: a water quality modeling based statistical analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Yilin; Sheng, Hu; Dong, Feifei; Zou, Rui; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Huaicheng; Zhu, Xiang; He, Bin

    2014-01-15

    China is confronting the challenge of accelerated lake eutrophication, where Lake Dianchi is considered as the most serious one. Eutrophication control for Lake Dianchi began in the mid-1980s. However, decision makers have been puzzled by the lack of visible water quality response to past efforts given the tremendous investment. Therefore, decision makers desperately need a scientifically sound way to quantitatively evaluate the response of lake water quality to proposed management measures and engineering works. We used a water quality modeling based scenario analysis approach to quantitatively evaluate the eutrophication responses of Lake Dianchi to an under-construction water diversion project. The primary analytic framework was built on a three-dimensional hydrodynamic, nutrient fate and transport, as well as algae dynamics model, which has previously been calibrated and validated using historical data. We designed 16 scenarios to analyze the water quality effects of three driving forces, including watershed nutrient loading, variations in diverted inflow water, and lake water level. A two-step statistical analysis consisting of an orthogonal test analysis and linear regression was then conducted to distinguish the contributions of various driving forces to lake water quality. The analysis results show that (a) the different ways of managing the diversion projects would result in different water quality response in Lake Dianchi, though the differences do not appear to be significant; (b) the maximum reduction in annual average and peak Chl-a concentration from the various ways of diversion project operation are respectively 11% and 5%; (c) a combined 66% watershed load reduction and water diversion can eliminate the lake hypoxia volume percentage from the existing 6.82% to 3.00%; and (d) the water diversion will decrease the occurrence of algal blooms, and the effect of algae reduction can be enhanced if diverted water are seasonally allocated such that wet

  13. Alternative approaches for vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the 21st century: A review of developments over the last 2 decades and current status

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate or...

  14. A Cluster-Analytic Approach to Understanding the Life Values of North Carolina Public Alternative School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Adam W.

    2013-01-01

    Public alternative schools are often a significant defense against school dropout (Souza, 1999). However, little empirical research focused on alternative schools was found. Empirical research focused on the teachers who teach in these settings is even scarcer. The purpose of this descriptive study is two-fold. First, as an initial step in…

  15. A multiresolution image based approach for correction of partial volume effects in emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Boussion, N; Hatt, M; Lamare, F; Bizais, Y; Turzo, A; Cheze-Le Rest, C; Visvikis, D

    2006-04-07

    Partial volume effects (PVEs) are consequences of the limited spatial resolution in emission tomography. They lead to a loss of signal in tissues of size similar to the point spread function and induce activity spillover between regions. Although PVE can be corrected for by using algorithms that provide the correct radioactivity concentration in a series of regions of interest (ROIs), so far little attention has been given to the possibility of creating improved images as a result of PVE correction. Potential advantages of PVE-corrected images include the ability to accurately delineate functional volumes as well as improving tumour-to-background ratio, resulting in an associated improvement in the analysis of response to therapy studies and diagnostic examinations, respectively. The objective of our study was therefore to develop a methodology for PVE correction not only to enable the accurate recuperation of activity concentrations, but also to generate PVE-corrected images. In the multiresolution analysis that we define here, details of a high-resolution image H (MRI or CT) are extracted, transformed and integrated in a low-resolution image L (PET or SPECT). A discrete wavelet transform of both H and L images is performed by using the "à trous" algorithm, which allows the spatial frequencies (details, edges, textures) to be obtained easily at a level of resolution common to H and L. A model is then inferred to build the lacking details of L from the high-frequency details in H. The process was successfully tested on synthetic and simulated data, proving the ability to obtain accurately corrected images. Quantitative PVE correction was found to be comparable with a method considered as a reference but limited to ROI analyses. Visual improvement and quantitative correction were also obtained in two examples of clinical images, the first using a combined PET/CT scanner with a lymphoma patient and the second using a FDG brain PET and corresponding T1-weighted MRI

  16. A multiresolution image based approach for correction of partial volume effects in emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussion, N.; Hatt, M.; Lamare, F.; Bizais, Y.; Turzo, A.; Cheze-LeRest, C.; Visvikis, D.

    2006-04-01

    Partial volume effects (PVEs) are consequences of the limited spatial resolution in emission tomography. They lead to a loss of signal in tissues of size similar to the point spread function and induce activity spillover between regions. Although PVE can be corrected for by using algorithms that provide the correct radioactivity concentration in a series of regions of interest (ROIs), so far little attention has been given to the possibility of creating improved images as a result of PVE correction. Potential advantages of PVE-corrected images include the ability to accurately delineate functional volumes as well as improving tumour-to-background ratio, resulting in an associated improvement in the analysis of response to therapy studies and diagnostic examinations, respectively. The objective of our study was therefore to develop a methodology for PVE correction not only to enable the accurate recuperation of activity concentrations, but also to generate PVE-corrected images. In the multiresolution analysis that we define here, details of a high-resolution image H (MRI or CT) are extracted, transformed and integrated in a low-resolution image L (PET or SPECT). A discrete wavelet transform of both H and L images is performed by using the 'à trous' algorithm, which allows the spatial frequencies (details, edges, textures) to be obtained easily at a level of resolution common to H and L. A model is then inferred to build the lacking details of L from the high-frequency details in H. The process was successfully tested on synthetic and simulated data, proving the ability to obtain accurately corrected images. Quantitative PVE correction was found to be comparable with a method considered as a reference but limited to ROI analyses. Visual improvement and quantitative correction were also obtained in two examples of clinical images, the first using a combined PET/CT scanner with a lymphoma patient and the second using a FDG brain PET and corresponding T1-weighted MRI

  17. Feasibility of collision warning, precision approach and landing using GPS, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruedger, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of GPS, with an appropriately configured data link, to enhance general aviation avionic functions encountered in the terminal area and on approach was investigated with emphasis on approach and landing guidance and collision warning. The feasibility of using differential GPS to obtain the precision navigation solutions required for landing was studied. Results show that the concept is sound. An experimental program was developed to demonstrate this concept. The collision avoidance/warning concept was examined through the development of a functional system specification.

  18. Learner-Centered Instruction (LCI): Volume 1-A. Systems Approach to Electronics Maintenance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Horace H.

    The report describes the proposed development and evaluation of a learner-centered (LCI) systems approach to electronics maintenance training. An electronics course, appropriate for airmen of various aptitudes, will be prepared to develop proficiency in the specific duties required of a Weapon Control Systems Mechanic/Technician in the F-111A…

  19. Some Preliminary Readings for a Sociological Approach to ESL. NAAESC Occasional Papers, Volume 2, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynski, Mirtes

    A sociological approach to English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction allows for convergence of perspectives from the sociology of education and from adult education. ESL programs for immigrants have historically been purposely designed to make newcomers incorporate the values and beliefs of people in power. Sociologists of education working…

  20. Education through Occupations in American High Schools. Volume I. Approaches to Integrating Academic and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining approaches to integrating high school vocational and academic curricula in U.S. high schools to provide education through occupations: "Resolving the Paradox of the High School" (W. Norton Grubb); "'The Cunning Hand, the Cultured Mind': Sources of Support for Curriculum…

  1. Talking and Testing: Discourse Approaches to the Assessment of Oral Proficiency. Studies in Bilingualism, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard, Ed.; He, Agnes Weiyun, Ed.

    Papers on second language oral proficiency testing include: "Language Proficiency Interviews: A Discourse Approach" (Agnes Weiyun He, Richard Young); "Re-Analyzing the OPI: How Much Does It Look Like Natural Conversation?" (Marysia Johnson, Andrea Tyler); "Evaluating Learner Interactional Skills: Conversation at the Micro…

  2. Learner-Centered Instruction (LCI): Volume 7. Evaluation of the LCI Approach. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, William J.; And Others

    An evaluation of the learner-centered instruction (LCI) approach to training was conducted by comparing the LCI F-111A weapons control systems mechanic/technician course with the conventional Air Force course for the same Air Force specialty code (AFSC) on the following dimensions; job performance of course graduates, man-hour and dollar costs of…

  3. The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Susan Harrington; Meyers, Robert J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Karvinen, Tracy; Titus, Janet C.; Godley, Mark D.; Dent, George; Passetti, Lora; Kelberg, Pamela

    This publication was written for therapists and their supervisors who may want to implement the adolescent community reinforcement approach intervention, which was one of the five interventions tested by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Project. The CYT Project provided funding to support a study…

  4. Assessing environmental vulnerability in EIA-The content and context of the vulnerability concept in an alternative approach to standard EIA procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Kvaerner, Jens . E-mail: jens.kvarner@bioforsk.no; Swensen, Grete . E-mail: grete.swensen@niku.no; Erikstad, Lars . E-mail: lars.erikstad@nina.no

    2006-07-15

    In the traditional EIA procedure environmental vulnerability is only considered to a minor extent in the early stages when project alternatives are worked out. In Norway, an alternative approach to EIA, an integrated vulnerability model (IVM), emphasising environmental vulnerability and alternatives development in the early stages of EIA, has been tried out in a few pilot cases. This paper examines the content and use of the vulnerability concept in the IVM approach, and discusses the concept in an EIA context. The vulnerability concept is best suited to overview analyses and large scale spatial considerations. The concept is particularly useful in the early stages of EIA when alternatives are designed and screened. By introducing analyses of environmental vulnerability at the start of the EIA process, the environment can be a more decisive issue for the creation of project alternatives as well as improving the basis for scoping. Vulnerability and value aspects should be considered as separate dimensions. There is a need to operate with a specification between general and specific vulnerability. The concept of environmental vulnerability has proven useful in a wide range of disciplines. Different disciplines have different lengths of experience regarding vulnerability. In disciplines such as landscape planning and hydrogeology we find elements suitable as cornerstones in the further development of an interdisciplinary methodology. Further development of vulnerability criteria in different disciplines and increased public involvement in the early stages of EIA are recommended.

  5. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G.; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua

    2015-08-01

    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  6. NASA Conjunction Assessment Organizational Approach and the Associated Determination of Screening Volume Sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri K.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is committed to safety of flight for all of its operational assets Performed by CARA at NASA GSFC for robotic satellites Focus of this briefing Performed by TOPO at NASA JSC for human spaceflight he Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) was stood up to offer this service to all NASA robotic satellites Currently provides service to 70 operational satellites NASA unmanned operational assets Other USG assets (USGS, USAF, NOAA) International partner assets Conjunction Assessment (CA) is the process of identifying close approaches between two orbiting objects; sometimes called conjunction screening The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) a USAF unit at Vandenberg AFB, maintains the high accuracy catalog of space objects, screens CARA-supported assets against the catalog, performs OD tasking, and generates close approach data.

  7. New Approaches to Planning for Emerging Long Term Threats. Volume 1. Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    standards expected of refereed papers in professional journals or formal Agency reports. Documents IDA Documents are used for the convenience of the...initial list was developed through a series of internal and external discussions with academic , government and intelligence community personnel. These...Slide ES-6: Case StudiesI To test the feasibility of this approach, three case studies were performed, each of which considered a single critical

  8. Surgical Approaches to Treating Emphysema: Lung Volume Reduction Surgery, Bullectomy, and Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J

    2015-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and morbid progressive disease where treatment is focused on improving dyspnea, reducing exacerbations, attenuating comorbidities, and improving quality of life. Surgical therapy can be beneficial to a carefully selected subset of individuals and is the subject of this review. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) has not only demonstrated the efficacy of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) but has also provided many lessons regarding advanced emphysema. NETT demonstrated that LVRS improves exercise performance, quality of life, and pulmonary function in those with upper lobe predominant emphysema in the setting of advanced disease. Those with upper lobe predominant emphysema and low exercise tolerance also had a survival advantage compared with maximal medical therapy. Careful patient selection is paramount to success, as there clearly are patients in whom LVRS increases mortality. Giant bullae are rare, but bullectomy has been demonstrated to improve dyspnea and lung function in cases where the bulla occupies at least one-third of the hemithorax and compresses some adjacent lung tissue. For patients with chronic respiratory failure due to COPD who have not improved despite maximal surgical and medical therapy, lung transplantation remains an option in those without significant comorbid conditions.

  9. Ecosystem approach: Healthy ecosystems and sustainable economies. Volume 3. Case studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The case study report of the Interagency Ecosystem Management Task Force presents findings and recommendations from seven survey teams, details the nature, history, and current status of each ecosystem, and summarizes survey team interviews with many participating parties. The volume targets those interested in how ecosystem partnerships work. Ecosystems include: Anacostia River watershed--state and local agencies are restoring components of this system of marshes, rivers, forests in urban environments: Coastal Louisiana--a federal task force and the state of Louisiana are restoring wetlands to reverse the trend of losses; Great Lakes basin--local communities joined with governmental agencies to reverse pollution and habitat degradation; Pacific Northwest forests--an interagency effort is protecting both forest ecosystems and the region`s economic health; Prince William Sound--a state/federal trustee council is restoring the ecosystem following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: South Florida--a federal task force is restoring habitat in the Everglades; and Southern Appalachians--the Man and Biosphere program is working with communities to restore habitats.

  10. Understanding the acoustics of Papal Basilicas in Rome by means of a coupled-volumes approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellotta, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    The paper investigates the acoustics of the four World-famous Papal Basilicas in Rome, namely Saint Peter's, St. John Lateran's, St. Paul's outside the Walls, and Saint Mary's Major. They are characterized by different dimensions, materials, and architectural features, as well as by a certain number of similarities. In addition, their complexity determines significant variation in their acoustics depending on the relative position of source and receivers. A detailed set of acoustic measurements was carried out in each church, using both spatial (B-format) and binaural microphones, and determining the standard ISO 3382 descriptors. The results are analyzed in relation to the architectural features, pointing out the differences observed in terms of listening experience. Finally, in order to explain some of the results found in energy-based parameters, the churches were analyzed as a system of acoustically coupled volumes. The latter explained most of the anomalies observed in the distribution of acoustic parameters, while showing at the same time that secondary spaces (aisles, chapels) play a different role depending on the amount of sound absorption located in the main nave.

  11. Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102® device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests’ accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. Methods As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. Results All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells) and under five percent (viable cells). The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a Cell Factory. In a good

  12. Pyrometry in the Multianvil Press: New approach for temperature measurement in large volume press experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanehira, T.; Wang, Y.; Prakapenka, V.; Rivers, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Temperature measurement in large volume press experiments has been based on thermocouple emf, which has well known problems: unknown pressure dependence of emf [e.g., 1], chemical reaction between thermocouple and other materials, deformation related texture development in the thermocouple wires [2], and so on. Thus, different techniques to measure temperatures in large volume press experiments other than thermocouples are required to measure accurate temperatures under high pressures. Here we report a new development using pyrometry in the multianvil press, where temperatures are derived on the basis of spectral radiometry. Several high pressure runs were conducted using the 1000 ton press with a DIA module installed at 13 ID-D GSECARS beamline at Advanced Photon Source (APS) [3]. The cubic pressure medium, 14 mm edge length, was made of soft-fired pyrophyllite with a graphite furnace. A moissanite (SiC) single crystal was built inside the pressure medium as a window for the thermal emission signal to go through. An MgO disk with 1.0 mm thickness was inserted in a gap between the top of the SiC crystal and thermocouple hot junction. The bottom of the window crystal was in direct contact with the tip of the anvil, which had a 1.5 mm diameter hole drilled all the way through the anvil axis. An optical fiber was inserted in this hole and the open end of fiber was in contact with the SiC crystal. Thermal spectral radiance from the inner cell assembly was obtained via the fiber and recorded by an Ocean Optics HP2000 spectrometer. The system response of spectrometer was calibrated by a tungsten ribbon ramp (OL550S, Optronic Laboratories, Inc.) with standard of spectral radiance. The cell assembly was compressed up to target value of 15 tons and then temperature was increased up to 1573 K. Radiation spectra were mainly obtained above 873 K and typical integration time was 1 ms or 10 ms. Data collection was done in the process of increase and decrease of temperature. In

  13. An Approach to the Use of Depth Cameras for Weed Volume Estimation.

    PubMed

    Andújar, Dionisio; Dorado, José; Fernández-Quintanilla, César; Ribeiro, Angela

    2016-06-25

    The use of depth cameras in precision agriculture is increasing day by day. This type of sensor has been used for the plant structure characterization of several crops. However, the discrimination of small plants, such as weeds, is still a challenge within agricultural fields. Improvements in the new Microsoft Kinect v2 sensor can capture the details of plants. The use of a dual methodology using height selection and RGB (Red, Green, Blue) segmentation can separate crops, weeds, and soil. This paper explores the possibilities of this sensor by using Kinect Fusion algorithms to reconstruct 3D point clouds of weed-infested maize crops under real field conditions. The processed models showed good consistency among the 3D depth images and soil measurements obtained from the actual structural parameters. Maize plants were identified in the samples by height selection of the connected faces and showed a correlation of 0.77 with maize biomass. The lower height of the weeds made RGB recognition necessary to separate them from the soil microrelief of the samples, achieving a good correlation of 0.83 with weed biomass. In addition, weed density showed good correlation with volumetric measurements. The canonical discriminant analysis showed promising results for classification into monocots and dictos. These results suggest that estimating volume using the Kinect methodology can be a highly accurate method for crop status determination and weed detection. It offers several possibilities for the automation of agricultural processes by the construction of a new system integrating these sensors and the development of algorithms to properly process the information provided by them.

  14. An Approach to the Use of Depth Cameras for Weed Volume Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Andújar, Dionisio; Dorado, José; Fernández-Quintanilla, César; Ribeiro, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The use of depth cameras in precision agriculture is increasing day by day. This type of sensor has been used for the plant structure characterization of several crops. However, the discrimination of small plants, such as weeds, is still a challenge within agricultural fields. Improvements in the new Microsoft Kinect v2 sensor can capture the details of plants. The use of a dual methodology using height selection and RGB (Red, Green, Blue) segmentation can separate crops, weeds, and soil. This paper explores the possibilities of this sensor by using Kinect Fusion algorithms to reconstruct 3D point clouds of weed-infested maize crops under real field conditions. The processed models showed good consistency among the 3D depth images and soil measurements obtained from the actual structural parameters. Maize plants were identified in the samples by height selection of the connected faces and showed a correlation of 0.77 with maize biomass. The lower height of the weeds made RGB recognition necessary to separate them from the soil microrelief of the samples, achieving a good correlation of 0.83 with weed biomass. In addition, weed density showed good correlation with volumetric measurements. The canonical discriminant analysis showed promising results for classification into monocots and dictos. These results suggest that estimating volume using the Kinect methodology can be a highly accurate method for crop status determination and weed detection. It offers several possibilities for the automation of agricultural processes by the construction of a new system integrating these sensors and the development of algorithms to properly process the information provided by them. PMID:27347972

  15. A volume of intersection approach for on-the-fly system matrix calculation in 3D PET image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougovski, A.; Hofheinz, F.; Maus, J.; Schramm, G.; Will, E.; van den Hoff, J.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of on-the-fly volume of intersection computation for system’s geometry modelling in 3D PET image reconstruction. For this purpose we propose a simple geometrical model in which the cubic image voxels on the given Cartesian grid are approximated with spheres and the rectangular tubes of response (ToRs) are approximated with cylinders. The model was integrated into a fully 3D list-mode PET reconstruction for performance evaluation. In our model the volume of intersection between a voxel and the ToR is only a function of the impact parameter (the distance between voxel centre to ToR axis) but is independent of the relative orientation of voxel and ToR. This substantially reduces the computational complexity of the system matrix calculation. Based on phantom measurements it was determined that adjusting the diameters of the spherical voxel size and the ToR in such a way that the actual voxel and ToR volumes are conserved leads to the best compromise between high spatial resolution, low noise, and suppression of Gibbs artefacts in the reconstructed images. Phantom as well as clinical datasets from two different PET systems (Siemens ECAT HR+ and Philips Ingenuity-TF PET/MR) were processed using the developed and the respective vendor-provided (line of intersection related) reconstruction algorithms. A comparison of the reconstructed images demonstrated very good performance of the new approach. The evaluation showed the respective vendor-provided reconstruction algorithms to possess 34-41% lower resolution compared to the developed one while exhibiting comparable noise levels. Contrary to explicit point spread function modelling our model has a simple straight-forward implementation and it should be easy to integrate into existing reconstruction software, making it competitive to other existing resolution recovery techniques.

  16. An Alternative Georoute: Approaching the Geological Heritage of the SE Part of Milos Island, Greece, via Hiking, Kayaking and Snorkeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrogonatos, Constantinos; Galanopoulos, Evangelos; Anastasatou, Marianthi; Chadjimpaloglou, Petros; Xydous, Stamatios

    2015-04-01

    Milos Island is located at the southwest edge of the Cyclades island complex, in the central part of the Aegean archipelago. It is part of the modern South Aegean Volcanic Arc (SAVA), which belongs to the Hellenic subduction zone. This on-going process has resulted in the coexistence of complex geological formations and geodynamic phenomena with sceneries of incomparable natural beauty, in many areas along the arc. Among them, Milos Island is widely known to be a place of astonishing geological and natural wealth, combined with a cultural heritage that dates back to the 8th millennium BC. As geotourism has been rapidly evolving worldwide over the last years, Milos Island was among the first places in Greece that developed a network of geotrails and featured many sites of special interest in terms of geology, volcanology and geoarchaeology. This study proposes an original georoute through land and sea, which aims t? emerge both overland and underwater areas of special interest. It is a novel way to approach the geological and cultural wealth of Milos and focuses on the Aghia Kiriaki area, at the South part of the island. This alternative georoute includes hiking, kayaking and snorkeling, and anyone who follows it, can be guided to a significant number of important geological, volcanic, morphological and geoarcheological sites, in a relatively narrow area, combining athletic activities as well. The proposed georoute has a total length of 3,2 km and an estimated time of completion of about 4 hours. It starts from Aghia Kiriaki area, where visitors can see remnants of one of the island's collapsed calderic domes in a panoramic view towards the East. In the same site, volcanic emanations create impressive scenery, which introduces the participants to aspects of the island's geologic and volcanic history. After about 800 meters of hiking, throughout an area that is dominated by products of phreatic eruptions, Aghia Kiriaki beach is the next stop. Impressive findings of

  17. Size exclusion chromatography-gradients, an alternative approach to polymer gradient chromatography: 2. Separation of poly(meth)acrylates using a size exclusion chromatography-solvent/non-solvent gradient.

    PubMed

    Schollenberger, Martin; Radke, Wolfgang

    2011-10-28

    A gradient ranging from methanol to tetrahydrofuran (THF) was applied to a series of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) standards, using the recently developed concept of SEC-gradients. Contrasting to conventional gradients the samples eluted before the solvent, i.e. within the elution range typical for separations by SEC, however, the high molar mass PMMAs were retarded as compared to experiments on the same column using pure THF as the eluent. The molar mass dependence on retention volume showed a complex behaviour with a nearly molar mass independent elution for high molar masses. This molar mass dependence was explained in terms of solubility and size exclusion effects. The solubility based SEC-gradient was proven to be useful to separate PMMA and poly(n-butyl crylate) (PnBuA) from a poly(t-butyl crylate) (PtBuA) sample. These samples could be separated neither by SEC in THF, due to their very similar hydrodynamic volumes, nor by an SEC-gradient at adsorbing conditions, due to a too low selectivity. The example shows that SEC-gradients can be applied not only in adsorption/desorption mode, but also in precipitation/dissolution mode without risking blocking capillaries or breakthrough peaks. Thus, the new approach is a valuable alternative to conventional gradient chromatography.

  18. Flared landing approach flying qualities. Volume 1: Experiment design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingarten, Norman C.; Berthe, Charles J., Jr.; Rynaski, Edmund G.; Sarrafian, Shahan K.

    1986-01-01

    An inflight research study was conducted utilizing the USAF Total Inflight Simulator (TIFS) to investigate longitudinal flying qualities for the flared landing approach phase of flight. The purpose of the experiment was to generate a consistent set of data for: (1) determining what kind of commanded response the pilot prefers in order to flare and land an airplane with precision, and (2) refining a time history criterion that took into account all the necessary variables and their characteristics that would accurately predict flying qualities. The result of the first part provides guidelines to the flight control system designer, using MIL-F-8785-(C) as a guide, that yield the dynamic behavior pilots perfer in flared landings. The results of the second part provides the flying qualities engineer with a newly derived flying qualities predictive tool which appears to be highly accurate. This time domain predictive flying qualities criterion was applied to the flight data as well as six previous flying qualities studies, and the results indicate that the criterion predicted the flying qualities level 81% of the time and the Cooper-Harper pilot rating, within + or - 1, 60% of the time.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Kk of... - Data Quality Objective and Lower Confidence Limit Approaches for Alternative Capture Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... submitted the following results and the calculation shown in Equation 12: Run CE 1 94.2 2 97.6 3 90.5... for alternative CE protocols and test methods are presented in section 5. The recommended... Figure 1). This ensures that 95 percent of the time, when the DQO is met, the actual CE value will be...

  20. High-Throughput Predictive Approaches to Evaluating Chemicals in Food Contact Materials: Migration, Exposure, and Alternatives Identification

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation describing CSS research on HT predictive methods to modeling exposure and predicting functional substitutes. It will be presented at a forum co-sponsored by the State of California and UC Berekeley on evaluation of chemical alternatives for food contact ch...