Science.gov

Sample records for alternative assembly pushes

  1. Manipulation and assembly of small objects in liquid crystals by dynamical disorganizing effect of push-pull-azobenzene-dye.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Seiji; Ohta, Kazuhiro; Oda, Takahiro; Izumi, Ryo; Kuwahara, Yutaka; Ogata, Tomonari; Kim, Sun-Nam

    2013-01-01

    The phase transition of a nematic liquid crystal containing a push-pull azobenzene dye could be induced efficiently during irradiation with visible light. The dynamical disorganizing effect of the push-pull azobenzene dye on the liquid crystalline order through its trans-cis-trans photoisomerizaion cycle under visible light was contributed to the efficient phase transition. Then, the effects of light irradiation on the motion of small objects dispersed in the liquid crystals containing the push-pull azobenzene were explored, and the manipulation and assembly of those objects were successfully achieved in the nematic phase but also in the smectic phase. The combination of the photo-controlled dynamical change in the liquid crystalline order and the intrinsic self-assembly property of a liquid crystal is promising for use in technologies that require not only the organization of small objects but also the photo-driving of nano- and micro-sized mechanical materials.

  2. Chemical Demilitarization Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil-ACWA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-243 Chemical Demilitarization-Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil-ACWA) As...Date Assigned: December 19, 2010 Program Information Program Name Chemical Demilitarization-Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil...2012 Chem Demil-ACWA December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 16:29:37 UNCLASSIFIED 5 Mission and Description Chemical Demilitarization-Assembled Chemical

  3. Alternating donor-acceptor arrays from hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene and benzothiadiazole: synthesis, optical properties, and self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Hinkel, Felix; Cho, Don; Pisula, Wojciech; Baumgarten, Martin; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-01-02

    Donor-acceptor (D-A) structures were obtained by alternating arrays of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) and benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BTZ). Optoelectronic investigations revealed a charge transfer due to strong push-pull interactions. 2 D wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data indicated an arrangement in liquid-crystalline columnar assemblies, in which the π-stacking distances and molecular orientation depend on the number of HBC units in the molecules.

  4. Alternating current electrohydrodynamics in microsystems: Pushing biomolecules and cells around on surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Dey, Shuvashis; Carrascosa, Laura G.; Shiddiky, Muhammad J. A.; Trau, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) deals with the fluid motion induced by an electric field. This phenomenon originally developed in physical science, and engineering is currently experiencing a renaissance in microfluidics. Investigations by Taylor on Gilbert's theory proposed in 1600 have evolved to include multiple contributions including the promising effects arising from electric field interactions with cells and particles to influence their behaviour on electrode surfaces. Theoretical modelling of electric fields in microsystems and the ability to determine shear forces have certainly reached an advanced state. The ability to deftly manipulate microscopic fluid flow in bulk fluid and at solid/liquid interfaces has enabled the controlled assembly, coagulation, or removal of microstructures, nanostructures, cells, and molecules on surfaces. Furthermore, the ability of electrohydrodynamics to generate fluid flow using surface shear forces generated within nanometers from the surface and their application in bioassays has led to recent advancements in biomolecule, vesicle and cellular detection across different length scales. With the integration of Alternating Current Electrohydrodynamics (AC-EHD) in cellular and molecular assays proving to be highly fruitful, challenges still remain with respect to understanding the discrepancies between each of the associated ac-induced fluid flow phenomena, extending their utility towards clinical diagnostic development, and utilising them in tandem as a standard tool for disease monitoring. In this regard, this article will review the history of electrohydrodynamics, followed by some of the recent developments in the field including a new dimension of electrohydrodynamics that deals with the utilization of surface shear forces for the manipulation of biological cells or molecules on electrode surfaces. Recent advances and challenges in the use of electrohydrodynamic forces such as dielectrophoresis and ac electrosmosis for the

  5. Price pressure. As the number of costly specialty drugs grows, insurers and providers push for more reasonable alternatives.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2013-01-28

    Faced with a rising tide of specialty drugs with eyebrow-raising prices, hospitals and insurers are pushing back. That means looking for less-costly alternatives, though options are limited. "Our goal is, as more patients come along, we get them on Elelyso and not on more expensive Cerezyme," says Eric Cannon, chief of pharmacy for insurer SelectHealth. Elelyso entered the market in 2012 and costs about $150,000 per year for a patient, versus the more costly rival drug Cerezyme.

  6. Let's push things forward: disruptive technologies and the mechanics of tissue assembly

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2013-01-01

    Although many of the molecular mechanisms that regulate tissue assembly in the embryo have been delineated, the physical forces that couple these mechanisms to actual changes in tissue form remain unclear. Qualitative studies suggest that mechanical loads play a regulatory role in development, but clear quantitative evidence has been lacking. This is partly owing to the complex nature of these problems – embryonic tissues typically undergo large deformations and exhibit evolving, highly viscoelastic material properties. Still, despite these challenges, new disruptive technologies are enabling study of the mechanics of tissue assembly in unprecedented detail. Here, we present novel experimental techniques that enable the study of each component of these physical problems: kinematics, forces, and constitutive properties. Specifically, we detail advances in light sheet microscopy, optical coherence tomography, traction force microscopy, fluorescence force spectroscopy, microrheology and micropatterning. Taken together, these technologies are helping elucidate a more quantitative understanding of the mechanics of tissue assembly. PMID:23907401

  7. Pulled in or pushed out? Understanding the complexities of motivation for alternative therapies use in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Asante, Felix; Yeboah, Joseph Yaw; Abass, Kabila; Mensah, Charlotte Monica; Siaw, Lawrencia Pokuah

    2016-01-01

    The impact of strong cultural beliefs on specific reasons for traditional medicine (TRM) use among individuals and populations has long been advanced in health care and spatio-medical literature. Yet, little has been done in Ghana and the Ashanti Region in particular to bring out the precise “pull” and “push” relative influences on TRM utilization. With a qualitative research approach involving rural and urban character, the study explored health beliefs and motivations for TRM use in Kumasi Metropolis and Sekyere South District, Ghana. The study draws on data from 36 in-depth interviews with adults, selected through theoretical sampling. We used the a posteriori inductive reduction model to derive broad themes and subthemes. The “pull factors”—perceived benefits in TRM use vis-à-vis the “push factors”—perceived poor services of the biomedical treatments contributed to the growing trends in TRM use. The result however indicates that the “pull factors,” viz.—personal health beliefs, desire to take control of one's health, perceived efficacy, and safety of various modalities of TRM—were stronger in shaping TRM use. Poor access to conventional medicine accounted for the differences in TRM use between rural and urban areas. Understanding the treatment and health-seeking behaviour of a cultural-related group is critical for developing and sustaining traditional therapy in Ghana. PMID:27018431

  8. Analysis of alternative push-pull-test-designs for determining in-situ trapping of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmusson, M.; Rasmusson, K.; Fagerlund, F.; Niemi, A.; Bensabat, J.; Shtivelman, V.

    2012-04-01

    Modeling results of different single-well push-pull (injection-withdrawal) test designs have been analyzed for their ability to determine residual and dissolution trapping of CO2 in-situ. The modeling aims to improve the design of a CO2 push-pull test that will be part of the field experiment conducted at the Heletz site, Israel, within the EU FP7 MUSTANG project. The injection will take place in a saline formation, where the target layer, an about 10 m thick sandstone layer composed of three layers, is located at a depth of 1600 m. Single-well experiments complement two-well injection-monitoring tests in that they offer a way of reducing heterogeneity effects on CO2 transport in comparison to two-well tests. The test scenarios simulated combine thermal, hydraulic and tracer tests in line with the work by Zhang et al (2011), where the test sequences have three main stages divided into (i) reference tests, (ii) creation of a zone of residual gas saturation and (iii) testing during residual gas saturation conditions. One of the main interests is to compare different ways of creating the residual zone, the two principal approaches being to push the mobile CO2 away by injecting CO2 saturated water, thus leaving the residual zone behind or by pumping the mobile CO2 back. Implications of the different designs on optimal use of tracers are also analyzed. Inverse modeling with the iTOUGH2/EOS17 and EOS7c simulators is used to analyze the ability of the competing test designs to accurately determine parameters of main interest during CO2 sequestration, in particular the residual gas saturation and dissolution. The inverse modeling approach uses results from e.g. sensitivity analysis and uncertainty propagation analysis to make design decisions leading to improvements in the test scenarios, choosing the optimum pumping and injection rates, heating effects, amount of CO2 used, tracer and method to create the zone of residual CO2 trapping, leading to a test design that will

  9. Pushed Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Significant numbers of students are being pushed out of school as a result of "zero tolerance" school discipline policies. While nobody questions the need to keep schools safe, teachers, students, and parents are questioning the methods being used in pursuit of that goal. Initially enacted to counter violent behavior and drug use, zero tolerance…

  10. Alternative stable states and alternative endstates of community assembly through intra- and interspecific positive and negative interactions.

    PubMed

    Gerla, Daan J; Mooij, Wolf M

    2014-09-01

    Positive and negative interactions within and between species may occur simultaneously, with the net effect depending on population densities. For instance, at low densities plants may ameliorate stress, while competition for resources dominates at higher densities. Here, we propose a simple two-species model in which con- and heterospecifics have a positive effect on per capita growth rate at low densities, while negative interactions dominate at high densities. The model thus includes both Allee effects (intraspecific positive effects) and mutualism (interspecific positive effects), as well as intra- and interspecific competition. Using graphical methods we derive conditions for alternative stable states and species coexistence. We show that mutual non-invasibility (i.e. the inability of each species to invade a population of the other) is more likely when species have a strong positive effect on the own species or a strong negative effect on the other species. Mutual non-invasibility implies alternative stable states, however, there may also be alternative stable states at which species coexist. In the case of species symmetry (i.e. when species are indistinguishable), such alternative coexistence states require that if the positive effect exerted at low densities at the own species is stronger than on the other species, the negative effect at higher densities is also stronger on the own species than on the other species, or, vice versa, if the interspecific positive effects at low densities are stronger than the intraspecific effects, the negative effects at higher densities are also stronger between species than within species. However, the reachability of alternative stable states is restricted by the frequency and density at which species are introduced during community assembly, so that alternative stable states do not always represent alternative endstates of community assembly.

  11. Genome-wide assembly and analysis of alternative transcripts in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Alexei A.; Dudekula, Dawood B.; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2005-01-01

    To build a mouse gene index with the most comprehensive coverage of alternative transcription/splicing (ATS), we developed an algorithm and a fully automated computational pipeline for transcript assembly from expressed sequences aligned to the genome. We identified 191,946 genomic loci, which included 27,497 protein-coding genes and 11,906 additional gene candidates (e.g., nonprotein-coding, but multiexon). Comparison of the resulting gene index with TIGR, UniGene, DoTS, and ESTGenes databases revealed that it had a greater number of transcripts, a greater average number of exons and introns with proper splicing sites per gene, and longer ORFs. The 27,497 protein-coding genes had 77,138 transcripts, i.e., 2.8 transcripts per gene on average. Close examination of transcripts led to a combinatorial table of 23 types of ATS units, only nine of which were previously described, i.e., 14 types of alternative splicing, seven types of alternative starts, and two types of alternative termination. The 47%, 18%, and 14% of 20,323 multiexon protein-coding genes with proper splice sites had alternative splicings, alternative starts, and alternative terminations, respectively. The gene index with the comprehensive ATS will provide a useful platform for analyzing the nature and mechanism of ATS, as well as for designing the accurate exon-based DNA microarrays. PMID:15867436

  12. Assembly of an Evolutionarily Conserved Alternative Proteasome Isoform in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Achuth; Vuong, Simone Anh-Thu; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-03-29

    Targeted intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotes is largely mediated by the proteasome. Here, we report the formation of an alternative proteasome isoform in human cells, previously found only in budding yeast, that bears an altered subunit arrangement in the outer ring of the proteasome core particle. These proteasomes result from incorporation of an additional α4 (PSMA7) subunit in the position normally occupied by α3 (PSMA4). Assembly of "α4-α4" proteasomes depends on the relative cellular levels of α4 and α3 and on the proteasome assembly chaperone PAC3. The oncogenic tyrosine kinases ABL and ARG and the tumor suppressor BRCA1 regulate cellular α4 levels and formation of α4-α4 proteasomes. Cells primed to assemble α4-α4 proteasomes exhibit enhanced resistance to toxic metal ions. Taken together, our results establish the existence of an alternative mammalian proteasome isoform and suggest a potential role in enabling cells to adapt to environmental stresses.

  13. Alternate assembly sequence databook for the Tier 2 Bus-1 option of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, L. M.; Cirillo, W. M.; Cruz, J. N.; Hall, J. B.; Troutman, P. A.; Monell, D. W.; Garn, M. A.; Heck, M. L.; Kumar, R. R.; Llewellyn, C. P.

    1995-01-01

    The JSC International Space Station program office requested that SSB prepare a databook to document the alternate space station assembly sequence known as Tier 2, which assumes that the Russian participation has been eliminated and that the functions that were supplied by the Russians (propulsion, resupply, initial attitude control, communications, etc.) are now supplied by the U.S. Tier 2 utilizes the Lockheed Bus-l to replace much of the missing Russian functionality. The space station at each stage of its buildup during the Tier 2 assembly sequence is characterized in terms of of properties, functionality, resource balances, operations, logistics, attitude control, microgravity environment and propellant usage. The assembly sequence as analyzed was defined by JSC as a first iteration, with subsequent iterations required to address some of the issues that the analysis in this databook identified. Several significant issues were identified, including: less than desirable orbit lifetimes, shortage of EVA, large flight attitudes, poor microgravity environments, and reboost propellant shortages. Many of these issues can be resolved but at the cost of possible baseline modifications and revisions in the proposed Tier 2 assembly sequence.

  14. Bioengineered Self-assembled Skin as an Alternative to Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Climov, Mihail; Medeiros, Erika; Farkash, Evan A.; Qiao, Jizeng; Rousseau, Cecile F.; Dong, Shumin; Zawadzka, Agatha; Racki, Waldemar J.; Al-Musa, Ahmad; Sachs, David H.; Randolph, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    For patients with extensive burns or donor site scarring, the limited availability of autologous and the inevitable rejection of allogeneic skin drive the need for new alternatives. Existing engineered biologic and synthetic skin analogs serve as temporary coverage until sufficient autologous skin is available. Here we report successful engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered skin construct derived from autologous skin punch biopsies in a porcine model. Dermal fibroblasts were stimulated to produce an extracellular matrix and were then seeded with epidermal progenitor cells to generate an epidermis. Autologous constructs were grafted onto partial- and full-thickness wounds. By gross examination and histology, skin construct vascularization and healing were comparable to autologous skin grafts and were superior to an autologous bilayered living cellular construct fabricated with fibroblasts cast in bovine collagen. This is the first demonstration of spontaneous vascularization and permanent engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered bioengineered skin that could supplement existing methods of reconstruction. PMID:27482479

  15. Self-Assembly of "Chalcone" Type Push-Pull Dye Molecules into Organic Single Crystalline Microribbons and Rigid Microrods for Vis/NIR Range Photonic Cavity Applications.

    PubMed

    Vattikunta, Radhika; Venkatakrishnarao, Dasari; Mohiddon, Mahamad Ahamad; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai

    2016-11-04

    A novel supramolecular fluorescent donor-acceptor type dye molecule, (2E,4E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(pyren-1-yl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (HPPD) self-assembles in a mixture of ethanol/chloroform through intermolecular π-π stacking (distance ca. 3.384 Å) to form J-aggregated single-crystalline microribbons displaying Fabry-Pèrot (F-P) type visible-range optical resonance. The corresponding borondifluoride dye (HPPD-BF), with a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap, self-assembles into crystalline microrods acting as an F-P type resonator in the near-infrared (NIR) range.

  16. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  17. Tests of an alternate mobile transporter and extravehicular activity assembly procedure for the Space Station Freedom truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Watson, Judith J.; Lake, Mark S.; Bush, Harold G.; Jensen, J. Kermit; Wallsom, Richard E.; Phelps, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from a ground test program of an alternate mobile transporter (MT) concept and extravehicular activity (EVA) assembly procedure for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) truss keel. A three-bay orthogonal tetrahedral truss beam consisting of 44 2-in-diameter struts and 16 nodes was assembled repeatedly in neutral buoyancy by pairs of pressure-suited test subjects working from astronaut positioning devices (APD's) on the MT. The truss bays were cubic with edges 15 ft long. All the truss joint hardware was found to be EVA compatible. The average unit assembly time for a single pair of experienced test subjects was 27.6 sec/strut, which is about half the time derived from other SSF truss assembly tests. A concept for integration of utility trays during truss assembly is introduced and demonstrated in the assembly tests. The concept, which requires minimal EVA handling of the trays, is shown to have little impact on overall assembly time. The results of these tests indicate that by using an MT equipped with APD's, rapid EVA assembly of a space station-size truss structure can be expected.

  18. Push-Pull Locomotion for Vehicle Extrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creager, Colin M.; Johnson, Kyle A.; Plant, Mark; Moreland, Scott J.; Skonieczny, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    For applications in which unmanned vehicles must traverse unfamiliar terrain, there often exists the risk of vehicle entrapment. Typically, this risk can be reduced by using feedback from on-board sensors that assess the terrain. This work addressed the situations where a vehicle has already become immobilized or the desired route cannot be traversed using conventional rolling. Specifically, the focus was on using push-pull locomotion in high sinkage granular material. Push-pull locomotion is an alternative mode of travel that generates thrust through articulated motion, using vehicle components as anchors to push or pull against. It has been revealed through previous research that push-pull locomotion has the capacity for generating higher net traction forces than rolling, and a unique optical flow technique indicated that this is the result of a more efficient soil shearing method. It has now been found that pushpull locomotion results in less sinkage, lower travel reduction, and better power efficiency in high sinkage material as compared to rolling. Even when starting from an "entrapped" condition, push-pull locomotion was able to extricate the test vehicle. It is the authors' recommendation that push-pull locomotion be considered as a reliable back-up mode of travel for applications where terrain entrapment is a possibility.

  19. Stochastic assembly leads to alternative communities with distinct functions in a bioreactor microbial community.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jizhong; Liu, Wenzong; Deng, Ye; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Xue, Kai; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Wu, Liyou; Yang, Yunfeng; Wang, Aijie

    2013-03-05

    ABSTRACT The processes and mechanisms of community assembly and its relationships to community functioning are central issues in ecology. Both deterministic and stochastic factors play important roles in shaping community composition and structure, but the connection between community assembly and ecosystem functioning remains elusive, especially in microbial communities. Here, we used microbial electrolysis cell reactors as a model system to examine the roles of stochastic assembly in determining microbial community structure and functions. Under identical environmental conditions with the same source community, ecological drift (i.e., initial stochastic colonization) and subsequent biotic interactions created dramatically different communities with little overlap among 14 identical reactors, indicating that stochastic assembly played dominant roles in determining microbial community structure. Neutral community modeling analysis revealed that deterministic factors also played significant roles in shaping microbial community structure in these reactors. Most importantly, the newly formed communities differed substantially in community functions (e.g., H2 production), which showed strong linkages to community structure. This study is the first to demonstrate that stochastic assembly plays a dominant role in determining not only community structure but also ecosystem functions. Elucidating the links among community assembly, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning is critical to understanding ecosystem functioning, biodiversity preservation, and ecosystem management. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms are the most diverse group of life known on earth. Although it is well documented that microbial natural biodiversity is extremely high, it is not clear why such high diversity is generated and maintained. Numerous studies have established the roles of niche-based deterministic factors (e.g., pH, temperature, and salt) in shaping microbial biodiversity, the importance of

  20. Hybrid nanofibril assembly using an alternating current electric field and capillary action.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Chou, Fong-Li; Oh, Kieseok; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2009-12-01

    Various nanowire (or nanotube)-based devices have been investigated to fulfill future demands on semiconducting devices, nanoscale electromechanical systems, and biosensors. To fabricate such devices, an electric field-induced assembly method has demonstrated a great potential for one dimensional assembly. In this paper, our novel approaches for fabricating hybrid nanofibrils are presented to enhance the multiple functionalities, the production rate and the fibril length. These approaches offer unique opportunities for fabricating hybrid nanofibrils composed of silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs).

  1. Physical Push-ups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmandi, Saffar; Brinkman, Joseph G.; Toepker, Terrence P.

    2003-09-01

    "Saffar, how many push-ups can you do in 10 seconds?" "I'll show you, T2." With that exchange, Saffar proceeded to do 15 push-ups as T2 (Terrence Toepker) did the timing. "I think that the upper limit is set by physical principles and not by your strength." Assuming that you cannot pull yourself down by grabbing the floor, the shortest time down is caused by gravity acting alone. A simple physics model for this situation could be a straight, uniform plank pivoted at one end that oscillates up and down due to an elastic reflecting impulse that occurs instantaneously at the down position, shown in Fig. 1(a).

  2. Modeling of the U1 snRNP assembly pathway in alternative splicing in human cells using Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Kielbassa, J; Bortfeldt, R; Schuster, S; Koch, I

    2009-02-01

    The investigation of spliceosomal processes is currently a topic of intense research in molecular biology. In the molecular mechanism of alternative splicing, a multi-protein-RNA complex - the spliceosome - plays a crucial role. To understand the biological processes of alternative splicing, it is essential to comprehend the biogenesis of the spliceosome. In this paper, we propose the first abstract model of the regulatory assembly pathway of the human spliceosomal subunit U1. Using Petri nets, we describe its highly ordered assembly that takes place in a stepwise manner. Petri net theory represents a mathematical formalism to model and analyze systems with concurrent processes at different abstraction levels with the possibility to combine them into a uniform description language. There exist many approaches to determine static and dynamic properties of Petri nets, which can be applied to analyze biochemical systems. In addition, Petri net tools usually provide intuitively understandable graphical network representations, which facilitate the dialog between experimentalists and theoreticians. Our Petri net model covers binding, transport, signaling, and covalent modification processes. Through the computation of structural and behavioral Petri net properties and their interpretation in biological terms, we validate our model and use it to get a better understanding of the complex processes of the assembly pathway. We can explain the basic network behavior, using minimal T-invariants which represent special pathways through the network. We find linear as well as cyclic pathways. We determine the P-invariants that represent conserved moieties in a network. The simulation of the net demonstrates the importance of the stability of complexes during the maturation pathway. We can show that complexes that dissociate too fast, hinder the formation of the complete U1 snRNP.

  3. Wireline system for multiple direct push tool usage

    DOEpatents

    Bratton, Wesley L.; Farrington, Stephen P.; Shinn, II, James D.; Nolet, Darren C.

    2003-11-11

    A tool latching and retrieval system allows the deployment and retrieval of a variety of direct push subsurface characterization tools through an embedded rod string during a single penetration without requiring withdrawal of the string from the ground. This enables the in situ interchange of different tools, as well as the rapid retrieval of soil core samples from multiple depths during a single direct push penetration. The system includes specialized rods that make up the rod string, a tool housing which is integral to the rod string, a lock assembly, and several tools which mate to the lock assembly.

  4. An alternative strategy to synthesize PNA and DNA magnetic conjugates forming nanoparticle assembly based on PNA/DNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Milano, Giovanna; Musumeci, Domenica; Gaglione, Maria; Messere, Anna

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we report an alternative approach to synthesize PNA and DNA magnetic nanoconjugates. Chemical modifications were introduced on the 130 nm dextran-magnetite particles to obtain poly-functionalized particles containing reversible bonds sensitive to the cellular environment and suitable for the direct introduction of unmodified oligomers. Due to the polyvalent nature of the nanoparticles, when the complementary PNA and DNA nanoconjugates were mixed together, the resulting duplex structures bring to a nanoparticle assembly driven by W-C base pairs. The formation of the nanoparticle assembly was investigated by optical spectroscopy (UV, FTIR), scanning and transmission electron microscopies and by the analysis of the macroscopic behaviour of the nanoparticle-conjugates in aqueous solution with and without magnetic field application. Furthermore, serum stability assays revealed an increased enzymatic resistance in FCS of the PNA/DNA nanoconjugate duplex with respect to the unconjugated duplex. The described nanosystem could be extended to other duplex structures, possibly involving aptameric sequences of biomedical relevance, and could be very useful in order to obtain high local concentration at the target site of both the duplex and the magnetic nanoparticles in biotechnological applications.

  5. Assembling the salon: Learning from alternative forms of body work in dementia care.

    PubMed

    Ward, Richard; Campbell, Sarah; Keady, John

    2016-11-01

    This article explores the labour and experiences of a hitherto entirely overlooked section of the dementia care workforce: care-based hairdressers. Reporting on findings from the ESRC-funded 'Hair and Care' project, the analysis and discussion focus upon the 'doing of hair' in the context of dementia care. The authors challenge existing assumptions and approaches to the management of appearance in dementia care, arguing for greater recognition of the subjective and culturally meaningful qualities of a visit to the salon. The article draws upon a wider debate on body work as a framework for the discussion, and considers the employment and working conditions of this largely hidden group of workers in the care system. The article offers an account of the praxis of care-based hairdressing, with particular attention paid to narrative, intercorporeal and place-making practices in the salon, showing how a particular approach to the body shapes the labour, relationships and activities that unfold within it. The authors argue that as an alternative form of body work much can be learned from hairdressing that can inform and enhance the provision of dementia care.

  6. On sulfur core level binding energies in thiol self-assembly and alternative adsorption sites: An experimental and theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Juanjuan; Kara, Abdelkader E-mail: vladimir.esaulov@u-psud.fr; Pasquali, Luca; Bendounan, Azzedine; Sirotti, Fausto; Esaulov, Vladimir A. E-mail: vladimir.esaulov@u-psud.fr

    2015-09-14

    Characteristic core level binding energies (CLBEs) are regularly used to infer the modes of molecular adsorption: orientation, organization, and dissociation processes. Here, we focus on a largely debated situation regarding CLBEs in the case of chalcogen atom bearing molecules. For a thiol, this concerns the case when the CLBE of a thiolate sulfur at an adsorption site can be interpreted alternatively as due to atomic adsorption of a S atom, resulting from dissociation. Results of an investigation of the characteristics of thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) obtained by vacuum evaporative adsorption are presented along with core level binding energy calculations. Thiol ended SAMs of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol (BDMT) obtained by evaporation on Au display an unconventional CLBE structure at about 161.25 eV, which is close to a known CLBE of a S atom on Au. Adsorption and CLBE calculations for sulfur atoms and BDMT molecules are reported and allow delineating trends as a function of chemisorption on hollow, bridge, and atop sites and including the presence of adatoms. These calculations suggest that the 161.25 eV peak is due to an alternative adsorption site, which could be associated to an atop configuration. Therefore, this may be an alternative interpretation, different from the one involving the adsorption of atomic sulfur resulting from the dissociation process of the S–C bond. Calculated differences in S(2p) CLBEs for free BDMT molecules, SH group sulfur on top of the SAM, and disulfide are also reported to clarify possible errors in assignments.

  7. Morphological Control of Anisotropic Self-Assemblies from Alternating Poly(p-dioxanone)-poly(ethylene glycol) Multiblock Copolymer Depending on the Combination Effect of Crystallization and Micellization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Jia; Wang, Hao; Chen, Si-Chong; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Ya

    2015-06-30

    A novel and facile method was developed for morphological controlling of self-assemblies prepared by crystallization induced self-assembly of crystalline-coil copolymer depending on the combination effect of crystallization and micellization. The morphological evolution of the self-assemblies of alternating poly(p-dioxanone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PPDO-PEG) multiblock copolymer prepared by different solvent mixing methods in aqueous solution were investigated. "Chrysanthemum"-like and "star anise"-like self-assemblies were obtained at different rates of solvent mixing. The results suggested gradually change in solvent quality (slowly dropping water into DMF solution) leaded to a hierarchical micellization-crystallization process of core-forming PPDO blocks, and flake-like particles were formed at the initial stage of crystallization. Meanwhile, crystallization induced micellization process occurred when solvent quality changed drastically. Shuttle-like particles, which have much smaller size than those of flake-like particles, were formed at the initial stage of crystallization when quickly injecting water into DMF solution of the copolymer. Therefore, owing to the different changing rate of solvent quality, which may result in different combination effect of crystallization and micellization during self-assembly of the copolymer, PPDO-PEG self-assemblies with different hierarchical morphology in nano scale could be obtained.

  8. Push-pull farming systems.

    PubMed

    Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M; Midega, Charles A O; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2014-04-01

    Farming systems for pest control, based on the stimulo-deterrent diversionary strategy or push-pull system, have become an important target for sustainable intensification of food production. A prominent example is push-pull developed in sub-Saharan Africa using a combination of companion plants delivering semiochemicals, as plant secondary metabolites, for smallholder farming cereal production, initially against lepidopterous stem borers. Opportunities are being developed for other regions and farming ecosystems. New semiochemical tools and delivery systems, including GM, are being incorporated to exploit further opportunities for mainstream arable farming systems. By delivering the push and pull effects as secondary metabolites, for example, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene repelling pests and attracting beneficial insects, problems of high volatility and instability are overcome and compounds are produced when and where required.

  9. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  10. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  11. Renewed Push on ESEA Likely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    A prominent and sustained White House push for renewal of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is viewed as crucial to prospects for the 9-year-old law's reauthorization by a now-divided Congress. The law's current version, the No Child Left Behind Act, was President George W. Bush's signature domestic achievement when it was passed…

  12. Illuminated push-button switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagiri, T.

    1983-05-01

    An illuminated push-button switch is described. It is characterized by the fact that is consists of a switch group, an operator button opening and closing the switch group, and a light-emitting element which illuminates the face of the operator button.

  13. Book Review: Sapphire. (1996). Push.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Elisabeth; Cuban, Sondra

    1998-01-01

    This review of "Push," a novel about a young single mother in a literacy education program, incorporates theoretical elements from Allan Quigley's "Rethinking Literacy Education." The review addresses issues of stereotypes, humanistic education, and advocacy and includes reflections on teaching philosophy in adult basic…

  14. Sample push-out fixture

    DOEpatents

    Biernat, John L.

    2002-11-05

    This invention generally relates to the remote removal of pelletized samples from cylindrical containment capsules. V-blocks are used to receive the samples and provide guidance to push out rods. Stainless steel liners fit into the v-channels on the v-blocks which permits them to be remotely removed and replaced or cleaned to prevent cross contamination between capsules and samples. A capsule holder securely holds the capsule while allowing manual up/down and in/out movement to align each sample hole with the v-blocks. Both end sections contain identical v-blocks; one that guides the drive out screw and rods or manual push out rods and the other to receive the samples as they are driven out of the capsule.

  15. 33 CFR 90.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 90.3 Section 90.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the Inland Rules states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  16. 33 CFR 90.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 90.3 Section 90.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the Inland Rules states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  17. 33 CFR 82.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 82.3 Section 82.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the 72 COLREGS states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  18. 33 CFR 90.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 90.3 Section 90.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the Inland Rules states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  19. 33 CFR 82.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 82.3 Section 82.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the 72 COLREGS states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  20. 33 CFR 82.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 82.3 Section 82.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the 72 COLREGS states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  1. 33 CFR 82.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 82.3 Section 82.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the 72 COLREGS states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  2. 33 CFR 82.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 82.3 Section 82.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the 72 COLREGS states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  3. 33 CFR 90.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 90.3 Section 90.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the Inland Rules states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  4. 33 CFR 90.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 90.3 Section 90.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the Inland Rules states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  5. An Alternative Model for the Role of RP2 Protein in Flagellum Assembly in the African Trypanosome*

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Jane; Kerry, Louise; Qi, Xin; Hawkins, Erica; Drižytė, Kristina; Ginger, Michael L.; McKean, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The tubulin cofactor C domain-containing protein TbRP2 is a basal body (centriolar) protein essential for axoneme formation in the flagellate protist Trypanosoma brucei, the causal agent of African sleeping sickness. Here, we show how TbRP2 is targeted and tethered at mature basal bodies and provide novel insight into TbRP2 function. Regarding targeting, understanding how several hundred proteins combine to build a microtubule axoneme is a fundamental challenge in eukaryotic cell biology. We show that basal body localization of TbRP2 is mediated by twinned, N-terminal TOF (TON1, OFD1, and FOP) and LisH motifs, motifs that otherwise facilitate localization of only a few conserved proteins at microtubule-organizing centers in animals, plants, and flagellate protists. Regarding TbRP2 function, there is a debate as to whether the flagellar assembly function of specialized, centriolar tubulin cofactor C domain-containing proteins is processing tubulin, the major component of axonemes, or general vesicular trafficking in a flagellum assembly context. Here we report that TbRP2 is required for the recruitment of T. brucei orthologs of MKS1 and MKS6, proteins that, in animal cells, are part of a complex that assembles at the base of the flagellum to regulate protein composition and cilium function. We also identify that TbRP2 is detected by YL1/2, an antibody classically used to detect α-tubulin. Together, these data suggest a general processing role for TbRP2 in trypanosome flagellum assembly and challenge the notion that TbRP2 functions solely in assessing tubulin “quality” prior to tubulin incorporation into the elongating axoneme. PMID:24257747

  6. Objectivity, Reliability, and Validity of the Bent-Knee Push-Up for College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Heather M.; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2004-01-01

    The revised push-up test has been found to have good validity but it produces many zero scores for women. Maybe there should be an alternative to the revised push-up test for college-age women. The purpose of this study was to determine the objectivity, reliability, and validity for the bent-knee push-up test (executed on hands and knees) for…

  7. Locking Corners Speed Solar-Array Frame Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olah, S.; Sampson, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Mitered corners of solar-array frames joined together by single angle brace and two springs. Locking corner braces and mating frame members pushed together by hand or assembled automatically. Fastening system used to assemble window screens and picture frames.

  8. Synthesizing a novel genetic sequential logic circuit: a push-on push-off switch

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Chunbo; Liu, Xili; Ni, Ming; Huang, Yiqi; Huang, Qiushi; Huang, Longwen; Jiang, Lingli; Lu, Dan; Wang, Mingcong; Liu, Chang; Chen, Daizhuo; Chen, Chongyi; Chen, Xiaoyue; Yang, Le; Ma, Haisu; Chen, Jianguo; Ouyang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    Design and synthesis of basic functional circuits are the fundamental tasks of synthetic biologists. Before it is possible to engineer higher-order genetic networks that can perform complex functions, a toolkit of basic devices must be developed. Among those devices, sequential logic circuits are expected to be the foundation of the genetic information-processing systems. In this study, we report the design and construction of a genetic sequential logic circuit in Escherichia coli. It can generate different outputs in response to the same input signal on the basis of its internal state, and ‘memorize' the output. The circuit is composed of two parts: (1) a bistable switch memory module and (2) a double-repressed promoter NOR gate module. The two modules were individually rationally designed, and they were coupled together by fine-tuning the interconnecting parts through directed evolution. After fine-tuning, the circuit could be repeatedly, alternatively triggered by the same input signal; it functions as a push-on push-off switch. PMID:20212522

  9. The S(2p) Core Level Binding Energies for Alternative Adsorption Sites and the Example of Thiol Self Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Juanjuan; Esaulov, Vladimir; Kara, Abdelkader

    2015-03-01

    Results of an investigation of the characteristics of thiol SAMs obtained by vacuum evaporative adsorption, useful for reactive substrates, are presented along with core level binding energy (BE) calculations. Thiol ended SAMs of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol (BDMT) are obtained by evaporation on Au. They display an unconventional BE structure at about 161 eV, which is close to a known BE of an S atom on Au. S(2p) core level BE calculations for molecules chemisorbed on hollow, bridge and atop sites are reported and suggest that the 161 eV peak is indeed due to an alternative adsorption site, which can be associated to an atop configuration. This must therefore not be confused with atomic sulfur and dissociation processes with S-C bond scission. Work partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Energy Science under Contract No DE-FG02-11ER16243.

  10. Push: A Technology with Staying Power?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bing, Michelle

    1997-01-01

    Describes push technology, which supplies automatic newsfeeds to users from a select group of Internet and intranet news, information, and software resources. Highlights include similarities to selective dissemination of information, intranet management, and addresses of some push technology sites on the World Wide Web. (LRW)

  11. Antitrust regulators push partnership as alternative to hospital merger.

    PubMed

    Blumkin, L R

    1994-09-01

    In the past, antitrust regulators seemed to favor mergers that would result in cost efficiencies and were not opposed by third-party players. A recent decision about a proposed merger of two Florida hospitals, however, changed that stance, writes Linda R. Blumkin, partner in the New york law firm of Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson.

  12. LOFT. Reactor arrives at containment building (TAN650), now being pushed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT. Reactor arrives at containment building (TAN-650), now being pushed by locomotive. Camera facing northerly. Note "Hello Dolly" and "PWR MTA No. 1" (pressurized water reactor mobile test assembly) signs. Date: 1973. INEEL negative no. 73-3710 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Graphene Multilayers as Pt-Free Alternative Counter Electrodes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Rani, Adila; Chung, Kyungwha; Kwon, Jeong; Kim, Sung June; Jang, Yoon Hee; Jang, Yu Jin; Quan, Li Na; Yoon, Minji; Park, Jong Hyeok; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-05-11

    Low cost, charged, and large scale graphene multilayers fabricated from nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide N-rGO(+), nitrogen and sulfur codoped reduced graphene oxide NS-rGO(+), and undoped reduced graphene oxide rGO(-) were applied as alternative counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The neat rGO-based counter electrodes were developed via two types of layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly (SA) methods: spin coating and spray coating methods. In the spin coating method, two sets of multilayer films were fabricated on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using GO(-) combined with N-GO(+) followed by annealing and denoted as [rGO(-)/N-rGO(+)]n or with NS-GO(+) and denoted as [rGO(-)/NS-rGO(+)]n for counter electrodes in DSSCs. The DSSCs employing new types of counter electrodes exhibited ∼7.0% and ∼6.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on ten bilayers of [rGO(-)/N-rGO(+)]10 and [rGO(-)/NS-rGO(+)]10, respectively. The DSSCs equipped with a blend of one bilayer of [rGO(-):N-rGO(+)] and [rGO(-):NS-rGO(+)] on PDDA-coated FTO substrates were prepared from a spray coating and showed ∼6.4% and ∼5.6% PCE, respectively. Thus, it was demonstrated that a combination of undoped, nitrogen-doped, and nitrogen and sulfur codoped reduced graphene oxides can be considered as potentially powerful Pt-free electrocatalysts and alternative electrodes in conventional photovoltaic devices.

  14. The back compressive forces during maximal push-pull activities in the sagittal plane.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S

    1994-12-01

    Ten normal young male and ten normal young female subjects (each group with a mean age of 21.1 years) performed isometric and isokinetic (50 cm per second) push and pull activity at 35 cm, 100 cm and 150 cm heights. The subjects were placed on a specially designed subject-stabilizing-platform to stabilize their lower extremities. Horizontal push-pull forces were exerted through a friction-reduced rod and sleeve assembly attached to the modified Static Dynamic Strength Tester. The strength measured by a SM 500 load cell was fed to an IBM XT through an A to D converter. The postural records were made on a videotape. The posture and strength were synchronized through an external light signal. The strength for pull activities was higher than the corresponding push activities (p < 0.01). The isometric strengths were significantly higher than the isokinetic strengths (p < 0.01). Though the push strengths were significantly lower than the pull strength, the low-back compressive forces for the push activities were 129% to 627% of the corresponding pull conditions. It is concluded that the push activities are more hazardous due to the higher magnitude of compressive load and their faster contribution to the threshold level of cumulative load leading to the precipitation of injuries.

  15. The NASA technology push towards future space mission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadin, Stanley R.; Povinelli, Frederick P.; Rosen, Robert

    1988-01-01

    As a result of the new Space Policy, the NASA technology program has been called upon to a provide a solid base of national capabilities and talent to serve NASA's civil space program, commercial, and other space sector interests. This paper describes the new technology program structure and its characteristics, traces its origin and evolution, and projects the likely near- and far-term strategic steps. It addresses the alternative 'push-pull' approaches to technology development, the readiness levels to which the technology needs to be developed for effective technology transfer, and the focused technology programs currently being implemented to satisfy the needs of future space systems.

  16. Hydraulic tests with direct-push equipment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J.; Healey, J.M.; McCall, G.W.; Garnett, E.J.; Loheide, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    The potential of direct-push technology for hydraulic characterization of saturated flow systems was investigated at a field site with a considerable degree of subsurface control. Direct-push installations were emplaced by attaching short lengths of screen (shielded and unshielded) to the bottom end of a tool string that was then advanced into the unconsolidated sediments. A series of constant-rate pumping tests were performed in a coarse sand and gravel aquifer using direct-push tool strings as observation wells. Very good agreement (within 4%) was found between hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates from direct-push installations and those from conventional wells. A program of slug tests was performed in direct-push installations using small-diameter adaptations of solid-slug and pneumatic methods. In a sandy silt interval of moderate hydraulic conductivity, K values from tests in a shielded screen tool were in excellent agreement (within 2%) with those from tests in a nearby well. In the coarse sand and gravel aquifer, K values were within 12% of those from multilevel slug tests at a nearby well. However, in the more permeable portions of the aquifer (K > 70 m/day), the smaller-diameter direct-push rods (0.016 m inner diameter [I.D.]) attenuated test responses, leading to an underprediction of K. In those conditions, use of larger-diameter rods (e.g., 0.038 m I.D.) is necessary to obtain K values representative of the formation. This investigation demonstrates that much valuable information can be obtained from hydraulic tests in direct-push installations. As with any type of hydraulic test, K estimates are critically dependent on use of appropriate emplacement and development procedures. In particular, driving an unshielded screen through a heterogeneous sequence will often lead to a buildup of low-K material that can be difficult to remove with standard development procedures.

  17. Additional Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2010-01-01

    The push-up test is commonly used to assess arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance. Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, and Hales (2002) developed a revised push-up test for college students with a standardized test protocol. The purpose of the present study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test based on the push-up scores of…

  18. The Push Is On: What Push Technology Means to the Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustitus, Cheryl

    1998-01-01

    "Push technology," or Webcasting, employs user defined criteria to search for specific information and deliver it when and where directed, enhancing the value special librarians add to the information dissemination process. This article examines push technology, its Internet and Intranet applications, and commercially available…

  19. Analytical solutions for efficient interpretation of single-well push-pull tracer tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single-well push-pull tracer tests have been used to characterize the extent, fate, and transport of subsurface contamination. Analytical solutions provide one alternative for interpreting test results. In this work, an exact analytical solution to two-dimensional equations descr...

  20. Selecting the optimum coke pushing sequence

    SciTech Connect

    V.T. Krivoshein; A.V. Makarov

    2007-01-15

    The sequence of pushing coke ovens is one of the most important aspects of battery operation. The sequence must satisfy a number of technical and process conditions: (1) achieve maximum heating-wall life by avoiding destructive expansion pressure in freshly charged ovens and during pushing of the finished coke; (2) ensure uniform brickwork temperature and prevent overheating by compensating for the high thermal flux in freshly charged ovens due to accumulated heat in adjacent ovens that are in the second half of the coking cycle; (3) ensure the most favorable working conditions and safety for operating personnel; (4) provide additional opportunities for repair personnel to perform various types of work, such as replacing coke-machine rails, without interrupting coal production; (5) perform the maximum number of coke-machine operations simultaneously: pushing, charging, and cleaning doors, frames, and standpipe elbows; and (6) reduce electricity consumption by minimizing idle travel of coke machines.

  1. PUSH-PULL POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Froman, D.K.

    1959-02-24

    Power generating nuclear reactors of the homogeneous liquid fuel type are discussed. The apparatus utilizes two identical reactors interconnected by conduits through heat exchanging apparatus. Each reactor contains a critical geometry region and a vapor region separated from the critical region by a baffle. When the liquid in the first critical region becomes critical, the vapor pressure above the fuel is increased due to the rise in the temperature until it forces the liquid fuel out of the first critical region through the heat exchanger and into the second critical region, which is at a lower temperature and consequently a lower vapor pressure. The above reaction is repeated in the second critical region and the liquid fuel is forced back into the first critical region. In this manner criticality is achieved alternately in each critical region and power is extracted by the heat exchanger from the liquid fuel passing therethrough. The vapor region and the heat exchanger have a non-critical geometry and reactivity control is effected by conventional control rods in the critical regions.

  2. Pushing the Limit: A Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odafe, Victor U.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors are constantly struggling to help students understand mathematical concepts as well as the relevance of mathematics to the real world. In calculus, students possess misconceptions of the limit concept. "Pushing the Limit" refers to a semester-long calculus class project that required students to read about, interview calculus…

  3. Formative Assessment Probes: Pushes and Pulls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    When the concept of force is first taught in the elementary curriculum, it is usually introduced as a push or a pull. The recently released "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" describes grade band endpoints for the Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions (NRC 2011). It states that by the end of grade 2 students should know…

  4. Octopus movement: push right, go left.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Scott L

    2015-05-04

    Octopus arms have essentially infinite degrees of freedom. New research shows that, despite this potentially great complexity, to locomote octopuses simply elongate one or more arms, thus pushing the body in the opposite direction, and do so without activating the arms in an ordered pattern.

  5. Creation of hierarchical carbon nanotube assemblies through alternative packing of complementary semi-artificial beta-1,3-glucan/carbon nanotube composites.

    PubMed

    Numata, Munenori; Sugikawa, Kouta; Kaneko, Kenji; Shinkai, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on exploiting novel strategies for the creation of hierarchical polymer assemblies by the control of the assembling number or the relative location among neighboring polymers. We here propose a novel strategy toward the creation of "hierarchical" single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) architectures by utilizing SWNT composites with cationic or anionic complementary semi-artificial beta-1,3-glucans as "building blocks". These beta-1,3-glucans are known to wrap SWNTs helically, to create one-dimensional superstructural composites. If the cationic composite is neutralized by an anionic composite, a well ordered SWNT-based sheet structure was created. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation revealed that this sheet structure is composed of highly-ordered fibrous assemblies of SWNTs. This suggests that the cationic and anionic composites are tightly packed through electrostatic interactions. Moreover, both of the final assembly structures are readily tunable by adjusting the cation/anion ratio. The self-assembling modulation of functional polymers is associated with the progress in ultimate nanotechnologies, thus enabling us to create numerous functional nanomaterials. We believe, therefore, that the present system will extend the frontier of SWNT research to assembly chemistry including "hierarchical" superstructures.

  6. Pulse width modulated push-pull driven parallel resonant converter with active free-wheel

    DOEpatents

    Reass, William A.; Schrank, Louis

    2004-06-22

    An apparatus and method for high frequency alternating power generation to control kilowatts of supplied power in microseconds. The present invention includes a means for energy storage, push-pull switching means, control electronics, transformer means, resonant circuitry and means for excess energy recovery, all in electrical communication. A push-pull circuit works synchronously with a force commutated free-wheel transistor to provide current pulses to a transformer. A change in the conduction angle of the push-pull circuit changes the amount of energy coupled into the transformer's secondary oscillating circuit, thereby altering the induced secondary resonating voltage. At the end of each pulse, the force commutated free-wheel transistor causes residual excess energy in the primary circuit to be transmitted back to the storage capacitor for later use.

  7. Refractive small-incision lenticule extraction: Push-up and push-down techniques.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Abdelmonem; Fekry, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    We describe 2 techniques for manipulating the edge of the lenticule in refractive small-incision lenticule extraction. In the push-up technique, an instrument with a Y-shaped tip is inserted through the incision and used to push the edge of the lenticule up, facilitating visualization of the edge of the lenticule, which might accelerate the learning curve of the beginning surgeon. The push-down technique is used if the surgeon notices that the lenticule is adherent to the cap after 1 surface has been dissected, making dissection of the superficial surface difficult. The same Y-shaped instrument can be used to engage the edge of the lenticule and push it down to make room to introduce the dissector; this is followed by dissection of the lenticule from the cap using the dissector.

  8. A Field Assessment of Direct-Push Technology for Hydraulic Characterization of Unconsolidated Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. J.; Healey, J. M.; Sellwood, S. M.

    2001-12-01

    In the last decade, direct-push technology has become a widely accepted alternative to traditional drilling-based approaches for environmental site investigations in unconsolidated formations. Given the speed and ease of emplacement of direct-push installations, this technology has great potential for the characterization of the hydraulic properties of unconsolidated formations. That potential has been assessed over the last two years in an extensive series of hydraulic tests performed at a field site in a coarse sand and gravel aquifer. This work has shown that direct-push installations can be quite useful as both observation wells for pumping tests and as stress wells for slug tests. A network of temporary observation wells can be readily installed using direct-push technology to significantly reduce the ambiguity in pumping-test interpretation caused by non-optimally situated observation wells and/or uncertainty about governing flow mechanisms. Slug tests can be performed in direct-push equipment using small-diameter adaptations of conventional methods. Although the small pipe diameter can affect tests in highly conductive media, a simple linear correction can be utilized to account for this effect on hydraulic-conductivity (K) estimates in most situations. Slug tests are the basis of a new approach that has been developed to obtain near-continuous vertical profiles of K without the need for permanent wells. Results of this direct-push profiling approach are in good agreement with K estimates obtained using various methods in nearby large-diameter wells. The K profiling approach has recently been combined with high-resolution, electrical conductivity logging to form a powerful new tool for hydrostratigraphic characterization. This tool yields depictions of subsurface hydrostratigraphy at a level of detail that has rarely been possible in such a time- and cost-efficient manner. The overall conclusion of this assessment is that hydraulic tests using direct-push

  9. To push or not to push? Affective influences on moral judgment depend on decision frame.

    PubMed

    Pastötter, Bernhard; Gleixner, Sabine; Neuhauser, Theresa; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2013-03-01

    People's moods can influence moral judgment. Such influences may arise because moods affect moral emotion, or because moods affect moral thought. The present study provides evidence that, at least in the footbridge dilemma, moods affect moral thought. The results of two experiments are reported in which, after induction of positive, negative, or neutral moods and presentation of the footbridge scenario, participants were asked one of two differentially framed closing questions. In the active frame, participants were asked whether they would be active and push the man, making thoughts about pushing accessible; in the passive frame, they were asked whether they would be passive and not push the man, making thoughts about not pushing accessible. The results show that affective influences on moral judgment depended on participants' decision frame. Compared to neutral moods, positive moods induced utilitarian responding - i.e., deciding to push - in the active decision frame, but induced nonutilitarian responding - i.e., deciding to not push - in the passive decision frame; in negative moods, exactly the opposite picture arose. The results suggest that people's moods affect moral judgment by conferring value on moral thought. Positive moods promote and negative moods inhibit accessible thoughts.

  10. An inhibitory pull-push circuit in frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Junco-Clemente, Pablo; Ikrar, Taruna; Tring, Elaine; Xu, Xiangmin; Ringach, Dario L; Trachtenberg, Joshua T

    2017-03-01

    Push-pull is a canonical computation of excitatory cortical circuits. By contrast, we identify a pull-push inhibitory circuit in frontal cortex that originates in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-expressing interneurons. During arousal, VIP cells rapidly and directly inhibit pyramidal neurons; VIP cells also indirectly excite these pyramidal neurons via parallel disinhibition. Thus, arousal exerts a feedback pull-push influence on excitatory neurons-an inversion of the canonical push-pull of feedforward input.

  11. Push technology at Argonne National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, R. E.; Woell, Y. N.

    1999-04-06

    Selective dissemination of information (SDI) services, also referred to as current awareness searches, are usually provided by periodically running computer programs (personal profiles) against a cumulative database or databases. This concept of pushing relevant content to users has long been integral to librarianship. Librarians traditionally turned to information companies to implement these searches for their users in business, academia, and the science community. This paper describes how a push technology was implemented on a large scale for scientists and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, explains some of the challenges to designers/maintainers, and identifies the positive effects that SDI seems to be having on users. Argonne purchases the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Current Contents data (all subject areas except Humanities), and scientists no longer need to turn to outside companies for reliable SDI service. Argonne's database and its customized services are known as ACCESS (Argonne-University of Chicago Current Contents Electronic Search Service).

  12. 49 CFR 392.63 - Towing or pushing loaded buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Towing or pushing loaded buses. 392.63 Section 392... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.63 Towing or pushing loaded buses. No disabled bus with passengers aboard shall be towed or pushed; nor shall any person use or permit to be used a bus...

  13. 49 CFR 392.63 - Towing or pushing loaded buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Towing or pushing loaded buses. 392.63 Section 392... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.63 Towing or pushing loaded buses. No disabled bus with passengers aboard shall be towed or pushed; nor shall any person use or permit to be used a bus...

  14. 49 CFR 392.63 - Towing or pushing loaded buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Towing or pushing loaded buses. 392.63 Section 392... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.63 Towing or pushing loaded buses. No disabled bus with passengers aboard shall be towed or pushed; nor shall any person use or permit to be used a bus...

  15. 49 CFR 392.63 - Towing or pushing loaded buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Towing or pushing loaded buses. 392.63 Section 392... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.63 Towing or pushing loaded buses. No disabled bus with passengers aboard shall be towed or pushed; nor shall any person use or permit to be used a bus...

  16. 49 CFR 392.63 - Towing or pushing loaded buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Towing or pushing loaded buses. 392.63 Section 392... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.63 Towing or pushing loaded buses. No disabled bus with passengers aboard shall be towed or pushed; nor shall any person use or permit to be used a bus...

  17. Report on ignitability testing of ''no-flow'' push bit

    SciTech Connect

    Witwer, K.S.

    1997-04-23

    Testing was done to determine if an ignition occurs during a sixty foot drop of a Universal Sampler onto a push-mode bit in a flammable gas environment. Ten drops each of the sampler using both a push-mode and rotary mode insert onto a push-mode bit were completed. No ignition occurred during any of the drops.

  18. A Study of Alternative Education in Virginia. Report of the Department of Education to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This report examines the need for alternative education programs in Virginia, submits a plan and an estimate for funding, and reports findings and recommendations. The project team developed an implementation plan that identified five major objectives: (1) provide budget recommendations and estimates for Alternative Education at the state and…

  19. Body pushing, prescription drugs and hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Kenneally, Michaela

    2017-03-15

    A 39-year-old man died of multi-organ failure complicating mixed drug toxicity that included methadone, oxazepam, oxycodone and nitrazepam. His past medical history involved alcohol and poly-substance abuse with chronic self-harm and suicidal ideation. There had been multiple hospital admissions for drug overdoses. At autopsy the most unusual finding was of two packages of 10 tablets each, wrapped in thin plastic film within the rectum. The insertion of drugs into body orifices and cavities has been termed body pushing to distinguish it from body packing where illicit drugs are wrapped and swallowed for transport and smuggling, and body stuffing where small amounts of loosely wrapped or unwrapped drugs are swallowed to conceal evidence from police. This case demonstrates that body pushing may not always involve illicit drugs or attempted concealment from police or customs officials. It appears that the drugs had been hidden to ensure an additional supply during the time of residence in hospital. The extent to which body pushing is currently being used by patients to smuggle drugs into secure medical facilities is yet to be determined.

  20. Multi-fragment site-directed mutagenic overlap extension polymerase chain reaction as a competitive alternative to the enzymatic assembly method.

    PubMed

    Wäneskog, Marcus; Bjerling, Pernilla

    2014-01-01

    Methods for introducing multiple site-directed mutations are important experimental tools in molecular biology. Research areas that use these methods include the investigation of various protein modifications in cellular processes, modifying proteins for efficient recombinant expression, and the stabilization of mRNAs to allow for increased protein expression. Introducing multiple site-directed mutations is also an important tool in the field of synthetic biology. There are two main methods used in the assembling of fragments generated by mutagenic primers: enzymatic assembly and overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (OE-PCR). In this article, we present an improved OE-PCR method that can be used for the generation of large DNA fragments (up to 7.4 kb) where at least 13 changes can be introduced using a genomic template. The improved method is faster (due to fewer reaction steps) and more accurate (due to fewer PCR cycles), meaning that it can effectively compete with the enzymatic assembly method. Data presented here show that the site-directed mutations can be introduced anywhere between 50 and 1800 bp from each other. The method is highly reliable and predicted to be applicable to most DNA engineering when the introduction of multiple changes in a DNA sequence is required.

  1. Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Juretzko, Frank R.; Dhindaw, Brij K.; Sen, Subhayu; Curren, Peter A.

    1999-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the work on Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces (PEP) include: (1) to enhance the fundamental understanding of the physics of interaction between inert particles and the solidification interface, and (2) to investigate aspects of melt processing of particulate metal matrix composites in the unique microgravity environment that will yield some vital information for terrestrial applications. The proposal itself calls for a long-term effort on the Space Station. This paper reports on ground experiments performed to date, as well as on the results obtained from two flight opportunities, the LMS mission (1996) and the USMP-4 mission (1997).

  2. Kinetic analysis of several variations of push-ups.

    PubMed

    Ebben, William P; Wurm, Bradley; VanderZanden, Tyler L; Spadavecchia, Mark L; Durocher, John J; Bickham, Curtis T; Petushek, Erich J

    2011-10-01

    Push-ups are a common and practical exercise that is used to enhance fitness, including upper body strength or endurance. The kinetic characteristics of push-ups and its variations are yet to be quantified. Kinetic quantification is necessary to accurately evaluate the training load, and thus the nature of the training stimulus, for these exercise variations. This study assessed the peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) of push-up variations including the regular push-up and those performed with flexed knee, feet elevated on a 30.48-cm box, and a 60.96-cm box, and hands elevated on a 30.48-cm box and a 60.96-cm box. Twenty-three recreationally fit individuals (14 men, 9 women) performed each of the 6 push-up variations in a randomized order. Peak GRF and peak GRF expressed as a coefficient of subject body mass were obtained with a force platform. Push-ups with the feet elevated produced a higher GRF than all other push-up variations (p ≤ 0.05). Push-ups with hands elevated and push-ups from the flexed knee position produced a lower GRF than all other push-up variations (p ≤ 0.05). No gender differences in response to these push-up variations were found (p > 0.05). Additionally, subject height was not related to the GRF for any of the push-up conditions (p > 0.05) other than the condition where hands were elevated on a 60.96-cm box (p ≤ 0.05; r = 0.63). These data can be used to progress the intensity of push-ups in a program and to quantify the training load as a percentage of body mass.

  3. F-electron systems: Pushing band theory

    SciTech Connect

    Koelling, D.D.

    1990-08-01

    The f-electron orbitals have always been the incomplete atomic shell acting as a local moment weakly interacting with the remaining electronic structure'' in the minds of most people. So examining them using a band theory where one views them as itinerant once was -- and to some extent even today still is -- considered with some skepticism. Nonetheless, a very significant community has successfully utilized band theory as a probe of the electronic structure of the appropriate actinides and rare earths. Those people actually using the approach would be the first to declare that it is not the whole solution. Instead, one is pushing and even exceeding its limits of applicability. However, the appropriate procedure is to push the model consistently to its limits, patch where possible, and then look to see where discrepancies remain. I propose to offer a selected review of past developments (emphasizing the career to date of A. J. Freeman in this area), offer a list of interesting puzzles for the future, and then make some guesses as to the techniques one might want to use. 27 refs.

  4. Pushing Back against Push-In: ESOL Teacher Resistance and the Complexities of Coteaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Greg; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa

    2010-01-01

    As U. S. school districts struggle to address persistent achievement gaps between increasing numbers of English language learners (ELLs) and their native-English-speaking counterparts, many districts are moving away from segregative models like pull-out to implement more collaborative approaches such as coteaching, or push-in. In contrast to…

  5. PUSH(ing) Limits: Using Fiction in the Classroom for Human Behavior and the Social Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Natasha S.; Bonta, Kimberly; Horn, Philip; Moore, Erin; Gibson, Allison; Simmons, David

    2012-01-01

    The use of fiction and autobiography in social science course work has been shown to enhance students' learning experience. Using the novel PUSH, by Sapphire, we designed a curriculum supplement for the social work course, human behavior and the social environment (HBSE) that encourages students to integrate course content in an innovative way and…

  6. Novel "star anise"-like nano aggregate prepared by self-assembling of preformed microcrystals from branched crystalline-coil alternating multi-block copolymer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si-Chong; Wu, Gang; Shi, Jing; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2011-04-14

    Nano aggregates in aqueous medium with a novel "star anise"-like morphology were prepared from a branched alternating multi-block copolymer composed of 3-arm star-like hydrophobic poly(p-dioxanone) block and linear hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) block. The influence of block length on the morphology of the nano aggregate was investigated.

  7. The alternative strategy for designing covalent drugs through kinetic effects of pi-stacking on the self-assembled nanoparticles: a model study with antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Libo; Suo, Siqingaowa; Zhang, Han; Jia, Hongying; Liu, Ke Jian; Zhang, Xue Ji; Liu, Yang

    2016-11-01

    It is still a huge challenge to find a new strategy for rationally designing covalent drugs because most of them are discovered by serendipity. Considering that the effect of covalent drugs is closely associated with the kinetics of the reaction between drug molecule and its target protein, here we first demonstrate an example of the kinetic effect of pi-stacking of drug molecules on covalent antimicrobial drug design. When PEGylated 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (PEG-ACA) is used as a substrate drug, pi-stacking of the ACA group via the self-assembly of PEG-ACA on the surface of gold nanoparticles (i.e. Au@ACA) exhibits antibacterial activity against E. coli fourfold higher than a PEG-ACA monomer does. The reason can be reasonably attributed to the kinetic rate enhancement for the covalent reaction between Au@ACA and penicillin binding proteins. We believe that the self-assembly of functional groups onto the surface of gold nanoparticles represents a new strategy for covalent drug design.

  8. Why People Choose to Teach in Urban Schools: The Case for a Push-Pull Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knell, Paul F.; Castro, Antonio J.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research study traces the motivations for teaching of 13 teacher candidates enrolled in an urban-based alternative certification program. After using a push-pull factor analysis, the data suggest that most participants left their previous careers due to financial shortcomings or work instability. As a result, these participants…

  9. Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.; Hales, Derek; Chung, Hyuk; Oh, Suhak; Wood, Heather M.

    2004-01-01

    A revised push-up test for college students was presented in 2002. The purpose of this study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test when it is used with college students. Revised push-up scores collected on 177 male and 274 female college students were used to develop percentile norms. The norms for the men have a different…

  10. Infrared SWAP detectors: pushing the limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibel, Yann; Taalat, R.; Brunner, A.; Rubaldo, L.; Augey, T.; Kerlain, A.; Péré-Laperne, N.; Manissadjian, A.; Gravrand, O.; Castelein, P.; Destéfanis, G.

    2015-06-01

    The growing demand for compact and low consumption infrared cooled detectors is driven by different products segments. Hand Held Thermal Imagers, UAV, small gimbals are some of them. End users are requiring devices easy to use with fast cool down time, excellent portability, low acoustic noise with no trade-offs in reliability and performance. These requirements are pushing the technology developments toward constant innovations on detectors, coolers, read out circuits and proximity electronic boards. In this paper we are discussing the different figures of merit and highlighting the challenges for the different components. An update on the developments of HOT technology for most advanced pixel pitch will be presented. Very compact products are driving the developments for innovative coolers and cryogenic solutions. A low power compact architecture is a must for electronic boards to optimize the overall system power consumption. Finally a look to the future requirements for further shrink will be addressed.

  11. Push-pull laser-atomic oscillator.

    PubMed

    Jau, Y-Y; Happer, W

    2007-11-30

    A vapor of alkali-metal atoms in the external cavity of a semiconductor laser, pumped with a time-independent injection current, can cause the laser to self-modulate at the "field-independent 0-0 frequency" of the atoms. Push-pull optical pumping by the modulated light drives most of the atoms into a coherent superposition of the two atomic sublevels with an azimuthal quantum number m=0. The atoms modulate the optical loss of the cavity at the sharply defined 0-0 hyperfine frequency. As in a maser, the system is not driven by an external source of microwaves, but a very stable microwave signal can be recovered from the modulated light or from the modulated voltage drop across the laser diode. Potential applications for this new phenomenon include atomic clocks, the production of long-lived coherent atomic states, and the generation of coherent optical combs.

  12. Push-Pull Laser-Atomic Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W.

    2007-11-30

    A vapor of alkali-metal atoms in the external cavity of a semiconductor laser, pumped with a time-independent injection current, can cause the laser to self-modulate at the 'field-independent 0-0 frequency' of the atoms. Push-pull optical pumping by the modulated light drives most of the atoms into a coherent superposition of the two atomic sublevels with an azimuthal quantum number m=0. The atoms modulate the optical loss of the cavity at the sharply defined 0-0 hyperfine frequency. As in a maser, the system is not driven by an external source of microwaves, but a very stable microwave signal can be recovered from the modulated light or from the modulated voltage drop across the laser diode. Potential applications for this new phenomenon include atomic clocks, the production of long-lived coherent atomic states, and the generation of coherent optical combs.

  13. Particle Engulfment and Pushing By Solidifying Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Juretzko, Frank Robert; Catalina, A.drian V.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenon of interaction of particles with solid-liquid interfaces (SLI) has been studied since the mid 1960's. While the original interest stemmed from geology applications (frost heaving in soil), researchers soon realized that fundamental understanding of particles behavior at solidifying interfaces might yield practical benefits in other fields, including metallurgy. In materials engineering the main issue is the location of particles with respect to grain boundaries at the end of solidification. Considerable experimental and theoretical research was lately focused on applications to metal matrix composites produced by casting or spray forming techniques, and on inclusion management in steel. Another application of particle SLI interaction is in the growing of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) (123) superconductor crystals from an undercooled liquid. The oxide melt contains Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (211) precipitates, which act as flux pinning sites. The experimental evidence on transparent organic materials, as well as the recent in situ observations on steel demonstrates that there exist a critical velocity of the planar SLI below which particles are pushed ahead of the interface, and above which particles are engulfment. The engulfment of a SiC particle in succinonitrile is exemplified. However, in most commercial alloys dendritic interfaces must be considered. Indeed, most data available on metallic alloys are on dendritic structures. The term engulfment is used to describe incorporation of a particle by a planar or cellular interface as a result of local interface perturbation, as opposed to entrapment that implies particle incorporation at cells or dendrites boundaries. During entrapment the particles are pushed in the intercellular or interdendritic regions and then captured when local solidification occurs. The physics of these two phenomena is fundamentally different.

  14. Delaware Pushes to Meet Race to Top Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on how Delaware pushes to meet Race to the Top promises. The Delcastle Technical High School teachers are on the front lines of the push to deliver on promises that last year won Delaware, 10 other states, and the District of Columbia shares of the Race to the Top pie, the $4 billion competition that is driving much of the…

  15. Push Technology: Driving Traditional Online into a Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Stephen E.; Arnold, Erik S.

    1997-01-01

    Describes push technology as a new type of selective dissemination via the Internet and discusses filtering, channels of information, Web browser interfaces, data transfer, the role of databases, and database technology. A list of companies that provide push technology is included. (LRW)

  16. Self-assembly of alternating left- and right-handed infinite Cd(II) helicates into a 2D open framework structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sujit K.; Bharadwaj, Parimal K.

    2006-08-01

    Pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxylic acid (ptcH 4) reacts with Cd(NO 3) 2·6H 2O at room temperature in the presence of pyridine to form a 2D open framework built from alternating left- and right-handed helicates with the empirical formula, {[Cd 2(ptc)·(py) 5·H 2O]·5H 2O·py} n, 1. Lattice water and pyridine molecules form an intricate array of H-bonding with the 2D sheets leading to a 3D structure. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/ c with the following lattice parameters— a=24.103(2), b=13.480(5), c=29.176(4) Å, β=109.427(3)°, V=8940(4) Å 3, Z=8, R1=0.0513, wR2=0.1552, S=1.085.

  17. Isometric push and pull strengths of young Taiwanese males.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Lee, Yu-Chi; Hsu, Tin-Chi

    2011-01-01

    This study recruited 30 young Taiwanese males to determine the horizontally maximum isometric pushing and pulling strengths under 16 exertion heights and four handle-foot horizontal distances. This study shows that isometric push and pull strengths as measured on a simulated frictional floor condition in Taiwanese hypermarkets were markedly lower than previous tests using high-traction flooring or anchoring participant's feet. Pushing strengths were always higher than pulling in all 64 task combinations, whereas no significant differences were present at heights of 30-60 cm. When considering maximum push and pull force demands, the optimal heights for such activities would be 50-90 cm (approximately ranged from the knee to hip position). The push and pull strength profiles identified in this study must be used appropriately, considering the real task situations.

  18. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1995-11-14

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

  19. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steve B.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  20. THE ALTERNATIVE FOR SURVIVAL*

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The need of the time is to develop the traditional health care systems as a people oriented health care system. The factors that dominated the health care structure of our nation has been systematically pushing the traditional systems of medicine away from the people. In this background, an attempt has been made to reflect upon one's own experience, to understand the pattern of domination and to probe and suggest further on what could be the possible alternative development strategy and suggest specific tasks that would help define the development problematique in a meaningful manner in order to progress further in a self-determined manner PMID:22557469

  1. Benefit of "Push-pull" Locomotion for Planetary Rover Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creager, Colin M.; Moreland, Scott Jared; Skonieczny, K.; Johnson, K.; Asnani, V.; Gilligan, R.

    2011-01-01

    As NASAs exploration missions on planetary terrains become more aggressive, a focus on alternative modes of locomotion for rovers is necessary. In addition to climbing steep slopes, the terrain in these extreme environments is often unknown and can be extremely hard to traverse, increasing the likelihood of a vehicle or robot becoming damaged or immobilized. The conventional driving mode in which all wheels are either driven or free-rolling is very efficient on flat hard ground, but does not always provide enough traction to propel the vehicle through soft or steep terrain. This paper presents an alternative mode of travel and investigates the fundamental differences between these locomotion modes. The methods of push-pull locomotion discussed can be used with articulated wheeled vehicles and are identified as walking or inchinginch-worming. In both cases, the braked non-rolling wheels provide increased thrust. An in-depth study of how soil reacts under a rolling wheel vs. a braked wheel was performed by visually observing the motion of particles beneath the surface. This novel technique consists of driving or dragging a wheel in a soil bin against a transparent wall while high resolution, high-rate photographs are taken. Optical flow software was then used to determine shearing patterns in the soil. Different failure modes were observed for the rolling and braked wheel cases. A quantitative comparison of inching vs. conventional driving was also performed on a full-scale vehicle through a series of drawbar pull tests in the Lunar terrain strength simulant, GRC-1. The effect of tire stiffness was also compared; typically compliant tires provide better traction when driving in soft soil, however its been observed that rigid wheels may provide better thrust when non-rolling. Initial tests indicate up to a possible 40 increase in pull force capability at high slip when inching vs. rolling.

  2. Kinematic Analysis of Four Plyometric Push-Up Variations.

    PubMed

    Moore, Laura H; Tankovich, Michael J; Riemann, Bryan L; Davies, George J

    Plyometric research in the upper extremity is limited, with the effects of open-chain plyometric exercises being studied most. Kinematic and ground reaction force data concerning closed-chain upper extremity plyometrics has yet to be examined. Twenty-one recreationally active male subjects performed four variations of plyometric push-ups in a counterbalanced order. These included box drop push-ups from 3.8 cm, 7.6 cm, 11.4 cm heights, and clap push-ups. Kinematics of the trunk, dominant extremity and both hands were collected to examine peak flight, elbow flexion at ground contact, elbow displacement, and hand separation. Additionally peak vertical ground reaction force was measured under the dominant extremity. The 11.4 cm and clap push-ups had significantly higher peak flight than the other variations (P<.001). At ground contact, the elbow was in significantly greater flexion for the 3.8 cm and clap push-up compared to the other variations (P<.001). The clap push-up had significantly more elbow displacement than the other variations (P<.001) while hand separation was not significantly different between variations (P=.129). Peak vertical ground reaction force was significantly greater for the clap push-ups than for all other variations (P< .001). Despite similar flight heights between the 11.4 cm and clap push-ups, the greater peak vertical ground reaction force and elbow displacement of the clap push-ups indicates the clap push-up is the most intense of the variations examined. Understanding the kinematic variables involved will aid in the creation of a closed chain upper-extremity plyometric progression.

  3. Analysis of large space structures assembly: Man/machine assembly analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Procedures for analyzing large space structures assembly via three primary modes: manual, remote and automated are outlined. Data bases on each of the assembly modes and a general data base on the shuttle capabilities to support structures assembly are presented. Task element times and structure assembly component costs are given to provide a basis for determining the comparative economics of assembly alternatives. The lessons learned from simulations of space structures assembly are detailed.

  4. Increasing ankle push-off work with a powered prosthesis does not necessarily reduce metabolic rate for transtibial amputees.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Roberto E; Caputo, Joshua M; Collins, Steven H

    2016-10-03

    Amputees using passive ankle-foot prostheses tend to expend more metabolic energy during walking than non-amputees, and reducing this cost has been a central motivation for the development of active ankle-foot prostheses. Increased push-off work at the end of stance has been proposed as a way to reduce metabolic energy use, but the effects of push-off work have not been tested in isolation. In this experiment, participants with unilateral transtibial amputation (N=6) walked on a treadmill at a constant speed while wearing a powered prosthesis emulator. The prosthesis delivered different levels of ankle push-off work across conditions, ranging from the value for passive prostheses to double the value for non-amputee walking, while all other prosthesis mechanics were held constant. Participants completed six acclimation sessions prior to a data collection in which metabolic rate, kinematics, kinetics, muscle activity and user satisfaction were recorded. Metabolic rate was not affected by net prosthesis work rate (p=0.5; R(2)=0.007). Metabolic rate, gait mechanics and muscle activity varied widely across participants, but no participant had lower metabolic rate with higher levels of push-off work. User satisfaction was affected by push-off work (p=0.002), with participants preferring values of ankle push-off slightly higher than in non-amputee walking, possibly indicating other benefits. Restoring or augmenting ankle push-off work is not sufficient to improve energy economy for lower-limb amputees. Additional necessary conditions might include alternate timing or control, individualized tuning, or particular subject characteristics.

  5. Particle Engulfment and Pushing By Solidifying Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The study of particle behavior at solid/liquid interfaces (SLI s) is at the center of the Particle Engulfment and Pushing (PEP) research program. Interactions of particles with SLI s have been of interest since the 1960 s, starting with geological observations, i.e., frost heaving. Ever since, this field of research has become significant to such diverse areas as metal matrix composite materials, fabrication of superconductors, and inclusion control in steels. The PEP research effort is geared towards understanding the fundamental physics of the interaction between particles and a planar SLI. Experimental work including 1-g and mu-g experiments accompany the development of analytical and numerical models. The experimental work comprised of substantial groundwork with aluminum (Al) and zinc (Zn) matrices containing spherical zirconia particles, mu-g experiments with metallic Al matrices and the use of transparent organic metal-analogue materials. The modeling efforts have grown from the initial steady-state analytical model to dynamic models, accounting for the initial acceleration of a particle at rest by an advancing SLI. To gain a more comprehensive understanding, numerical models were developed to account for the influence of the thermal and solutal field. Current efforts are geared towards coupling the diffusive 2-D front tracking model with a fluid flow model to account for differences in the physics of interaction between 1-g and -g environments. A significant amount of this theoretical investigation has been and is being performed by co-investigators at NASA MSFC.

  6. Prone positioning reduces severe pushing behavior: three case studies

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Yuji; Amimoto, Kazu; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Fukata, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Masahide; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Makita, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Pushing behavior is classically described as a disorder of body orientation in the coronal plane. Most interventions for pushing behavior have focused on correcting the deviation in vertical perception. However, pushing behavior seems to involve erroneous movements associated with excessive motor output by the non-paretic limbs and trunk. The present study aimed to inhibit muscular hyper-activity by placing the non-paretic limbs and trunk in the prone position. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the present study were 3 acute stroke patients with severe pushing behavior. The study consisted of the following 3 phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. In addition to conventional therapy, patients received relaxation therapy in the prone position for 10 minutes a day over 2 days. The severity of pushing behavior was assessed using the scale for contraversive pushing, and truncal balance was evaluated using the trunk control test. These assessments were performed before and after the baseline phase, and after the intervention and follow-up phases. [Results] At the baseline phase, both scores were poor. Both scores improved after the intervention and follow-up phases, and all the patients could sit independently. [Conclusion] Relaxation therapy in the prone position might ameliorate pushing behavior and impaired truncal balance. PMID:27799722

  7. Ground reaction force characteristics of Tai Chi push hand.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Ting; Chang, Jia-Hao; Huang, Chen-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Push Hand is an advanced training technique for the Yang-style old frame 108 forms Tai Chi Chuan. It is performed by two practitioners. To clarify how people use forces during Push Hand training, it is important to review the ground reaction force (GRF). Here, we quantify the characteristics of the GRF during Push Hand training. Kinematic data and GRF data from 10 Tai Chi Chuan practitioners (29.9 ± 7.87 years) were synchronously recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system (200 frames · s(-1)) and three-dimensional force plates (1000 Hz). The resultant GRF for both feet for the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were compared to body weight using a paired-samples t-test. The differences in the resultant GRF between the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were tested by one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. The significance level was set to 0.05. The total resultant GRF was almost equal to the participant's body weight in push hand. This result was consistent throughout the entire push hand process. Our results revealed that the GRF was comparable to the body weight, implying that practitioners do not push or resist their opponents during the push hand process.

  8. Push Technology on the Net: Threat or Opportunity for the Online Searcher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfer, Joe

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes whether push technology is a threat or opportunity for online searchers. Outlines key functions of push technology products and defines key technology terms. Illustrates how the role of the online searcher changes with push technology. (AEF)

  9. Electromyographic Comparison of Traditional and Suspension Push-Ups

    PubMed Central

    Snarr, Ronald L.; Esco, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    There is very limited scientific data concerning suspension training. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the electromyographic activity of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii between a suspension push-up and traditional push-up. Twenty-one apparently healthy men (n = 15, age = 25.93 ± 3.67 years) and women (n = 6, age = 23.5 ± 1.97 years) volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects performed four repetitions of a suspension push-up and a traditional push-up where the order of the exercises was randomized. The mean peak and normalized electromyography of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii were compared across the two exercises. Suspension push-ups elicited the following electromyographic values: pectoralis major (3.08 ± 1.13 mV, 69.54 ± 27.6 %MVC), anterior deltoid (5.08 ± 1.55 mV, 81.13 ± 17.77 %MVC), and triceps brachii (5.11 ± 1.97 mV, 105.83 ± 18.54 %MVC). The electromyographic activities during the traditional push-up were as follows: pectoralis major (2.66 ± 1.05 mV, 63.62 ± 16.4 %MVC), anterior deltoid (4.01 ± 1.27 mV, 58.91 ± 20.3 %MVC), and triceps brachii (3.91 ± 1.36 mV, 74.32 ± 16.9 %MVC). The mean peak and normalized electromyographic values were significantly higher for all 3 muscles during the suspension push-up compared to the traditional push-up (p < 0.05). This study suggests that the suspension push-up elicited a greater activation of pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii when compared to a traditional push-up. Therefore, suspension push-ups may be considered an advanced variation of a traditional push-up when a greater challenge is warranted. PMID:24511343

  10. Electromyographic comparison of traditional and suspension push-ups.

    PubMed

    Snarr, Ronald L; Esco, Michael R

    2013-12-18

    There is very limited scientific data concerning suspension training. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the electromyographic activity of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii between a suspension push-up and traditional push-up. Twenty-one apparently healthy men (n = 15, age = 25.93 ± 3.67 years) and women (n = 6, age = 23.5 ± 1.97 years) volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects performed four repetitions of a suspension push-up and a traditional push-up where the order of the exercises was randomized. The mean peak and normalized electromyography of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii were compared across the two exercises. Suspension push-ups elicited the following electromyographic values: pectoralis major (3.08 ± 1.13 mV, 69.54 ± 27.6 %MVC), anterior deltoid (5.08 ± 1.55 mV, 81.13 ± 17.77 %MVC), and triceps brachii (5.11 ± 1.97 mV, 105.83 ± 18.54 %MVC). The electromyographic activities during the traditional push-up were as follows: pectoralis major (2.66 ± 1.05 mV, 63.62 ± 16.4 %MVC), anterior deltoid (4.01 ± 1.27 mV, 58.91 ± 20.3 %MVC), and triceps brachii (3.91 ± 1.36 mV, 74.32 ± 16.9 %MVC). The mean peak and normalized electromyographic values were significantly higher for all 3 muscles during the suspension push-up compared to the traditional push-up (p < 0.05). This study suggests that the suspension push-up elicited a greater activation of pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii when compared to a traditional push-up. Therefore, suspension push-ups may be considered an advanced variation of a traditional push-up when a greater challenge is warranted.

  11. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  12. TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear

    NASA Video Gallery

    TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Bertha on Aug. 1 was created from TRMM satellite data. It shows (from the south) intense thunderstor...

  13. Field evaluation of a direct push deployed sensor probe for vertical soil water content profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vienken, Thomas; Reboulet, Ed; Leven, Carsten; Kreck, Manuel; Zschornack, Ludwig; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Reliable high-resolution information about vertical variations in soil water content, i.e. total porosity in the saturated zone, is essential for flow and transport predictions within the subsurface. However, porosity measurements are often associated with high efforts and high uncertainties, e.g. caused by soil disturbance during sampling or sensor installation procedures. In hydrogeological practice, commonly applied tools for the investigation of vertical soil water content distribution include gravimetric laboratory analyses of soil samples and neutron probe measurements. A yet less well established technique is the use of direct push-deployed sensor probes. Each of these methods is associated with inherent advantages and limitations due to their underlying measurement principles and operation modes. The presented study describes results of a joint field evaluation of the individual methods under different depositional and hydrogeological conditions with special focus on the performance on the direct push-deployed water content profiler. Therefore, direct push-profiling results from three different test sites are compared with results obtained from gravimetric analysis of soil cores and neutron probe measurements. In direct comparison, the applied direct push-based sensor probe proved to be a suitable alternative for vertical soil water content profiling to neutron probe technology, and, in addition, proved to be advantageous over gravimetric analysis in terms vertical resolution and time efficiency. Results of this study identify application-specific limitations of the methods and thereby highlight the need for careful data evaluation, even though neutron probe measurements and gravimetric analyses of soil samples are well established techniques (see Vienken et al. 2013). Reference: Vienken, T., Reboulet, E., Leven, C., Kreck, M., Zschornack, L., Dietrich, P., 2013. Field comparison of selected methods for vertical soil water content profiling. Journal of

  14. Push and pull strategies: applications for health care marketing.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, B R

    1987-08-01

    As health care markets mature and expand, strategies available in other industries become useful. This article examines how traditional push-pull strategies apply to health care. Marketers using a push strategy recognize that the sale of their services or goods is dependent upon the endorsement of a middleman and promote their product through the middleman. Those using a pull strategy market directly to the consumer. In this article, the author outlines the advantages and disadvantages of using each strategy.

  15. Bacteriophage assembly.

    PubMed

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A; Rossmann, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes.

  16. Pushing and pulling: personal mechanics influence spine loads.

    PubMed

    Lett, Kelly K; McGill, Stuart M

    2006-07-15

    This study assessed several mechanical issues related to low back loading during pushing and/or pulling tasks. Nine male participants performed two-handed pushing and pulling tasks at two handle heights with three loads, using a cable pulley system. Four of these men were professional firefighters trained in performing pushing and pulling tasks while the other five were graduate students who lacked manual work experience. The more experienced firefighters produced less spinal compression and shearing forces when compared to the less experienced students under the same conditions. The firefighters were able to create less muscle activation as compared to the students, which indicated a more efficient technique. The main contributing factors to the forces produced on the low back were the quantity of the load being pushed or pulled, handle height, experience level and the technique of the participant. Thus, attempts to set load limits for pushing and pulling tasks are difficult, since technique has such a large influence on back loading. In order to create safer working environments, education on proper pushing and pulling techniques is very important--more important than the physical variables in many cases.

  17. Power and impulse applied during push press exercise.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jason P; Mundy, Peter D; Comfort, Paul

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the load, which maximized peak and mean power, and impulse applied to these loads, during the push press and to compare them to equivalent jump squat data. Resistance-trained men performed 2 push press (n = 17; age: 25.4 ± 7.4 years; height: 183.4 ± 5 cm; body mass: 87 ± 15.6 kg) and jump squat (n = 8 of original 17; age: 28.7 ± 8.1 years; height: 184.3 ± 5.5 cm; mass: 98 ± 5.3 kg) singles with 10-90% of their push press and back squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM), respectively, in 10% 1RM increments while standing on a force platform. Push press peak and mean power was maximized with 75.3 ± 16.4 and 64.7 ± 20% 1RM, respectively, and impulses applied to these loads were 243 ± 29 N·s and 231 ± 36 N·s. Increasing and decreasing load, from the load that maximized peak and mean power, by 10 and 20% 1RM reduced peak and mean power by 6-15% (p ≤ 0.05). Push press and jump squat maximum peak power (7%, p = 0.08) and the impulse that was applied to the load that maximized peak (8%, p = 0.17) and mean (13%, p = 0.91) power were not significantly different, but push press maximum mean power was significantly greater than the jump squat equivalent (∼9.5%, p = 0.03). The mechanical demand of the push press is comparable with the jump squat and could provide a time-efficient combination of lower-body power and upper-body and trunk strength training.

  18. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  19. Effects of Congruence in Title I Reading using PUSH-UPS, a Story Previewing Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golembesky, Brenda L.; Bean, Rita M.; Goldstein, Howard

    1997-01-01

    States PUSH-UPS was developed to align Title I lessons in a pullout setting with the developmental reading program. Analyzes effects of PUSH-UPS and no PUSH-UPS on decoding, vocabulary knowledge, and story recall with five grade 3 subjects. Finds that PUSH-UPS increased decoding ability in four of the five subjects; improved recall occurred for…

  20. Numerical investigation and recommendations for push-pull ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Chern, Ming-Jyh; Ma, Chen-Hsuan

    2007-03-01

    This study presents numerical simulations of push-pull ventilation systems. A push-pull system is a device commonly used in capturing pollutants from large tanks used in industrial chemical processes. An air jet is blown from one side of a tank and collected by an exhaust hood on the opposite side of the tank. In this study, a finite volume model coupled with the standard k -epsilon turbulent model is employed to describe the flow structures and characteristics. Moreover, the turbulence mass transfer equation is adopted to show the concentration distribution above the open surface tank. All the flow fields can be classified according to four dominant modes, i.e., dispersion, transition, encapsulation, and strong suction. The push and pull flow velocities should be adjusted into encapsulation and strong suction modes to ensure all pollutants can be captured by the exhaust hood. Other geometric parameters such as the flange size, pull-channel size, offset distance, etc., also influence the flow characteristics. For a variety of lengths of tanks and pollutant evaporation velocities, the push and pull flow velocity must be matched to achieve optimal operation. Furthermore, the flange size and other parameters are determined to enhance the capture efficiency of the push-pull system. Recommendations for design guidelines are introduced in this study.

  1. Effects of Angle Variations in Suspension Push-up Exercise.

    PubMed

    Gulmez, Irfan

    2017-04-01

    Gulmez, I. Effects of angle variations in suspension push-up exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1017-1023, 2017-This study aimed to determine and compare the amount of loads on the TRX Suspension Trainer (TRX) straps and ground reaction forces at 4 different angles during TRX push-ups. Twenty-eight male (mean age, 24.1 ± 2.9 years; height, 179.4 ± 8.0 m; weight, 78.8 ± 9.8 kg) physical education and sports university students participated in this study. The subjects were tested at TRX angles (0, 15, 30, 45°) during the TRX push-ups. Force data were recorded by a force platform and load cells integrated into the TRX straps. The results show that as the TRX angle was reduced, the load applied to the TRX straps increased and simultaneously the load measured by the force platform decreased. This was true for both the elbow joint changing from flexion to extension and vice versa. When the TRX angle was set at 0° and subjects' elbows were at extension during TRX push-up, 50.4% of the subjects' body weight, and when the elbows were at flexion, 75.3% of the body weight was registered by the sensors on the TRX straps. The results of this study can be used in the calculation of the training load and volume (resistance training programming) during TRX push-up exercises at varying angles.

  2. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  3. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research.

  4. Microfluidic push-pull probe for scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Momotenko, Dmitry; Cortes-Salazar, Fernando; Lesch, Andreas; Wittstock, Gunther; Girault, Hubert H

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic push-pull probe for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) consisting of a working microelectrode, an integrated counter/reference electrode and two microchannels for pushing and pulling an electrolyte solution to and away from a substrate. With such a configuration, a droplet of a permanently renewed redox mediator solution is maintained just at the probe tip to carry out SECM measurements on initially dry substrates or in microenvironments. For SECM imaging purposes, the probe fabricated in a soft polymer material is used in a contact regime. SECM images of various gold-on-glass samples demonstrate the proof-of-concept of a push-pull probe for local surface activity characterization with high spatial resolution even on vertically oriented substrates. Finite element computations were performed to guide the improvement of the probe sensitivity.

  5. Factors affecting minimum push and pull forces of manual carts.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisawi, K W; Kerk, C J; Congleton, J J; Amendola, A A; Jenkins, O C; Gaines, W

    1999-06-01

    The minimum forces needed to manually push or pull a 4-wheel cart of differing weights with similar wheel sizes from a stationary state were measured on four floor materials under different conditions of wheel width, diameter, and orientation. Cart load was increased from 0 to 181.4 kg in increments of 36.3 kg. The floor materials were smooth concrete, tile, asphalt, and industrial carpet. Two wheel widths were tested: 25 and 38 mm. Wheel diameters were 51, 102, and 153 mm. Wheel orientation was tested at four levels: F0R0 (all four wheels aligned in the forward direction), F0R90 (the two front wheels, the wheels furthest from the cart handle, aligned in the forward direction and the two rear wheels, the wheels closest to the cart handle, aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction), F90R0 (the two front wheels aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction and the two rear wheels aligned in the forward direction), and F90R90 (all four wheels aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction). Wheel width did not have a significant effect on the minimum push/pull forces. The minimum push/pull forces were linearly proportional to cart weight, and inversely proportional to wheel diameter. The coefficients of rolling friction were estimated as 2.2, 2.4, 3.3, and 4.5 mm for hard rubber wheels rolling on smooth concrete, tile, asphalt, and industrial carpet floors, respectively. The effect of wheel orientation was not consistent over the tested conditions, but, in general, the smallest minimum push/pull forces were measured with all four wheels aligned in the forward direction, whereas the largest minimum push/pull forces were measured when all four wheels were aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction. There was no significant difference between the push and pull forces when all four wheels were aligned in the forward direction.

  6. Biomechanical study of the final push-pull in archery.

    PubMed

    Leroyer, P; Van Hoecke, J; Helal, J N

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse archery performance among eight archers of different abilities by means of displacement pull-hand measurements during the final push-pull phase of the shoot. The archers showed an irregular displacement negatively related to their technical level. Displacement signal analysis showed high power levels in both the 0-5 Hz and 8-12 Hz ranges. The latter peak corresponds to electromyographic tremor observed during a prolonged push-pull effort. The results are discussed in relation to some potentially helpful training procedures such as biofeedback and strength conditioning.

  7. 49 CFR 218.99 - Shoving or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shoving or pushing movements. 218.99 Section 218.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and...

  8. 49 CFR 218.99 - Shoving or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shoving or pushing movements. 218.99 Section 218.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and...

  9. 49 CFR 218.99 - Shoving or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shoving or pushing movements. 218.99 Section 218.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and...

  10. Push-pull” strategies against vegetable insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies and aphids are important insect pests in vegetable crops. To mitigate the use of chemical insecticides, “push-pull “strategies can be used as components of sustainable or cultural pest management. Dr. Jesusa C. Legaspi (USDA-ARS) and collaborators conducted field studies using mustard pla...

  11. Push-n-Go: A Dynamic Energy Conversion Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Beverly A. P.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the use of push and go toys to discuss with students how the toy acquires potential energy when work is done on it and how this energy is stored in the internal mechanism for later conversion into kinetic energy. (DDR)

  12. 33 CFR 83.24 - Towing and pushing (Rule 24).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... line above the sternlight; and (5) When the length of the tow exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where... exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where it can best be seen. (f) Vessels being towed alongside or pushed... alongside each other shall be lighted as one vessel or object; (4) A diamond shape at or near the...

  13. 33 CFR 83.24 - Towing and pushing (Rule 24).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... line above the sternlight; and (5) When the length of the tow exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where... exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where it can best be seen. (f) Vessels being towed alongside or pushed... alongside each other shall be lighted as one vessel or object; (4) A diamond shape at or near the...

  14. 33 CFR 83.24 - Towing and pushing (Rule 24).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... line above the sternlight; and (5) When the length of the tow exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where... exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where it can best be seen. (f) Vessels being towed alongside or pushed... alongside each other shall be lighted as one vessel or object; (4) A diamond shape at or near the...

  15. 33 CFR 83.24 - Towing and pushing (Rule 24).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... line above the sternlight; and (5) When the length of the tow exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where... exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where it can best be seen. (f) Vessels being towed alongside or pushed... alongside each other shall be lighted as one vessel or object; (4) A diamond shape at or near the...

  16. NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New Heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Jennings, Francis T.; Adanich, Emery; Del Rosario, Ruben; Felder, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Center Director Free is providing the Keynote at the Disruptive Propulsion Conference, sponsored by Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, England in November. Director Free will be presenting a PowerPoint presentation titled, NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New Heights at both the conference and a meeting at the Royal Aeronautical Society.

  17. PNNL pushing scientific discovery through data intensive computing breakthroughs

    ScienceCinema

    Deborah Gracio; David Koppenaal; Ruby Leung

    2016-07-12

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architectures, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

  18. Pattern formation in the wake of triggered pushed fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Ryan; Scheel, Arnd

    2016-08-01

    Pattern-forming fronts are often controlled by an external stimulus which progresses through a stable medium at a fixed speed, rendering it unstable in its wake. By controlling the speed of excitation, such stimuli, or ‘triggers’, can mediate pattern forming fronts which freely invade an unstable equilibrium and control which pattern is selected. In this work, we analytically and numerically study when the trigger perturbs an oscillatory pushed free front. In such a situation, the resulting patterned front, which we call a pushed trigger front, exhibits a variety of phenomenon, including snaking, non-monotonic wave-number selection, and hysteresis. Assuming the existence of a generic oscillatory pushed free front, we use heteroclinic bifurcation techniques to prove the existence of trigger fronts in an abstract setting motivated by the spatial dynamics approach. We then derive a leading order expansion for the selected wave-number in terms of the trigger speed. Furthermore, we show that such a bifurcation curve is governed by the difference of certain strong-stable and weakly-stable spatial eigenvalues associated with the decay of the free pushed front. We also study prototypical examples of these phenomena in the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg Landau equation and a modified Cahn-Hilliard equation.

  19. NSF Anticipates Pushing Boundaries on Open-Access Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF), in carrying out the Obama administration's new push for greater public access to research published in scientific journals, will consider exclusivity periods shorter than the 12-month standard in the White House directive, as well as trade-offs involving data-sharing and considerations of publishers'…

  20. 49 CFR 218.99 - Shoving or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shoving or pushing movements. 218.99 Section 218.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and...

  1. 49 CFR 218.99 - Shoving or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shoving or pushing movements. 218.99 Section 218.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and...

  2. Preemptive queueing system with randomized push-out mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muliukha, Vladimir; Ilyashenko, Alexander; Zayats, Oleg; Zaborovsky, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    In this article considered a queueing theory model with limited buffer size, one service channel, and two incoming flows. In this model one of the flows has a power to preempt other tasks. We call it a high-priority flow. Another one is low-priority. This priority mechanism is realized in a two different ways. The first one is a preemptive priority, which allows high-priority packets to interrupt low-priority packets in service channel and push them out. The second one is a randomized push-out mechanism with probability α, which allows us to choose what type of packets should be pushed out of the system when it is full. In this article we provide an algorithm for computing statistical characteristics of the model for all values of push-out probability α. We have used generating functions method to simplify the system of linear equations. This method allows us to reduce the order of linear equations system from k(k + 1)/2 to (k + 1). As the result we have got two effects in this model. The first one is a linear behavior of loss probabilities in the model with low overload. The second one is a "closing" of a system for low-priority packets with high overload.

  3. PNNL pushing scientific discovery through data intensive computing breakthroughs

    SciTech Connect

    Deborah Gracio; David Koppenaal; Ruby Leung

    2009-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architectures, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

  4. Phase inverter provides variable reference push-pull output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Dual-transistor difference amplifier provides a push-pull output referenced to a dc potential which can be varied without affecting the signal levels. The amplifier is coupled with a feedback circuit which can vary the operating points of the transistors by equal amounts to provide the variable reference potentials.

  5. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  6. Crew Assembly

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to improve your dexterity and hand-eye coordination by assembling a puzzle.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to challenge students to set goals, practice ...

  7. Seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Roger Neal; Longfritz, William David

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that seals a gap formed by a groove comprises a seal body, a biasing element, and a connection that connects the seal body to the biasing element to form the seal assembly. The seal assembly further comprises a concave-shaped center section and convex-shaped contact portions at each end of the seal body. The biasing element is formed from an elastic material and comprises a convex-shaped center section and concave-shaped biasing zones that are opposed to the convex-shaped contact portions. The biasing element is adapted to be compressed to change a width of the seal assembly from a first width to a second width that is smaller than the first width. In the compressed state, the seal assembly can be disposed in the groove. After release of the compressing force, the seal assembly expands. The contact portions will move toward a surface of the groove and the biasing zones will move into contact with another surface of the groove. The biasing zones will bias the contact portions of the seal body against the surface of the groove.

  8. Eave Screening and Push-Pull Tactics to Reduce House Entry by Vectors of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Menger, David J.; Omusula, Philemon; Wouters, Karlijn; Oketch, Charles; Carreira, Ana S.; Durka, Maxime; Derycke, Jean-Luc; Loy, Dorothy E.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Mweresa, Collins K.; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Takken, Willem; Hiscox, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying have contributed to a decline in malaria over the last decade, but progress is threatened by the development of physiological and behavioral resistance of mosquitoes against insecticides. Acknowledging the need for alternative vector control tools, we quantified the effects of eave screening in combination with a push-pull system based on the simultaneous use of a repellent (push) and attractant-baited traps (pull). Field experiments in western Kenya showed that eave screening, whether used in combination with an attractant-baited trap or not, was highly effective in reducing house entry by malaria mosquitoes. The magnitude of the effect varied for different mosquito species and between two experiments, but the reduction in house entry was always considerable (between 61% and 99%). The use of outdoor, attractant-baited traps alone did not have a significant impact on mosquito house entry but the high number of mosquitoes trapped outdoors indicates that attractant-baited traps could be used for removal trapping, which would enhance outdoor as well as indoor protection against mosquito bites. As eave screening was effective by itself, addition of a repellent was of limited value. Nevertheless, repellents may play a role in reducing outdoor malaria transmission in the peridomestic area. PMID:26834195

  9. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    1999-06-22

    A permanent magnet assembly for assembly in large permanent magnet motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier that can be slid into a slot in the rotor and then secured in place using a set screw. The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device with guide rails that line up with the teeth of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly can be pushed first into a slot, and then down the slot to its proper location. An auxiliary tool is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly into position in the slot before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies in the rotor are also disclosed. 2 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    A permanent magnet assembly (22) for assembly in large permanent magnet (PM) motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier (23, 24) that can be slid into a slot (13) in the rotor (10) and then secured in place using a set screw (37). The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device (50) with guide rails (51) that line up with the teeth (12) of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly (22) can be pushed first into a slot (13), and then down the slot (13) to its proper location. An auxiliary tool (50) is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly (22) into position in the slot (13) before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies (22) in the rotor (10) are also disclosed.

  11. Large First Hyperpolarizabilities in Push-Pull Polyenes by Tuning Bond Length Alternation and Aromaticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, S. R.; Tiemann, B. G.; Friedli, A. C.; Cheng, L. -T.; Blanchard-Desce, M.

    1993-01-01

    Conjugated organic compounds with 3-phenyl-5-isoxazolone, or N, N'-diethylthiobarbituric acid acceptors have large first molecular hyperpolarizabilities in comparison to compounds with 4-nitrophenyl acceptors as measured by electric feld induced second harmonic generation, (EFISH), in chloroform, with 1.907 micron fundamental radiation.

  12. Revisiting the Ridge-Push Force Using the Lithospheric Geoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, R. M.; Coblentz, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    The geoid anomaly and driving force associated with the cooling oceanic lithosphere ("ridge push") are both proportional to dipole moment of the density-depth distribution, and allow a reevaluation of the ridge push force using the geoid. The challenge with this approach is to isolate the "lithospheric geoid" from the full geoid signal. Our approach is to use a band-pass spherical harmonic filter on the full geoid (e.g., EGM2008-WGS84, complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 2159) between orders 6 and 80. However, even this "lithospheric geoid" is noisy, and thus we average over 100 profiles evenly spaced along the global ridge system to obtain an average geoid step associated with the mid-ocean ridges. Because the positive ridge geoid signal is largest near the ridge (and to capture fast-spreading ridges), we evaluate symmetrical profiles extending ±45 m.y. about the ridge. We find an average ridge geoid anomaly of 4.5m, which is equivalent to a 10m anomaly for 100 m.y. old oceanic lithosphere. This geoid step corresponds to a ridge push force of ~2.4 x1012N/m for old oceanic lithosphere of 100 m.y., very similar to earlier estimates of ~2.5 x1012N/m based on simple half-space models. This simple half-space model also predicts constant geoid slopes of about 0.15 m/m.y. for cooling oceanic lithosphere. Our observed geoid slopes are consistent with this value for ages up to 40-50 m.y., but drop off to lower values at greater ages. We model this using a plate cooling model (with a thickness of the order of 125km) to fit the observation that the geoid anomaly and ridge driving force only increase slowly for ages greater than 40 m.y. (in contrast to the half-space model where the linear dependence on age holds for all ages). This reduction of the geoid slope results in a 20% decrease in the predicted ridge push force. This decrease is due to the combined effects of treating the oceanic lithosphere as a cooling plate (vs. a half-space), and the loss of geoidal

  13. The role of the "chaser" in "push-pull" tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebig, Klaus; Zeilfelder, Sarah; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

    2013-04-01

    So-called "push-pull" tests are a suitable tracer test method to obtain information about chemical and hydraulic properties of an aquifer in a single-well setting. In literature, their application was frequently reported to investigate various research objectives. In a push-pull test a known amount of different solutes - including a conservative tracer - is injected into the aquifer ("push") and afterwards extracted ("pull"). The measured breakthrough curves during the pumping back phase can then be analysed. In most published papers a so-called "chaser" was injected directly after the injection of the test solution. Generally, the chaser is not spiked with any tracer or additional solute. Its aim is to push the test solution out of the borehole or groundwater monitoring well and into the aquifer to minimize the influence of the infrastructure (tubes, pipes, and gravel pack) on the shape of the tracer breakthrough curve. However, the role of the chaser on the shape of the acquired tracer breakthrough curves during the pull-phase is unknown. Also the determination of the right volume for the chaser is a difficult task. The volume should be enough to fill the whole well and gravel pack volume, but should not reach the aquifer. In most cases the exact effective porosity of the gravel pack and accordingly its volume is unknown and therefore has to be estimated. In our project, push-pull tests are investigated for their applicability as single-well tracer test method. One target is its method development and standardization. Therefore, also the role of the chaser was investigated by conducting six individual tests, each with different injection volume. By testing different chaser volumes, conclusions can be drawn about the optimal volume for the later field test campaigns. Furthermore, it seems to be possible to draw conclusions about the quality of the gravel pack and about potential dead volumes within the flow system. It was shown that a chaser test campaign prior to

  14. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, D.H.

    1999-08-31

    A hinge assembly is disclosed having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf. 8 figs.

  15. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, David Houston

    1999-01-01

    A hinge assembly having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf.

  16. Biomechanical analysis for handle stability during maximum push and pull exertions.

    PubMed

    Seo, Na Jin; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of handle stability on maximum push/pull force. It was hypothesised that people apply force in directions deviated from the pure push/pull direction to generate a moment that assists producing greater push/pull force when the handle position is fixed (stable) compared to when it is not fixed (unstable). Eight healthy subjects performed maximum push and pull exertions on a stable and an unstable handle in a seated posture, while maximum push/pull force, vertical force and lateral force were recorded. For the unstable handle, vertical and lateral forces were not different from zero during push and pull. For the stable handle, subjects intuitively applied significant downward force during push and significant upward force during pull exertions. As predicted from biomechanical analysis, this downward and upward force was found to be significantly associated with increased push and pull force, respectively, for the stable handle compared to the unstable handle.

  17. Robots in human biomechanics--a study on ankle push-off in walking.

    PubMed

    Renjewski, Daniel; Seyfarth, André

    2012-09-01

    In biomechanics, explanatory template models are used to identify the basic mechanisms of human locomotion. However, model predictions often lack verification in a realistic environment. We present a method that uses template model mechanics as a blueprint for a bipedal robot and a corresponding computer simulation. The hypotheses derived from template model studies concerning the function of heel-off in walking are analysed and discrepancies between the template model and its real-world anchor are pointed out. Neither extending the ground clearance of the swinging leg nor an impact reduction at touch-down as an effect of heel lifting was supported by the experiments. To confirm the relevance of the experimental findings, a comparison of robot data to human walking data is discussed and we speculate on an alternative explanation of heel-off in human walking, i.e. that the push-off powers the following leg swing.

  18. [Ergonomic evaluation of assembly line of tractors].

    PubMed

    Dellera, L; Buratti, G

    2012-01-01

    In the assembly lines in the engineering sector, ever more guided by the theories of lean production, is increasingly important ergonomic factor working conditions to preserve the health of workers and ensuring the performance. This analysis has focused on the study of biomechanical and postural stress of work tasks of an assembly line of the tractor, characterized by different weights and volumes from that of the car. Comparison with the technical standard of EN 1005-4 has allowed the identification as the machining assembly of small components result in conditions of acceptability, while most of the other processes aren't reliable. The emergence of these problems pushed to find several ergonomic solutions including the development of a special reclining seat to enable a proper posture during the working.

  19. Sabot assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz

    2016-11-08

    A sabot assembly includes a projectile and a housing dimensioned and configured for receiving the projectile. An air pressure cavity having a cavity diameter is disposed between a front end and a rear end of the housing. Air intake nozzles are in fluid communication with the air pressure cavity and each has a nozzle diameter less than the cavity diameter. In operation, air flows through the plurality of air intake nozzles and into the air pressure cavity upon firing of the projectile from a gun barrel to pressurize the air pressure cavity for assisting in separation of the housing from the projectile upon the sabot assembly exiting the gun barrel.

  20. Latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frederickson, J.R.; Harper, W.H.; Perez, R.

    1984-08-17

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing. 2 figs.

  1. Nitrogenase assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogenase contains two unique metalloclusters: the P-cluster and the M-cluster. The assembly processes of P- and M-clusters are arguably the most complicated processes in bioinorganic chemistry. There is considerable interest in decoding the biosynthetic mechanisms of the P- and M-clusters, because these clusters are not only biologically important, but also chemically unprecedented. Understanding the assembly mechanisms of these unique metalloclusters is crucial for understanding the structure-function relationship of nitrogenase. Here, we review the recent advances in this research area, with an emphasis on our work that provide important insights into the biosynthetic pathways of these high-nuclearity metal centers. PMID:23232096

  2. Latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frederickson, James R.; Harper, William H.; Perez, Raymond

    1986-01-01

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing.

  3. Alternative Fuels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  4. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  5. A Two-Magnet System to Push Therapeutic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Benjamin; Dormer, Kenneth; Rutel, Isaac B.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to direct magnetically susceptible nanoparticles to disease locations: to infections, blood clots, or tumors. Any single magnet always attracts (pulls) ferro- or para-magnetic particles towards it. External magnets have been used to pull therapeutics into tumors near the skin in animals and human clinical trials. Implanting magnetic materials into patients (a feasible approach in some cases) has been envisioned as a means of reaching deeper targets. Yet there are a number of clinical needs, ranging from treatments of the inner ear, to antibiotic-resistant skin infections and cardiac arrhythmias, which would benefit from an ability to magnetically "inject", or push in, nanomedicines. We develop, analyze, and experimentally demonstrate a novel, simple, and effective arrangement of just two permanent magnets that can magnetically push particles. Such a system might treat diseases of the inner ear; diseases which intravenously injected or orally administered treatments cannot reach due to the blood-brain barrier.

  6. Postural control during pushing movement with risk of forward perturbation.

    PubMed

    Okai, Rika; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a forward bilateral pushing movement on postural control in a situation where known, unknown, and unpredictable perturbations may be induced. Participants stood upright and voluntarily pushed a handle with both hands. In the first task, the handle was free to be moved by the participant (perturbation; movable task) and in the second task, the handle was locked (stationary task). For each task, body displacement and observed applied force were recorded. Anticipatory postural control adjustment plays a vital role in body stability; however, in contrast to its role in maintaining stability, adjustment can generate a restricted voluntary movement because motor programming selects a postural control that gives priority to body stability over the target movement.

  7. A Two-Magnet System to Push Therapeutic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Benjamin; Dormer, Kenneth; Rutel, Isaac B

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to direct magnetically susceptible nanoparticles to disease locations: to infections, blood clots, or tumors. Any single magnet always attracts (pulls) ferro- or para-magnetic particles towards it. External magnets have been used to pull therapeutics into tumors near the skin in animals and human clinical trials. Implanting magnetic materials into patients (a feasible approach in some cases) has been envisioned as a means of reaching deeper targets. Yet there are a number of clinical needs, ranging from treatments of the inner ear, to antibiotic-resistant skin infections and cardiac arrhythmias, which would benefit from an ability to magnetically "inject", or push in, nanomedicines. We develop, analyze, and experimentally demonstrate a novel, simple, and effective arrangement of just two permanent magnets that can magnetically push particles. Such a system might treat diseases of the inner ear; diseases which intravenously injected or orally administered treatments cannot reach due to the blood-brain barrier.

  8. A Two-Magnet System to Push Therapeutic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Benjamin; Dormer, Kenneth; Rutel, Isaac B.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to direct magnetically susceptible nanoparticles to disease locations: to infections, blood clots, or tumors. Any single magnet always attracts (pulls) ferro- or para-magnetic particles towards it. External magnets have been used to pull therapeutics into tumors near the skin in animals and human clinical trials. Implanting magnetic materials into patients (a feasible approach in some cases) has been envisioned as a means of reaching deeper targets. Yet there are a number of clinical needs, ranging from treatments of the inner ear, to antibiotic-resistant skin infections and cardiac arrhythmias, which would benefit from an ability to magnetically “inject”, or push in, nanomedicines. We develop, analyze, and experimentally demonstrate a novel, simple, and effective arrangement of just two permanent magnets that can magnetically push particles. Such a system might treat diseases of the inner ear; diseases which intravenously injected or orally administered treatments cannot reach due to the blood-brain barrier. PMID:21243119

  9. Fiber-optic push-pull sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, David L.; Brown, David A.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1991-01-01

    Fiber-optic push-pull sensors are those which exploit the intrinsically differential nature of an interferometer with concommitant benefits in common-mode rejection of undesired effects. Several fiber-optic accelerometer and hydrophone designs are described. Additionally, the recent development at the Naval Postgraduate School of a passive low-cost interferometric signal demodulator permits the development of economical fiber-optic sensor systems.

  10. Phyllotaxis, Pushed Pattern-Forming Fronts, and Optimal Packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennybacker, Matthew; Newell, Alan C.

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate that the pattern forming partial differential equation derived from the auxin distribution model proposed by Meyerowitz, Traas, and others gives rise to all spiral phyllotaxis properties observed on plants. We show how the advancing pushed pattern front chooses spiral families enumerated by Fibonacci sequences with all attendant self-similar properties, a new amplitude invariant curve, and connect the results with the optimal packing based algorithms previously used to explain phyllotaxis. Our results allow us to make experimentally testable predictions.

  11. China's Push for Energy Raises Regional Security Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-09-01

    China's increasing demand for energy is leading to a push to further exploit its own energy resources deposits, a leveraging of its growth market for favorable energy pricing, and conflicts with neighboring countries. Energy experts discussed China's efforts to bolster its energy resources, during a 17 September forum on energy and security issues in China and the Asia Pacific at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D. C.

  12. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  13. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2002-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

  14. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    DOEpatents

    Brandenburg, Larry Raymond; Miller, John Michael

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  15. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.R.; Miller, J.M.

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus is described for use with an engine having a combined starter/alternator assembly. The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring with a sensor and bandpass filter, having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor, and a gain limiter. The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor of the combined starter/alternator assembly. The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller and an inner loop controller. The starter/alternator assembly in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  16. Contribution of limb momentum to power transfer in athletic wheelchair pushing.

    PubMed

    Masson, G; Bégin, M-A; Lopez Poncelas, M; Pelletier, S-K; Lessard, J-L; Laroche, J; Berrigan, F; Langelier, E; Smeesters, C; Rancourt, D

    2016-09-06

    Pushing capacity is a key parameter in athletic racing wheelchair performance. This study estimated the potential contribution of upper limb momentum to pushing. The question is relevant since it may affect the training strategy adopted by an athlete. A muscle-free Lagrangian dynamic model of the upper limb segments was developed and theoretical predictions of power transfer to the wheelchair were computed during the push phase. Results show that limb momentum capacity for pushing can be in the order of 40J per push cycle at 10m/s, but it varies with the specific pushing range chosen by the athlete. Although use of momentum could certainly help an athlete improve performance, quantifying the actual contribution of limb momentum to pushing is not trivial. A preliminary experimental investigation on an ergometer, along with a simplified model of the upper limb, suggests that momentum is not the sole contributor to power transfer to a wheelchair. Muscles substantially contribute to pushing, even at high speeds. Moreover, an optimal pushing range is challenging to find since it most likely differs if an athlete chooses a limb momentum pushing strategy versus a muscular exertion pushing strategy, or both at the same time. The study emphasizes the importance of controlling pushing range, although one should optimize it while also taking the dynamics of the recovery period into account.

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Two Wheelchair Accessories for Pushing Doors.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Soran Jalal; Shaikh Mohammed, Javeed

    2017-03-27

    Independent mobility is vital to individuals of all ages, and wheelchairs have proven to be great personal mobility devices. The tasks of opening and navigating through a door are trivial for healthy people, while the same tasks could be difficult for some wheelchair users. A wide range of intelligent wheelchair controllers and systems, robotic arms, or manipulator attachments integrated with wheelchairs have been developed for various applications, including manipulating door knobs. Unfortunately, the intelligent wheelchairs and robotic attachments are not widely available as commercial products. Therefore, the current manuscript presents the modeling and simulation of a novel but simple technology in the form of a passive wheelchair accessory (straight, arm-like with a single wheel, and arc-shaped with multiple wheels) for pushing doors open from a wheelchair. From the simulations using different wheel shapes and sizes, it was found that the arc-shaped accessory could push open the doors faster and with almost half the required force as compared to the arm-like accessory. Also, smaller spherical wheels were found to be best in terms of reaction forces on the wheels. Prototypes based on the arc-shaped accessory design will be manufactured and evaluated for pushing doors open and dodging or gliding other obstacles.

  18. An Extra Push from Entrance-Channel Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Grar, Nabila; Rowley, Neil

    2006-08-14

    The fusion probability for heavy symmetric systems is known to show certain very specific features. Apart from the large variance of the fusion barrier distribution, it is found that the energy at which the s-wave transmission is 0.5 is shifted to an energy significantly higher than the nominal (e.g. Bass) Coulomb barrier. This last feature is referred to in the literature as the 'extra push' effect. Many models have been devised to explain the origin of these findings. It is worth noting, however, that despite the extra push, the capture cross section is still greatly enhanced at the very lowest energies. This fact cannot be explained within the framework of macroscopic theories involving conditional saddle points or frictional forces. We have performed full coupled-channel calculations for heavy, symmetric systems treating correctly the long-range Coulomb excitations of the collective quadrupole- and octupole-phonon states in the target and projectile. The results obtained show that the extra push and the overall shape of the fusion probability are simply explained by these entrance-channel effects.

  19. Nonplanar push-pull chromophores for opto-electronic applications.

    PubMed

    Breiten, Benjamin; Biaggio, Ivan; Diederich, François

    2010-01-01

    Donor-substituted cyanoethynylethenes (CEEs) are planar push-pull chromophores featuring intense intramolecular charge-transfer (CT) interactions and high third-order optical nonlinearities. Their thermal stability allows for the formation of crystalline thin films by vapor-phase deposition. On the other hand, high-quality amorphous thin films are preferred for opto-electronic applications and such films can be prepared using nonplanar push-pull chromophores with a less pronounced propensity to crystallize. By taking advantage of a versatile, atom-economic 'click-chemistry'-type transformation, involving a formal [2 + 2] cycloaddition of tetracyanoethene (TCNE) to electron-rich alkynes, followed by cycloreversion, stable donor-substituted 1,1,4,4-tetracyanobuta-1,3-dienes (TCBDs) are obtained in high yield and large quantities. These nonplanar push-pull chromophores also feature intense intramolecular CT and, in many cases, high third-order optical nonlinearities. Some of these compounds form high-optical-quality amorphous thin films by vapor-phase deposition, and first applications in next-generation opto-electronic devices have already been demonstrated. Chiral derivatives display high helical twisting power and are efficient dopants to translate molecular into macroscopic chirality, by switching nematic into cholesteric liquid crystalline phases.

  20. β-Functionalized Push-Pull opp-Dibenzoporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, R G Waruna; Fang, Yuanyuan; Kumar, Siddhartha; Osinski, Allen J; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Ziegler, Christopher J; Kadish, Karl M; Wang, Hong

    2015-12-18

    The synthesis of a series of β-functionalized push-pull dibenzoporphyrins was realized. These porphyrins display subtle push-pull effects, demonstrating the exceptional tunability of their electronic and electrochemical properties. The UV-vis spectra of these porphyrins show unique absorption patterns with shouldered Soret bands and extra absorptions in the Q-band region. Stronger electron-withdrawing groups display more significant bathochromic shifts of the Soret bands. The fluorescence spectra of these porphyrins show strong near-IR emission bands (600-850 nm). In particular, fluorescence quenching effect was observed for pyridyl carrying push-pull porphyrin 4c in the presence of an acid. TFA titration study of 4c using UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy reveals that the fluorescence quenching can be mainly attributed to the protonation of the pyridyl groups of 4c. The versatile synthetic methods developed in this work may open a door to access a large number of functionalized organic materials that are currently unavailable. The structure-property studies provided in this work may provide useful guidelines for the design of new generations of materials in dye-sensitized solar cells, in nonlinear optical applications, as fluorescence probes, as well as sensitizers for photodynamic therapy.

  1. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  2. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  3. Ground reaction force patterns in plyometric push-ups.

    PubMed

    Koch, Jenna; Riemann, Bryan L; Davies, George J

    2012-08-01

    Compared with lower extremity plyometrics, data concerning the loads and intensity associated with upper extremity plyometrics are limited. The purpose of this study was to compare vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) characteristics between the clap push-up and box drop push-ups from 3.8 cm (BD1), 7.6 cm (BD2), and 11.4 cm (BD3) heights and limbs (dominant, nondominant). Twenty-two healthy active male subjects (age 25.9 ± 1.3 years, height 1.8 ± 0.08 m, mass 87.6 ± 12 kg) performed 4 repetitions of each push-up variation in a random order. Four dependent variables, peak vGRF, time-to-peak vGRF, loading rate (LR), and propulsion rate (PR) were calculated for each extremity. Statistical analysis consisted of separate limb by variation repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, ground contact time (GCT) was statistically compared between variations. The GCT for the clap push-up (p = 0.033) was significantly less than that for BD1 and BD2. No significant differences were revealed for time-to-peak vGRF (p = 0.717). Peak vGRF was significant between dominant and nondominant limbs (p = 0.045). Post hoc analysis of a significant limb by variation interaction in LR (p < 0.001) revealed the dominant limb to be significantly greater than the nondominant one in all 4 push-up variations. Furthermore, for both limbs, the clap LR was significantly greater than BD1, BD2, and BD3. The clap PR was significantly greater than BD1, BD2, and BD3. These data add rationale for determining upper extremity plyometric progression. The peak vGRFs are similar, and altering the box height did not affect peak vGRF. In contrast, the clap demonstrated the highest LR and PR suggesting that it may be a more powerful exercise than BD1, BD2, and BD3. The higher LR (Clap and BD3) for the dominant extremity illustrates bilateral disparity in the rate of eccentric loading.

  4. Evaluation of the tablet core factors influencing the release kinetics and the loadability of push-pull osmotic systems.

    PubMed

    Malaterre, Vincent; Ogorka, Joerg; Loggia, Nicoletta; Gurny, Robert

    2009-04-01

    Push-pull osmotic systems have been developed to deliver poorly soluble drugs in a modified-release fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the tablet core factors on the drug release kinetics and loadability. The release kinetics was efficiently modulated by varying either the proportion of osmotic agent or the drug layer polymer grade as an alternative to change the membrane characteristics. High osmotic agent proportions and viscous-grade polymers were recommended to formulate high drug loads up to 20% without losing both the release completeness and the zero-order drug release kinetics.

  5. Psychophysical basis for maximum pushing and pulling forces: A review and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Arun; Waters, Thomas; Kapellusch, Jay; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a comprehensive review of psychophysically determined maximum acceptable pushing and pulling forces. Factors affecting pushing and pulling forces are identified and discussed. Recent studies show a significant decrease (compared to previous studies) in maximum acceptable forces for males but not for females when pushing and pulling on a treadmill. A comparison of pushing and pulling forces measured using a high inertia cart with those measured on a treadmill shows that the pushing and pulling forces using high inertia cart are higher for males but are about the same for females. It is concluded that the recommendations of Snook and Ciriello (1991) for pushing and pulling forces are still valid and provide reasonable recommendations for ergonomics practitioners. Regression equations as a function of handle height, frequency of exertion and pushing/pulling distance are provided to estimate maximum initial and sustained forces for pushing and pulling acceptable to 75% male and female workers. At present it is not clear whether pushing or pulling should be favored. Similarly, it is not clear what handle heights would be optimal for pushing and pulling. Epidemiological studies are needed to determine relationships between psychophysically determined maximum acceptable pushing and pulling forces and risk of musculoskeletal injuries, in particular to low back and shoulders. PMID:26664045

  6. Psychophysical basis for maximum pushing and pulling forces: A review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Garg, Arun; Waters, Thomas; Kapellusch, Jay; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a comprehensive review of psychophysically determined maximum acceptable pushing and pulling forces. Factors affecting pushing and pulling forces are identified and discussed. Recent studies show a significant decrease (compared to previous studies) in maximum acceptable forces for males but not for females when pushing and pulling on a treadmill. A comparison of pushing and pulling forces measured using a high inertia cart with those measured on a treadmill shows that the pushing and pulling forces using high inertia cart are higher for males but are about the same for females. It is concluded that the recommendations of Snook and Ciriello (1991) for pushing and pulling forces are still valid and provide reasonable recommendations for ergonomics practitioners. Regression equations as a function of handle height, frequency of exertion and pushing/pulling distance are provided to estimate maximum initial and sustained forces for pushing and pulling acceptable to 75% male and female workers. At present it is not clear whether pushing or pulling should be favored. Similarly, it is not clear what handle heights would be optimal for pushing and pulling. Epidemiological studies are needed to determine relationships between psychophysically determined maximum acceptable pushing and pulling forces and risk of musculoskeletal injuries, in particular to low back and shoulders.

  7. Sensor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  8. Dump assembly

    DOEpatents

    Goldmann, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough.

  9. Alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

  10. Push-pull enamines in the synthesis of fused azaheterocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar'in, D. V.; Lobanov, P. S.

    2015-06-01

    The review summarizes published data on the methods of the synthesis of fused nitrogen-containing heterocycles via push-pull enamines (mainly enaminones). Both intermolecular (cyclocondensations) and intramolecular (cyclizations) transformations of enamines, in which both nucleophilic centres of enamine (carbon and nitrogen) are incorporated into the resulting heterocycle, are considered. The data on the reactivity of enamines cover a broad range of facile methods for the preparation of diverse fused pyridines (quinolines, isoquinolines, pyridopyridines, etc.) and pyrroles (indoles, tetrahydrocarbazoles, pyrrolopyridines, etc.). The bibliography includes 191 references.

  11. Text Content Pushing Technology Research Based on Location and Topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dongqi; Wei, Jianxin; Wumuti, Naheman; Jiang, Baode

    2016-11-01

    In the field, geological workers usually want to obtain related geological background information in the working area quickly and accurately. This information exists in the massive geological data, text data is described in natural language accounted for a large proportion. This paper studied location information extracting method in the mass text data; proposed a geographic location—geological content—geological content related algorithm based on Spark and Mapreduce2, finally classified content by using KNN, and built the content pushing system based on location and topic. It is running in the geological survey cloud, and we have gained a good effect in testing by using real geological data.

  12. A high-sensitivity push-pull magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Breschi, E.; Grujić, Z. D.; Knowles, P.; Weis, A.

    2014-01-13

    We describe our approach to atomic magnetometry based on the push-pull optical pumping technique. Cesium vapor is pumped and probed by a resonant laser beam whose circular polarization is modulated synchronously with the spin evolution dynamics induced by a static magnetic field. The magnetometer is operated in a phase-locked loop, and it has an intrinsic sensitivity below 20fT/√(Hz), using a room temperature paraffin-coated cell. We use the magnetometer to monitor magnetic field fluctuations with a sensitivity of 300fT/√(Hz)

  13. Stress fracture of ulna due to excessive push-ups.

    PubMed

    Meena, Sanjay; Rastogi, Devarshi; Solanki, Bipin; Chowdhury, Buddhadev

    2014-01-01

    Stress fractures are most common in the weight-bearing bones of the lower extremities and spine, but are rarely found in non-weight-bearing bones of the body. Stress fracture of the ulna is extremely rare. We report a case of complete stress fracture of ulna caused due to excessive push ups in a young athlete. Conservative management was successful in healing of fracture and returning this patient back to his previous activity level. Physician should have high index of suspicion, whenever they encounter a young athlete complaining of forearm pain.

  14. Spaces of Difference: The Contradictions of Alternative Educational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon the concept of "thirdspace" (Soja 1996), this article extends sociocultural theorizations of space in relation to alternative educational programs: programs designed to re-engage youth who have been pushed out of mainstream schools. Snapshots of educational programs, provided by ethnographic research gathered in the United…

  15. Pleasant Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unks, Gerald

    1981-01-01

    The author feels that the current wave of political conservatism may prove beneficial to education if the national mood of decentralization and decontrol leads to a resurgence of community involvement and locally-developed alternatives. He cites several examples of successful urban alternative schools. (SJL)

  16. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annett, Larry D.

    A model is presented for the categorizing of alternative schools, then the nature of the free school, which represents the essence of the alternative school movement, is examined. Strengths and weaknesses of court, legislative, and administrative approaches to resolve governance issues are set forth. This is followed by an analysis of three…

  17. Alternative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefonek, Tom; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This special double issue focuses on the issue of alternative assessment and its place in educational reform. "Alternative Assessment: A National Perspective" (T. Stefonek) emphasizes that the fundamental purposes of new assessment methods are grounded in educational goals, meaningful outcomes, and curricular and instructional programs…

  18. Effect of the push-up plus guide and resistance device (PPGRD) on the serratus anterior during push-up plus

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a push-up plus guide and resistance device and investigated the effectiveness of the device. [Subject and Methods] A 39-year-old man presented with moderate pain with left scapular dyskinesis. A newly designed assistance device was used as a push-up plus guide and resistance device (PPGRD). The subject performed the push-up plus exercise without and then with the PPGRD for 2 weeks each. [Results] After performing the push-up plus exercise with the PPGRD for 2 weeks, the serratus anterior muscle power was increased, the pain score was decreased, and the absence of scapular dyskinesis was confirmed. [Conclusion] The PPGRD provided appropriate guidance and prevented excessive trunk flexion during the push-up plus exercise. PMID:27942157

  19. Effect of the push-up plus guide and resistance device (PPGRD) on the serratus anterior during push-up plus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a push-up plus guide and resistance device and investigated the effectiveness of the device. [Subject and Methods] A 39-year-old man presented with moderate pain with left scapular dyskinesis. A newly designed assistance device was used as a push-up plus guide and resistance device (PPGRD). The subject performed the push-up plus exercise without and then with the PPGRD for 2 weeks each. [Results] After performing the push-up plus exercise with the PPGRD for 2 weeks, the serratus anterior muscle power was increased, the pain score was decreased, and the absence of scapular dyskinesis was confirmed. [Conclusion] The PPGRD provided appropriate guidance and prevented excessive trunk flexion during the push-up plus exercise.

  20. Effect of light-curing units on push-out fiber post bond strength in root canal dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calixto, L. R.; Bandéca, M. C.; Silva, F. B.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Porto-Neto, S. T.; Andrade, M. F.

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different light-curing units on the bond strength (push-out) of glass fiber posts in the different thirds of the root (cervical, middle and apical) with different adhesive luting resin systems (dual-cure total-etch; dual-cured and self-etch bonding system; and dual-cure self-adhesive cements), Disks of the samples ( n = 144) were used, with approximately 1 mm of thickness of 48 bovine roots restored with glass fiber posts, that were luted with resin cements photo-activated by halogen LCU (QTH, Optilux 501) and blue LED (Ultraled), with power densities of 600 and 550 mW/cm2, respectively. A universal testing machine (MTS 810 Material Test System) was used with a 1 mm diameter steel rod at cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until post extrusion, with load cell of 50 kg, for evaluation of the push-out strength in the different thirds of each sample. The push-out strength values in kgf were converted to MPa and analyzed through Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s test, at significance level of 5%. The results showed that there were no statistical differences between the QTH and LED LCUs. The self-adhesive resin cement had lower values of retention. The total-etch and self-adhesive system resin cements seem to be a possible alternative for glass fiber posts cementation into the radicular canal and the LED LCU can be applied as an alternative to halogen light on photo-activation of dual-cured resin cements.

  1. Shingle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2007-02-20

    A barrier, such as a PV module, is secured to a base by a support to create a shingle assembly with a venting region defined between the barrier and base for temperature regulation. The first edge of one base may be interengageable with the second edge of an adjacent base to be capable of resisting first and second disengaging forces oriented perpendicular to the edges and along planes oriented parallel to and perpendicular to the base. A deflector may be used to help reduce wind uplift forces.

  2. Dump assembly

    DOEpatents

    Goldmann, L.H.

    1984-12-06

    This is a claim for a dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough. 4 figs.

  3. Pushrod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Jerry D.

    1987-01-01

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing said magnet away from said carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  4. Pushrod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Potter, J.D.

    1984-03-30

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved is described. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing magnet away from the carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  5. Self-assembled biomimetic nanoreactors I: Polymeric template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTaggart, Matt; Malardier-Jugroot, Cecile; Jugroot, Manish

    2015-09-01

    The variety of nanoarchitectures made feasible by the self-assembly of alternating copolymers opens new avenues for biomimicry. Indeed, self-assembled structures allow the development of nanoreactors which combine the efficiency of high surface area metal active centres to the effect of confinement due to the very small cavities generated by the self-assembly process. A novel self-assembly of high molecular weight alternating copolymers is characterized in the present study. The self-assembly is shown to organize into nanosheets, providing a 2 nm hydrophobic cavity with a 1D confinement.

  6. Azavinylidenephosphoranes: a class of cyclic push-pull carbenes.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Florie; El Kazzi, Aimée; Escudié, Yannick; Maerten, Eddy; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Saffon-Merceron, Nathalie; Branchadell, Vicenç; Cossío, Fernando P; Baceiredo, Antoine

    2014-09-22

    The synthesis of a novel family of cyclic push-pull carbenes, namely, azavinylidene phosphoranes, is described. The methodology is based on a formal [3+2] cycloaddition between terminal alkynes and phosphine-imines followed by an oxidation/deprotonation step. Carbenes 6, obtained by simple deprotonation, exhibit typical transient carbene reactivity like the intramolecular CH insertion reaction and a pronounced ambiphilic character exemplified by [2+1] cycloaddition with electron-poor methyl acrylate. Owing to the cyclic structure, carbenes 6 also exhibit an excellent coordination ability toward transition metals. Rh(I) complex 10 was obtained in excellent yield and was fully characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The corresponding Rh(I) -carbonyl complex was also prepared; this indicates that carbenes 6 belong to the strongest σ-donating ligands to date. DFT calculations confirmed the high σ-donation ability of 6 and their classification as push-pull carbenes with a relatively small singlet-triplet energy gap of 23.2-24.3 kcal mol(-1) .

  7. ortho-Phenylene oligomers with terminal push-pull substitution.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Mathew, Sanyo M; Cornett, Sarah D; Grundy, Stephan C; Hartley, C Scott

    2012-05-07

    ortho-Phenylenes are an emerging class of helical oligomers and polymers. We have synthesized a series of push-pull-substituted o-phenylene oligomers (dimethylamino/nitro) up to the octamer. Conformational analysis of the hexamer using a combination of low-temperature NMR spectroscopy and ab initio predictions of (1)H NMR chemical shifts indicates that, like other o-phenylenes, they exist as compact helices in solution. However, the substituents are found to have a significant effect on their conformational behavior: the nitro-functionalized terminus is 3-fold more likely to twist out of the helix. Protonation of the dimethylamino group favors the helical conformer. UV/vis spectroscopy indicates that the direct charge-transfer interaction between the push-pull substituents attenuates quickly compared to other conjugated systems, with no significant charge-transfer band for oligomers longer than the trimer. On protonation of the dimethylamino group, significant bathochromic shifts with increasing oligomer length are observed: the effective conjugation length is 9 repeat units, more than twice that of the parent oligomer. This behavior may be rationalized through examination of the frontier molecular orbitals of these compounds, which exhibit greater delocalization after protonation, as shown by DFT calculations.

  8. Characterizing hydraulic conductivity with the direct-push permeameter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J.; Dietrich, P.; Wittig, V.; Christy, T.

    2007-01-01

    The direct-push permeameter (DPP) is a promising approach for obtaining high-resolution information about vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) in shallow unconsolidated settings. This small-diameter tool, which consists of a short screened section with a pair of transducers inset in the tool near the screen, is pushed into the subsurface to a depth at which a K estimate is desired. A short hydraulic test is then performed by injecting water through the screen at a constant rate (less than 4 L/min) while pressure changes are monitored at the transducer locations. Hydraulic conductivity is calculated using the injection rate and the pressure changes in simple expressions based on Darcy's Law. In units of moderate or higher hydraulic conductivity (more than 1 m/d), testing at a single level can be completed within 10 to 15 min. Two major advantages of the method are its speed and the insensitivity of the K estimates to the zone of compaction created by tool advancement. The potential of the approach has been assessed at two extensively studied sites in the United States and Germany over a K range commonly faced in practical field investigations (0.02 to 500 m/d). The results of this assessment demonstrate that the DPP can provide high-resolution K estimates that are in good agreement with estimates obtained through other means. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  9. Simulation of push-pull inverter using wide bandgap devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-badri, Mustafa; Matin, Mohammed A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of wide bandgap devices (SiC-MOSFET) in the design of a push-pull inverter which provides inexpensive low power dc-ac inverters. The parameters used were 1200V SiC MOSFET(C2M0040120D) made by power company ROHM. This modeling was created using parameters that were provided from a device datasheet. The spice model is provided by this company to study the effect of adding this component on push-pull inverter ordinary circuit and compared results between SiC MOSFET and silicon MOSFET (IRFP260M). The results focused on Vout and Vmos stability as well as on output power and MOSFET power loss because it is a very crucial aspect on DC-AC inverter design. These results are done using the National Instrument simulation program (Multisim 14). It was found that power loss is better in the 12 and 15 vdc inverter. The Vout in the SIC MOSFET circuit shows more stability in the high current low resistance load in comparison to the Silicon MOSFET circuit and this will improve the overall performance of the circuit.

  10. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

  11. Development of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Assessment Tools for Patients with ALS.

    PubMed

    Yonezaki, Jiro; Ikeda, Maki; Tsubaki, Takuya; Sato, Katsuya; Ito, Sin-Ichi; Sueda, Osamu; Fujisawa, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    ALS patients usually use augmentative and alternative communication tools to communicate with other people, but the assessment tools, including the selection of an input switch, are very difficult to operate. In this study, we developed a novel device to measure the physical ability of patients to operate the input switch with a push lever. The study focused on the amount of pushing and the power required to operate the input switch, and the effectiveness was verified.

  12. Micro-assembly using optically controlled bubble microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenqi; Ishii, Kelly S.; Ohta, Aaron T.

    2011-08-01

    Bubbles controlled by optically induced heating were made to function as novel microrobots for micromanipulation and micro-assembly. Using light patterns generated by a commercial computer projector, bubble microrobots were controlled and used to manipulate glass microbeads and perform the micro-assembly of micro-blocks and cell-encapsulating hydrogel beads. Two manipulation modes, pulling and pushing, were used to move micro-objects into place and manipulate glass beads with a velocity of up to 350 μm/s. The simultaneous independent control of three bubble robots was also demonstrated.

  13. RETORT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Loomis, C.C.; Ash, W.J.

    1957-11-26

    An improved retort assembly useful in the thermal reduction of volatilizable metals such as magnesium and calcium is described. In this process a high vacuum is maintained in the retort, however the retort must be heated to very high temperatures while at the same time the unloading end must bo cooled to condense the metal vapors, therefore the retention of the vacuum is frequently difficult due to the thermal stresses involved. This apparatus provides an extended condenser sleeve enclosed by the retort cover which forms the vacuum seal. Therefore, the seal is cooled by the fluid in the condenser sleeve and the extreme thermal stresses found in previous designs together with the deterioration of the sealing gasket caused by the high temperatures are avoided.

  14. Swivel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael; Bradford, Kline; Rawle, Michael; Bartholomew, David B.; McPherson, James

    2007-03-20

    A swivel assembly for a downhole tool string comprises a first and second coaxial housing cooperatively arranged. The first housing comprises a first transmission element in communication with surface equipment. The second housing comprises a second transmission element in communication with the first transmission element. The second housing further comprises a third transmission element adapted for communication with a network integrated into the downhole tool string. The second housing may be rotational and adapted to transmit a signal between the downhole network and the first housing. Electronic circuitry is in communication with at least one of the transmission elements. The electronic circuitry may be externally mounted to the first or second housing. Further, the electronic circuitry may be internally mounted in the second housing. The electronic circuitry may be disposed in a recess in either first or second housing of the swivel.

  15. Thermocouple assembly

    DOEpatents

    Thermos, Anthony Constantine; Rahal, Fadi Elias

    2002-01-01

    A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

  16. Push-Pull Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    RESULTS FROM FIELD PUSH-PULL TESTS CONDUCTED AT McCLELLAN AFB , CALIFORNIA .........................17 4.2 EXAMPLE RESULTS FROM FIELD PUSH-PULL TESTS...Logistics Center, Washington. 3.2.2 McClellan Site Description Field tests were performed at the site of the former McAFB near Sacramento , California...at full scale Conducted at full scale 17 4.1 EXAMPLE RESULTS FROM FIELD PUSH-PULL TESTS CONDUCTED AT McCLELLAN AFB , CALIFORNIA Transport

  17. Push-Pull Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons: Cost & Performance Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    EXAMPLE RESULTS FROM FIELD PUSH-PULL TESTS CONDUCTED AT McCLELLAN AFB , CALIFORNIA .........................17 4.2 EXAMPLE RESULTS FROM FIELD PUSH-PULL...Logistics Center, Washington. 3.2.2 McClellan Site Description Field tests were performed at the site of the former McAFB near Sacramento , California...Conducted at full scale Conducted at full scale 17 4.1 EXAMPLE RESULTS FROM FIELD PUSH-PULL TESTS CONDUCTED AT McCLELLAN AFB , CALIFORNIA Transport

  18. Care Practice #5: Spontaneous Pushing in Upright or Gravity-Neutral Positions

    PubMed Central

    DiFranco, Joyce T.; Romano, Amy M.; Keen, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This updated edition of Care Practice Paper #5 presents the evidence for the benefits of spontaneous pushing in upright or gravity-neutral positions during labor. Various pushing positions and techniques are described, and the advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. Women are encouraged to push when and how their bodies tell them to and to choose the positions for birth that are the most comfortable. PMID:18566649

  19. Dynamic fiber debonding and push-out in model composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiaopeng

    2003-10-01

    When a crack propagates in a fiber-reinforced composite material, a substantial part of energy is dissipated in the debonding and sliding of the bridging fibers located behind the advancing crack front. Because of the important effect they have on the fracture toughness of a composite, these processes have been the subject of extensive experimental, analytical and numerical work. However, the vast majority of existing work on this topic has been limited to quasi-static loading situations. The few investigations performed on various composite systems involving higher loading rates seem to indicate that the fiber sliding process presents some unusual and sometimes contradictory rate-dependent characteristics. To enhance the current understanding of dynamic fiber debonding and push-out in model fiber-reinforced composites, a combined experimental and numerical investigation was carried out. A modified split Hopkinson pressure bar was used to perform high-rate fiber push-out experiments on an aluminum/epoxy model composite system. An axisymmetric cohesive/volumetric finite element scheme was developed to simulate the push-out process. Effects of several important parameters such as interfacial strength, interfacial fracture toughness and fiber/matrix friction coefficient were investigated. Interface cohesive properties were extracted by comparison between experimental and numerical results. The comparison between numerics and experiments was made as close as possible by (a) simulating the entire experimental apparatus; (b) using loading directly measured in the experiments as input to the finite element analysis (FEA) code; (c) using measured material properties in the FEA simulations; and (d) accounting for effects such as large deformations, residual stresses (through a quasi-static pre-loading scheme), spontaneous crack formation (through a cohesive failure formulation) and dynamic frictional sliding. Details of the physical process were discussed by numerically

  20. [To promote universal eye health to push forward sustaining development of the prevention of blindness in China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jialiang

    2014-03-01

    Action plan for the prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment for 2014-2019 endorsed by 66(th) World Health Assembly is an important document for promoting the global prevention of blindness. This action plan summarized the experiences and lessons in the global prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment from 2009 to 2013, raised the global goal for the prevention of blindness-the reduction in prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25% by 2019 from the baseline of 2010, set up the monitoring indicators for realizing the global goal. This document can be served as a roadmap to consolidate joint efforts aimed at working towards universal eye health in the world. This action plan must give a deep and important impact on the prevention of blindness in China.We should implement the action plan for the prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment for 2014-2019 to push forward sustaining development of the prevention of blindness in China.

  1. Range of Motion of the Ankle According to Pushing Force, Gender and Knee Position

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Hee; Lee, Hyunkeun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the difference of range of motion (ROM) of ankle according to pushing force, gender and knee position. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight healthy adults (55 men, 73 women) between the ages of 20 and 51, were included in the study. One examiner measured the passive range of motion (PROM) of ankle by Dualer IQ Inclinometers and Commander Muscle Testing. ROM of ankle dorsiflexion (DF) and plantarflexion (PF) according to change of pushing force and knee position were measured at prone position. Results There was significant correlation between ROM and pushing force, the more pushing force leads the more ROM at ankle DF and ankle PF. Knee flexion of 90° position showed low PF angle and high ankle DF angle, as compared to the at neutral position of knee joint. ROM of ankle DF for female was greater than for male, with no significant difference. ROM of ankle PF for female was greater than male regardless of the pushing force. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the relationship between pushing force and ROM of ankle joint. There was significant correlation between ROM of ankle and pushing force. ROM of ankle PF for female estimated greater than male regardless of the pushing force and the number of measurement. The ROM of the ankle is measured differently according to the knee joint position. Pushing force, gender and knee joint position are required to be considered when measuring the ROM of ankle joint. PMID:27152277

  2. Dipolar Photosystems: Engineering Oriented Push-Pull Components into Double- and Triple-Channel Surface Architectures.

    PubMed

    Bolag, Altan; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2016-06-20

    Push-pull aromatics are not popular as optoelectronic materials because their supramolecular organization is difficult to control. However, recent progress with synthetic methods has suggested that the directional integration of push-pull components into multicomponent photosystems should become possible. In this study, we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of double- or triple-channel architectures that contain π stacks with push-pull components in parallel or mixed orientation. Moreover, the parallel push-pull stacks were uniformly oriented with regard to co-axial stacks, either with inward or outward oriented push-pull dipoles. Hole-transporting (p) aminoperylenemonoimides (APIs) and aminonaphthalimides (ANIs) are explored for ordered push-pull stacks. For the co-axial electron-transporting (n) stacks, naphthalenediimides (NDIs) are used. In double-channel photosystems, mixed push-pull stacks are overall less active than parallel push-pull stacks. The orientation of the parallel push-pull stacks with regard to the co-axial NDI stacks has little influence on activity. In triple-channel photosystems, outward-directed dipoles in bridging stacks between peripheral p and central n channels show higher activity than inward-directed dipolar stacks. Higher activities in response to direct irradiation of outward-directed parallel stacks reveal the occurrence of quite remarkable optical gating.

  3. A lightweight push-pull acoustic transducer composed of a pair of dielectric elastomer films.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takehiro; Ando, Akio; Ono, Kazuho; Morita, Yuichi; Hosoda, Kosuke; Ishii, Daisaku; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2013-11-01

    A lightweight push-pull acoustic transducer using dielectric elastomer films was proposed for use in advanced audio systems in homes. The push-pull structure consists of two dielectric elastomer films developed to serve as an electroactive polymer. The transducer utilizes the change in the surface area of the dielectric elastomer film, induced by an electric-field-induced change in the thickness, for sound generation. The resonance frequency of the transducer was derived from modeling the push-pull configuration to estimate the lower limit of the frequency range. Measurement results presented an advantage of push-pull driving in the suppression of harmonic distortion.

  4. Pushing the high-energy limit of plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Bisio, Francesco; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Moroni, Riccardo; Maidecchi, Giulia; Alabastri, Alessandro; Gonella, Grazia; Giglia, Angelo; Andolfi, Laura; Nannarone, Stefano; Mattera, Lorenzo; Canepa, Maurizio

    2014-09-23

    The localized surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles allows confining the eletromagnetic field in nanosized volumes, creating high-field "hot spots", most useful for enhanced nonlinear optical spectroscopies. The commonly employed metals, Au and Ag, yield plasmon resonances only spanning the visible/near-infrared range. Stretching upward, the useful energy range of plasmonics requires exploiting different materials. Deep-ultraviolet plasmon resonances happen to be achievable with one of the cheapest and most abundant materials available: aluminum indeed holds the promise of a broadly tunable plasmonic response, theoretically extending far into the deep-ultraviolet. Complex nanofabrication and the unavoidable Al oxidation have so far prevented the achievement of this ultimate high-energy response. A nanofabrication technique producing purely metallic Al nanoparticles has at last allowed to overcome these limits, pushing the plasmon resonance to 6.8 eV photon energy (≈180 nm) and thus significantly broadening the spectral range of plasmonics' numerous applications.

  5. Simple push coating of polymer thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Minemawari, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Horii, Yoshinori; Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Azumi, Reiko; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2012-11-01

    Solution processibility is a unique advantage of organic semiconductors, permitting the low-cost production of flexible electronics under ambient conditions. However, the solution affinity to substrate surfaces remains a serious dilemma; liquid manipulation is more difficult on highly hydrophobic surfaces, but the use of such surfaces is indispensable for improving device characteristics. Here we demonstrate a simple technique, which we call ‘push coating’, to produce uniform large-area semiconducting polymer films over a hydrophobic surface with eliminating material loss. We utilize a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based trilayer stamp whose conformal contact with the substrate enables capillarity-induced wetting of the surface. Films are formed through solvent sorption and retention in the stamp, allowing the stamp to be peeled perfectly from the film. The planar film formation on hydrophobic surfaces also enables subsequent fine film patterning. The technique improves the crystallinity and field-effect mobility of stamped semiconductor films, constituting a major step towards flexible electronics production.

  6. Forces, movements and reflexes produced by pushing human teeth.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brendan J J; Mason, Andrew G; Cadden, Samuel W

    2012-05-01

    Pushing a tooth results in movement of the tooth and reflex inhibition of activity in jaw-closing muscles. The aims of this study were to determine how much tooth movement is required to elicit such reflexes and whether this is dependent on the point of force application to the tooth. Eight experiments were performed on six volunteer subjects. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from a masseter muscle while the subjects produced approximately 12.5 % of the EMG associated with maximal clenching. Reflexes were evoked by pushing at two positions (incisal and cervical) on an upper central incisor. The forces applied and the resulting movements of the tooth were recorded. There was a linear relationship between force and movement regardless of whether the force was incisal or cervical (Pearson's r = 0.91 and r = 0.93 respectively). There were no differences between the slopes or intercepts for these relationships (ANCOVA p = 0.42, p = 0.46 respectively). There were linear relationships between the logarithms of force or movement and the resulting inhibitory reflexes (r = 0.81, 0.79, 0.81 and 0.74 for incisal and cervical forces and incisal and cervical movements, respectively). Again, there were no significant differences between the slopes for these relationships (ANCOVA p = 0.75, p = 0.46 for force and movement, respectively). There were no significant differences between the reflex thresholds for incisal and cervical stimuli in terms of force (0.23 and 0.25 N, ANCOVA p = 0.1) or movement (9.7 and 8.5 μm, ANCOVA p = 0.22). Thus, it appears that neither tooth movements nor jaw reflexes are dependent on the point of force application to a tooth.

  7. Effects of handle orientation and between-handle distance on bi-manual isometric push strength.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Hua; McGorry, Raymond W; Chang, Chien-Chi

    2012-07-01

    Hand-handle interface is seldom considered in contemporary upper limb biomechanical analyses of pushing and pulling strength. A laboratory study was designed to examine if handle rotation in the frontal plane (0°-horizontal, 45°, and 90°-vertical), anterior tilt (0°-parallel to the frontal plane, and 15°), and distance between two handles (31 and 48.6 cm) affect pushing strength and subjective rating of handle preference. A special testing station was constructed to elicit upper limb push exertions that involved minimal contribution of the torso and legs. Within the station, four load cells were used to measure the horizontal (forward pushing) and vertical components of the pushing forces. Thirty-one participants performed seated bi-manual pushing strength tests. Comparing to the reference handle configuration (horizontal, straight, and a 31-cm between-handle distance), the 45°-rotated and tilted handles with a 31-cm between-handle distance allowed 6.7% more pushing output, while the horizontal and tilted handles with a 31-cm between-handle distance resulted in 2.8% less. Subjective preference was correlated with normalized pushing strength (r=0.89). Tilted handles, at 45°-rotated and vertical positions received highest subjective ratings of preference among all handle configurations. Men exerted greater pushing strength with the 48.6-cm handle distance while women's capacity was greatest with the 31-cm distance. The results demonstrated that handle rotation and tilt angles affected pushing strength and should be taken into consideration when evaluating or designing pushing tasks.

  8. Two speed axle assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, C.F.; Krisher, J.A.; Pifer, R.L.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes a two speed axle assembly comprising an input sun gear, an output sun gear, a plant carrier mounted for rotation about the input and output sun gears, at least one compound planetary gear rotatably mounted on the planet carrier and drivingly connected to the input sun gear and the output sun gear, first clutch means for selectively locking the planet carrier relative to the input sun gear for rotation therewith including means normally loading the first clutch means whereby the planet carrier rotates the input sun gear, second clutch means for alternatively locking the planet carrier against rotation whereby the compound planet gear rotates on the planet carrier in response to rotation of the input sun gear, and inflatable bladder means adapted when selectively inflated to load the second clutch means and simultaneously unload the normally loaded first clutch means whereby the planet carrier is unlocked relative to the input sun gear and locked against rotation, including means selectively supplying hydraulic fluid under pressure to the bladder means, means supplying hydraulic fluid comprising accumulator means, pump means remote from the axle assembly for pressurizing the hydraulic fluid and maintaining a supply of the fluid under at least a minimum pressure in the accumulator means, and valve means for selectively admitting the pressurized fluid from the accumulator means to the bladder means to inflate the bladder means and relieving the pressure to deflate the bladder means.

  9. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  10. ALTERNATIVE OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study chloramines, chlorine dioxide and ozone as alternative oxidants/disinfectants to chlorine for the control of disinfection by-rpdocuts (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes and haloa...

  11. Alternative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

  12. A fully integrated W-band push-push CMOS VCO with low phase noise and wide tuning range.

    PubMed

    Wang, To-Po

    2011-07-01

    A circuit topology suitable for a low-phase-noise wide-tuning-range push-push voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is proposed in this paper. By applying varactors connected between drain and source terminations of the cross-coupled pair, the tuning range is effectively increased and the phase noise is improved. Moreover, a small capacitor is inserted between the VCO core and testing buffer to reduce loading effects on the VCO core. Furthermore, the enhanced second-harmonic output signal is extracted at middle of the varactors, leading to the elimination of RF choke at VCO's second-harmonic output port and a reduced chip size. Based on the proposed architecture, this VCO fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS exhibits a measured 6.35% tuning range. Operating at a supply voltage of 1.2 V, the VCO core consumes 7.5-mW dc power, and the measured phase noise is -75 dBc/Hz and -91.5 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz and 1-MHz offsets from the 77.8-GHz carrier, respectively. Compared with previously published silicon-based VCOs over 70 GHz, this work can simultaneously achieve low phase noise, wide tuning range, and low dc power consumption, leading to a superior figure of merit (FOM), and better figure of merit considering the tuning range (FOM(T)). In addition, this fully integrated VCO also demonstrates the highest operation frequency among previously published 0.18-μm CMOS VCOs.

  13. Electrical Connector Assembly

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    hereinafter 5 appear, a feature of the invention is the provision of an 6 electrical connector assembly including a female connector 7 assembly comprising...urging of the male connector assembly 3 into the female connector assembly, a leading edge of ehe 4 retention ring engages the claw fingers forcing...assembly barrel portion to pass through the female connector 3 assembly annular wall central opening, and permitting entry of 9 the pin into the sleeve

  14. On Reducing Delay in Mesh-Based P2P Streaming: A Mesh-Push Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Xue, Kaiping; Hong, Peilin

    The peer-assisted streaming paradigm has been widely employed to distribute live video data on the internet recently. In general, the mesh-based pull approach is more robust and efficient than the tree-based push approach. However, pull protocol brings about longer streaming delay, which is caused by the handshaking process of advertising buffer map message, sending request message and scheduling of the data block. In this paper, we propose a new approach, mesh-push, to address this issue. Different from the traditional pull approach, mesh-push implements block scheduling algorithm at sender side, where the block transmission is initiated by the sender rather than by the receiver. We first formulate the optimal upload bandwidth utilization problem, then present the mesh-push approach, in which a token protocol is designed to avoid block redundancy; a min-cost flow model is employed to derive the optimal scheduling for the push peer; and a push peer selection algorithm is introduced to reduce control overhead. Finally, we evaluate mesh-push through simulation, the results of which show mesh-push outperforms the pull scheduling in streaming delay, and achieves comparable delivery ratio at the same time.

  15. DELINEATION OF SUBSURFACE HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION USING A DIRECT PUSH RESISTIVITY METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct push resistivity method was evaluated as a complementary screening tool to provide rapid in-situ contaminant detection to aid in better defining locations for drilling, sampling, and monitoring well installation at hazardous waste sites. Nine continuous direct push resi...

  16. Evaluation of four cementation strategies on the push-out bond strength between fiber post and root dentin.

    PubMed

    Bergoli, Cesar Dalmolin; Amaral, Marina; Druck, Carolina Ceolin; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2011-01-01

    This trial used push-out testing to evaluate four different fiber post cementation strategies. Specimens of bovine mandibular teeth were randomly allocated into four groups according to cementation strategies (n = 10): ScotchBond MultiPurpose and RelyX ARC (Group 1); AdheSE and Multilink Automix (Group 2); phosphoric acid and RelyX U100 (Group 3); and RelyX U100 (Group 4). Four slices from each specimen (2.0 mm thick) were obtained for the push-out test. All slices were analyzed for failure mode after testing. A one-way ANOVA showed differences between the groups (P = 0.002). A Tukey test indicated that Group 1 had the highest bond strength values (13.96 ± 6.41 MPa). Groups 2 (6.58 ± 2.14 MPa), 3 (5.85 ± 2.57 MPa), and 4 (8.19 ± 2.28 MPa) had similar bond strengths, but all of them were lower than Group 1. A three-step total etching adhesive system, associated with a conventional resin cement, might be a good alternative for fiber post cementation.

  17. Muscular contribution to low-back loading and stiffness during standard and suspended push-ups.

    PubMed

    Beach, Tyson A C; Howarth, Samuel J; Callaghan, Jack P

    2008-06-01

    Push-up exercises are normally performed to challenge muscles that span upper extremity joints. However, it is also recognized that push-ups provide an effective abdominal muscle challenge, especially when the hands are in contact with a labile support surface. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk muscle activation levels and resultant intervertebral joint (IVJ) loading when standard and suspended push-ups were performed, and to quantify and compare the contribution of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness in both exercises. Eleven recreationally trained male volunteers performed sets of standard and suspended push-ups. Upper body kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected and input into a 3D biomechanical model of the lumbar torso to quantify lumbar IVJ loading and the contributions of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness. When performing suspended push-ups, muscles of the abdominal wall and the latissimus dorsi were activated to levels that were significantly greater than those elicited when performing standard push-ups (p<.05). As a direct result of these increased activation levels, model-predicted muscle forces increased and consequently led to significantly greater mean (p=.0008) and peak (p=.0012) lumbar IVJ compressive forces when performing suspended push-ups. Also directly resulting from the increased activation levels of the abdominal muscles and the latissimus dorsi during suspended push-ups was increased muscular contribution to lumbar IVJ rotational stiffness (p<.05). In comparison to the standard version of the exercise, suspended push-ups appear to provide a superior abdominal muscle challenge. However, for individuals unable to tolerate high lumbar IVJ compressive loads, potential benefits gained by incorporating suspended push-ups into their resistance training regimen may be outweighed by the risk of overloading low-back tissues.

  18. Forwardly-placed firearm fire control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frickey, Steven J.

    2001-12-22

    A firearm fire control assembly for disposition in a forwardly placed support-hand operative relationship within a firearm having a combination of a firing pin and a firearm hammer adapted to engage and fire a cartridge, a sear assembly to alternately engage and disengage the combination of the firearm hammer and firing pin, and a trigger assembly including a movable trigger mechanism that is operable to engage the sear assembly to cause the firearm hammer firing pin combination to fire the firearm, a fire control assembly including a fire control depression member and a fire control rod operably connected to the depression member, and being positioned in a forward disposition disposed within a forestock of the firearm, and the depression member adapted to be operably engaged and depressed by the user's conventional forwardly placed support hand to maneuver the fire control rod to provide firing control of the firing of the firearm.

  19. Inertial effects in the theory of dielectric and Kerr effect relaxation of an assembly of non-interacting polar molecules in strong alternating fields. II. The effect of higher-order terms in the distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, W. T.; Mcgoldrick, S. G.; Quinn, K. P.

    1988-09-01

    Formulae for the dielectric and Kerr effect responses for any size of the n × n matrix in the perturbation solution of the Kramers equation described in paper I of this series are given. The solution is carried out explicitly for n = 2 and n = 3 for the linear dielectric response and for n = 2, 3 and 4 for the Kerr effect response of an assembly of dipoles having permanent moments only. This is a non-linear response. It is found that for small inertial effects the linear dielectric response and also the Kerr effect response for induced dipoles only (which is a linear response as far as solving the Kramers equation is concerned) is adequately described by the truncation n = 2. This corresponds to the use of a modified Smoluchowski equation. For the Kerr effect response for permanent dipoles it is shown from the n = 3 and n = 4 results that the n = 2 result - corresponding to the use of a modified Smoluchowski equation - does not provide an adequate description of the behaviour of the system. An explanation for this is sought in the work of Wilemski, Titulaer, Stratonovitch, Skinner and Wolynes.

  20. Reversing one's fortune by pushing away bad luck.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Risen, Jane L; Hosey, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Across cultures, people try to "undo" bad luck with superstitious rituals such as knocking on wood, spitting, or throwing salt. We suggest that these rituals reduce the perceived likelihood of anticipated negative outcomes because they involve avoidant actions that exert force away from one's representation of self, which simulates the experience of pushing away bad luck. Five experiments test this hypothesis by having participants tempt fate and then engage in avoidant actions that are either superstitious (Experiment 1, knocking on wood) or nonsuperstitious (Experiments 2-5, throwing a ball). We find that participants who knock down (away from themselves) or throw a ball think that a jinxed negative outcome is less likely than participants who knock up (toward themselves) or hold a ball. Experiments 3 and 4 provide evidence that after tempting fate, engaging in an avoidant action leads to less clear mental representations for the jinxed event, which, in turn, leads to lower perceived likelihoods. Finally, we demonstrate that engaging in an avoidant action-rather than creating physical distance-is critical for reversing the perceived effect of the jinx. Although superstitions are often culturally defined, the underlying psychological processes that give rise to them may be shared across cultures.

  1. Pull or Push? Octopuses Solve a Puzzle Problem

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Jonas N.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kuba, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Octopuses have large brains and exhibit complex behaviors, but relatively little is known about their cognitive abilities. Here we present data from a five-level learning and problem-solving experiment. Seven octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) were first trained to open an L shaped container to retrieve food (level 0). After learning the initial task all animals followed the same experimental protocol, first they had to retrieve this L shaped container, presented at the same orientation, through a tight fitting hole in a clear Perspex partition (level 1). This required the octopuses to perform both pull and release or push actions. After reaching criterion the animals advanced to the next stage of the test, which would be a different consistent orientation of the object (level 2) at the start of the trial, an opaque barrier (level 3) or a random orientation of the object (level 4). All octopuses were successful in reaching criterion in all levels of the task. At the onset of each new level the performance of the animals dropped, shown as an increase in working times. However, they adapted quickly so that overall working times were not significantly different between levels. Our findings indicate that octopuses show behavioral flexibility by quickly adapting to a change in a task. This can be compared to tests in other species where subjects had to conduct actions comprised of a set of motor actions that cannot be understood by a simple learning rule alone. PMID:27003439

  2. Pressure variation under the ischial tuberosity during a push cycle.

    PubMed

    Dabnichki, P; Taktak, D

    1998-06-01

    The present study is devoted to the variation of the magnitude of the compressive loading acting on the soft seating parts of a disabled person and the related pressure distribution under the ischial tuberosity during wheelchair propulsion. A combined experimental and computational approach was designed to predict correctly the change in magnitude of the maximum internal shear and compressive stresses produced by different propulsion speeds, cushion characteristics and body position of the subject. The results obtained show that the vertical force acting on the seating parts increases with the propulsion speed and exceeds the body weight by more than 100%. The related pressure under the ischial tuberosity shows a significant increase of 125% on the tissue/seat interface and an estimated increase of 185% in the peak compressive stress. It is concluded that computer modelling using a quasi-static approach provides a reliable estimate of the pressure values by the observed loading frequencies of 0-4 Hz. It can also be noted that the time independent material model utilised for the bulky soft tissue proved adequate for the estimate of the pressure level occurring under the ischial tuberosity during a push cycle.

  3. Odor-mediated push-pull pollination in cycads.

    PubMed

    Terry, Irene; Walter, Gimme H; Moore, Chris; Roemer, Robert; Hull, Craig

    2007-10-05

    The reproductive organs of some plants self-heat, release scent, and attract pollinators. The relations among these processes are not well understood, especially in the more ancient, nonflowering gymnosperm lineages. We describe the influence of plant volatiles in an obligate pollination mutualism between an Australian Macrozamia cycad (a gymnosperm with male and female individuals) and its specialist thrips pollinator, Cycadothrips chadwicki. Pollen-laden thrips leave male cycad cones en masse during the daily thermogenic phase, when cone temperatures and volatile emissions increase dramatically and thrips are repelled. As thermogenesis declines, total volatile emissions diminish and cones attract thrips, resulting in pollination of female cones. Behavioral and electrophysiological tests on thrips reveal that variations in b-myrcene and ocimene emissions by male and female cones are sufficient to explain the observed sequential thrips' repellence (push) and attraction (pull). These dynamic interactions represent complex adaptations that enhance the likelihood of pollination and may reflect an intermediate state in the evolution of biotic pollination.

  4. Pull or Push? Octopuses Solve a Puzzle Problem.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jonas N; Hochner, Binyamin; Kuba, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Octopuses have large brains and exhibit complex behaviors, but relatively little is known about their cognitive abilities. Here we present data from a five-level learning and problem-solving experiment. Seven octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) were first trained to open an L shaped container to retrieve food (level 0). After learning the initial task all animals followed the same experimental protocol, first they had to retrieve this L shaped container, presented at the same orientation, through a tight fitting hole in a clear Perspex partition (level 1). This required the octopuses to perform both pull and release or push actions. After reaching criterion the animals advanced to the next stage of the test, which would be a different consistent orientation of the object (level 2) at the start of the trial, an opaque barrier (level 3) or a random orientation of the object (level 4). All octopuses were successful in reaching criterion in all levels of the task. At the onset of each new level the performance of the animals dropped, shown as an increase in working times. However, they adapted quickly so that overall working times were not significantly different between levels. Our findings indicate that octopuses show behavioral flexibility by quickly adapting to a change in a task. This can be compared to tests in other species where subjects had to conduct actions comprised of a set of motor actions that cannot be understood by a simple learning rule alone.

  5. Theory and simulations of electron vortices generated by magnetic pushing

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.; Ottinger, P. F.

    2013-08-15

    Vortex formation and propagation are observed in kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of magnetic pushing in the plasma opening switch. These vortices are studied here within the electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) approximation using detailed analytical modeling. PIC simulations of these vortices have also been performed. Strong v×B forces in the vortices give rise to significant charge separation, which necessitates the use of the EMHD approximation in which ions are fixed and the electrons are treated as a fluid. A semi-analytic model of the vortex structure is derived, and then used as an initial condition for PIC simulations. Density-gradient-dependent vortex propagation is then examined using a series of PIC simulations. It is found that the vortex propagation speed is proportional to the Hall speed v{sub Hall}≡cB{sub 0}/4πn{sub e}eL{sub n}. When ions are allowed to move, PIC simulations show that the electric field in the vortex can accelerate plasma ions, which leads to dissipation of the vortex. This electric field contributes to the separation of ion species that has been observed to occur in pulsed-power experiments with a plasma-opening switch.

  6. Advances in upper limb stroke rehabilitation: a technology push.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Rui C V; Harwin, William S; Nagai, Kiyoshi; Johnson, Michelle

    2011-10-01

    Strokes affect thousands of people worldwide leaving sufferers with severe disabilities affecting their daily activities. In recent years, new rehabilitation techniques have emerged such as constraint-induced therapy, biofeedback therapy and robot-aided therapy. In particular, robotic techniques allow precise recording of movements and application of forces to the affected limb, making it a valuable tool for motor rehabilitation. In addition, robot-aided therapy can utilise visual cues conveyed on a computer screen to convert repetitive movement practice into an engaging task such as a game. Visual cues can also be used to control the information sent to the patient about exercise performance and to potentially address psychosomatic variables influencing therapy. This paper overviews the current state-of-the-art on upper limb robot-mediated therapy with a focal point on the technical requirements of robotic therapy devices leading to the development of upper limb rehabilitation techniques that facilitate reach-to-touch, fine motor control, whole-arm movements and promote rehabilitation beyond hospital stay. The reviewed literature suggest that while there is evidence supporting the use of this technology to reduce functional impairment, besides the technological push, the challenge ahead lies on provision of effective assessment of outcome and modalities that have a stronger impact transferring functional gains into functional independence.

  7. Pushing the limits of nanolithography outside the box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocola, Leonidas

    The Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) at Argonne National Laboratory was constructed in 2006, and opened its doors to serve the user community in 2007 with the objective to provide research opportunities in Nanoscience for the scientific community worldwide. Currently, the CNM hosts over 400 user proposals a year. There are six research groups at the CNM that do work in nanophotonics, electronic and magnetic materials and devices, nanobio interfaces, nanofabrication and devices, x-ray nanoscale microscopy and theory and modeling. At the CNM Nanofabrication and Devices Group we have been able to push the limits of electron beam lithography to make plasmonic nanostructures obtain sharp corners with less than 6 nm radius of curvature and expand the use of ion beams to 3D large area nanofabrication in microfluidics by novel design methodologies, among other accomplishments. None of these accomplishments are possible without detailed understanding of the physics and chemistry mechanisms involved during fabrication. During my talk I will discuss a few clear cases where lithography and fabrication are used in ways not commonly found in current nanofabrication facilities and what make our facility unique. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  8. On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Miyato, N. Yagi, M.; Scott, B. D.

    2015-01-15

    Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear.

  9. Latching relay switch assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  10. Probe tip heating assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje

    2016-10-25

    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  11. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  12. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Knight, R.C.; Precechtel, D.R.; Smith, B.G.

    1985-09-09

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  13. Positioning of microtubule organizing centers by cortical pushing and pulling forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavin, Nenad; Laan, Liedewij; Ma, Rui; Dogterom, Marileen; Jülicher, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Positioning of microtubule (MT) organizing centers with respect to the confining geometry of cells depends on pushing and/or pulling forces generated by MTs that interact with the cell cortex (Dogterom et al 2005 Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 17 67-74). How, in living cells, these forces lead to proper positioning is still largely an open question. Recently, it was shown by in vitro experiments using artificial microchambers that in a square geometry, MT asters center more reliably by a combination of pulling and pushing forces than by pushing forces alone (Laan et al 2012a Cell 148 502-14). These findings were explained by a physical description of aster mechanics that includes slipping of pushing MT ends along chamber boundaries. In this paper, we extend that theoretical work by studying the influence of the shape of the confining geometry on the positioning process. We find that pushing and pulling forces can have centering or off-centering behavior in different geometries. Pushing forces center in a one-dimensional and a square geometry, but lead to off-centering in a circle if slipping is sufficiently pronounced. Pulling forces, however, do not center in a one-dimensional geometry, but improve centering in a circle and a square. In an elongated stadium geometry, positioning along the short axis depends mainly on pulling forces, while positioning along the long axis depends mainly on pushing forces. Our theoretical results suggest that different positioning strategies could be used by different cell types.

  14. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  15. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C.; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E.; Behm, David G.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001). Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key Points Compared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation. A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity. More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation. A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS. PMID:25177174

  16. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E; Behm, David G; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001). Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key PointsCompared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation.A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity.More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation.A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS.

  17. Myoelectric activation and kinetics of different plyometric push-up exercises.

    PubMed

    García-Massó, Xavier; Colado, Juan C; González, Luis M; Salvá, Pau; Alves, Joao; Tella, Víctor; Triplett, N Travis

    2011-07-01

    The kinetic and myoelectric differences between 3 types of plyometric push-ups were investigated. Twenty-seven healthy, physically active men served as subjects and completed both familiarization and testing sessions. During these sessions, subjects performed 2 series of 3 plyometric push-up variations in a counterbalanced order according to the following techniques: Countermovement push-ups (CPUs) were push-ups performed with the maximum speed of movement; jump push-ups (JPUs) were similar to clapping push-ups; and fall push-ups (FPUs) required kneeling subjects to drop and then attempt to return to their initial position. Vertical ground reaction forces were determined by using a force plate. Myoelectric activity was recorded by means of electromyography. Impact force and impact rate of force development were significantly (p < 0.05) higher for FPUs than for JPUs. The maximum rate of force development was higher for CPUs (p < 0.05) than for JPUs, and the maximum force was higher for the CPUs than for the FPUs (p < 0.05). There were differences among exercises for the mean muscle activation of the pectoralis major (PM; p < 0.001), triceps brachii (p < 0.001), external oblique (p < 0.005) and anterior deltoid (p < 0.001), and in the maximum muscle activation of the PM (p < 0.001). Plyometric push-ups with countermovement achieved a higher maximum force and rate of force and did not cause impact forces. Thus, this type of push-up exercise may be regarded as the best for improving explosive force. The FPU exercise achieved higher levels of muscular activation in the agonist and synergist muscle groups, and greater impact forces and impact force development rates.

  18. Clinical and hormonal aspects in breast cancer with special reference to malignant evolutive push.

    PubMed

    Kiricuta, I; Frenkel, Z; Munteanu, S

    1975-01-01

    It is tried to differentiate between various stages of malignant evolutive push and normal mammary tumors to establish an individual therapeutic procedure. Besides mammography and thermometry, investigations of urinary excretions of estrogenic and androgenic steriods are qualified for this purpose. Patients with malignant evolutive push showed an increased excretion of estrogens which reached its highest levels in patients suffering from inflammatory mammary carcinomas. The excretion of 17-ketosteroids shows a behaviour vice versa. Altogether mammary tumors with malignant evolutive push are characterized by a state of absolute and relative hyperestrogenity respectively. This phenomenon preferably depends on the clinical stage of the disease than on the age of the patients.

  19. Real-time density matrix renormalization group dynamics of spin and charge transport in push-pull polyenes and related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Tirthankar; Ramasesha, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of terminal substituents on the dynamics of spin and charge transport in donor-acceptor substituted polyenes [D-(CH)x-A] chains, also known as push-pull polyenes. We employ a long-range correlated model Hamiltonian for the D-(CH)x-A system, and time-dependent density matrix renormalization group technique for time propagating the wave packet obtained by injecting a hole at a terminal site, in the ground state of the system. Our studies reveal that the end groups do not affect spin and charge velocities in any significant way, but change the amount of charge transported. We have compared these push-pull systems with donor-acceptor substituted polymethine imine (PMI), D-(CHN)x-A, systems in which besides electron affinities, the nature of pz orbitals in conjugation also alternate from site to site. We note that spin and charge dynamics in the PMIs are very different from that observed in the case of push-pull polyenes, and within the time scale of our studies, transport of spin and charge leads to the formation of a “quasi-static” state.

  20. Edison Electric, Exxon Push Nuclear Power in Nation's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Dede

    1978-01-01

    Pro-nuclear power "educational materials" designed or promoted by energy and utility companies lack objectivity about alternative energy resources. A free comic book distributed to public schools in New Mexico and a simulation game supplied to Maryland public schools at the expense of utility customers are described. (SW)

  1. Firearm trigger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  2. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  3. Push and Pull: Physician Usage of and Satisfaction with Health Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Thomas R.; Ancker, Jessica S.; Edwards, Alison M.; Patel, Vaishali N.; Kaushal, Rainu

    2012-01-01

    Federal policy toward health information exchange (HIE), the electronic transfer of patient data across organizations, has evolved to support two forms—push, or point-to-point data transmission, and pull, or multisource data aggregation. HIE usage is associated with user satisfaction, but existing quantitative research is limited to settings where only pull HIE is available. To address this gap, we surveyed 99 physicians regarding usage of and satisfaction with push HIE and pull HIE available in their communities as well as effects of HIE on practice and overall HIE satisfaction. In five of nine measures, respondents reported being very satisfied with push HIE more often than pull HIE (p < 0.05). Physicians were at least four times as likely to report being very satisfied with HIE overall if they were pediatricians, were very satisfied with push HIE, or noted that HIE improved their access to complete information. Findings have implications for HIE implementation and policy. PMID:23304275

  4. Hyperpolarizabilities of Push-Pull Polyenes: Experimental Results and a New Two-State Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J.; Bourhill, G.; Marder, S.; Lu, D.; Chen, G.; Goddard, W.

    1994-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated a correlation between the geometry (i.e., the bond length alteration, BLA) and the first and second hyperpolarizabilities (betta and gamma) of donor-acceptor substituted (push-pull)polyenes.

  5. The Effects of Push-ups with the Trunk Flexed on the Shoulder and Trunk Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Hyun; Jung, So-Young; Nam, Dong-Hun; Shin, Seung-Je; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the shoulder and trunk muscles in two push-up positions: standard push-ups and push-ups with the trunk flexed. [Subjects] Fifteen young adult males participated in the study. [Methods] This study measured the clavicular and sternocostal portions of the pectoralis major, the serratus anterior, and the rectus abdominis during push-ups under the two conditions. [Results] The activity of the sternocostal portion of the pectoralis major and that of the rectus abdominis were significantly greater under Condition 1 than under Condition 2. The activity of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major and that of the serratus anterior were significantly greater under Condition 2 compared with Condition 1. [Conclusion] These results indicate that exercises can selectively activate muscle parts under different clinical situations.

  6. Automated Simultaneous Assembly for Multistage Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breithaupt, Krista; Ariel, Adelaide; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2005-01-01

    This article offers some solutions used in the assembly of the computerized Uniform Certified Public Accountancy (CPA) licensing examination as practical alternatives for operational programs producing large numbers of forms. The Uniform CPA examination was offered as an adaptive multistage test (MST) beginning in April of 2004. Examples of…

  7. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (16 or 20%) therapy in obese patients with primary immunodeficiency: a retrospective analysis of administration by infusion pump or subcutaneous rapid push.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, R

    2013-08-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted at a single centre, capturing data on 173 primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) patients, including 40 obese patients, using subcutaneous administration of immunoglobulin (Ig) (SCIG) (16 or 20%) delivered by infusion pump or subcutaneous (s.c.) rapid push. Patients previously using Ig administered as intravenous (i.v.) infusions (IVIG) were converted to SCIG dosing on a 1:1 basis. In both obese and non-obese patients, mean serum Ig levels were higher during SCIG administration (steady state) compared with IVIG administration (trough values). Similar SCIG dose : serum IgG level relationships were observed between obese and non-obese patients, suggesting the consistent bioavailability of SCIG regardless of body mass index (BMI). The mean SCIG volume per dosing site and the mean number of dosing days per week were greater with s.c. rapid push compared with infusion pump in this cohort, but the mean number of sites per infusion session was lower with s.c. rapid push. Both methods were well tolerated. The use of 20 versus 16% SCIG in obese patients improved dosing efficiency, resulting in smaller weekly volumes (54·7 versus 74·5 ml/week) and dosing on fewer days per week (2·3 versus 3·4 days). These data do not suggest a need for SCIG dosing adjustments in obese individuals relative to non-obese patients. The administration of SCIG using either infusion pump or s.c. rapid push is a practical and well-tolerated alternative to IVIG in obese patients. Offering various administration techniques provides a greater opportunity for treatment satisfaction and patient empowerment, which may support high levels of patient compliance.

  8. Direct-push-installed, gas-driven mini-pumps for discrete-point groundwater sampling: A new in-situ approach to long-term monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulmeister, M. K.; Birk, S. M.; Healey, J. M.; Butler, J. J.; Whittemore, D. O.

    2001-12-01

    Discrete-point sampling is important for a variety of hydrogeological investigations. A new approach to vertical chemical profiling has been developed in which low-volume mini-pump samplers (MPS) are installed in a single borehole using direct-push methods. The new, positive-displacement, gas-driven mini-pumps overcome sampling depth limitations of conventional suction pumps. Up to ten pumps can be simultaneously operated using a multi-channel pneumatic controller that drives water to the surface through alternating pressurization and depressurization pulses. By combining direct-push chemical profiling with MPS installation, the pumps may be placed at the most appropriate depths for a particular investigation. This study assessed the potential of the new approach in an alluvial aquifer that has been the site of a great deal of previous work. Two sets of mini-pump samplers, comprised of four pumps each, were installed in an interval characterized by a steep chemical gradient. The MPS installations were placed within one meter of conventional multilevel samplers with similar intake depths. Chemical field parameters (DO, pH, ORP, conductivity and temperature) and dissolved constituent concentrations (NO3, SO4, Cl, Fe and Mn) were measured in the two sets of paired samplers. Although the vertical chemical trends observed in the multilevel samplers were also observed in MPS installed using direct-push rods composed of nitrided steel, redox sensitive measurements from the MPS were affected by installation with standard steel rods. The combination of MPS installation and direct-push characterization allows for repeat sampling of intervals of interest without the need for permanent wells. Ongoing work addresses the long-term performance of the MPS.

  9. The Assembly on University Goals and Governance. A First Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston, MA.

    The Assembly on University Goals and Governance was established by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in September 1969 to explore, develop, and help implement alternative approaches for resolving certain of the issues affecting colleges and universities today. This report presents the 85 theses that were developed by the Assembly. The…

  10. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    from under a rock to the aqueous nutrient in the Gas Exchange instrument indicates that adsorbed water and hydrates play an important role in the oxidation potential of the soil. The rock surfaces are strong, because they did not scratch, chip or spall when the sampler pushed them. Fresh surfaces of soil and the undersides of rocks were exposed so that they could be imaged in color. A ledge of soil adhered to one rock that tilted, showing that a crust forms near the surface of Mars. The reason for low amounts of iron in the sampIes from under the rocks is not known at this time.

  11. Assembly-line Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Robert G.; Zendejas, Silvino; Malhotra, Shan

    1987-01-01

    Costs and profits estimated for models based on user inputs. Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation (SAMIS) program generalized so useful for production-line manufacturing companies. Provides accurate and reliable means of comparing alternative manufacturing processes. Used to assess impact of changes in financial parameters as cost of resources and services, inflation rates, interest rates, tax policies, and required rate of return of equity. Most important capability is ability to estimate prices manufacturer would have to receive for its products to recover all of costs of production and make specified profit. Written in TURBO PASCAL.

  12. Influence of molecular designs on polaronic and vibrational transitions in a conjugated push-pull copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Cobet, Christoph; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Menon, Reghu; Hingerl, Kurt; Schlager, Stefanie; White, Matthew S.; Neugebauer, Helmut; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Stadler, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Electron-phonon interactions of free charge-carriers in doped pi-conjugated polymers are conceptually described by 1-dimensional (1D) delocalization. Thereby, polaronic transitions fit the 1D-Froehlich model in quasi-confined chains. However, recent developments in conjugated polymers have diversified the backbones to become elaborate heterocylcic macromolecules. Their complexity makes it difficult to investigate the electron-phonon coupling. In this work we resolve the electron-phonon interactions in the ground and doped state in a complex push-pull polymer. We focus on the polaronic transitions using in-situ spectroscopy to work out the differences between single-unit and push-pull systems to obtain the desired structural- electronic correlations in the doped state. We apply the classic 1D-Froehlich model to generate optical model fits. Interestingly, we find the 1D-approach in push-pull polarons in agreement to the model, pointing at the strong 1D-character and plain electronic structure of the push-pull structure. In contrast, polarons in the single-unit polymer emerge to a multi- dimensional problem difficult to resolve due to their anisotropy. Thus, we report an enhancement of the 1D-character by the push-pull concept in the doped state - an important view in light of the main purpose of push-pull polymers for photovoltaic devices. PMID:27731421

  13. Evaluation of direct push probes: Sensor interface analysis of DC resistivity probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Daniel; Bumberger, Jan; Paasche, Hendrik

    2015-11-01

    In near surface sedimentary exploration direct push technology has become popular for geophysical logging. The method is thought to have great potential to offer accurate information about the variability of physical parameters since the region of disturbed sedimentary formation due to probe injection is considered to be smaller compared to disturbances by classical borehole measurements. Technical and experimental design of direct push probes follow often those of established borehole probes. A systematic appraisal of the suitability of such tools for direct push logging procedure exposing the probes to a very high mechanical stress and rapid aging process has been missing in the past. Following a recently developed general framework for direct push system decomposition we analyze two different DC resistivity direct push probes with regard to their sensor interface. Simple laboratory experiments validate the setup of a numerical simulation of both probes revealing significant differences on the suitability of the chosen electrode arrangement. Differences in robustness with regard to surface abrasion result in changing probe responses which could, depending on the experimental design of the probe, cause resistivity value changes of almost 25% within approximately 15 operational hours, which leaves severe doubts about the suitability of established direct push logging probes for quantitative geophysical probing.

  14. The role of substrate curvature in actin-based pushing forces.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ian M; Ehrenberg, Morton; Bindschadler, Michael; McGrath, James L

    2004-06-22

    The extension of the plasma membrane during cell crawling or spreading is known to require actin polymerization; however, the question of how pushing forces derive from actin polymerization remains open. A leading theory (herein referred to as elastic propulsion) illustrates how elastic stresses in networks growing on curved surfaces can result in forces that push particles. To date all examples of reconstituted motility have used curved surfaces, raising the possibility that such squeezing forces are essential for actin-based pushing. By contrast, other theories, such as molecular ratchets, neither require nor consider surface curvature to explain pushing forces. Here, we critically test the requirement of substrate curvature by reconstituting actin-based motility on polystyrene disks. We find that disks move through extracts in a manner that indicates pushing forces on their flat surfaces and that disks typically move faster than the spheres they are manufactured from. For a subset of actin tails that form on the perimeter of disks, we find no correlation between local surface curvature and tail position. Collectively the data indicate that curvature-dependent mechanisms are not required for actin-based pushing.

  15. Influence of molecular designs on polaronic and vibrational transitions in a conjugated push-pull copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobet, Christoph; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Menon, Reghu; Hingerl, Kurt; Schlager, Stefanie; White, Matthew S.; Neugebauer, Helmut; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Stadler, Philipp

    2016-10-01

    Electron-phonon interactions of free charge-carriers in doped pi-conjugated polymers are conceptually described by 1-dimensional (1D) delocalization. Thereby, polaronic transitions fit the 1D-Froehlich model in quasi-confined chains. However, recent developments in conjugated polymers have diversified the backbones to become elaborate heterocylcic macromolecules. Their complexity makes it difficult to investigate the electron-phonon coupling. In this work we resolve the electron-phonon interactions in the ground and doped state in a complex push-pull polymer. We focus on the polaronic transitions using in-situ spectroscopy to work out the differences between single-unit and push-pull systems to obtain the desired structural- electronic correlations in the doped state. We apply the classic 1D-Froehlich model to generate optical model fits. Interestingly, we find the 1D-approach in push-pull polarons in agreement to the model, pointing at the strong 1D-character and plain electronic structure of the push-pull structure. In contrast, polarons in the single-unit polymer emerge to a multi- dimensional problem difficult to resolve due to their anisotropy. Thus, we report an enhancement of the 1D-character by the push-pull concept in the doped state - an important view in light of the main purpose of push-pull polymers for photovoltaic devices.

  16. Effect of the push-up exercise at different palmar width on muscle activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Sin; Kim, Do-Yeon; Ha, Min-Seong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of changes in palmar width on the muscle activities of the shoulder and truncus muscles during push-up exercise. [Subjects] Twelve healthy adult males participated in this study as subjects. [Methods] Push-up exercises were performed with three different palmar width in narrow (50%), neutral (100%), and wide positions (150%). We measured the muscle activities of the deltoideus p. acromialis, pectoralis minor, pectoralis major, serratus anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, latissimus dorsi, and infraspinatus. [Results] Pectoralis minor, triceps brachii, and infraspinatus muscle activities were greater during push-ups performed with the 50% palmar width compared with the other palmar widths. Pectoralis major muscle activity was greater during push-ups performed with the 50% and 100% palmar widths compared with the 150% palmar width. Serratus anterior muscle activity was greater during push-ups performed with the 150% palmar width compared with the other palmar widths. [Conclusion] These results are expected to serve as reference materials for push-up exercise applications in training programs for truncus muscle strengthening or rehabilitation programs for scapula patients.

  17. Magnetically mediated vortexlike assembly of gold nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianfei; Dong, Jian; Sun, Dongke; Guo, Zhirui; Gu, Ning

    2012-04-24

    Gold nanoshells currently attract increasing research interests due to the important role in many subjects. For practical applications, random arrangement of the nanoparticles is often unfavored so that the assembly of gold nanoshells is becoming a central issue. We here proposed to utilize time-variant magnetic field to direct the assembly of gold nanoshells. It was discovered that the alternating magnetic field can mediate the vortex-like assembly of gold nanoshells. The mechanism was explored and thought to be relative with the electric field of induction which caused the thermal gradient on the substrate and the electric force. The vortexlike structure as well as the assembly mechanism will play an important role in research and application of gold nanomaterials.

  18. Piston and valve assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Rolder, G. K.

    1985-10-01

    A downhole hydraulically actuated pump assembly of either the free or fixed type lifts formation fluid from the bottom of a borehole to the surface of the ground. The downhole pump has a power piston which actuates a production plunger. A valve means is concentrically arranged within the power piston. A stationary, hollow valve control rod extends through the power piston and through the valve means, with a lower marginal end of the control rod terminating within the production plunger. Power fluid flows through the control rod and to the valve means. As the power piston reciprocates within the engine cylinder, means on the control rod actuates the valve means between two alternant positions so that power fluid is applied to the bottom face of the power piston to thereby cause the power piston to reciprocate upward; and thereafter, the control rod causes the valve means to shift to the other position, whereupon spent power fluid is exhausted from the engine cylinder. The spent power fluid is admixed with production fluid and is conducted to the surface of the ground.

  19. A low-phase-noise Ka-band push-push voltage-controlled oscillator using CMOS/glass-integrated passive device technologies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a Ka-band CMOS push-push voltage- controlled oscillator (VCO) integrated into a glass-integrated passive device (GIPD) process is presented. The transformer, λ/4 transmission line, and inductors of the VCO are realized in the GIPD process, achieving superior performances, and therefore improve the phase noise of the VCO. Moreover, the transformer-based VCO is a differential Hartley topology to further reduce the phase noise and chip area. Operating at 1.8 V supply voltage, the VCO core consumes merely 3.8 mW of dc power. The measured phase noise is -109.18 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from the 30.84 GHz oscillation frequency. The push-push VCO also demonstrates a 24.5 dB fundamental rejection, and exhibits an 8.4% tuning range. Compared with recently published CMOS-based VCOs, it is observed that the proposed VCO exhibits excellent performance under low power consumption.

  20. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  1. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  2. Copperhead Alternate Manufacturing Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    TUCNIDLODY INC Fiue2.Pooyp ocaMd n is o]St 𔃾 TRWwc. MATERIALS TECNOLOGY r.NC. ,, , , I , ,- , I ~TRI ,c. .4 Figure 22. Prototype Gotcha from Larger Bag. 43...length and, if the flange-body Junction is too thin .(Indeed, even if it meets blueprint dimensions), the flange Is pushed away from * the body and...bolt into top of bowl mandrel and extract bowl mandrel from compact. 9. Support base of compact on 4" OD x 2 inch ID ejection block and push the lower

  3. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation.

  4. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P.; Clark, John M.; Reynolds, Stuart E.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Feil, Edward J.; Urrutia, Araxi O.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  5. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  6. Community Wind: Once Again Pushing the Envelope of Project Finance

    SciTech Connect

    bolinger, Mark A.

    2011-01-18

    In the United States, the 'community wind' sector - loosely defined here as consisting of relatively small utility-scale wind power projects that sell power on the wholesale market and that are developed and owned primarily by local investors - has historically served as a 'test bed' or 'proving grounds' for up-and-coming wind turbine manufacturers that are trying to break into the U.S. wind power market. For example, community wind projects - and primarily those located in the state of Minnesota - have deployed the first U.S. installations of wind turbines from Suzlon (in 2003), DeWind (2008), Americas Wind Energy (2008) and later Emergya Wind Technologies (2010), Goldwind (2009), AAER/Pioneer (2009), Nordic Windpower (2010), Unison (2010), and Alstom (2011). Thus far, one of these turbine manufacturers - Suzlon - has subsequently achieved some success in the broader U.S. wind market as well. Just as it has provided a proving grounds for new turbines, so too has the community wind sector served as a laboratory for experimentation with innovative new financing structures. For example, a variation of one of the most common financing arrangements in the U.S. wind market today - the special allocation partnership flip structure (see Figure 1 in Section 2.1) - was first developed by community wind projects in Minnesota more than a decade ago (and is therefore sometimes referred to as the 'Minnesota flip' model) before being adopted by the broader wind market. More recently, a handful of community wind projects built over the past year have been financed via new and creative structures that push the envelope of wind project finance in the U.S. - in many cases, moving beyond the now-standard partnership flip structures involving strategic tax equity investors. These include: (1) a 4.5 MW project in Maine that combines low-cost government debt with local tax equity, (2) a 25.3 MW project in Minnesota using a sale/leaseback structure, (3) a 10.5 MW project in South Dakota

  7. Interconnect assembly for an electronic assembly and assembly method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Gerbsch, Erich William

    2003-06-10

    An interconnect assembly and method for a semiconductor device, in which the interconnect assembly can be used in lieu of wirebond connections to form an electronic assembly. The interconnect assembly includes first and second interconnect members. The first interconnect member has a first surface with a first contact and a second surface with a second contact electrically connected to the first contact, while the second interconnect member has a flexible finger contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member. The first interconnect member is adapted to be aligned and registered with a semiconductor device having a contact on a first surface thereof, so that the first contact of the first interconnect member electrically contacts the contact of the semiconductor device. Consequently, the assembly method does not require any wirebonds, but instead merely entails aligning and registering the first interconnect member with the semiconductor device so that the contacts of the first interconnect member and the semiconductor device make electrically contact, and then contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member with the flexible finger of the second interconnect member.

  8. Sequential push-pull pumping mechanism for washing and evacuation of an immunoassay reaction chamber on a microfluidic CD platform.

    PubMed

    Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Soin, Norhayati; Kahar Bador, Maria; Madou, Marc

    2015-01-01

    A centrifugal compact disc (CD) microfluidic platform with reservoirs, micro-channels, and valves can be employed for implementing a complete immunoassay. Detection or biosensor chambers are either coated for immuno-interaction or a biosensor chip is inserted in them. On microfluidic CDs featuring such multi-step chemical/biological processes, the biosensor chamber must be repeatedly filled with fluids such as enzymes solutions, buffers, and washing solutions. After each filling step, the biosensor chamber needs to be evacuated by a passive siphoning process to prepare it for the next step in the assay. However, rotational speed dependency and limited space on a CD are two big obstacles to performing such repetitive filling and siphoning steps. In this work, a unique thermo-pneumatic (TP) Push-Pull pumping method is employed to provide a superior alternative biosensor chamber filling and evacuation technique. The proposed technique is demonstrated on two CD designs. The first design features a simple two-step microfluidic process to demonstrate the evacuation technique, while the second design shows the filling and evacuation technique with an example sequence for an actual immunoassay. In addition, the performance of the filling and evacuation technique as a washing step is also evaluated quantitatively and compared to the conventional manual bench top washing method. The two designs and the performance evaluation demonstrate that the technique is simple to implement, reliable, easy to control, and allows for repeated push-pulls and thus filling and emptying of the biosensor chamber. Furthermore, by addressing the issue of rotational speed dependency and limited space concerns in implementing repetitive filling and evacuation steps, this newly introduced technique increases the flexibility of the microfluidic CD platform to perform multi-step biological and chemical processes.

  9. Sequential Push-Pull Pumping Mechanism for Washing and Evacuation of an Immunoassay Reaction Chamber on a Microfluidic CD Platform

    PubMed Central

    Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Soin, Norhayati; Kahar Bador, Maria; Madou, Marc

    2015-01-01

    A centrifugal compact disc (CD) microfluidic platform with reservoirs, micro-channels, and valves can be employed for implementing a complete immunoassay. Detection or biosensor chambers are either coated for immuno-interaction or a biosensor chip is inserted in them. On microfluidic CDs featuring such multi-step chemical/biological processes, the biosensor chamber must be repeatedly filled with fluids such as enzymes solutions, buffers, and washing solutions. After each filling step, the biosensor chamber needs to be evacuated by a passive siphoning process to prepare it for the next step in the assay. However, rotational speed dependency and limited space on a CD are two big obstacles to performing such repetitive filling and siphoning steps. In this work, a unique thermo-pneumatic (TP) Push-Pull pumping method is employed to provide a superior alternative biosensor chamber filling and evacuation technique. The proposed technique is demonstrated on two CD designs. The first design features a simple two-step microfluidic process to demonstrate the evacuation technique, while the second design shows the filling and evacuation technique with an example sequence for an actual immunoassay. In addition, the performance of the filling and evacuation technique as a washing step is also evaluated quantitatively and compared to the conventional manual bench top washing method. The two designs and the performance evaluation demonstrate that the technique is simple to implement, reliable, easy to control, and allows for repeated push-pulls and thus filling and emptying of the biosensor chamber. Furthermore, by addressing the issue of rotational speed dependency and limited space concerns in implementing repetitive filling and evacuation steps, this newly introduced technique increases the flexibility of the microfluidic CD platform to perform multi-step biological and chemical processes. PMID:25853411

  10. Hugs and Behaviour Points: Alternative Education and the Regulation of "Excluded" Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat; Pennacchia, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    In England, alternative education (AE) is offered to young people formally excluded from school, close to formal exclusion or who have been informally pushed to the educational edges of their local school. Their behaviour is seen as needing to change. In this paper, we examine the behavioural regimes at work in 11 AE programmes. Contrary to…

  11. Looking for an Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  12. Alternative Pathways to Apprenticeships. Good Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    Apprenticeships are changing. The increasing proportions of people entering apprenticeships at various levels of ability and backgrounds are stimulating demand for alternative pathways to completions. This good practice guide assembles the key findings for education practitioners and workplace supervisors from three related research reports on…

  13. Telerobotic truss assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Philip L.

    1987-01-01

    The ACCESS truss was telerobotically assembled in order to gain experience with robotic assembly of hardware designed for astronaut extravehicular (EVA) assembly. Tight alignment constraints of the ACCESS hardware made telerobotic assembly difficult. A wider alignment envelope and a compliant end effector would have reduced the problem. The manipulator had no linear motion capability, but many of the assembly operations required straight line motion. The manipulator was attached to a motion table in order to provide the X, Y, and Z translations needed. A programmable robot with linear translation capability would have eliminated the need for the motion table and streamlined the assembly. Poor depth perception was a major problem. Shaded paint schemes and alignment lines were helpful in reducing this problem. The four cameras used worked well for only some operations. It was not possible to identify camera locations that worked well for all assembly steps. More cameras or movable cameras would have simplified some operations. The audio feedback system was useful.

  14. Numerical investigation of turbulent diffusion in push-pull and exhaust fume cupboards.

    PubMed

    Chern, Ming-Jyh; Cheng, Wei-Ying

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate airflow motions and associated pollutant distributions in fume hoods. Currently, most exhaust fume hoods are designed to use an airflow induced by a fan at the top to remove pollutants. Ambient fluids are drawn, flowing toward the opening and subsequently turning to the outlet at the roof. Pollutants are supposedly captured by the airflow and brought out from the cupboard. The present numerical study based on the finite-volume method and the standard k-epsilon turbulence model simulates flow patterns and pollutant distributions in an exhaust fume hood with and without a manikin present. Subsequently, a push-pull air curtain technique is applied to a fume cupboard. To investigate the capturing performance of a push-pull fume cupboard, numerical approaches are used to simulate flow and concentration variations. Numerical results reveal that four characteristic flow modes exist for a variety of speed ratios of push-pull flows and openings. A concave curtain mode which has a fast pull flow and a weak push flow is suggested for the operation of a push-pull fume cupboard. According to ANSI-ASHRAE Standard 110-1995, the local concentration at the specified point is <0.1 parts per million (p.p.m.). Meanwhile, we also examine concentration variations at 12 selected points in front of the sash, and all where the concentration is <0.1 p.p.m. A manikin is put in front of the sash to observe its effect. As a result, the flow and the concentration contours in a push-pull fume cupboard are not affected by a manikin. In terms of those predicted results, it turns out that a push-pull fume cupboard successfully captures pollutants and prevents an operator from breathing pollutants.

  15. Multifunctional self-assembled monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Zawodzinski, T.; Bar, G.; Rubin, S.; Uribe, F.; Ferrais, J.

    1996-06-01

    This is the final report of at three year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The specific goals of this research project were threefold: to develop multifunctional self-assembled monolayers, to understand the role of monolayer structure on the functioning of such systems, and to apply this knowledge to the development of electrochemical enzyme sensors. An array of molecules that can be used to attach electrochemically active biomolecules to gold surfaces has been synthesized. Several members of a class of electroactive compounds have been characterized and the factors controlling surface modification are beginning to be characterized. Enzymes have been attached to self-assembled molecules arranged on the gold surface, a critical step toward the ultimate goal of this project. Several alternative enzyme attachment strategies to achieve robust enzyme- modified surfaces have been explored. Several means of juxtaposing enzymes and mediators, electroactive compounds through which the enzyme can exchange electrons with the electrode surface, have also been investigated. Finally, the development of sensitive biosensors based on films loaded with nanoscale-supported gold particles that have surface modified with the self-assembled enzyme and mediator have been explored.

  16. The push-pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Nancy E; Mehmel, Constance J; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Wood, David L; Erbilgin, Nadir; Owen, Donald R

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in two studies. The first was conducted on replicated 4.04-ha plots in lodgepole pine stands (California, 2008) and the second on 0.81-ha plots in whitebark pine stands (Washington, 2010). In both studies, D. ponderosae population levels were moderate to severe. The treatments were 1) push-only (D. ponderosae antiaggregant semiochemicals alone); 2) push-pull (D. ponderosae antiaggregants plus perimeter traps placed at regular intervals, baited with four-component D. ponderosae aggregation pheromone); and 3) untreated controls. We installed monitoring traps baited with two-component D. ponderosae lures inside each plot to assess effect of treatments on beetle flight. In California, fewer beetles were collected in push-pull treated plots than in control plots, but push-only did not have a significant effect on trap catch. Both treatments significantly reduced the rate of mass and strip attacks by D. ponderosae, but the difference in attack rates between push-pull and push-only was not significant. In Washington, both push-pull and push-only treatments significantly reduced numbers of beetles caught in traps. Differences between attack rates in treated and control plots in Washington were not significant, but the push-only treatment reduced attack rates by 30% compared with both the control and push-pull treatment. We conclude that, at these spatial scales and beetle densities, push-only may be preferable for mitigating D. ponderosae attack because it is much less expensive, simpler, and adding trap-out does not appear to improve efficacy.

  17. Evaluation of push-out bond strength of two fiber-reinforced composite posts systems using two luting cements in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Ajay; Pujar, Madhu; Patil, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The concept of using a “post” for the restoration of teeth has been practiced to restore the endodontically treated tooth. Metallic posts have been commonly used, but their delirious effects have led to the development of fiber-reinforced materials that have overcome the limitations of metallic posts. The use of glass and quartz fibers was proposed as an alternative to the dark color of carbon fiber posts as far as esthetics was concerned. “Debonding” is the most common failure in fiber-reinforced composite type of posts. This study was aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of a self-adhesive dual-cured luting agent (RelyX U100) with a total etch resin luting agent (Variolink II) used to cement two different FRC posts. Materials and Methods: Eighty human maxillary anterior single-rooted teeth were decoronated, endodontically treated, post space prepared and divided into four groups (n = 20); Group I: D.T. light post (RTD) and Variolink II (Ivoclare vivadent), Group II: D.T. light post (RTD) and RelyX U100 (3M ESPE), Group III: Glassix post (Nordin) and Variolink II (Ivoclare vivadent) and Group IV: Glassix post (Nordin) and RelyX U100 (3M ESPE). Each root was sectioned to get slices of 2 ± 0.05-mm thickness. Push-out tests were performed using a triaxial loading frame. To express bond strength in megapascals (Mpa), load value recorded in Newton (N) was divided by the area of the bonded interface. After testing the push-out strengths, the samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. Results: The mean values of the push-out bond strength show that Group I and Group III had significantly higher values than Group II and Group IV. The most common mode of failure observed was adhesive between dentin and luting material and between post and luting material. Conclusions: The mean push-out bond strengths were higher for Groups I and III where Variolink II resin cement was used for luting the fiber post, which is based on the total etch

  18. Pushing versus pulling: division of labour between tarsal attachment pads in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Christofer J; Federle, Walter

    2008-06-07

    Adhesive organs on the legs of arthropods and vertebrates are strongly direction dependent, making contact only when pulled towards the body but detaching when pushed away from it. Here we show that the two types of attachment pads found in cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea), tarsal euplantulae and pretarsal arolium, serve fundamentally different functions. Video recordings of vertical climbing revealed that euplantulae are almost exclusively engaged with the substrate when legs are pushing, whereas arolia make contact when pulling. Thus, upward-climbing cockroaches used front leg arolia and hind leg euplantulae, whereas hind leg arolia and front leg euplantulae were engaged during downward climbing. Single-leg friction force measurements showed that the arolium and euplantulae have an opposite direction dependence. Euplantulae achieved maximum friction when pushed distally, whereas arolium forces were maximal during proximal pulls. This direction dependence was not explained by the variation of shear stress but by different contact areas during pushing or pulling. The changes in contact area result from the arrangement of the flexible tarsal chain, tending to detach the arolium when pushing and to peel off euplantulae when in tension. Our results suggest that the euplantulae in cockroaches are not adhesive organs but 'friction pads', mainly providing the necessary traction during locomotion.

  19. Comparison of muscle activation using various hand positions during the push-up exercise.

    PubMed

    Cogley, Robert M; Archambault, Teasha A; Fibeger, Jon F; Koverman, Mandy M; Youdas, James W; Hollman, John H

    2005-08-01

    Popular fitness literature suggests that varied hand placements during push-ups may isolate different muscles. Scientific literature, however, offers scant evidence that varied hand placements elicit different muscle responses. This study examined whether different levels of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles are required to perform push-ups from each of 3 different hand positions: shoulder width base, wide base, and narrow base hand placements. Forty subjects, 11 men and 29 women, performed 1 repetition of each push-up. The EMG activity for subjects' dominant arm pectoralis major and triceps brachii was recorded using surface electrodes. The EMG activity was greater in both muscle groups during push-ups performed from the narrow base hand position compared with the wide base position (p < 0.05). This study suggests that, if a goal is to induce greater muscle activation during exercise, then push-ups should be performed with hands in a narrow base position compared with a wide base position.

  20. An Alternative to Assembly-Line Education: Undergraduate Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ruth A.

    1974-01-01

    The author describes a teaching innovation in which undergraduates were used to lead weekly discussion sections of lower division sociology courses. The selection process of teaching assistants, student reactions, and possible solutions to potential problems are presented. (Author/DE)

  1. Push beam spot-size dependence of atom transfer in a double magneto-optical trap setup.

    PubMed

    Ram, S P; Tiwari, S K; Mishra, S R; Rawat, H S

    2013-07-01

    We have studied the dependence of atom transfer between two magneto-optical traps (MOTs) on the spot-size of a push laser beam in a double magneto-optical trap setup. It was observed that the spot-size of the push beam at vapor-chamber MOT (VC-MOT) affects significantly the transfer of atoms from the VC-MOT to an ultrahigh vacuum MOT (UHV-MOT). The number of atoms accumulated in the UHV-MOT first increases with the push beam spot-size and then decreases with it after attaining a maximum value, for a given power of the push beam. Our results show that the number of atoms accumulated in the UHV-MOT is dependent on the push beam spot-size, push beam power, and capture speed of the UHV-MOT.

  2. Push-pull tracer tests: Their information content and use for characterizing non-Fickian, mobile-immobile behavior: INFORMATION CONTENT OF PUSH-PULL TESTS

    DOE PAGES

    Hansen, Scott K.; Berkowitz, Brian; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; ...

    2016-12-01

    Path reversibility and radial symmetry are often assumed in push-pull tracer test analysis. In reality, heterogeneous flow fields mean that both assumptions are idealizations. In this paper, to understand their impact, we perform a parametric study which quantifies the scattering effects of ambient flow, local-scale dispersion, and velocity field heterogeneity on push-pull breakthrough curves and compares them to the effects of mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT) processes including sorption and diffusion into secondary porosity. We identify specific circumstances in which MIMT overwhelmingly determines the breakthrough curve, which may then be considered uninformative about drift and local-scale dispersion. Assuming path reversibility, wemore » develop a continuous-time-random-walk-based interpretation framework which is flow-field-agnostic and well suited to quantifying MIMT. Adopting this perspective, we show that the radial flow assumption is often harmless: to the extent that solute paths are reversible, the breakthrough curve is uninformative about velocity field heterogeneity. Our interpretation method determines a mapping function (i.e., subordinator) from travel time in the absence of MIMT to travel time in its presence. A mathematical theory allowing this function to be directly “plugged into” an existing Laplace-domain transport model to incorporate MIMT is presented and demonstrated. Algorithms implementing the calibration are presented and applied to interpretation of data from a push-pull test performed in a heterogeneous environment. A successful four-parameter fit is obtained, of comparable fidelity to one obtained using a million-node 3-D numerical model. In conclusion, we demonstrate analytically and numerically how push-pull tests quantifying MIMT are sensitive to remobilization, but not immobilization, kinetics.« less

  3. Push-pull tracer tests: Their information content and use for characterizing non-Fickian, mobile-immobile behavior: INFORMATION CONTENT OF PUSH-PULL TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Scott K.; Berkowitz, Brian; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; O'Malley, Daniel; Karra, Satish

    2016-12-01

    Path reversibility and radial symmetry are often assumed in push-pull tracer test analysis. In reality, heterogeneous flow fields mean that both assumptions are idealizations. In this paper, to understand their impact, we perform a parametric study which quantifies the scattering effects of ambient flow, local-scale dispersion, and velocity field heterogeneity on push-pull breakthrough curves and compares them to the effects of mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT) processes including sorption and diffusion into secondary porosity. We identify specific circumstances in which MIMT overwhelmingly determines the breakthrough curve, which may then be considered uninformative about drift and local-scale dispersion. Assuming path reversibility, we develop a continuous-time-random-walk-based interpretation framework which is flow-field-agnostic and well suited to quantifying MIMT. Adopting this perspective, we show that the radial flow assumption is often harmless: to the extent that solute paths are reversible, the breakthrough curve is uninformative about velocity field heterogeneity. Our interpretation method determines a mapping function (i.e., subordinator) from travel time in the absence of MIMT to travel time in its presence. A mathematical theory allowing this function to be directly “plugged into” an existing Laplace-domain transport model to incorporate MIMT is presented and demonstrated. Algorithms implementing the calibration are presented and applied to interpretation of data from a push-pull test performed in a heterogeneous environment. A successful four-parameter fit is obtained, of comparable fidelity to one obtained using a million-node 3-D numerical model. In conclusion, we demonstrate analytically and numerically how push-pull tests quantifying MIMT are sensitive to remobilization, but not immobilization, kinetics.

  4. Note: Investigation of atom transfer using a red-detuned push beam in a double magneto-optical trap setup.

    PubMed

    Ram, S P; Mishra, S R; Tiwari, S K; Mehendale, S C

    2011-12-01

    We present our results on transfer of cold (87)Rb atoms from a vapor cell magneto-optical trap to ultrahigh vacuum magneto-optical trap (UHV-MOT) using a red-detuned continuous wave push beam in a double-magneto-optical trap setup. We find that use of retro-reflected red-detuned push laser beam results in higher number in UHV-MOT than the number obtained without retro-reflection of push beam.

  5. Innovative Direct Push Technologies for Characterization of the 216-Z-9 Trench at DOE's Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bratton, W.; Moser, K.; Holm, R.; Morse, J.; Tortoso, A.

    2008-07-01

    Because of the significant radiological and chemical hazards present at the 216-Z-9 Trench at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site, the only practical subsurface characterization methods are those that minimize or control airborne vapors and particles. This study evaluates and compares the performance of two Direct Push Technologies (Hydraulic Hammer Rig (HHR) and Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT)) with traditional cable tool drilling in similar difficult geologic conditions. The performance was based on the depth of penetration, the ability to collect representative vadose zone soil samples, the penetration rate, and the relative cost. The HHR achieved deeper penetration depths and faster penetration rates than CPT techniques, while still maintaining the waste minimization benefits of direct push technologies. Although cable tool drilling achieved the deepest penetration, the safety and disposal concerns due to the soil cuttings that were generated made this drilling approach both slow and costly compared to the direct push techniques. (authors)

  6. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Asif, Syed Amanula Syed

    2013-05-07

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  7. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Syed Asif, Syed Amanula

    2014-07-29

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  8. Modeling the impact of pedestrian behavior diversity on traffic dynamics at a crosswalk with push button

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dong-Fan; Zhao, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xin-Gang; Zhu, Tai-Lang

    2016-01-01

    Crosswalk with push button is prevalent in lots of cities for the purpose of promoting the efficiency of the crosswalk, and thus the delays of both vehicles and pedestrians can be reduced. This strategy has been confirmed to be effective in several developed countries. However, it is a pity that application of push button is aborted in some cities in China. In this work, diverse behaviors of vehicles and pedestrians are analyzed and discussed. Then, a microscopic model is developed by incorporating the interaction between vehicles and pedestrians. Numerical simulations are performed to reveal the characteristics of traffic flow and the efficiency of the signal control strategy. Also, the impacts of risker proportion and button reaction time, as well as the impacts of various behaviors as mass behavior, the patience of pedestrian and push button habit are investigated. It is expected that the results will be helpful to the strategy design of a signalized crosswalk in such developing countries as China.

  9. Highly asymmetrical porphyrins with enhanced push-pull character for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kurotobi, Kei; Toude, Yuuki; Kawamoto, Kyosuke; Fujimori, Yamato; Ito, Seigo; Chabera, Pavel; Sundström, Villy; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2013-12-09

    A porphyrin π-system has been modulated by enhancing the push-pull character with highly asymmetrical substitution for dye-sensitized solar cells for the first time. Namely, both two diarylamino moieties as a strong electron-donating group and one carboxyphenylethynyl moiety as a strong electron-withdrawing, anchoring group were introduced into the meso-positions of the porphyrin core in a lower symmetrical manner. As a result of the improved light-harvesting property as well as high electron distribution in the anchoring group of LUMO, a push-pull-enhanced, porphyrin-sensitized solar cell exhibited more than 10% power conversion efficiency, which exceeded that of a representative highly efficient porphyrin (i.e., YD2)-sensitized solar cell under optimized conditions. The rational molecular design concept based on highly asymmetric, push-pull substitution will open the possibilities of further improving cell performance in organic solar cells.

  10. Design and statistical optimization of osmotically driven capsule based on push-pull technology.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasim; Deshmukh, Prashant K; Patil, Ganesh B; Chatap, Vivekanand K; Bari, Sanjay B

    2013-01-01

    In present investigation attempt was made to develop and statistically optimize osmotically active capsule tailor made from the concept of bilayer (push-pull) osmotic tablet technology. The capsule was comprised of active (drug) and push (osmogen) layer. Active layer was compressed in form of tablet by mixing known amount of drug and formulation excipients. Similarly push layer was made by compressing Mannitol with formulation excipients. Finally, both layers were packed in hard gelatin capsule having small aperture at top and coated with semipermeable membrane to form osmotically active capsule. Formulated and optimized capsules were characterized for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), scanning electron microscopy, In-vitro drug release study and Release models and kinetics. Statistically optimized formulation showed good correlation between predicted and experimented results, which further confirms the practicability and validity of the model.

  11. Ergonomic evaluation of brake pedal and push handle locations on hospital beds.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Wiggermann, Neal

    2017-04-01

    Transporting patients in hospital beds is a physically demanding activity performed by healthcare workers and bed design may moderate the risk of injury. Nine healthcare workers participated in a study to investigate how brake pedal location affected maximal voluntary exertion (MVE) force and the level of acceptable force for engagement. Preferred and acceptable push heights when maneuvering a bed were also evaluated. The method of limits was used to determine acceptable forces and push heights. Results demonstrated that pedal depth, clearance above, and clearance behind the pedal significantly affected MVE force and acceptable force. Preferred push height was approximately at elbow level and a single height would not accommodate the user population. These findings provide important considerations for hospital bed design. The method of limits was a valid and reliable approach for evaluating user acceptance of design inputs characterized by continuous variables and may be useful in other design evaluations.

  12. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    DOEpatents

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  13. Prototype pushing robot for emplacing vitrified waste canisters into horizontal disposal drifts

    SciTech Connect

    Londe, L.; Seidler, W.K.; Bosgiraud, J.M.; Guenin, J.J.; Devaux, P.

    2007-07-01

    Within the French Underground Disposal concept, as described in ANDRA's (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs) Dossier 2005, the Pushing Robot is an application envisaged for the emplacement (and the potential retrieval) of 'Vitrified waste packages', also called 'C type packages'. ANDRA has developed a Prototype Pushing Robot within the framework of the ESDRED Project (Engineering Studies and Demonstration of Repository Design) which is co-funded by the European Commission as part of the sixth EURATOM Research and Training Framework Programme (FP6) on nuclear energy (2002 - 2006). The Rationale of the Pushing Robot technology comes from various considerations, including the need for (1) a simple and robust system, capable of moving (and potentially retrieving) on up to 40 metres (m), a 2 tonne C type package (mounted on ceramic sliding runners) inside the carbon steel sleeve constituting the liner (and rock support) of a horizontal disposal cell, (2) small annular clearances between the package and the liner, (3) compactness of the device to be transferred from surface to underground, jointly with the package, inside a shielding cask, and (4) remote controlled operations for the sake of radioprotection. The initial design, based on gripping supports, has been replaced by a 'technical variant' based on inflatable toric jacks. It was then possible, using a test bench, to check that the Pushing Robot worked properly. Steps as high as 7 mm were successfully cleared by a dummy package pushed by the Prototype.. Based on the lessons learned by ANDRA's regarding the Prototype Pushing Robot, a new Scope of Work is being written for the Contract concerning an Industrial Scale Demonstrator. The Industrial Scale Demonstration should be completed by the end of the second Quarter of 2008. (authors)

  14. Gait strategy changes with acceleration to accommodate the biomechanical constraint on push-off propulsion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Keonyoung; Baek, Juhyun; Park, Sukyung

    2012-11-15

    To maintain steady and level walking, push-off propulsion during the double support phase compensates for the energy loss through heel strike collisions in an energetically optimal manner. However, a large portion of daily gait activities also contains transient gait responses, such as acceleration or deceleration, during which the observed dominance of the push-off work or the energy optimality may not hold. In this study, we examined whether the push-off propulsion during the double support phase served as a major energy source for gait acceleration, and we also studied the energetic optimality of accelerated gait using a simple bipedal walking model. Seven healthy young subjects participated in the over-ground walking experiments. The subjects walked at four different constant gait speeds ranging from a self-selected speed to a maximum gait speed, and then they accelerated their gait from zero to the maximum gait speed using a self-selected acceleration ratio. We measured the ground reaction force (GRF) of three consecutive steps and the corresponding leg configuration using force platforms and an optical marker system, respectively, and we compared the mechanical work performed by the GRF during each single and double support phase. In contrast to the model prediction of an increase in the push-off propulsion that is proportional to the acceleration and minimizes the mechanical energy cost, the push-off propulsion was slightly increased, and a significant increase in the mechanical work during the single support phase was observed. The results suggest that gait acceleration occurs while accommodating a feasible push-off propulsion constraint.

  15. Pushing the limits of radiofrequency (RF) neuronal telemetry.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Tara; Diaz, Rodolfo E

    2015-06-02

    In a previous report it was shown that the channel capacity of an in vivo communication link using microscopic antennas at radiofrequency is severely limited by the requirement not to damage the tissue surrounding the antennas. For dipole-like antennas the strong electric field dissipates too much power into body tissues. Loop-type antennas have a strong magnetic near field and so dissipate much less power into the surrounding tissues but they require such a large current that the antenna temperature is raised to the thermal damage threshold of the tissue. The only solution was increasing the antenna size into hundreds of microns, which makes reporting on an individual neuron impossible. However, recently demonstrated true magnetic antennas offer an alternative not covered in the previous report. The near field of these antennas is dominated by the magnetic field yet they don't require large currents. Thus they combine the best characteristics of dipoles and loops. By calculating the coupling between identical magnetic antennas inside a model of the body medium we show an increase in the power transfer of up to 8 orders of magnitude higher than could be realized with the loops and dipoles, making the microscopic RF in-vivo transmitting antenna possible.

  16. Pushing the limits of radiofrequency (RF) neuronal telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Tara; Diaz, Rodolfo E.

    2015-01-01

    In a previous report it was shown that the channel capacity of an in vivo communication link using microscopic antennas at radiofrequency is severely limited by the requirement not to damage the tissue surrounding the antennas. For dipole-like antennas the strong electric field dissipates too much power into body tissues. Loop-type antennas have a strong magnetic near field and so dissipate much less power into the surrounding tissues but they require such a large current that the antenna temperature is raised to the thermal damage threshold of the tissue. The only solution was increasing the antenna size into hundreds of microns, which makes reporting on an individual neuron impossible. However, recently demonstrated true magnetic antennas offer an alternative not covered in the previous report. The near field of these antennas is dominated by the magnetic field yet they don’t require large currents. Thus they combine the best characteristics of dipoles and loops. By calculating the coupling between identical magnetic antennas inside a model of the body medium we show an increase in the power transfer of up to 8 orders of magnitude higher than could be realized with the loops and dipoles, making the microscopic RF in-vivo transmitting antenna possible. PMID:26035824

  17. Effects of handle orientation, gloves, handle friction and elbow posture on maximum horizontal pull and push forces.

    PubMed

    Seo, Na Jin; Armstrong, Thomas J; Young, Justin G

    2010-01-01

    Biomechanical models were evaluated for effects of handle orientation, handle material, gloves and arm posture on maximal pull/push force. Eight healthy subjects performed maximum pull/push exertions on handles with two different orientations and two different surface materials, using bare hand and two types of glove as well as two arm postures. The empirical data supported the proposed biomechanical models: Pull/push forces for the bare hand on a rubber handle decreased 10% when the handle was parallel to the pull/push direction, compared with when perpendicular to it. For parallel handles, pull/push forces further decreased with decreasing hand-handle friction coefficient (simulated by different handle materials and gloves). Pull force exerted by the bare hand was 29% greater when the elbow was extended than when flexed. Pull force was greater than push force (with bare hand and flexed elbow). The biomechanical models suggest that friction between the hand and handle limits pull/push forces for parallel handles. Elbow strength may be responsible for decreased pull force for the flexed elbow posture and decreased force for pull compared with push in the postures examined. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Biomechanical models presented in this paper provide insights for causes of upper extremity strength limitations during pull/push tasks. Findings in this paper can be used directly in the design of workstation and objects to reduce fatigue and risk of musculoskeletal disorders.

  18. Evaluation of Generation Alternation Models in Evolutionary Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiso, Masashi; Matsumura, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Toshiyuki; Ohkura, Kazuhiro

    For efficient implementation of Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) to a desktop grid computing environment, we propose a new generation alternation model called Grid-Oriented-Deletion (GOD) based on comparison with the conventional techniques. In previous research, generation alternation models are generally evaluated by using test functions. However, their exploration performance on the real problems such as Evolutionary Robotics (ER) has not been made very clear yet. Therefore we investigate the relationship between the exploration performance of EA on an ER problem and its generation alternation model. We applied four generation alternation models to the Evolutionary Multi-Robotics (EMR), which is the package-pushing problem to investigate their exploration performance. The results show that GOD is more effective than the other conventional models.

  19. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-T-110 push mode samples

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-05-15

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-T-110. Push mode core segments were removed from risers 2 and 6 between January 29, 1997, and February 7, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-T-110 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP) and Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses exceeded the notification limits stated in DQO.

  20. Methodology for Evaluating Modular Assembly of Large Space Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Wertz, Julie; Caroff, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for analytically comparing approaches to modular assembly of large space platforms. The methodology combines a physical model of the modules, a life-cycle cost model, and a risk model to capture influential trade-offs. The physical model includes alternative module design characteristics, assembly time scenarios, alternative work systems (human, robotic), and infrastructures. A life-cycle cost framework is defined to capture the benefits and costs of modular alternatives for single or multi-mission (programmatic) applications. A probabilistic risk model to address launch and assembly risks is employed to capture uncertainties in launch, as well as in the assembly approaches and their complexity (number of assembly steps, module connections). An illustration of the tradeoffs between these models for a single mission is described using a 448kW Solar Electric Transport Vehicle (SETV) supporting a human lunar mission. The illustration was limited to the launch and assembly phase from beginning of first element launch to completion of assembly. Results and observations are presented and discussed.

  1. Laser bottom hole assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  2. Liquid rocket valve assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

  3. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  4. Permanent magnet assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

    2006-12-12

    A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

  5. Perspective: Geometrically frustrated assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grason, Gregory M.

    2016-09-01

    This perspective will overview an emerging paradigm for self-organized soft materials, geometrically frustrated assemblies, where interactions between self-assembling elements (e.g., particles, macromolecules, proteins) favor local packing motifs that are incompatible with uniform global order in the assembly. This classification applies to a broad range of material assemblies including self-twisting protein filament bundles, amyloid fibers, chiral smectics and membranes, particle-coated droplets, curved protein shells, and phase-separated lipid vesicles. In assemblies, geometric frustration leads to a host of anomalous structural and thermodynamic properties, including heterogeneous and internally stressed equilibrium structures, self-limiting assembly, and topological defects in the equilibrium assembly structures. The purpose of this perspective is to (1) highlight the unifying principles and consequences of geometric frustration in soft matter assemblies; (2) classify the known distinct modes of frustration and review corresponding experimental examples; and (3) describe outstanding questions not yet addressed about the unique properties and behaviors of this broad class of systems.

  6. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Carolyn

    1993-01-01

    A high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  7. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, C.

    1993-04-27

    A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  8. Approaches to Alternative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamayan, Else V.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the major characteristics of nontraditional or alternative assessment in language learning, the uses of alternative assessment procedures, and different types of alternative assessment. An annotated bibliography discusses eight important works in the field. (75 references) (MDM)

  9. The effect of prosthetic foot push-off on mechanical loading associated with knee osteoarthritis in lower extremity amputees.

    PubMed

    Morgenroth, David C; Segal, Ava D; Zelik, Karl E; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Klute, Glenn K; Adamczyk, Peter G; Orendurff, Michael S; Hahn, Michael E; Collins, Steven H; Kuo, Art D

    2011-10-01

    Lower extremity amputation not only limits mobility, but also increases the risk of knee osteoarthritis of the intact limb. Dynamic walking models of non-amputees suggest that pushing-off from the trailing limb can reduce collision forces on the leading limb. These collision forces may determine the peak knee external adduction moment (EAM), which has been linked to the development of knee OA in the general population. We therefore hypothesized that greater prosthetic push-off would lead to reduced loading and knee EAM of the intact limb in unilateral transtibial amputees. Seven unilateral transtibial amputees were studied during gait under three prosthetic foot conditions that were intended to vary push-off. Prosthetic foot-ankle push-off work, intact limb knee EAM and ground reaction impulses for both limbs during step-to-step transition were measured. Overall, trailing limb prosthetic push-off work was negatively correlated with leading intact limb 1st peak knee EAM (slope=-.72±.22; p=.011). Prosthetic push-off work and 1st peak intact knee EAM varied significantly with foot type. The prosthetic foot condition with the least push-off demonstrated the largest knee EAM, which was reduced by 26% with the prosthetic foot producing the most push-off. Trailing prosthetic limb push-off impulse was negatively correlated with leading intact limb loading impulse (slope=-.34±.14; p=.001), which may help explain how prosthetic limb push-off can affect intact limb loading. Prosthetic feet that perform more prosthetic push-off appear to be associated with a reduction in 1st peak intact knee EAM, and their use could potentially reduce the risk and burden of knee osteoarthritis in this population.

  10. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Kitts, Paul A; Church, Deanna M; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D; Pruitt, Kim D; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-04

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site.

  11. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  12. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  13. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  14. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future. PMID:25532951

  15. Automated assembly in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Sandanand; Dwivedi, Suren N.; Soon, Toh Teck; Bandi, Reddy; Banerjee, Soumen; Hughes, Cecilia

    1989-01-01

    The installation of robots and their use of assembly in space will create an exciting and promising future for the U.S. Space Program. The concept of assembly in space is very complicated and error prone and it is not possible unless the various parts and modules are suitably designed for automation. Certain guidelines are developed for part designing and for an easy precision assembly. Major design problems associated with automated assembly are considered and solutions to resolve these problems are evaluated in the guidelines format. Methods for gripping and methods for part feeding are developed with regard to the absence of gravity in space. The guidelines for part orientation, adjustments, compliances and various assembly construction are discussed. Design modifications of various fasteners and fastening methods are also investigated.

  16. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  17. The Quest for Instantaneous Perfection and the Demand for "Push-Button" Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batagiannis, Stella C.

    2009-01-01

    Educational leaders in the United States are faced with a society seeking instantaneous perfection, immediate and perfect solutions. In education, this leads to a demand for push-button administration and an abandonment of trust in educators' judgment. As exemplified by the No Child Left Behind Act (2002), the search for quick fixes results in…

  18. 49 CFR 220.49 - Radio communication used in shoving, backing or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio communication used in shoving, backing or pushing movements. 220.49 Section 220.49 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio...

  19. 49 CFR 220.49 - Radio communication used in shoving, backing or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio communication used in shoving, backing or pushing movements. 220.49 Section 220.49 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio...

  20. MEASURING VERTICAL PROFILES OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY WITH IN SITU DIRECT-PUSH METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) staff developed a field procedure to measure hydraulic conductivity using a direct-push system to obtain vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity. Vertical profiles were obtained using an in situ field device-composed of a
    Geopr...

  1. An Information Push-Delivery System Design for Personal Information Service on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen-Tung; Tai, Wei-Shen

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of information overload from the Internet focuses on an information push-delivery system, which applies fuzzy information retrieval and fuzzy similarity measurement to avoid the information overload problem. Describes an empirical investigation conducted with students at Da-Yeh University (Taiwan) that investigated satisfaction with a…

  2. Pushed or Pulled? Exploring the Factors Underpinning Graduate Start-Ups and Non-Start-Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabi, G.; Walmsley, A.; Holden, R.

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the nature and mixture of push--pull factors in the journey from higher education into graduate entrepreneurship. Using longitudinal data from 15 graduates of a British university, it compares graduates who started their own business with graduates that did not. Importantly, both groups had initially indicated a strong desire to…

  3. Itinerant Deaf Educator and General Educator Perceptions of the D/HH Push-in Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinsky, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative case study using the deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) push-in model was conducted on the perceptions of 3 itinerant deaf educators and 3 general educators working in 1 school district. Participants worked in pairs of 1 deaf educator and 1 general educator at 3 elementary schools. Open-ended research questions guided the study, which…

  4. Demonstration/Validation of Long-Term Monitoring Using Wells Installed by Direct-Push Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    conditions as well as a cross-section of regulatory domains (e.g., EPA regions and states ). Direct- push wells have been installed adjacent to, in...compliance monitoring including chemical concentrations, oxidation - reduction potential (ORP), pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity , and dissolved...Engineering Service Center NRCS Natural Resources Conservation Service NTU Nephelometric Turbidity Unit ORP Oxidation /Reduction Potential OU Operational

  5. Laboratory evaluation techniques to investigate the spatial potential of repellents for push & pull mosquito control systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A protocol has been developed for the indoor evaluation of candidate spatial repellents intended for use in push and pull systems. Single treatments (catnip oil, 1-methylpiperazine and homopiperazine) and a mixture of catnip oil and homopiperazine were tested with yellow-fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegy...

  6. Voices from the "Working Lives" Project: The Push-Pull of Work and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehring, Heather; Herring, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    A recent policy direction in many OECD countries has been to increase workforce participation for women of childbearing age; a policy direction which seemingly runs counter to a need for improved work-life balance for women themselves. This article explores the impact of this somewhat contradictory "push-pull" of policy by examining some…

  7. 33 CFR 164.76 - Towline and terminal gear for towing alongside and pushing ahead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Towline and terminal gear for towing alongside and pushing ahead. 164.76 Section 164.76 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS §...

  8. 33 CFR 164.76 - Towline and terminal gear for towing alongside and pushing ahead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Towline and terminal gear for towing alongside and pushing ahead. 164.76 Section 164.76 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS §...

  9. Controlled manipulation of flexible carbon nanotubes through shape-dependent pushing by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Cheol; Qian, Xiaoping

    2013-09-17

    A systematic approach to manipulating flexible carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been developed on the basis of atomic force microscope (AFM) based pushing. Pushing CNTs enables efficient transport and precise location of individual CNTs. A key issue for pushing CNTs is preventing defective distortion in repetitive bending and unbending deformation. The approach presented here controls lateral movement of an AFM tip to bend CNTs without permanent distortion. The approach investigates possible defects caused by tensile strain of the outer tube under uniform bending and radial distortion by kinking. Using the continuum beam model and experimental bending tests, dependency of maximum bending strain on the length of bent CNTs and radial distortion on bending angles at a bent point have been demonstrated. Individual CNTs are manipulated by limiting the length of bent CNTs and the bending angle. In our approach, multiwalled CNTs with 5-15 nm diameter subjected to bending deformation produce no outer tube breakage under uniform bending and reversible radial deformation with bending angles less than 110°. The lateral tip movement is determined by a simple geometric model that relies on the shape of multiwalled CNTs. The model effectively controls deforming CNT length and bending angle for given CNT shape. Experimental results demonstrate successful manipulation of randomly dispersed CNTs without visual defects. This approach to pushing can be extended to develop a wide range of CNT based nanodevice applications.

  10. Making Sense of the Arrow-Pushing Formalism among Chemistry Majors Enrolled in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Robert; Bodner, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results of a qualitative study of sixteen students enrolled in a second year organic chemistry course for chemistry and chemical engineering majors. The focus of the study was student use of the arrow-pushing formalism that plays a central role in both the teaching and practice of organic chemistry. The goal of the study was to…

  11. The -PushASEP: A New Integrable Model for Traffic in Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Ivan; Petrov, Leonid

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a new interacting (stochastic) particle system -PushASEP which interpolates between the -TASEP of Borodin and Corwin (Probab Theory Relat Fields 158(1-2):225-400, 2014; see also Borodin et al., Ann Probab 42(6):2314-2382, 2014; Borodin and Corwin, Int Math Res Not 2:499-537, 2015; O'Connell and Pei, Electron J Probab 18(95):1-25, 2013; Borodin et al., Comput Math, 2013) and the -PushTASEP introduced recently (Borodin and Petrov, Adv Math, 2013). In the -PushASEP, particles can jump to the left or to the right, and there is a certain partially asymmetric pushing mechanism present. This particle system has a nice interpretation as a model of traffic on a one-lane highway. Using the quantum many body system approach, we explicitly compute the expectations of a large family of observables for this system in terms of nested contour integrals. We also discuss relevant Fredholm determinantal formulas for the distribution of the location of each particle, and connections of the model with a certain two-sided version of Macdonald processes and with the semi-discrete stochastic heat equation.

  12. From Source to Sink: Mechanistic Reasoning Using the Electron-Pushing Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of Morrison and Boyd's textbook in organic chemistry over 50 years ago, reaction mechanisms and mechanistic reasoning using the electron-pushing formalism (EPF) have become a mainstay of organic chemistry courses. In recent years there have even been several papers in this Journal and others detailing research on how…

  13. DETECTION OF A GROUND-WATER/SURFACE-WATER INTERFACE WITH DIRECT-PUSH EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ground-water/surface-water interface (GSI) was documented at the Thermo Chem CERCLA Site in Muskegon, MI via direct-push (DP) sampling. At that time, contaminated ground water flowed from the upland area of the site into the Black Creek floodplain. DP rods equipped with a 1.5...

  14. Push and pull: Exposure of young Taiwanese women to sexually explicit materials.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Esposito, Noreen; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Chou, Fan-Hao; Cheng, Mei-Li

    2016-08-11

    This study was designed to understand young Taiwanese women's perception of sexually explicit materials (SEMs). Researchers conducted six focus group discussions with 38 young women between the ages of 18 and 22 in Taiwan in 2009-2010 and used content analysis to analyze the data based on the push-pull theory. The results showed that the exposure of young women to SEMs was a sexual exploration process from no sexual activity to future sexual activity. This process was affected by the interactions of three powers: push power, pull power, and personal factors. The push power included factors, such as parents and social values, which failed to satisfy their sexual curiosity and provide them with autonomy. The pull power included SEMs and peer influence, which increased sexual arousal stimuli and curiosity to try sexual activity. The most important personal factors were young women's growth, including sexual curiosity, cognition of SEMs, and gender equity in freedom to make sexual decisions. Understanding this push-pull process regarding SEM can help health-care providers with their own discourses in addressing sex and influence young women's participation in desired, protected, and enjoyable sex when sufficiently ready.

  15. Relation between Nonlinear Optical Properties of Push-Pull Molecules and Metric of Charge Transfer Excitations.

    PubMed

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Zaleśny, Robert; Murugan, N Arul; Kongsted, Jacob; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Ågren, Hans

    2015-09-08

    We establish the relationships between the metric of charge transfer excitation (Δr) for the bright ππ* state and the two-photon absorption probability as well as the first hyperpolarizability for two families of push-pull π-conjugated systems. As previously demonstrated by Guido et al. (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 3118-3126), Δr is a measure for the average hole-electron distance upon excitation and can be used to discriminate between short- and long-range electronic excitations. We indicate two new benefits from using this metric for the analyses of nonlinear optical properties of push-pull systems. First, the two-photon absorption probability and the first hyperpolarizability are found to be interrelated through Δr; if β ∼ (Δr)(k), then roughly, δ(TPA) ∼ (Δr)(k+1). Second, a simple power relation between Δr and the molecular hyperpolarizabilities of push-pull systems offers the possibility of estimating properties for longer molecular chains without performing calculations of high-order response functions explicitly. We further demonstrate how to link the hyperpolarizabilities with the chain length of the push-pull π-conjugated systems through the metric of charge transfer.

  16. A Mechanofluorochromic Push-Pull Small Molecule with Aggregation-Controlled Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yue; Gindre, Denis; Allain, Magali; Liu, Ping; Cabanetos, Clément; Roncali, Jean

    2015-08-05

    A small push-pull molecule involving a diphenylamine substituted by an oligo-oxyethylene chain is described. The compound exhibits aggregation-induced emission with solvent-dependent emission wavelength. Spin-cast deep-red amorphous films rapidly self-reorganize into colorless crystalline films which exhibit mechanofluorochromism and aggregation-induced second-harmonic generation.

  17. "You Hafta Push": Using Sapphire's Novel to Teach Introduction to American Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Using fiction in the classroom can dramatize public policy issues and political science concepts, therefore, making them more real and relevant to students. Sapphire's 1996 novel "Push" puts a face on welfare, rape, incest, child abuse, educational inequalities, homophobia, and AIDS. I also use this novel to discuss the public policy process,…

  18. Even the Snow Is White: Displacement and Literary Ecology in Diane Glancy's "Pushing the Bear"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hada, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Diane Glancy's historical fiction, "Pushing the Bear", reconstructs one episode in the Cherokee Trails of Tears (there were actually several relocations to the west, for the Cherokee and the other eastern tribes of the same period). The Removal of eastern peoples from their ancestral lands westward to eventual resettlement in Oklahoma is…

  19. On Parallel Push-Relabel based Algorithms for Bipartite Maximum Matching

    SciTech Connect

    Langguth, Johannes; Azad, Md Ariful; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Manne, Fredrik

    2014-07-01

    We study multithreaded push-relabel based algorithms for computing maximum cardinality matching in bipartite graphs. Matching is a fundamental combinatorial (graph) problem with applications in a wide variety of problems in science and engineering. We are motivated by its use in the context of sparse linear solvers for computing maximum transversal of a matrix. We implement and test our algorithms on several multi-socket multicore systems and compare their performance to state-of-the-art augmenting path-based serial and parallel algorithms using a testset comprised of a wide range of real-world instances. Building on several heuristics for enhancing performance, we demonstrate good scaling for the parallel push-relabel algorithm. We show that it is comparable to the best augmenting path-based algorithms for bipartite matching. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of multithreaded push-relabel based algorithms. In addition to a direct impact on the applications using matching, the proposed algorithmic techniques can be extended to preflow-push based algorithms for computing maximum flow in graphs.

  20. Six Impossible Mechanisms before Breakfast: Arrow Pushing as an Instructional Device in Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Steffen; Ghosh, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article by the authors, the suggestion was made that arrow pushing, a widely used tool in organic chemistry, could also be profitably employed in the teaching of introductory inorganic chemistry. A number of relatively simple reactions were used to illustrate this thesis, raising the question whether the same approach might rationalize…

  1. Paradigm shift from self-assembly to commanded assembly of functional materials: recent examples in porphyrin/fullerene supramolecular systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mao; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Ji, Qingmin; Akada, Misaho; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Current nanotechnology based on top-down nanofabrication may encounter a variety of drawbacks in the near future so that development of alternative methods, including the so-called bottom-up approach, has attracted considerable attention. However, the bottom-up strategy, which often relies on spontaneous self-assembly, might be inefficient in the development of the requisite functional materials and systems. Therefore, assembly processes controlled by external stimuli might be a plausible strategy for the development of bottom-up nanotechnology. In this review, we demonstrate a paradigm shift from self-assembly to commanded assembly by describing several examples of assemblies of typical functional molecules, i.e. porphyrins and fullerenes. In the first section, we describe recent progress in the design and study of self-assembled and co-assembled supramolecular architectures of porphyrins and fullerenes. Then, we show examples of assembly induced by external stimuli. We emphasize the paradigm shift from self-assembly to commanded assembly by describing the recently developed electrochemical-coupling layer-by-layer (ECC-LbL) methodology. PMID:27877511

  2. Three Levels of Push-Pull Dynamics among Chinese International Students' Decision to Study Abroad in the Canadian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jun Mian

    2017-01-01

    The extant literature on student migration flows generally focus on the traditional push-pull factors of migration at the individual level. Such a tendency excludes the broader levels affecting international student mobility. This paper proposes a hybrid of three levels of push-pull dynamics (micro-individual decision-making, meso-academic…

  3. Sizeable red-shift of absorption and fluorescence of subporphyrazine induced by peripheral push and pull substitution.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xu; Shimizu, Soji; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2014-11-18

    Peripheral substitution with electron-donating (push) and electron-withdrawing (pull) substituents caused a sizeable red-shift of the Q band absorption and fluorescence of subporphyrazine, and the red-shift was controlled by the push substituents. Control of the chromophore symmetry and inherent molecular chirality arising from the pattern of substitution were also investigated.

  4. Stress fracture of the hamate body and fourth metacarpal base following military style push-ups: an unusual trauma mechanism.

    PubMed

    Busche, Marc N; Knobloch, Karsten; Rosenthal, Herbert; Vogt, Peter M

    2008-12-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old male soldier, who sustained stress fractures of the hamate body and fourth metacarpal base due to his daily knuckle push-up routine in the military. We introduce repetitive microtrauma due to daily knuckle push-ups as an unusual, but potential trauma mechanism for metacarpal and carpal stress fractures.

  5. 40 CFR 63.7290 - What emission limitations must I meet for capture systems and control devices applied to pushing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission... coke oven battery that exceed the applicable limit in paragraphs (a)(1) through (4) of this section: (1... used: (i) 0.03 lb/ton of coke for a control device applied to pushing emissions from a short...

  6. Impulsive ankle push-off powers leg swing in human walking.

    PubMed

    Lipfert, Susanne W; Günther, Michael; Renjewski, Daniel; Seyfarth, Andre

    2014-04-15

    Rapid unloading and a peak in power output of the ankle joint have been widely observed during push-off in human walking. Model-based studies hypothesize that this push-off causes redirection of the body center of mass just before touch-down of the leading leg. Other research suggests that work done by the ankle extensors provides kinetic energy for the initiation of swing. Also, muscle work is suggested to power a catapult-like action in late stance of human walking. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the biomechanical process leading to this widely observed high power output of the ankle extensors. In our study, we use kinematic and dynamic data of human walking collected at speeds between 0.5 and 2.5 m s(-1) for a comprehensive analysis of push-off mechanics. We identify two distinct phases, which divide the push-off: first, starting with positive ankle power output, an alleviation phase, where the trailing leg is alleviated from supporting the body mass, and second, a launching phase, where stored energy in the ankle joint is released. Our results show a release of just a small part of the energy stored in the ankle joint during the alleviation phase. A larger impulse for the trailing leg than for the remaining body is observed during the launching phase. Here, the buckling knee joint inhibits transfer of power from the ankle to the remaining body. It appears that swing initiation profits from an impulsive ankle push-off resulting from a catapult without escapement.

  7. An investigation of rugby scrimmaging posture and individual maximum pushing force.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Lan; Chang, Jyh-Jong; Wu, Jia-Hroung; Guo, Lan-Yuen

    2007-02-01

    Although rugby is a popular contact sport and the isokinetic muscle torque assessment has recently found widespread application in the field of sports medicine, little research has examined the factors associated with the performance of game-specific skills directly by using the isokinetic-type rugby scrimmaging machine. This study is designed to (a) measure and observe the differences in the maximum individual pushing forward force produced by scrimmaging in different body postures (3 body heights x 2 foot positions) with a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and (b) observe the variations in hip, knee, and ankle angles at different body postures and explore the relationship between these angle values and the individual maximum pushing force. Ten national rugby players were invited to participate in the examination. The experimental equipment included a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Our results showed that the foot positions (parallel and nonparallel foot positions) do not affect the maximum pushing force; however, the maximum pushing force was significantly lower in posture I (36% body height) than in posture II (38%) and posture III (40%). The maximum forward force in posture III (40% body height) was also slightly greater than for the scrum in posture II (38% body height). In addition, it was determined that hip, knee, and ankle angles under parallel feet positioning are factors that are closely negatively related in terms of affecting maximum pushing force in scrimmaging. In cross-feet postures, there was a positive correlation between individual forward force and hip angle of the rear leg. From our results, we can conclude that if the player stands in an appropriate starting position at the early stage of scrimmaging, it will benefit the forward force production.

  8. Direct-push geochemical profiling for assessment of inorganic chemical heterogeneity in aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulmeister, M.K.; Healey, J.M.; Butler, J.J.; McCall, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    Discrete-depth sampling of inorganic groundwater chemistry is essential for a variety of site characterization activities. Although the mobility and rapid sampling capabilities of direct-push techniques have led to their widespread use for evaluating the distribution of organic contaminants, complementary methods for the characterization of spatial variations in geochemical conditions have not been developed. In this study, a direct-push-based approach for high-resolution inorganic chemical profiling was developed at a site where sharp chemical contrasts and iron-reducing conditions had previously been observed. Existing multilevel samplers (MLSs) that span a fining-upward alluvial sequence were used for comparison with the direct-push profiling. Chemical profiles obtained with a conventional direct-push exposed-screen sampler differed from those obtained with an adjacent MLS because of sampler reactivity and mixing with water from previous sampling levels. The sampler was modified by replacing steel sampling components with stainless-steel and heat-treated parts, and adding an adapter that prevents mixing. Profiles obtained with the modified approach were in excellent agreement with those obtained from an adjacent MLS for all constituents and parameters monitored (Cl, NO3, Fe, Mn, DO, ORP, specific conductance and pH). Interpretations of site redox conditions based on field-measured parameters were supported by laboratory analysis of dissolved Fe. The discrete-depth capability of this approach allows inorganic chemical variations to be described at a level of detail that has rarely been possible. When combined with the mobility afforded by direct-push rigs and on-site methods of chemical analysis, the new approach is well suited for a variety of interactive site-characterization endeavors. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fast Regulation of Vertical Squat Jump during Push-Off in Skilled Jumpers

    PubMed Central

    Fargier, Patrick; Massarelli, Raphael; Rabahi, Tahar; Gemignani, Angelo; Fargier, Emile

    2016-01-01

    The height of a maximum Vertical Squat Jump (VSJ) reflects the useful power produced by a jumper during the push-off phase. In turn this partly depends on the coordination of the jumper's segmental rotations at each instant. The physical system constituted by the jumper has been shown to be very sensitive to perturbations and furthermore the movement is realized in a very short time (ca. 300 ms), compared to the timing of known feedback loops. However, the dynamics of the segmental coordination and its efficiency in relation to energetics at each instant of the push-off phase still remained to be clarified. Their study was the main purpose of the present research. Eight young adult volunteers (males) performed maximal VSJ. They were skilled in jumping according to their sport activities (track and field or volleyball). A video analysis on the kinematics of the jump determined the influence of the jumpers' segments rotation on the vertical velocity and acceleration of the body mass center (MC). The efficiency in the production of useful power at the jumpers' MC level, by the rotation of the segments, was measured in consequence. The results showed a great variability in the segmental movements of the eight jumpers, but homogeneity in the overall evolution of these movements with three consecutive types of coordination in the second part of the push-off (lasting roughly 0.16 s). Further analyses gave insights on the regulation of the push-off, suggesting that very fast regulation(s) of the VSJ may be supported by: (a) the adaptation of the motor cerebral programming to the jumper's physical characteristics; (b) the control of the initial posture; and (c) the jumper's perception of the position of his MC relative to the ground reaction force, during push-off, to reduce energetic losses. PMID:27486404

  10. Inter-Rater Reliability and Intra-Rater Reliability of Assessing the 2-Minute Push-Up Test.

    PubMed

    Fielitz, Lynn; Coelho, Jeffrey; Horne, Thomas; Brechue, William

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess inter-rater reliability and intra-rater reliability of the 2-minute, 90° push-up test as utilized in the Army Physical Fitness Test. Analysis of rater assessment reliability included both total score agreement and agreement across individual push-up repetitions. This study utilized 8 Raters who assessed 15 different videotaped push-up performances over 4 iterations separated by a minimum of 1 week. The 15 push-up participants were videotaped during the semiannual Army Physical Fitness Test. Each Rater randomly viewed the 15 push-up and verbally responded with a "yes" or "no" to each push-up repetition. The data generated were analyzed using the Pearson product-moment correlation as well as the kappa, modified kappa and the intra-class correlation coefficient (3,1). An attribute agreement analysis was conducted to determine the percent of inter-rater and intra-rater agreement across individual push-ups.The results indicated that Raters varied a great deal in assessing push-ups. Over the 4 trials of 15 participants, the overall scores of the Raters varied between 3.0 and 35.7 push-ups. Post hoc comparisons found that there was significant increase in the grand mean of push-ups from trials 1-3 to trial 4 (p < 0.05). Also, there was a significant difference among raters over the 4 trials (p < 0.05). Pearson correlation coefficients for inter-rater and intra-rater reliability identified inter-rater reliability coefficients were between 0.10 and 0.97. Intra-rater coefficients were between 0.48 and 0.99. Intra-rater agreement for individual push-up repetitions ranged from 41.8% to 84.8%. The results indicated that the raters failed to assess the same push-up repetition with the same score (below 70% agreement) as well as failed to agree when viewed between raters (29%). Interestingly, as previously mentioned, scores on trial 4 increased significantly which might have been caused by rater drift or that the Raters did not maintain

  11. Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Oliver C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple, easy-to-use, highly effective tooling has been devised for maintaining alignment of bolt holes in mating structures during assembly and disassembly of the structures. The tooling was originally used during removal of a body flap from the space shuttle Atlantis, in which misalignments during removal of the last few bolts could cause the bolts to bind in their holes. By suitably modifying the dimensions of the tooling components, the basic design of the tooling can readily be adapted to other structures that must be maintained in alignment. The tooling includes tapered, internally threaded alignment pins designed to fit in the bolt holes in one of the mating structures, plus a draw bolt and a cup that are used to install or remove each alignment pin. In preparation for disassembly of two mating structures, external supports are provided to prevent unintended movement of the structures. During disassembly of the structures, as each bolt that joins the structures is removed, an alignment pin is installed in its place. Once all the bolts have been removed and replaced with pins, the pins maintain alignment as the structures are gently pushed or pulled apart on the supports. In assembling the two structures, one reverses the procedure described above: pins are installed in the bolt holes, the structures are pulled or pushed together on the supports, then the pins are removed and replaced with bolts. The figure depicts the tooling and its use. To install an alignment pin in a bolt hole in a structural panel, the tapered end of the pin is inserted from one side of the panel, the cup is placed over the pin on the opposite side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin until the pin is seated firmly in the hole, then the draw bolt and cup are removed, leaving the pin in place. To remove an alignment pin, the cup is placed over the pin on the first-mentioned side of the panel, the draw

  12. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, T.L.

    1998-05-05

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  13. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2006-02-28

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the pre-formed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  14. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  15. DC source assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  16. All About Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A primer on alternative schools. Described are existing programs in different areas, philosophy of the alternative schools, funding, student behavior, community relations, accountability, State regulations, management, and the environment of the alternative school. A list of sources of additional information on alternative schools is included.…

  17. Spontaneous Pushing in Lateral Position versus Valsalva Maneuver During Second Stage of Labor on Maternal and Fetal Outcomes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Farideh; Arzhe, Amene; Asadi, Nasrin; Pourahmad, Saeedeh; Moshfeghy, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Background There are concerns about the harmful effects of the Valsalva maneuver during the second stage of labor. Objectives Comparing the effects of spontaneous pushing in the lateral position with the Valsalva maneuver during the second stage of labor on maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods Inclusion criteria in this randomized clinical trial conducted in Iran were as follows: nulliparous mothers, live fetus with vertex presentation, gestational age of 37 - 40 weeks, spontaneous labor, and no complications. The intervention group pushed spontaneously while they were in the lateral position, whereas the control group pushed using Valsalva method while in the supine position at the onset of the second stage of labor. Maternal outcomes such as pain and fatigue severity and fetal outcomes such as pH and pO2 of the umbilical cord blood were measured. Results Data pertaining to 69 patients, divided into the intervention group (35 subjects) and control group (34 subjects), were analyzed statistically. The mean pain (7.80 ± 1.21 versus 9.05 ± 1.11) and fatigue scores (46.59 ± 21 versus 123.36 ± 43.20) of the two groups showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, the mean duration of the second stage in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group (76.32 ± 8.26 minutes versus 64.56 ± 15.24 minutes, P = 0.001). The umbilical cord blood pO2 levels of both groups showed a statistically significant difference (28.29 ± 11.76 versus 18.83 ± 9.86, P < 0.001), whereas their pH levels were not significantly different (P = 0.10). Conclusions Spontaneous pushing in the lateral position reduced fatigue and pain severity of the mothers. Also, it did not worsen fetal outcomes. Thus, it can be used as an alternative method for the Valsalva maneuver. PMID:28180019

  18. EPR Assembly of Microgel for FRET Imaging of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    W81XWH-05-1-0342 TITLE: EPR Assembly for Microgel for FRET Imaging of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stanley Stein, Ph.D...Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Apr 05 – 31 Mar 06 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER EPR Assembly of Microgel for FRET Imaging...administered. This second conjugate will chemoselectively interact with the first conjugate to form insoluble microgels only in tumors. Alternating

  19. Photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer in push-pull polyenes: effects of solvation, electron-donor group, and polyenic chain length.

    PubMed

    Akemann, Walther; Laage, Damien; Plaza, Pascal; Martin, Monique M; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2008-01-17

    Subpicosecond absorption spectroscopy is used to characterize the primary photoinduced processes in a class of push-pull polyenes bearing a julolidine end group as the electron donor and a diethylthiobarbituric acid end group as the electron acceptor. The excited-state decay time and relaxation pathway have been studied for four polyenes of increasing chain length (n = 2-5 double bonds) in aprotic solvents of different solvation time, polarity, and viscosity. Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) leading to a transient state of cyanine-like structure (fully conjugated with no bond length alternation) is observed in all polar solvents at a solvent dependent rate, but the reaction is not observed in cyclohexane, a nonpolar solvent. In polar solvents, the reaction time increases with the average solvation time but remains slightly larger, except in the viscous solvent triacetin. These facts are interpreted as an indication that both solvent reorganization and internal restructuring are involved in the ICT-state formation. The observed photodynamics resemble those we previously found for another class of polyenes bearing a dibutylaniline group as the donor, including a similar charge-transfer rate in spite of the larger electron donor character of the julolidine group. This observation brings further support to the proposal that an intramolecular coordinate is involved in the charge-transfer reaction, possibly a torsional motion of the donor end group. On the other hand, relaxation of the ICT state leads to cis-trans isomerization or crossing to the triplet state, depending on the length of the polyenic chain. In dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and triacetin, the ICT state of the shorter chains (n = 2, 3) relaxes to the isomer with a viscosity-dependent rate, while that of the longer ones (n = 4, 5) leads to the triplet state with a viscosity-independent rate, as expected. In acetonitrile, the ICT-state lifetime is generally much shorter. A change from photoisomerization to

  20. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  1. Integrated thruster assembly program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The program is reported which has provided technology for a long life, high performing, integrated ACPS thruster assembly suitable for use in 100 typical flights of a space shuttle vehicle over a ten year period. The four integrated thruster assemblies (ITA) fabricated consisted of: propellant injector; a capacitive discharge, air gap torch type igniter assembly; fast response igniter and main propellant valves; and a combined regen-dump film cooled chamber. These flightweight 6672 N (1500 lb) thruster assemblies employed GH2/GO2 as propellants at a chamber pressure of 207 N/sq cm (300 psia). Test data were obtained on thrusted performance, thermal and hydraulic characteristics, dynamic response in pulsing, and cycle life. One thruster was fired in excess of 42,000 times.

  2. Swipe transfer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, Robert M.; Mills, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The swipe transfer assembly is a mechanical assembly which is used in conjunction with glove boxes and other sealed containments. It is used to pass small samples into or out of glove boxes without an open breach of the containment, and includes a rotational cylinder inside a fixed cylinder, the inside cylinder being rotatable through an arc of approximately 240.degree. relative to the outer cylinder. An offset of 120.degree. from end to end allows only one port to be opened at a time. The assembly is made of stainless steel or aluminum and clear acrylic plastic to enable visual observation. The assembly allows transfer of swipes and smears from radiological and other specially controlled environments.

  3. The proteasome assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Madura, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    The assembly of the proteasome — the cellular machine that eliminates unwanted proteins — is a carefully choreographed affair, involving a complex sequence of steps overseen by dedicated protein chaperones. PMID:19516331

  4. Core assembly storage structure

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Charles E.; Brunings, Jay E.

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  5. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  6. Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeff

    2010-06-03

    Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  7. Supramolecular DNA assembly.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Christopher K; Hamblin, Graham D; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2011-12-01

    The powerful self-assembly features of DNA make it a unique template to finely organize and control matter on the nanometre scale. While DNA alone offers a high degree of fidelity in its self-assembly, a new area of research termed 'supramolecular DNA assembly' has recently emerged. This field combines DNA building blocks with synthetic organic, inorganic and polymeric structures. It thus brings together the toolbox of supramolecular chemistry with the predictable and programmable nature of DNA. The result of this molecular partnership is a variety of hybrid architectures, that expand DNA assembly beyond the boundaries of Watson-Crick base pairing into new structural and functional properties. In this tutorial review we outline this emerging field of study, and describe recent research aiming to synergistically combine the properties inherent to DNA with those of a number of supramolecular scaffolds. This ultimately creates structures with numerous potential applications in materials science, catalysis and medicine.

  8. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  9. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  10. Magnetostrictive valve assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A magnetostrictive valve assembly includes a housing that defines a passage with a seat being formed therein. A magnetically-biased and axially-compressed magnetostrictive assembly slidingly fitted in the passage is configured as a hollow and open-ended conduit adapted to support a flow of a fluid therethrough. Current-carrying coil(s) disposed about the passage in the region of the magnetostrictive assembly generate a magnetic field in the passage when current flows through the coil(s). A hollow valve body with side ports is coupled on one end thereof to an axial end of the magnetostrictive assembly. The other end of the valve body is designed to seal with the seat formed in the housing's passage when brought into contact therewith.

  11. Automated Assembly Center (AAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: to integrate advanced assembly and assembly support technology under a comprehensive architecture; to implement automated assembly technologies in the production of high-visibility DOD weapon systems; and to document the improved cost, quality, and lead time. This will enhance the production of DOD weapon systems by utilizing the latest commercially available technologies combined into a flexible system that will be able to readily incorporate new technologies as they emerge. Automated assembly encompasses the following areas: product data, process planning, information management policies and framework, three schema architecture, open systems communications, intelligent robots, flexible multi-ability end effectors, knowledge-based/expert systems, intelligent workstations, intelligent sensor systems, and PDES/PDDI data standards.

  12. Recuperator assembly and procedures

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yungmo; McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D.

    2008-08-26

    A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

  13. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  14. The search for CFC alternatives is over?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Tim

    1995-01-01

    The Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF) is a U.S. Navy Center of Excellence tasked to do research in electronics manufacturing. For the past seven years, the EMPF has performed extensive research in various cleaning materials and processes that have recently been made available to printed circuit board assemblers. This paper outlines our research and points out the positive and negative aspects that need to be considered when choosing an alternative process.

  15. Challenges and breakthroughs in recent research on self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Hill, Jonathan P; Lee, Michael V; Vinu, Ajayan; Charvet, Richard; Acharya, Somobrata

    2008-01-01

    The controlled fabrication of nanometer-scale objects is without doubt one of the central issues in current science and technology. However, existing fabrication techniques suffer from several disadvantages including size-restrictions and a general paucity of applicable materials. Because of this, the development of alternative approaches based on supramolecular self-assembly processes is anticipated as a breakthrough methodology. This review article aims to comprehensively summarize the salient aspects of self-assembly through the introduction of the recent challenges and breakthroughs in three categories: (i) types of self-assembly in bulk media; (ii) types of components for self-assembly in bulk media; and (iii) self-assembly at interfaces. PMID:27877935

  16. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters.

    SciTech Connect

    Snezhko, A.; Aranson, I. S.

    2011-09-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots

  17. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S.

    2011-09-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots.

  18. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters.

    PubMed

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S

    2011-08-07

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots.

  19. Functional self-assembled lipidic systems derived from renewable resources.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Julian R; Samateh, Malick; John, George

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled lipidic amphiphile systems can create a variety of multi-functional soft materials with value-added properties. When employing natural reagents and following biocatalytic syntheses, self-assembling monomers may be inherently designed for degradation, making them potential alternatives to conventional and persistent polymers. By using non-covalent forces, self-assembled amphiphiles can form nanotubes, fibers, and other stimuli responsive architectures prime for further applied research and incorporation into commercial products. By viewing these lipid derivatives under a lens of green principles, there is the hope that in developing a structure-function relationship and functional smart materials that research may remain safe, economic, and efficient.

  20. Some methods for achieving more efficient performance of fuel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltenko, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    More efficient operation of reactor plant fuel assemblies can be achieved through the use of new technical solutions aimed at obtaining more uniform distribution of coolant over the fuel assembly section, more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces, and higher values of departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR). Technical solutions using which it is possible to obtain more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces and higher DNBR values in reactor plant fuel assemblies are considered. An alternative heat removal arrangement is described using which it is possible to obtain a significantly higher power density in a reactor plant and essentially lower maximal fuel rod temperature.

  1. An Optimal Pull-Push Scheduling Algorithm Based on Network Coding for Mesh Peer-to-Peer Live Streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Laizhong; Jiang, Yong; Wu, Jianping; Xia, Shutao

    Most large-scale Peer-to-Peer (P2P) live streaming systems are constructed as a mesh structure, which can provide robustness in the dynamic P2P environment. The pull scheduling algorithm is widely used in this mesh structure, which degrades the performance of the entire system. Recently, network coding was introduced in mesh P2P streaming systems to improve the performance, which makes the push strategy feasible. One of the most famous scheduling algorithms based on network coding is R2, with a random push strategy. Although R2 has achieved some success, the push scheduling strategy still lacks a theoretical model and optimal solution. In this paper, we propose a novel optimal pull-push scheduling algorithm based on network coding, which consists of two stages: the initial pull stage and the push stage. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) we put forward a theoretical analysis model that considers the scarcity and timeliness of segments; 2) we formulate the push scheduling problem to be a global optimization problem and decompose it into local optimization problems on individual peers; 3) we introduce some rules to transform the local optimization problem into a classical min-cost optimization problem for solving it; 4) We combine the pull strategy with the push strategy and systematically realize our scheduling algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that decode delay, decode ratio and redundant fraction of the P2P streaming system with our algorithm can be significantly improved, without losing throughput and increasing overhead.

  2. Three-dimensional finite-element simulation of a turbulent push-pull ventilation system.

    PubMed

    Flynn, M R; Ahn, K; Miller, C T

    1995-10-01

    A finite-element formulation with penalty approach to enforce continuity is employed here to simulate the three-dimensional velocity field resulting from a simple push-pull ventilation configuration. An analytic expression for the length scale and a transport equation for turbulent kinetic energy are coupled with the momentum equations. A coaxial square hood and jet are arranged with cross-draught perpendicular to the common centreline. Numerical predictions of the velocity and turbulence kinetic energy fields are evaluated in the plane of symmetry with hot film anemometry, and smoke-wire flow visualizations. The agreement of the simulated jet trajectories with flow visualizations is reasonable, as are velocities. Predictions of turbulence kinetic energy are not as good, particularly near the hood face. Despite the limitations the numerical approach is useful in assessing the impact of cross-draughts on the push-pull arrangement.

  3. Pushing the boundaries of cultural congruence pedagogy in science education towards a third space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Cassie

    2011-09-01

    This review explores Meyers and Crawford's "Teaching science as a cultural way of knowing: Merging authentic inquiry, nature of science, and multicultural strategies" by examining how they combine the use of inquiry-based science instruction with multicultural strategies. In this conversation, I point to the need of specific discourse strategies to help teachers and students create hybrid spaces to push the boundaries of cultural congruence as described in this article. These strategies include a reflective component to the explicit instruction that encourages an integration of home and science discourses. My response to this work expands on their use of multicultural strategies to push toward a congruent Third space that asks not only what happens to the students who do not participate in science, but also what happens to science when a diverse group of people does not participate?

  4. 45-Day safety screening for Tank 241-C-103 push mode sample, riser 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, K.E.

    1994-12-16

    This is the 45-Day report for the Tank 241-C-103 (C-103) push-mode core sampling characterization effort. Problems encountered with the push-mode sampling truck following removal of the first segment from riser 2 resulted in a long delay before resumption of sampling, therefore it was decided to begin the 45-day clock and issue a report based on receipt of this first segment. If subsequent segments are removed from tank C-103, a revision of this report or a new report will be issued to include any new data. Included are copies of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) scans as requested in Reference 1. Also included is a copy of any immediate notification documentation. Other pertinent documentation will be included in the C-103 216-day report.

  5. Itinerant deaf educator and general educator perceptions of the D/HH push-in model.

    PubMed

    Rabinsky, Rebecca J

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative case study using the deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) push-in model was conducted on the perceptions of 3 itinerant deaf educators and 3 general educators working in 1 school district. Participants worked in pairs of 1 deaf educator and 1 general educator at 3 elementary schools. Open-ended research questions guided the study, which was concerned with teachers' perceptions of the model in general and with the model's advantages, disadvantages, and effectiveness. Data collected from observations, one-to-one interviews, and a focus group interview enabled the investigator to uncover 4 themes: Participants (a) had an overall positive experience, (b) viewed general education immersion as an advantage, (c) considered high noise levels a disadvantage, and (d) believed the effectiveness of the push-in model was dependent on several factors, in particular, the needs of the student and the nature of the general education classroom environment.

  6. Particle Engulfment and Pushing By Solidifying Interfaces - Recent Theoretical and Experimental Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Catalina, A. V.; Juretzko, Frank R.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, P. A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the work on Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces (PEP) include: 1) to obtain fundamental understanding of the physics of particle pushing and engulfment, 2) to develop mathematical models to describe the phenomenon, and 3) to perform critical experiments in the microgravity environment of space to provide benchmark data for model validation. Successful completion of this project will yield vital information relevant to a diverse area of terrestrial applications. With PEP being a long term research effort, this report will focus on advances in the theoretical treatment of the solid/liquid interface interaction with an approaching particle, experimental validation of some aspects of the developed models, and the experimental design aspects of future experiments to be performed on board the International Space Station.

  7. Store operation with conditional push of a tag value to a queue

    SciTech Connect

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-07-28

    According to one embodiment, a method for a store operation with a conditional push of a tag value to a queue is provided. The method includes configuring a queue that is accessible by an application, setting a value at an address in a memory device including a memory and a controller, receiving a request for an operation using the value at the address and performing the operation. The method also includes the controller writing a result of the operation to the address, thus changing the value at the address, the controller determining if the result of the operation meets a condition and the controller pushing a tag value to the queue based on the condition being met, where the tag value in the queue indicates to the application that the condition is met.

  8. Are single-well "push-pull" tests suitable tracer methods for aquifer characterization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebig, Klaus; Zeilfelder, Sarah; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

    2013-04-01

    Recently, investigations were conducted for geological and hydrogeological characterisation of the sedimentary coastal basin of Horonobe (Hokkaido, Japan). Coastal areas are typical geological settings in Japan, which are less tectonically active than the mountain ranges. In Asia, and especially in Japan, these areas are often densely populated. Therefore, it is important to investigate the behaviour of solutes in such unconsolidated aquifers. In such settings sometimes only single boreholes or groundwater monitoring wells are available for aquifer testing for various reasons, e.g. depths of more than 100 m below ground level and slow groundwater velocities due to density driven flow. A standard tracer test with several involved groundwater monitoring wells is generally very difficult or even not possible at these depths. One of the most important questions in our project was how we can obtain information about chemical and hydraulic properties in such aquifers. Is it possible to characterize solute transport behaviour parameters with only one available groundwater monitoring well or borehole? A so-called "push-pull" test may be one suitable method for aquifer testing with only one available access point. In a push-pull test a known amount of several solutes including a conservative tracer is injected into the aquifer ("push") and afterwards extracted ("pull"). The measured breakthrough curve during the pumping back phase can then be analysed. This method has already been used previously with various aims, also in the recent project (e.g. Hebig et al. 2011, Zeilfelder et al. 2012). However, different test setups produced different tracer breakthrough curves. As no systematic evaluation of this aquifer tracer test method was done so far, nothing is known about its repeatability. Does the injection and extraction rate influence the shape of the breakthrough curve? Which role plays the often applied "chaser", which is used to push the test solution out from the

  9. Alphabet-Inspired Design of (Hetero)Aromatic Push-Pull Chromophores.

    PubMed

    Klikar, Milan; Solanke, Parmeshwar; Tydlitát, Jiří; Bureš, Filip

    2016-08-01

    Push-pull molecules represent a unique and fascinating class of organic π-conjugated materials. Herein, we provide a summary of their recent extraordinary design inspired by letters of the alphabet, especially focusing on H-, L-, T-, V-, X-, and Y-shaped molecules. Representative structures from each class were presented and their fundamental properties and prospective applications were discussed. In particular, emphasis is given to molecules recently prepared in our laboratory with T-, X-, and Y-shaped arrangements based on indan-1,3-dione, benzene, pyridine, pyrazine, imidazole, and triphenylamine. These push-pull molecules turned out to be very efficient charge-transfer chromophores with tunable properties suitable for second-order nonlinear optics, two-photon absorption, reversible pH-induced and photochromic switching, photocatalysis, and intercalation.

  10. Comparison of muscle-activation patterns during the conventional push-up and perfect· pushup™ exercises.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Budach, Brian D; Ellerbusch, Jay V; Stucky, Craig M; Wait, Kevin R; Hollman, John H

    2010-12-01

    Manufacturers of Perfect·Pushup™ handgrips claim enhanced muscular recruitment when compared with the conventional hand-on-floor push-up exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded using surface electrodes from the right-sided triceps brachii, pectoralis major, serratus anterior (SA), and posterior deltoid muscles during push-ups performed from 3 different hand positions: (a) shoulder width, (b) wide base, and (c) narrow base (NB). Push-ups were performed under 2 conditions: (a) standard push-up and (b) Perfect·Pushup™ handgrips. We recruited 20 healthy subjects, 11 men (24.9 ± 2.6 years) and 9 women (23.8 ± 1 years). Subjects completed 3 consecutive push-ups for each hand position under both conditions. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome, and testing order was randomized. We recorded peak EMG activity for each muscle during each of the push-ups and normalized EMG values by maximum muscle contractions (% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]). Electromyographic data were analyzed with 3 (hand position) × 2 (condition) repeated-measures analysis of variance with a post hoc Bonferroni-adjusted simple effects test to detect significant position effects for position by condition interactions (α = 0.05). A push-up required considerable muscle activation of the triceps brachii (73-109% MVIC), pectoralis major (95-105% MVIC), SA (67-87% MVIC), and posterior deltoid (11-21% MVIC) whether performed using the conventional hand-on-floor position or the Perfect·Pushup™ handgrips. The NB hand position was most effective for preferentially activating the triceps brachii and posterior deltoid muscles. Based upon EMG activation from 4 muscles, the Perfect·Pushup™ handgrips do not appear to preferentially enhance muscular recruitment when compared with the conventional push-up method.

  11. From structural push to chain migration: notes on the persistence of migration to Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zoomers, E B

    1986-01-01

    "Spatial differentiation in regional welfare is often assumed to be one of the most important explanatory factors in individual migration behaviour. By the weight of 'push' against 'pull', migrants walk in step with the unequal distribution of socio-economic opportunities. In the case of Ciudad Juarez [Mexico], these 'structural factors' only appear to have determined migration in its first stages; especially recently 'non-structural' factors seem to be at the root of the ever-increasing process."

  12. Fast Regulation of Vertical Squat Jump during Push-Off in Skilled Jumpers.

    PubMed

    Fargier, Patrick; Massarelli, Raphael; Rabahi, Tahar; Gemignani, Angelo; Fargier, Emile

    2016-01-01

    The height of a maximum Vertical Squat Jump (VSJ) reflects the useful power produced by a jumper during the push-off phase. In turn this partly depends on the coordination of the jumper's segmental rotations at each instant. The physical system constituted by the jumper has been shown to be very sensitive to perturbations and furthermore the movement is realized in a very short time (ca. 300 ms), compared to the timing of known feedback loops. However, the dynamics of the segmental coordination and its efficiency in relation to energetics at each instant of the push-off phase still remained to be clarified. Their study was the main purpose of the present research. Eight young adult volunteers (males) performed maximal VSJ. They were skilled in jumping according to their sport activities (track and field or volleyball). A video analysis on the kinematics of the jump determined the influence of the jumpers' segments rotation on the vertical velocity and acceleration of the body mass center (MC). The efficiency in the production of useful power at the jumpers' MC level, by the rotation of the segments, was measured in consequence. The results showed a great variability in the segmental movements of the eight jumpers, but homogeneity in the overall evolution of these movements with three consecutive types of coordination in the second part of the push-off (lasting roughly 0.16 s). Further analyses gave insights on the regulation of the push-off, suggesting that very fast regulation(s) of the VSJ may be supported by: (a) the adaptation of the motor cerebral programming to the jumper's physical characteristics; (b) the control of the initial posture; and

  13. In vivo fluorescence imaging of β-amyloid plaques with push-pull dimethylaminothiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2015-12-14

    In vivo fluorescence imaging of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the brain is expected to be used as a new method for detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD). We synthesized novel push-pull dimethylaminothiophenyl (DTM) derivatives and evaluated their utility as in vivo fluorescence imaging probes targeting Aβ plaques. As a result, we found that DTM-2 is a promising fluorescent probe for Aβ plaques in the AD brains.

  14. [How to do an effective literature search? The use of Push and Pull strategies].

    PubMed

    Donato, Helena; Marinho, Rui Tato

    2013-01-01

    The availability of scientific information is growing exponentially. Healthcare professionals who wish to keep up-to-date with scientific literature and find the best information should spend their time finding resources that summarize the best available evidence. This manuscript aims to provide bibliographic research knowledge and skills, to contribute to an increase in the use of e-learning, to "Push and Pull" correct information and, in other words, to indicate how to deal with information overload.

  15. Push pull microfluidics on a multi-level 3D CD.

    PubMed

    Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Moebius, Jacob; Khalid, Noor Sakinah; Soin, Norhayati; Kahar, Maria Kahar Bador Abdul; Madou, Marc

    2013-08-21

    A technique known as thermo-pneumatic (TP) pumping is used to pump fluids on a microfluidic compact disc (CD) back towards the CD center against the centrifugal force that pushes liquids from the center to the perimeter of the disc. Trapped air expands in a TP air chamber during heating, and this creates positive pressure on liquids located in chambers connected to that chamber. While the TP air chamber and connecting channels are easy to fabricate in a one-level CD manufacturing technique, this approach provides only one way pumping between two chambers, is real-estate hungry and leads to unnecessary heating of liquids in close proximity to the TP chamber. In this paper, we present a novel TP push and pull pumping method which allows for pumping of liquid in any direction between two connected liquid chambers. To ensure that implementation of TP push and pull pumping also addresses the issue of space and heating challenges, a multi-level 3D CD design is developed, and localized forced convection heating, rather than infra-red (IR) is applied. On a multi-level 3D CD, the TP features are placed on a top level separate from the rest of the microfluidic processes that are implemented on a lower separate level. This approach allows for heat shielding of the microfluidic process level, and efficient usage of space on the CD for centrifugal handling of liquids. The use of localized forced convection heating, rather than infra-red (IR) or laser heating in earlier implementations allows not only for TP pumping of liquids while the CD is spinning but also makes heat insulation for TP pumping and other fluidic functions easier. To aid in future implementations of TP push and pull pumping on a multi-level 3D CD, study on CD surface heating is also presented. In this contribution, we also demonstrate an advanced application of pull pumping through the implementation of valve-less switch pumping.

  16. A United States marine presenting with hemoptysis after push-ups.

    PubMed

    Thurber, John S; Unger, Jason A; DeVries, William C

    2014-04-01

    We present an unusual case of right lower lobe intralobar pulmonary sequestration in a previously healthy and physical active 27-year-old U.S. Marine, who presented with new onset hemoptysis after doing push-ups. Diagnosis was obtained by chest X-ray and contrast computed tomography scan. Preoperatively the patient underwent fluoroscopy-guided embolization of the aberrant systemic artery supplying the sequestration. The segmental resection of the sequestration was then successfully performed through a muscle-sparing thoracotomy.

  17. Reversible self-assembly and directed assembly of DNA-linked micrometer-sized colloids.

    PubMed

    Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Theodoly, Olivier; Crocker, John C; Russel, William B; Chaikin, Paul M

    2005-03-22

    We present a technique for the directed assembly and self-assembly of micrometer-scale structures based on the control of specific DNA linkages between colloidal particles. The use of DNA links combined with polymer brushes provides an effective way to regulate the range and magnitude of addressable forces between pairs (and further combinations) of different particles. We demonstrate that the autoassembly of alternate microbeads as well as their directed assembly, by using laser tweezers, is reversible. The key to reversibility is preventing the particles from falling into their van der Waals well at close distances. This goal is achieved by the use of adsorbed polymers that limit the number of DNA bridges to one to three between adjacent particles.

  18. 40 CFR 63.7291 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues?...

  19. 40 CFR 63.7293 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? 63.7293 Section 63.7293... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission... pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? (a) You must meet the requirements...

  20. 40 CFR 63.7293 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? 63.7293 Section 63.7293... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission... pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? (a) You must meet the requirements...

  1. 40 CFR 63.7291 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues?...

  2. 40 CFR 63.7291 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues?...

  3. 40 CFR 63.7293 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? 63.7293 Section 63.7293... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission... pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? (a) You must meet the requirements...

  4. 40 CFR 63.7291 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues?...

  5. 40 CFR 63.7293 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? 63.7293 Section 63.7293... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission... pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? (a) You must meet the requirements...

  6. 40 CFR 63.7293 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? 63.7293 Section 63.7293... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission... pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? (a) You must meet the requirements...

  7. 40 CFR 63.7291 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues?...

  8. Ion Concentration- and Voltage-Dependent Push and Pull Mechanisms of Potassium Channel Ion Conduction.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Kota; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of ion conduction by potassium channels is one of the central issues in physiology. In particular, it is still unclear how the ion concentration and the membrane voltage drive ion conduction. We have investigated the dynamics of the ion conduction processes in the Kv1.2 pore domain, by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with several different voltages and ion concentrations. By focusing on the detailed ion movements through the pore including selectivity filter (SF) and cavity, we found two major conduction mechanisms, called the III-IV-III and III-II-III mechanisms, and the balance between the ion concentration and the voltage determines the mechanism preference. In the III-IV-III mechanism, the outermost ion in the pore is pushed out by a new ion coming from the intracellular fluid, and four-ion states were transiently observed. In the III-II-III mechanism, the outermost ion is pulled out first, without pushing by incoming ions. Increases in the ion concentration and voltage accelerated ion conductions, but their mechanisms were different. The increase in the ion concentrations facilitated the III-IV-III conductions, while the higher voltages increased the III-II-III conductions, indicating that the pore domain of potassium channels permeates ions by using two different driving forces: a push by intracellular ions and a pull by voltage.

  9. Reassessing the MADE direct-push hydraulic conductivity data using a revised calibration procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohling, Geoffrey C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Dietrich, Peter; Butler, James J.

    2016-11-01

    In earlier work, we presented a geostatistical assessment of high-resolution hydraulic conductivity (K) profiles obtained at the MADE site using direct-push (DP) methods. The profiles are derived from direct-push injection logger (DPIL) measurements that provide a relative indicator of vertical variations in K with a sample spacing of 1.5 cm. The DPIL profiles are converted to K profiles by calibrating to the results of direct-push permeameter (DPP) tests performed at selected depths in some of the profiles. Our original calibration used a linear transform that failed to adequately account for an upper limit on DPIL responses in high-K zones and noise in the DPIL data. Here we present a revised calibration procedure that accounts for the upper limit and noise, leading to DPIL K values that display a somewhat different univariate distribution and a lower lnK variance (5.9 ± 1.5) than the original calibration values (6.9 ± 1.8), although each variance estimate falls within the other's 95% confidence interval. Despite the change in the univariate distribution, the autocorrelation structure and large-scale patterns exhibited by the revised DPIL K values still agree well with those exhibited by the flowmeter data from the site. We provide the DPIL and DPP data, along with our calibrated DPIL K values, in the Supporting Information.

  10. Older adults utilize less efficient postural control when performing pushing task

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. The aim was to investigate the role of age in generation of anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments during pushing an object. Older (68.8 ± 1.0 years) and young adults (30.1 ± 1.4 years) participated in the experiment involving pushing an object (a pendulum attached to the ceiling) using both hands. Electrical activity of six leg and trunk muscles and displacements of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. The onset time, integrals of muscle activity, and COP displacements were determined. In addition, the indexes of co-activation and reciprocal activation of muscles for the shank, thigh, and trunk segments were calculated. Older adults, compared to young adults, showed less efficient postural control seen as delayed anticipatory muscle onset times and delayed COP displacements. Moreover, older adults used co-activation of muscles during the CPA phase while younger subjects utilized reciprocal activation of muscles. The observed diminished efficiency of postural control during both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments observed in older adults might predispose them to falls while performing tasks involving pushing. The outcome provides a background for future studies focused on the optimization of the daily activities of older adults. PMID:26403099

  11. Common-pull, multiple-push, vacuum-activated telescope mirror cell.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Elfego; Sohn, Erika; Salas, Luis; Luna, Esteban; Araiza-Durán, José A

    2014-11-20

    A new concept for push-pull active optics is presented, where the push-force is provided by means of individual airbag type actuators and a common force in the form of a vacuum is applied to the entire back of the mirror. The vacuum provides the pull-component of the system, in addition to gravity. Vacuum is controlled as a function of the zenithal angle, providing correction for the axial component of the mirror's weight. In this way, the push actuators are only responsible for correcting mirror deformations, as well as for supporting the axial mirror weight at the zenith, allowing for a uniform, full dynamic-range behavior of the system along the telescope's pointing range. This can result in the ability to perform corrections of up to a few microns for low-order aberrations. This mirror support concept was simulated using a finite element model and was tested experimentally at the 2.12 m San Pedro Mártir telescope. Advantages such as stress-free attachments, lighter weight, large actuator area, lower system complexity, and lower required mirror-cell stiffness could make this a method to consider for future large telescopes.

  12. A digital architecture for striping noise compensation in push-broom hyperspectral cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Wladimir E.; Figueroa, Miguel; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Meza, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    We present a striping noise compensation architecture for hyperspectral push-broom cameras, implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The circuit is fast, compact, low power, and is capable of eliminating the striping noise in-line during the image acquisition process. The architecture implements a multi dimensional neural network (MDNN) algorithm for striping noise compensation previously reported by our group. The algorithm relies on the assumption that the amount of light impinging at the neighboring photo-detectors is approximately the same in the spatial and spectral dimensions. Under this assumption, two striping noise parameters are estimated using spatial and spectral information from the raw data. We implemented the circuit on a Xilinx ZYNQ XC7Z2010 FPGA and tested it with images obtained from a NIR N17E push-broom camera, with a frame rate of 25fps and a band-pixel rate of 1.888 MHz. The setup consists of a loop of 320 samples of 320 spatial lines and 236 spectral bands between 900 and 1700 nanometers, in laboratory condition, captured with a rigid push-broom controller. The noise compensation core can run at more than 100 MHZ and consumes less than 30mW of dynamic power, using less than 10% of the logic resources available on the chip. It also uses one of two ARM processors available on the FPGA for data acquisition and communication purposes.

  13. Individual muscle contributions to push and recovery subtasks during wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Richter, W Mark; Neptune, Richard R

    2011-04-29

    Manual wheelchair propulsion places considerable physical demand on the upper extremity and is one of the primary activities associated with the high prevalence of upper extremity overuse injuries and pain among wheelchair users. As a result, recent effort has focused on determining how various propulsion techniques influence upper extremity demand during wheelchair propulsion. However, an important prerequisite for identifying the relationships between propulsion techniques and upper extremity demand is to understand how individual muscles contribute to the mechanical energetics of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to use a forward dynamics simulation of wheelchair propulsion to quantify how individual muscles deliver, absorb and/or transfer mechanical power during propulsion. The analysis showed that muscles contribute to either push (i.e., deliver mechanical power to the handrim) or recovery (i.e., reposition the arm) subtasks, with the shoulder flexors being the primary contributors to the push and the shoulder extensors being the primary contributors to the recovery. In addition, significant activity from the shoulder muscles was required during the transition between push and recovery, which resulted in increased co-contraction and upper extremity demand. Thus, strengthening the shoulder flexors and promoting propulsion techniques that improve transition mechanics have much potential to reduce upper extremity demand and improve rehabilitation outcomes.

  14. The effects of chlorhexidine and ethanol on push-out bond strength of fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Victorino, Keli Regina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Só, Marcus Vinicius Reis; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Context: Irrigation of root canals with chlorhexidine (CHX) and ethanol is common practice to prevent root canal infection during postplacement. However, pretreatment with these solvents may interfere with the bond strength of posts. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate if root dentin pretreatment using CHX and/or ethanol influences the push-out bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRCR) posts. Materials and Methods: Fifty space posts prepared in endodontically treated extracted human canine roots were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10) according to the dentin pretreatment: Distilled water (W); 1% CHX diacetate solution (1C); CHX diacetate + 99% ethanol (1CE); 99% ethanol (E); and 2% CHX digluconate solution (2C). After pretreatment, the adhesive system (Peak Universal Bond; Ultradent, South Jordan, UT, USA) was applied in the root dentin and the FRCR was cemented with resin cement. Then, horizontal slices of 2 mm were obtained from each root third and the push-out bond strength was assessed. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's tests (P = 0.05). Results: At all thirds, 1CE and E groups presented similar push-out bond strength values (P > 0.05), which were higher than the other groups (P < 0.05). W, 1C, and 2C groups were similar (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The root dentin pretreatment with ethanol, alone or mixed with CHX diacetate increased the bond strength of FRCR luted with resin cement. PMID:26957803

  15. Field Evaluation of a Push-Pull System to Reduce Malaria Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Menger, David J.; Omusula, Philemon; Holdinga, Maarten; Homan, Tobias; Carreira, Ana S.; Vandendaele, Patrice; Derycke, Jean-Luc; Mweresa, Collins K.; Mukabana, Wolfgang Richard; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Takken, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Malaria continues to place a disease burden on millions of people throughout the tropics, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Although efforts to control mosquito populations and reduce human-vector contact, such as long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying, have led to significant decreases in malaria incidence, further progress is now threatened by the widespread development of physiological and behavioural insecticide-resistance as well as changes in the composition of vector populations. A mosquito-directed push-pull system based on the simultaneous use of attractive and repellent volatiles offers a complementary tool to existing vector-control methods. In this study, the combination of a trap baited with a five-compound attractant and a strip of net-fabric impregnated with micro-encapsulated repellent and placed in the eaves of houses, was tested in a malaria-endemic village in western Kenya. Using the repellent delta-undecalactone, mosquito house entry was reduced by more than 50%, while the traps caught high numbers of outdoor flying mosquitoes. Model simulations predict that, assuming area-wide coverage, the addition of such a push-pull system to existing prevention efforts will result in up to 20-fold reductions in the entomological inoculation rate. Reductions of such magnitude are also predicted when mosquitoes exhibit a high resistance against insecticides. We conclude that a push-pull system based on non-toxic volatiles provides an important addition to existing strategies for malaria prevention. PMID:25923114

  16. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  17. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  18. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry L.; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  19. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Haynes, H.B.

    1999-05-11

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity is disclosed. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras. 17 figs.

  20. Assembly Test Article (ATA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Glen A.

    1988-01-01

    The assembly test article (ATA) consisted of two live loaded redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) segments which were assembled and disassembled to simulate the actual flight segment stacking process. The test assembly joint was flight RSRM design, which included the J-joint insulation design and metal capture feature. The ATA test was performed mid-November through 24 December 1987, at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The purpose of the test was: certification that vertical RSRM segment mating and separation could be accomplished without any damage; verification and modification of the procedures in the segment stacking/destacking documents; and certification of various GSE to be used for flight assembly and inspection. The RSRM vertical segment assembly/disassembly is possible without any damage to the insulation, metal parts, or seals. The insulation J-joint contact area was very close to the predicted values. Numerous deviations and changes to the planning documents were made to ensure the flight segments are effectively and correctly stacked. Various GSE were also certified for use on flight segments, and are discussed in detail.

  1. Pushing Plastic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, John H.

    2007-01-01

    As they send their teenagers off to college, parents will counsel them on the dangers of accepting credit card offers and the risks inherent in credit card debt. Most assume that the university will be their ally in warning students about such dangers. But instead, most universities try to get their own students to take out a credit card. In this…

  2. Technology Push

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    When students, teachers, administrators and others employed in education arrive at work every day on thousands of campuses across the nation, it should come as no surprise that at every step along the way, technology is there to greet them. Technological advancements in education, as well as in facilities operation and management, are not a…

  3. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative & Integrative Medicine Clinical Trials GBM AGILE TTFields – Optune™ Brain Tumor Treatment Locations Treatment Side Effects & their ... Alternative & Integrative Medicine Clinical Trials GBM AGILE TTFields – Optune™ Brain Tumor Treatment Locations Treatment Side Effects & their ...

  4. Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... LASIK Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures Laser Surgery Recovery Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures Dec. 12, 2015 Today's refractive ... that releases controlled amounts of radio frequency (RF) energy, instead of a laser, to apply heat to ...

  5. Squaring the circle in peptide assembly: from fibers to discrete nanostructures by de novo design.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Aimee L; Bromley, Elizabeth H C; Bartlett, Gail J; Sessions, Richard B; Sharp, Thomas H; Williams, Claire L; Curmi, Paul M G; Forde, Nancy R; Linke, Heiner; Woolfson, Derek N

    2012-09-19

    The design of bioinspired nanostructures and materials of defined size and shape is challenging as it pushes our understanding of biomolecular assembly to its limits. In such endeavors, DNA is the current building block of choice because of its predictable and programmable self-assembly. The use of peptide- and protein-based systems, however, has potential advantages due to their more-varied chemistries, structures and functions, and the prospects for recombinant production through gene synthesis and expression. Here, we present the design and characterization of two complementary peptides programmed to form a parallel heterodimeric coiled coil, which we use as the building blocks for larger, supramolecular assemblies. To achieve the latter, the two peptides are joined via peptidic linkers of variable lengths to produce a range of assemblies, from flexible fibers of indefinite length, through large colloidal-scale assemblies, down to closed and discrete nanoscale objects of defined stoichiometry. We posit that the different modes of assembly reflect the interplay between steric constraints imposed by short linkers and the bulk of the helices, and entropic factors that favor the formation of many smaller objects as the linker length is increased. This approach, and the resulting linear and proteinogenic polypeptides, represents a new route for constructing complex peptide-based assemblies and biomaterials.

  6. Shoreside Alternative Energy Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    in November 2000 titled, Shoreside Alternative Energy Evaluation. This study of alternative energies focused on usage of natural gas, and included...energy sources such as costs, benefits, and logistic availability. This study of alternative energies focused on usage of natural gas and included...resources in this area. Recognizing Air Station Cape Cod as a leader in utilizing alternative energies , the Research and Development Center established

  7. Alternatives for Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alternatives for Education, San Pedro, CA.

    A directory of alternative schools and a list of books and reprints about alternative education are presented. The alternative schools listed are almost all on the West Coast and include both day and boarding schools at the primary and secondary level. The name and address of each school is given along with supplementary material about its…

  8. Chicano Alternative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicia, H. Homero; Almaguer, Clementina

    Alternative schooling is challenging some basic notions of curriculum, operation, and structure of traditional schools; it is not challenging the basic concept of schooling. Chicano alternative education, an elusive concept, lacks a precise definition. Chicano alternative schools reflect a vast diversity in structure, focus, and goals. The Chicano…

  9. Assessment "Honest Alternatives".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Susan Glazer

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the challenge of finding or creating alternatives to tests and traditional grading systems. Reflects on and describes the experience of creating an assessment tool and cautions against choosing alternatives that merely camouflage the grades. Encourages educators to find authentic alternatives to describe children's growth. (BAC)

  10. Power module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  11. Liaison based assembly design

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.; Kholwadwala, D.; Wilson, R.H.

    1996-12-01

    Liaison Based Assembly Design extends the current information infrastructure to support design in terms of kinematic relationships between parts, or liaisons. These liaisons capture information regarding contact, degrees-of-freedom constraints and containment relationships between parts in an assembly. The project involved defining a useful collection of liaison representations, investigating their properties, and providing for maximum use of the data in downstream applications. We tested our ideas by implementing a prototype system involving extensions to Pro/Engineer and the Archimedes assembly planner. With an expanded product model, the design system is more able to capture design intent. When a product update is attempted, increased knowledge availability improves our ability to understand the effect of design changes. Manufacturing and analysis disciplines benefit from having liaison information available, so less time is wasted arguing over incomplete design specifications and our enterprise can be more completely integrated.

  12. Supported PV module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  13. Blade attachment assembly

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  14. How viruses use the endoplasmic reticulum for entry, replication, and assembly.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takamasa; Tsai, Billy

    2013-01-01

    To cause infection, a virus enters a host cell, replicates, and assembles, with the resulting new viral progeny typically released into the extracellular environment to initiate a new infection round. Virus entry, replication, and assembly are dynamic and coordinated processes that require precise interactions with host components, often within and surrounding a defined subcellular compartment. Accumulating evidence pinpoints the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a crucial organelle supporting viral entry, replication, and assembly. This review focuses on the molecular mechanism by which different viruses co-opt the ER to accomplish these crucial infection steps. Certain bacterial toxins also hijack the ER for entry. An interdisciplinary approach, using rigorous biochemical and cell biological assays coupled with advanced microscopy strategies, will push to the next level our understanding of the virus-ER interaction during infection.

  15. Cyclic Fiber Push-In Test Monitors Evolution of Interfacial Behavior in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    1998-01-01

    SiC fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites are being developed for high-temperature advanced jet engine applications. Obtaining a strong, tough composite material depends critically on optimizing the mechanical coupling between the reinforcing fibers and the surrounding matrix material. This has usually been accomplished by applying a thin C or BN coating onto the surface of the reinforcing fibers. The performance of these fiber coatings, however, may degrade under cyclic loading conditions or exposure to different environments. Degradation of the coating-controlled interfacial behavior will strongly affect the useful service lifetime of the composite material. Cyclic fiber push-in testing was applied to monitor the evolution of fiber sliding behavior in both C- and BN-coated small-diameter (15-mm) SiC-fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites. The cyclic fiber push-in tests were performed using a desktop fiber push-out apparatus. At the beginning of each test, the fiber to be tested was aligned underneath a 10- mm-diameter diamond punch; then, the applied load was cycled between selected maximum and minimum loads. From the measured response, the fiber sliding distance and frictional sliding stresses were determined for each cycle. Tests were performed in both room air and nitrogen. Cyclic fiber push-in tests of C-coated, SiC-fiber-reinforced SiC showed progressive increases in fiber sliding distances along with decreases in frictional sliding stresses for continued cycling in room air. This rapid degradation in interfacial response was not observed for cycling in nitrogen, indicating that moisture exposure had a large effect in immediately lowering the frictional sliding stresses of C-coated fibers. These results indicate that matrix cracks bridged by C-coated fibers will not be stable, but will rapidly grow in moisture-containing environments. In contrast, cyclic fiber push-in tests of both BN-coated, SiC-fiber-reinforced SiC and BNcoated, Si

  16. Transfer of fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Vuckovich, M.; Burkett, J. P.; Sallustio, J.

    1984-12-11

    Fuel assemblies of a nuclear reactor are transferred during fueling or refueling or the like by a crane. The work-engaging fixture of the crane picks up an assembly, removes it from this slot, transfers it to the deposit site and deposits it in its slot at the deposit site. The control for the crane includes a strain gauge connected to the crane line which raises and lowers the load. The strain gauge senses the load on the crane. The signal from the strain gauge is compared with setpoints; a high-level setpoint, a low-level setpoint and a slack-line setpoint. If the strain gauge signal exceeds the high-level setpoint, the line drive is disabled. This event may occur during raising of a fuel assembly which encounters resistance. The high-level setpoint may be overridden under proper precautions. The line drive is also disabled if the strain gauge signal is less than the low-level setpoint. This event occurs when a fuel assembly being deposited contacts the bottom of its slot or an obstruction in, or at the entry to the slot. To preclude lateral movement and possible damage to a fuel assembly suspended from the crane line, the traverse drive of the crane is disabled once the strain-gauge exceets the lov-level setpoint. The traverse drive can only be enabled after the strain-gauge signal is less than the slack-line set-point. This occurs when the lines has been set in slack-line setting. When the line is tensioned after slack-li ne setting, the traverse drive remains enabled only if the line has been disconnected from the fuel assembly.

  17. Supramolecular assembly in telechelic polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, R.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.

    2009-10-01

    Equilibrium, supramolecular assembly in melt blends of two species of telechelic polymers with reversible bonding sites at both ends is theoretically investigated. The bonding between polymers, whether between like or dislike chains, is controlled by affinities of chain bonding set by specified bond energies. Low affinities, or low overall bond strength, results in a monodisperse population of unlinked chains while larger affinities cause longer chains to assemble, forming a polydisperse blend. We investigate sequentially blends with only homobonding (like chain), only heterobonding (dislike chain), and finally a mixed homo- and heterobonding melt. In the first case, the effects of longer chain assembly and polydispersity in a homogeneous melt and its bulk demixing transition are explored. In contrast with the homobonding case, large heterobonding affinities cause alternating blocks to assemble into multiblock copolymers, which can lead to mesophases. The weak bonding region between bulk phase separation and mesophase stability is investigated and a novel Lifshitz point is found indicating a region prone to emulsify. Mixed homo- and heterobonding systems are also examined. Polymeric segments of both species are modeled as flexible Gaussian threads and nonspecific interactions between dissimilar blocks are contactlike Flory-Huggins repulsions. The melts are assumed to be incompressible and all calculations are carried out within mean-field theory. A new integral equation formalism is developed for enumerating all linear species in these complex supramolecular systems, and the random phase approximation and numerical self-consistent field theory are invoked in this context to map out a variety of phase diagrams.

  18. Flow Cage Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Apparatus, systems and methods for implementing flow cages and flow cage assemblies in association with high pressure fluid flows and fluid valves are provided. Flow cages and flow assemblies are provided to dissipate the energy of a fluid flow, such as by reducing fluid flow pressure and/or fluid flow velocity. In some embodiments the dissipation of the fluid flow energy is adapted to reduce erosion, such as from high-pressure jet flows, to reduce cavitation, such as by controllably increasing the flow area, and/or to reduce valve noise associated with pressure surge.

  19. Low inductance connector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann; Carlson, Douglas S

    2013-07-09

    A busbar connector assembly for coupling first and second terminals on a two-terminal device to first and second contacts on a power module is provided. The first terminal resides proximate the first contact and the second terminal resides proximate the second contact. The assembly comprises a first bridge having a first end configured to be electrically coupled to the first terminal, and a second end configured to be electrically coupled to the second contact, and a second bridge substantially overlapping the first bridge and having a first end electrically coupled to the first contact, and a second end electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  20. Lightweight reflector assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argoud, M. J.; Jolley, J.; Walker, W. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An inexpensive, lightweight reflective assembly member having good optical quality and particularly adaptable to accommodating temperature variations without providing destructive thermal stresses and reflective slope errors is described. The reflective assembly consists of a thin sheet of glass with appropriate reflective coating and a cellular glass block substrate bonded together. The method of fabrication includes abrading the cellular substrate with an abrasive master die to form an appropriate concave surface. An adhesive is applied to the abraded surface and a lamina reflective surface is placed under a uniform pressure to conform the reflective surface onto the desired abraded surface of the substrate.

  1. Phylogenetic Comparative Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, Peter; Stoye, Jens

    Recent high throughput sequencing technologies are capable of generating a huge amount of data for bacterial genome sequencing projects. Although current sequence assemblers successfully merge the overlapping reads, often several contigs remain which cannot be assembled any further. It is still costly and time consuming to close all the gaps in order to acquire the whole genomic sequence. Here we propose an algorithm that takes several related genomes and their phylogenetic relationships into account to create a contig adjacency graph. From this a layout graph can be computed which indicates putative adjacencies of the contigs in order to aid biologists in finishing the complete genomic sequence.

  2. Hand Controller Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  3. Self assembling proteins

    DOEpatents

    Yeates, Todd O.; Padilla, Jennifer; Colovos, Chris

    2004-06-29

    Novel fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into regular structures, as well as nucleic acids encoding the same, are provided. The subject fusion proteins comprise at least two oligomerization domains rigidly linked together, e.g. through an alpha helical linking group. Also provided are regular structures comprising a plurality of self-assembled fusion proteins of the subject invention, and methods for producing the same. The subject fusion proteins find use in the preparation of a variety of nanostructures, where such structures include: cages, shells, double-layer rings, two-dimensional layers, three-dimensional crystals, filaments, and tubes.

  4. Compositional Inheritance: Comparison of Self-assembly and Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng; Higgs, Paul G.

    2008-10-01

    Genetic inheritance in modern cells is due to template-directed replication of nucleic acids. However, the difficulty of prebiotic synthesis of long information-carrying polymers like RNA raises the question of whether some other form of heredity is possible without polymers. As an alternative, the lipid world theory has been proposed, which considers non-covalent assemblies of lipids, such as micelles and vesicles. Assemblies store information in the form of a non-random molecular composition, and this information is passed on when the assemblies divide, i.e . the assemblies show compositional inheritance. Here, we vary several important assumptions of previous lipid world models and show that compositional inheritance is relevant more generally than the context in which it was originally proposed. Our models assume that interaction occurs between nearest neighbour molecules only, and account for spatial segregation of molecules of different types within the assembly. We also draw a distinction between a self-assembly model, in which the composition is determined by mutually favourable interaction energies between the molecules, and a catalytic model, in which the composition is determined by mutually favourable catalysis. We show that compositional inheritance occurs in both models, although the self-assembly case seems more relevant if the molecules are simple lipids. In the case where the assemblies are composed of just two types of molecules, there is a strong analogy with the classic two-allele Moran model from population genetics. This highlights the parallel between compositional inheritance and genetic inheritance.

  5. Direct-Push Methods for High-Resolution Characterization of Hydraulic Conductivity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. J.; Dietrich, P.; Knobbe, S.; Bohling, G.; Liu, G.; Reboulet, E. C.

    2009-12-01

    Spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) play a critical role in subsurface transport. A major research challenge has been to develop field methods that allow K information to be obtained at the resolution needed to quantify solute movement in heterogeneous formations, as current state-of-the-practice methods have proven to be of limited effectiveness for this purpose. Direct-push methods have shown much promise for characterizing K in shallow (< 30 m) unconsolidated formations. Over the past decade, methods have progressed from empirical relationships based on parameters from cone penetrometer or electrical conductivity logs to small-diameter pipe variants of the slug test to the new generation of methods that can provide reliable K estimates at a resolution and speed that has not previously been possible. Over the last six years, we have focused on developing and field testing two direct-push tools for high-resolution characterization of K: the direct-push permeameter (DPP) and the direct-push injection logger (DPIL). The DPP is a small-diameter tool with a short cylindrical screen and two pressure transducers set into a direct-push rod. A series of injection tests are performed at a given depth and K is estimated from the test responses. The resulting estimate is a weighted average primarily over the interval between the screen and the farthest transducer. Material outside of that interval has little influence, resulting in significant uncertainty about conditions between test depths. The time required for a test sequence (10-15 minutes in moderate to high-K intervals), coupled with the volumetric averaging of the tool, currently limits DPP resolution to ≈ 0.4 m in most cases. The DPIL consists of a single screened port on a direct-push rod. Water is injected through the screen while the pressure response is monitored behind the screen or at the surface. The injection logging process can be conducted continuously at 0.015-m resolution as the tool is

  6. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  7. Alternate nozzle ablative materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    Four subscale solid rocket motor tests were conducted successfully to evaluate alternate nozzle liner, insulation, and exit cone structural overwrap components for possible application to the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle asasembly. The 10,000 lb propellant motor tests were simulated, as close as practical, the configuration and operational environment of the full scale SRM. Fifteen PAN based and three pitch based materials had no filler in the phenolic resin, four PAN based materials had carbon microballoons in the resin, and the rest of the materials had carbon powder in the resin. Three nozzle insulation materials were evaluated; an aluminum oxide silicon oxide ceramic fiber mat phenolic material with no resin filler and two E-glass fiber mat phenolic materials with no resin filler. It was concluded by MTI/WD (the fabricator and evaluator of the test nozzles) and NASA-MSFC that it was possible to design an alternate material full scale SRM nozzle assembly, which could provide an estimated 360 lb increased payload capability for Space Shuttle launches over that obtainable with the current qualified SRM design.

  8. Effects of Push-up Exercise with Hip Adduction on the COP Deviation and the Serratus Anterior and L1 Paraspinal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hee; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of push-up exercise with hip adduction on the COP deviation and SA and L1 spinal muscle activation. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 20-30 years were recruited. [Methods] We measured the COP deviation and SA and L1 spinal muscle activities during push-up exercise with and without hip adduction [Results] The COP deviation significantly decreased and the SA and L1 spinal muscles were significantly increased during push-ups with hip adduction when compared with push-ups without hip adduction. [Conclusion] We thought that the push-up exercise with hip adduction might help to selectively strengthen the SA.

  9. SOLID GAS SUSPENSION NUCLEAR FUEL ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Schluderberg, D.C.; Ryon, J.W.

    1962-05-01

    A fuel assembly is designed for use in a gas-suspension cooled nuclear fuel reactor. The coolant fluid is an inert gas such as nitrogen or helium with particles such as carbon suspended therein. The fuel assembly is contained within an elongated pressure vessel extending down into the reactor. The fuel portion is at the lower end of the vessel and is constructed of cylindrical segments through which the coolant passes. Turbulence promotors within the passageways maintain the particles in agitation to increase its ability to transfer heat away from the outer walls. Shielding sections and alternating passageways above the fueled portion limit the escape of radiation out of the top of the vessel. (AEC)

  10. Modular, security enclosure and method of assembly

    DOEpatents

    Linker, Kevin L.; Moyer, John W.

    1995-01-01

    A transportable, reusable rapidly assembled and disassembled, resizable modular, security enclosure utilizes a stepped panel construction. Each panel has an inner portion and an outer portion which form joints. A plurality of channels can be affixed to selected joints of the panels. Panels can be affixed to a base member and then affixed to one another by the use of elongated pins extending through the channel joints. Alternatively, the base member can be omitted and the panels themselves can be used as the floor of the enclosure. The pins will extend generally parallel to the joint in which they are located. These elongated pins are readily inserted into and removable from the channels in a predetermined sequence to allow assembly and disassembly of the enclosure. A door constructed from panels is used to close the opening to the enclosure.

  11. 78 FR 48180 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the M/V IRON STAN, 1246342

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ...-0696] Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the M/V IRON STAN, 1246342 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... issued for the Uninspected Towing Vessel M/V IRON STAN as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CF. 81.18... 81.18, has been issued for the M/V IRON STAN. The vessel's primary purpose is to push a...

  12. Descent Stage of Mars Science Laboratory During Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from early October 2008 shows personnel working on the descent stage of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory inside the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    The descent stage will provide rocket-powered deceleration for a phase of the arrival at Mars after the phases using the heat shield and parachute. When it nears the surface, the descent stage will lower the rover on a bridle the rest of the way to the ground. The larger three of the orange spheres in the descent stage are fuel tanks. The smaller two are tanks for pressurant gas used for pushing the fuel to the rocket engines.

    JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  13. Metaphase Spindle Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Tarun M.

    2017-01-01

    A microtubule-based bipolar spindle is required for error-free chromosome segregation during cell division. In this review I discuss the molecular mechanisms required for the assembly of this dynamic micrometer-scale structure in animal cells. PMID:28165376

  14. Modeling Protein Self Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck; Hull, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of proteins is an important part of the standards-based science curriculum. Proteins serve vital roles within the cell and malfunctions in protein self assembly are implicated in degenerative diseases. Experience indicates that this topic is a difficult one for many students. We have found that the concept…

  15. Segmented stator assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Quirion, Owen Scott

    2013-04-02

    An electric machine and stator assembly are provided that include a continuous stator portion having stator teeth, and a tooth tip portion including tooth tips corresponding to the stator teeth of the continuous stator portion, respectively. The tooth tip portion is mounted onto the continuous stator portion.

  16. Walking boot assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; Chambers, A. B.; Stjohn, R. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A walking boot assembly particularly suited for use with a positively pressurized spacesuit is presented. A bootie adapted to be secured to the foot of a wearer, an hermetically sealed boot for receiving the bootie having a walking sole, an inner sole, and an upper portion adapted to be attached to an ankle joint of a spacesuit, are also described.

  17. Beyond the Assembly Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Rebecca; Guild, Todd

    1985-01-01

    Describes how Hughes Aircraft trainers followed four steps in meeting the challenges of a flexible manufacturing environment: needs assessment, design strategy, pilot evaluation, and follow-through. Within this environment, 50 self-paced training products were developed for one of the company's wire and back plane harness assembly departments. (CT)

  18. Corium protection assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

  19. Dump valve assembly

    DOEpatents

    Owen, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A dump valve assembly comprising a body having a bore defined by a tapered wall and a truncated spherical valve member adapted to seat along a spherical surface portion thereof against said tapered wall. Means are provided for pivoting said valve member between a closed position engagable with said tapered wall and an open position disengaged therefrom.

  20. NEUTRONIC REACTOR BURIAL ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-05-01

    A burial assembly is shown whereby an entire reactor core may be encased with lead shielding, withdrawn from the reactor site and buried. This is made possible by a five-piece interlocking arrangement that may be easily put together by remote control with no aligning of bolt holes or other such close adjustments being necessary.

  1. Fibrillin Assembly Requires Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Sabatier, Laetitia; Chen, Daliang; Fagotto-Kaufmann, Christine; Hubmacher, Dirk; McKee, Marc D.; Annis, Douglas S.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2009-01-01

    Fibrillins constitute the major backbone of multifunctional microfibrils in elastic and nonelastic extracellular matrices. Proper assembly mechanisms are central to the formation and function of these microfibrils, and their properties are often compromised in pathological circumstances such as in Marfan syndrome and in other fibrillinopathies. Here, we have used human dermal fibroblasts to analyze the assembly of fibrillin-1 in dependence of other matrix-forming proteins. siRNA knockdown experiments demonstrated that the assembly of fibrillin-1 is strictly dependent on the presence of extracellular fibronectin fibrils. Immunolabeling performed at the light and electron microscopic level showed colocalization of fibrillin-1 with fibronectin fibrils at the early stages of the assembly process. Protein-binding assays demonstrated interactions of fibronectin with a C-terminal region of fibrillin-1, -2, and -3 and with an N-terminal region of fibrillin-1. The C-terminal half of fibrillin-2 and -3 had propensities to multimerize, as has been previously shown for fibrillin-1. The C-terminal of all three fibrillins interacted strongly with fibronectin as multimers, but not as monomers. Mapping studies revealed that the major binding interaction between fibrillins and fibronectin involves the collagen/gelatin-binding region between domains FNI6 and FNI9. PMID:19037100

  2. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  3. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  4. Turbomachine blade assembly

    DOEpatents

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-11-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system comprising a turbomachine blade assembly having a blade portion, a shank portion, and a mounting portion, wherein the blade portion, the shank portion, and the mounting portion comprise a first plurality of plies extending from a tip of the airfoil to a base of the dovetail.

  5. Lageos assembly operation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueger, J.

    1975-01-01

    Guidelines and constraints procedures for LAGEOS assembly, operation, and design performance are given. Special attention was given to thermal, optical, and dynamic analysis and testing. The operation procedures illustrate the interrelation and sequence of tasks in a flow diagram. The diagram also includes quality assurance functions for verification of operation tasks.

  6. An Analysis of the Effects of Smartphone Push Notifications on Task Performance with regard to Smartphone Overuse Using ERP

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul-Kee; Kim, So-Yeong; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are used ubiquitously worldwide and are essential tools in modern society. However, smartphone overuse is an emerging social issue, and limited studies have objectively assessed this matter. The majority of previous studies have included surveys or behavioral observation studies. Since a previous study demonstrated an association between increased push notifications and smartphone overuse, we investigated the effects of push notifications on task performance. We detected changes in brainwaves generated by smartphone push notifications using the N200 and P300 components of event-related potential (ERP) to investigate both concentration and cognitive ability. ERP assessment indicated that, in both risk and nonrisk groups, the lowest N200 amplitude and the longest latency during task performance were found when push notifications were delivered. Compared to the nonrisk group, the risk group demonstrated lower P300 amplitudes and longer latencies. In addition, the risk group featured a higher rate of error in the Go-Nogo task, due to the negative influence of smartphone push notifications on performance in both risk and nonrisk groups. Furthermore, push notifications affected subsequent performance in the risk group. PMID:27366147

  7. An Analysis of the Effects of Smartphone Push Notifications on Task Performance with regard to Smartphone Overuse Using ERP.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seul-Kee; Kim, So-Yeong; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are used ubiquitously worldwide and are essential tools in modern society. However, smartphone overuse is an emerging social issue, and limited studies have objectively assessed this matter. The majority of previous studies have included surveys or behavioral observation studies. Since a previous study demonstrated an association between increased push notifications and smartphone overuse, we investigated the effects of push notifications on task performance. We detected changes in brainwaves generated by smartphone push notifications using the N200 and P300 components of event-related potential (ERP) to investigate both concentration and cognitive ability. ERP assessment indicated that, in both risk and nonrisk groups, the lowest N200 amplitude and the longest latency during task performance were found when push notifications were delivered. Compared to the nonrisk group, the risk group demonstrated lower P300 amplitudes and longer latencies. In addition, the risk group featured a higher rate of error in the Go-Nogo task, due to the negative influence of smartphone push notifications on performance in both risk and nonrisk groups. Furthermore, push notifications affected subsequent performance in the risk group.

  8. Design of push-pull system to control diesel particular matter inside a dead-end entry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Thiruvengadam, Magesh; Lan, Hai; Tien, Jerry C

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is considered to be carcinogenic after prolonged exposure. With more diesel-powered equipment used in underground mines, miners' exposure to DPM has become an increasing concern. This paper used computational fluid dynamics method to study the DPM dispersion in a dead-end entry with loading operation. The effects of different push-pull ventilation systems on DPM distribution were evaluated to improve the working conditions for underground miners. The four push-pull systems considered include: long push and short pull tubing; short push and long pull tubing, long push and curved pull tubing, and short push and curved pull tubing. A species transport model with buoyancy effect was used to examine the DPM dispersion pattern with unsteady state analysis. During the 200 s of loading operation, high DPM levels were identified in the face and dead-end entry regions. This study can be used for mining engineer as guidance to design and setup local ventilation, select DPM control strategies and for DPM annual training for underground miners.

  9. Co-seismic strike-slip fault displacement determined from push-up structures: the Selsund Fault case, South Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelier, Jacques; Bergerat, Françoise; Bellou, Magalie; Homberg, Catherine

    2004-04-01

    We analysed push-up structures along the Selsund Fault, a N-S right-lateral strike-slip fault activated during the 1912 earthquake in the South Iceland Seismic Zone. Volume changes and syn-tectonic collapse affected push-ups during the earthquake, followed by post-seismic gravitational sagging. To determine the push-up shortening, and hence the strike-slip fault motion, we define a virtual push-up structure, without volume change and collapse, and we compare it with the present-day configuration. Whereas length comparisons are subject to errors, volumetric analysis allows determination of shortening through evaluation of the thickness of the deformed layer affected by the push-ups. We determine a co-seismic peak displacement of 2.4 m along the rupture trace. This value is consistent with the magnitude 7 of the earthquake, based on empirical relationships. Neglecting volume changes and collapse effects gives underestimated displacement. The new method for analysing push-up structures thus allows better determination of magnitudes of ancient earthquakes along strike-slip faults.

  10. Real time monitoring of superparamagnetic nanoparticle self-assembly on surfaces of magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Crawford, T. M.; Qi, B.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T.

    2014-05-07

    Nanoparticle self-assembly dynamics are monitored in real-time by detecting optical diffraction from an all-nanoparticle grating as it self-assembles on a grating pattern recorded on a magnetic medium. The diffraction efficiency strongly depends on concentration, pH, and colloidal stability of nanoparticle suspensions, demonstrating the nanoparticle self-assembly process is highly tunable. This metrology could provide an alternative for detecting nanoparticle properties such as colloidal stability.

  11. Fabrication of complex structures or assemblies by Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP) welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashurst, A. N.; Goldstein, M.; Ryan, M. J.; Lessmann, G. G.; Bryant, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    HIP welding is effective method for fabricating complex structures or assemblies such as alternator rotors, regeneratively-cooled rocket-motor thrust chambers, and jet engine turbine blades. It can be applied to fabrication of many assemblies which require that component parts be welded together along complex interfaces.

  12. Alternative Certification Isn't Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate; Jacobs, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    While nearly all states now have something on their books labeled "alternate route to certification," these programs defy standard definition due to their enormous variability. States differ in the types of candidates allowed to apply (e.g., career changers or recent college graduates) and in the academic backgrounds these individuals must…

  13. Space assembly fixtures and aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, K. A.; Lillenas, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Concepts and requirements for assembly fixtures and aids necessary for the assembly and maintenance of spare platforms were studied. Emphasis was placed on erectable and deployable type structures with the shuttle orbiter as the assembly base. Both single and multiple orbiter flight cases for the platform assembly were considered. Applicable space platform assembly studies were reviewed to provide a data base for establishing the assembly fixture and aids design requirements, assembly constraints, and the development of representative design concepts. Conclusions indicated that fixture requirements will vary with platform size. Larger platforms will require translation relative to the orbiter RMS working volume. The installation of platform payloads and subsystems (e.g., utility distribution) must also be considered in the specification of assembly fixtures and aids.

  14. A push-pull system to reduce house entry of malaria mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are the dominant vectors of pathogens that cause infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and filariasis. Current vector control strategies often rely on the use of pyrethroids against which mosquitoes are increasingly developing resistance. Here, a push-pull system is presented, that operates by the simultaneous use of repellent and attractive volatile odorants. Method/Results Experiments were carried out in a semi-field set-up: a traditional house which was constructed inside a screenhouse. The release of different repellent compounds, para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), catnip oil e.o. and delta-undecalactone, from the four corners of the house resulted in significant reductions of 45% to 81.5% in house entry of host-seeking malaria mosquitoes. The highest reductions in house entry (up to 95.5%), were achieved by simultaneously repelling mosquitoes from the house (push) and removing them from the experimental set-up using attractant-baited traps (pull). Conclusions The outcome of this study suggests that a push-pull system based on attractive and repellent volatiles may successfully be employed to target mosquito vectors of human disease. Reductions in house entry of malaria vectors, of the magnitude that was achieved in these experiments, would likely affect malaria transmission. The repellents used are non-toxic and can be used safely in a human environment. Delta-undecalactone is a novel repellent that showed higher effectiveness than the established repellent PMD. These results encourage further development of the system for practical implementation in the field. PMID:24674451

  15. Push-out bond strengths of two fiber post types bonded with different dentin bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Topcu, Fulya Toksoy; Erdemir, Ugur; Sahinkesen, Gunes; Mumcu, Emre; Yildiz, Esra; Uslan, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional push-out bond strengths for two fiber-reinforced post types using three different dentin bonding agents. Sixty single-rooted extracted human first premolar teeth were sectioned below the cemento-enamel junction, and the roots were endodontically treated. Following standardized post space preparations, the roots were divided into two fiber-post groups (Glassix and Carbopost), and further divided into three subgroups of 10 specimens each for the bonding systems self-etching dentin bonding agents (Clearfil SE Bond and Optibond all-in-one), and total-etching dentin bonding agent (XP Bond). A dual-cure resin luting cement (Maxcem) was then placed in the post spaces and posts were then seated into the root canals polymerized through the cervical portion. The roots were then cut into 3-mm thick sections. Push-out tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed with multivariate ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). The morphology of interface between different dentin bonding agents from the cervical sections were analyzed with SEM. Glass fiber-reinforced posts demonstrated significantly higher push-out bond strengths than carbon fiber-reinforced posts (p < 0.001). Bond strength values decreased significantly from the cervical to the apical root canal regions (p < 0.001). Self-etching dentin adhesive Clearfil SE Bond and total-etching dentin adhesive XP Bond demonstrated similar bond strengths values and this was significantly higher compared with the Optibond all-in-one in cervical root canal region. In conclusion, in all root segments, the glass fiber-reinforced posts provided significantly increased post retention than the carbon fiber-reinforced posts, regardless of the adhesive used.

  16. Push-Pull: Chemical Ecology-Based Integrated Pest Management Technology.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zeyaur; Midega, Charles A O; Hooper, Antony; Pickett, John

    2016-07-01

    Lepidopterous stemborers, and parasitic striga weeds belonging to the family Orobanchaceae, attack cereal crops in sub-Saharan Africa causing severe yield losses. The smallholder farmers are resource constrained and unable to afford expensive chemicals for crop protection. The push-pull technology, a chemical ecology- based cropping system, is developed for integrated pest and weed management in cereal-livestock farming systems. Appropriate plants were selected that naturally emit signaling chemicals (semiochemicals). Plants highly attractive for stemborer egg laying were selected and employed as trap crops (pull), to draw pests away from the main crop. Plants that repelled stemborer females were selected as intercrops (push). The stemborers are attracted to the trap plant, and are repelled from the main cereal crop using a repellent intercrop (push). Root exudates of leguminous repellent intercrops also effectively control the parasitic striga weed through an allelopathic mechanism. Their root exudates contain flavonoid compounds some of which stimulate germination of Striga hermonthica seeds, such as Uncinanone B, and others that dramatically inhibit their attachment to host roots, such as Uncinanone C and a number of di-C-glycosylflavones (di-CGFs), resulting in suicidal germination. The intercrop also improves soil fertility through nitrogen fixation, natural mulching, improved biomass, and control of erosion. Both companion plants provide high value animal fodder, facilitating milk production and diversifying farmers' income sources. The technology is appropriate to smallholder mixed cropping systems in Africa. Adopted by about 125,000 farmers to date in eastern Africa, it effectively addresses major production constraints, significantly increases maize yields, and is economical as it is based on locally available plants, not expensive external inputs.

  17. Single-well tracer push-pull test sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture and spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Karmakar, S.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    Dealing with a parallel-fracture system of infinite lateral extension, four characteristic regimes of tracer signal sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture and w. r. to fracture spacing s (whose reciprocal defines fracture density, or the fluid-rock interface area per volume) can be identified during the pull phase of a single-well push-pull test, also depending upon the ratio between push-phase duration Tpush and a characteristic time scale Ts (defined by s2 / D = Ts , with D denoting the tracer's effective diffusion coefficient): early-time regime: tracer signals are sensitive w. r. to fracture aperture, but insensitive w. r. to fracture spacing; sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture first increases, then decreases with Tpush / Ts (thus there will be an optimum in terms of to Tpush / Ts , at early pull times); mid-time regime: tracer signals are sensitive w. r. to fracture spacing, but insensitive w. r. to fracture aperture; sensitivity w. r. to fracture spacing increases with Tpush / Ts ; late-time regime: with increasing pull duration, tracer signals become increasingly insensitive w. r. to fracture spacing, while regaining sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture; 'very late'-time regime: sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture becomes independent upon Tpush / Ts . From these different regimes, some recommendations can be derived regarding the design and dimensioning of dual-tracer single-well push-pull tests for the specific purposes of geothermal reservoir characterization, using conservative solutes and heat as tracers. Acknowledgement: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit 'G6' of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' (Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling).

  18. Effects of different intra canal medicaments on the push out bond strength of endodontic sealers

    PubMed Central

    Shakouie, Sahar; Shahi, Shahriar; Samiei, Mohammad; Milani, Amin-Salem; Reyhani, Mohammad-Frough; Paksefat, Sara; Eskandarinekhad, Mahsa

    2017-01-01

    Background One of the essential properties of the root canal sealers is the adhesion to root canal dentin and their higher bond strength decreases the microleakage. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of Different Intracanal medicaments on the push out bond strength of AH26 and MTA Fillapex sealers. Material and Methods A total of 104 one-rooted extracted human teeth were divided into 4 (n=26) experimental groups. After the cleaning and shaping, the root canals were filled with Ca(OH)2, triantibiotic paste (TAP), Metapex or 2% chlorhexidine gel for two weeks. Then, intracanal medicaments were rinsed away and the samples in the sub-groups were obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 or MTA Fillapex sealers. After two weeks incubation, 2-mm-thick middle section of each root was then subjected to push-out testing. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and LSD test. Results With all the intracanal medicaments, the overall mean of bond strength values were significantly higher with AH26 compared to MTA Fillapex (p<0.05). With the use of MTA Fillapex the maximum and minimum means of bond strength values were recorded with CHX and Metapex and for AH26 were recorded with Ca(OH)2 and chlorhexidine, respectively. Conclusions The bond strengths of sealers to dentin are under the influence of pre-treatment with intracanal medicaments. Under the limitations of the present study, the effect of TAP on the bond strength of endodontic sealers was not negative. Key words:AH26, medicament, MTA Fillapex, push-out bond. PMID:28298989

  19. On alternating quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseva, Jenia; Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

    2017-03-01

    We study an inhomogeneous quantum walk on a line that evolves according to alternating coins, each a rotation matrix. For the quantum walk with the coin alternating between clockwise and counterclockwise rotations by the same angle, we derive a closed form solution for the propagation of probabilities, and provide its asymptotic approximation via the method of stationary phase. Finally, we observe that for a x03c0;/4 angle, this alternating rotation walk will replicate the renown Hadamard walk.

  20. Alternatives to Certain Phthalates Partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The alternatives assessment partnership project on alternatives to certain phthalates seeks to eplore the human health and environmental profiles of eight action plan phthalates and functional alternatives