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Sample records for alternative bait products

  1. EFFECTS OF BAITS AND BAIT ALTERNATIVES ON SLUG MORTALITY, EGG PRODUCTION, AND SEEDLING SURVIVAL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two non-bait slug control formulations that are not attractive to earthworms including Durham 3.5 and 7.5 (3.5 and 7.5%, metaldehyde, respectively) and SlugFest AWF (all-weather-formula, 25%, metaldehyde), a liquid spray product were investigated for their efficacy in reducing egg fecundity and slu...

  2. Efficacy of anticoagulant-free alternative bait products against house mice (Mus musculus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Schmolz, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The attractiveness and efficacy of four anonymous anticoagulant-free alternative rodenticides (active ingredients cellulose or plaster) were tested on wild strain groups of house mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout) in laboratory choice and no-choice experiments. In no-choice tests, the rodenticide product was offered ad libitum to the animals for 21 days (mice) and 10 days (rats), respectively. In choice tests, the rodenticide product and non-poisoned food were offered for 28 days (mice) and 14 days (rats). Two products with cellulose (C1 and C2) as the active ingredient were tested against both mice and rats. In two no-choice tests with mice, all animals died within 14 days (C1) and 21 days (C2); in a third no-choice test, 11% (2/18) of mice survived (C1: 21 days). In all three tests, numerous incidents of cannibalism were observed. The attractiveness of cellulose baits was tested for one product (C1) in three trials against normal food pellets. In all trials, bait consumption was low and all mice survived (15-34 days). Two no-choice trials with cellulose baits (C1) were conducted on groups of Rattus norvegicus; 11 of 12 rats survived the bait feeding period and no cannibalism or sign of aggression between conspecifics was observed. Two plaster-based (CaSO4 0.5H2O) products (P1 and P2) were tested against both mice and rats; in no-choice tests, only one mouse (n= 20) and no rats (n= 8) were killed, although the baits proved to be attractive for rats and mice in choice tests. The results of these experiments suggest that neither cellulose-based nor plaster-based rodenticides are suitable agents for the control of Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus.

  3. Safely Use Rodent Bait Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rat and mouse poison products, if misused, can potentially harm you, your children, or your pets. Always read the product label and follow all directions. Choose safe rodenticide products, store pesticides properly, and use bait stations appropriately.

  4. Choosing a Bait Station Product for Household Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on tamper-resistant, weather-resistant, and other products that meet EPA safety standards and can help consumers control household rodents while greatly reducing accidental exposure to children, pets, and non-target wildlife.

  5. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; Świ ȩtosławski, J.; Świ ȩtosławski, J.

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: "Cockroach Kill Gel" for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  6. Baited traps may be an alternative to conventional pesticides in integrated crop management of chicory (Compositae) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Midgley, J M; Hill, M P; Villet, M H

    2008-02-01

    Chicory, Chicorium intybus L. (Compositae), is a major field crop in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Several pests feed on the leaves of the plant, resulting in reduced yield. The most important of these are the noctuid moths Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Chrysodeixis acuta (Walker), and Trichoplusia orichalcea (F.). The use of attract-and-kill traps offers an alternative to broad-based insecticides in the control of these species. Three fields were treated with normal insecticides and three fields with yellow-baited traps. Eight additional traps were placed in each field, with half of the traps containing the insecticide 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (dichlorvos) and half without dichlorvos; and half yellow and half green. Total moth numbers and nonphytophage diversity were measured from these eight traps. Although no differences in H. armigera or T. orichalcea catches were observed between insecticide- and trap-treated fields, numbers of C. acuta and the total number of moths were significantly higher in insecticide-treated fields. Yellow traps containing dichlorvos contained more moths than yellow traps without dichlorvos, or green traps with dichlorvos, or green traps without dichlorvos; but they also contained more nonphytophagous insects. Yellow traps also enhanced the catches of thrips on card traps associated with them. These results offer an opportunity for the South African chicory industry to reduce pesticide applications and thus mitigate environmental impacts.

  7. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be published...

  8. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be published...

  9. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be published...

  10. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be published...

  11. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be published...

  12. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, Florida using attractive sugar baits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, Flo...

  14. Opportunities for Alternative Fuels Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-05

    lifecycle emissions can be less than half those of petroleum-derived fuels. In particular, a feedstock consisting of a 60/40 coal/biomass blend (by...available for free download at http://www.rand.org/pubs/testimonies/CT360/. 2 greenhouse gas emissions . Finally, a federal program directed at reducing...liquids production in Qatar and Malaysia, and small amounts of biodiesel production in the United States and Europe. Expanding alternative fuels

  15. Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, FL using attractive sugar baits.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rudy; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Müller, Günter C

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, FL. Exit traps were constructed to cover the well and cistern openings so the number of resting and emerging mosquitoes stained by feeding on the sugar bait could be monitored. Four mosquito species were collected from these structures: Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Anopheles crucians (Wiedemann), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Coquillett). Overall, 90% (1482/1644) of the mosquitoes trapped were stained. In general, the number of mosquitoes stained was significantly greater in wells (P<0.0001) and cisterns (P<0.0001) than the numbers that were not stained by the colored bait. Based on the number of mosquitoes stained, we would have expected considerable mosquito mortality had the sugar bait contained an oral toxin. The results of this study support the concept of using attractive toxic sugar baits as an effective tool for integrated mosquito management.

  16. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkel, Philip; Holcomb, Rodney B.

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  17. Potential Benefits, Limitations and Target Product-Profiles of Odor-Baited Mosquito Traps for Malaria Control in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Okumu, Fredros O.; Govella, Nicodem J.; Moore, Sarah J.; Chitnis, Nakul; Killeen, Gerry F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Traps baited with synthetic human odors have been proposed as suitable technologies for controlling malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. We investigated the potential benefits of such traps for preventing malaria transmission in Africa and the essential characteristics that they should possess so as to be effective. Methods and Principal Findings An existing mathematical model was reformulated to distinguish availability of hosts for attack by mosquitoes from availability of blood per se. This adaptation allowed the effects of pseudo-hosts such as odor-baited mosquito traps, which do not yield blood but which can nonetheless be attacked by the mosquitoes, to be simulated considering communities consisting of users and non-users of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), currently the primary malaria prevention method. We determined that malaria transmission declines as trap coverage (proportion of total availability of all hosts and pseudo hosts that traps constitute) increases. If the traps are more attractive than humans and are located in areas where mosquitoes are most abundant, 20–130 traps per 1000 people would be sufficient to match the impact of 50% community-wide ITN coverage. If such traps are used to complement ITNs, malaria transmission can be reduced by 99% or more in most scenarios representative of Africa. However, to match cost-effectiveness of ITNs, the traps delivery, operation and maintenance would have to cost a maximum of US$4.25 to 27.61 per unit per year. Conclusions and Significance Odor-baited mosquito traps might potentially be effective and affordable tools for malaria control in Africa, particularly if they are used to complement, rather than replace, existing methods. We recommend that developers should focus on super-attractive baits and cheaper traps to enhance cost-effectiveness, and that the most appropriate way to deploy such technologies is through vertical delivery mechanisms. PMID:20644731

  18. Diet quality affects bait performance in German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Ko, Alexander E; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2016-10-01

    Bait formulations are widely used to control German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations. To perform optimally, these formulations must compete favorably with non-toxic alternative foods present within the insect's habitat. We hypothesized that the nutritional history of cockroaches and their acceptance or avoidance of glucose would affect their food preference and thus bait efficacy. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a controlled laboratory experiment, first providing glucose-accepting and glucose-averse cockroaches nutritionally defined diets and then offering them identical diets containing the insecticide hydramethylnon as a bait proxy to evaluate the effect of diets of differing macronutrient composition on bait performance. The interaction between diet composition and bait composition affected the survival of adult males as well as first-instar nymphs exposed to excretions produced by these males. Survival analyses indicated different responses of glucose-averse and glucose-accepting insects, but generally any combination of diet and bait that resulted in high diet intake and low bait intake reduced secondary kill. This study represents a comprehensive examination of the effect of alternative foods on bait efficacy. We suggest that disparities between the nutritional quality of baits and the foods that are naturally available could profoundly impact the management of German cockroach infestations. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Update on Bait Stations for Tephritid Fruit Fly Control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attract-and-kill devices, otherwise known as bait stations, are being developed and tested as alternatives to broadcast pesticide application for control of a number of pest insects. With the development of female-targeted food-based synthetic attractants for tephritid fruit flies, a number of bait...

  20. Efficacy of rodenticide baits for the control of three invasive rodent species in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Pitt, William C; Driscoll, Laura C; Sugihara, Robert T

    2011-04-01

    We tested the efficacy and palatability of nine commercial rodenticide bait formulations on Polynesian rats (Rattus exulans), roof rats (R. rattus), and house mice (Mus musculus). Efficacy varied by rodenticide tested and rodent species. Generally, rodenticides were more effective against mice than for either of the rat species, and mice tended to consume more rodenticide bait than the laboratory chow alternative food. Efficacy was generally highest for the second-generation anticoagulants tested; however, this varied across products and one-first-generation rodenticide had similar effectiveness. Bait acceptance (palatability) also varied both by rodenticide and by rodent species. Acceptance was the lowest for the acute rodenticides. Bait acceptance appeared to substantially affect the efficacy of rodenticides; materials that were not well accepted produced lower mortality rates. Rodenticide products currently registered for use in Hawaii performed less effectively in this study than other available products not yet registered. Although markets for rodent control products for use on islands are limited, there are advantages to having additional products registered for island use in agriculture, conservation, and public health.

  1. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  2. The Human-Baited Double Net Trap: An Alternative to Human Landing Catches for Collecting Outdoor Biting Mosquitoes in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Tangena, Julie-Anne A.; Thammavong, Phoutmany; Hiscox, Alexandra; Lindsay, Steve W.; Brey, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the exposure of individuals to mosquito-borne diseases is a key measure used to evaluate the success of vector control operations. The gold standard is to use human landing catches where mosquitoes are collected off the exposed limbs of human collectors. This is however an unsatisfactory method since it potentially exposes individuals to a range of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study several sampling methods were compared to find a method that is representative of the human-biting rate outdoors, but which does not expose collectors to mosquito-borne infections. The sampling efficiency of four odour-baited traps were compared outdoors in rural Lao PDR; the human-baited double net (HDN) trap, CDC light trap, BG sentinel trap and Suna trap. Subsequently the HDN, the best performing trap, was compared directly with human landing catches (HLC), the ‘gold standard’, for estimating human-biting rates. HDNs collected 11–44 times more mosquitoes than the other traps, with the exception of the HLC. The HDN collected similar numbers of Anopheles (Rate Ratio, RR = 1.16, 95% Confidence Intervals, 95% CI = 0.61–2.20) and Culex mosquitoes (RR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.74–2.17) as HLC, but under-estimated the numbers of Aedes albopictus (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.27–0.77). Simpson’s index of diversity was 0.845 (95% CI 0.836–0.854) for the HDN trap and 0.778 (95% CI 0.769–0.787) for HLC, indicating that the HDN collected a greater diversity of mosquito species than HLC. Both HLC and HDN can distinguish between low and high biting rates and are crude ways to measure human-biting rate. The HDN is a simple and cheap method to estimate the human-biting rate outdoors without exposing collectors to mosquito bites. PMID:26381896

  3. Alternatives to Trichoderma reesei in biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Gusakov, Alexander V

    2011-09-01

    Mutant strains of Trichoderma reesei are considered indisputable champions in cellulase production among biomass-degrading fungi. So, it is not surprising that most R&D projects on bioethanol production from lignocellulosics have been based on using T. reesei cellulases. The present review focuses on whether any serious alternatives to T. reesei enzymes in cellulose hydrolysis exist. Although not widely accepted, more and more data have been accumulated that demonstrate that fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium, Acremonium and Chrysosporium might represent such alternatives because they are competitive to T. reesei on some important parameters, such as protein production level, cellulase hydrolytic performance per unit of activity or milligram of protein.

  4. Photographic bait stations

    Treesearch

    T.E. Kucera; A.M. Soukkala; Bill Zielinski

    1995-01-01

    There are a variety of systems in use that employ a camera at a bait station to detect wildlife. We will describe three that are widely used and with which we are most familiar. They can be divided into two major categories according to the type of camera used. The first employs automatic, 35-mm cameras and can be further divided into two types that differ by...

  5. A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each.

  6. A survey of alternative oxygen production technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.

    2001-02-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. .

  7. Protein Complex Production in Alternative Prokaryotic Hosts.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Sara; López-Estepa, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco J; Vega, M Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Research for multiprotein expression in nonconventional bacterial and archaeal expression systems aims to exploit particular properties of "alternative" prokaryotic hosts that might make them more efficient than E. coli for particular applications, especially in those areas where more conventional bacterial hosts traditionally do not perform well. Currently, a wide range of products with clinical or industrial application have to be isolated from their native source, often microorganisms whose growth present numerous problems owing to very slow growth phenotypes or because they are unculturable under laboratory conditions. In those cases, transfer of the gene pathway responsible for synthesizing the product of interest into a suitable recombinant host becomes an attractive alternative solution. Despite many efforts dedicated to improving E. coli systems due to low cost, ease of use, and its dominant position as a ubiquitous expression host model, many alternative prokaryotic systems have been developed for heterologous protein expression mostly for biotechnological applications. Continuous research has led to improvements in expression yield through these non-conventional models, including Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and Mycobacterium as alternative bacterial expression hosts. Advantageous properties shared by these systems include low costs, high levels of secreted protein products and their safety of use, with non-pathogenic strains been commercialized. In addition, the use of extremophilic and halotolerant archaea as expression hosts has to be considered as a potential tool for the production of mammalian membrane proteins such as GPCRs.

  8. Available Alternative Fuel School Bus Products--2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of the currently available (and soon to be available) model year 2004 alternative fuel school bus and school bus engine products. It includes information from Blue Bird Corporation, Collins Bus Corporation, Corbeil Bus, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Thomas Built Buses, Inc., Clean Air Partners, Cummins Westport, and Deere & Company.

  9. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC FISHMEAL POLYMER BAITS FOR THE CONTROL OF BAYLISASCARIS PROCYONIS IN FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR).

    PubMed

    Smyser, Timothy J; Johnson, Shylo R; Stallard, Melissa D; McGrew, Ashley K; Page, L Kristen; Crider, Nikki; Ballweber, Lora R; Swihart, Robert K; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-07-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and is a zoonotic helminth with the potential to cause severe or fatal infection. Raccoons thrive in human-dominated landscapes, and the fecal-oral transmission pathway and lack of effective treatment make B. procyonis a serious threat to public health. The distribution of medicinal baits has emerged as a socially acceptable and cost-effective method for managing disease in free-ranging wildlife. We assessed the suitability of a mass-producible anthelmintic bait for B. procyonis mitigation by evaluating the willingness of free-ranging raccoons to consume anthelmintic baits and determining whether bait consumption successfully cleared B. procyonis infections from raccoons. Anthelmintic baits were modified from standard fishmeal polymer baits, the food attractant commonly used in oral rabies vaccine baits, with the introduction of 220 mg of pyrantel pamoate into the fishmeal mixture. We captured 16 naturally infected raccoons, presented one anthelmintic bait, and monitored B. procyonis infection over 90 d by screening feces for eggs. Treatment cleared B. procyonis infections for nine of 12 raccoons that consumed >10 g of the 15 g bait. We used remote cameras to monitor in situ patterns of bait consumption for anthelmintic baits relative to standard baits. Both anthelmintic and standard baits were rapidly consumed, with no differences in the rate of consumption between bait types. However, after bait contact, raccoons demonstrated a greater willingness to consume standard baits while ignoring anthelmintic baits more frequently (P = 0.06). Initial trials of anthelmintic baits show promise, although refinement in both dose and palatability is needed. At mass production scales, the addition of pyrantel pamoate to fishmeal polymer baits would be inexpensive, potentially making anthelmintic baits a viable management option when coupled with an oral rabies vaccine or used independently

  10. Development of Baits for Insect Control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article outlines the importance of baits. Baits are formulations that can be used to deliver a toxic chemical or a pathogen (active agent) via ingestion to an insect pest with the goal of killing it. A bait formulations consist of a bait matrix which is the carrier for an active agent. The bait...

  11. Evaluation of baits for oral rabies vaccination of mongooses: pilot field trials in Antigua, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Linhart, S B; Creekmore, T E; Corn, J L; Whitney, M D; Snyder, B D; Nettles, V F

    1993-04-01

    A field study was conducted on the island of Antigua, West Indies, to evaluate baits for delivering an oral rabies vaccine to the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus). Tracking tiles were used to determine that mongooses were nonselective and took both egg-flavored polyurethane baits and fish-flavored polymer baits containing several different food materials. A high proportion of baits were taken the day of placement with minimal disturbance by nontarget species. DuPont Oil Blue A dye was an effective short-term biomarker for use in baits; based on its subsequent detection in mongooses, some of the population had consumed and not cached or discarded baits. Central point baiting stations showed promise as an alternative delivery technique.

  12. Relative attractiveness of baits to Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret C; Robinson, Wayne A

    2007-04-01

    Exotic ant incursions are becoming more frequent around the globe, and management with toxic baits is a suitable strategy for most species. Crazy ants, (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), however, are notoriously difficult to attract to commercial baits, which are generally tailored to the preferences of fire ants. We tested P. longicornis preferences for various food types and commercial ant baits. Baits trialed were commercially available products Amdro, Maxforce, Xstinguish (nontoxic monitoring version), Presto, and tuna (in spring water), sugar water (25%), boric acid (1% in 25% sugar water), and deionized water. Tuna and Xstinguish, along with sugar water and sugar water + boric acid, were the most attractive baits to P. longicornis foragers. The granular baits (Maxforce, Amdro, and Presto) were not as attractive to P. longicornis foragers. A decrease in temperature from summer (30 degrees C) to autumn (23 degrees C) trials did not seem to affect the food preferences of P. longicornis. Although P. longicornis recruitment was substantially lower during trials where there was concurrent high native ant abundance and diversity, P. longicornis still recruited to preferred baits in numbers higher than any other species. Given that tuna is impractical for management programs, the effectiveness of boric acid, sweet liquid baits in eliminating P. longicornis colonies should be compared with that of the toxic version of Xstinguish. If both are effective at eliminating colonies, we recommend sweet liquid baits containing boric acid be used for small-scale incursions (one or two nests), but a more practicable solid bait, such as Xstinguish, be used for larger scale incursions (numerous nests).

  13. Alternative indicators for measuring hospital productivity.

    PubMed

    Serway, G D; Strum, D W; Haug, W F

    1987-08-01

    This article explores the premise that the appropriateness and usefulness of typical hospital productivity measures have been affected by three changes in delivery: Organizational restructuring and other definition and data source changes that make full-time equivalent employee (FTE) measurements ambiguous. Transition to prospective payment (diagnosis-related groups). Increase in capitation (prepaid, at risk) programs. The effects of these changes on productivity management indicate the need for alternative productivity indicators. Several productivity measures that complement these changes in internal operations and the external hospital business environment are presented. These are based on an analysis of four hospitals within a multihospital system, and an illustration and interpretation of an array of measures, based on ten months of actual data, is provided. In conclusion, the recommendation is made for hospital management to collect an expanded set of productivity measures and review them in light of changing expense and revenue management schemes inherent in new payment modes.

  14. A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 arc being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. Our goal is to significantly improve upon the characteristics of proposed zirconia cells for oxygen production. To achieve that goal we are looking at electrolytic systems that operate at significantly lower temperatures, preferably below 31C to allow the incorporation of liquid CO2 in the electrolyte. Our preliminary results indicate that such a system will have much higher current densities and have simpler cathode construction than a porous gas feed electrode system. Such a system could be achieved based on nonaqueous electrolytes or ionic liquids. We are focusing our research on the anode reaction that will produce oxygen from a product generated at the cathode using CO2 as the feed. Operation at low temperatures also will open up the full range of polymer and metal materials, allowing a more robust system design to withstand the rigors of flight, landing, and long term unattended operation on the surface of Mars.

  15. Comparison of Rain-Fast Bait Stations Versus Foliar Bait Sprays for Control of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2010-01-01

    Bait stations represent an environmentally friendly attract-and-kill approach to fruit fly population suppression. Recently a novel, visually attractive, rain-fast bait station was developed in Hawaii for potential use against multiple species of pestiferous fruit flies. Here, we compared the efficacy of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait applied either as foliar sprays or onto bait stations in reducing female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), population density and level of fruit infestation in commercial papaya orchards in Hawaii. Trapping and infestation data were used as indicators of the effectiveness of the two bait application methods. For the first 10 weeks of the study, captures of female B. dorsalis in monitoring traps were significantly greater in control plots than in plots treated with foliar sprays or bait stations. Six weeks after the first bait spray, incidence of infestation (i.e. number of fruit with one or more B. dorsalis larvae) of quarter to half-ripe papaya fruit was reduced by 71.4% and 63.1% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. Twelve weeks after first spray, incidence of infestation was reduced by only 54.5% and 45.4% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. About 42% less GF-120 was used in orchard plots with bait stations compared to those subject to foliar sprays. The impact of field sanitation on the outcome is also discussed. The results indicate that bait stations can provide a simple, efficient, and economical method of applying insecticidal baits to control fruit flies and a safer alternative to foliar sprays. PMID:21067423

  16. Trials with portable screen rooms modified for use as animal-baited net traps for mosquito collection.

    PubMed

    Wilton, D P; Darsie, R F; Story, R

    1985-06-01

    Trials in Larimer County, Colorado during July and August 1984, with recreational screen rooms modified as large animal-baited mosquito traps are described. The two units tested are free-standing, portable and require no external support. In all-night trials, 462.5 mosquitoes/trap night were captured with horse bait compared with 367/trap night with CDC light traps. In 2-hour evening comparisons, mosquitoes collected per trapping period totalled 416 for horse-bait traps, 132 for light traps, and 93 for human-bait traps. Animal-baited screen rooms offer an alternative to existing methods for mosquito surveillance.

  17. Baiting Techniques for Control of Coptotermes Species Within Existing Buildings in Australia

    Treesearch

    J.R.J. French

    1991-01-01

    Baiting techniques have been developed over the years to control Coptotermes species, the most economically important termite species in Australia. Given the restrictions on organochlorines as termiticides in North America, this paper highlights research that has focussed on baiting programs against Coptotermes as alternatives to...

  18. New developments in bait stations for control of pest Tephritids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bait stations are being developed and tested as alternatives to broadcast pesticide application for control of a number of pest insects. This is an attract-and-kill pest management approach. With the development of female-targeted food-based synthetic attractants for tephritid fruit flies, a numbe...

  19. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products.

    PubMed

    Zizzari, Z Valentina; Smolders, Irene; Koene, Joris M

    2014-04-07

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner's body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection.

  20. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

  1. Lesbian Baiting Hurts All Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, Mary

    Lesbian baiting, the attempt to control women's "unacceptable" behavior by labeling them as lesbians, is the intersection of two forms of oppression--sexism and homophobia. Sexism is the systematic subordination of women, based on the belief in the inherent superiority of men. Sexism has defined the roles that men and women fill in order…

  2. Bird-repellent effects on bait efficacy for control of invasive mammal pests.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Phil; Brown, Sam; Forrester, Guy; Booth, Lynn; Crowell, Michelle

    2015-08-01

    Repellents to reduce crop damage from birds and mammals have been investigated extensively, but their efficacy in reducing risk to non-target birds in aerial poisoning operations for control of mammal pests is less known. We assessed the impact on bait acceptability, palatability and kill efficacy for captive wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and possums (Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr) of adding bird repellents (anthraquinone and d-pulegone) to baits used for their control in food choice trials. For possums, anthraquinone at 0.25% reduced acceptability and palatability but not the efficacy of poison baits, whereas d-pulegone at 0.17% had no significant effects. Rats showed little response to d-pulegone, but developed a marked aversion to prefeed baits containing anthraquinone at both 0.1 and 0.25%, such that almost no exposed rats ate poison baits and mortality was reduced significantly. The aversion induced by anthraquinone was generalised to the bait, as anthraquinone-exposed rats did not eat bait with only d-pulegone. Anthraquinone is not suitable for inclusion in bait for rat control at the concentrations tested, and also presents some risk to efficacy for possum control. D-pulegone would be suitable for inclusion in bait for possums and rats, but problems related to its volatility in bait manufacture and storage would need to be overcome. Further studies should focus on an alternative secondary repellent, or on establishing the maximum anthraquinone concentration that does not reduce efficacy for rats and testing whether or not that concentration is sufficient to repel native birds from baits reliably. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Alternative Tobacco Product Use and Smoking Cessation: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. Methods. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Results. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Conclusions. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited. PMID:23488521

  4. Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation: a national study.

    PubMed

    Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited.

  5. Alternative Agricultural Enterprises. Production, Management & Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Linda Kirk; And Others

    These nine cooperative extension bulletins provide basic information on various alternative agricultural enterprises. Discussed in the first eight bulletins are the following topics: business ownership (sole proprietorship, partnership, incorporation, cooperatives); business and the family (goals, qualifications, ways of ensuring family support,…

  6. Alternative Agricultural Enterprises. Production, Management & Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Linda Kirk; And Others

    These nine cooperative extension bulletins provide basic information on various alternative agricultural enterprises. Discussed in the first eight bulletins are the following topics: business ownership (sole proprietorship, partnership, incorporation, cooperatives); business and the family (goals, qualifications, ways of ensuring family support,…

  7. Development of a Pheromone-Assisted Baiting Technique for Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Welzel, Kevin F; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-24

    Current control measures for Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr), in urban settings typically include perimeter applications of insecticides around structures, resulting in potential problems with insecticide runoff and environmental contamination. Insecticidal baits can be an effective alternative to perimeter spray applications and are largely considered target-specific with minimal nontarget impact and environmental contamination. We report a "pheromone-assisted baiting technique" as an economically viable approach to maximize the efficacy of conventional baits targeting Argentine ants. Laboratory experiments with a commercially available gel bait indicated that foraging activity and final mortality of Argentine ants were significantly improved by incorporating (Z)-9-hexadecenal in the bait. The field study demonstrated that the pheromone-treated gel bait achieved a 74% reduction in Argentine ant activity by the end of 4 wk when it was compared with its own pretreatment value. This was a significant improvement over the untreated gel bait that provided a 42% reduction over the same period of time. The pheromone-assisted baiting technique has the potential in providing effective ant control with reduced amount of insecticides applied in the environment. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Alternate feedstocks and technologies for biodiesel production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    U.S. biodiesel production is presently estimated at 800 million gallons annually, and this fuel is no longer a research curiosity - it is entering the nation’s fuel infrastructure. Some estimates are that production will reach nearly twice that value in the next 10 to 12 years. This would stress a...

  9. Production of bacterial cellulose from alternate feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    D. N. Thompson; M. A. Hamilton

    2000-05-07

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS and HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  10. Production of Bacterial Cellulose from Alternate Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David Neil; Hamilton, Melinda Ann

    2000-05-01

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS & HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  11. New Alternatives in Seafood Restructured Products.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Helena M; Herranz, Beatriz; Pérez-Mateos, Miriam; Sánchez-Alonso, Isabel; Borderías, Javier A

    2016-01-01

    A general overview, focusing on new trends in the different techniques used in restructured seafood product processing has been described in this work. Heat-induced gelation has been more widely studied in scientific literature than cold gelation technology. This latter technology includes the use of hydrocolloids (alginates and glucomannan) or enzymes (microbial transglutaminase) for making both raw and cooked restructured products. In restructuration processes, fortification processing with some functional ingredients is studied, giving as a result extra value to the products as well as increasing the variety of new seafood products. The process of alleviating heavy metals and organic pollutants from the raw material used has also been reviewed in the present paper.

  12. Effect of application rate and persistence of boric acid sugar baits applied to plants control of Aedes albopictus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of toxic baits to kill adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes is a safe and potentially effective alternative to the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. This study was made to identify effective application rates for boric acid-sugar solution baits sprayed onto plant surfaces and to ...

  13. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad®) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida “fly free zone” protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production. PMID:15841224

  14. Alternative Bench Standards: Sample Production Report

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Mann; T. P. Houghton; M. G. Watrous; J. G. Eisenmenger; R. K. Hague

    2012-09-01

    The INL has prepared four standards representing krypton concentrations of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X the reported atmospheric value of 70 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C (ie. 1.1X is 1.1 x 70, or 77 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C). A t-zero date and time of January 1, 2012 at 1200 Zulu was used for all standards. The Alternative Bench Standards (ABS) of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X, are designated by titles of ABS-A, ABS-B, ABS C and ABS-D, respectively. The concentration of Kr in air is 1.14 ppm.

  15. Rapid elimination of field colonies of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) using bistrifluron solid bait pellets.

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of bistrifluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, in cellulose bait pellets was evaluated on the mound-building subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Three concentrations of the bistrifluron were used: 0 (untreated control), 0.5, and 1.0% over an 8 wk period. Both doses of bistrifluron bait eliminated (viz. termites absent from nest or mound) termite colonies: 83% of colonies (10 of 12) were either eliminated or moribund (viz. colony had no reproductive capacity and decreased workforce) after 8 wk, compared with none of the control colonies. The remaining two treated colonies were deemed to be in decline. Early signs that bistrifluron was affecting the colonies included: 3 wk after baiting mound temperatures showed a loss of metabolic heat, 4 wk after baiting foraging activity in feeding stations was reduced or absent, and dissection of two mounds at 4 wk showed they were moribund. Colony elimination was achieved in around half or less the time, and with less bait toxicant, than other bait products tested under similar conditions in the field, because of either the active ingredient, the high surface area of the pellets, or a combination of both. This suggests the sometimes long times reported for control using baits may be reduced significantly. The use of a mound building species demonstrated clearly colony level effects before and after termites stopped foraging in bait stations.

  16. Non-timber forest products: alternatives for landowners

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett

    2002-01-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been given to forest products that are plant-based but do not come from timber. These "alternative" products are found growing under the forest canopy as herbs, shrubs, vines, moss and even lichen. Although they have been gathered for generations, non-timber forest products have had less attention than "more...

  17. Medical Countermeasure Product Development - Alternatives Paper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    infectious disease threats such as malaria, dengue, multi-drug resistant bacteria/viruses and highly pathogenic strains of influenza there has been a...important aspect of our national preparedness for public health emergencies. The focus has always been on surveillance and containment. The recent H1N1 ...pandemic influenza highlighted deficiencies with the current preparedness plan, in particular the execution failure due to lack of product integration

  18. Variation in Baiting Intensity Among CO2-Baited Traps Used to Collect Hematophagous Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Yuri P.; Taylor, Jeffrey R.; Travers, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Hematophagous arthropods transmit the etiological agents of numerous diseases and as a result are frequently the targets of sampling to characterize vector and pathogen populations. Arguably, the most commonly used sampling approach involves traps baited with carbon dioxide. We report results of a laboratory study in which the performance of carbon dioxide-baited traps was evaluated using measures of baiting intensity, the amount of carbon dioxide released per unit time during trap deployment. We evaluated the effects of trap design, carbon dioxide source, and wind speed on baiting intensity and documented significant effects of these factors on the length of sampling (time to baiting intensity = 0), maximum baiting intensity, and variation in baiting intensity during experimental trials. Among the three dry ice-baited trap types evaluated, traps utilizing insulated beverage coolers as dry ice containers sampled for the longest period of time, had the lowest maximum but most consistent baiting intensity within trials and were least sensitive to effects of wind speed and dry ice form (block vs. pellet) on baiting intensity. Results of trials involving traps baited with carbon dioxide released from pressurized cylinders suggested that this trap type had performance comparable to dry ice-baited insulated cooler traps but at considerably higher cost. PMID:26160803

  19. Variation in Baiting Intensity Among CO2-Baited Traps Used to Collect Hematophagous Arthropods.

    PubMed

    Springer, Yuri P; Taylor, Jeffrey R; Travers, Patrick D

    2015-01-01

    Hematophagous arthropods transmit the etiological agents of numerous diseases and as a result are frequently the targets of sampling to characterize vector and pathogen populations. Arguably, the most commonly used sampling approach involves traps baited with carbon dioxide. We report results of a laboratory study in which the performance of carbon dioxide-baited traps was evaluated using measures of baiting intensity, the amount of carbon dioxide released per unit time during trap deployment. We evaluated the effects of trap design, carbon dioxide source, and wind speed on baiting intensity and documented significant effects of these factors on the length of sampling (time to baiting intensity = 0), maximum baiting intensity, and variation in baiting intensity during experimental trials. Among the three dry ice-baited trap types evaluated, traps utilizing insulated beverage coolers as dry ice containers sampled for the longest period of time, had the lowest maximum but most consistent baiting intensity within trials and were least sensitive to effects of wind speed and dry ice form (block vs. pellet) on baiting intensity. Results of trials involving traps baited with carbon dioxide released from pressurized cylinders suggested that this trap type had performance comparable to dry ice-baited insulated cooler traps but at considerably higher cost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Alternative respiration and fumaric acid production of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuai; Xu, Qing; Huang, He; Li, Shuang

    2014-06-01

    Under the conditions of fumaric acid fermentation, Rhizopus oryzae ME-F14 possessed at least two respiratory systems. The respiration of mycelia was partially inhibited by the cytochrome respiration inhibitor antimycin A or the alternative respiration inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid and was completely inhibited in the presence of both antimycin A and salicylhydroxamic acid. During fumaric acid fermentation process, the activity of alternative respiration had a great correlation with fumaric acid productivity; both of them reached peak at the same time. The alternative oxidase gene, which encoded the mitochondrial alternative oxidase responsible for alternative respiration in R. oryzae ME-F14, was cloned and characterized in Escherichia coli. The activity of alternative respiration, the alternative oxidase gene transcription level, as well as the fumaric acid titer were measured under different carbon sources and different carbon-nitrogen ratios. The activity of alternative respiration was found to be comparable to the transcription level of the alternative oxidase gene and the fumaric acid titer. These results indicated that the activity of the alternative oxidase was regulated at the transcription stage under the conditions tested for R. oryzae ME-F14.

  1. Anticoagulant Prairie Dog Bait Risk Mitigation Measures to Protect Endangered Species

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Web page contains information on how certified pesticide applicators can use anticoagulant prairie dog bait products such as Rozol and Kaput-D while minimizing exposure risks to listed and non-target species.

  2. Do Emotions Spark Interest in Alternative Tobacco Products?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Lucy; So, Jiyeon; Sangalang, Angeline; Neilands, Torsten B.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure to advertisements for tobacco products and tobacco warning labels evokes emotions. This study evaluated the association of discrete positive and negative emotions with interest in alternative tobacco products. Method: In 2013, 1,226 U.S. adult nonsmokers and current smokers viewed advertisements for moist snuff, snus, and…

  3. Effect of bait in live trapping Peromyscus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1948-01-01

    SUMMARY: Evidence from live trapping tests indicated that Peromyscus leucopus did not leave their home ranges because of the attraction of trap bait in nearby areas. A trap line down the center of a heavily live-trapped area caught as many mice before the area trapping as afterward. Thus, there was reason to believe that the area trapping did not serve to pre-bait the mice. Two unbaited lines of live traps caught an equal number of Peromyscus. When one line was baited with rolled oats and peanut butter the efficiency of the traps was improved to the extent that the baited line captured more than twice as many mice as the unbaited line. It is concluded that for the species and habitat tested it is safe to make population calculations based on the assumption that the animals remain within their home ranges and do not tend to move into the trapped area because of the attraction of the trap bait.

  4. Airports offer unrealized potential for alternative energy production.

    PubMed

    DeVault, Travis L; Belant, Jerrold L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Martin, James A; Schmidt, Jason A; Wes Burger, L; Patterson, James W

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  5. Airports Offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devault, Travis L.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Martin, James A.; Schmidt, Jason A.; Wes Burger, L.; Patterson, James W.

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  6. Testing of a palatable bait and compatible vaccine carrier for the oral vaccination of European badgers (Meles meles) against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gowtage, Sonya; Williams, Gareth A; Henderson, Ray; Aylett, Paul; MacMorran, Duncan; Palmer, Si; Robertson, Andy; Lesellier, Sandrine; Carter, Stephen P; Chambers, Mark A

    2017-02-07

    The oral vaccination of wild badgers (Meles meles) with live Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is one of the tools being considered for the control of bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in the UK. The design of a product for oral vaccination requires that numerous, and often competing, conditions are met. These include the need for a highly palatable, but physically stable bait that will meet regulatory requirements, and one which is also compatible with the vaccine formulation; in this case live BCG. In collaboration with two commercial bait companies we have developed a highly attractive and palatable bait recipe designed specifically for European badgers (Meles meles) that meets these requirements. The palatability of different batches of bait was evaluated against a standardised palatable control bait using captive badgers. The physical properties of the bait are described e.g. firmness and colour. The microbial load in the bait was assessed against European and US Pharmacopoeias. The bait was combined with an edible vaccine carrier made of hydrogenated peanut oil in which BCG vaccine was stable during bait manufacture and cold storage, demonstrating <0.5 log10 reduction in titre after 117weeks' storage at -20°C. BCG stability in bait was also evaluated at +4°C and under simulated environmental conditions (20°C, 98% Relative Humidity; RH). Finally, iophenoxic acid biomarkers were utilised as a surrogate for the BCG vaccine, to test variants of the vaccine-bait design for their ability to deliver biomarker to the gastrointestinal tract of individual animals. These data provide the first detailed description of a bait-vaccine delivery system developed specifically for the oral vaccination of badgers against Mycobacterium bovis using live BCG.

  7. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  8. Validation of an alternative microbiological method for tissue products.

    PubMed

    Suessner, Susanne; Hennerbichler, Simone; Schreiberhuber, Stefanie; Stuebl, Doris; Gabriel, Christian

    2014-06-01

    According to the European Pharmacopoeia sterility testing of products includes an incubation time of 14 days in thioglycollate medium and soya-bean casein medium. In this case a large period of time is needed for product testing. So we designed a study to evaluate an alternative method for sterility testing. The aim of this study was to reduce the incubation time for the routinely produced products in our tissue bank (cornea and amnion grafts) by obtaining the same detection limit, accurateness and recovery rates as the reference method described in the European Pharmacopoeia. The study included two steps of validation. Primary validation compared the reference method with the alternative method. Therefore eight bacterial and two fungi test strains were tested at their preferred milieu. A geometric dilution series from 10 to 0.625 colony forming unit per 10 ml culture media was used. Subsequent to the evaluation the second part of the study started including the validation of the fertility of the culture media and the parallel testing of the two methods by investigating products. For this purpose two product batches were tested in three independent runs. Concerning the validation we could not find any aberration between the alternative and the reference method. In addition, the recovery rate of each microorganism was between 83.33 and 100 %. The alternative method showed non-inferiority regarding accuracy to the reference method. Due to this study we reduced the sterility testing for cornea and amniotic grafts to 9 days.

  9. Alternative biofuel production in non-natural hosts.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Jordan T; Atsumi, Shota

    2012-10-01

    Global energy and environmental concerns have stimulated increased efforts in synthesizing petroleum-derived products from renewable resources. Biological production of metabolites for fuel is increasingly becoming a feasible, renewable, environmentally sound alternative. However, many of these chemicals are not highly produced in any known native organism. Here we review the current progress of modifying microorganisms with heterogeneous elements for the production of biofuels. This strategy has been extensively employed in a variety of hosts for the development of production of various alcohols, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes.

  10. Process alternatives for bioethanol production from mango stem bark residues.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Nieves, Danay; Ruiz, Héctor A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Ilyina, Anna; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Torres, J Antonio; Martínez Hernández, José L

    2017-09-01

    Three alternatives for bioethanol production from pretreated mango stem bark after maceration (MSBAM) were evaluated as a biorefinery component for the mango agroindustry. These included separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), and pre-saccharification followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF). The effects on ethanol concentration, yield and productivity of pretreated MSBAM solids loading, Tween 20 addition, and temperature were used for process comparisons. The highest yields for the SHF, SSF, and PSSF process alternatives were 58.8, 81.6, and 84.5%, respectively. Since saccharification and fermentation are carried out in the same vessel in the SSF alternative, and no significant SSF and PSSF differences in ethanol concentration were observed, SSF is recommended as the best process configuration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alternate Light Source Findings of Common Topical Products

    PubMed Central

    Pollitt, Erin N.; Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Scafide, Katherine N.; Holbrook, Debra; D’Silva, Glynis; Sheridan, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Background One of the important roles of a forensic clinician is to perform examinations of patients who are victims and suspects of crime. Alternate light source (ALS) is a tool that can improve evidence collection and enhance visualization of injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine if commonly used topical products fluoresce or absorb when examined with an ALS. Secondly, we aim to identify patient and exam variables that may impact findings. Methods A convenience sample of 81 subjects was used. Following the application of 14 over-the-counter products, researchers observed the participants’ skin with an ALS under 18 combinations of wavelengths and colored filters. Results Of the 14 products viewed (n=1458 observations per product), six were found to fluoresce under alternate light in more than 40% of observations, 5 fluoresced in 1–10% of observations and 3 fluoresced less than 1% of the time. One product (a make-up product) absorbed ALS light consistently (81%), a second (a sunscreen product) absorbed in 7%, while the remaining 12 products produced absorption findings in less than1% of observations. In generalized mixed linear models, absorption findings were more commonly identified in participants with light or medium skin tones when compared to those with dark skin tones. Discussion These results suggest the presence of topical products may impact ALS findings. A thorough forensic clinical assessment should include a documented history, including assessment of potential sources of findings to aid in interpretation. PMID:27428790

  12. Restrictions on Rodenticide Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Consumer size products contain one pound of poison bait or less and must include a bait station. Products formulated for pest control professionals also meet certain requirements. Read the product label to ensure safe and effective use.

  13. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section... BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring...

  15. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section... BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring...

  16. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section... BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring...

  17. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section... BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring...

  18. Alternative Bioenergy: Small Scale Pellet Production from Forest Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Audra S.

    Forests can readily supply feedstock for alternative bioenergy production. Feedstock removal has the potential to benefit forest health and provide ecosystem services, while also generating profit for landowners, contractors and forest managers. However, many landowners are faced with the challenge of managing forest residuals to meet slash compliances and fire regulations. Currently, most residuals are burned or left on site to decompose. Every year, the north-central Idaho region produces over 16 million dry tons of unutilized forest residues. In a time where alternative energy sources are growing in demand, new approaches to utilize these residuals for bioenergy production are being examined. One approach is a portable, small-scale wood pellet mill that can be taken directly to the logging site. Utilizing forest residues for pellet production reduces residue burning and its potential negative impacts on air quality. This presentation focuses on the quality of wood pellets manufactured by a portable wood pellet mill utilizing various forms of forest residuals.

  19. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Canadian offshore oil production solution gas utilization alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.V.

    1999-07-01

    Oil and gas development in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is in its early stage and the offshore industry emphasis is almost exclusively on oil production. At the Hibernia field, the Gravity Base Structure (GBS) is installed and the first wells are in production. The Terra Nova project, based on a Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) ship shaped concept, is in its engineering and construction stage and first oil is expected by late 2000. Several other projects, such as Husky's White Rose and Chevron's Hebron, have significant potential for future development in the same area. It is highly probably that these projects will employ the FPSO concept. It is also expected that the solution gas disposal issues of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and the operators may be forced to look for alternatives to gas reinjection. Three gas utilization alternatives for a FPSO concept based project have been considered and evaluated in this paper: liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and gas-to-liquids conversion (GTL). The evaluation and the relative ranking of these alternatives is based on a first pass screening type of study which considers the technical and economical merits of each alternative. Publicly available information and in-house data, compiled within Fluor Daniel's various offices, was used to establish the basic parameters.

  1. Do Emotions Spark Interest in Alternative Tobacco Products?

    PubMed

    Popova, Lucy; So, Jiyeon; Sangalang, Angeline; Neilands, Torsten B; Ling, Pamela M

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to advertisements for tobacco products and tobacco warning labels evokes emotions. This study evaluated the association of discrete positive and negative emotions with interest in alternative tobacco products. In 2013, 1,226 U.S. adult nonsmokers and current smokers viewed advertisements for moist snuff, snus, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) with various warning labels and then indicated their emotional responses in terms of anger, anxiety, sadness, guilt, disgust, discouragement, hope, and contentment. Outcomes were openness to using moist snuff, snus, and e-cigarettes in the future and interest in a free sample of each product. Data were analyzed in 2016. Hope was positively associated with openness and interest across all alternative tobacco products as was contentment for moist snuff and snus. Anger was negatively associated with openness to moist snuff and e-cigarettes, disgust negatively to moist snuff and snus, and anxiety negatively to e-cigarettes. Being a current smoker, ever trying a corresponding product, being male, and younger age were associated with greater openness to and interest in moist snuff and snus. For e-cigarettes, being a current smoker, ever trying e-cigarettes, and being female were associated with greater openness, and being a current smoker was associated with greater odds of selecting a free sample. Positive emotions, particularly hope, were consistently positively associated with interest in alternative tobacco products. Hope is widely used by tobacco and e-cigarette companies to advertise their products. Antitobacco messages should aim to lower hope associated with tobacco products but increase hope for cessation or life without tobacco.

  2. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils.

    PubMed

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-10-01

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts.

  3. Alternative Blood Products and Clinical Needs in Transfusion Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Carolyn; Vaglio, Stefania; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of national blood programs is the provision of a safe and adequate blood supply. This goal is dependent on regular voluntary donations and a regulatory infrastructure that establishes and enforces standards for blood safety. Progress in ex vivo expansion of blood cells from cell sources including peripheral blood, cord blood, induced pluripotent stem cells, and human embryonic stem cell lines will likely make alternative transfusion products available for clinical use in the near future. Initially, alloimmunized patients and individuals with rare blood types are most likely to benefit from alternative products. However, in developed nations voluntary blood donations are projected to be inadequate in the future as blood usage by individuals 60 years and older increases. In developing nations economic and political challenges may impede progress in attaining self-sufficiency. Under these circumstances, ex vivo generated red cells may be needed to supplement the general blood supply. PMID:22567025

  4. Evolution of alternative methodologies of scorpion antivenoms production.

    PubMed

    Carmo, A O; Chatzaki, M; Horta, C C R; Magalhães, B F; Oliveira-Mendes, B B R; Chávez-Olórtegui, C; Kalapothakis, E

    2015-04-01

    Scorpionism represents a serious public health problem resulting in the death of children and debilitated individuals. Scorpion sting treatment employs various strategies including the use of specific medicines such as antiserum, especially for patients with severe symptoms. In 1909 Charles Todd described the production of an antiserum against the venom of the scorpion Buthus quinquestriatus. Based on Todd's work, researchers worldwide began producing antiserum using the same approach i.e., immunization of horses with crude venom as antigen. Despite achieving satisfactory results using this approach, researchers in this field have developed alternative approaches for the production of scorpion antivenom serum. In this review, we describe the work published by experts in toxinology to the development of scorpion venom antiserum. Methods and results describing the use of specific antigens, detoxified venom or toxins, purified toxins and or venom fractions, native toxoids, recombinant toxins, synthetic peptides, monoclonal and recombinant antibodies, and alternative animal models are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.

    PubMed

    Röttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis.

  6. Lepidopteran cells, an alternative for the production of recombinant antibodies?

    PubMed Central

    Cérutti, Martine; Golay, Josée

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are used with great success in many different therapeutic domains. In order to satisfy the growing demand and to lower the production cost of these molecules, many alternative systems have been explored. Among them, the baculovirus/insect cells system is a good candidate. This system is very safe, given that the baculoviruses have a highly restricted host range and they are not pathogenic to vertebrates or plants. But the major asset is the speed with which it is possible to obtain very stable recombinant viruses capable of producing fully active proteins whose glycosylation pattern can be modulated to make it similar to the human one. These features could ultimately make the difference by enabling the production of antibodies with very low costs. However, efforts are still needed, in particular to increase production rates and thus make this system commercially viable for the production of these therapeutic agents. PMID:22531440

  7. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S.; Sommer, Toby J.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    toxicants. This study is the first to quantify high intensity sweeteners in snus and dissolvable products. Snus and dissolvables contain the high intensity sweetener, sucralose, at levels higher than in confectionary products. The high sweetness of alternative tobacco products makes these products attractive to adolescents. Regulation of sweetener content in non-cigarette products is suggested as an efficient means to control product palatability and to reduce initiation in adolescents. PMID:27217475

  8. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S; Sommer, Toby J; Zimmerman, Julie B; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-11-01

    intensity sweeteners in snus and dissolvable products. Snus and dissolvables contain the high intensity sweetener, sucralose, at levels higher than in confectionary products. The high sweetness of alternative tobacco products makes these products attractive to adolescents. Regulation of sweetener content in non-cigarette products is suggested as an efficient means to control product palatability and to reduce initiation in adolescents. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  9. Neem derivatives are not effective as toxic bait for tephritid fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Bezerra-Silva, G C D; Vendramim, J D; Mastrangelo, T; Forim, M R

    2013-08-01

    Neem derivatives have been widely touted as replacements for pesticides. A feasible replacement of synthetic insecticides in the management of fruit flies could be to use neem products in baits. This study evaluated the bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) derivatives in bait for adults of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The estimated LCs50 values for A. fraterculus and C. capitata were 7,522 ppm (18.40 ppm of azadirachtin) and 1,368 ppm (3.35 ppm of azadirachtin), respectively, using an aqueous extract of neem seeds in bait after 10 d of experimentation. No significant differences in the mortality of A. fraterculus and C. capitata adults exposed to baits made from different extracts and neem oil were observed after 3 h or 2 or 6 d; differences among the treatments were observed only on the 10th day of the evaluation. We conclude that neem derivatives applied as a bait spray over citrus plants did not demonstrate a toxic effect on A. fraterculus and C. capitata. The reasons for the low efficacy of the neem bait on Tephritid fruit flies are discussed.

  10. SURVIS: a fully-automated aerial baiting system for the distribution of vaccine baits for wildlife.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad M; Gschwendner, Peter; Holzhofer, Ernst; Mürke, Heinz; Rüdiger, Heiko; Schuster, Peter; Klöss, Detlef; Staubach, Christoph; Teske, Kathrin; Vos, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale oral vaccination of wildlife against rabies using aerial bait distribution has been successfully used to control terrestrial wildlife rabies in Europe and North America. A technical milestone to large-scale oral rabies vaccination campaigns in Europe was the development of fully-automated, computer-supported and cost-efficient technology for aerial distribution of baits like the SURVIS -system. Each bait released is recorded by the control unit through a sensor, with the exact location, time and date of release and subsequently the collected data can be evaluated, e.g. in GIS programmes. Thus, bait delivery systems like SURVIS are an important management tool for flight services and the responsible authorities for the optimization and evaluation of oral vaccination campaigns of wildlife against rabies or the control of other relevant wildlife diseases targeted by oral baits.

  11. Exposure time of oral rabies vaccine baits relative to baiting density and raccoon population density.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; White, Randolph J; Patton, Zachary J; Bush, Rachel M; Cepek, Jonathan D

    2004-04-01

    Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) baiting programs for control of raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies in the USA have been conducted or are in progress in eight states east of the Mississippi River. However, data specific to the relationship between raccoon population density and the minimum density of baits necessary to significantly elevate rabies immunity are few. We used the 22-km2 US National Aeronautics and Space Administration Plum Brook Station (PBS) in Erie County, Ohio, USA, to evaluate the period of exposure for placebo vaccine baits placed at a density of 75 baits/km2 relative to raccoon population density. Our objectives were to 1) estimate raccoon population density within the fragmented forest, old-field, and industrial landscape at PBS: and 2) quantify the time that placebo, Merial RABORAL V-RG vaccine baits were available to raccoons. From August through November 2002 we surveyed raccoon use of PBS along 19.3 km of paved-road transects by using a forward-looking infrared camera mounted inside a vehicle. We used Distance 3.5 software to calculate a probability of detection function by which we estimated raccoon population density from transect data. Estimated population density on PBS decreased from August (33.4 raccoons/km2) through November (13.6 raccoons/km2), yielding a monthly mean of 24.5 raccoons/km2. We also quantified exposure time for ORV baits placed by hand on five 1-km2 grids on PBS from September through October. An average 82.7% (SD = 4.6) of baits were removed within 1 wk of placement. Given raccoon population density, estimates of bait removal and sachet condition, and assuming 22.9% nontarget take, the baiting density of 75/ km2 yielded an average of 3.3 baits consumed per raccoon and the sachet perforated.

  12. Impact of Alternative Processes for Aluminum Production on Energy Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grjotheim, Kai; Welch, Barry

    1981-09-01

    Increasing prices and the shortage of large blocks of electrical energy have given greater impetus to the search for viable alternative processes for aluminum production. These include electrolysis of aluminum chloride, sulfide, and nitride; carbothermal reduction of either the ore or alumina; and disproportioning reactions of either aluminum sulfide or the monochloride route. Common to all these processes are the starting material—an ore containing aluminum oxide—and the final product—the metal. Thus, the thermodynamic cycle will invariably dictate similar theoretical energy requirements for the three processes. In practice, however, the achievable efficiencies and, more noticeably, the proportion of electrical to carbothermal energy required for the various stages of operation can vary. The present status of these alternative processes indicates that while alternative routes, such as the Alcoa-AlCl3-Smelting Process, show distinct potential for reducing electrical energy requirements, they offer little chance of reducing overall energy requirements. Furthermore, because of more stringent purity requirements, any gains made may be at the expense of production costs.

  13. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  14. Natural Products: An Alternative to Conventional Therapy for Dermatophytosis?

    PubMed

    Lopes, Graciliana; Pinto, Eugénia; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2017-02-01

    The increased incidence of fungal infections, associated with the widespread use of antifungal drugs, has resulted in the development of resistance, making it necessary to discover new therapeutic alternatives. Among fungal infections, dermatophytoses constitute a serious public health problem, affecting 20-25 % of the world population. Medicinal plants represent an endless source of bioactive molecules, and their volatile and non-volatile extracts are clearly recognized for being the historical basis of therapeutic health care. Because of this, the research on natural products with antifungal activity against dermatophytes has considerably increased in recent years. However, despite the recognized anti-dermatophytic potential of natural products, often advantageous face to commercial drugs, there is still a long way to go until their use in therapeutics. This review attempts to summarize the current status of anti-dermatophytic natural products, focusing on their mechanism of action, the developed pharmaceutical formulations and their effectiveness in human and animal models of infection.

  15. Inter-esterified palm products as alternatives to hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Idris, Nor Aini; Dian, Noor Lida Habi Mat

    2005-01-01

    Inter-esterification is one of the processes used to modify the physico-chemical characteristics of oils and fats. Inter-esterification is an acyl-rearrangement reaction on the glycerol molecule. On the other hand, hydrogenation involves addition of hydrogen to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids. Due to health implications of trans fatty acids, which are formed during hydrogenation, the industry needs to find alternatives to hydrogenated fats. This paper discusses some applications of inter-esterified fats, with particular reference to inter-esterified palm products, as alternatives to hydrogenation. Some physico-chemical properties of inter-esterified fats used in shortenings are discussed. With inter-esterification, more palm stearin can be incorporated in vanaspati. For confectionary fats and infant formulations, enzymatic inter-esterification has been employed.

  16. Field evaluation of baits and baiting strategies for delivering oral vaccine to mongooses in Antigua, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Creekmore, T E; Linhart, S B; Corn, J L; Whitney, M D; Snyder, B D; Nettles, V F

    1994-10-01

    A field study was conducted on Antigua, West Indies, to determine the feasibility of delivering an oral rabies vaccine or population control agent to free-ranging mongooses (Herpestes javanicus). Two biomarkers (tetracycline hydrochloride [THCL] and DuPont Oil Blue A dye) and two bait types (DuPont polymer fish meal and polyurethane foam) were used to bait three study sites. Four hundred polymer baits containing both biomarkers were distributed at 36 central point bait stations (11 baits/station) on an 80 ha study site (5 baits/ha); 69% of the mongoose population consumed one or more baits. Two thousand baits containing THCL and 400 baits containing DuPont dye were distributed on two additional 100 ha study sites (24 baits/ha). Polymer fish meal baits were used on the first site and polyurethane baits on the second site. Based on the presence of biomarkers in bone or soft tissue, 96 to 97% of the mongooses at both sites consumed at least one bait. We conclude that oral baiting of mongooses is a feasible method for delivery of vaccines for the control of rabies in this species.

  17. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  18. Development of Liquid Bait With Unique Bait Station for Control of Dolichoderus thoracicus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Chi; Chang, Tsai-Wei; Chen, Hung-Wei; Shih, Chung-Han; Hsu, Po-Cheng

    2017-08-01

    The Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith) has seriously infested urban, village, and agricultural environments in Taiwan. To develop optimal bait for the effective control of D. thoracicus, we investigated the feeding preferences of this ant at different sugar and amino acid concentrations in a laboratory setting. The number of feeding workers was significantly higher for 20% sucrose compared with that for other sugars at 10% and 20% concentrations. Furthermore, among all tested concentrations of monosodium glutamate (MSG; 1%, 3%, 5%, and 10%), the highest number of ants were attracted by 1% MSG with 20% sucrose. The consumption of each bait solution was also measured, and the results were similar to those for ant number. Regarding toxicants, the toxicity and repellency of 3% boric acid and borax bait were evaluated individually. Both 3% boric acid and borax demonstrated no repellency against D. thoracicus workers. The LT50 of the 3% boric acid bait was 4.87 d, whereas that of 3% borax bait was only 1.56 d. Thus, 3% boric acid showed further delayed action, facilitating workers spreading the toxicant to their nestmates through trophallaxis. In combination with our unique bait station, we propose an optimal bait formulation comprising 20% sucrose, 1% MSG, and 3% boric acid as a promising candidate for controlling D. thoracicus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Development of an alginate hydrogel to deliver aqueous bait for pest ant management.

    PubMed

    Tay, Jia-Wei; Hoddle, Mark S; Mulchandani, Ashok; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Insecticide sprays used for ant control cause environmental contamination. Liquid bait is a safe and effective alternative, but it requires bait stations to dispense the toxicant. We developed a biodegradable hydrogel to deliver liquid bait obviating the need for bait stations. Alginate hydrogel beads with preferred rigidity and maximum hydration in 25% sucrose solution were engineered by optimizing a crosslinking process. The moisture content of the substrate on which the beads were placed and the relative atmospheric humidity significantly influenced water loss dynamics of the hydrated hydrogel beads. Laboratory choice studies indicated that hydrated hydrogel beads had reduced palatability to foraging ants when they lost ≥50% water. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) indicated that the insecticide thiamethoxam added to sucrose solution was absorbed into the hydrogel beads. Hydrogel beads conditioned in sucrose solution with 1 mg L(-1) thiamethoxam provided complete control of all castes of Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr) colony by 14 days post treatment in the laboratory trial and provided a 79% reduction in ant activity after 8 weeks in the field trial. Alginate hydrogel beads provided an effective delivery system for liquid baits laced with low concentrations of insecticide to control Argentine ants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Baits Against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K; Soeprono, Andrew; Wright, Sarajean; Greenberg, Les; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Boser, Christina L; Cory, Coleen; Hanna, Cause

    2015-06-01

    The development of effective baits to control the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has been problematic because foragers prefer sweet liquids, while many toxicants are insoluble in water and liquid baits are generally difficult to deliver. The incorporation of thiamethoxam and sucrose solutions into a water-absorbing polyacrylamide hydrogel provides a unique and novel carrier and method of application for liquid baits. Formulations of thiamethoxam affected the size of the hydrogels, and sucrose solutions containing 0.0003% technical thiamethoxam provided hydrogels as large as those made with 25% sucrose solution or deionized water. Concentrations of thiamethoxam as low as 0.000075% in the hydrogels provided 50% kill of workers within 3 d in a laboratory setting. In small colony studies, baiting with 0.00015 and 0.000075% thiamethoxam hydrogels provided 100% mortality of workers and queens within 8 d. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that thiamethoxam was absorbed into the interior of the polyacrylamide matrix. The water loss rates of the hydrogels were dependent upon the relative humidity. Polyacrylamide hydrogels with >50% water loss were less attractive to ants. Field studies in highly infested areas indicated that concentrations of 0.0006 or 0.0018% thiamethoxam were more effective than 0.00015%. Hydrogels may provide a cost-effective alternative to providing aqueous baits to control Argentine ants. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Alternative designs for petroleum product storage tanks for groundwater protection.

    PubMed

    Oke Adeleke, Samson

    In developing countries, there are numerous occurrences of petroleum product spillage in groundwater. The current practice of burying storage tanks beneath the surface without adequate safety devices facilitates this phenomenon. Underground tanks rust and leak, and spilled petroleum products migrate downward. The movement of the oil in the soil depends on its viscosity and quantity, the permeability of the soil/rock, and the presence of fractures within the rock. The oil spreads laterally in the form of a thin pancake due to its lower specific gravity, and soluble components dissolve in water. The pollution plume of petroleum products and dissolved phases moves in the direction of groundwater flow in the aquifer within the pores of soil and sediments or along fractures in basement complex areas. Most communities reply heavily on groundwater for potable and industrial supplies. However, the sustainability of this resource is under threat in areas where there are filling stations as a result of significant groundwater contamination from petroleum product spillage. Drinking water becomes unpalatable when it contains petroleum products in low concentrations, and small quantities may contaminate large volumes of water. Considering the losses incurred from spillage, the cost of cleaning the aquifer, and the fact that total cleansing and attenuation is impossible, the need to prevent spillage and if it happens to prevent it from getting into the groundwater system is of paramount importance. This paper proposes alternative design procedures with a view to achieving these objectives.

  2. [Biosimilars in oncology: a therapeutic alternative to the reference products?

    PubMed

    Ludwig, W D; Dicheva, S

    2016-11-01

    Biosimilar medicinal products (biosimilars) have been available in Europe for 10 years, allowing a wide use particularly in oncology. Biosimilars are being developed and approved by means of scientifically sound principles to assure close similarity with the reference products with regard to quality, efficacy, and safety. The scientific principles for establishing biosimilarity are the same as those for demonstrating comparability after a change in the manufacturing process of an already licensed biological. Nevertheless, many clinicians voiced concerns about biosimilars related to their pharmaceutical quality, efficacy (particularly in extrapolated indications), safety (especially immunogenicity), and interchangeability with the originator product. The availability of biosimilars would strengthen the economic competition on the pharmaceutical market, provide opportunities to improve healthcare access, and contribute to the financial sustainability of European healthcare systems. Biosimilars can be considered therapeutic alternatives to the reference product. To date, no data has been published revealing any disadvantages of the biosimilars' use. This article aims to acquaint clinicians, particularly oncologists and haematologists, with the biosimilar concept as they are going to be confronted with a constantly increasing number of biosimilars due to patent expirations in the near future. Furthermore, it provides information on scientific principles guiding biosimilar development and regulatory requirements. This should minimise unfounded fears and concerns among clinicians. Additionally, we provide information on the interchangeability between originator products and biosimilars to assist clinicians in making evidence-based, appropriate, and cost-effective treatment choices for their patients.

  3. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, Moussa S.; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  4. MRSA in Conventional and Alternative Retail Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Ashley M.; Hanson, Blake M.; Farina, Sarah A.; Wu, James Y.; Simmering, Jacob E.; Wardyn, Shylo E.; Forshey, Brett M.; Kulick, Marie E.; Wallinga, David B.; Smith, Tara C.

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus on retail pork, three hundred ninety-five pork samples were collected from a total of 36 stores in Iowa, Minnesota, and New Jersey. S. aureus was isolated from 256 samples (64.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 59.9%–69.5%). S. aureus was isolated from 67.3% (202/300) of conventional pork samples and from 56.8% (54/95) of alternative pork samples (labeled “raised without antibiotics” or “raised without antibiotic growth promotants”). Two hundred and thirty samples (58.2%, 95% CI 53.2%–63.1%) were found to carry methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). MSSA was isolated from 61.0% (183/300) of conventional samples and from 49.5% (47/95) of alternative samples. Twenty-six pork samples (6.6%, 95% CI 4.3%–9.5%) carried methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). No statistically significant differences were observed for the prevalence of S. aureus in general, or MSSA or MRSA specifically, when comparing pork products from conventionally raised swine and swine raised without antibiotics, a finding that contrasts with a prior study from the Netherlands examining both conventional and “biologic” meat products. In our study spa types associated with “livestock-associated” ST398 (t034, t011) were found in 26.9% of the MRSA isolates, while 46.2% were spa types t002 and t008—common human types of MRSA that also have been found in live swine. The study represents the largest sampling of raw meat products for MRSA contamination to date in the U.S. MRSA prevalence on pork products was higher than in previous U.S.-conducted studies, although similar to that in Canadian studies. PMID:22276147

  5. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives.

    PubMed

    Diarra, Moussa S; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities.

  6. Effect of application rate and persistence of boric acid sugar baits applied to plants for control of Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Xue, Rui-De; Müller, Günter C; Kline, Daniel L; Barnard, Donald R

    2011-03-01

    The use of toxic bait to kill adult Aedes albopictus is a safe and potentially effective alternative to the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. This study was carried out to determine effective concentrations of boric acid needed in sugar bait solutions applied to plant surfaces, and to determine its residual effect in reducing adult mosquito densities. In outdoor tests in 1,100-m3 screened enclosures, landing rates of Ae. albopictus on a human subject and the number of female mosquitoes in mechanical traps were significantly reduced by a 1% boric acid bait compared with the other tested concentrations (0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75%) and untreated control. Studies of the duration of boric acid activity on plant surfaces were made in 1.4-m3 cages in the laboratory and outdoors in 78-m3 screened enclosures. In the laboratory tests, 1% boric acid bait resulted in >96% mortality in male and female Ae. albopictus for 14 days, whereas in outdoor tests, mosquito landing rates in the treated enclosures were significantly lower than in the control enclosures for 7 days. Also, mosquito mortality responses to boric acid baits between plants with flowers and nonflowers (1.4-m3 cages in the laboratory) were not significantly different. The results of this study suggest that boric acid baits applied to plant surfaces may provide specific data related to the development of an effective point-source-based adjunct/alternative to the use of conventional adulticides for mosquito control.

  7. Functionality of alternative protein in gluten-free product development.

    PubMed

    Deora, Navneet Singh; Deswal, Aastha; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-07-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disease triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingested gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. The current treatment for celiac disease is life-long adherence to a strict gluten-exclusion diet. The replacement of gluten presents a significant technological challenge, as it is an essential structure-building protein, which is necessary for formulating high-quality baked goods. A major limitation in the production of gluten-free products is the lack of protein functionality in non-wheat cereals. Additionally, commercial gluten-free mixes usually contain only carbohydrates, which may significantly limit the amount of protein in the diet. In the recent past, various approaches are attempted to incorporate protein-based ingredients and to modify the functional properties for gluten-free product development. This review aims to the highlight functionality of the alternative protein-based ingredients, which can be utilized for gluten-free product development both functionally as well as nutritionally.

  8. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section 238.0 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising...

  9. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the latest trends in mosquito control is the use of insecticidal sugar baits (ISBs) to reduce adult mosquito populations. Tested here is the ability of ISB’s to knock-down the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a disease vector of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and vesicular sto...

  10. Passive baited sequential filth fly trap

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Filth fly control measures may be optimized with a better understanding of fly population dynamics measured throughout the day. We describe the modification of a commercial motorized sequential mosquito trap to accept liquid odorous bait and leverage a classic inverted cone design to passively confi...

  11. Removal of Molluscicidal Bait Pellets by Earthworms and its Impact on Control of the Gray Field Slug, Derocerus reticulatum Mueller, in Western Oregon Grass Seed Fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Slugs are common pests of grass seed fields in western Oregon and are currently controlled using bait pellets that often fail to give adequate protection. Here we demonstrate the loss of bait pellet products to earthworms and its adverse effects on controlling slugs. Three years of field and greenho...

  12. Exploring Smoking Stigma, Alternative Tobacco Product Use, & Quit Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; Popova, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Investigate smoking stigma among different tobacco user types. Methods US adults (N=1,812) responded to an online survey, including non-smokers, smokeless tobacco users, exclusive smokers, and smokeless and cigarette “dual users”. Results Dual users perceived the highest smoking stigma. Stigma was higher for smokers open to quitting by switching to smokeless. E-cigarette users (smokers) reported higher stigma than non-users. Making a past-year quit attempt was predicted by smoking stigma, and smokeless and/or e-cigarette use. Conclusions Smoking stigma and dual use of smokeless tobacco and/or e-cigarettes with cigarettes predict quit attempts. However, smoking stigma might prevent smokers from consulting doctors and induce use of alternative tobacco products as cessation aids. PMID:27088103

  13. Mechanism of leaf-cutting ant colony suppression by fipronil used in attractive toxic baits.

    PubMed

    Gandra, Lailla C; Amaral, Karina D; Couceiro, Joel C; Della Lucia, Terezinha Mc; Guedes, Raul Nc

    2016-08-01

    Attractive toxic baits are the prevailing method for managing leaf-cutting ants in the eucalypt forests planted for the production of pulp, paper, timber and charcoal. For successful use in these baits, the insecticidal compounds need to circumvent the typical defences of the eusocial leaf-cutting ants. The challenge is to have an insecticide in the bait that will not directly harm and/or compromise foraging workers, but that will eventually suppress the colony. These underlying mechanisms are poorly known, and here the potential mechanism of fipronil activity in toxic baits for leaf-cutting ants was assessed using colonies of the representative Neotropical Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus (Forel, 1893). Although forager activity was not directly impaired by fipronil, the insecticide affected forager nestmate interactions (auto- and allogrooming) and waste removal and, more importantly, greatly affected the minor workers, impairing their activities of fungus garden cultivation and progeny handling. The fast decay of the fungus garden compromised the sustainability of the colonies, ultimately leading to their demise within 8 days. The behavioural effects of sublethal insecticide exposure towards minor workers are the main determinants of insecticide activity as ant baits and should be targeted in developing such compounds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Determination of methomyl in the stomach contents of baited wildlife by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Buchweitz, John P; Bokhart, Mark; Johnson, Margaret; Lehner, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    The poisoning of wildlife with fly-bait containing the active ingredient methomyl is an intentional and illegal act in many jurisdictions. A case of 2 animals poisoned by methomyl through consumption of tainted bait at multiple stations is described. Although thermally and ultraviolet-labile, methomyl can be identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and is detected in abundance in bait samples; however, it is not readily observed in tissues, owing to its rapid metabolism and elimination. The application of derivatizing functionalities, such as trimethylsilyl groups, stabilizes the methomyl-oxime metabolite to facilitate its detectability during exposure to the relatively harsh conditions of gas chromatography. This brief communication reports on the analytical detection of methomyl in baits and biological samples from poisoned wildlife. Essential to the case were the added determination of a fly-bait coactive ingredient, (Z)-9-tricosene, and identification of a chemical indicator, caffeine, to confirm both the type of pesticide product involved in the poisoning incident and the vehicle used to perpetrate its delivery.

  15. Chemical attractants in horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, eggs: the potential for an artificial bait.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Kirstin M; Targett, Nancy M

    2003-02-01

    Horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, are the preferred bait in the eel and conch fisheries along the east coast of the United States. However, recent management measures have restricted the availability of horseshoe crabs to commercial fisheries, creating the need for sustainable, alternative bait sources. In this study, we examined the chemistry underlying the predator-prey attraction to determine if specific, isolable attractant metabolites from the horseshoe crab could be identified and characterized for incorporation into an artifical bait. Initial assays with the mud snail, Hyanassa obsoleta, suggested that the chemoattractants were concentrated in L. polyphemus eggs. Chemical analyses and biological assays of the egg extract indicated the primary cue was a heat-stable, proteinaceous compound (>10 kDa). A carbohydrate-rich fraction of low molecular mass (< 10 kDa) also enhanced mud snail chemotaxis. Analysis of egg digests with SDS-PAGE confirmed the presence of glycoproteins or carbohydrate-binding proteins in the horseshoe crab egg extract. Because the attractant appears to be a complex protein or glycoprotein, conventional chemical synthesis is unlikely. However, the tools of modem biotechnology offer the potential to produce this attractant in a system independent of the horseshoe crab. Such an attractant could be incorporated into an artificial bait, providing an ecologically sound alternative for commercial eel and whelk fisheries.

  16. Field Trials With 0.5% Novaluron Insecticide Applied as a Bait to Control Subterranean Termites (Reticulitermes sp. and Coptotermes formosanus [Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae]) on Structures.

    PubMed

    Keefer, T C; Puckett, Robert T; Brown, Ken S; Gold, Roger E

    2015-10-01

    A field study was initiated in 2009 with 0.5% novaluron the BASF Advance Termite Bait System, which was 100% effective in controlling Reticulitermes sp. Holmgren and Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki infestations on 11 structures in the Texas City, TX area. Stations with inspection cartridges (cellulose tablets) and monitoring bases (southern yellow pine) and independent monitoring devices were installed in an alternating pattern around each structure and were inspected every 30 d postinstallation. When subterranean termite activity was confirmed on the inspection cartridge or the monitoring base, the inspection cartridge was removed and replaced with a bait cartridge containing 0.5% novaluron insecticide on a proprietary matrix (124 g/cartridge) in a station. Once the novaluron-treated bait was inserted, inspections of that station were made on a 4-mo cycle until no termite activity was observed. The mean time to achieve control of the subterranean termites on the structures was 10.5 mo post initial installation of bait. Mean time to achieve control of the termites on the structures after the baits were installed was 5.4 mo. Control of the termites on the structures required consumption of a mean of 1.3 bait cartridges (166.2 g) of 0.5% novaluron bait matrix per structure. These results indicate that the baits with 0.5% novaluron were effective in controlling termites on the structures used in this study.

  17. Oral rabies vaccine (ORV) bait uptake by captive striped skunks.

    PubMed

    Jojola, Susan M; Robinson, Stacie J; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2007-01-01

    Aerial delivery of oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits has proven effective in large-scale efforts to immunize wildlife against rabies, and in North America this strategy currently is being used to immunize foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus and Vulpes vulpes), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and coyotes (Canis latrans). Skunks are also a major reservoir and vector of rabies, but at present oral vaccines for use in skunks are not licensed. Furthermore, given differences in morphology (smaller jaws) and behavior (food handling and consumption), it is unknown if baits currently used in ORV campaigns would be effective for skunks. Because oral vaccine delivery is contingent upon puncture of the vaccine container (VC), baits need to be sufficiently attractive to elicit selection and consumption. Manipulation of the bait to facilitate vaccine ingestion by the target species is a critical element for an effective ORV bait. The objectives of this study were to assess manipulation and consumption of current ORV baits by striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). We conducted four independent trials with penned animals and various baits to assess bait selection frequency, VC puncture frequency, and consumption. Video recorded trials were used to assess attractiveness of baits and consumption behavior of skunks. Bait characteristics, such as texture, size, and flavor influenced selection and consumption. Fish and chicken flavors were preferred and vaccine containers within selected baits were likely to be punctured. Vaccine ingestion seemed more likely if VCs were directly coated with the bait matrix. To make baits attractive to skunks and to ensure puncture of the VC, modifications to current baits should consider a smaller size, a meat-flavored matrix, a slightly pressurized VC, and a direct coating of matrix on the VC.

  18. Summary of Plutonium-238 Production Alternatives Analysis Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Werner; Wade E. Bickford; David B. Lord; Chadwick D. Barklay

    2013-03-01

    The Team implemented a two-phase evaluation process. During the first phase, a wide variety of past and new candidate facilities and processing methods were assessed against the criteria established by DOE for this assessment. Any system or system element selected for consideration as an alternative within the project to reestablish domestic production of Pu-238 must meet the following minimum criteria: Any required source material must be readily available in the United States, without requiring the development of reprocessing technologies or investments in systems to separate material from identified sources. It must be cost, schedule, and risk competitive with existing baseline technology. Any identified facilities required to support the concept must be available to the program for the entire project life cycle (notionally 35 years, unless the concept is so novel as to require a shorter duration). It must present a solution that can generate at least 1.5 Kg of Pu-238 oxide per year, for at least 35 years. It must present a low-risk, near-term solution to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s urgent mission need. DOE has implemented this requirement by eliminating from project consideration any alternative with key technologies at less than Technology Readiness Level 5. The Team evaluated the options meeting these criteria using a more detailed assessment of the reasonable facility variations and compared them to the preferred option, which consists of target irradiation at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), target fabrication and chemical separations processing at the ORNL Radiochemical Engineering Development Center, and neptunium 237 storage at the Materials and Fuels Complex at INL. This preferred option is consistent with the Records of Decision from the earlier National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation

  19. Oral vaccination against raccoon rabies: landscape heterogeneity and timing of distribution influence wildlife contact rates with the ONRAB vaccine bait.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jean-Philippe; Canac-Marquis, Pierre; Guérin, Daniel; Mainguy, Julien; Pelletier, Fanie

    2011-07-01

    Aerial distribution of oral vaccine baits is one of the available strategies for controlling the spread of infectious wildlife diseases. This technique has commonly been used to control rabies in wild carnivores and, together with other techniques, was used to immunize wild populations of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) after the detection of the first rabid raccoon in the province of Quebec, Canada, in 2006. Vaccine bait distribution was conducted over large areas where agricultural land is dominant but interspersed with residual forest patches. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of habitat (forest vs. agricultural crops) in space and time on the contact rate between wildlife and the ONRAB(®) vaccine bait, a recent alternative to the V-RG(®). Four transects of eight vaccine baits each were installed parallel to, and at different distances from, the forest's edge (under forest cover, at field-forest edge, and at 50 and 200 m from forest edge in agricultural crops) at three sites composed of various crop types interspersed with forest patches. This experiment was conducted during three periods (late spring, 1-7 June; summer, 27 July-2 August; and fall, 24-30 October) in 2009. Contact rates with vaccine baits were monitored for 7 days in each period to evaluate the potential temporal variations generated within the habitat types. Contact rates with ONRAB vaccine baits were highest under forest cover and in the fall. Of 13 species observed in proximity to the vaccine baits, raccoons were the most frequent (49.5%, n=55 visits). Our study underlines the importance of taking into account landscape heterogeneity and timing of distribution when planning the distribution of vaccine baits to control rabies in raccoons.

  20. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  1. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  2. Bait distribution among multiple colonies of Pharaoh ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Oi, D H; Vail, K M; Williams, D F

    2000-08-01

    Pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis (L.), infestations often consist of several colonies located at different nest sites. To achieve control, it is desirable to suppress or eliminate the populations of a majority of these colonies. We compared the trophallactic distribution and efficacy of two ant baits, with different modes of action, among groups of four colonies of Pharaoh ants. Baits contained either the metabolic-inhibiting active ingredient hydramethylnon or the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen. Within 3 wk, the hydramethylnon bait reduced worker and brood populations by at least 80%, and queen reductions ranged between 73 and 100%, when nests were in proximity (within 132 cm) to the bait source. However, these nest sites were reoccupied by ants from other colonies located further from the bait source. The pyriproxyfen bait was distributed more thoroughly to all nest locations with worker populations gradually declining by 73% at all nest sites after 8 wk. Average queen reductions ranged from 31 to 49% for all nest sites throughout the study. Even though some queens survived, brood reductions were rapid in the pyriproxyfen treatment, with reductions of 95% at all locations by week 3. Unlike the metabolic inhibitor, the IGR did not kill adult worker ants quickly, thus, more surviving worker ants were available to distribute the bait to all colonies located at different nest sites. Thus, from a single bait source, the slow-acting bait toxicant provided gradual, but long-term control, whereas the fast-acting bait toxicant provided rapid, localized control for a shorter duration.

  3. Use of MRF residue as alternative fuel in cement production.

    PubMed

    Fyffe, John R; Breckel, Alex C; Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Single-stream recycling has helped divert millions of metric tons of waste from landfills in the U.S., where recycling rates for municipal solid waste are currently over 30%. However, material recovery facilities (MRFs) that sort the municipal recycled streams do not recover 100% of the incoming material. Consequently, they landfill between 5% and 15% of total processed material as residue. This residue is primarily composed of high-energy-content non-recycled plastics and fiber. One possible end-of-life solution for these energy-dense materials is to process the residue into Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) that can be used as an alternative energy resource capable of replacing or supplementing fuel resources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum coke, or biomass in many industrial and power production processes. This report addresses the energetic and environmental benefits and trade-offs of converting non-recycled post-consumer plastics and fiber derived from MRF residue streams into SRF for use in a cement kiln. An experimental test burn of 118 Mg of SRF in the precalciner portion of the cement kiln was conducted. The SRF was a blend of 60% MRF residue and 40% post-industrial waste products producing an estimated 60% plastic and 40% fibrous material mixture. The SRF was fed into the kiln at 0.9 Mg/h for 24h and then 1.8 Mg/h for the following 48 h. The emissions data recorded in the experimental test burn were used to perform the life-cycle analysis portion of this study. The analysis included the following steps: transportation, landfill, processing and fuel combustion at the cement kiln. The energy use and emissions at each step is tracked for the two cases: (1) The Reference Case, where MRF residue is disposed of in a landfill and the cement kiln uses coal as its fuel source, and (2) The SRF Case, in which MRF residue is processed into SRF and used to offset some portion of coal use at the cement kiln. The experimental test burn and accompanying analysis indicate

  4. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert R; Vazquez, Aime; Schnell, Elena Q; Villareal, Janett; Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D

    2009-12-01

    Several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are captured in traps baited with the protein bait NuLure combined with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) in an aqueous solution, typically 9% NuLure (vol:vol) with 3% borax (wt:vol). NuLure is an acid hydrolysate of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline, and increase in alkalinity results in increase of ammonia release from the bait solution. This is a very dynamic system, with resultant pH affected by factors such as the amount of borax added, the pH of the water used for preparation, the age of the bait solution, and the development of microbial growth. Problems with borax include amount needed to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions, which creates difficulties in disposing of spent bait in fruit fly trapping programs. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate NaOH as an alternative method to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions. Laboratory experiments compared effect of NaOH versus borax for pH modification on changes in pH and ammonia content of NuLure solutions over time. Although NuLure/NaOH solutions could be adjusted to a more alkaline pH than NuLure/borax solutions, borax plays a critical role in pH stability over time. However, the pH of NuLure/NaOH is stabilized when propylene glycol (10% vol:vol) was used to prepare the bait solution. The use of NaOH can provide an alternative to the use of borax to increase bait solution alkalinity.

  5. Implementing a Spinosad-Based Local Bait Station to Control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in High Rainfall Areas of Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An ‘umbrella trap’ tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

  6. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers.

  7. Evaluation of three bait materials and their food transfer efficiency in Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai; Henderson, Gregg

    2012-10-01

    The consumption and food transfer efficiency of two commercially used termite bait materials, southern yellow pine wood and cardboard, and one potential bait material, maize (Zea mays L.) cob, were evaluated for use against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), in the laboratory. In the no-choice test, the consumption of wood and cob was similar and significantly more than cardboard. Tunneling under the food sources was similar. In the two-choice test, the consumption was cob > wood, wood > cardboard, cob = cardboard, and tunneling under these choices was cob = wood, wood = cardboard, cob > cardboard. In the three-choice test, no significant difference was detected in consumption, but tunnels made under the cob were significantly more than wood and cardboard. Nile blue A was used to study food transfer of bait material among termite cohorts. Dyed cardboard, cob, or wood (0.1% Nile blue A) was provided to termites as food. Termites feeding on wood turned blue in significantly greater number at 6 h compared with cardboard and cob, but there was no significant difference after 12 h. Blue termites feeding on different bait materials were then collected and combined with undyed termites. When undyed (white) termites were placed with blue termites and food (wood block), termites turned blue in the same percentage regardless of original bait material fed on. However, when no food was provided (starvation group), the rate of white termites turning blue was dramatic; in dyed wood treatment, significantly more termites turned blue than that of cardboard, although neither were significantly different from cob. Our study is the first to show that, cob, an otherwise waste product of the food and biofuel industry, is as efficient as wood and cardboard as a termite bait matrix.

  8. Adolescent cigarette smokers' and non-cigarette smokers' use of alternative tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Charles; Geletko, Karen

    2012-08-01

    This study uses the most recent data from the nationally representative National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to examine the use of alternative tobacco products among U.S. cigarette smokers and non-cigarette smokers aged 14-17. Alternative tobacco product use is defined as use of one or more of the following products: smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipes, bidis, or kreteks. Using the results from the 2004, 2006, and 2009 NYTS, multivariate logistic regressions were used to investigate separately the extent of alternative tobacco product use in current cigarette smokers and in those who reported not smoking cigarettes controlling for demographic and other independent influences. The results indicate that for adolescent smokers and nonsmokers, the use of one type of alternative tobacco product made it much more likely the individual would use one or more of the other alternative tobacco products. Non-cigarette smokers using these tobacco products appeared to exhibit symptoms of nicotine dependence comparable to those of cigarette smokers. More information on adolescent use of alternative tobacco products is needed. Current cigarette use declined 3.4% annually over 2004-2009 for the NYTS 14- to 17-year-old population, but this cohort's use of alternative tobacco products was unchanged. The number of adolescents aged 14-17 who did not smoke cigarettes but used alternative tobacco products increased 5.9% per year over the same period. Current surveillance measures need to be expanded in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of adolescent alternative tobacco use.

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB) in the first us field trial in raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Slate, Dennis; Chipman, Richard B; Algeo, Timothy P; Mills, Samuel A; Nelson, Kathleen M; Croson, Christopher K; Dubovi, Edward J; Vercauteren, Kurt; Renshaw, Randall W; Atwood, Todd; Johnson, Shylo; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    In 2011, we conducted a field trial in rural West Virginia, USA to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live, recombinant human adenovirus (AdRG1.3) rabies virus glycoprotein vaccine (Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait; ONRAB) in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). We selected ONRAB for evaluation because of its effectiveness in raccoon rabies management in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, and significantly higher antibody prevalence rates in raccoons compared with a recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine, Raboral V-RG®, in US-Canada border studies. Raccoon rabies was enzootic and oral rabies vaccination (ORV) had never been used in the study area. We distributed 79,027 ONRAB baits at 75 baits/km(2) mostly by fixed-wing aircraft along parallel flight lines at 750-m intervals. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher at 49.2% (n=262) in raccoons after ONRAB was distributed than the 9.6% (n=395) before ORV. This was the highest antibody prevalence observed in raccoons by US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services for areas with similar management histories evaluated before and after an initial ORV campaign at 75 baits/km(2) with Raboral V-RG. Tetracycline biomarker (TTCC) was significantly higher among antibody-positive raccoons after ONRAB baiting and was similar among raccoons before ORV had been conducted, an indication of vaccine-induced rabies virus-neutralizing antibody production following consumption of bait containing TTCC. Skunk sample size was inadequate to assess ONRAB effects. Safety and immunogenicity results supported replication of this field trial and led to a recommendation for expanded field trials in 2012 to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of ground-distributed ONRAB at 150 baits/km(2) in residential and commercial habitats in Ohio, USA and aerially distributed ONRAB at 75 baits/km(2) in rural habitats along US-Quebec border.

  10. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  11. Paradoxical exploitation of protected fishes as bait for anglers: evaluating the Lamprey bait market in Europe and developing sustainable and ethical solutions.

    PubMed

    Foulds, William L; Lucas, Martyn C

    2014-01-01

    A reoccurring conservation problem is the resolution of consumptive use of threatened wildlife and is especially difficult to defend when it occurs for recreational practices. We explored the commercial capture and supply of threatened European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) to anglers, to determine the extent of exploitation and seek opportunities for improved conservation. The trade began in 1995 from England, but by 2012 involved sale of lamprey from England, The Netherlands and Estonia, including from protected populations. Lamprey are sold frozen for the capture of predatory fish, mostly in freshwater. In the year 2011/2012 9 tonnes (>90,000 lampreys) of river lamprey were supplied, almost exclusively to British anglers. Although annual catches in the main English lamprey fishery (River Ouse) have varied widely since 1995, catch per unit effort did not decline between 2000 and 2012. Conservation actions since 2011 have included a cap on fishing licenses, catch quotas and restricted fishing seasons. Now, 86% of lamprey bait is imported to Britain. Most bait sellers interviewed would not stock lamprey if they knew they were from threatened populations; many felt their trade would not be impacted if lamprey were not stocked. This facilitates opportunities to enter into dialogue with anglers over alternative baits to threatened lamprey. The study emphasises the need to inform stakeholders about conservation species subjected to market-driven exploitation.

  12. Paradoxical Exploitation of Protected Fishes As Bait for Anglers: Evaluating the Lamprey Bait Market in Europe and Developing Sustainable and Ethical Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Foulds, William L.; Lucas, Martyn C.

    2014-01-01

    A reoccurring conservation problem is the resolution of consumptive use of threatened wildlife and is especially difficult to defend when it occurs for recreational practices. We explored the commercial capture and supply of threatened European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) to anglers, to determine the extent of exploitation and seek opportunities for improved conservation. The trade began in 1995 from England, but by 2012 involved sale of lamprey from England, The Netherlands and Estonia, including from protected populations. Lamprey are sold frozen for the capture of predatory fish, mostly in freshwater. In the year 2011/2012 9 tonnes (>90,000 lampreys) of river lamprey were supplied, almost exclusively to British anglers. Although annual catches in the main English lamprey fishery (River Ouse) have varied widely since 1995, catch per unit effort did not decline between 2000 and 2012. Conservation actions since 2011 have included a cap on fishing licenses, catch quotas and restricted fishing seasons. Now, 86% of lamprey bait is imported to Britain. Most bait sellers interviewed would not stock lamprey if they knew they were from threatened populations; many felt their trade would not be impacted if lamprey were not stocked. This facilitates opportunities to enter into dialogue with anglers over alternative baits to threatened lamprey. The study emphasises the need to inform stakeholders about conservation species subjected to market-driven exploitation. PMID:24936643

  13. Assembling draft genomes using contiBAIT.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Kieran; Hills, Mark; Gottlieb, Mike; Borkowski, Matthew; Karsan, Aly; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2017-09-01

    Massively parallel sequencing is now widely used, but data interpretation is only as good as the reference assembly to which it is aligned. While the number of reference assemblies has rapidly expanded, most of these remain at intermediate stages of completion, either as scaffold builds, or as chromosome builds (consisting of correctly ordered, but not necessarily correctly oriented scaffolds separated by gaps). Completion of de novo assemblies remains difficult, as regions that are repetitive or hard to sequence prevent the accumulation of larger scaffolds, and create errors such as misorientations and mislocalizations. Thus, complementary methods for determining the orientation and positioning of fragments are important for finishing assemblies. Strand-seq is a method for determining template strand inheritance in single cells, information that can be used to determine relative genomic distance and orientation between scaffolds, and find errors within them. We present contiBAIT, an R/Bioconductor package which uses Strand-seq data to repair and improve existing assemblies. contiBAIT is available on Bioconductor. Source files available from GitHub. koneill@bcgsc.ca or mark.hills@stemcell.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.149 Alternate quality control programs for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  15. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.149 Alternate quality control programs for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  16. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.149 Alternate quality control programs for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  17. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.149 Alternate quality control programs for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  18. Chemical alternatives to methyl bromide for Florida ornamental production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This project is a cooperative effort among USDA, ARS and University of Florida researchers, Florida in-ground ornamental producers, and fumigant industry representatives. Funding is provided through the USDA-ARS Area-wide Pest Management Program for Alternatives to Methyl Bromide. The ornamental i...

  19. Optimizing Alternative Fumigant Applications for Ornamental Production in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Florida, cut flower and other ornamental crop producers have a very limited number of alternatives to methyl bromide for several reasons including the lack of registered herbicides available for these crops, and the need to control previously planted cultivars volunteering as weeds within the sam...

  20. Alternative substrates in production of trees in 25-gallon containers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pine bark supplies have wavered in availability over the past couple of years due to a shift in-field harvesting where bark is used as a biofuel material. Research in alternative potting substrates has continued across the country in an attempt to identify inexpensive, and logistically available, s...

  1. Impacts of wildlife baiting and supplemental feeding on infectious disease transmission risk: a synthesis of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Anja; van Beest, Floris M; Brook, Ryan K

    2014-03-01

    Baiting and supplemental feeding of wildlife are widespread, yet highly controversial management practices, with important implications for ecosystems, livestock production, and potentially human health. An often underappreciated threat of such feeding practices is the potential to facilitate intra- and inter-specific disease transmission. We provide a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence of baiting and supplemental feeding on disease transmission risk in wildlife, with an emphasis on large herbivores in North America. While the objectives of supplemental feeding and baiting typically differ, the effects on disease transmission of these practices are largely the same. Both feeding and baiting provide wildlife with natural or non-natural food at specific locations in the environment, which can result in large congregations of individuals and species in a small area and increased local densities. Feeding can lead to increased potential for disease transmission either directly (via direct animal contact) or indirectly (via feed functioning as a fomite, spreading disease into the adjacent environment and to other animals). We identified numerous diseases that currently pose a significant concern to the health of individuals and species of large wild mammals across North America, the spread of which are either clearly facilitated or most likely facilitated by the application of supplemental feeding or baiting. Wildlife diseases also have important threats to human and livestock health. Although the risk of intra- and inter-species disease transmission likely increases when animals concentrate at feeding stations, only in a few cases was disease prevalence and transmission measured and compared between populations. Mostly these were experimental situations under controlled conditions, limiting direct scientific evidence that feeding practices exacerbates disease occurrence, exposure, transmission, and spread in the environment. Vaccination programs utilizing

  2. Effects of honeydew-producing hemipteran denial on local argentine ant distribution and boric acid bait performance.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, R J; Silverman, J

    2009-06-01

    The Argentine ant is well known for its affinity for honeydew and is often associated with hemipteran outbreaks in agricultural and urban environments. It has been suggested that Argentine ants may be controlled by restricting access to honeydew, thereby forcing the ants to move or by encouraging increased liquid toxicant intake. We tested this possible control strategy by restricting Argentine ant access to the honeydew-producing terrapin scale within the canopy of red maple trees and monitoring ant numbers with pitfall traps and nest counts in the mulch around the tree base. Argentine ant nest numbers fell dramatically in the mulch around ant-excluded trees; however, there was no reduction in Argentine ant numbers caught in pitfalls around trees with or without canopy access. We added 0.5% boric acid bait stations at the base of the red maples and monitored bait consumption. Pitfall and nest counts were not affected by the addition of boric acid, although bait consumption was lower around ant-excluded trees, suggesting that restricting access to honeydew-producing Hemiptera did not enhance bait performance. We attribute this result to the increased distance Argentine ant workers had to trail from nest to bait station when not tending nearby terrapin scale. We suggest an alternative management strategy concentrating direct insecticidal control of Argentine ants around a few host plants infested with honeydew-producing Hemiptera by controlling Hemiptera in nearby host plants.

  3. Trapping western pine beetles with baited toxic trees

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Smith

    1985-01-01

    Baited toxic trap trees—trunks of living trees sprayed with an insecticide and then baited with an attractive substance—were tested in California to kill western pine beetles attacking ponderosa pine. The attractant was the triplet pheromone mixture of brevicomin, frontalin, and myrcene. Insecticides were lindane, Sevin, permethrin, and deltamethrin...

  4. Evaluation of a new toxic house fly scatter bait

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxic scatter baits have been a popular tool for house fly control for many years. In fact, Starbar’s Golden Malrin has been sold since 1966. Because of long-term use, resistance to methomyl, the active ingredient in Golden Malrin, has rendered the bait useless in many parts of the US. Increased res...

  5. Winter bait stations as a multispecies survey tool

    Treesearch

    Lacy Robinson; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael K. Lucid

    2017-01-01

    Winter bait stations are becoming a commonly used technique for multispecies inventory and monitoring but a technical evaluation of their effectiveness is lacking. Bait stations have three components: carcass attractant, remote camera, and hair snare. Our 22,975 km2 mountainous study area was stratified with a 5 × 5 km sampling grid centered on northern Idaho and...

  6. Effectiveness of bait tubes for brown treesnake control on Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lardner, B.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Reed, R.N.; Yackel Adams, A.A.; Clark, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    A bait tube is a device with which a toxicant inserted in a dead mouse (Mus musculus) can be delivered to invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) with low risk of non-target bait take. We tested two bait tube designs in a 5ha snake enclosure where the identity of virtually every snake is known. Instead of using toxicants, we implanted radio transmitters in small (6.6±1.4 g) and large (21.8±2.9 g) bait mice. Knowing all snakes present in the population allowed us to characterize not only covariates of snakes taking bait, but also those of snakes evading our mock control effort, and if snake covariates interacted with any design variable in determining targeting rate. Tube design had no effect on take rate. Snake snout-vent length was a strong predictor of success: none of the 29 snakes smaller than 843 mm took any bait, while the 126 snakes ≥843 mm were responsible for a total of 164 bait takes. The smallest of these snakes were able to ingest small and large mice, but tended to consume small bait at a higher rate than large bait. The main reason for our failure to target smallest snakes appears not to be gape limitation, but rather that small snakes prefer other prey (lizards). The time it takes a snake to grow from the size threshold observed to the size of maturation has implications for the interval between discrete efforts using toxic bait. Targeting all snakes before reproduction can occur is highly desirable; otherwise, a new cohort of refractory snakes may enter the population.

  7. Use of the paraffin wax baiting system for identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Massengale, A R; Ollar, R A; Giordano, S J; Felder, M S; Aronoff, S C

    1999-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the primary pathogen among the Pseudomonads and is known for its minimal nutritional requirements, capacity to use paraffin as a sole carbon source, and biofilm formation. Because the ability of Pseudomonads to grow on paraffin is not commonly found among human pathogens and the primary Pseudomonas human pathogen is P. aeruginosa, we studied the adaptation of the paraffin baiting system for the growth and identification of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. We also studied the effectiveness of combining a fluorescence assay measuring fluorescein (pyoverdin) production and oxidase test with the paraffin baiting assay for P. aeruginosa speciation. Strains were tested for the capacity to use paraffin as a sole carbon source using the paraffin baiting system with Czapek's minimal salt medium. Of 111 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates tested for using paraffin as a sole carbon source, 45% exhibited growth on paraffin at 24 h and 76.6% exhibited growth on paraffin at 48 h. The ability of the reference strains and clinical isolates were then tested for their ability to associate with the paraffin slide in the presence of an additional carbon source. Of 111 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates tested, 85 strains (76.6%), and 102 (93%) were associated with the paraffin surface at 24 and 48 h. We successfully combined fluorescence and oxidase assays with the paraffin baiting system for identification of P. aeruginosa. The simple and inexpensive paraffin baiting system is a useful method for the identification and study of P. aeruginosa suitable for both the clinical and research laboratory.

  8. (Production and environmental impacts of alternative motor fuels)

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, R.N.

    1990-12-04

    The traveler participated in the 13th meeting of the Executive Committee on Alternative Motor Fuels (International Energy Agency). Participating countries in addition to the US are Canada, Italy, Finland, Japan, Sweden, and New Zealand (absent). The status of five existing annexes was reviewed and a pre-proposal for an additional annex to be a review of environmental impacts of fuels was presented by the traveler. This was well received by committee members, and a detailed proposal for such work will be developed for presentation at the next Executive Committee meeting.

  9. Alternative Mechanisms in Hydrogen Production by Aluminum Anion Clusters.

    PubMed

    Day, Paul N; Nguyen, Kiet A; Pachter, Ruth

    2012-01-10

    Possible mechanisms for the reaction of aluminum anion clusters with water have been studied theoretically using density functional theory for four different size clusters. Our results confirm the previously found (Reber et al. J. Phys. Chem. A2010, 114, 6071) importance of Lewis-acid and Lewis-base sites on the cluster in the size specificity of the reactivity. However, alternative viable mechanisms have been found using both Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal kinetics. Grotthuss-like mechanisms appear to be the most energetically favorable. We show that while the superatom theory successfully predicts reactivity of smaller clusters, it is less useful for the larger clusters.

  10. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the laboratory effort to identify and quantify organic exhaust species generated from alternative-fueled light-duty vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline. The exhaust species from these vehicles were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without a vehicle catalyst in place to determine the influence of a catalytic converter on species formation.

  11. Part 4 of a 4-part series Miscellaneous Products: Trends and Alternatives in Deodorants, Antiperspirants, Sunblocks, Shaving Products, Powders, and Wipes: Data from the American Contact Alternatives Group.

    PubMed

    Scheman, Andrew; Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Selbo, Nicole

    2011-10-01

    To provide updated data on the usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of topical products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in various miscellaneous categories of topical products is reported. Data on allergens and alternatives for ancillary skin care products are not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in antiperspirants, deodorants, shaving products, sunblocks, powders, and wipes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed.

  12. PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATIONS OF ALTERNATIVE SCREEN RECLAMATION PRODUCTS FOR SCREEN PRINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated environmentally-preferable products for the screen reclamation process In screen printing during month-long demonstrations at 23 printing facilities nationwide. hrough the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Design for the Environment Printing Project, pr...

  13. PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATIONS OF ALTERNATIVE SCREEN RECLAMATION PRODUCTS FOR SCREEN PRINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated environmentally-preferable products for the screen reclamation process In screen printing during month-long demonstrations at 23 printing facilities nationwide. hrough the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Design for the Environment Printing Project, pr...

  14. Water solutions of boric acid and sugar for management of German cockroach populations in livestock production systems.

    PubMed

    Gore, J Chad; Zurek, Ludek; Santangelo, Richard; Stringham, S Michael; Watson, D Wes; Schal, Coby

    2004-04-01

    Pest management in confinement swine production relies primarily on calendar-based applications of broad-spectrum insecticides. However, regulatory restrictions imposed by the U.S. Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, the large financial obligation of pesticide registration, and development of insecticide resistance have led to a renewed search for alternative control methods. Boric acid dust has long served as an insecticide in urban pest management and has been shown an effective alternative for use in sensitive environments such as swine production. However, dust formulations are difficult to apply and require specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of liquid baits containing boric acid for the control of German cockroaches in a commercial swine nursery. Bait, consisting of 1 or 2% boric acid and 0.5 M sucrose, was deployed in 21 bait delivery tubes per room. Results of a 2-yr study showed significant reductions in cockroach populations. When baits were withdrawn in the summer, the cockroach population increased significantly faster than when the baits were removed during the winter. These data indicate that liquid formulations of boric acid effectively reduce the burden of cockroach infestation in swine production. This approach should have applications in structures in other urban and agricultural environments.

  15. Sociocultural attitudes surrounding menstruation and alternative menstrual products: the explanatory role of self-objectification.

    PubMed

    Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    We extend objectification theory research to consider the relationship between self-objectification and attitudes toward an alternative menstrual product in a diverse sample of female undergraduates from the United States (N = 151). We use a survey design to investigate attitudes toward one's menstruation as a potential mechanism that may explain this relationship. Reactions to an alternative menstrual product were predominantly negative, supporting prior research on stigma and shame surrounding menstruation. Exploratory structural equation modeling revealed attitudes toward one's menstruation mediated the relationship between self-objectification and participants' reactions to an alternative menstrual product. Implications for women's health are discussed.

  16. High pressure as an alternative processing step for ham production.

    PubMed

    Pingen, Sylvia; Sudhaus, Nadine; Becker, André; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter

    2016-08-01

    As high pressure processing (HPP) is becoming more and more important in the food industry, this study examined the application of HPP (500 and 600MPa) as a manufacturing step during simulated ham production. By replacing conventional heating with HPP steps, ham-like texture or color attributes could not be achieved. HPP products showed a less pale, less red appearance, softer texture and higher yields. However, a combination of mild temperature (53°C) and 500MPa resulted in parameters more comparable to cooked ham. We conclude that HPP can be used for novel food development, providing novel textures and colors. However, when it comes to ham production, a heating step seems to be unavoidable to obtain characteristic ham properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Nuclear Alternative: Energy Production within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liodakis, Emmanouel Georgiou

    2011-06-01

    Over ninety percent of Mongolia's energy load is run through the Central Energy System. This primary grid provides Mongolia's capital, Ulaanbaatar, with the power it uses to function. In the first half of 2010 the Central Energy System managed 1739.45 million kWhs, a 4.6 percent increase from 2009. If this growth rate continues, by 2015 Ulaanbaatar's three power plants will be unable to generate enough heat and electricity to meet the city's needs. Currently, plans have been proposed to rehabilitate the aging coal power plants. However, rising maintenance costs and growing emission levels make the long-term sustainability of this solution uncertain. The following paper analyzes the capital, maintenance, and decommissioning costs associated with the current rehabilitation plans and compares them with a nuclear alternative.

  18. The Nuclear Alternative: Energy Production within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Liodakis, Emmanouel Georgiou

    2011-06-28

    Over ninety percent of Mongolia's energy load is run through the Central Energy System. This primary grid provides Mongolia's capital, Ulaanbaatar, with the power it uses to function. In the first half of 2010 the Central Energy System managed 1739.45 million kWhs, a 4.6 percent increase from 2009. If this growth rate continues, by 2015 Ulaanbaatar's three power plants will be unable to generate enough heat and electricity to meet the city's needs. Currently, plans have been proposed to rehabilitate the aging coal power plants. However, rising maintenance costs and growing emission levels make the long-term sustainability of this solution uncertain. The following paper analyzes the capital, maintenance, and decommissioning costs associated with the current rehabilitation plans and compares them with a nuclear alternative.

  19. Hermetically sealed baits for subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Nan-Yao

    2007-04-01

    Cellulose baits containing 0.5% hexaflumuron were hermetically sealed in a closed cell polyethylene sheet envelope and placed in soil to test their durability and efficacy against field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, or the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). The closed cell polyethylene sheet was readily tunneled through by termites, yet it was impervious to water and protected the cellulose baits and hexaflumuron from the environment. Only in a few incidents did the polyethylene envelope become infiltrated by plant roots, resulting in water intrusion and apparent degradation of cellulose baits. After consuming one to three sealed baits, three colonies each of both termite species were eliminated. The sealed baits may be placed in soil for months or years without the need of monitoring, and they are readily penetrated and fed upon by termites when they are present. Application of baits hermetically sealed in a protective sheet may save labor costs by bypassing the monitoring phase, circumvent the station avoidance by some termite species, and enable the use of baiting technologies in large areas such as agricultural fields in which the manual monitoring is impractical.

  20. Alternatives to animal testing in the safety evaluation of products.

    PubMed

    Knight, Derek J; Breheny, Damien

    2002-01-01

    The conventional method for assessing the safety of products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to agrochemicals, biocides and industrial and household chemicals - including cosmetics - involves determining their toxicological properties by using experimental animals. The aim is to identify any possible adverse effects in humans by using these animal models. Providing safe products is undoubtedly of the utmost importance but, over the last decade or so, this aim has come into conflict with strong public opinion, especially in Europe, against animal testing. Industry, academia and the regulators have worked in partnership to find other ways of evaluating the safety of products, by non-animal testing, or at least by reducing the numbers of animals required and the severity of the tests in which they are used. There is a long way to go before products can be evaluated without any animal studies, and it may be that this laudable aim is an impossible dream. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made by using a combination of in vitro tests and the prediction of properties based on chemical structure. The aim of this review is to describe these important and worthwhile developments in various areas of toxicological testing, with a focus on the European regulatory framework for general industrial and household chemicals.

  1. Creating Shared Instructional Products: An Alternative Approach to Improving Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Anne K.; Hiebert, James

    2011-01-01

    To solve two enduring problems in education--unacceptably large variation in learning opportunities for students across classrooms and little continuing improvement in the quality of instruction--the authors propose a system that centers on the creation of shared instructional products that guide classroom teaching. By examining systems outside…

  2. Productivity of nonindustrial private forests in western Washington: alternative futures.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; Darius M. Adams

    1995-01-01

    Nonindustrial private timberlands in western Washington have high productive potential and contribute harvest amounts somewhat more than proportional to their area. Of all private ownerships they are influenced the most by land use shifts and are affected in important ways by forest practice regulations. About 1 million acres of nonindustrial private timberland contain...

  3. Bait stations, hard mast, and black bear population growth in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Pelton, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Bait-station surveys are used by wildlife managers as an index to American black bear (Ursus americanus) population abundance, but the relationship is not well established. Hard mast surveys are similarly used to assess annual black bear food availability which may affect mortality and natality rates. We used data collected in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) from 1989 to 2003 to determine whether changes in the bait-station index (ΔBSI) were associated with estimated rates of bear population growth (λ) and whether hard mast production was related to bear visitation to baits. We also evaluated whether hard mast production from previous years was related to λ. Estimates of λ were based on analysis of capture-recapture data with the Pradel temporal symmetry estimator. Using the Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), our analysis revealed no direct relationship between ΔBSI and λ. A simulation analysis indicated that our data were adequate to detect a relationship had one existed. Model fit was marginally improved when we added total oak mast production of the previous year as an interaction term suggesting that the BSI was confounded with environmental variables. Consequently the utility of the bait-station survey as a population monitoring technique is questionable at the spatial and temporal scales we studied. Mast survey data, however, were valuable covariates of λ. Population growth for a given year was negatively related to oak mast production 4 and 5 years prior. That finding supported our hypothesis that mast failures can trigger reproductive synchrony, which may not be evident from the trapped sample until years later.

  4. An Alternative Framework to Evaluate Proof Productions: A Reply to Alcock and Inglis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper, Alcock and Inglis (in press) noted a distinction between the way that Weber (in press) and they defined syntactic and semantic proof productions. Weber argued that "a syntactic proof production occurs when one works predominantly within the representation system of proof [...] Alternatively, a semantic proof production occurs…

  5. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which is... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS...

  6. An Alternative Method for Computing Unit Costs and Productivity Ratios. AIR 1984 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstead, Wayland H.; And Others

    An alternative measure for evaluating the performance of academic departments was studied. A comparison was made with the traditional manner for computing unit costs and productivity ratios: prorating the salary and effort of each faculty member to each course level based on the personal mix of course taught. The alternative method used averaging…

  7. Alternate Tritium Production Methods Using A Liquid Lithium Target

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.

    2015-10-08

    For over 60 years, the Savannah River Site’s primary mission has been the production of tritium. From the beginning, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided the technical foundation to ensure the successful execution of this critical defense mission. SRNL has developed most of the processes used in the tritium mission and provides the research and development necessary to supply this critical component. This project was executed by first developing reactor models that could be used as a neutron source. In parallel to this development calculations were carried out testing the feasibility of accelerator technologies that could also be used for tritium production. Targets were designed with internal moderating material and optimized target was calculated to be capable of 3000 grams using a 1400 MWt sodium fast reactor, 850 grams using a 400 MWt sodium fast reactor, and 100 grams using a 62 MWt reactor, annually.

  8. Biopesticide production from Bacillus thuringiensis: an environmentally friendly alternative.

    PubMed

    Rosas-García, Ninfa M

    2009-01-01

    Since its discovery as a microbial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis has been widely used to control insect pests important in agriculture, forestry, and medicine. The wide variety of formulations based on spore-crystal complexes intended for ingestion by target insects, are the result of many years of research. The development of a great variety of matrices for support of the spore-crystal complex enables many improvements, such as an increase in toxic activity, higher palatability to insects, or longer shelf lives. These matrices use many chemical, vegetable or animal compounds to foster contact between crystals and insect midguts, without harming humans or the environment. Biotechnology companies are tasked with the production of these kinds of bioinsecticides. These companies must not only provide formulations tailored to specific crops and the insect pests, but they must also search for and produce bioinsecticides based on new strains of high potency, whether wild or genetically improved. It is expected that new products will appear on the market soon, providing an increased activity spectrum and applicability to many other pest-impacted crops. These products may help develop a more organic agriculture. This review article discusses recent patents related to bioinsecticides.

  9. Products identified at an alternative disinfection pilot plant.

    PubMed Central

    Lykins, B W; Koffskey, W

    1986-01-01

    Many drinking water utilities have recently changed or are seriously considering changing their disinfection practice from chlorine to some alternative treatment process. However, most of these utilities are changing their disinfectants without evaluating chemical impacts. Therefore, a research cooperative agreement was developed with Jefferson Parish, LA, to evaluate four parallel streams treated with four different disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone.) These streams, along with a fifth parallel stream, which was not treated with a disinfectant (control), were passed through both sand and granular activated carbon (GAC). Ozonation reduced the total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) concentration by 0.3 mg/L and 10 micrograms/L, respectively. The average concentration of TOC for the other disinfectants was comparable to that associated with the nondisinfected stream (3.3 mg/L). The average instantaneous TOX concentration for chlorine dioxide, chloramine, and chlorine disinfection after 30 min contact time increased by 60, 92, and 238 micrograms/L, respectively, from a nondisinfected concentration of 25 micrograms/L. The volatile organics most affected by disinfection (chlorination) were the trihalomethanes. No significant change in concentration was noted after disinfection for the other volatile organics evaluated, such as 1,2-dichlorethane, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride. Ozonation produced an average concentration reduction of 11 to 84% for most of the nonvolatiles evaluated. Conversely, a concentration increase of 43 to 100% was noted, after chlorination, for some of the nonvolatile organics. PMID:3816717

  10. Komagataeibacter rhaeticus as an alternative bacteria for cellulose production.

    PubMed

    Machado, Rachel T A; Gutierrez, Junkal; Tercjak, Agnieszka; Trovatti, Eliane; Uahib, Fernanda G M; Moreno, Gabriela de Padua; Nascimento, Andresa P; Berreta, Andresa A; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; Barud, Hernane S

    2016-11-05

    A strain isolated from Kombucha tea was isolated and used as an alternative bacterium for the biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose (BC). In this study, BC generated by this novel bacterium was compared to Gluconacetobacter xylinus biosynthesized BC. Kinetic studies reveal that Komagataeibacter rhaeticus was a viable bacterium to produce BC according to yield, thickness and water holding capacity data. Physicochemical properties of BC membranes were investigated by UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies (FTIR), thermogravimetrical analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were also used for morphological characterization. Mechanical properties at nano and macroscale were studied employing PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical property mapping (QNM) and dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), respectively. Results confirmed that BC membrane biosynthesized by Komagataeibacter rhaeticus had similar physicochemical, morphological and mechanical properties than BC membrane produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus and can be widely used for the same applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Products identified at an alternative disinfection pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Lykins, B W; Koffskey, W

    1986-11-01

    Many drinking water utilities have recently changed or are seriously considering changing their disinfection practice from chlorine to some alternative treatment process. However, most of these utilities are changing their disinfectants without evaluating chemical impacts. Therefore, a research cooperative agreement was developed with Jefferson Parish, LA, to evaluate four parallel streams treated with four different disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone.) These streams, along with a fifth parallel stream, which was not treated with a disinfectant (control), were passed through both sand and granular activated carbon (GAC). Ozonation reduced the total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) concentration by 0.3 mg/L and 10 micrograms/L, respectively. The average concentration of TOC for the other disinfectants was comparable to that associated with the nondisinfected stream (3.3 mg/L). The average instantaneous TOX concentration for chlorine dioxide, chloramine, and chlorine disinfection after 30 min contact time increased by 60, 92, and 238 micrograms/L, respectively, from a nondisinfected concentration of 25 micrograms/L. The volatile organics most affected by disinfection (chlorination) were the trihalomethanes. No significant change in concentration was noted after disinfection for the other volatile organics evaluated, such as 1,2-dichlorethane, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride. Ozonation produced an average concentration reduction of 11 to 84% for most of the nonvolatiles evaluated. Conversely, a concentration increase of 43 to 100% was noted, after chlorination, for some of the nonvolatile organics.

  12. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  13. Products identified at an alternative disinfection pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lykins, B.W. Jr.; Koffskey, W.

    1986-11-01

    Many drinking water utilities have recently changed or are seriously considering changing their disinfection practice from chlorine to some alternative treatment process. However, most of these utilities are changing their disinfectants without evaluating chemical impacts. Therefore, a research cooperative agreement was developed with Jefferson Parish, LA, to evaluate four parallel streams treated with four different disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone.) These streams, along with a fifth parallel stream, which was not treated with a disinfectant (control), were passed through both sand and granular activated carbon (GAC). Ozonation reduced the total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) concentration by 0.3 mg/L and 10 micrograms/L, respectively. The average concentration of TOC for the other disinfectants was comparable to that associated with the nondisinfected stream (3.3 mg/L). The average instantaneous TOX concentration for chlorine dioxide, chloramine, and chlorine disinfection after 30 min contact time increased by 60, 92, and 238 micrograms/L, respectively, from a nondisinfected concentration of 25 micrograms/L. The volatile organics most affected by disinfection (chlorination) were the trihalomethanes. No significant change in concentration was noted after disinfection for the other volatile organics evaluated, such as 1,2-dichlorethane, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride. Ozonation produced an average concentration reduction of 11 to 84% for most of the nonvolatiles evaluated. Conversely, a concentration increase of 43 to 100% was noted, after chlorination, for some of the nonvolatile organics.

  14. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION BY ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS AND REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the use of the alternative disinfectants on the formation of halogenated disinfection by–products (DBPs) including total organic halide, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin, were examined along ...

  15. Analysis of Alternative Extensions of the Existing Production Tax Credit for Wind Generators

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    Requestor: Ms. Janice Mays, Chief Counsel, Committee on Ways & Means, U.S. House of Representatives This is a letter response requesting analysis of alternative extensions of the existing production tax credit (PTC) that would apply to wind generators only.

  16. Effect of alternating injection and production wells on the efficiency of water flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Kukreti, A.R.; Civan, F.; Rajapaksa, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of alternating injection and production wells on the performance of water flooding for a three-dimensional, pi-shaped oil trap is investigated by means of a finite element solution of an immiscible flow model.

  17. Contamination affects the performance of insecticidal baits against German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Appel, Arthur G

    2004-12-01

    The effects of contamination of insecticidal bait formulations, by using mint oil and silica aerogel, were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments against the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Bait consumption at 3 d for uncontaminated baits ranged from 0.01 g for Avert dust to 0.399 g for Combat dry bait with hydramethylnon presented in a station. LT50 values for uncontaminated gel bait deposits ranged from 0.4 d for PreEmpt containing imidacloprid to 4.1 d for Maxforce containing hydramethylnon. As a group, significantly more gel bait was consumed than solid formulations even when both formulations had similar concentrations of the same active ingredient. As a result, gel baits were significantly more toxic than solid formulations. Application of mint oil directly to bait deposits significantly decreased bait consumption and increased overall LT50 values. When bait formulation types were examined individually, there was no difference in consumption or toxicity between contaminated and uncontaminated gel formulations. Contaminated solid baits, however, had significantly greater LT50 values and less consumption than uncontaminated solid baits. Gel formulations probably absorbed the contaminants and removed them from the surface of the bait deposits resulting in normal bait consumption and toxicity. Gel and solid bait deposits, inside plastic exposure stations or alone with no station and placed onto mint oil-contaminated substrates, had significantly lower bait consumption and greater LT50 values than baits placed on uncontaminated substrates. Contamination of a baited area is more likely than contamination of just the bait deposit and therefore a more realistic test of the effects of contamination on bait performance. The importance of contamination to the performance of cockroach baits is discussed.

  18. Movements of female white-tailed deer to bait sites in West Virginia, USA

    Treesearch

    Tyler A. Campbell; Christopher A. Landgon; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards; Karl V. Miller; Karl V. Miller

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparison of movements of adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in response to seasonal bait sites in the central Appalachians of West Virginia, USA. Our objectives were to compare bait-site use among seasons, evaluate home-range and core-area sizes between baiting and non-baiting periods.

  19. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Daniel W; Rocke, Tonie E; Streich, Sean P; Brown, Nathanael L; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥ 65/ha (or ≥ 1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination.

  20. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Brown, Nathanael L.; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥65/ha (or ≥1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination.

  1. Environmental efficiency of alternative dairy systems: a productive efficiency approach.

    PubMed

    Toma, L; March, M; Stott, A W; Roberts, D J

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture across the globe needs to produce "more with less." Productivity should be increased in a sustainable manner so that the environment is not further degraded, management practices are both socially acceptable and economically favorable, and future generations are not disadvantaged. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental efficiency of 2 divergent strains of Holstein-Friesian cows across 2 contrasting dairy management systems (grazing and nongrazing) over multiple years and so expose any genetic × environment (G × E) interaction. The models were an extension of the traditional efficiency analysis to account for undesirable outputs (pollutants), and estimate efficiency measures that allow for the asymmetric treatment of desirable outputs (i.e., milk production) and undesirable outputs. Two types of models were estimated, one considering production inputs (land, nitrogen fertilizers, feed, and cows) and the other not, thus allowing the assessment of the effect of inputs by comparing efficiency values and rankings between models. Each model type had 2 versions, one including 2 types of pollutants (greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen surplus) and the other 3 (greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen surplus, and phosphorus surplus). Significant differences were found between efficiency scores among the systems. Results indicated no G × E interaction; however, even though the select genetic merit herd consuming a diet with a higher proportion of concentrated feeds was most efficient in the majority of models, cows of the same genetic merit on higher forage diets could be just as efficient. Efficiency scores for the low forage groups were less variable from year to year, which reflected the uniformity of purchased concentrate feeds. The results also indicate that inputs play an important role in the measurement of environmental efficiency of dairy systems and that animal health variables (incidence of udder health disorders and body condition

  2. PRN 94-7: Label Improvement Program for the Revision of Use Directions for Commensal Rodenticides and Statement of the Agency's Policies on the Use of Rodenticide Bait Stations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Notice requires registrants of certain pesticide products claimed to control commensal rodents and registered under FIFRA to revise the labeling of such products to bear certain statements concerning tamper-resistant bait stations.

  3. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Effects of sheep and cattle alternate grazing on sheep parasitism and production.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Maurice; Aumont, Gilles

    2009-02-01

    Production of sheep (nursing ewes) grazing alternately with cattle (growing weaned heifers) was compared to the production of sheep or cattle grazing alone (controls). Pasture production and sheep parasitism were also monitored. The herbage allowance was higher for the control heifers than for the alternate heifers, but the leaf to green material ratio (LGMR) was lower, and no difference on heifer growth was revealed (443 vs. 431g.d(-1), P = 0.54). The LGMR was higher for the alternate sheep (+3 points) than for the control sheep, except during the dry season, when the herbage density was lower. The effects of parasitism on the packed cell volume of alternate ewes and lambs were lower than those of control ewes and lambs. However, the infection of sheep by Cooperia sp. (better adapted to cattle) was significantly higher for the alternate sheep than for the controls, and some indication of cattle infection by Haemonchus contortus was suggested. The 70-day lamb weight was higher in the alternate grazing system than in the control (+0.76,+1.11 and+0.61kg for the dry, intermediate and rainy seasons, respectively), and the average 70-day lamb production per ewe exposed was 21.42kg in the alternate grazing system vs. 18.59kg in the control (P = 0.003).

  5. [Control of the Pharaoh's ant with borax bait formulations].

    PubMed

    Klunker, R; Scheurer, S; Neumann, T

    1990-12-01

    Results are given for the experimental control of Pharaoh ants, Monomorium pharaonis L., with persistent borax baits in the laboratory and the field. DYBH-bait formulations with about 17 per cent borax are very attractive and have a good effectivity. In 5 different objects infested with this ant eradication was proved to be possible with this experimental formulations. The progress of eradication depends essentially on the good organisational preparation of control measures.

  6. Plants’ Natural Products as Alternative Promising Anti-Candida Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Sameh; Alnajdy, Dina; El-Keblawy, Ali A.; Mosa, Kareem A.; Khoder, Ghalia; Noreddin, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Candida is a serious life-threatening pathogen, particularly with immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in a broad range of immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are common in hospitalized patients and elderly people. The difficulty to eradicate Candida infections is owing to its unique switch between yeast and hyphae forms and more likely to biofilm formations that render resistance to antifungal therapy. Plants are known sources of natural medicines. Several plants show significant anti-Candida activities and some of them have lower minimum inhibitory concentration, making them promising candidates for anti-Candida therapy. However, none of these plant products is marketed for anti-Candida therapy because of lack of sufficient information about their efficacy, toxicity, and kinetics. This review revises major plants that have been tested for anti-Candida activities with recommendations for further use of some of these plants for more investigation and in vivo testing including the use of nanostructure lipid system.

  7. A multimodal bait for trapping blood-sucking arthropods.

    PubMed

    Ryelandt, Julien; Noireau, François; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2011-02-01

    Artificial baits constitute important tools for the detection and sampling of blood-sucking arthropods, in particular those that are vectors of parasites affecting human health. At present, many different devices have been proposed to attract blood-sucking arthropods, mostly based on the attractiveness of particular chemicals or blends. However, most of them revealed themselves as unpractical (e.g. they require an electrical supply), expensive (e.g. gas bottles) or not efficient enough. On the other hand, the use of living baits is as effective but it has practical constraints and/or raises ethical questions. We present here a multimodal lure to attract blood-sucking arthropods designed taking into account both practical constraints and costs. The main characteristics of our bait are: (1) artificiality (no living-host); (2) multimodality (it associates heat, carbon dioxide and chemical attractants); (3) independency from any energy source; (4) no need for gas bottles; (5) easy to prepare and use in the field; (6) low cost. We tested the ability of the bait to attract blood-sucking arthropods in the laboratory and in the field, using capture sticky-traps. Our bait evinced to be almost as efficient as live hosts (mice) for the capture of Chagas disease and Borrelia vectors in Bolivia. The multimodal lure here presented is a generalist bait, i.e. effective for attracting different haematophagous species. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility study for alternate fuel production from biomass resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The propsed project will be a 50 mm USGPY anhydrous alcohol plant to be located at Walhalla in northeastern North Dakota. The plant will use barley grown in the region as the raw material to produce a Motor Fuel Grade Alcohol through a fermentation and distillation process. North Dakota lignite coal will be used as the primary energy source to produce alcohol from the barley. The site is located on an active branch of the Burlington Northern Railroad, providing efficient and economical access to North Dakota's vast lignite coal fields in western North Dakota and to the established grain and grain by-product markets of Duluth and Minneapolis. The site is also adjacent to paved secondary highways, providing access to state and interstate highway systems. The plant site is adjacent to the City of Walhalla and will be annexed to the city limits and served by community facilities. Electrical energy to operate plant equipment will be partially produced by co-generation within the plant but the total electrical energy cannot be produced internally and additional power will be purchased from Otter Tail Power Co., supplier to the community. A technical review of the plant is provided in this report. The process, plant layout and major equipment procurement and costs are described. A complete economic analysis is provided using the data derived from the technical evaluation and cost estimates and is provided in a separate section. Siting and the environmental and socio-economic considerations are covered separately. A review of the proposed management and personnel structure completes the report.

  9. [A systematic review of the effectiveness of alternative weight-loss products' ingredients].

    PubMed

    de Lira-García, Cynthia; Souto-Gallardo, María; Bacardí-Gascón, Monserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The high demand for obesity treatment and conventional therapies' lack of effectiveness increases the use of alternative products. This study was aimed at assessing evidence from randomised clinical trials regarding the effectiveness of alternative weight-loss products' ingredients. A survey was conducted in Ensenada, Baja California, to assess the frequency of consuming alternative products used for weight reduction. The ingredients in the products most in demand were included in this review. The Pubmed database was searched for all randomised clinical trial papers including these ingredients and assessing weight loss. Thirty-six percent of the subjects questioned had used alternative methods for weight-loss, 83% of them being women. The most frequently used products were shakes, tea, pills and flaxseed/linseed. Sixteen randomised clinical trials using four ingredients were used: Garcinia cambogia, green tea, L-carnitina and flaxseed. Only two studies (green tea and Garcinia cambogia) showed significant weight-loss (25%) amongst control and experimental groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in the studies regarding L-carnitina and flaxseed. There is a lack of evidence regarding quality studies justifying the use of alternative products for weight loss.

  10. The production of an inducible antisense alternative oxidase (Aox1a) plant.

    PubMed

    Potter, F J; Wiskich, J T; Dry, I B

    2001-01-01

    Plant mitochondria contain an alternative oxidase (AOX) acting as a terminal electron acceptor of the alternative pathway in the electron transport chain. Here we describe the production of inducible antisense Aox1a plants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and the procedures used to determine the resulting alternative pathway activity. The Arabidopsis Aox1a cDNA sequence was cloned behind a copper-inducible promoter system in the antisense orientation. Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia) plants were transformed by in-planta vacuum infiltration with Agrobacterium containing the antisense construct. Whole-leaf ethanol production was used as a measure to investigate alternative pathway activity in the presence of antimycin A. After 24 h, leaves from the copper-induced, antisense line F1.1 produced up to 8.8 times more ethanol (via aerobic fermentation) than the non-induced and wild-type leaves, indicating effective cytochrome pathway inhibition by antimycin A and a decreased alternative pathway activity in induced F1.1 leaves. Transgene expression studies also revealed no expression in non-induced leaves and up until 24 h post-induction. Copper-induced transgenic leaves were less susceptible to alternative pathway inhibition than non-induced transgenic leaves, as seen via tissue-slice respiratory studies, and mitochondrial respiration, using F1.1 cell cultures, also supported this. These results demonstrate the successful production of a transgenic line of Arabidopsis in which the alternative pathway activity can be genetically manipulated with an inducible antisense system.

  11. ALTERNATIVE FORMULATIONS TO REDUCE CFC USE IN U.S. EXEMPTED AND EXCLUDED AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines products exempted and excluded from those affected by the 1978 ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants, the present consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S., and alternative formulations which may be used to...

  12. ALTERNATIVE FORMULATIONS TO REDUCE CFC USE IN U.S. EXEMPTED AND EXCLUDED AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines products exempted and excluded from those affected by the 1978 ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants, the present consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S., and alternative formulations which may be used to...

  13. The comparative extinguishment performance and thermal decomposition products of halon alternative agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipczak, Robert A.

    1994-12-01

    Halon 1301, Halon 1211, and eleven alternative fire-fighting agents were compared for extinguishment effectiveness and thermal decomposition product generation, using a laboratory-scale test apparatus having methane as the fuel. Chemical analysis was conducted using a magnetic sector mass spectrometer with simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide, water, and acid gas production. Chemical mechanisms are advanced to explain how halogenated hydrocarbons extinguish fires. The major conclusion was that the alternative agents were not as effective at fighting fires as Halons and that greater amounts of acid gases were produced during extinguishment. Hydrogen fluoride was found to be the predominant thermal decomposition product for all agents.

  14. Control of Rhagoletis indifferents using Thiamethoxam and Spinosad baits under external fly pressure and its relation to rapidity of kill and residual bait activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control of western cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis indifferens Curran) using thiamethoxam in sucrose bait and spinosad bait in cherry orchards under external fly pressure and its relation to rapidity of kill and residual bait activity were studied in Washington and Utah in 2010 and 2011. Thiamethoxam ...

  15. Completion and production results from alternate-path gravel-packed wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, D.W.; Jones, L.G.

    1995-09-01

    A successful gravel pack requires two things: perforations packed with gravel-pack sand and a completely packed annulus. Failure to obtain either one can result in low productivity and/or a sand-producing gravel pack. Alternate-path gravel packing ensures that the annulus will be completely packed and that all perforations taking fluid will be packed with gravel-pack sand. Altercate-path gravel packing has provided long and highly productive completions without any sand production. This paper presents completion data and production results from 39 wells completed with the alternate-path gravel-pack technique. The completion data include completion length, net perforations, carrier fluid, sand placement outside casing, workover fluid, and return rate during packaging. Production results include qualitative discussion of all completions with quantitative results, including permeability-thickness product and skin on select completions.

  16. Direct coupling: a possible strategy to control fruit production in alternate bearing

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Awadhesh; Sakai, Kenshi; Hoshino, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the theoretical possibility of applying phenomenon of synchronization of coupled nonlinear oscillators to control alternate bearing in citrus. The alternate bearing of fruit crops is a phenomenon in which a year of heavy yield is followed by an extremely light one. This phenomenon has been modeled previously by the resource budget model, which describes a typical nonlinear oscillator of the tent map type. We have demonstrated how direct coupling, which could be practically realized through grafting, contributes to the nonlinear dynamics of alternate bearing, especially phase synchronization. Our results show enhancement of out-of-phase synchronization in production, which depends on initial conditions obtained under the given system parameters. Based on these numerical experiments, we propose a new method to control alternate bearing, say in citrus, thereby enabling stable fruit production. The feasibility of validating the current results through field experimentation is also discussed. PMID:28051141

  17. Direct coupling: a possible strategy to control fruit production in alternate bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Awadhesh; Sakai, Kenshi; Hoshino, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the theoretical possibility of applying phenomenon of synchronization of coupled nonlinear oscillators to control alternate bearing in citrus. The alternate bearing of fruit crops is a phenomenon in which a year of heavy yield is followed by an extremely light one. This phenomenon has been modeled previously by the resource budget model, which describes a typical nonlinear oscillator of the tent map type. We have demonstrated how direct coupling, which could be practically realized through grafting, contributes to the nonlinear dynamics of alternate bearing, especially phase synchronization. Our results show enhancement of out-of-phase synchronization in production, which depends on initial conditions obtained under the given system parameters. Based on these numerical experiments, we propose a new method to control alternate bearing, say in citrus, thereby enabling stable fruit production. The feasibility of validating the current results through field experimentation is also discussed.

  18. Monitoring gene flow from transgenic sugar beet using cytoplasmic male-sterile bait plants.

    PubMed

    Saeglitz, C; Pohl, M; Bartsch, D

    2000-12-01

    One of the most discussed environmental effects associated with the use of transgenic plants is the flow of genes to plants in the environment. The flow of genes may occur through pollen since it is the reproductive system that is designed for gene movement. Pollen-mediated gene escape is hard to control in mating plants. Pollen from a wind pollinator can move over distances of more than 1000 m. To investigate the efficiency of transgenic pollen movement under realistic environmental conditions, the use of bait plants might be an effective tool. In this study, cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) sugar beets were tested with regard to their potential for monitoring transgene flow. As the pollen source, transgenic sugar beets were used that express recombinant DNA encoding viral (beet necrotic yellow vein virus) resistance, and antibiotic (kanamycin) and herbicide (glufosinate) tolerance genes. In a field trial, the effectiveness of a hemp (Cannabis sativa) stripe containment strategy was tested by measuring the frequency of pollinated CMS bait plants placed at different distances and directions from a transgenic pollen source. The results demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the containment strategy. Physiological and molecular tests confirmed the escape and production of transgenic offspring more than 200 m behind the hemp containment. Since absolute containment is unlikely to be effective, the CMS-bait plant detection system is a useful tool for other monitoring purposes.

  19. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  20. Aerial distribution of ONRAB baits as a tactic to control rabies in raccoons and striped skunks in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, R C; Donovan, D; Davies, J C; Allan, M; Bachmann, P; Stevenson, B; Sobey, K; Brown, L; Silver, A; Bennett, K; Buchanan, T; Bruce, L; Gibson, M; Beresford, A; Beath, A; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Lawson, K

    2009-04-01

    During August 2006 and 2007, baits containing oral rabies vaccine, live adenovirus vector, known as ONRAB , were aerially distributed in SW Ontario, Canada. Bait acceptance during 2006 was 62 and 74% in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in areas baited at 150 baits/km(2) and 75 and 77% in plots baited at 300 baits/km(2). During 2007, bait acceptance for raccoons ranged between 59% and 80%, and 83% and 87%, in areas baited at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Bait acceptance by skunks varied among plots (5-24%). Rabies virus-specific seroconversion during 2006 averaged 66 and 81% in raccoons in areas baited at 150 and 300 baits/km(2), respectively. During 2007, seroconversion by raccoons was 76 and 84% in areas baited at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Seroconversion by skunks varied among plots (17-51%). Vaccine efficacy, as judged by the percentage of animals that consumed a bait and seroconverted, averaged 79 and 87% during 2006 for raccoons in areas baited at 150 and 300 baits/km(2), respectively, and 81 and 90% in areas baited during 2007 at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Because tetracycline marking was poor in skunks, an estimate of vaccine efficacy was not possible. Aerial distribution of ONRAB vaccine baits seems to be a feasible tactic for controlling rabies in skunks and raccoons.

  1. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  2. SRSF10 Plays a Role in Myoblast Differentiation and Glucose Production via Regulation of Alternative Splicing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ning; Cheng, Yuanming; Wang, Zhijia; Liu, Yuguo; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Lina; Chen, Linlin; Xie, Zhiqin; Lu, Yun; Feng, Ying

    2015-11-24

    Alternative splicing is a major mechanism of controlling gene expression and protein diversity in higher eukaryotes. We report that the splicing factor SRSF10 functions during striated muscle development, myoblast differentiation, and glucose production both in cells and in mice. A combination of RNA-sequencing and molecular analysis allowed us to identify muscle-specific splicing events controlled by SRSF10 that are critically involved in striated muscle development. Inclusion of alternative exons 16 and 17 of Lrrfip1 is a muscle-specific event that is activated by SRSF10 and essential for myoblast differentiation. On the other hand, in mouse primary hepatocytes, PGC1α is a key target of SRSF10 that regulates glucose production by fasting. SRSF10 represses inclusion of PGC1α exon 7a and facilitates the production of functional protein. The results highlight the biological significance of SRSF10 and regulated alternative splicing in vivo.

  3. Selection of process alternatives for lignocellulosic bioethanol production using a MILP approach.

    PubMed

    Scott, Felipe; Venturini, Fabrizio; Aroca, Germán; Conejeros, Raúl

    2013-11-01

    This work proposes a decision-making framework for the selection of processes and unit operations for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Process alternatives are described by its capital and operating expenditures, its contribution to process yield and technological availability information. A case study in second generation ethanol production using Eucalyptus globulus as raw material is presented to test the developed process synthesis tool. Results indicate that production cost does not necessarily decrease when yield increases. Hence, optimal processes can be found at the inflexion point of total costs and yield. The developed process synthesis tool provides results with an affordable computational cost, existing optimization tools and an easy-to-upgrade description of the process alternatives. These features made this tool suitable for process screening when incomplete information regarding process alternatives is available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Subtask 2.6 - Assessment of Alternative Fuels on CO2 Production

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Darren Naasz

    2009-06-16

    Many coal-based electric generating units use alternative fuels, and this effort assessed the impact of alternative fuels on CO{sub 2} production and other emissions and also assessed the potential impact of changes in emission regulations under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for facilities utilizing alternative fuels that may be categorized as wastes. Information was assembled from publicly available U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information Administration databases that included alternative fuel use for 2004 and 2005. Alternative fuel types were categorized along with information on usage by coal-based electric, number of facilities utilizing each fuel type, and the heating value of solid, liquid, and gaseous alternative fuels. The sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with alternative fuels and primary fuels were also evaluated. Carbon dioxide emissions are also associated with the transport of all fuels. A calculation of carbon dioxide emissions associated with the transport of biomass-based fuels that are typically accessed on a regional basis was made. A review of CAA emission regulations for coal-based electric generating facilities from Section 112 (1) and Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators was performed with consideration for a potential regulatory change from Section 112 (1) regulation to Section 129 (2). Increased emission controls would be expected to be required if coal-based electric generating facilities using alternative fuels would be recategorized under CAA Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators, and if this change were made, it is anticipated that coal-fired electric generating facilities might reduce the use of alternative fuels. Conclusions included information on the use profile for alternative fuels and the impacts to emissions as well as the impact of potential application of emission regulations for solid waste incinerators to electric generating facilities using alternative fuels.

  5. A Product Review of Alternative Oil-Based Intravenous Fat Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Biesboer, Ann N; Stoehr, Nancy A

    2016-10-01

    Soybean oil-based intravenous fat emulsions have long been used as the primary product for delivery of lipid-based calories in parenteral nutrition formulations in the United States. Proinflammatory properties of these products may be related with poor clinical outcomes and have led investigators to develop newer generations of intravenous fat emulsions. These alternative formulations are derivatives of medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil in hopes to reduce the inflammatory response and potentially produce a clinically beneficial anti-inflammatory response. Although surrogate markers support this reduction in inflammatory response, clinical data and outcomes are still limited but potentially promising in the literature. This product review provides a general overview of the alternative-generation intravenous fat emulsion products and the literature supporting the potential transition to such products. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. Alternatives to antibiotics: a symposium on the challenges and solutions for animal production.

    PubMed

    Seal, Bruce S; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Donovan, David M; Gay, Cyril G

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotics are one of the most important medical discoveries of the 20th century and will remain an essential tool for treating animal and human diseases in the 21st century. However, antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens and concerns over their extensive use in food animals has garnered global interest in limiting antibiotic use in animal agriculture. Yet, limiting the availability of medical interventions to prevent and control animal diseases on the farm will directly impact global food security and safety as well as animal and human health. Insufficient attention has been given to the scientific breakthroughs and novel technologies that provide alternatives to antibiotics. The objectives of the symposium 'Alternatives to Antibiotics' were to highlight promising research results and novel technologies that could potentially lead to alternatives to conventional antibiotics, and assess challenges associated with their commercialization, and provide actionable strategies to support development of alternative antimicrobials. The symposium focused on the latest scientific breakthroughs and technologies that could provide new options and alternative strategies for preventing and treating diseases of animals. Some of these new technologies have direct applications as medical interventions for human health, but the focus of the symposium was animal production, animal health and food safety during food-animal production. Five subject areas were explored in detail through scientific presentations and expert panel discussions, including: (1) alternatives to antibiotics, lessons from nature; (2) immune modulation approaches to enhance disease resistance and to treat animal diseases; (3) gut microbiome and immune development, health and diseases; (4) alternatives to antibiotics for animal production; and (5) regulatory pathways to enable the licensure of alternatives to antibiotics.

  7. Baited lines: An active nondestructive collection method for burrowing crayfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Foltz, David A.; Welsh, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A new method (baited lines) is described for the collection of burrowing crayfishes, where fishing hooks baited with earthworms and tied to monofilament leaders are used to lure crayfishes from their burrow entrances. We estimated capture rates using baited lines at four locations across West Virginia for a total of four crayfish taxa; the taxa studied were orange, blue, and blue/orange morphs of Cambarus dubius (Upland Burrowing Catfish), and C. thomai (Little Brown Mudbug). Baited-line capture rates were lowest for C. thomai (81%; n = 21 attempts) and highest for the orange morph ofC. dubius (99%; n = 13 attempts). The pooled capture rate across all taxa was 91.5% (n = 50 attempts). Baited lines represent an environmentally nondestructive method to capture burrowing crayfishes without harm to individuals, and without disturbing burrows or the surrounding area. This novel method allows for repeat captures and long-term studies, providing a useful sampling method for ecological studies of burrowing crayfishes.

  8. Part 3 of a 4-part series Lip and Common Dental Care Products: Trends and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Kruk, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on the use of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of lip and oral products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain was copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives) were calculated. Results: The use of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives) in various categories of lip and oral products are reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for lip and oral products is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in lip liners, lipsticks, lip moisturizers, mouthwashes, and toothpastes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21938270

  9. Horizontal transfer of bait in the German cockroach: indoxacarb causes secondary and tertiary mortality.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Scherer, Clay W; Bennett, Gary W

    2008-06-01

    Horizontal transfer of indoxacarb in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), was examined under laboratory conditions. Results show that a single bait-fed adult cockroach (i.e., the donor) transferred indoxacarb to numerous primary recipients (secondary mortality),which then became secondary donors. These recipients subsequently became donors to other cockroaches and caused significant mortality in other members of the aggregation, resulting in tertiary kill. Indoxacarb was effectively transferred among adult cockroaches and resulted in significant secondary mortality. When adult males served as donors and vectored the insecticide to adult males, the donor:recipient ratio affected the mortality of the recipients and the rate of secondary mortality increased with increasing the ratio of donors to recipients. Furthermore, secondary mortality in the untreated cockroaches was significantly affected by the freshness of excretions from the donors, the presence of alternative food, and the duration of contact between the donors and the recipients. Ingested indoxacarb was most effectively translocated when the recipients interacted with freshly symptomatic donors in the absence of alternative food. The transfer of indoxacarb continued beyond secondary mortality and resulted in significant tertiary mortality. Excretions from a single bait-fed adult killed 38/50 (76%) nymphs within 72 h. The dead nymphs then vectored indoxacarb to 20 adult males and killed 16/20 (81%) recipients within 72 h. Behavioral mechanisms involved in the horizontal transfer of indoxacarb may include: contact with excretions, necrophagy, emetophagy, and ingestion of other excretions that originate from the donors.

  10. Laboratory and field performance of an indoxacarb bait against German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Appel, Arthur G

    2003-06-01

    Experimental indoxacarb powder and gel baits were evaluated in the laboratory, and a gel bait was evaluated in subsequent field studies against the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). In continuous exposure tests, LT50 values were 1.90 and 1.10 d for 0.25 and 1% indoxacarb powder baits, respectively. However, 0.25% indoxacarb gel bait had an LT50 value of 0.68 d, similar to a 0.05% abamectin gel bait formulated with the same bait base. There was no difference in toxicity between fresh and 7-d-old gel bait deposits. A pyrethroid-resistant strain of German cockroaches was significantly resistant to both abamectin and indoxacarb gel baits. Gel bait contained approximately 40% water, desiccated rapidly at 25-28 degrees C and 30-45% RH, but did not rehydrate when held at 56.7% RH for 3 d. Powder indoxacarb baits contained <1% water and did not desiccate or gain water. Indoxacarb gel bait (0.25%) was relatively nonrepellent (approximately 30%) and had positive maximum performance index values (approximately 100) in Ebeling choice box experiments. In field experiments in cockroach-infested kitchens, the 0.25% indoxacarb gel bait significantly reduced visual counts of German cockroaches approximately 74% at 3 d and >95% at 14 d. Indoxacarb baits are toxic, relatively nonrepellent, and can significantly reduce German cockroach populations.

  11. Alternative technology for corn milling and high fructose corn syrup production

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.H.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    The production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the process of corn wet milling requires large volumes of water for the steeping and milling operations. The water, incorporated into various process streams, creates extensive requirements for dewatering, drying, and evaporation, resulting in an energy-intensive process. In order to reduce the overall energy requirements of HFCS production, an alternative process has been developed combining initial dry milling of corn with subsequent solvent extraction of protein and conversion of starch to syrup. Based on laboratory studies of the alternative process, the water removal load is less than half of that for wet milling and a full scale plant using the alternative technology should require 30% less energy than a corresponding wet milling facility. Further developmental work is in progress on a pilot plant scale to allow process optimization and to afford more accurate evaluations of the energy requirements of the proposed process.

  12. Youth Attitudes and Beliefs toward Alternative Tobacco Products: Cigars, Bidis, and Kreteks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldz, Stephen; Dorsey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Youth use of cigars, bidis, and kreteks has spread as youth cigarette use has declined. This study investigates young people's attitudes toward and beliefs about these alternative tobacco products. The study used data from a convenience sample survey of 5,016 7th-through 12th-grade students in Massachusetts. The cigar attitudes receiving the…

  13. Ecological sustainability of alternative biomass feedstock production for environmental benefits and bioenergy

    Treesearch

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Jill A. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer

    2007-01-01

    The incorporation of intensive forestry with waste management fills a much-needed niche throughout numerous phytotechnology applications. There is a growing opportunity to incorporate sustainable recycling of waste waters as irrigation and fertilization for alternative biomass feedstock production systems. However, the success of short rotation woody crops is largely...

  14. Youth Attitudes and Beliefs toward Alternative Tobacco Products: Cigars, Bidis, and Kreteks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldz, Stephen; Dorsey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Youth use of cigars, bidis, and kreteks has spread as youth cigarette use has declined. This study investigates young people's attitudes toward and beliefs about these alternative tobacco products. The study used data from a convenience sample survey of 5,016 7th-through 12th-grade students in Massachusetts. The cigar attitudes receiving the…

  15. Effect of fertilization and irrigation on nursery production of hydrangea using alternative containers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Container production of nursery plants using biodegradable containers has been studied in recent years as a sustainable alternative to traditional plastic containers. Plant growth and photosynthetic performance of Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Merritt’s Supreme’ were investigated in this study when they we...

  16. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum: Its effectiveness as an alternative bedding material for broiler production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) may be a viable low-cost alternative bedding material for broiler production. In order to evaluate FGD gypsum’s viability, three consecutive trials were conducted to determine its influence on live performance (body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency, an...

  17. Deletion of alternative pathways for reductant recycling in Thermococcus kodakarensis increases hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Thomas J; Cuboňová, L'ubomíra; Reeve, John N

    2011-08-01

    Hydrogen (H₂) production by Thermococcus kodakarensis compares very favourably with the levels reported for the most productive algal, fungal and bacterial systems. T. kodakarensis can also consume H₂ and is predicted to use several alternative pathways to recycle reduced cofactors, some of which may compete with H₂ production for reductant disposal. To explore the reductant flux and possible competition for H₂ production in vivo, T. kodakarensis TS517 was mutated to precisely delete each of the alternative pathways of reductant disposal, H₂ production and consumption. The results obtained establish that H₂ is generated predominantly by the membrane-bound hydrogenase complex (Mbh), confirm the essential role of the SurR (TK1086p) regulator in vivo, delineate the roles of sulfur (S°) regulon proteins and demonstrate that preventing H₂ consumption results in a substantial net increase in H₂ production. Constitutive expression of TK1086 (surR) from a replicative plasmid restored the ability of T. kodakarensis TS1101 (ΔTK1086) to grow in the absence of S° and stimulated H₂ production, revealing a second mechanism to increase H₂ production. Transformation of T. kodakarensis TS1101 with plasmids that express SurR variants constructed to direct the constitutive synthesis of the Mbh complex and prevent expression of the S° regulon was only possible in the absence of S° and, under these conditions, the transformants exhibited wild-type growth and H₂ production. With S° present, they grew slower but synthesized more H₂ per unit biomass than T. kodakarensis TS517.

  18. Insecticide-Treated Rodent Baits for Sand Fly Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-28

    treatments and bio-indica- tors has been expanded and improved since the field trial in Kenya in 2010. Fipronil treatment of rodents appears to last up...to four times longer than with ivermectin, and the use of fipronil as an ac- tive ingredient in rodent bait would allow a monthly baiting scheme as...Diptera: Psychodidae), Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 12 (2012) 699–704. [9] T.M. Mascari, R.W. Stout, L.D. Foil, Oral treatment of rodents with fipronil

  19. Economic and market issues on the sustainability of egg production in the United States: analysis of alternative production systems.

    PubMed

    Sumner, D A; Gow, H; Hayes, D; Matthews, W; Norwood, B; Rosen-Molina, J T; Thurman, W

    2011-01-01

    Conventional cage housing for laying hens evolved as a cost-effective egg production system. Complying with mandated hen housing alternatives would raise marginal production costs and require sizable capital investment. California data indicate that shifts from conventional cages to barn housing would likely cause farm-level cost increases of about 40% per dozen. The US data on production costs of such alternatives as furnished cages are not readily available and European data are not applicable to the US industry structure. Economic analysis relies on key facts about production and marketing of conventional and noncage eggs. Even if mandated by government or buyers, shifts to alternative housing would likely occur with lead times of at least 5 yr. Therefore, egg producers and input suppliers would have considerable time to plan new systems and build new facilities. Relatively few US consumers now pay the high retail premiums required for nonconventional eggs from hens housed in alternative systems. However, data from consumer experiments indicate that additional consumers would also be willing to pay some premium. Nonetheless, current data do not allow easy extrapolation to understand the willingness to pay for such eggs by the vast majority of conventional egg consumers. Egg consumption in the United States tends to be relatively unresponsive to price changes, such that sustained farm price increases of 40% would likely reduce consumption by less than 10%. This combination of facts and relationships suggests that, unless low-cost imports grew rapidly, requirements for higher cost hen housing systems would raise US egg prices considerably while reducing egg consumption marginally. Eggs are a low-cost source of animal protein and low-income consumers would be hardest hit. However, because egg expenditures are a very small share of the consumer budget, real income loss for consumers would be small in percentage terms. Finally, the high egg prices imposed by

  20. Novel Bait Stations for Attract-and-Kill of Pestiferous Fruit Flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel, visually attractive bait station was developed in Hawaii for application of insecticidal baits against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The bai...

  1. Evaluation of Cyantraniliprole and Other Commercial Fly Baits under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Casey; Baldwin, Rebecca; Pereira, Roberto; Koehler, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory and field trials were performed to evaluate the attractiveness and efficacy of commercial baits (cyantraniliprole; methomyl + (Z)-9-tricosene; dinotefuran + (Z)-9-tricosene; imidacloprid granular + (Z)-9-tricosene; and imidacloprid liquid + (Z)-9-tricosene). In choice tests; flies were most attracted to cyantraniliprole bait > dinotefuran + (Z)-9 > methomyl + (Z)-9 bait > imidacloprid granular + (Z)-9 bait > imidacloprid liquid + (Z)-9 bait. Significant degradation in bait efficacy was observed after two weeks of aging excluding imidacloprid granular; which began to degrade in field conditions after one week. Cyantraniliprole; the new fly bait active ingredient in Zyrox®; had the longest time to knockdown in the laboratory tests; but on susceptible flies; achieved 95%–100% knockdown within an hour of exposure. Zyrox® was resistant to weathering for a week; and was more attractive to flies in the field when compared to methomyl + (Z)-9 bait. PMID:26610575

  2. Water consumption footprint and land requirements of large-scale alternative diesel and jet fuel production.

    PubMed

    Staples, Mark D; Olcay, Hakan; Malina, Robert; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Pearlson, Matthew N; Strzepek, Kenneth; Paltsev, Sergey V; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-01-01

    Middle distillate (MD) transportation fuels, including diesel and jet fuel, make up almost 30% of liquid fuel consumption in the United States. Alternative drop-in MD and biodiesel could potentially reduce dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas intensity of transportation. However, the water and land resource requirements of these novel fuel production technologies must be better understood. This analysis quantifies the lifecycle green and blue water consumption footprints of producing: MD from conventional crude oil; Fischer-Tropsch MD from natural gas and coal; fermentation and advanced fermentation MD from biomass; and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids MD and biodiesel from oilseed crops, throughout the contiguous United States. We find that FT MD and alternative MD derived from rainfed biomass have lifecycle blue water consumption footprints of 1.6 to 20.1 Lwater/LMD, comparable to conventional MD, which ranges between 4.1 and 7.4 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from irrigated biomass has a lifecycle blue water consumption footprint potentially several orders of magnitude larger, between 2.7 and 22 600 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from biomass has a lifecycle green water consumption footprint between 1.1 and 19 200 Lwater/LMD. Results are disaggregated to characterize the relationship between geo-spatial location and lifecycle water consumption footprint. We also quantify the trade-offs between blue water consumption footprint and areal MD productivity, which ranges from 490 to 4200 LMD/ha, under assumptions of rainfed and irrigated biomass cultivation. Finally, we show that if biomass cultivation for alternative MD is irrigated, the ratio of the increase in areal MD productivity to the increase in blue water consumption footprint is a function of geo-spatial location and feedstock-to-fuel production pathway.

  3. Availability of and attitudes toward resources on alternative medicine products in the community pharmacy setting.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Joseph P; Cicero, Lorraine A; Koumis, Tina; Rosenberg, Jack M; Feifer, Stanley; Maltz, Fraidy

    2005-01-01

    To examine the availability of resources on dietary supplements in the community pharmacy setting and to assess the attitudes of community pharmacists toward these resources. Cross-sectional study. Community pharmacies in New York and New Jersey that serve as experiential sites for senior student pharmacists at the Arnold & Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Long Island University. Preceptors or full-time pharmacists. Mailed survey. Frequency of use, availability of, and pharmacists' satisfaction with resources on alternative medicines, defined in the survey as any product including herbal remedies, vitamins, minerals, and natural products that may be purchased at a health food store, pharmacy, supermarket, alternative medicine store/magazine for the purpose of self-treatment. A total of 64 pharmacists characterized their frequency of use of resources on alternative medicines while formulating responses to questions as: never (n = 5; 7.8%), seldom (n = 31; 48.4%), often (n = 24; 37.5%), or always (n = 4; 6.3%). A total of 30 different resources were available to 40 respondents. The most commonly available resources were the PDR for Herbal Medicines (42.5%), The Review of Natural Products (20.0%), and the Web site of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (12.5%). Of 54 respondents, 4 (7.1%) reported being completely dissatisfied with the available resources; 17 (31.5%) were somewhat dissatisfied; 25 (46.3%) were somewhat satisfied; and 8 (14.8%) were completely satisfied with the resources available to them. Topics the pharmacists most commonly wanted to see improved included safety (72.7%), interactions (70.9%), and uses (69.1%). Community pharmacists do not use information resources on alternative medicine products frequently, and many are not satisfied with the resources available to them.

  4. BAIT DEVELOPMENT FOR ORAL DELIVERY OF PHARMACEUTICALS TO RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) AND STRIPED SKUNKS (MEPHITIS MEPHITIS).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shylo R; Crider, Nikki J; Weyer, Grant A; Tosh, Randall D; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2016-10-01

    Oral vaccination is one tool used to control wildlife diseases. A challenge to oral vaccination is identifying baits specific to target species. The US has been conducting oral vaccination against rabies since the 1990s. Improvements in bait development will hasten disease elimination. In Colorado, we examined a novel bait for oral vaccination and offered two different flavors, sweet and fish, to captive raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) and striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) to assess consumption and flavor preference and observed bait removal by target and nontarget species in the field. During captive trials, raccoons and skunks consumed 98% and 87% of offered baits, respectively. Baits contained a sachet to simulate a vaccine package. Raccoons and skunks consumed 98% and 94% of the sachets, respectively. All unconsumed sachets were punctured, suggesting that animals had oral exposure to the contents. Raccoons preferred fish-flavored bait, but skunks did not have a preference. In the field, raccoons consumed the most baits, followed by fox squirrels ( Sciurus niger ). Other rabies host species (striped skunks, red foxes [ Vulpes vulpes ], coyotes [ Canis latrans ]) had very low visitation and were never observed consuming baits. High consumption rates by raccoons and skunks in captivity and observance of raccoons consuming baits in the field suggest that these baits may be useful for oral delivery of pharmaceuticals. Further field research is warranted to determine how to best optimize bait delivery.

  5. Efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tests were conducted that evaluated efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) adults in Guatemala. Bait stations were exposed to outdoor conditions to determine effect of weathering on longevity as indicated by bait station age. Results of laboratory tests found that ba...

  6. Consumption of a durable termite bait matrix by subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and resulting insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Ronda L; DeMark, Joseph J; Chin-Heady, Eva; Tolley, Mike P

    2013-04-01

    A novel durable termite bait was developed to enable continuous bait availability and lengthen the monitoring interval to 1 year. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the palatability and insecticidal activity of this bait to Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), R. virginicus (Banks), R. hesperus Banks, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Heterotermes aureus (Synder). Consumption of the blank durable bait matrix was significantly higher than consumption of a blank preferred textured cellulose matrix (PTC) by R. virginicus, R. flavipes and C. formosanus. R. flavipes, R. hesperus and H. aureus consumed significantly more durable bait than PTC when both contained the active ingredient noviflumuron. All bait treatments resulted in significant mortality relative to the untreated controls. Survivorship of R. virginicus, C. formosanus and H. aureus was 2% or less and not significantly different between the durable bait and PTC treatments containing noviflumuron. The durable bait matrix lagged behind the PTC matrix in mortality over time for all species tested except H. aureus. The durable bait was highly palatable and effective in inducing mortality to R. flavipes, R. virginicus, R. hesperus, C. formosanus and H. aureus in the laboratory. This unique bait matrix will be available to termites continuously and allows for an annual monitoring interval. The durability of this bait matrix is unprecedented, allowing for bait to remain active for years and thus providing continuous structural protection. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Food preference and foraging activity of ants: recommendations for field applications of low-toxicity baits.

    PubMed

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Addison, Pia

    2014-04-10

    Control of ants using baits of low toxicity cannot be effective without knowledge of bait distribution patterns and bait station densities, which are determined by ants' foraging activities. Furthermore, the success of toxic baits also depends upon attractiveness of bait carriers. Here, we assessed ground and vine foraging activity and food preferences for the three ant species ( Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Anoplolepis custodiens (F. Smith) and Crematogaster peringueyi Emery) under field conditions. We found that L. humile's vineyard foraging activity was high and that movement of ant bait by C. peringueyi and A. custodiens in the vineyard was relatively low. Consequently, more bait stations need to be dispensed for more effective control of C. peringueyi and A. custodiens than for L. humile. Different bait densities are discussed for the various ant species. Food preference trials indicated that vineyard foraging ants preferred wet bait attractants over dry ones, making liquids the most ideal carriers for baiting these ants. Linepithema humile was attracted to 25% sugar water, while C. peringueyi was attracted to both 25% sugar water and honey. Anoplolepis custodiens was attracted to tuna but was also attracted to 25% sugar water. Thus, future bait formulations should be tailor made to suit these specific food requirements if baits are to be successful in ant pest management.

  8. Honeybee Foraging Preferences, Effects of Sugars and Fruit Fly Toxic Bait Components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field tests were carried out to evaluate the repellence of the fruit fly toxic bait, GF-120, for domestic honeybees. This bait is an organically registered attractive bait for tephritid fruit flies and is composed of hydrolyzed protein (Solulys), invertose sugar, vegetable oils, adjuvants, and oth...

  9. Validation of the bait test with Rhododendron leaves for Phytophthora diagnosis

    Treesearch

    Corina Junker; Sabine Werres

    2017-01-01

    Bait tests are very helpful for diagnosis of Phytophthora in for example soil, substrate, water, sediment, and rootball samples (Werres and others 2014). By attracting the motile zoospores of the Phytophthora species with the baits these pathogens can be separated from other organisms. Bait tests are simple and cost...

  10. Bird Feeders as Locations for Skunk Uptake of Oral Rabies Vaccine Baits.

    PubMed

    Theimer, Tad; Talk, Tisheena; Johnson, Shylo; Bergman, David L

    2017-02-02

    Significantly more (54%, P=0.003) placebo baits placed under 26 bird feeders in Arizona were removed by striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) than at paired, nonfeeder locations (19%). Baiting at bird feeders could supplement traditional oral rabies vaccine bait placement in urban-suburban areas while engaging the public in rabies control efforts.

  11. Food Preference and Foraging Activity of Ants: Recommendations for Field Applications of Low-Toxicity Baits

    PubMed Central

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Addison, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Control of ants using baits of low toxicity cannot be effective without knowledge of bait distribution patterns and bait station densities, which are determined by ants' foraging activities. Furthermore, the success of toxic baits also depends upon attractiveness of bait carriers. Here, we assessed ground and vine foraging activity and food preferences for the three ant species (Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Anoplolepis custodiens (F. Smith) and Crematogaster peringueyi Emery) under field conditions. We found that L. humile's vineyard foraging activity was high and that movement of ant bait by C. peringueyi and A. custodiens in the vineyard was relatively low. Consequently, more bait stations need to be dispensed for more effective control of C. peringueyi and A. custodiens than for L. humile. Different bait densities are discussed for the various ant species. Food preference trials indicated that vineyard foraging ants preferred wet bait attractants over dry ones, making liquids the most ideal carriers for baiting these ants. Linepithema humile was attracted to 25% sugar water, while C. peringueyi was attracted to both 25% sugar water and honey. Anoplolepis custodiens was attracted to tuna but was also attracted to 25% sugar water. Thus, future bait formulations should be tailor made to suit these specific food requirements if baits are to be successful in ant pest management. PMID:25373195

  12. Detection of potato mop-top virus in soils and potato tubers using bait-plant bioassay, ELISA and RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Arif, Muhammad; Ali, Murad; Rehman, Anayatur; Fahim, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The hilly region of Northwest of Pakistan is leading seed potato producing areas of the country. Soil and plant samples were collected from the region and tested for PMTV using both conventional and molecular techniques. The bait plants exhibited PMTV-characteristic v-shaped yellow leaf markings in Nicotiana debneyi plants grown in putative viruliferious soils from 20/26 locations. The results were confirmed by back inoculation of sap from both roots and leaves of bait plant on indicator hosts (N. debneyi, Nicotiana benthamiana). The root samples of bait plants grown in soils of 25 locations and leaves of 24 locations reproduced systemic infection on indicator hosts upon back inoculation. The virus was identified in bait plants grown in soils from 25/26 locations using double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS)-ELISA and reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The products of the 566bp were amplified from coat protein region of PMTV RNA 3 in both root and leaf samples of baited plants. The virus was detected in 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region using DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. The virus was also detected in zoospores of Spongospora subterranea derived from the peels of selected scabby tubers using triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA. The results indicate that a bait plant bioassay, infectivity assay, ELISA and RT-PCR can detect PMTV in roots and leaves of baited plants, field samples, zoospores of S. subterranea and tubers of 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region.

  13. The impact of free trial acceptance on demand for alternative nicotine products: evidence from experimental auctions.

    PubMed

    Rousu, Matthew C; O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Pitcavage, James M; Thrasher, James F

    2015-06-11

    This study explored the relationship between product trials and consumer demand for alternative nicotine products (ANP). An experimental auction was conducted with 258 adult smokers, wherein participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. The participants received the opportunity to try, but did not have to accept, one of three relatively novel ST products (i.e., snus, dissolvable tobacco, or medicinal nicotine), or they were placed into a control group (i.e., no trial). All the participants then bid on all three of these products, as well as on cigarettes. We assessed interest in using ANP based on both trial of the product and bids placed for the products in the experimental auction. Fewer smokers were willing to try snus (44%) than dissolvable tobacco (64%) or medicine nicotine (68%). For snus, we find modest evidence suggesting that willingness to try is associated with greater demand for the product. For dissolvable tobacco or medicinal nicotine, we find no evidence that those who accept the product trial have higher demand for the product. Free trials of a novel ANP were not strongly associated with product demand, as assessed by willingness to pay. Given the debate over the potential for ANP to reduce the harm from smoking, these results are important in understanding the impact of free trial offers on adoption of ST product as a strategy to reduce harm from tobacco use.

  14. Rhododendron leaf baiting of coastal California watersheds for Phytophthora

    Treesearch

    Tyler B. Bourret; Heather K. Mehl; Kamyar Aram; David M. Rizzo

    2017-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Rizzo lab and collaborators have monitored northern and central coastal California watersheds each spring and early summer for the presence of Phytophthora using submerged Rhododendron leaves as bait. This served as an early detection tool for the sudden oak death (SOD) pathogen, P. ramorum...

  15. Bait formulations and longevity of navel orangeworm egg traps tested

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Standardization of pest monitoring practices and materials to maximize sensitivity to pest populations in the field is a foundation of effective integrated pest management (IPM). Due to changes in the availability of commercial bait material for navel orangeworm (NOW) egg traps, we evaluated potenti...

  16. Excluding feral swine, javelina, and raccoons from deer bait stations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper presents a design, list of materials, and construction procedure for a physical and electric barrier fence to prevent feral swine (Sus scrofa), javelina (Pecari tajacu), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and perhaps other non-target animals from accessing or damaging bait stations designed to adm...

  17. Excluding feral swine, javelina and raccoons from deer bait stations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we present a design and construction procedure for a physical and electric barrier fence to prevent feral swine (Sus scrofa), javelina (Pecari tajacu), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and perhaps other non-target animals from accessing or damaging bait stations designed to administer acaricide treatm...

  18. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) bait sticks: Toxicity and malathion content

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Villavaso; Joseph E. Mulrooney; William L. Mcgovern

    2003-01-01

    Assays of malathion content and toxicity to boll weevil, Anll~onorni~gsr andis granrlis Boheman, were conducted on boll weevil bait sticks, now marketed as Boll Weevil Attract ancl Control Tubes (BWACTs: Plato Industries, Houston, TX). In general. the longer BWACTs were in the field, the lower the mortality of weevils that were exposed to them. Bioassays of weevil...

  19. Stream baiting in southern Louisiana for Phytophthora ramorum

    Treesearch

    Jason Preuette; Daniel Collins; Ashley Williams; Kenneth Deahl; Richard Jones

    2013-01-01

    The use of stream monitoring is an important method for early detection of Phytophthora ramorum. Five different waterway locations representing different ecosystems and potential P. ramorum inoculum sources across southern Louisiana were monitored for P. ramorum using bait bags containing whole ...

  20. Grape juice bait for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatile chemicals produced by actively fermenting aqueous grape juice bait have been found to be highly attractive to Zaprionus indianus in field tests conducted in south Florida. This is a highly dynamic system, and studies were conducted to determine the effect of factors including time period o...

  1. Nocardia isolation from clinical samples with the paraffin baiting technique

    PubMed Central

    Bafghi, Mehdi Fatahi; Heidarieh, Parvin; Soori, Tahereh; Saber, Sasan; Meysamie, Alipasha; Gheitoli, Khavar; Habibnia, Shadi; Rasouli Nasab, Masoumeh; Eshraghi, Seyyed Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background The genus Nocardia is a cause of infection in the lungs, skin, brain, cerebrospinal fluid, eyes, joints and kidneys. Nocardia isolation from polymicrobial specimens is difficult due to its slow growth. Several methods have been reported for Nocardia isolation from clinical samples. In the current study, we used three methods: paraffin baiting technique, paraffin agar, and conventional media for Nocardia isolation from various clinical specimens from Iranian patients. Methods In this study, we examined 517 samples from various clinical specimens such as: sputum of patients with suspected tuberculosis, bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, tracheal aspirate, cutaneous and subcutaneous abscesses, cerebrospinal fluid, dental abscess, mycetoma, wound, bone marrow biopsy, and gastric lavage. All collected specimens were cultured on carbon-free broth tubes (paraffin baiting technique), paraffin agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar, and Sabouraud dextrose agar with cycloheximide and were incubated at 35°C for one month. Results Seven Nocardia spp. were isolated with paraffin baiting technique, compared with 5 positive results with the paraffin agar technique and 3 positive results with Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. The prevalence of nocardial infections in our specimens was 5.28%. Conclusion In the present study, the use of the paraffin baiting technique appeared to be more effective than other methods for Nocardia isolation from various clinical specimens. PMID:25763363

  2. Pesticide-laced predator baits: considerations for prosecution and sentencing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Albers, E.; Patterson, D.

    2003-01-01

    The illegal use of pesticide-laced baits for predator control is a wildlife crime that is underreported, inadequately documented, and insufficiently punished. The crime occurs when some ranchers, farmers, and hunting groups illegally lace baits with pesticides to control avian and mammalian predators. The activity has poisoned birds protected by the Endangered Species Act, Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act. However, because of difficulties in discovering, reporting, and confirming the baitings and the wildlife kills, the crimes often appear inconsequential. The limited knowledge of these crimes in the public, regulatory, and judicial arenas distorts their importance .for some prosecutors and judges. The United States pesticide regulatory system has positioned federal and state prosecutors and judges in a critical role for protecting wildlife from the illegal practice of lacing baits with pesticides. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the crime and describe the ways in which the crime is investigated. They then present investigative and experimental evidence on the extent of the illegal practice and the magnitude of the kills in order to elucidate their importance with respect to prosecution and sentencing. The authors conclude by recommending that sufficient resources be made available, public awareness and education increased, and persistent prosecution occur in order to improve the effectiveness of all federal wildlife enforcement.

  3. Development and evaluation of a culture system suitable for the production of gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis baird and girard) for live bait in the thermal effluent of a power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Waas, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations concerning spawning, hatching and grow-out of Fundulus grandis were conducted in 0.1-ha brackish water ponds in Texas. Studies focused on developing economical feeds, increasing production through improved management techniques and evaluation of economic feasibility. Eggs collected on spawning mats were hatched and fry stocked in grow-out ponds when they average .5 g. The bimodal spawning cycle extended from February to October and highest egg production was in late March-early April and late August-early September. Embryonic development and larval survival in the laboratory were not affected by salinities from 10 to 30 ppt. Newly hatched larvae acclimated to 23 C could withstand prolonged exposure to temperatures up to 38 C. Acclimation and test salinities had a significant effect on the response to elevated temperatures. Economic profit, break-even analysis and net present value were used to evaluate economic feasibility of a commercial operation. Based on a stocking rate of 400,000/ha, 85% survival of stocked fry and two crops per year, substantial returns were predicted for a 24 hectare (60 acre) facility.

  4. Green Alternatives to Nitrates and Nitrites in Meat-based Products-A Review.

    PubMed

    Gassara, Fatma; Kouassi, Anne Patricia; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2016-10-02

    Several food additives are added in food for their preservation to maintain the freshness of food (antioxidants) or to slow down or stop the growth of microorganisms (preservative agents). Nitrites and nitrates are used as preservative agents in meat. Nitrites give a smoked taste, a pinkish color in the meat and protect the consumers against the risk of bacterial deterioration. Their addition is however very limited as, in high dose, it can have risks on human health and the environment. Nitrites may also combine with secondary or tertiary amines to form N-nitroso derivatives. Certain N-nitroso compounds have been shown to produce cancers in a wide range of laboratory animals. Thus, alternatives of nitrates and nitrites are the object of numerous research studies. Alternatives, such as the addition of vitamins, fruits, chemicals products, natural products containing nitrite or spices, which have similar properties of nitrites, are in evaluation. In fact, spices are considered to have several organoleptic and anti-microbial properties which would be interesting to study. Several spices and combinations of spices are being progressively evaluated. This review discusses the sources of nitrites and nitrates, their use as additives in food products, their physicochemical properties, their negatives effects and the use of alternatives of nitrites and nitrates in preserving meat products.

  5. Elimination of glycerol and replacement with alternative products in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vishist K; Divol, Benoit; Prior, Bernard A; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and typically 2-3% of the sugar fermented is converted to glycerol. Replacing the NAD(+)-regenerating glycerol pathway in S. cerevisiae with alternative NADH reoxidation pathways may be useful to produce metabolites of biotechnological relevance. Under fermentative conditions yeast reoxidizes excess NADH through glycerol production which involves NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (Gpd1p and Gpd2p). Deletion of these two genes limits fermentative activity under anaerobic conditions due to accumulation of NADH. We investigated the possibility of converting this excess NADH to NAD(+) by transforming a double mutant (gpd1∆gpd2∆) with alternative oxidoreductase genes that might restore the redox balance and produce either sorbitol or propane-1,2-diol. All of the modifications improved fermentative ability and/or growth of the double mutant strain in a self-generated anaerobic high sugar medium. However, these strain properties were not restored to the level of the parental wild-type strain. The results indicate an apparent partial NAD(+) regeneration ability and formation of significant amounts of the commodity chemicals like sorbitol or propane-1,2-diol. The ethanol yields were maintained between 46 and 48% of the sugar mixture. Other factors apart from the maintenance of the redox balance appeared to influence the growth and production of the alternative products by the genetically manipulated strains.

  6. Inhibition of the alternative oxidase stimulates H2O2 production in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Popov, V N; Simonian, R A; Skulachev, V P; Starkov, A A

    1997-09-22

    The hypothesis that a non-coupled alternative oxidase of plant mitochondria operates as an antioxygen defence mechanism [Purvis, A.C. and Shewfelt, R.L., Physiol. Plant. 88 (1993) 712-718; Skulachev, V.P., Biochemistry (Moscow) 59 (1994) 1433-1434] has been confirmed in experiments on isolated soybean and pea cotyledon mitochondria. It is shown that inhibitors of the alternative oxidase, salicyl hydroxamate and propyl gallate strongly stimulate H2O2 production by these mitochondria oxidizing succinate. Effective concentrations of the inhibitors proved to be the same as those decreasing the cyanide-resistant respiration. The inhibitors proved to be ineffective in stimulating H2O2 formation in rat liver mitochondria lacking the alternative oxidase.

  7. Cheese whey: A cost-effective alternative for hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Amado, Isabel R; Vázquez, José A; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Teixeira, José A

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the optimisation of cheese whey formulated media for the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Culture media containing whey (W; 2.1g/L) or whey hydrolysate (WH; 2.4 g/L) gave the highest HA productions. Both W and WH produced high yields on protein consumed, suggesting cheese whey is a good nitrogen source for S. zooepidemicus production of HA. Polysaccharide concentrations of 4.0 g/L and 3.2g/L were produced in W and WH in a further scale-up to 5L bioreactors, confirming the suitability of the low-cost nitrogen source. Cheese whey culture media provided high molecular weight (>3000 kDa) HA products. This study revealed replacing the commercial peptone by the low-cost alternative could reduce HA production costs by up to a 70% compared to synthetic media.

  8. High-density baiting with ONRAB® rabies vaccine baits to control Arctic-variant rabies in striped skunks in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, R C; Donovan, D; Davies, J C; Brown, L; Allan, M; von Zuben, V; Bachmann, P; Sobey, K; Silver, A; Bennett, K; Buchanan, T; Bruce, L; Gibson, M; Purvis, M; Beresford, A; Beath, A; Fehlner-Gardiner, C

    2011-04-01

    The Arctic variant of rabies virus has been maintained in striped skunks in small foci in southwestern Ontario, Canada, despite the control of the disease in red foxes. To control the disease in skunks, high-density baiting with ONRAB(®) oral rabies vaccine baits was conducted by air and by hand distribution of baits in the vicinity of skunk cases. During 2009, antibody prevalences in skunks were higher in areas baited at a density of 300 baits/km(2) and flight-line spacing of 0.25 km than at 0.5-km spacing. Once an area containing Arctic-variant cases was treated with high densities of ONRAB baits, the disease did not reoccur in skunks in those areas. During 2009, only eight skunks were diagnosed with the Arctic variant of rabies virus in Ontario.

  9. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum aimed at alternative carbon sources and new products

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, Ahmed; Lindner, Steffen N.; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as the amino acid-producing workhorse of fermentation industry, being used for multi-million-ton scale production of glutamate and lysine for more than 60 years. However, it is only recently that extensive research has focused on engineering it beyond the scope of amino acids. Meanwhile, a variety of corynebacterial strains allows access to alternative carbon sources and/or allows production of a wide range of industrially relevant compounds. Some of these efforts set new standards in terms of titers and productivities achieved whereas others represent a proof-of-principle. These achievements manifest the position of C. glutamicum as an important industrial microorganism with capabilities far beyond the traditional amino acid production. In this review we focus on the state of the art of metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for utilization of alternative carbon sources, (e.g. coming from wastes and unprocessed sources), and construction of C. glutamicum strains for production of new products such as diamines, organic acids and alcohols PMID:24688664

  10. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum aimed at alternative carbon sources and new products.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Ahmed; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as the amino acid-producing workhorse of fermentation industry, being used for multi-million-ton scale production of glutamate and lysine for more than 60 years. However, it is only recently that extensive research has focused on engineering it beyond the scope of amino acids. Meanwhile, a variety of corynebacterial strains allows access to alternative carbon sources and/or allows production of a wide range of industrially relevant compounds. Some of these efforts set new standards in terms of titers and productivities achieved whereas others represent a proof-of-principle. These achievements manifest the position of C. glutamicum as an important industrial microorganism with capabilities far beyond the traditional amino acid production. In this review we focus on the state of the art of metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for utilization of alternative carbon sources, (e.g. coming from wastes and unprocessed sources), and construction of C. glutamicum strains for production of new products such as diamines, organic acids and alcohols.

  11. Using Distributional Statistics to Acquire Morphophonological Alternations: Evidence from Production and Perception

    PubMed Central

    Buckler, Helen; Fikkert, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Morphophonological alternations, such as the voicing alternation that arises in a morphological paradigm due to final-devoicing in Dutch, are notoriously difficult for children to acquire. This has previously been attributed to their unpredictability. In fact, the presence or absence of a voicing alternation is partly predictable if the phonological context of the word is taken into account, and adults have been shown to use this information (Ernestus and Baayen, 2003). This study investigates whether voicing alternations are predictable from the child’s input, and whether children can make use of this information. A corpus study of child-directed speech establishes that the likelihood of a stem-final obstruent alternating is somewhat predictable on the basis of the phonological properties of the stem. In Experiment 1 Dutch 3-year-olds’ production accuracy in a plural-elicitation task is shown to be sensitive to the distributional statistics. However, distributional properties do not play a role in children’s sensitivity to mispronunciations of voicing in a Preferential Looking Task in Experiment 2. PMID:27199792

  12. Nursing Education to Reduce Use of Tobacco and Alternative Tobacco Products: Change Is Imperative.

    PubMed

    VanDevanter, Nancy; Katigbak, Carina; Naegle, Madeline; Zhou, Sherry; Sherman, Scott; Weitzman, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. To assess perceived tobacco educational preparation of undergraduate and graduate nurses in a large urban university. A cross-sectional web-based survey of all nursing students in an urban college of nursing was conducted to assess perceived tobacco educational content, skills, and self-efficacy for cessation counseling with patients who smoke cigarettes and use alternative tobacco products (e.g., hookah and e-cigarettes). Participants reported the most education about health effects of tobacco use (67%), and less than 6% reported education about alternative tobacco products. While the majority of nurses agreed that advising patients to quit is a priority, less than 40% reported receiving sufficient training in cessation counseling. There continues to be a compelling need articulated by leaders in tobacco policy and research over the past decade for a more vigorous response by nurses to the tobacco epidemic.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of boric acid-sugar solutions as baits for management of German cockroach infestations.

    PubMed

    Gore, J Chad; Schal, Coby

    2004-04-01

    Boric acid dust has a long history as an insecticide in urban pest management, and it has been shown to be an effective alternative to conventional neurotoxic insecticides. However, dust formulations require specialized equipment and are difficult to apply, whereas gel and paste formulations contain large amounts of boric acid and tend to be less efficacious than other insecticide baits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of borate solutions as baits against the German cockroach. Several borate-sugar combinations were evaluated in choice and no-choice assays in the laboratory. Mortality was recorded for 15 d and expressed as lethal time90, the time taken to kill 90% of the cockroaches. Results showed that boric acid was more effective than sodium tetraborate or disodium octaborate tetrahydrate and that aqueous solutions containing mixtures of 0.5-2% boric acid and any of several inexpensive sugars, including fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose as a phagostimulant, at molar concentrations of 0.05-1.0, can provide rapid and effective kill of German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.).

  14. Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-02-06

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is adopting as a final rule, without change, the interim final rule that issued regulations permitting FDA Center Directors to grant exceptions or alternatives to certain regulatory labeling requirements applicable to human drugs, biological products, or medical devices that are or will be included in the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS). FDA is taking this action to complete the rulemaking initiated with the interim final rule.

  15. Production of radioactivity in local soil at AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) fast neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gollon, P.J.; Rohrig, N.; Hauptmann, M.G.; McIntyre, K.; Miltenberger, R.; Naidu, J.

    1989-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has constructed a new neutrino production target station at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). A study has been conducted in the vicinity of the old target area to determine the radiological consequences of operating this experimental facility. Results from all areas of the study are presented along with estimates of the potential environmental impact of the old and new facilities. 12 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    PubMed

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed.

  17. Grape Juice as a Bait for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Epsky, Nancy D; Gill, Micah A; Mangan, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as a bait for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice bait with established A. suspensa protein-based baits (ammonium acetate + putrescine lures, or torula yeast) or wine, a bait found previously to be attractive to Z. indianus. Effects of different preservatives (polypropylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, proxel, or sodium tetraborate) and bait age were also tested. Traps with grape juice baits captured more A. suspensa than unbaited traps, but more were captured in traps with grape juice plus preservative baits and the highest numbers were captured in traps containing the established protein-based baits. In contrast, grape juice baits without preservative that were prepared on the day of deployment (0 d) or that were aged for 3-4 d in the laboratory captured the highest numbers of Z. indianus, while solutions that were aged in the laboratory for 6 or 9 d captured fewer. Although these studies found that aqueous grape juice is a poor bait for A. suspensa, we found that actively fermenting aqueous grape juice may be an effective bait for Z. indianus. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Traps and Baits for Luring Grapholita molesta (Busck) Adults in Mating Disruption-Treated Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Padilha, A C; Arioli, C J; Boff, M I C; Rosa, J M; Botton, M

    2017-04-04

    Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the main pests in apple crops in Brazil, where it is controlled by mating disruption (MD) with the use of the synthetic sex pheromone. However, sex-pheromone-based monitoring is not effective in MD-treated areas and may result in losses in production. This work has defined a trap model and a bait for luring G. molesta adults in MD apple orchards. The experiments were conducted in commercial apple orchards located in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. Three trap models-McPhail, Pot, and Ajar-and three baits-grape juice (25%) (GJ), sugarcane molasses (25%) (SM), and a solution containing brown sugar (8.69%) and terpinyl acetate (0.05%) (TAS)-were assessed for luring G. molesta adults in areas subjected to the mating disruption. The assessments were performed weekly by collecting the insects caught in the traps. In addition, time needed to replace traps was also assessed, as well as the selectivity of the trap/bait set. In the laboratory, G. molesta adults were sexed, and the females were dissected to confirm reproductive status. We discuss our results and sugarcane molasses (25%) captured the least number of G. molesta adults regardless of the tested traps. The Ajar/TAS, Pot/TAS, and McPhail/GJ captured the largest number of G. molesta adults. The Ajar/TAS was the most selective and easier to handle. TAS was efficient in catching G. molesta until 14 days after preparation of the solution. Ajar/TAS has potential to be used in the monitoring of G. molesta in apple orchards.

  19. Efficacy of commercial baits and new active ingredients against firebrats and silverfish (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae).

    PubMed

    Sims, Steven R; Appel, Arthur G

    2012-08-01

    Commercial baits containing boric acid, hydramethynon, and indoxacarb were tested against the firebrat, Thermobia domestica (Packard), and silverfish, Lepisma saccharina L. (both Zygentoma: Lepismatidae), under laboratory conditions. Three boric acid baits were consumed in significantly smaller amounts than untreated control food and did not effectively control either species. Baits containing hydramethylnon and indoxacarb were consumed in greater amounts than boric acid baits, but were relatively ineffective, with LT50 values >9 d. Presence or absence of competitive untreated food did not consistently affect bait efficacy. A ground oat matrix was used to evaluate the potential effectiveness of abamectin, chlorfenapyr, dinotefuran, fipronil, hydramethylnon, metaflumizone, and novaluron baits. The most effective compound was chlorfenapyr. At 0.05 and 0.20% (wt:wt) rates, chlorfenapyr baits produced LT50 values, for both species, ranging from 2 to 4 d. All other compounds had LT50 values >7 d.

  20. Use of Alternative Tobacco Products in Multiethnic Youth from Jujuy, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Gregorich, Steven E.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines alternative tobacco use among Latin American youth. A self-administered survey in a random sample of 27 schools was administered in 2004 in Jujuy, Argentina (N = 3218). Prevalence of alternative tobacco product use was 24.1%; 15.3% of youth used hand-rolled cigarettes, 7.8% smoked cigars, 2.3% chewed tobacco leaf and 1.6% smoked pipe. Among youth who never smoked manufactured cigarettes, alternative product use was rare (2.9%), except for chewing tobacco (22%). In multivariate logistic regression boys were more likely than girls to smoke pipe (OR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.1–8.7); indigenous language was associated with smoking hand-rolled cigarettes (OR = 1.4; 95% CI-1.1–1.9) and pipe (OR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.5–3.4). Working in tobacco sales was a risk factor for chewing tobacco (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.7–4.9) and smoking hand-rolled cigarettes (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.8). Having friends who smoked was associated with chewing tobacco (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.0–3.2) and with smoking cigars (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.5–2.9). Current drinking and thrill-seeking orientation were associated with cigars and pipe smoking. Findings highlight the importance of surveillance of alternative tobacco products use and availability among youth and for addressing identified risk factors. PMID:20300454

  1. Effect of Bait Quantity and Trap Color on the Trapping Efficacy of the Pheromone Trap for the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

    PubMed Central

    Abuagla, Abdullah Mohamed; Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera), is not native to the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since its arrival in 1985, it has been causing major damage to date palm trees. A primary control strategy has been the use of pheromone baited traps. The objectives of this study were to determine the quantity of bait, and the best trap color, to obtain the maximum catch of R. ferrugineus under field conditions in the UAE. Traps with 100, 300, or 500 g of dates as bait collected the same number of R. ferrugineus adults. Captures in black traps were significantly higher than captures in red, yellow, or white traps. Thus, using a black pheromone trap containing 100 g of dates can significantly enhance R. ferrugineus control efforts, and can help considerably in reducing the red palm weevil's deleterious impact on date palm production in UAE. PMID:23451836

  2. Bait acceptability for delivery of oral rabies vaccine to free-ranging dogs on the Navajo and Hopi Nations.

    PubMed

    Bergman, D; Bender, S; Wenning, K; Slate, D; Rupprecht, C; Heuser, C; DeLiberto, T

    2008-01-01

    In many areas of the world, only 30 to 50% of dogs are vaccinated against rabies. On some US Indian Reservations, vaccination rates may be as low as 5 to 20%. In 2003 and 2004, we evaluated the effectiveness of commercially available baits to deliver oral rabies vaccine to feral and free-ranging dogs on the Navajo and Hopi Nations. Dogs were offered one of the following baits containing a plastic packet filled with placebo vaccine: vegetable shortening-based Ontario slim baits (Artemis Technologies, Inc.), fish-meal-crumble coated sachets (Merial, Ltd.), dog food polymer baits (Bait-Tek, Inc.), or fish meal polymer baits (Bait-Tek, Inc.). One bait was offered to each animal and its behaviour toward the bait was recorded. Behaviours included: bait ignored, bait swallowed whole, bait chewed and discarded (sachet intact), bait chewed and discarded (sachet punctured), or bait chewed and consumed (sachet punctured). Bait acceptance ranged from 30.7% to 77.8% with the fish-meal-crumble coated sachets having the highest acceptance rate of the tested baits.

  3. A baiting system for delivery of an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Creekmore, Terry E; Rocke, Tonie E; Hurley, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted between July and October 1999 to identify bait preference, biomarker efficacy, and bait acceptance rates for delivering an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Twenty juvenile captive prairie dogs were offered alfalfa baits containing either alfalfa, alfalfa and 5% molasses, or alfalfa, 5% molasses and 4% salt. Based on the results of these trials we selected a bait containing alfalfa, 7% molasses, and 1% salt for field trials to determine bait acceptance rates by free-ranging animals. The biomarkers DuPont Blue dye, iophenoxic acid, and tetracycline hydrochloride were orally administered to captive prairie dogs to determine their efficacy. Only tetracycline proved effective as a biomarker. Two field trials were conducted at separate prairie dog colonies located at the Buffalo Gap National Grassland (Pennington County, South Dakota, USA). In Trial 1, three baits containing tetracycline were distributed around each active burrow entrance and an additional bait was placed inside the burrow (1,276 baits total). In Trial 2, baits were distributed at the same density per burrow as Trial 1, but along transects spaced 10 m apart (1,744 baits total). Trapping began 3 days after bait distribution, and 30 prairie dogs then were captured at each site to determine the percentage of animals marked. In Trial 1, 67% of the prairie dogs captured had tetracycline deposits indicative of bait consumption. In Trial 2, 83% of the prairie dogs had ingested a bait. Approximately 15% of the animals in both trials ate more than one bait. Fleas (Opisocrostis hirsutus) were found on 64 of 70 (91%) of the prairie dogs captured during this study.

  4. A baiting system for delivery of an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creekmore, Terry E.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Hurley, J.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted between July and October 1999 to identify bait preference, biomarker efficacy, and bait acceptance rates for delivering an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Twenty juvenile captive prairie dogs were offered alfalfa baits containing either alfalfa, alfalfa and 5% molasses, or alfalfa, 5% molasses and 4% salt. Based on the results of these trials we selected a bait containing alfalfa, 7% molasses, and 1% salt for field trials to determine bait acceptance rates by free-ranging animals. The biomarkers DuPont Blue dye, iophenoxic acid, and tetracycline hydrochloride were orally administered to captive prairie dogs to determine their efficacy. Only tetracycline proved effective as a biomarker. Two field trials were conducted at separate prairie dog colonies located at the Buffalo Gap National Grassland (Pennington County, South Dakota, USA). In Trial 1, three baits containing tetracycline were distributed around each active burrow entrance and an additional bait was placed inside the burrow (1,276 baits total). In Trial 2, baits were distributed at the same density per burrow as Trial 1, but along transects spaced 10 m apart (1,744 baits total). Trapping began 3 days after bait distribution, and 30 prairie dogs then were captured at each site to determine the percentage of animals marked. In Trial 1, 67% of the prairie dogs captured had tetracycline deposits indicative of bait consumption. In Trial 2, 83% of the prairie dogs had ingested a bait. Approximately 15% of the animals in both trials ate more than one bait. Fleas (Opisocrostis hirsutus) were found on 64 of 70 (91%) of the prairie dogs captured during this study.

  5. Laboratory and Field Age of Aqueous Grape Juice Bait and Capture of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Epsky, Nancy D; Gill, Micah A

    2017-06-01

    Volatile chemicals produced by actively fermenting aqueous grape juice bait have been found to be highly attractive to the African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta. This is a highly dynamic system and time period of fermentation is an important factor in bait efficacy. A series of field tests were conducted that evaluated effects of laboratory versus field fermentation and sampling period (days after placement [DAP]) on bait effectiveness as the first step in identifying the chemicals responsible for attraction. Tests of traps with bait that had been aged in the laboratory for 0, 3, 6, and 9 d and then sampled 3 DAP found higher capture in traps with 0- and 3-d-old baits than in traps with 6- or 9-d-old baits. To further define the time period that produced the most attractive baits, a subsequent test evaluated baits aged for 0, 2, 4, and 6 d in the laboratory and sampled after 1-4 DAP, with traps sampled and bait discarded at the end of each DAP period. The highest capture was in traps with 4-d-old bait sampled 1 DAP, with the second best capture in traps with 0-d-old bait sampled 3 DAP. However, there tended to be fewer flies as DAP increased, indicating potential loss of identifiable flies owing to decomposition in the actively fermenting solutions. When traps were sampled and bait recycled daily, the highest capture was in 2- and 4-d-old baits sampled 1 DAP and in 0-d-old baits sampled 2-4 DAP. Similar patterns were observed for capture of nontarget drosophilids. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Broadcast application of a placebo rodenticide bait in a native Hawaiian forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunlevy, P.A.; Campbell, E. Wm.; Lindsey, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    This study consisted of three replicates of controlled field trials using a pelletized placebo (Ramik?? Green formulated without diphacinone) bait treated with a biological marker and broadcast at three application rates - 11.25, 22.5 and 33.75 kg/ha. We determined that Polynesian (Rattus exulans) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) consumed this bait when broadcast on the ground and assessed the optimal sowage rate to result in maximum exposure of bait to the rats while minimizing bait usage. All Polynesian rats captured in all application rates had eaten the bait. The percentage of roof rats that had eaten the bait increased with application rate, however, 22.5 kg/ha was clearly the optimal application rate. Bait degradation and invertebrate activity was documented and assessed.This study consisted of three replicates of controlled field trials using a pelletized placebo (Ramik Green formulated without diphacinone) bait treated with a biological marker and broadcast at three application rates - 11.25, 22.5 and 33.75 kg/ha. We determined that Polynesian (Rattus exulans) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) consumed this bait when broadcast on the ground and assessed the optimal sewage rate to result in maximum exposure of bait to the rats while minimizing bait usage. All Polynesian rats captured in all application rates had eaten the bait. The percentage of roof rats that had eaten the bait increased with application rate, however, 22.5 kg/ha was clearly the optimal application rate. Bait degradation and invertebrate activity was documented and assessed.

  7. A baiting system for delivery of an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creekmore, Terry E.; Rocke, T.E.; Hurley, J.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted between July and October 1999 to identify bait preference, biomarker efficacy, and bait acceptance rates for delivering an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Twenty juvenile captive prairie dogs were offered alfalfa baits containing either alfalfa, alfalfa and 5% molasses, or alfalfa, 5% molasses and 4% salt. Based on the results of these trials we selected a bait containing alfalfa, 7% molasses, and 1% salt for field trials to determine bait acceptance rates by free-ranging animals. The biomarkers DuPont Blue dye, iophenoxic acid, and tetracycline hydrochloride were orally administered to captive prairie dogs to determine their efficacy. Only tetracycline proved effective as a biomarker. Two field trials were conducted at separate prairie dog colonies located at the Buffalo Gap National Grassland (Pennington County, South Dakota, USA). In Trial 1, three baits containing tetracycline were distributed around each active burrow entrance and an additional bait was placed inside the burrow (1,276 baits total). In Trial 2, baits were distributed at the same density per burrow as Trial 1, but along transects spaced 10 m apart (1,744 baits total). Trapping began 3 days after bait distribution, and 30 prairie dogs then were captured at each site to determine the percentage of animals marked. In Trial 1, 67% of the prairie dogs captured had tetracycline deposits indicative of bait consumption. In Trial 2, 83% of the prairie dogs had ingested a bait. Approximately 15% of the animals in both trials ate more than one bait. Fleas (Opisocrostis hirsutus) were found on 64 of 70 (91%) of the prairie dogs captured during this study.

  8. Bait Effects in Sampling Coral Reef Fish Assemblages with Stereo-BRUVs

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, Stacey R.; Harvey, Euan S.; Newman, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Baited underwater video techniques are increasingly being utilised for assessing and monitoring demersal fishes because they are: 1) non extractive, 2) can be used to sample across multiple habitats and depths, 3) are cost effective, 4) sample a broader range of species than many other techniques, 5) and with greater statistical power. However, an examination of the literature demonstrates that a range of different bait types are being used. The use of different types of bait can create an additional source of variability in sampling programs. Coral reef fish assemblages at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, were sampled using baited remote underwater stereo-video systems. One-hour stereo-video recordings were collected for four different bait treatments (pilchards, cat food, falafel mix and no bait (control)) from sites inside and outside a targeted fishery closure (TFC). In total, 5209 individuals from 132 fish species belonging to 41 families were recorded. There were significant differences in the fish assemblage structure and composition between baited and non-baited treatments (P<0.001), while no difference was observed with species richness. Samples baited with cat food and pilchards contained similar ingredients and were found to record similar components of the fish assemblage. There were no significant differences in the fish assemblages in areas open or closed to fishing, regardless of the bait used. Investigation of five targeted species indicated that the response to different types of bait was species-specific. For example, the relative abundance of Pagrus auratus was found to increase in areas protected from fishing, but only in samples baited with pilchards and cat food. The results indicate that the use of bait in conjunction with stereo-BRUVs is advantageous. On balance, the use of pilchards as a standardised bait for stereo-BRUVs deployments is justified for use along the mid-west coast of Western Australia. PMID:22848522

  9. A Cross-Site Evaluation of Alternative FPAR Products for Use in Diagnostic Carbon Flux Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, D.; Nightingale, J.; Wharton, S.; Vickers, D.

    2007-12-01

    Input requirements for diagnostic carbon flux models include estimates of FPAR (the fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation that is absorbed by the canopy). These estimates are available from a variety of satellite-borne sensors, but in their raw form may contain significant artifacts associated primarily with clouds. In this study we evaluated the sensitivity of simulated gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re), and net ecosystem production (NEP) to alternative formulations of FPAR from the MODIS sensor. These alternatives included the original product (FPARorig), a version based on filling and interpolation (FPARntsg), and a version with a smoothing based on the TIMESAT algorithm (FPARts). Estimates of daily GPP, Re, and NEP from multiple eddy covariance flux towers over multiple years were assembled as reference data. In almost all cases, model output based on FPARntsg and FPARts reduced bias on an annual basis and RMSE for daily values relative to model runs using FPARorig. At a wet conifer site, FPARts maintained the highest and most consistent FPAR, a pattern consistent with the dense coniferous forest canopy there. Limitations of FPARts were apparent at a grassland site with an abrupt fall off in greenness associated with onset of the dry season. Model effectiveness in capturing the interannual variation in NEP was also enhanced in many cases with the adjusted FPAR products.

  10. Complementary or alternative? The use of homeopathic products and antibiotics amongst pre-school children

    PubMed Central

    Wye, Lesley; Hay, Alastair D; Northstone, Kate; Bishop, Jackie; Headley, Judith; Thompson, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background Any intervention to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics for infections in children has the potential to reduce the selective pressure on antimicrobial resistance and minimise the medicalisation of self-limiting illness. Little is known about whether homeopathic products might be used by some families as an alternative to antibiotics or the characteristics of such families. We used the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) observational dataset to explore the hypothesis that the use of homeopathic products is associated with reduced antibiotic use in pre-school children and to identify characteristics of the families of pre-school children given homeopathic products. Methods Questionnaires data were completed by the parents of 9723 children while aged between 3–4.5 years in Bristol UK. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to explore the relationships between antibiotic and homeopathic product use. Results Six percent of children had received one or more homeopathic products and 62% one or more antibiotics between the ages of 3 and 4.5 years. After adjustment for factors associated with antibiotic use, there was no association between homeopathic product and antibiotic use (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84, 1.24). Factors independently associated with child homeopathic product use were: higher maternal education, maternal use of homeopathic products, maternal lack of confidence in doctors, mothers reporting that they were less likely to see doctor when the child was ill, children being given vitamins, watching less television and suffering from wheeze and food allergies. Conclusion In this observational study, the use of homeopathic products was not associated with decreased antibiotic consumption, suggesting the use of homeopathic product complements rather than competes with the use of antibiotics in pre-school children. The characteristics of mothers giving homeopathic products to their children are similar to

  11. Fermentative production of L-pipecolic acid from glucose and alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Fernando; Max Risse, Joe; Friehs, Karl; Wendisch, Volker F

    2017-02-07

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the million-ton scale production of amino acids and has recently been engineered for production of the cyclic non-proteinogenic amino acid L-pipecolic acid (L-PA). In this synthetic pathway L-lysine was converted to L-PA by oxidative deamination, dehydration and reduction by L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (deaminating) from Silicibacter pomeroyi and pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase from C. glutamicum. However, production of L-PA occurred as by-product of L-lysine production only. Here, the author show that abolishing L-lysine export by the respective gene deletion resulted in production of L-PA as major product without concomitant lysine production while the specific growth rate was reduced due to accumulation of high intracellular lysine concentrations. Increasing expression of the genes encoding L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase and pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase in C. glutamicum strain PIPE4 increased the L-PA titer to 3.9 g L(-1) , and allowed faster growth and, thus, a higher volumetric productivity of 0.08 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1) respectively. Secondly, expression of heterologous genes for utilization of glycerol, xylose, glucosamine, and starch in strain PIPE4 enabled L-PA production from these alternative carbon sources. Third, in a glucose/sucrose-based fed-batch fermentation with C. glutamicum PIPE4 L-PA was produced to a titer of 14.4 g L(-1) with a volumetric productivity of 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1) and an overall yield of 0.20 g g(-1) .

  12. Functional and organic eggs as an alternative to conventional production: a conjoint analysis of consumers' preferences.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Francisco J; Martínez-Carrasco, Federico; Martínez, José M; Gaspar, Paula

    2011-02-01

    In the current context of growing consumer demand for foodstuffs that are healthy and safe and that are obtained in a manner respectful to the welfare of animals, the analysis of consumer preferences towards attributes of this type takes on particular importance. These trends are especially clear in the case of the consumption of eggs because of their strong negative association with cholesterol levels and their extremely intensive systems of production. The introduction of variants that are more in harmony with current consumer demands represents an interesting market alternative. The present study was aimed at investigating the preferences of Spanish consumers for these alternative types of egg that are entering the market. The survey was conducted with 361 consumers from October 2007 to March 2008. The conjoint analysis allowed us to estimate the relative importance of the main attributes that affect consumer preferences for eggs and to distinguish segments of consumers with similar preference profiles. It was found that price is the most important attribute determining consumer preferences, followed by the hens' feed and their rearing conditions. It was also found that only some groups of consumers are willing to pay the premium necessary for alternative methods of production. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus by employing alternative culture media.

    PubMed

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; Pértile, Renata Aparecida Nedel; dos Santos, Carolina Alves; de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Gama, Francisco Miguel; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is used in different fields as a biological material due to its unique properties. Despite there being many BC applications, there still remain many problems associated with bioprocess technology, such as increasing productivity and decreasing production cost. New technologies that use waste from the food industry as raw materials for culture media promote economic advantages because they reduce environmental pollution and stimulate new research for science sustainability. For this reason, BC production requires optimized conditions to increase its application. The main objective of this study was to evaluate BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus using industry waste, namely, rotten fruits and milk whey, as culture media. Furthermore, the structure of BC produced at different conditions was also determined. The culture media employed in this study were composed of rotten fruit collected from the disposal of free markets, milk whey from a local industrial disposal, and their combination, and Hestrin and Schramm media was used as standard culture media. Although all culture media studied produced BC, the highest BC yield-60 mg/mL-was achieved with the rotten fruit culture. Thus, the results showed that rotten fruit can be used for BC production. This culture media can be considered as a profitable alternative to generate high-value products. In addition, it combines environmental concern with sustainable processes that can promote also the reduction of production cost.

  14. Water productivity of stacked and alternate-year rotations under conventional and ecological management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Brett; Lenssen, Andrew; Jabro, Jay; Iversen, Bill; Sainju, Upendra

    2015-04-01

    Dryland cropping system productivity in the North America northern Great Plains (NGP) likely can benefit from diversification of the traditional wheat-summer fallow system through improvements in crop sequence and level of management. A long-term study initiated in 2004 near Culbertson, Montana, U.S.A. compared the impact of rotation type (Stacked vs. Alternate-year) and management level (Conventional vs. Ecological) on canola, flax, and pea grown in rotation with durum. Ecological management included no-till, N fertilizer banded at planting, greater seeding rate, and taller stubble height. Conventional management included single pass tillage with sweeps in spring, fertilizer N broadcast just before planting, standard seeding rate, and standard stubble height. For years 2008-2010, a 13% increase in durum grain and pea seed yield in Ecological than Conventional management was not related to water use or water productivity of grain. Similarly, an 18% increase in pea seed yield in alternate-year rotations (e.g. durum-pea-durum-flax) than stacked rotations (e.g. durum-durum-flax-pea) was not related to water use or water productivity of seed. Water use, water productivity for grain, and water productivity for above ground biomass were similar for management level and rotation type within a given crop. Averaged across management level and rotation type, water use was 326, 351, 372, and 292 mm for canola, durum, flax, and pea. Likewise, water productivity for grain averaged 4.2, 6.5, 2.5, and 7.7 kg/ha/mm for canola, durum, flax, and pea. Water use and water productivity varied significantly among years, underscoring the need to development stable cropping systems that are less susceptible to the highly variable growing environment of the semi-arid NGP. Overall, Ecological management increased durum and pea yield, while Stacked rotations either decreased crop yield (pea) or offered no measurable advantage to Alternate-year rotations. Any differences in yield were not

  15. Probiotics production and alternative encapsulation methodologies to improve their viabilities under adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Coghetto, Chaline Caren; Brinques, Graziela Brusch; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2016-12-01

    Probiotic products are dietary supplements containing live microorganisms producing beneficial health effects on the host by improving intestinal balance and nutrient absorption. Among probiotic microorganisms, those classified as lactic acid bacteria are of major importance to the food and feed industries. Probiotic cells can be produced using alternative carbon and nitrogen sources, such as agroindustrial residues, at the same time contributing to reduce process costs. On the other hand, the survival of probiotic cells in formulated food products, as well as in the host gut, is an essential nutritional aspect concerning health benefits. Therefore, several cell microencapsulation techniques have been investigated as a way to improve cell viability and survival under adverse environmental conditions, such as the gastrointestinal milieu of hosts. In this review, different aspects of probiotic cells and technologies of their related products are discussed, including formulation of culture media, and aspects of cell microencapsulation techniques required to improve their survival in the host.

  16. Listening to Puns Elicits the Co-Activation of Alternative Homophone Meanings during Language Production

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Spalek, Katharina; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lexical-semantic activation spread during language production can be dynamically shaped by contextual factors. In this study we investigated whether semantic processing modes can also affect lexical-semantic activation during word production. Specifically, we tested whether the processing of linguistic ambiguities, presented in the form of puns, has an influence on the co-activation of unrelated meanings of homophones in a subsequent language production task. In a picture-word interference paradigm with word distractors that were semantically related or unrelated to the non-depicted meanings of homophones we found facilitation induced by related words only when participants listened to puns before object naming, but not when they heard jokes with unambiguous linguistic stimuli. This finding suggests that a semantic processing mode of ambiguity perception can induce the co-activation of alternative homophone meanings during speech planning. PMID:26114942

  17. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, SEVIN 5% BAIT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... pose is implied. ~") ,n ,'~ I, ,'" r> I!h, t.,IP ""t .I"'~ ~" I ll'T"" " I ... " , fl. ' f • l' !:, t. "Tldnuf':H lurer ...

  18. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, PIC LIQUID BAIT ANT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... I ~ I OnCe'!' ~:e :"t;:<::l Ir'.:: . i.::iCt·, i ~l~~;~~tn;Q;\\~~i~~;'i~~rj_~-:t· r<:\\li.Iit"fU (u,! 'un~~" ,PA Reg. No. ?O 9S- 'f7 . --~' back ...

  19. Biohydrogen and biomethane production sustained by untreated matrices and alternative application of compost waste.

    PubMed

    Arizzi, Mariaconcetta; Morra, Simone; Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Valetti, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    Biohydrogen and biomethane production offers many advantages for environmental protection over the fossil fuels or the existing physical-chemical methods for hydrogen and methane synthesis. The aim of this study is focused on the exploitation of several samples from the composting process: (1) a mixture of waste vegetable materials ("Mix"); (2) an unmatured compost sample (ACV15); and (3) three types of green compost with different properties and soil improver quality (ACV1, ACV2 and ACV3). These samples were tested for biohydrogen and biomethane production, thus obtaining second generation biofuels and resulting in a novel possibility to manage renewable waste biomasses. The ability of these substrates as original feed during dark fermentation was assayed anaerobically in batch, in glass bottles, in order to determine the optimal operating conditions for hydrogen and/or methane production using "Mix" or ACV1, ACV2 or ACV3 green compost and a limited amount of water. Hydrogen could be produced with a fast kinetic in the range 0.02-2.45mLH2g(-1)VS, while methane was produced with a slower kinetic in the range 0.5-8mLCH4g(-1)VS. It was observed that the composition of each sample influenced significantly the gas production. It was also observed that the addition of different water amounts play a crucial role in the development of hydrogen or methane. This parameter can be used to push towards the alternative production of one or another gas. Hydrogen and methane production was detected spontaneously from these matrices, without additional sources of nutrients or any pre-treatment, suggesting that they can be used as an additional inoculum or feed into single or two-stage plants. This might allow the use of compost with low quality as soil improver for alternative and further applications.

  20. Ancient whole genome enrichment using baits built from modern DNA.

    PubMed

    Enk, Jacob M; Devault, Alison M; Kuch, Melanie; Murgha, Yusuf E; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2014-05-01

    We report metrics from complete genome capture of nuclear DNA from extinct mammoths using biotinylated RNAs transcribed from an Asian elephant DNA extract. Enrichment of the nuclear genome ranged from 1.06- to 18.65-fold, to an apparent maximum threshold of ∼80% on-target. This projects an order of magnitude less costly complete genome sequencing from long-dead organisms, even when a reference genome is unavailable for bait design.

  1. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    PubMed

    Bump, Joseph K; Murawski, Chelsea M; Kartano, Linda M; Beyer, Dean E; Roell, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting practices, the effect of compensation on hunter behavior, and depredation

  2. Simpler is better: fewer nontarget insects trapped with a 4-component chemical lure versus a chemically more complex food-type bait for Drosophila suzukii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As baits, fermented food products are generally attractive to many types of insects, making it difficult to sort through nontarget insects to monitor a pest species of interest. We test the hypothesis that a chemically simpler and more defined attractant developed for a target insect is more specifi...

  3. A Fluid Bait for Remedial Control of Subterranean Termites.

    PubMed

    Su, Nan-Yao

    2015-02-01

    A fluid bait, comprising α-cellulose and fine-ground phagostimulants (Summon Preferred Food Source) impregnated with 0.5% hexaflumuron (AI wt/wt) and mixed with 1% methylcel solution to yield 10% dry weight, was injected into simulated foraging galleries of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) for a laboratory efficacy evaluation. Six weeks after the injection, mortalities for both species exceeded 90%, and all termites died by the eight wk. The fluid bait can be applied internally through a small drill hole in a tight spot with any surface contour and may bypass many problems associated with the AG system that has to be installed externally on the walls or wood surface. When injected into an active gallery of termites in a structure, a tree, or in soil, the fluid baits may be fed immediately by termites to achieve the colony elimination. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Efficacy of CPTH-treated egg baits for removing ravens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Spencer, Jack O.; Delehanty, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Human-altered landscapes have provided resource subsidies for common ravens (Corvus corax) resulting in a substantial increase in raven abundance and distribution throughout the United States and Canada in the past 25 years. Ravens are effective predators of eggs and young of ground-nesting birds. During 2002–2005, we tested whether chicken egg baits treated with CPTH (3-chloro-p-toluidine hydrochloride) could be used to manage raven numbers in an area where raven depredation was impacting sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations in Nevada. We performed multiple raven surveys at a treatment site and 3 control sites and used videography to identify predators and estimate egg bait consumption. We detected reductions in raven abundances over time at the treatment site during all years of this study and did not detect reductions in raven abundances at control sites. Videographic observations of egg consumption indicated that the standard 1:2 ratio (1 raven removed/2 eggs consumed) substantially overestimated raven take because nontarget species (rodents) consumed some egg baits. The technique described here likely will be effective at reducing raven densities where this is the intended management action.

  5. Use of Conventional and Alternative Tobacco and Nicotine Products Among a Sample of Canadian Youth.

    PubMed

    Czoli, Christine D; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; Cole, Adam G; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of conventional and alternative tobacco and nicotine products among secondary school students. Respondents were 44,163 grade 9-12 students who participated in Year 2 (2013-2014) of COMPASS, a cohort study of 89 purposefully sampled secondary schools in Ontario and Alberta, Canada. Past-month use of various tobacco and nicotine products was assessed, as well as correlates of use, using a generalized linear mixed effects model. Overall, 21.2% of the sample reported past-month use of any tobacco or nicotine product, with 7.2% reporting past-month use of e-cigarettes. E-cigarette users reported significantly greater prevalence of current use for all products. Students who were male, white, had more spending money, and had a history of tobacco use were more likely to report past-month use of e-cigarettes. Approximately one fifth of youth reported past-month use of a nicotine product, with e-cigarettes being the third most common product. Overall, the findings suggest a rapidly evolving nicotine market. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TVA/DOE Integrated Onfarm Alcohol Production System Alternate Feedstock Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this Interagency research project is to study the feasibility of small-scale fuel alcohol production from agricultural crops. The project was conducted in three phases. Phase I included an assessment of the potential for fuel alcohol production from agricultural crops and design, construction, and startup operation of a 10-gallon-per-hour evaluation facility. Phase II included validation and optimization of the facility with a corn feedstock, modifications to the base unit to accommodate nongrain feedstocks, initial production and conversion evaluations of nongrain feedstocks, and preparation of a construction and operation manual. Phase III included further evaluations and refinement of processes and equipment for handling nongrain feedstocks, evaluation of stillage by-products as feeds, and development of agricultural systems for integrating alcohol production with other farm enterprises. This report provides: (1) a brief background of Phase I-III activities; (2) results of alternate feedstock choices, cultural trials, and testing results; (3) a description of the process for ethanol production from starch and sugar feedstocks; and (4) conversion procedures, sterilization requirements, and distillation methods for several feedstocks. 23 refs., 8 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. The efficacy of bait supplements for improving the rate of discovery of bait stations in the field by the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field tests of four different bait supplements were conducted in City Park, New Orleans, Louisiana. The four bait supplements tested included two different formulations of decayed material, a sports drink, and the combination of an application of an aqueous solution of Summon Preferred Food SourceTM...

  8. Lambda Station: Alternate network path forwarding for production SciDAC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; DeMar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; Newman, Harvey; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael; /Caltech

    2007-09-01

    The LHC era will start very soon, creating immense data volumes capable of demanding allocation of an entire network circuit for task-driven applications. Circuit-based alternate network paths are one solution to meeting the LHC high bandwidth network requirements. The Lambda Station project is aimed at addressing growing requirements for dynamic allocation of alternate network paths. Lambda Station facilitates the rerouting of designated traffic through site LAN infrastructure onto so-called 'high-impact' wide-area networks. The prototype Lambda Station developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach in mind will be presented. Lambda Station has been successfully integrated into the production version of the Storage Resource Manager (SRM), and deployed at US CMS Tier1 center at Fermilab, as well as at US-CMS Tier-2 site at Caltech. This paper will discuss experiences using the prototype system with production SciDAC applications for data movement between Fermilab and Caltech. The architecture and design principles of the production version Lambda Station software, currently being implemented as Java based web services, will also be presented in this paper.

  9. MAG4 Versus Alternative Techniques for Forecasting Active-Region Flare Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free-magnetic-energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the "Present MAG4" technique and each of three alternative techniques, called "McIntosh Active-Region Class," "Total Magnetic Flux," and "Next MAG4." We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major-flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique-performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4).

  10. Changes in use of cigarettes and non-cigarette alternative products among college students.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Alexandra; Batanova, Milena; Fernandez, Alejandra; Agarwal, Deepti

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined change in use of various smoked and smokeless non-cigarette alternative products in a sample of college students, stratified by current, or past 30-day, cigarette smoking status. Participants were 698 students from seven four-year colleges in Texas. Participants completed two waves of online surveys regarding tobacco use, knowledge, and attitudes, with 14 months between each wave. The most prevalent products used by the entire sample at Wave 1 were cigarettes, followed by hookah, cigars/cigarillos/little cigars, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). At Wave 2, prevalence of e-cigarette use surpassed use of cigars/cigarillos/little cigars. Snus and chew/snuff/dip were relatively uncommon at both waves. Examination of change in use indicated that e-cigarette use increased across time among both current cigarette smokers and non-cigarette smokers. Prevalence of current e-cigarette use doubled across the 14-month period to 25% among current smokers and tripled to 3% among non-cigarette smokers. Hookah use also increased across time, but only among non-cigarette smokers, whereas it decreased among current cigarette smokers. Use of all other non-cigarette alternatives remained unchanged across time. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the socio-demographic predictors of Wave 2 e-cigarette use, the only product that increased in use among both current cigarette smokers and non-cigarette smokers. Results indicated that Wave 1 current cigarette use and Wave 1 current e-cigarette use, but not gender, age, or race/ethnicity, were significantly associated with Wave 2 e-cigarette use. Findings underscore the need to track changes in the use of non-cigarette alternatives and call for additional research examining the factors contributing to change in use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Unforeseen Effects of Supplementary Feeding: Ungulate Baiting Sites as Hotspots for Ground-Nest Predation

    PubMed Central

    Selva, Nuria; Berezowska-Cnota, Teresa; Elguero-Claramunt, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity and magnitude of food provision to wildlife, our understanding of its ecological effects and conservation implications is very limited. Supplementary feeding of ungulates, still one of the main paradigms of game management in Europe, occurs in natural areas on an enormous scale. We investigated the indirect effects of this practice on nest predation risk in the Polish Eastern Carpathians (Bieszczady Mountains). We hypothesized that the predators attracted to ungulate baiting sites would also forage for alternative prey nearby, increasing the nest predation risk for ground-nesting birds in the vicinity. We conducted a paired experiment by placing artificial nests (N = 120) in feeding and control sites (N = 12) at different distances from the ungulate feeding site. We also documented the use of three ungulate feeding sites by potential nest predators with automatic cameras. The proportion of depredated nests was 30% higher in the vicinity of feeding sites than at control sites (65%±31.5 vs 35%±32.1). The probability of a nest being depredated significantly increased with time and at shorter distances from the feeding site. We predicted that the area within 1-km distance from the feeding site would have a high risk (>0.5) of nest predation. We recorded 13 species of potential ground-nest predators at ungulate baiting sites. Most frequent were Eurasian jays Garrulus glandarius, mice and voles Muroidea, ravens Corvus corax, brown bears Ursus arctos, and wild boar Sus scrofa. Nest predators made most use of supplementary feeding sites (82% pictures with predators vs 8% with ungulates, the target group). Our study alerts of the impacts of ungulate feeding on alternative prey; this is of special concern when affecting protected species. We urge for a sensible management of ungulate feeding, which considers potential indirect effects on other species and the spatial and temporal components of food provision. PMID:24599216

  12. Unforeseen effects of supplementary feeding: ungulate baiting sites as hotspots for ground-nest predation.

    PubMed

    Selva, Nuria; Berezowska-Cnota, Teresa; Elguero-Claramunt, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity and magnitude of food provision to wildlife, our understanding of its ecological effects and conservation implications is very limited. Supplementary feeding of ungulates, still one of the main paradigms of game management in Europe, occurs in natural areas on an enormous scale. We investigated the indirect effects of this practice on nest predation risk in the Polish Eastern Carpathians (Bieszczady Mountains). We hypothesized that the predators attracted to ungulate baiting sites would also forage for alternative prey nearby, increasing the nest predation risk for ground-nesting birds in the vicinity. We conducted a paired experiment by placing artificial nests (N=120) in feeding and control sites (N=12) at different distances from the ungulate feeding site. We also documented the use of three ungulate feeding sites by potential nest predators with automatic cameras. The proportion of depredated nests was 30% higher in the vicinity of feeding sites than at control sites (65%± 31.5 vs 35%± 32.1). The probability of a nest being depredated significantly increased with time and at shorter distances from the feeding site. We predicted that the area within 1-km distance from the feeding site would have a high risk (>0.5) of nest predation. We recorded 13 species of potential ground-nest predators at ungulate baiting sites. Most frequent were Eurasian jays Garrulus glandarius, mice and voles Muroidea, ravens Corvus corax, brown bears Ursus arctos, and wild boar Sus scrofa. Nest predators made most use of supplementary feeding sites (82% pictures with predators vs 8% with ungulates, the target group). Our study alerts of the impacts of ungulate feeding on alternative prey; this is of special concern when affecting protected species. We urge for a sensible management of ungulate feeding, which considers potential indirect effects on other species and the spatial and temporal components of food provision.

  13. Test of three bait types for oral immunization of dogs against rabies in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Matter, H C; Kharmachi, H; Haddad, N; Ben Youssef, S; Sghaier, C; Ben Khelifa, R; Jemli, J; Mrabet, L; Meslin, F X; Wandeler, A I

    1995-06-01

    Chicken heads and two types of artificial bait were tested in Tunisia during two field trials in a waste disposal site carried out in 1988 and 1989 to compare their effectiveness as vehicles for the oral administration of antirabies vaccine to free-roaming dogs. Baits were made available for 36 hr and those that disappeared or were consumed were replaced on several occasions. In 1988, an artificial bait composed of fat and fishmeal (artificial bait type I) was tested. In the second trial, chicken heads and an artificial bait composed of polymerized fishmeal and wax (artificial bait type II) were compared. The vaccine containers were loaded with a topical marker (rhodamine B or methylene blue) to identify animals that had consumed baits. The artificial type I bait tested in 1988 was poorly accepted, but in the second trial, the number of chicken-head baits probably taken by dogs was more than seven times greater than the number of artificial type II baits taken. Thirteen dogs observed during the day showed topical marker staining. In both trials, most baits were taken during the night when dog activity in the waste disposal site was at its maximum. Artificial baits were characterized either by their lack of thermostability (type I, melting) or a certain attractiveness for cats (type II, fish flavor). Chicken heads fulfill established requirements for baits for vaccine delivery. They are well-accepted by free-roaming dogs, inexpensive, usually easily available at local markets, unattractive to humans, relatively easy to store in large quantities, and easy to handle.

  14. Evaluation of the environmental performance of alternatives for polystyrene production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Adriana Petrella; da Silva, Gil Anderi; Kulay, Luiz

    2015-11-01

    The global demand for polystyrene is supposed to reach an overall baseline of 23.5 million tons by 2020. The market has experienced the effects of such growth, especially regarding the environmental performance of the production processes. In Brazil, renewable assets have been used to overcome the adverse consequences of this expansion. This study evaluates this issue for the production of Brazilian polystyrene resins, general-purpose polystyrene (GPPS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS). The effects of replacing fossil ethylene with a biobased alternative are also investigated. Life Cycle Assessment is applied for ten scenarios, with different technological approaches for renewable ethylene production and an alternative for obtaining bioethanol, which considers the export of electricity. The fossil GPPS and HIPS show a better performance than the partially renewable sources in terms of Climate Change (CC), Terrestrial Acidification (TA), Photochemical Oxidant Formation (POF), and Water Depletion (WD). The exception is Fossil Depletion (FD), a somewhat predictable result. The main environmental loads associated with the renewable options are related to the sugarcane production. Polybutadiene fails to provide greater additional impact to HIPS when compared to GPPS. With regard to obtaining ethylene from ethanol, Adiabatic Dehydration (AD) technology consumes less sugarcane than Adiabatic Dehydration at High Pressure (ADHP), which leads to gains in TA and POF. In contrast, ADHP was more eco-friendly for WD because of its lower water losses and in terms of CC because of the advantageous balance of fossil CO2(eq) at the agricultural stage and the lower consumption of natural gas in ethylene production. The electricity export is an auspicious environmental opportunity because it can counterbalance some of the negative impacts associated with the renewable route. According to a "cradle-to-grave" perspective, the partially renewable resins show a more favorable balance of

  15. Development of an automated dispenser for the delivery of medicinal or vaccine-laden baits to raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Smyser, Timothy J; Redding, James V; Bevis, Crystal M; Page, L Kristen; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    Medicinal baits are distributed to manage zoonotic diseases, including raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies, but efficient distribution strategies are needed for suburban environments. We developed an automated dispenser that transfers fishmeal polymer baits at user-specified intervals from a magazine to a receptacle fitted with a filter that exploits raccoon dexterity to limit consumption by nontarget species. We introduce the concept of automated dispensers and describe bait removal success rates for raccoons versus nontarget species. We monitored visitation with remote cameras after deploying a dispenser, programmed to present two baits per night, in three disjunct forest patches in northwest Indiana. Raccoons removed 72% of baits; nontarget, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) removed 11%; Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) removed 9%. Bait removal success varied significantly between raccoons (76%) and opossums (21%), improving bait delivery specificity relative to hand baiting. Accumulation of baits in receptacles resulted in excess (more than one) bait consumption (39% of baits consumed by raccoons were excess), suggesting design improvements are needed to present additional baits only after previous baits have been consumed. Automated dispensers successfully sustained bait availability throughout the operational period. Subsequent research is needed to determine whether a sustained availability of baits achieved with automated dispensers is more effective for the treatment of raccoons in suburban environments than traditional distribution methods.

  16. Advancing alternatives analysis: The role of predictive toxicology in selecting safer chemical products and processes.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Timothy; Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Judson, Richard; Tice, Raymond; Allard, Patrick; Blake, Ann; Cote, Ila; Godwin, Hilary; Heine, Lauren; Kerzic, Patrick; Kostal, Jakub; Marchant, Gary; McPartland, Jennifer; Moran, Kelly; Nel, Andre; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Rossi, Mark; Thayer, Kristina; Tickner, Joel; Whittaker, Margaret; Zarker, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Alternatives analysis (AA) is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, assess, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. It requires toxicological data for the existing chemical and potential alternatives. Predictive toxicology uses in silico and in vitro approaches, computational models, and other tools to expedite toxicological data generation in a more cost-effective manner than traditional approaches. The present article briefly reviews the challenges associated with using predictive toxicology in regulatory AA, then presents 4 recommendations for its advancement. It recommends using case studies to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into AA, adopting a stepwise process to employing predictive toxicology in AA beginning with prioritization of chemicals of concern, leveraging existing resources to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into the practice of AA, and supporting transdisciplinary efforts. The further incorporation of predictive toxicology into AA would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients, and potentially increase the use of predictive toxicology in regulation more broadly. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:915-925. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. Experimental Study of Sand Production and Mud Erosion Phenomena for Sand Mud Alternate Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, H.; Sato, T.

    2014-12-01

    Methane hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds under specific thermodynamic conditions. The existence of methane hydrates is confirmed in the Nankai Trough, an offshore area of Japan. Japan's Methane Hydrate Research and Development Program (MH21) has been under way at this area. In the early 2013, the world's first intentional gas production attempt from marine gas hydrate deposits was tried and accomplished in the Daini Atumi Knoll area of the Eastern Nankai Trough. For gas production, depressurization method has been considered as a promising gas production technique from methane hydrate reservoirs. However, considering of continuous gas production over a long period, there is still something to clarify. The methane hydrate crystals are very small and existed in the intergranular pores of sandy layer of turbidite sediments. When the intergranular methane hydrates will be dissociated, it is considered that dissociated gas and water flow will cause sand production and mud erosion phenomena of turbidite sediments. The production of framework sands into a well is one of the problems plaguing the gas because of its adverse effects on well productivity and equipment. If the eroded mud is accumulated in the pore space of sand, skin is generated and permeability becomes lower. In addition, mud erosion has a negative effect for the well stability. This research presents an experimental study to understand sand production and mud erosion phenomena for sand mud alternate layer. The aims of this study are to understand these phenomena and clarify driving forces. In our experiments, we used an artificial sedimentary core and performed experiments under various conditions. As the results, the driving forces of these phenomena are not dissociation gas flow but water flow through pore.

  18. Biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources by Neurospora crassa: an alternative to conventional yeast fermentations?

    PubMed

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris

    2013-02-01

    Microbial production of ethanol might be a potential route to replace oil and chemical feedstocks. Bioethanol is by far the most common biofuel in use worldwide. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising renewable resource for fuel bioethanol production. Bioconversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol consists of four major unit operations: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and product separation/distillation. Conventional bioethanol processes for lignocellulosics apply commercial fungal cellulase enzymes for biomass hydrolysis, followed by yeast fermentation of resulting glucose to ethanol. The fungus Neurospora crassa has been used extensively for genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies as a model organism. However, the strain's potential in biotechnological applications has not been widely investigated and discussed. The fungus N. crassa has the ability to synthesize and secrete all three enzyme types involved in cellulose hydrolysis as well as various enzymes for hemicellulose degradation. In addition, N. crassa has been reported to convert to ethanol hexose and pentose sugars, cellulose polymers, and agro-industrial residues. The combination of these characteristics makes N. crassa a promising alternative candidate for biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources. This review consists of an overview of the ethanol process from lignocellulosic biomass, followed by cellulases and hemicellulases production, ethanol fermentations of sugars and lignocellulosics, and industrial application potential of N. crassa.

  19. New Biofuel Alternatives: Integrating Waste Management and Single Cell Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Elia Judith; Raghavan, Vijaya; González-Andrés, Fernando; Gómez, Xiomar

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO2 emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H2) and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process. PMID:25918941

  20. New biofuel alternatives: integrating waste management and single cell oil production.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Elia Judith; Raghavan, Vijaya; González-Andrés, Fernando; Gómez, Xiomar

    2015-04-24

    Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO₂ emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H₂) and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process.

  1. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and Drugs... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.68 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. (a) The appropriate FDA Center...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production...

  3. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? You...

  5. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must use...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? You...

  9. 21 CFR 809.11 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 809.11... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE Labeling § 809.11 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic...

  10. 21 CFR 809.11 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 809.11... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE Labeling § 809.11 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic...

  11. 21 CFR 809.11 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 809.11... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE Labeling § 809.11 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic...

  12. 21 CFR 809.11 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 809.11... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE Labeling § 809.11 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic...

  13. 21 CFR 809.11 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 809.11... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE Labeling § 809.11 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic...

  14. Women's attitudes towards the use of complementary and alternative medicine products during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Frawley, J; Sibbritt, D; Broom, A; Gallois, C; Steel, A; Adams, J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse women's attitudes towards the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products during pregnancy. The study sample was obtained via the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health or ALSWH. A response rate of 79.2% (n = 1,835) was attained. Women who use herbal medicines (34.5%, n = 588) view CAM as a preventative measure, are looking for something holistic and are concerned about evidence of clinical efficacy when considering the use of these products during pregnancy. Women who use aromatherapy (17.4%, n = 319) and homoeopathy (13.3%, n = 244) want more personal control over their body and are concerned more about their own personal experience of the efficacy of CAM than clinical evidence of efficacy. As CAM use in pregnancy appears to be increasingly commonplace, insights into women's attitudes towards CAM are valuable for maternity healthcare providers.

  15. Assessing anti-rabies baiting – what happens on the ground?

    PubMed Central

    Thulke, Hans-Hermann; Selhorst, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Wyszomirski, Tomasz; Müller, Uli; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2004-01-01

    Background Rabies is one of the most hazardous zoonoses in the world. Oral mass vaccination has developed into the most effective management method to control fox rabies. The future need to control the disease in large countries (i.e. Eastern Europe and the Americas) forces cost-benefit discussions. The 'Increase bait density' option refers to the usual management assumption that more baits per km2 could compensate for high fox abundance and override the imperfect supply of bait pieces to the individual fox. Methods We use a spatial simulation, which combines explicitly fox space use (tessellation polygons) and aeroplane flight lines (straight lines). The number of baits actually falling into each polygon is measured. The manager's strategic options are converted into changes of the resulting bait distribution on the ground. The comparison enables the rating of the options with respect to the management aim (i.e. accessibility of baits). Results Above 5% (approx. 10%) of all fox groups without any bait (at most 5 baits) relate to the baiting strategy applied in the field (1 km spaced parallel flight lines, 20 baits per km2 distributed) under habitat conditions comparable to middle and western Europe (fox group home-range 1 km2, 2.5 adults; reference strategy). Increasing the bait density on the same flight-line pattern neither reduces the number of under-baited fox group home-ranges, nor improves the management outcome and hence wastes resources. However, reducing the flight line distance provides a more even bait distribution and thus compensates for missed fox groups or extra high fox density. The reference strategy's bait density can be reduced when accounting for the missed fox groups. The management result with the proper strategy is likely the same but with reduced costs. Conclusion There is no overall optimal strategy for the bait distribution in large areas. For major parts of the landscape, the reference strategy will be more competitive. In situations

  16. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are... emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that, as purchased... constituent option). (b) Monthly average alternative, without using an add-on control device. Use cements...

  17. The Productivity of Vowel Alternation in English Derived Forms. Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 5, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Danny D.; Krohn, Robert K.

    This paper examines the validity of aspects of Chomsky and Halle's analysis of English phonology, specifically regarding rules for vowel alternation in base and derived forms. The paper describes an aural and an orthographic experiment eliciting the production of novel forms from a base form. Results showed no vowel alternation in 90 percent of…

  18. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, James C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Byrne, Michael E.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.; Johnson, Shylo R.; Olin E. Rhodes, Jr.; Schnell, Matthias Johannes

    2015-01-14

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations,particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14–24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99–240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations

  19. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes

    DOE PAGES

    Beasley, James C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Byrne, Michael E.; ...

    2015-01-14

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations,particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodaminemore » B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14–24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99–240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations, but

  20. A Behaviorally-Explicit Approach for Delivering Vaccine Baits to Mesopredators to Control Epizootics in Fragmented Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, James C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Byrne, Michael E.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.; Johnson, Shylo R.; Rhodes Jr., Olin E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations, particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14–24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99–240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations, but

  1. MSWT-01, an alternative in combining Production Based Education (PBE) and student CSR program in Polman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

    2014-06-01

    MSWT-01, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, producing 1m3 per hour, is an alternative for providing clean water in flood disaster areas, and was developed at Bandung State Polytechnic for Manufacturing (Polman) as a part of institution research project. The combination of cartridge or membrane technology such as carbon block, MF, UF and filtration media is used for this machine, instead of coagulation-flocculation with chemical addition, due to emergency purposes related with its treatment processing time. The idea is that MSWT could be combined with Production Based Education (PBE) concept in Polman as a vocational education institution and students 'CSR', students social activities. With the number of implementation trials in real flood area condition, MSWT will be developed further based on the technical output result. The manufacturing process for improving or adding necessary features could be implemented as a student's project in PBE system. This might be an ideal combination alternative for such vocational institution that students get the product media for their PBE program and implement their work as a defined social activity. They will learn and experience related technical matters and more social interactions with the people and other disaster stakeholder as well.

  2. An Alternative σ Factor, σ(8), Controls Avermectin Production and Multiple Stress Responses in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Di; Wang, Qian; Chen, Zhi; Li, Jilun; Wen, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Alternative σ factors in bacteria redirect RNA polymerase to recognize alternative promoters, thereby facilitating coordinated gene expression necessary for adaptive responses. The gene sig8 (sav_741) in Streptomyces avermitilis encodes an alternative σ factor, σ(8), highly homologous to σ(B) in Streptomyces coelicolor. Studies reported here demonstrate that σ(8) is an important regulator of both avermectin production and stress responses in S. avermitilis. σ(8) inhibited avermectin production by indirectly repressing expression of cluster-situated activator gene aveR, and by directly initiating transcription of its downstream gene sav_742, which encodes a direct repressor of ave structural genes. σ(8) had no effect on cell growth or morphological differentiation under normal growth conditions. Growth of a sig8-deletion mutant was less than that of wild-type strain on YMS plates following treatment with heat, H2O2, diamide, NaCl, or KCl. sig8 transcription was strongly induced by these environmental stresses, indicating response by σ(8) itself. A series of σ(8)-dependent genes responsive to heat, oxidative and osmotic stress were identified by EMSAs, qRT-PCR and in vitro transcription experiments. These findings indicate that σ(8) plays an important role in mediating protective responses to various stress conditions by activating transcription of its target genes. Six σ(8)-binding promoter sequences were determined and consensus binding sequence BGVNVH-N15-GSNNHH (B: C, T or G, V: A, C or G, S: C or G, H: A, C or T, N: any nucleotide) was identified, leading to prediction of the σ(8) regulon. The list consists of 940 putative σ(8) target genes, assignable to 17 functional groups, suggesting the wide range of cellular functions controlled by σ(8) in S. avermitilis.

  3. Perception of the environmental impacts of current and alternative modes of pig production by stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    Petit, Jean; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2003-08-01

    The current industrial pig production model is in crisis, due to its association with environmental pollution, doubtful product quality and lack of animal well-being. In Bretagne (France), a region of intensive pig production, a survey of seven stakeholder groups concerned with pig production was conducted, as part of a research programme dedicated to the assessment of the environmental impact of different modes of pig production. A very large majority of pig producers (93%) and their suppliers (100%) considers pig farms as an asset for the region, whereas a majority of scientists (58%), activists (78%) and consumers (54%) sees it as a handicap. Differences among stakeholder groups are minor with respect to the perceived importance of environmental and social issues. Stakeholders agree on the relative level of responsibility of pig farms with respect to specific problems. For all groups unpleasant odours and water quality come first with respect to responsibility, for most groups soil quality comes second, followed by product safety and air quality. For a future improved mode of pig production, 76% of pig producers and their suppliers prefer to adapt the current model, for all other groups the majority prefers an alternative model. While pig producers and their suppliers prefer a slurry-based housing system, all other groups prefer a straw-based system. Pig producers see the slurry-based system as technically superior and associate the straw-based system with poor working conditions, whereas consumers associate the slurry-based system in the first place with poor water quality and associate the straw-based system with less pollution. These results will be of use in the research programme on the environmental impact of modes of pig production, as they indicate the environmental impacts to be considered and their relative importance. The results will also help in deciding which options should be assessed. It is concluded that the poor image of the current pig

  4. An alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production: delignified corncob residue.

    PubMed

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Lin; Bao, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Delignified corncob residue is an industrial solid waste from xylose production using corncob as feedstock. In this study, delignified corncob residue was used as the feedstock of ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and the optimal fermentation performance was investigated under various operation conditions. The ethanol titer and yield reached 75.07 g/L and 89.38%, respectively, using a regular industrial yeast strain at moderate cellulase dosage and high solids loading. A uniform SSF temperature of 37°C at both prehydrolysis and SSF stages was tested. The fermentation performance and cost of delignified corncob residue and corn meal was compared as feedstock of ethanol fermentation. The result shows that the delignified corncob residue is competitive to corn meal as ethanol production feedstock. The study gives a typical case to demonstrate the potential of intensively processed lignocellulose as the alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

  6. Wheat straw degradation and production of alternative substrates for nitrogenase of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Dziga, Dariusz; Jagiełło-Flasińska, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is a major component of plant biomass and could be applied in the production of biofuels, especially bioethanol. An alternative approach is production of a clean fuel - hydrogen from cellulosic biomass. In this paper an innovatory model of cellulosic waste degradation has been proposed to verify the possibility of utilization of cellulose derivatives by purple non-sulfur bacteria. The concept is based on a two-step process of wheat straw conversion by bacteria in order to obtain an organic acid mixture. In the next stage such products are consumed by Rhodobacter sphaeroides, the known producer of hydrogen. It has been documented that Cellulomonas uda expresses cellulolytic activity in the presence of wheat straw as an only source of carbon. R. sphaeroides applied in this research can effectively consume organic acids released from straw by C. uda and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and is able to grow in the presence of these substrates. Additionally, an increased nitrogenase activity of R. sphaeroides has been indicated when bacteria were cultivated in the presence of cellulose derivatives which suggests that hydrogen production occurs.

  7. BaitFisher: A Software Package for Multispecies Target DNA Enrichment Probe Design.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Christoph; Sann, Manuela; Donath, Alexander; Meixner, Martin; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Peters, Ralph S; Petersen, Malte; Meusemann, Karen; Liere, Karsten; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Misof, Bernhard; Bleidorn, Christoph; Ohl, Michael; Niehuis, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Target DNA enrichment combined with high-throughput sequencing technologies is a powerful approach to probing a large number of loci in genomes of interest. However, software algorithms that explicitly consider nucleotide sequence information of target loci in multiple reference species for optimizing design of target enrichment baits to be applicable across a wide range of species have not been developed. Here we present an algorithm that infers target DNA enrichment baits from multiple nucleotide sequence alignments. By applying clustering methods and the combinatorial 1-center sequence optimization to bait design, we are able to minimize the total number of baits required to efficiently probe target loci in multiple species. Consequently, more loci can be probed across species with a given number of baits. Using transcript sequences of 24 apoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae, Sphecidae) from the 1KITE project and the gene models of Nasonia vitripennis, we inferred 57,650, 120-bp-long baits for capturing 378 coding sequence sections of 282 genes in apoid wasps. Illumina reduced-representation library sequencing confirmed successful enrichment of the target DNA when applying these baits to DNA of various apoid wasps. The designed baits furthermore enriched a major fraction of the target DNA in distantly related Hymenoptera, such as Formicidae and Chalcidoidea, highlighting the baits' broad taxonomic applicability. The availability of baits with broad taxonomic applicability is of major interest in numerous disciplines, ranging from phylogenetics to biodiversity monitoring. We implemented our new approach in a software package, called BaitFisher, which is open source and freely available at https://github.com/cmayer/BaitFisher-package.git. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. First trials of oral vaccination with rabies SAG2 dog baits in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Boué, Franck; Demerson, Jean Michel; Fassi Fihri, Ouafaa; Yahia, Khadija Id Sidi; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Canine rabies is a serious health problem in Morocco and about 22 human deaths are reported yearly. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, Moroccan authorities evaluated oral rabies vaccine baits specially designed for dogs. Materials and Methods The study was performed in Tiflet area. The vaccine strain was SAG2, a modified live oral rabies vaccine strain. Each bait contained an aluminium/PVC capsule filled with a liquid. Two kinds of baits were used: placebo baits containing methylene blue as a topical marker and vaccine baits containing vaccine suspension. The study was performed according to recommended WHO strategies, i.e., door to door model (DDDM), hand-out and wildlife immunization model (WIM). The DDDM was performed in the rural area of Tiflet on 60 owned dogs. The hand-out strategy was tested on 15 stray dogs. The WIM was performed on 4 transects lines near Tiflet slaughterhouse and near the weekly traditional market location. Results Using the DDDM, 100% of owned dogs were attracted by the baits and 77% ate the bait. Using the hand-out model, 100% of dogs showed interest in baits and 46.7% took the baits. Using the WIM in stray dogs, up to 73% of baits disappeared and 68% of the capsules containing the SAG2 vaccine were found pierced, depending on the sites of distribution. Conclusion This pilot study showed that baits have a good palatability and that oral vaccination of both owned and stray dogs is feasible with baits specifically developed for dogs and with adapted strategy of distribution. PMID:25003096

  9. Development of a toxic bait for control of eastern lubber grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    PubMed

    Barbara, Kathryn A; Capinera, John L

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed baits for eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea guttata (Houttuyn). When offered a choice among several grain-based baits (rolled oats, wheat bran, oat bran, yeast, corn meal, cornflakes) and vegetable oils (canola, corn, peanut, soybean), eastern lubber grasshopper adults preferred bait consisting of wheat bran carrier with corn oil as an added phagostimulant. Other carriers were accepted but consumed less frequently. Discrimination by eastern lubber grasshoppers among oils was poor. Similarly, addition of flavorings (peppermint, anise, lemon, banana) resulted in few significant effects. The carbaryl, wheat bran, and oil bait developed in this study was effective at causing eastern lubber grasshopper mortality in field-cage studies. Significant mortality occurred even though grasshoppers had to locate dishes of bait in a large cage, and could feed on daylilies, or grass growing through the bottom of the cage, rather than on the bran flakes. Consumption of as little as a single carbaryl-treated bran flake could induce mortality, although individuals varied greatly in their susceptibility. The bait matrix developed in this study was readily consumed when in the presence of some plant species. We expect that wheat bran and corn oil bait would be most effective as protection for less preferred plants (tomato, pepper, eggplant, leek, parsley, fennel, daylily, lily of the Nile, and canna lily) because baits were readily consumed in the presence of these plants. Plants that are readily consumed in the presence of bait (preferred plants) included butter crunch lettuce, carrot, yellow squash, cauliflower, collards, green onion, chive, cucumber, cabbage, cantalope, endive, red leaf lettuce, society garlic, caladium, and amaryllis. Baits are likely to be less effective in the presence of such plants. On average, vegetables in Solanaceae (i.e., tomato, pepper, and eggplant) and Apiaceae (i.e., fennel and parsley) elicited high levels of bait-feeding activity

  10. Longevity of rodenticide bait pellets in a tropical environment following a rat eradication program.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Pitt, William C; Eisemann, John D; Engeman, Richard M

    2014-02-01

    Invasive rodents (primarily Rattus spp.) are responsible for loss of biodiversity in island ecosystems worldwide. Large-scale rodenticide applications are typically used to eradicate rats and restore ecological communities. In tropical ecosystems, environmental conditions rapidly degrade baits and competition for baits by non-target animals can result in eradication failure. Our objective was to evaluate persistence of rodenticide baits during a rat eradication program on Palmyra Atoll; a remote tropical atoll with intense competition for resources by land crabs. Following aerial application, bait condition was monitored in four terrestrial environments and in the canopy foliage of coconut palms. Ten circular PVC hoops were fixed in place in each of Palmyra's four primary terrestrial habitats and five rodenticide pellets were placed in each hoop. Five coconut palms were selected in three distinct regions of the atoll. One rodenticide pellet was placed on each of five palm fronds in each coconut palm. Fresh baits were placed in all monitoring locations after each broadcast bait application. Bait condition and survival was monitored for 7 days after the first bait application and 6 days after second application. Bait survival curves differed between applications at most monitoring sites, suggesting a decrease in overall rat activity as a result of rodenticide treatment. One terrestrial site showed near 100 % bait survival after both applications, likely due to low localized rat and crab densities. Median days to pellet disappearance were one and two days for the first and second application, respectively. Differences in survival curves were not detected in canopy sites between bait applications. Median days to pellet disappearance in canopy sites were 2 and 4 days for the first and second application, respectively. Frequent rainfall likely contributed to rapid degradation of bait pellets in coconut palm fronds.

  11. Potential interactions between complementary/alternative products and conventional medicines in a Medicare population.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Gary W; Lafferty, William E; Tyree, Patrick T; Lind, Bonnie K

    2007-10-01

    Despite the high prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) product use among the elderly, little is known about the extent of concurrent CAM-conventional medicine use and the potential for adverse reactions. To determine the prevalence of CAM product use concurrent with conventional medications, prescription and nonprescription, in a Medicare population and assess the risk for adverse interactions. Retrospective analysis was performed on Cardiovascular Health Study interview data from 1994, 1995, 1997, and 1999. The prevalence of concurrent combinations of CAM products and conventional drugs was tabulated. The adverse interaction risks were categorized as unknown, theoretical, and significant. Of 5052 participants, the median age was 75, 60.2% were female, 16.6% were African American, and 83.4% were white. The percent using CAM products during the 4 time periods was 6.3%, 6.7%, 12.8%, and 15.1%. The percent using both CAM products and conventional drugs was 6.0%, 6.2%, 11.7%, and 14.4%. Of these, 294 (5.8%) individuals took combinations considered to have a significant risk for an adverse interaction. Combinations with risk were observed on 393 separate interviews. Most (379) involved a risk of bleeding due to use of ginkgo, garlic, or ginseng together with aspirin, warfarin, ticlopidine, or pentoxifylline. An additional 786 observations of combinations were considered to have some, albeit theoretical or uncertain, risk for an adverse interaction. Concurrent use of CAM products and conventional medicines in a Medicare population was found to be common. Research to define the risks of combining ginkgo and garlic supplements with aspirin should be of high priority.

  12. Influence of oral rabies vaccine bait density on rabies seroprevalence in wild raccoons.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Andrew C; Krogwold, Roger A; Wittum, Thomas E; Rupprecht, Charles E; Algeo, Timothy P; Slate, Dennis; Smith, Kathleen A; Hale, Robert L; Nohrenberg, Gary A; Lovell, Charles D; Niezgoda, Mike; Montoney, Andrew J; Slemons, Richard D

    2009-11-27

    The effect of different oral rabies vaccine (ORV) bait densities (75, 150, and 300 baits/km(2)) on the seroprevalence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs) in raccoons (Procyon lotor) was assessed at a 15% seroprevalence difference threshold in rural areas of northeast Ohio. Results (n=588 raccoons) indicated that seropositivity for RVNAs was associated with both bait density and bait campaign frequency. Associations were not detected for raccoon gender, age, or macro-habitat. The odds of being seropositive were greater for raccoons originating from 300 bait/km(2) treatment areas relative to those coming from the 75 bait/km(2) areas (odds ratio [OR]=4.4, probability [P]<0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.4-7.9), while accounting for cumulative ORV campaigns. No statistical advantage in seroprevalence was detected when comparing 150-75 baits/km(2). These results indicate that a relatively extreme bait density when evenly distributed may be necessary to obtain a significant increase in seroprevalence. Higher bait densities may be more appropriate and less costly to address focused outbreaks than labor intensive trap-vaccinate-release and local population reduction campaigns. Finally, dramatic increases in seroprevalence of RVNA were not observed in raccoons between sequential, semi-annual campaigns, yet cumulative ORV campaigns were associated with gradual increases in seroprevalence.

  13. Field evaluation of some bait additives against Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) (Rodentia: Hystricidae).

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Hussain, Iftikhar; Mian, Afsar; Munir, Shahid; Ahmed, Irfan; Khan, Abdul Aziz

    2013-09-01

    This research study evaluated the effect of different additives on the bait consumption by Indian crested porcupine, a serious forest and agricultural pest, under field conditions. Different additives (saccharin, common salt, bone meal, fish meal, peanut butter, egg yolk, egg shell powder, yeast powder, mineral oil and coconut oil) at 2 and 5% each were tested for their relative preference, using groundnut-maize (1:1) as basic bait. All the additives were tested under a no-choice test pattern. For control tests, no additive was mixed with the basic bait. Saccharin at 5% concentration significantly enhanced the consumption of bait over the basic bait, while 2% saccharin supplemented bait resulted in a non-significant bait consumption. All other additives did not enhance the consumption of the bait material; rather, these worked as repellents. However, the repellency was lowest with the common salt, followed by egg yolk, egg shell powder, bone meal, peanut butter, mineral oil, fish meal and yeast powder, while coconut remained the most repellent compound. The present study suggested that groundnut-maize (1:1) supplemented with 5% saccharin was the preferred bait combination, and can be used with different rodenticides for the management of Indian crested porcupine. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  14. Bait preference by the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Reimer, Neil J.

    1998-01-01

    The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has proven to be a threat to native arthropod species in Haleakala National Park, Maui, HI, and is also a potential threat to the park's native flora. As it continues to expand its range, an effort has been undertaken to eradicate it, or at the least, control its spread. The 1st part of this effort focused on finding a bait carrier for subsequent toxicant-based control tests. A year-long bait preference test was implemented at each of the ant's 2 infestation sites in Haleakala National Park, in which 6 solid baits and 2 liquid baits were assessed for attractiveness and feasibility for large scale control. At both sites, a toxicant-free formulation of Maxforce, a protein-based granular bait made from ground silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.), pupae, and a 25% sugar water solution were the most attractive baits. Ants took more Maxforce (without toxicant) and sugar water than all other baits, including honey granules and a fish protein bait. Sugar water, however, is difficult to distribute over large natural areas. Maxforce was therefore concluded to be the best bait carrier for toxicant-based control at Haleakala National Park because of its attractiveness and its ease for large scale broadcast dispersal.

  15. Comparative study of integrated pest management and baiting for German cockroach management in public housing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Bennett, Gary W

    2006-06-01

    This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of a building-wide cockroach integrated pest management (IPM) program compared with bait alone treatment in public housing. In total, 12 buildings (66 apartments) were treated and monitored for cockroach infestations over 7 mo. The buildings were divided into two groups: bait treatment and IPM. Apartments in the bait alone group were treated with Maxforce FC Select (0.01% fipronil) during the first 12 wk and Maxforce Roach Killer Bait Gel (2.15% hydramethylnon) from 16 wk when necessary. For the IPM group, cockroaches were flushed and vacuumed at the beginning of the study; sticky traps were placed in all apartments to monitor and reduce cockroach numbers; educational materials were delivered to the residents; and Maxforce FC Select and Maxforce Roach Killer Bait Gel were applied to kill cockroaches. Two seminars were presented to the manger, and Community Service Program staff of the Gary Housing Authority to help gain tenant cooperation in the program. Effects of the treatments were monitored using sticky traps (six per apartment) at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 29 wk after treatment. More treatments were applied during each monitoring visit when necessary. Those apartments with high levels of infestations (> or =12 cockroaches in six traps) before treatment were used to compare the IPM and bait only treatments. IPM resulted in significantly greater trap catch reduction than the bait treatment. The IPM (n=12) and bait only treatment (n=11) resulted in 100.0 and 94.6%, respectively, reduction in trap catch after 16 wk. At 29 wk, only one apartment in the IPM group had a high level (>12 cockroaches) of cockroach infestation. In contrast, five apartments in the bait treatment group had high level infestations at 29 wk based on overnight trapping counts; thus, IPM is a more sustainable method of population reduction. Sanitation levels in the IPM group significantly improved at 29 wk (n=11) compared with that at the beginning of

  16. Poison-based commensal rodent control strategies in urban ecosystems: some evidence against sewer-baiting.

    PubMed

    Mughini Gras, Lapo; Patergnani, Matteo; Farina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Sewers are historically considered the main reservoir for commensal rodents, posing threats to urban ecosystem health. Aboveground rodent signs are often assumed to give clues to high sewer infestation, which can chronically restock surface areas. Thus, current sewer-baiting programmes are mostly reactive, responding to increased surface infestation. Conversely, proactive sewer-baiting (regardless of infestation levels) is often disregarded because cost-effectiveness is not always addressed. We explored the extent to which the surface infestation is related to rodent feeding activity on sewer and surface baits by analysing a set of proactive bait records in Bologna city, Italy. Sewer bait intakes were significantly lower than surface ones, suggesting that proactive sewer-baiting is generally less effective. As surface infestation increased, probability of recording surface bait intake increased significantly but this was not reflected by increased sewer bait intake, suggesting that surface infestation is not always a reliable indicator of sewer infestation. This should discourage the use of reactive sewer-baiting as a routine strategy. Poison-based control programmes by themselves are scarcely predictable and strategically limited, and ideally they should be handled within an ecologically based integrated pest management approach for achieving satisfactory results.

  17. MAG4 versus alternative techniques for forecasting active region flare productivity

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, David A; Moore, Ronald L; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free magnetic energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the “Present MAG4” technique and each of three alternative techniques, called “McIntosh Active-Region Class,” “Total Magnetic Flux,” and “Next MAG4.” We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4). Key Points Quantitative comparison of performance of pairs of forecasting techniques Next MAG4 forecasts major flares more accurately than Present MAG4 Present MAG4 forecast outperforms McIntosh AR Class and total magnetic flux PMID:26213517

  18. A Colour Opponent Model That Explains Tsetse Fly Attraction to Visual Baits and Can Be Used to Investigate More Efficacious Bait Materials

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Palpalis group tsetse flies are the major vectors of human African trypanosomiasis, and visually-attractive targets and traps are important tools for their control. Considerable efforts are underway to optimise these visual baits, and one factor that has been investigated is coloration. Analyses of the link between visual bait coloration and tsetse fly catches have used methods which poorly replicate sensory processing in the fly visual system, but doing so would allow the visual information driving tsetse attraction to these baits to be more fully understood, and the reflectance spectra of candidate visual baits to be more completely analysed. Following methods well established for other species, I reanalyse the numbers of tsetse flies caught at visual baits based upon the calculated photoreceptor excitations elicited by those baits. I do this for large sets of previously published data for Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Lindh et al. (2012). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1661), G. palpalis palpalis (Green (1988). Bull Ent Res 78: 591), and G. pallidipes (Green and Flint (1986). Bull Ent Res 76: 409). Tsetse attraction to visual baits in these studies can be explained by a colour opponent mechanism to which the UV-blue photoreceptor R7y contributes positively, and both the green-yellow photoreceptor R8y, and the low-wavelength UV photoreceptor R7p, contribute negatively. A tool for calculating fly photoreceptor excitations is made available with this paper, and this will facilitate a complete and biologically authentic description of visual bait reflectance spectra that can be employed in the search for more efficacious visual baits, or the analysis of future studies of tsetse fly attraction. PMID:25473844

  19. A colour opponent model that explains tsetse fly attraction to visual baits and can be used to investigate more efficacious bait materials.

    PubMed

    Santer, Roger D

    2014-12-01

    Palpalis group tsetse flies are the major vectors of human African trypanosomiasis, and visually-attractive targets and traps are important tools for their control. Considerable efforts are underway to optimise these visual baits, and one factor that has been investigated is coloration. Analyses of the link between visual bait coloration and tsetse fly catches have used methods which poorly replicate sensory processing in the fly visual system, but doing so would allow the visual information driving tsetse attraction to these baits to be more fully understood, and the reflectance spectra of candidate visual baits to be more completely analysed. Following methods well established for other species, I reanalyse the numbers of tsetse flies caught at visual baits based upon the calculated photoreceptor excitations elicited by those baits. I do this for large sets of previously published data for Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Lindh et al. (2012). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1661), G. palpalis palpalis (Green (1988). Bull Ent Res 78: 591), and G. pallidipes (Green and Flint (1986). Bull Ent Res 76: 409). Tsetse attraction to visual baits in these studies can be explained by a colour opponent mechanism to which the UV-blue photoreceptor R7y contributes positively, and both the green-yellow photoreceptor R8y, and the low-wavelength UV photoreceptor R7p, contribute negatively. A tool for calculating fly photoreceptor excitations is made available with this paper, and this will facilitate a complete and biologically authentic description of visual bait reflectance spectra that can be employed in the search for more efficacious visual baits, or the analysis of future studies of tsetse fly attraction.

  20. Dialysis-based bioreactor systems for the production of monoclonal antibodies--alternatives to ascites production in mice.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Matthew P; Boyd, Victoria; Duch, Christine; White, John R

    2002-06-01

    Two commercially available bioreactor systems, CELLine and miniPERM, were evaluated for their ability to support the production of monoclonal antibody (mAb) from a variety of murine hybridoma cell lines. Production and purity of mAbs were compared between the two systems and with mouse ascites tumour fluid generation. The quality and purity of the mAb generated by each method was analysed on SDS-PAGE gels and the antibody immunoreactivity in each case was quantified by indirect ELISA tests. The relative benefits of conventional growth medium (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media, DMEM) and serum-free medium (hybridoma serum-free media, H-SFM) using the miniPERM system were also analysed, in terms of the amount of antibody produced, cell concentration and specific antibody titre. In all cases, the CELLine units tested gave higher protein concentrations compared to the miniPERM system under the same conditions (means and 95% confidence limits are 4.2+/-0.8 and 2.1+/-0.8 mg/ml, respectively), yet the miniPERM system yielded greater total amounts over a similar culture period (428.7+/-243.3 mg compared to 183.3+/-100.9 mg in the CL-350 CELLine unit). When defined by specific ELISA titre, both bioreactor systems yielded mAb levels that compared favourably with those derived from ascites. In addition, SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the bioreactor antibody product was relatively free of contaminating protein, whereas ascites tumour fluid preparations displayed significant levels of extraneous protein. This study has shown that both bioreactor systems are acceptable in vitro alternatives to the in vivo production of mAbs in mice.

  1. Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Kārlis

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district heating systems. Therefore, use of biomass for heat and power production is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined heat and electricity production (CHP) were analyzed: • CHP with steam turbine technology; • gasification CHP using gas engine; • bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity production, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.

  2. Membrane technology as a promising alternative in biodiesel production: a review.

    PubMed

    Shuit, Siew Hoong; Ong, Yit Thai; Lee, Keat Teong; Subhash, Bhatia; Tan, Soon Huat

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels and the depletion of petroleum reserves have driven the world to adopt biodiesel as an alternative energy source to replace conventional petroleum-derived fuels because of biodiesel's clean and renewable nature. Biodiesel is conventionally produced in homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalysed processes, as well as by supercritical technology. All of these processes have their own limitations, such as wastewater generation and high energy consumption. In this context, the membrane reactor appears to be the perfect candidate to produce biodiesel because of its ability to overcome the limitations encountered by conventional production methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the production of biodiesel with a membrane reactor by examining the fundamental concepts of the membrane reactor, its operating principles and the combination of membrane and catalyst in the catalytic membrane. In addition, the potential of functionalised carbon nanotubes to serve as catalysts while being incorporated into the membrane for transesterification is discussed. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the effects of process parameters for transesterification in a membrane reactor and the advantages offered by membrane reactors for biodiesel production. This discussion is followed by some limitations faced in membrane technology. Nevertheless, based on the findings presented in this review, it is clear that the membrane reactor has the potential to be a breakthrough technology for the biodiesel industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An alternative sterility assessment for parenteral drug products using isothermal microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Brueckner, D; Krähenbühl, S; Zuber, U; Bonkat, G; Braissant, O

    2017-09-01

    Production and release of injectable drug solutions are highly regulated since the administration of injectables bypasses natural body barriers. The sterility test is the last opportunity of product quality assessment. However, sterility is currently assessed by visual inspection (VI) that is time consuming and somewhat subjective. Therefore, we assessed isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) as a replacement for the VI of the filtration based state-of-the-art sterility control. We used ATCC strains and house isolates to artificially contaminate frequently produced monoclonal antibodies (Avastin, Mabthera, Herceptin). After filtration, growth was assessed with IMC. Growth of all micro-organisms was reliably and reproducibly detected 4 days after inoculation, which was significantly faster than with VI. The reliability and the sensitivity of IMC have a large potential to improve sterility controls. Further evaluation of this alternative method is therefore highly recommended. Drug safety is of great concern for public health. Faster and safer drug production could be achieved using the technique described here. All the tests were performed with real manufactured drugs and complied with pharmaceutical standards. This suggests that drug sterility testing can be improved with potentially increased safety and cost reduction. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Testing the Bioefficacy of Household Ambient Insecticide Products Against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Rudi; Scremin, Mara; Contiero, Barbara; Drago, Andrea; Vettorato, Christian; Marcer, Federica; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane

    2016-06-01

    Ambient insecticides are receiving increasing attention in many developed countries because of their value in reducing mosquito nuisance. As required by the European Union Biocidal Products Regulation 528/2012, these devices require appropriate testing of their efficacy, which is based on estimating the knockdown and mortality rates of free-flying (free) mosquitoes in a test room. However, evaluations using free mosquitoes present many complexities. The performances of 6 alternative methods with mosquitoes held in 2 different cage designs (steel wire and gauze/plastic) with and without an operating fan for air circulation were monitored in a test room through a closed-circuit television system and were compared with the currently recommended method using free mosquitoes. Results for caged mosquitoes without a fan showed a clearly delayed knockdown effect, whereas outcomes for caged mosquitoes with a fan recorded higher mortality at 24 h, compared to free mosquitoes. Among the 6 methods, cages made of gauze and plastic operating with fan wind speed at 2.5-2.8 m/sec was the only method without a significant difference in results for free mosquitoes, and therefore appears as the best alternative to assess knockdown by ambient insecticides accurately.

  5. Characterization of alternatively spliced products and tissue-specific isoforms of USP28 and USP25

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Rebeca; Bayés, Mònica; Francisca Sánchez-Font, M; González-Angulo, Olga; Gonzàlez-Duarte, Roser; Marfany, Gemma

    2001-01-01

    Background The ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation pathway is essential for the proteolysis of intracellular proteins and peptides. Deubiquitinating enzymes constitute a complex protein family involved in a multitude of cellular processes. The ubiquitin-specific proteases (UBP) are a group of enzymes whose predicted function is to reverse the ubiquitinating reaction by removing ubiquitin from a large variety of substrates. We have lately reported the characterization of human USP25, a specific-ubiquitin protease gene at 21q11.2, with a specific pattern of expression in murine fetal brains and adult testis. Results Database homology searches at the DNA and protein levels and cDNA library screenings led to the identification of a new UBP member in the human genome, named USP28, at 11q23. This novel gene showed preferential expression in heart and muscle. Moreover, cDNA, expressed sequence tag and RT-PCR analyses provided evidence for alternatively spliced products and tissue-specific isoforms. Concerning function, USP25 overexpression in Down syndrome fetal brains was shown by real-time PCR. Conclusions On the basis of the genomic and protein sequence as well as the functional data, USP28 and USP25 establish a new subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes. Both genes have alternatively spliced exons that could generate protein isoforms with distinct tissue-specific activity. The overexpression of USP25 in Down syndrome fetal brains supports the gene-dosage effects suggested for other UBP members related to aneuploidy syndromes. PMID:11597335

  6. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    PubMed

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  7. Reinstate hydrogen peroxide as the product of alternative oxidase of plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bhate, Radha; Ramasarma, T

    2010-10-01

    Chill treatment of potato tubers for 8 days induced mitochondrial O2 consumption by cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX). About half of the total O2 consumption in such mitochondria was found to be sensitive to salicylhydroxamate (SHAM), a known inhibitor of AOX activity. Addition of catalase to the reaction mixture of AOX during the reaction decreased the rate of SHAM-sensitive O2 consumption by nearly half, and addition at the end of the reaction released half of the O2 consumed by AOX, both typical of catalase action on H2O2. This reaffirmed that the product of reduction of O2 by plant AOX was H2O2 as found earlier and not H2O as reported in some recent reviews.

  8. Alternative fuel production by catalytic hydroliquefaction of solid municipal wastes, primary sludges and microalgae.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, F; Maupin, I; Lemée, L; Lavoie, J-M; Lemberton, J-L; Pouilloux, Y; Pinard, L

    2013-08-01

    An alternative fuel production was investigated through catalytic hydroliquefaction of three different carbonaceous sources: solid municipal wastes (MW), primary sludges (PS), and microalgae (MA). The reaction was carried out under hydrogen pressure, at different temperatures (330, 380 and 450°C), with a Raney nickel catalyst and two different hydrogen donor solvents: a "fossil solvent" (tetralin) and a "green solvent" (2-methyl-hydro-furan). The feeds analyses (TDA-TGA, ICP-AES, lipids quantification) showed that MW and PS had similar characteristics and physico-chemical properties, but different from those of MA. The hydroliquefaction of these feeds allowed to obtain high oil yields, with a significant energetic value, similar to that of a bio-petroleum. 2-methyl-hydro-furan was more efficient than tetralin for the treatment of the strongly bio-degraded biomasses MW and PS, while better results were obtained with tetralin in the case of MA.

  9. Efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Epsky, Nancy D; Midgarden, David; Rendón, Pedro; Villatoro, David; Heath, Robert R

    2012-04-01

    Tests were conducted that evaluated efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) adults in Guatemala. Bait stations were exposed to outdoor conditions to determine effect of weathering on longevity as indicated by bait station age. Results of laboratory tests found that bait stations with spinosad and ammonium acetate remained effective for at least 31 d compared with pesticide-free controls, although there was some loss of efficacy over time. Percentage mortality for bait station strips with 2% spinosad and 1% ammonium acetate decreased from 100 +/- 0.0% on day 0 to 70 +/- 7.1% after 31 d. Ammonia concentration had little effect on percentage mortality although there was some indication that ammonia concentration affected number of flies observed on the bait stations. Bait station strips (one per cage) were more effective than controls for 6-8 wk when tests were conducted in field cages (3 m diameter x 2 m), but only 2-3 wk when tests were conducted in large (2.5 m high and 6.0 m wide and 7.5 m long) field cages. Longevity was restored when multiple bait stations (3, 6, or 12) were deployed per cage. Bait stations containing methomyl were used for field tests of efficacy for wild flies. Dipped lure bait stations, which were made by coating two edges of commercial ammonium acetate and trimethylamine lures, killed six times more flies than corn cob bait stations dipped into a Nulure/malathion solution. They also killed more flies than pesticide-free controls for 8 wk.

  10. Assessing Risks to Non-Target Species during Poison Baiting Programs for Feral Cats

    PubMed Central

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R.; Johnston, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access. PMID:25229348

  11. Transfer of ingested insecticides among cockroaches: effects of active ingredient, bait formulation, and assay procedures.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, G; Kopanic, R J; Schal, C

    2001-10-01

    Foraging cockroaches ingest insecticide baits, translocate them, and can cause mortality in untreated cockroaches that contact the foragers or ingest their excretions. Translocation of eight ingested baits by adult male Blattella germanica (L.) was examined in relation to the type of the active ingredient, formulation, and foraging area. Ingested boric acid, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and hydramethylnon that were excreted by adults in small dishes killed 100% of first instars within 10 d and >50% of second instars within 14 d. Residues from these ingested baits were also highly effective on nymphs in larger arenas and killed 16-100% of the adults. However, when the baits and dead cockroaches were removed from the large arenas and replaced with new cockroaches, only residues of the slow-acting hydramethylnon killed most of the nymphs and adults, whereas residues of fast acting insecticides (chlorpyrifos and fipronil) killed fewer nymphs and adults. Excretions from cockroaches that ingested abamectin baits failed to cause significant mortality in cockroaches that contacted the residues. These results suggest that hydramethylnon is highly effective in these assays because cockroaches that feed on the bait have ample time to return to their shelter and defecate insecticide-laden feces. The relatively high concentration of hydramethylnon in the bait (2.15%) and its apparent stability in the digestive tract and feces probably contribute to the efficacy of hydramethylnon. To control for differences among baits in inert ingredients and the amount of active ingredient, we compared 1% chlorpyrifos with 1% hydramethylnon in identical baits. Again, hydramethylnon residues provided greater secondary kill, but the results highlighted the importance of the inert ingredients. We conclude that, in the absence of cannibalism and necrophagy, translocation of baits and secondary kill are most effective with slow acting insecticides in palatable baits that can traverse the digestive tract

  12. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    PubMed

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  13. Pharaoh ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) colony development after consumption of pyriproxyfen baits.

    PubMed

    Vail, K M; Williams, D F

    1995-12-01

    Pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis (L.), colonies were effectively controlled following ingestion of pyriproxyfen formulated in peanut butter oil. Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analog, reduced egg production in the queens, decreased the amount of brood due to delayed death in the eggs and larvae, caused death of pupae about 3 wk after treatment, and decreased the number of workers due to attrition and toxic effects. Queens, which continued to produce a small amount of eggs, eventually died. Queen death may have been caused by lack of workers required to tend them, old age or toxic effects. At concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1%, pyriproxyfen was more effective than the once commercially available bait, Pharorid (methoprene) for the control of the Pharaoh ant.

  14. The Impact of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention on the Speech Production of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Diane C.; Light, Janice C.; Schlosser, Ralf W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents the results of a meta-analysis to determine the effect of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the speech production of individuals with developmental disabilities. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature published between 1975 and 2003, which included data on speech production before, during,…

  15. 75 FR 71155 - Market Test of Experimental Product: “Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product: ``Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' AGENCY: Postal... Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' experimental product on January 2, 2011. The Postal Service...

  16. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.68 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling...

  17. Attracting, trapping and killing disease-transmitting mosquitoes using odor-baited stations - The Ifakara Odor-Baited Stations.

    PubMed

    Okumu, Fredros O; Madumla, Edith P; John, Alex N; Lwetoijera, Dickson W; Sumaye, Robert D

    2010-03-01

    To accelerate efforts towards control and possibly elimination of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and lymphatic filariasis, optimally located outdoor interventions could be used to complement existing intradomicilliary vector control methods such as house spraying with insecticides and insecticidal bednets. We describe a new odor-baited station for trapping, contaminating and killing disease-transmitting mosquitoes. This device, named the 'Ifakara Odor-baited Station' (Ifakara OBS), is a 4 m3 hut-shaped canvas box with seven openings, two of which may be fitted with interception traps to catch exiting mosquitoes. It is baited with synthetic human odors and may be augmented with contaminants including toxic insecticides or biological agents. In field trials where panels of fabric were soaked in 1% pirimiphos-methyl solution and suspended inside the Ifakara OBS, at least 73.6% of Anopheles arabiensis, 78.7% of Culex and 60% of Mansonia mosquitoes sampled while exiting the OBS, died within 24 hours. When used simply as a trap and evaluated against two existing outdoor traps, Ifakara Tent trap and Mosquito Magnet-X(R), the OBS proved more efficacious than the Ifakara Tent trap in catching all mosquito species found (P < 0.001). Compared to the Mosquito Magnet-X(R), it was equally efficacious in catching An. arabiensis (P = 0.969), but was less efficacious against Culex (P < 0.001) or Mansonia species (P < 0.001). The Ifakara OBS is efficacious against disease-carrying mosquitoes including the malaria vector, An. arabiensis and Culicine vectors of filarial worms and arboviruses. It can be used simultaneously as a trap and as a contamination or killing station, meaning most mosquitoes which escape trapping would leave when already contaminated and die shortly afterwards. This technique has potential to complement current vector control methods, by targeting mosquitoes in places other than human dwellings, but its effectiveness in the field will require cheap

  18. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: Alternative perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, André; Bird, David Neil; Schwaiger, Hannes; Junginger, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural expansion driven by growing demand has been a key driver for carbon stock change as a consequence of land-use change (CSC-LUC). However, its relative role compared to non-agricultural and non-productive drivers, as well as propagating effects were not clearly addressed. This study contributed to this subject by providing alternative perspectives in addressing these missing links. A method was developed to allocate historical CSC-LUC to agricultural expansions by land classes (products), trade, and end use. The analysis for 1995-2010 leads to three key trends: (i) agricultural land degradation and abandonment is found to be a major (albeit indirect) driver for CSC-LUC, (ii) CSC-LUC is spurred by the growth of cross-border trade, (iii) non-food use (excluding liquid biofuels) has emerged as a significant contributor of CSC-LUC in the 2000's. In addition, the study demonstrated that exact values of CSC-LUC at a single spatio-temporal point may change significantly with different methodological settings. For example, CSC-LUC allocated to 'permanent oil crops' changed from 0.53 Pg C (billion tonne C) of carbon stock gain to 0.11 Pg C of carbon stock loss when spatial boundaries were changed from global to regional. Instead of comparing exact values for accounting purpose, key messages for policymaking were drawn from the main trends. Firstly, climate change mitigation efforts pursued through a territorial perspective may ignore indirect effects elsewhere triggered through trade linkages. Policies targeting specific commodities or types of consumption are also unable to quantitatively address indirect CSC-LUC effects because the quantification changes with different arbitrary methodological settings. Instead, it is recommended that mobilising non-productive or under-utilised lands for productive use should be targeted as a key solution to avoid direct and indirect CSC-LUC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation among homeless youth in los angeles county.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 70% of homeless youth smoke cigarettes, but their use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) is unknown. This paper reports on ATP use among past-month smokers in Los Angeles County, including whether it differs by demographic characteristics, homelessness severity, past-year quit attempts, and readiness to quit smoking. Given the growing popularity of e-cigarettes, we also report on perceptions of harm and reasons for using this product. We surveyed 292 unaccompanied homeless youth who were randomly sampled from street sites. Participants had smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and 1 cigarette during the past month. Seventy-two percent of youth reported past-month ATP use (e-cigarettes = 51%; little cigars/cigarillos = 46%; hookah = 31%; other smokeless tobacco product = 24%; chewing tobacco/moist snuff = 19%). Current ATP use was unrelated to most demographic characteristics or having a past-year quit attempt. However, youth who planned to quit smoking in the next 30 days were significantly less likely to report current use of hookahs, other smokeless tobacco products, or e-cigarettes. Among lifetime e-cigarette users, the most common reasons for use included not having to go outside to smoke (38%) and being able to deal with situations or places where they cannot smoke (36%); it was less common to report using e-cigarettes to quit smoking (17%-18%). Dual use of ATPs among homeless youth smokers is common and is more likely among those who have no immediate plans to quit smoking. Effective and easily disseminable strategies for reducing all forms of tobacco use among homeless youth are urgently needed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Impacts of biofuels production alternatives on water quantity and quality in the Iowa River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn stover as well as perennial grasses like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and miscanthus are being considered as candidates for the second generation biofuel feedstocks. However, the challenges to biofuel development are its effects on the environment, especially water quality. This study evaluates the long-term impacts of biofuel production alternatives (e.g., elevated corn stover removal rates and the potential land cover change) on an ecosystem with a focus on biomass production, soil erosion, water quantity and quality, and soil nitrate nitrogen concentration at the watershed scale. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was modified for setting land cover change scenarios and applied to the Iowa River Basin (a tributary of the Upper Mississippi River Basin). Results show that biomass production can be sustained with an increased stover removal rate as long as the crop demand for nutrients is met with appropriate fertilization. Although a drastic increase (4.7–70.6%) in sediment yield due to erosion and a slight decrease (1.2–3.2%) in water yield were estimated with the stover removal rate ranging between 40% and 100%, the nitrate nitrogen load declined about 6–10.1%. In comparison to growing corn, growing either switchgrass or miscanthus can reduce sediment erosion greatly. However, land cover changes from native grass to switchgrass or miscanthus would lead to a decrease in water yield and an increase in nitrate nitrogen load. In contrast to growing switchgrass, growing miscanthus is more productive in generating biomass, but its higher water demand may reduce water availability in the study area.

  1. Behaviour of European badgers and non-target species towards candidate baits for oral delivery of a tuberculosis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew; Delahay, Richard J; McDonald, Robbie A; Aylett, Paul; Henderson, Ray; Gowtage, Sonya; Chambers, Mark A; Carter, Stephen P

    2016-12-01

    In the UK and the Republic of Ireland, the European badger (Meles meles) is a maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis, and may transmit the infection to cattle causing bovine tuberculosis (TB). Vaccination of badgers using an injectable Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is undertaken in some areas of the UK with the intention of interrupting this transmission, and vaccination research is underway in Ireland. An oral badger TB vaccine is also under development. We investigated the behaviour of badgers and non-target wildlife species towards three candidate baits being considered for delivering BCG to badgers orally. Bait preference was investigated by recording removal rates of baits and through the use of video surveillance at 16 badger setts. We found high variation in rates of bait removal by badgers among setts but no significant differences in removal rates among bait types or in preference behaviour from video footage. Variation in bait removal among setts correlated with the number of nights on which badgers were seen at the sett, with most baits being removed where badgers were seen on >50% of nights during the ten-day study period. Relatively few baits were removed at setts with low levels of recorded badger activity. Monitoring badger activity prior to bait deployment may therefore be useful in increasing bait uptake and vaccine coverage. Bait removal by badgers increased over the ten-day study period, suggesting initial neophobic behaviour at some setts and that a period of 'pre-feeding' may be required prior to vaccine deployment. Our results indicate that all three candidate baits are attractive to badgers. Removal of baits by non-target wildlife species was generally low, but varied among bait types, with smaller baits in packaging less likely to be removed. Enclosing baits in packaging is likely to deter non-target species, although in some cases non-target species did remove up to 13% of packaged baits.

  2. Quality of natural product clinical trials: a comparison of those published in alternative medicine versus conventional medicine journals.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Zara Risoldi; Gregory, Philip; Wilson, Amy

    2011-06-01

    To compare the quality of natural product clinical trials published in alternative medicine journals versus those published in conventional medicine journals. Systematic search and review of the literature. Randomized controlled trials of natural products were included if they were published in English between 2003 and 2008. Articles were categorized by their journal of publication (alternative medicine versus conventional medicine). Two independent reviewers evaluated study quality using guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. The results with respect to the primary outcome (positive or negative) were also assessed. Thirty articles were evaluated, 15 published in alternative medicine journals and 15 in conventional medicine journals. Of articles published in alternative medicine journals, 33.33% (n = 5) were considered low quality, and none were considered high quality. Of articles published in conventional medicine journals, 26.67% (n = 4) were considered low quality and 6.67% (n = 1) were considered high quality. Two thirds of all trials reviewed were of unclear quality, due to inadequate reporting of information relating to the study's methodology. Similar proportions of positive and negative primary outcomes were found in alternative and conventional medicine journals, and low-quality articles were not more likely to report a positive primary outcome (Fisher's exact test, two-tailed p = .287). The quality of natural product randomized controlled trials was similar among alternative and conventional medicine journals. Efforts should be made to improve the reporting of natural product clinical trials for accurate determinations of study quality to be possible.

  3. Mirex incorporation in the environment: in situ decomposition of fire ant bait and its effects on two soil macroarthropods.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, A A; Lue, K Y

    1978-01-01

    The decomposition rate of fire ant baits and the consequent leaching of the pesticide mirex from the bait were investigated for one year in three types of environments (i.e., on the ground, in the soil, and in the pond) by means of the nylon litter bag method. There was no significant difference in the decomposition rates between toxic and non-toxic baits. The bait proved to be stable and slow to decay. After one year of exposure in the field, about 75% of bait material remained in the bags that were deployed on the ground, 60% in the soil, and 25% in the pond. The removal of mirex from the bait was due to leaching from, and natural decay of the bait. The loss of mirex from the bait to the environment varied significantly among the three habitats. At the end of 12 months, mirex disappearance from baits exposed on the ground was 41.1%, in the soil 56.3%, and in the pond 83.9%. The rate of mirex loss was slower during fall and winter. The toxicities of the bait decomposed in situ for different lengths of time (12, 9, 6, 3, and 0 months) to the land isopod Armadillidium vulgare and the soil millipede oxidus gracilis were higher than the undecomposed baits. This indicated that weathered mirex baits left in the field have greater biological impact than freshly applied baits, at least on the two soil animals tested.

  4. Susceptibility of adult mosquitoes to insecticides in aqueous sucrose baits.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sandra A

    2011-06-01

    Mosquitoes characteristically feed on plant-derived carbohydrates and honeydew just after emergence and intermittently during their lives. Development of toxic baits focusing on this carbohydrate-seeking behavior may potentially contribute to localized control. In the present study, ten insecticides were fed to female Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Aedes taeniorhynchus in a 10% sucrose solution. Active ingredients representative of five classes of insecticides (pyrethroids, phenylpyroles, pyrroles, neonicotinoids, and macrocyclic lactones) were selected for comparison with commercial formulations used to facilitate incorporation of active ingredients into aqueous sucrose solutions. Sucrose as a phagostimulant significantly enhanced mortality to toxicants. In general, the most effective active ingredients were fipronil, deltamethrin and imidacloprid, followed by spinosad, thiamethoxam, bifenthrin, permethrin, and cyfluthrin. The least effective ingredients were chlorfenapyr and ivermectin. For some of the ingredients tested, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the least susceptible species. One-day-old male Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible than females; however, no differences existed between one- and seven-day-old mosquitoes. There were no differences in susceptibility between unfed and gravid ten-day-old female Cx. quinquefasciatus to bifenthrin. In conclusion, several pesticides from different classes of compounds have potential for use in development of toxic baits for mosquitoes.

  5. New alternative energy pathway for chemical pulp mills: From traditional fibers to methane production.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Chiang, Lourdes; Vanhatalo, Kari; Llorca, Jordi; Dahl, Olli

    2017-07-01

    Chemical pulp mills have a need to diversify their end-product portfolio due to the current changing bio-economy. In this study, the methane potential of brown, oxygen delignified and bleached pulp were evaluated in order to assess the potential of converting traditional fibers; as well as microcrystalline cellulose and filtrates; to energy. Results showed that high yields (380mL CH4/gVS) were achieved with bleached fibers which correlates with the lower presence of lignin. Filtrates from the hydrolysis process on the other hand, had the lowest yields (253mL CH4/gVS) due to the high amount of acid and lignin compounds that cause inhibition. Overall, substrates had a biodegradability above 50% which demonstrates that they can be subjected to efficient anaerobic digestion. An energy and cost estimation showed that the energy produced can be translated into a significant profit and that methane production can be a promising new alternative option for chemical pulp mills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hazard assessment of nitrosamine and nitramine by-products of amine-based CCS: alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Buist, H E; Devito, S; Goldbohm, R A; Stierum, R H; Venhorst, J; Kroese, E D

    2015-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are considered vital and economic elements for achieving global CO2 reduction targets, and is currently introduced worldwide (for more information on CCS, consult for example the websites of the International Energy Agency (http://www.iea.org/topics/ccs/) and the Global CCS Institute (http://www.globalccsinstitute.com/)). One prominent CCS technology, the amine-based post-combustion process, may generate nitrosamines and their related nitramines as by-products, the former well known for their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. In order to efficiently assess the carcinogenic potency of any of these by-products this paper reviews and discusses novel prediction approaches consuming less time, money and animals than the traditionally applied 2-year rodent assay. For this, available animal carcinogenicity studies with N-nitroso compounds and nitramines have been used to derive carcinogenic potency values, that were subsequently used to assess the predictive performance of alternative prediction approaches for these chemicals. Promising cancer prediction models are the QSARs developed by the Helguera group, in vitro transformation assays, and the in vivo initiation-promotion, and transgenic animal assays. All these models, however, have not been adequately explored for this purpose, as the number of N-nitroso compounds investigated is yet too limited, and therefore further testing with relevant N-nitroso compounds is needed.

  7. Pigment production by filamentous fungi on agro-industrial byproducts: an eco-friendly alternative.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Tichota, Deise Michele; Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Segalin, Jéferson; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-10-01

    The search for new sources of natural pigments has increased, mainly because of the toxic effects caused by synthetic dyes used in food, pharmaceutical, textile, and cosmetic industries. Fungi provide a readily available alternative source of natural pigments. In this context, the fungi Penicillium chrysogenum IFL1 and IFL2, Fusarium graminearum IFL3, Monascus purpureus NRRL 1992, and Penicillium vasconiae IFL4 were selected as pigments producers. The fungal identification was performed using ITS and part of the β-tubulin gene sequencing. Almost all fungi were able to grow and produce water-soluble pigments on agro-industrial residues, with the exception of P. vasconiae that produced pigments only on potato dextrose broth. The production of yellow pigments was predominant and the two strains of P. chrysogenum were the largest producers. In addition, the production of pigments and mycotoxins were evaluated in potato dextrose agar using TOF-MS and TOF-MS/MS. Metabolites as roquefortine C, chrysogine were found in both extracts of P. chrysogenum, as well fusarenone X, diacetoxyscirpenol, and neosolaniol in F. graminearum extract. In the M. purpureus extract, the pigments monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, and the mycotoxin citrinin were found. The crude filtrates have potential to be used in the textile industry; nevertheless, additional pigment purification is required for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  8. Infrared Drying as a Potential Alternative to Convective Drying for Biltong Production.

    PubMed

    Cherono, Kipchumba; Mwithiga, Gikuru; Schmidt, Stefan

    2016-06-03

    Two infrared systems set at an intensity of 4777 W/m(2) with peak emission wavelengths of 2.5 and 3.5 µm were used to produce biltong by drying differently pre-treated meat. In addition to meat texture and colour, the microbial quality of the biltong produced was assessed by quantifying viable heterotrophic microorganisms using a most probable number (MPN) method and by verifying the presence of presumptive Escherichia coli in samples produced using infrared and conventional convective drying. The two infrared drying systems reduced the heterotrophic microbial burden from 5.11 log10 MPN/g to 2.89 log10 MPN/g (2.5 µm) and 3.42 log10 MPN/g (3.5 µm), respectively. The infrared systems achieved an up to one log higher MPN/g reduction than the convective system. In biltong samples produced by short wavelength (2.5 µm) infrared drying, E. coli was not detectable. This study demonstrates that the use of short wavelength infrared drying is a potential alternative to conventional convective drying by improving the microbiological quality of biltong products while at the same time delivering products of satisfactory quality.

  9. Infrared Drying as a Potential Alternative to Convective Drying for Biltong Production

    PubMed Central

    Cherono, Kipchumba; Mwithiga, Gikuru; Schmidt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Two infrared systems set at an intensity of 4777 W/m2 with peak emission wavelengths of 2.5 and 3.5 µm were used to produce biltong by drying differently pre-treated meat. In addition to meat texture and colour, the microbial quality of the biltong produced was assessed by quantifying viable heterotrophic microorganisms using a most probable number (MPN) method and by verifying the presence of presumptive Escherichia coli in samples produced using infrared and conventional convective drying. The two infrared drying systems reduced the heterotrophic microbial burden from 5.11 log10 MPN/g to 2.89 log10 MPN/g (2.5 µm) and 3.42 log10 MPN/g (3.5 µm), respectively. The infrared systems achieved an up to one log higher MPN/g reduction than the convective system. In biltong samples produced by short wavelength (2.5 µm) infrared drying, E. coli was not detectable. This study demonstrates that the use of short wavelength infrared drying is a potential alternative to conventional convective drying by improving the microbiological quality of biltong products while at the same time delivering products of satisfactory quality. PMID:27853706

  10. Spousal concordance in the use of alternative tobacco products: A multi-country investigation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Megan E; Banse, Rainer; Ebbeler, Christine; Ferketich, Amy K

    2017-02-01

    Married couples often share similar health-related characteristics and behaviors, including cigarette smoking status. Despite their rising popularity in the U.S., little research has examined the patterns of spousal concordance (SC) for alternative tobacco products (ATPs), such as e-cigarettes, cigars, and hookah. The purpose of this project was to examine the roles of age, gender, and culture in the strength of SC for these ATPs. Analyses focused on a diverse community sample of married individuals in Ohio, U.S. (N=278), but also examined patterns in Austria, Greece, Israel, the Netherlands, and Slovakia. All participants completed a survey in which they indicated both their own, and their spouse's ever-use of various tobacco products. For the U.S. sample, SC was highest for e-cigarettes, flavored e-cigarettes, flavored cigarettes, and hookah (ϕs=0.48- 0.61); SC appeared to be stronger among younger couples, and when there was only a small female vs. male differences in use. Similar patterns were found in the other countries, with a few key exceptions. In particular, there was low SC for e-cigarettes and flavored e-cigarettes in the other countries, where e-cigarettes had been federally regulated by the time of data collection. Overall, these findings have implications for the continued spreading popularity of these tobacco use behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alternative Land-Use Scenarios for Bioenergy Production in the U.S. and Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. E.; Spak, S.; Tsao, C. C.; Mena, M.; Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is historically a dominant form of global environmental degradation, and the potential for increased future degradation may be enhanced by growing demand for biofuels. Here, we apply high-resolution cropland inventories and agronomic models to characterize land-use impacts and mitigation scenarios for bioenergy production in the U.S. and Brazil. In the U.S., our gridded historical cropland maps show potential for production in the U.S. on 68 Mha of abandoned croplands in the U.S. which is as much as 70% larger than previous estimates due to a reduction in aggregation effects. In Brazil, a critical land-use impact is associated with non-GHG air pollutants from the management and expansion of sugarcane feedstocks. Our bottom-up estimate for these Brazilian land-use emissions is seven times larger than estimated from remote-sensing data due to the improved spatial resolution of our approach. While current land-use policies in Brazil and the U.S. seek to reduce life-cycle biofuel emissions, these policies may not support the mitigation alternatives identified here.

  12. Use of electronic cigarettes and alternative tobacco products among Romanian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Foley, Kristie L; Pénzes, Melinda; Paulik, Edit; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan; Ábrám, Zoltán; Bálint, Jozsef; Urbán, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To assess socio-demographic and smoking-related correlates of e-cigarette and alternative tobacco products (ATPs) use in a multi-ethnic group of adolescents in Tîrgu Mures, Romania. The cross-sectional study included 1835 high school students from Tirgu Mures, Romania. Socio-demographic variables and data about smoking and e-cigarettes and ATP use were collected using an online questionnaire. Chi-square tests or one-way ANOVA were applied to compare never smokers, non-current smokers, and current smokers. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to determine the correlates of e-cigarettes and ATP use. The most frequently tried non-cigarette nicotine and tobacco products were e-cigarette (38.5 %), cigar (31.4 %) and waterpipe (21.1 %). Ever trying and current use of cigarettes were the most important correlates of e-cigarette and ATPs use. Sex, ethnicity, sensation seeking and perceived peer smoking were correlates of several ATPs use. The results of this study may inform the development of tailored tobacco control programs.

  13. Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

  14. Honeydew and insecticide-bait as competing food resources for a fruit fly and common parasitoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honeydew from phloem-feeding insects and fruit fly insecticidal baits may both serve as adult food resources for some insect species. In California olive orchards the black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier), is a common honeydew-producer, while spinosad-based fruit fly bait (GF-120) is used to contro...

  15. Aqueous Grape Juice Bait for Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field tests were conducted in Miami, Florida to evaluate attraction of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), and Zaprionus indianus Gupta, to traps baited with aqueous grape juice solution (10%) with and without preservative. Microbial activity, which occurred in baits without preservative that were aged in t...

  16. Direct Colony Baiting of Termite Colonies: A Tool for Ecological Studies

    Treesearch

    Don McG. Ewart

    1991-01-01

    The benefits of direct colony baiting are described: bait substrates enclosed in polyvinyl chloride tubes are applied in direct contact with the galleries of the termite nest. Attention of researchers is drawn to the potential of this method for species other than the mound-building Coptotermes 1acteus. \\t

  17. Volatile constituents of fermented sugar baits and their attraction to lepidopteran species.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, A M; Heppelthwaite, V J; Manning, L M; Gibb, A R; Suckling, D M

    2005-02-23

    The volatile compounds emanating from four fermented sugar baits, palm sugar, golden cane syrup, port wine, and molasses, were isolated by headspace sampling and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three classes of compounds including esters, alcohols, and aromatic compounds were identified in the headspace of the four fermented sugar baits. There was a high degree of qualitative similarity between the headspace contents of the four fermented sugar baits, although quantitatively they varied considerably. Ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutanol, ethyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl octanoate, ethyl (E)-4-decenoate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate were the major compounds identified in the headspace of the four fermented sugar baits. The efficacy of the four fermented sugar baits was investigated in field trapping experiments. Fermented palm sugar and golden cane syrup were superior in attracting significant numbers of moths as compared to port wine and molasses. Fermented molasses was the least attractive among the four baits. Over 90% of the insects caught were noctuids with Graphania mutans and Tmetolophota spp. being the main noctuids captured (over 55%) in the four fermented sugar baits. Male and female G. mutans were equally attracted to the four sugar baits. A number of tortricid species were also trapped.

  18. Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) response to pyramid traps baited with attractive light and pheromonal stimuli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Halyomorpha halys is an invasive insect that causes severe economic damage to multiple agricultural commodities. Several monitoring techniques have been developed to monitor H. halys including pheromone and light-baited black pyramid traps. Here, we evaluated the attractiveness of these traps bait...

  19. Effects of carbaryl-bran bait on trap-catch and seed predation by ground beetles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on non-target organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species composition a...

  20. Laboratory evaluation of insecticide-treated sugar baits for control of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Mascari, T M; Foil, L D

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of boric acid, imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin incorporated into sugar baits as oral toxicants for adult phlebotomine sand flies. Variable toxicity of insecticide-sugar bait solutions to adult male and female sand flies was demonstrated, based on male female median lethal concentration values of 0.10-0.08, 6.13-9.53, and 9.03-18.11 mg/liter of imidacloprid, ivermectin, and abamectin, respectively. Complete control of sand flies could not be achieved with as high as 40 g/liter of boric acid in sugar bait solution; concentrations >40 g/liter were found repellent to the sand flies. Uranine O (a fluorescent tracer dye that can be used to measure the ingestion of sugar baits by sand flies) did not interact negatively with imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin when it was combined with the insecticides in a sugar bait. Also, incorporation of imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin into sugar baits did not reduce the effect whether adult male and female sand flies fed on these sugar baits. We propose that imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin could be used to control adult sand fly populations with targeted use of insecticide-treated sugar baits.

  1. Comparison of naturally and synthetically baited spruce beetle trapping systems in the central Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    E. Matthew Hansen; Jim C. Vandygriff; Robert J. Cain; David Wakarchuk

    2006-01-01

    We compared naturally baited trapping systems to synthetically baited funnel traps and fallen trap trees for suppressing preoutbreak spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby, populations. Lures for the traps were fresh spruce (Picea spp.) bolts or bark sections, augmented by adding female spruce beetles to create secondary attraction. In 2003, we...

  2. Monitoring western spruce budworm with pheromone- baited sticky traps to predict subsequent defoliation

    Treesearch

    Christine G. Niwa; David L. Overhulser

    2015-01-01

    A detailed procedure is described for monitoring western spruce budworm with pheromone-baited sticky traps and interpreting the results to predict defoliation the following year. Information provided includes timing of the survey, how to obtain traps and baits, how many traps are needed, trap assembly, field placement of traps, and how to evaluate the catches.

  3. Impact of Alternative Environmental Flow Prescriptions on Hydropower Production and Fish Habitat Suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellarin, A.; Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.; Galeati, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognized to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyze the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  4. Impact of alternative environmental flow prescriptions on hydropower production and fish habitat suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Pugliese, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Galeati, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognised to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyse the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  5. Alternative scenarios of bioenergy crop production in an agricultural landscape and implications for bird communities.

    PubMed

    Blank, Peter J; Williams, Carol L; Sample, David W; Meehan, Timothy D; Turner, Monica G

    2016-01-01

    Increased demand and government mandates for bioenergy crops in the United States could require a large allocation of agricultural land to bioenergy feedstock production and substantially alter current landscape patterns. Incorporating bioenergy landscape design into land-use decision making could help maximize benefits and minimize trade-offs among alternative land uses. We developed spatially explicit landscape scenarios of increased bioenergy crop production in an 80-km radius agricultural landscape centered on a potential biomass-processing energy facility and evaluated the consequences of each scenario for bird communities. Our scenarios included conversion of existing annual row crops to perennial bioenergy grasslands and conversion of existing grasslands to annual bioenergy row crops. The scenarios explored combinations of four biomass crop types (three potential grassland crops along a gradient of plant diversity and one annual row crop [corn]), three land conversion percentages to bioenergy crops (10%, 20%, or 30% of row crops or grasslands), and three spatial configurations of biomass crop fields (random, clustered near similar field types, or centered on the processing plant), yielding 36 scenarios. For each scenario, we predicted the impact on four bird community metrics: species richness, total bird density, species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) density, and SGCN hotspots (SGCN birds/ha ≥ 2). Bird community metrics consistently increased with conversion of row crops to bioenergy grasslands and consistently decreased with conversion of grasslands to bioenergy row crops. Spatial arrangement of bioenergy fields had strong effects on the bird community and in some cases was more influential than the amount converted to bioenergy crops. Clustering grasslands had a stronger positive influence on the bird community than locating grasslands near the central plant or at random. Expansion of bioenergy grasslands onto marginal agricultural lands will

  6. Polyacrylamide hydrogels: an effective tool for delivering liquid baits to pest ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Roper, Elray; Chin, Darren

    2014-04-01

    Ant management in urban and natural areas often relies on toxic baits. Liquid baits are highly attractive to pest ants because they mimic natural food sources such as honeydew and nectar, the principal dietary components of many ants. However, liquid bait use has been limited owing to the lack of bait dispensers that are effective, inexpensive, and easy to service. The current study evaluated the potential of water-storing crystals (polyacrylamide spheres) to effectively deliver liquid thiamethoxam baits to laboratory colonies of Argentine ants, Linepithema humile Mayr. Results of laboratory trials show that bait crystals saturated in 25% sucrose solution containing 0.007% thiamethoxam are highly attractive to Argentine ants and highly effective against all castes and life stages, including workers, queens, and brood. Fresh bait crystals were highly effective and required approximately 2 d to kill all workers and approximately 6 d to achieve complete mortality in queens and brood. Results of bait aging tests show that the crystals lose approximately 70% of moisture in 8 h and the duration of outdoor exposure has a significant effect on moisture loss and subsequently bait acceptance and bait efficacy. A gradual decrease in mortality was observed for all castes and life stages as bait age increased. In general, fresh baits and those aged for < 8 h retained their efficacy and caused substantial mortality. Baits aged longer than 8 h were substantially less attractive and less effective. Horizontal transfer tests examined the transfer of thiamethoxam from live treated donors to live untreated recipients. The results show that donor ants that obtain thiamethoxam by feeding on bait crystals effectively transfer it to untreated recipient ants. The level of secondary mortality depended on the donor:recipient ratio, with approximately 40% recipient worker mortality with the 1:5 ratio and 15% recipient worker mortality with 1:10 or 1:20 ratios. However, no queens died in any

  7. Effects of bait age and prior protein feeding on cumulative time-dependent mortality of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to GF-120 spinosad baits.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    A fruit fly bait to attract and kill adult fruit flies, GF-120, was tested in cages to determine effects of pretreatment diet and bait aging before use on cumulative mortality rates of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Protein-starved and protein-fed, 9-d-old flies both experienced varying overall cumulative mortality at 4, 8, 24, and 48 h. Pretreatment diet had no significant effect on mortality. Overall mortality rates were below 10% for 4 h, 39-43% at 8 h, but mortality in all treatments increased to 89-93% by 24 h, and 99% by 48 h. In a second experiment, GF-120 baits were either freshly prepared or aged for 24 h. Subtreatments consisted of protein-fed and protein-starved flies. The 24-h-aged bait killed significantly more flies at 4 and 8 h than the freshly prepared bait. Protein-starved flies had significantly higher mortality at 4 h and marginally higher mortality at 8 h than protein-fed flies. At 24 and 48 h, there were no significant differences among treatments, and overall morality rose to 99-100% by 48 h. These results may explain differences noted in previous publications in which fruit fly mortality to GF-120 was reported as unusually low as well as reports of bait ineffectiveness for protein-fed flies. The overall impact of any initial repellency of GF-120 seems negligible as judged by overall cumulative mortality at later evaluation times.

  8. Reduced interference by gray squirrels with 4-poster deer treatment bait stations by using timed-release bait.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J F; Pound, J M; Miller, J A; Kramer, M

    2008-12-01

    When white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, feed on corn bait dispensed by 4-poster tick control devices, they rub against paint rollers impregnated with acaricide. Gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, also feed on the corn bait in the feeding troughs of 4-posters, but in doing so, leave abundant corn fragments and meal that impede the flow of uneaten corn into the troughs. Large accumulations of fragments and meal adversely affect the operation of 4-posters and their use by deer. A battery-operated closure mechanism controlled by a photo sensor was developed to block the flow of corn into the troughs during the day when squirrels are active and deer infrequently visit 4-posters. The effectiveness of the diurnal corn restriction (DCR) concept and restriction mechanism was tested in a field trial at a tick-infested site in Maryland. DCR effectively eliminated accumulation of whole corn, partially eaten corn and corn meal in corn troughs associated with squirrel feeding. At the same time, deer usage of 4-posters was not diminished.

  9. Human contacts with oral rabies vaccine baits distributed for wildlife rabies management--Ohio, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-04-12

    Baits laden with oral rabies vaccines are important for the management of wildlife rabies in the United States. In August 2012, the Wildlife Services program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service began a field trial involving limited distribution of a new oral rabies vaccine bait in five states, including Ohio. The vaccine consisted of live recombinant human adenovirus type 5 vector, expressing rabies virus glycoprotein (AdRG1.3) (Onrab). A previously used oral rabies vaccine consisting of a live recombinant vaccinia vector, expressing rabies virus glycoprotein (V-RG) (Raboral V-RG), was distributed in other areas of Ohio. To monitor human contacts and potential vaccine virus exposure, surveillance was conducted by the Ohio Department of Health, local Ohio health agencies, and CDC. During August 23-September 7, 2012, a total of 776,921 baits were distributed in Ohio over 4,379 square miles (11,341 square kilometers). During August 24-September 12, a total of 89 baits were reported found by the general public, with 55 human contacts with baits identified (some contacts involved more than one bait). In 27 of the 55 human contacts, the bait was not intact, and a barrier (e.g., gloves) had not been used to handle the bait, leaving persons at risk for vaccine exposure and vaccine virus infection. However, no adverse events were reported. Continued surveillance of human contacts with oral rabies vaccine baits and public warnings to avoid contact with baits are needed because of the potential for vaccine virus infection.

  10. Alternative hair-dye products for persons allergic to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Scheman, Andrew; Cha, Christina; Bhinder, Manpreet

    2011-01-01

    Finding alternative hair dyes for individuals allergic to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) has been difficult. Newer permanent and demipermanent hair dyes that have replaced PPD with para-toluenediamine sulfate (PTDS) are now available. We examined whether individuals allergic to PPD will tolerate PPD-free hair dyes containing PTDS. A retrospective analysis of patch-test results since October 2006 was done and yielded 28 patients allergic to PPD who were also tested with a hair dye series. From January 2004 through October 2006, seven additional patients allergic to PPD were tested with PTDS but not the full dye series. Patch-test results were analyzed. The newer PTDS dyes were recommended for all PPD-positive PTDS-negative subjects starting in 2008, and these subjects were contacted to determine whether they tolerated the recommended hair-dye products. Of 28 PPD-allergic patients seen since October 2006, 16 (57.1%) tested negative to all other substances on the dye series. Eleven tested positive to PTDS; of these, several were also allergic to other substances in the hair dye series. There was only one patient who was allergic to ortho-nitro-PPD and not to PTDS. Of 7 additional PPD-allergic patients seen from 2004 through 2006, 4 (57.1%) tested negative to PTDS. In total, 20 of 35 individuals (57.1%) tested positive to PPD but negative to PTDS. Ten of 13 PPD-positive patients for whom PTDS hair dyes were recommended subsequently used a PTDS hair dye, and all tolerated these products. Fifty-seven percent of patients allergic to PPD in this study will likely tolerate newer permanent and demipermanent hair dyes based on PTDS. Most individuals not allergic to PTDS will also test negative to other substances in the dye series. All 10 patients who tested positive to PPD and negative to PTDS who subsequently used a PTDS dye free of PPD tolerated these products. Many individuals allergic to PPD will benefit from the newer PTDS-based products.

  11. Latex Allergies: A Review of Recognition, Evaluation, Management, Prevention, Education, and Alternative Product Use

    PubMed Central

    Schroyer, Traci; Catalfano, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To provide information about latex allergies; to determine how to recognize, evaluate, and manage emergencies related to latex allergies; and how to identify those at risk for latex allergies. Additionally, ways to prevent latex exposure, to educate health care workers and athletes about latex allergy, and to provide safe alternatives to latex are investigated. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE and SPORT Discus for the years 1998–2002 using the key words latex, allergies, rubber, anaphylaxis, gloves, cross-reaction, IgE (immunoglobulin G) proteins, and radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Background: Latex, a sap from the rubber tree, is found in many products used in everyday life. Latex is composed of compounds that may cause an allergic reaction, whose severity can range from irritant dermatitis to type IV dermatitis to type I systemic reaction. Recognition of the signs and symptoms associated with these reactions by the health care professional may help to prevent a more severe reaction from occurring. Reactions can be complicated by contact with other substances, thus causing a cross-reaction. Some individuals are more at risk of latex allergies due to repetitive exposure to latex through their career paths, multiple surgeries, other allergies, or respiratory conditions. Management of an acute reaction involves removal of the irritant, cleansing of the affected area, monitoring vital signs for changes, and seeking additional medical assistance as warranted. Recommendations: Those at risk may be identified through a thorough medical history and allergy testing. Prevention techniques and guidelines are examined, with an emphasis on education at multiple levels. Product information for nonlatex equipment and supplies for the athletic training room is offered, with additional resource information provided. PMID:16558678

  12. Beyond cigarette smoking: smoke-free home rules and use of alternative tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Kuo, Daphne; Piper, Megan

    2016-01-01

    A smoke-free home rule has been associated with reduced cigarette consumption; however, it is unknown whether a home rule is associated with the use of alternative tobacco products (ATP) such as smokeless tobacco products, regular and water pipes, and cigars. This study examined the association between the smoke-free home rules and ever and current use of ATP. Data from the 2010-2011 US Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were analysed using multivariable logistic regressions, including variables related to smoke-free home rules. Overall, 83.9% respondents reported a smoke-free home rule inside their homes; 20.6% of respondents had tried at least one type of ATP, and 3.9% were current users in 2010-2011. Having a smoke-free home rule was associated with lower likelihood of current versus never use of any ATP (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-0.83). Among ever users of any ATP, the existence of a smoke-free home rule was associated with lower odds of being a current user (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.43-0.56). Similar associations were observed for each type of ATP examined (p < 0.05). Smoke-free home rules are associated with lower current ATP use among the US population. Future research should examine whether promoting smoke-free home rules could help to reduce ATP use and related diseases. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  13. The costs of production of alternative jet fuel: A harmonized stochastic assessment.

    PubMed

    Bann, Seamus J; Malina, Robert; Staples, Mark D; Suresh, Pooja; Pearlson, Matthew; Tyner, Wallace E; Hileman, James I; Barrett, Steven

    2017-03-01

    This study quantifies and compares the costs of production for six alternative jet fuel pathways using consistent financial and technical assumptions. Uncertainty was propagated through the analysis using Monte Carlo simulations. The six processes assessed were HEFA, advanced fermentation, Fischer-Tropsch, aqueous phase processing, hydrothermal liquefaction, and fast pyrolysis. The results indicate that none of the six processes would be profitable in the absence of government incentives, with HEFA using yellow grease, HEFA using tallow, and FT revealing the lowest mean jet fuel prices at $0.91/liter ($0.66/liter-$1.24/liter), $1.06/liter ($0.79/liter-$1.42/liter), and $1.15/liter ($0.95/liter-$1.39/liter), respectively. This study also quantifies plant performance in the United States with a Renewable Fuel Standard policy analysis. Results indicate that some pathways could achieve positive NPV with relatively high likelihood under existing policy supports, with HEFA and FPH revealing the highest probability of positive NPV at 94.9% and 99.7%, respectively, in the best-case scenario.

  14. Examination of an alternative method for the pyrometallurgical production of copper-chromium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenk, J.; Hassan-Pour, S.; Spiess, P.; Friedrich, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper an alternative to the usual route for the production of copper-chromium alloys by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) followed by Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) is investigated. Therefore the HIP is replaced by an aluminothermic reduction. As oxidizing agents for this aluminothermic reduction (ATR) chromium oxide (Cr2O3) and copper oxide (CuO) are used. These oxidants are mixed in a stoichiometric relation with aluminium (Al) to get the following aluminothermic reactions going: As ATRs always are exothermic reductions, it is important to control the heat output of the reaction. A common simplification for the heat calculation in the field of ATR is the “Shemshushny Factor” (Sh-Factor). This factor determines the rate of energy input per reactant mass: To avoid a secondary melt phase after ATR, inline casting is used to directly obtain vacuum arc remeltable electrodes out of the liquid melt of the ATR. The second part of this work deals with the remelting of these electrodes via VAR. The first VAR trials aim at finding process parameters for remelting a copper-chromium ingot. As demixing is to avoid, it is necessary to control process parameters within a small range to obtain a shallow melt pool.

  15. Alternate charging and discharging of capacitor to enhance the electron production of bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Wu, Wenlong; Wei, Jincheng; Yuan, Lulu; Xia, Xue; Huang, Xia

    2011-08-01

    A bioelectrochemical system (BES) can be operated in both "microbial fuel cell" (MFC) and "microbial electrolysis cell" (MEC) modes, in which power is delivered and invested respectively. To enhance the electric current production, a BES was operated in MFC mode first and a capacitor was used to collect power from the system. Then the charged capacitor discharged electrons to the system itself, switching into MEC mode. This alternate charging and discharging (ACD) mode helped the system produce 22-32% higher average current compared to an intermittent charging (IC) mode, in which the capacitor was first charged from an MFC and then discharged to a resistor, at 21.6 Ω external resistance, 3.3 F capacitance and 300 mV charging voltage. The effects of external resistance, capacitance and charging voltage on average current were studied. The average current reduced as the external resistance and charging voltage increased and was slightly affected by the capacitance. Acquisition of higher average current in the ACD mode was attributed to the shorter discharging time compared to the charging time, as well as a higher anode potential caused by discharging the capacitor. Results from circuit analysis and quantitatively calculation were consistent with the experimental observations.

  16. Speciation of Organic By-Products from the Thermal Decomposition of Alternative Automotive Fuels.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Philip H; Shanbhag, Santosh; Rubey, Wayne A; Dellinger, Barry; Bergin, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    The high-temperature thermal degradation of four alternative automotive fuels (methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum (LP) gas) have been examined as a function of fuel-oxygen equivalence ratio and exposure temperature using fused silica flow reactor instrumentation coupled to in-line GC-TCD and GC-MS detection. Organic speciation for methanol, natural gas, and LP gas were consistent with previous measurements. However, several previously undetected organic by-products were observed from ethanol oxidation and pyrolysis. Organic speciation was found to vary significantly between methanol and ethanol and less so between natural gas and LP gas. Non-methane organic gases (NMOG) and specific reactivities of the respective fuels were measured, and trends with respect to proposed reactivity adjustment factors are discussed. A qualitative comparison of NMOG quantified in the flow reactor tests with the results of recent vehicle tests is also reported. The most significant differences in the comparisons were observed for toxic compounds, including the lack of detection of acetalde-hyde, 1,3-butadiene, and benzene from flow reactor experiments of methanol degradation, and the lack of detection of 1,3-butadiene from flow reactor experiments of ethanol combustion. Possible sources for the formation of these compounds in vehicle tests are discussed.

  17. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of C-8 xylitol monoester as an alternative preservative for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Amaral, L F B; Camilo, N S; Pereda, M D C V; Levy, C E; Moriel, P; Mazzola, P G

    2011-10-01

    Xylitol is a natural sugar derived from plants, fruits and vegetables, whose antimicrobial properties are described in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of C-8 xylitol monoester, for its use as a preservative in cosmetic formulations. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth macrodilution method, and the antimicrobial effectiveness of C-8 xylitol monoester was determined by using challenge test method. The results obtained in the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration are between 1.0% and 1.25% for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans and between 1.0% and 1.5% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger. The amount of 1% of C-8 xylitol monoester was added to the lotion used in the challenge test, observing a rapid decline in the number of CFU g(-1) in stages of evaluation after contamination of the product by all bacteria. The same occurs in relation to C. albicans, which shows a 90% reduction in the number of CFU g(-1). Regarding A. niger, similar reduction is observed when pH value of the lotion is adjusted from 5.5 to 7.0. The results indicate that under the tests conditions, C-8 xylitol monoester has antimicrobial activity and could be considered as an alternative preservative for cosmetic formulations. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE PRODUCTS AS A NOVEL TREATMENT STRATEGY FOR INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Lindsey N.; Zhou, Yuning; Qiu, Suimin; Wang, Qingding; Evers, B. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract; the etiology is unknown and treatment is directed at systemic immunosuppression. Natural products, including medicinal herbs, have provided approximately half of the drugs developed for clinical use over the past 20 years. The purpose of our current study was to determine the effects of a novel combination of herbal extracts on intestinal inflammation using a murine model of IBD. Female Swiss-Webster mice were randomized to receive normal water or 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) drinking water to induce colitis. Mice were treated with either a novel combination of herbal aqueous extracts or vehicle control per os (po) or per rectum (pr) every 24h for 7-8d. Disease activity index score (DAI) was determined daily; mice were sacrificed and colons analyzed by H&E staining, MPO assay, and cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6) ELISAs. Mice treated with the combination of herbal extracts, either po or pr, had significantly less rectal bleeding and lower DAI scores when compared to the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, colonic ulceration, leukocytic infiltration, and cytokine levels (TNF-α and IL-6) were decreased in the colons of herbal-treated mice, reflected by H&E staining, MPO assay, and cytokine ELISA. Treatment with the combination of medicinal herbs decreases leukocyte infiltration and mucosal ulceration, ameliorating the course of acute colonic inflammation. This herbal remedy may prove to be a novel and safe therapeutic alternative in the treatment of IBD. PMID:19051360

  20. Review on emu products for use as complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Kumar, P Sravan; Thummuri, Dinesh; Shrivastava, Shweta; Guntuku, Lalita; Sistla, Ramakrishna; Naidu, V G M

    2015-01-01

    Emu (Dromaius novaehallandiae), the flightless bird native to Australia and found in many countries, is receiving much attention for its nutritional benefits as well as its medicinal value. Emu oil contains high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. It has potent anti-inflammatory actions and thus can be used topically and orally to treat conditions such as mucositis, inflammatory bowel syndrome, and auricular inflammation, and to prevent chemotherapy-induced bone loss. Emu oil also has a hypocholesterolemic effect, transdermal penetration-enhancing activity, cosmetic and insect repellent activity, and so on. However, its mechanism(s) of actions are unclear and have not, to our knowledge, been studied to date. Previous studies suggest that the fatty acids of the ω-9, ω-6, and ω-3 series, which are present in emu oil, may act on cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and lipoxin pathways to bring about its anti-inflammatory and other beneficial actions. The aim of this review was to provide a brief summary of the current knowledge of research on emu products, mainly emu oil, for the possible use as a complementary and alternative natural medicine for various chronic diseases. In this review we also highlighted the future research scope of emu oil for its possible antidiabetic activity. Thus, emu oil is an attractive pharmacologic agent to further explore for its therapeutic activity to treat various ailments.

  1. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, Doug W.

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  2. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    PubMed

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-06-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    PubMed Central

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  4. [The prevalence of alternative herbal medicine and nutritional complementary product intake in patients admitted to out-patient cardiology departments].

    PubMed

    Gücük İpek, Esra; Güray, Yeşim; Demirkan, Burcu; Güray, Umit; Kafes, Habibe; Başyiğit, Funda

    2013-04-01

    To detect the prevalence of alternative herbal medicine and nutritional complementary product intake in patients admitted to outpatient cardiology clinics and to determine demographic characteristics, comorbidities and medical properties of those patients. Patients admitted to outpatient cardiology clinics between June 2011 and March 2012 were given questionnaires involving age, gender, education, occupation, chronic illness, medication, herbs, nutritional complementary products, the index purpose and motivation for using herbs and nutritional complementary products. The data of those questionnaires were analyzed. A total of 454 questionnaires were collected. The mean age was 49±13 and 48% of the participants were female. Of those patients, 12% had diabetes, 34% had hypertension, 26% had coronary artery disease, 7% had heart failure, 58% had chronic illness, 49% had cardiovascular disease, and 57% had history of drug intake. Including vitamins and minerals, there were 75 (16%) patients taking alternative and complementary medicine. When vitamins and minerals were excluded, 56 (12%) patients were using at least one product, while 24 (5%) patients were using more than one. Garlic (n=33), flaxseed (n=13), ginger (n=12), omega 3 (n=12), and turmeric (n=11) were the most popular products. Of those 56 patients, 32% were using alternative medicine for hypertension and 23% for hyperlipidemia treatment, while 20% were using those products to be healthier in general. Alternative medicine was more prominent in females (p=0.04), and older patients (p=0.004). Education level, drug intake, and the presence of chronic illnesses, hypertension and cardiovascular disease were significantly higher in those patients. Alternative and complementary products were common in patients admitted to outpatient cardiology clinics. Female gender, advanced age, higher education level, drug intake, and having a chronic illness were predisposing factors.

  5. Alternative formulations to reduce CFC (chlorofluorocarbons) use in US exempted and excluded aerosol products. Final report, April-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.P.; Wevill, S.L.

    1989-11-01

    The report examines products exempted and excluded from those affected by the 1978 ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants, the present consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S., and alternative formulations which may be used to reduce or eliminate the CFC content of these products. The ban allowed for exemptions if it could be demonstrated that no acceptable alternative propellants were available and that the products were essential. Essentiality was based on three criteria: (1) the product's economic significance, (2) the environmental and health impacts of the product and its substitutes, and (3) the effects on the quality of life resulting from no longer having the product or a reasonable substitute available. Also, if a CFC served some purpose other than as a propellant, that product was excluded from the regulation. The study shows that about 40% of the CFC usage in these products can be immediately replaced by available substitutes. It identified seven categories of products for which immediate replacement of all of the CFC content is not technically feasible.

  6. Attracting, trapping and killing disease-transmitting mosquitoes using odor-baited stations - The Ifakara Odor-Baited Stations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To accelerate efforts towards control and possibly elimination of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and lymphatic filariasis, optimally located outdoor interventions could be used to complement existing intradomicilliary vector control methods such as house spraying with insecticides and insecticidal bednets. Methods We describe a new odor-baited station for trapping, contaminating and killing disease-transmitting mosquitoes. This device, named the 'Ifakara Odor-baited Station' (Ifakara OBS), is a 4 m3 hut-shaped canvas box with seven openings, two of which may be fitted with interception traps to catch exiting mosquitoes. It is baited with synthetic human odors and may be augmented with contaminants including toxic insecticides or biological agents. Results In field trials where panels of fabric were soaked in 1% pirimiphos-methyl solution and suspended inside the Ifakara OBS, at least 73.6% of Anopheles arabiensis, 78.7% of Culex and 60% of Mansonia mosquitoes sampled while exiting the OBS, died within 24 hours. When used simply as a trap and evaluated against two existing outdoor traps, Ifakara Tent trap and Mosquito Magnet-X®, the OBS proved more efficacious than the Ifakara Tent trap in catching all mosquito species found (P < 0.001). Compared to the Mosquito Magnet-X®, it was equally efficacious in catching An. arabiensis (P = 0.969), but was less efficacious against Culex (P < 0.001) or Mansonia species (P < 0.001). Conclusion The Ifakara OBS is efficacious against disease-carrying mosquitoes including the malaria vector, An. arabiensis and Culicine vectors of filarial worms and arboviruses. It can be used simultaneously as a trap and as a contamination or killing station, meaning most mosquitoes which escape trapping would leave when already contaminated and die shortly afterwards. This technique has potential to complement current vector control methods, by targeting mosquitoes in places other than human dwellings, but its effectiveness

  7. Part 4 of a 4-part series Miscellaneous Products: Trends and Alternatives in Deodorants, Antiperspirants, Sunblocks, Shaving Products, Powders, and Wipes

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Selbo, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on the usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of topical products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in various miscellaneous categories of topical products is reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for ancillary skin care products are not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in antiperspirants, deodorants, shaving products, sunblocks, powders, and wipes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:22010054

  8. Effects of weak alternating magnetic fields on nocturnal melatonin production and mammary carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Löscher, W; Wahnschaffe, U; Mevissen, M; Lerchl, A; Stamm, A

    1994-01-01

    Since extremely low frequency (i.e., 50- or 60-Hz) magnetic fields (MFs) from overhead power lines and other electromagnetic sources are ubiquitous in modern societies, the possible carcinogenic effect of such fields recently suggested by epidemiological studies has engendered much concern. However, in view of various unknown and uncontrolled variables which may bias epidemiological studies on MF interactions, a causal relationship between MFs and tumorigenesis can only be determined precisely in animal experiments. The goal of the study reported here was to determine if low frequency MFs at the low flux densities which are relevant for human populations induce tumor-promoting or copromoting effects in a model of breast cancer. Furthermore, since reduction in pineal production of melatonin has been implicated as a cause of tumor promotion by electromagnetic fields, determinations of nocturnal melatonin peak levels in serum were performed during MF exposure. Mammary tumors were induced by intragastric administration of 20 mg (5 mg/week) 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Groups of 36 rats were either sham-exposed or exposed for 91 days at a 50-Hz gradient MF of 0.3-1 microT, which is a relevant range for elevated domestic MF exposure as arising from neighboring power lines. Nocturnal melatonin levels were significantly reduced by exposure to this weak alternating MF. However, histopathological evaluation of mammary lesions did not disclose any significant difference between MF- and sham-exposed animals. Incidence of mammary tumors was 61% in controls versus 67% in MF-exposed rats. The predominant tumor type was the invasive adenocarcinoma, which was found in 21 rats of both groups. Examination of tumor size did not indicate significant differences in tumor burden between both groups. Furthermore, the incidence of preneoplastic lesions was not altered by MF exposure. Thus, the data of this study indicate that alternating MF do not

  9. Short- and long-term control of Vespula pensylvanica in Hawaii by fipronil baiting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invasive western yellowjacket wasp, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), has significantly impacted the ecological integrity and human welfare of Hawaii. The goals of the present study were (1) to evaluate the immediate and long-term efficacy of a 0.1% fipronil chicken bait on V. pensylvanica populations in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, (2) to quantify gains in efficacy using the attractant heptyl butyrate in the bait stations and (3) to measure the benefits of this approach for minimizing non-target impacts to other arthropods. RESULTS: The 0.1% fipronil chicken bait reduced the abundance of V. pensylvanica by 95 ± 1.2% during the 3 months following treatment and maintained a population reduction of 60.9 ± 3.1% a year after treatment in the fipronil-treated sites when compared with chicken-only sites. The addition of heptyl butyrate to the bait stations significantly increased V. pensylvanica forager visitation and bait take and significantly reduced the non-target impacts of fipronil baiting. CONCLUSION: In this study, 0.1% fipronil chicken bait with the addition of heptyl butyrate was found to be an extremely effective large-scale management strategy and provided the first evidence of a wasp suppression program impacting Vepsula populations a year after treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

  10. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    PubMed

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.

  11. Human vaccinia infection after contact with a raccoon rabies vaccine bait - Pennsylvania, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-11-06

    Since 2003, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Wildlife Services has coordinated a multistate oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program for wildlife in a 15-state zone extending from Maine to Alabama and in Texas. The program seeks to enhance local control and prevent the spread of epizootic rabies among raccoons and, in Texas, among gray foxes and coyotes. The program uses baits containing liquid vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) recombinant virus vaccine. Because contact with ruptured baits can produce vaccinia virus infection in certain persons, surveillance for human and domestic animal contact with the baits is conducted, relying largely on reports from persons who find baits and call telephone numbers printed on them. In August 2009, during the autumn baiting campaign in western Pennsylvania, a woman aged 35 years who was taking immunosuppressive medication for inflammatory bowel disease contacted the Pennsylvania Department of Health (PADOH) after handling a ruptured bait, which had leaked liquid rabies vaccine onto a patch of abraded skin on her right hand. The patient subsequently developed vaccinia virus infection and was treated with human vaccinia immune globulin intravenous (VIGIV) and an investigational antiviral agent. This report describes this case, which was the second case of human vaccinia infection related to the ORV program. Public health agencies should educate the public, and particularly pet owners, regarding potential hazards associated with handling wildlife rabies vaccine baits and should provide guidance for persons exposed to this vaccine.

  12. Attractiveness of insecticide baits for cockroach control (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae): laboratory and field studies.

    PubMed

    Nalyanya, G; Liang, D; Kopanic, R J; Schal, C

    2001-06-01

    Several insecticide bait formulations were evaluated for their attractiveness to cockroaches in olfactometer assays in the laboratory and in trapping experiments in the field. Included in the assays were bait stations, gels, pastes, and a powder that contained one of the following active ingredients: abamectin, boric acid, chlorpyrifos, or hydramethylnon. There were significant differences among the baits in their attractiveness to the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). In trapping experiments, Avert powder (abamectin), Maxforce station and gel, and Siege gel (all hydramethylnon) were consistently attractive to B. germanica adults and nymphs. Laboratory olfactometer assays with adult males confirmed these results and showed that nymphs were as responsive as males whereas females were less responsive. Our bioassays also demonstrate that attractiveness of bait can be dramatically affected by the age of the bait. One week of aging significantly reduced the attractiveness of Avert powder in both laboratory and field assays. Aging, however did not diminish the attractiveness of Maxforce gel, indicating that the formulation may be critical for retention of attractiveness of baits. Baits that were most attractive to the German cockroach were also the most attractive to nymphs and adults of the brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.).

  13. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Zyrox Fly Granular Bait Against Asian and German Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Matos, Yvonne K; Schal, Coby

    2016-08-01

    The Asian cockroach (Blattella asahinai Mizukubo) was introduced to Florida in 1986 and has since spread throughout the Southeastern United States. Blattella asahinai is a peridomestic pest and high population densities in residential areas can become a nuisance, especially when adults fly into homes. Few studies to date have been conducted on Asian cockroach control, and we evaluated the efficacy of Zyrox Fly Granular Bait and Maxforce Complete Granular Insect Bait against this species in the laboratory compared with the closely related German cockroach (Blattella germanica (L.)). In no-choice and two-choice assays with both species, Zyrox bait and Maxforce bait achieved nearly 100% mortality within two and five days, respectively. We also tested Zyrox bait against B. asahinai in an invasive field population in North Carolina at the label rate (2 g/m(2)) and at approximately three times the label rate (6.9 g/m(2)), and found that broadcast applications at both rates reduced populations by an average of 64 and 92%, respectively, for 35 d after the initial application. Zyrox Fly Bait appears to be effective against the Asian and German cockroaches, and could be another tool in an integrated pest management program, if its label could be extended or the active ingredient (cyantraniliprole) formulated into a cockroach bait.

  14. Comparisons of toxic baits for controlling the cockroach, Blattella germanica: attractiveness and feeding stimulation.

    PubMed

    Durier, V; Rivault, C

    2000-12-01

    Female German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) and nymphs (stages 1, 3 and 6) were used to test the attractiveness and the feeding stimulation of several commercial gel formulations of insecticide food baits in laboratory binary choice tests. The four toxic gel baits tested were: 'Avert' (0.05% abamectin=avermectin B1), 'Drax' (33.3% boric acid), 'Goliath' (0.05% fipronil) and 'Maxforce' (2.15% hydramethylnon). The attractiveness of a bait was estimated by the number of cockroaches that chose it first, and by their tendency to change to it secondarily. Feeding stimulation was estimated by the mean duration of feeding bouts and total duration of food intake. Variability of these factors was assessed in relation to age of cockroaches and to age of baits. With a few exceptions, cockroach age did not affect performance in any of these tests. Attractiveness to B. germanica ranked 'Goliath' gel higher than 'Avert', 'Drax' and 'Maxforce' gels, whether or not the active ingredient fipronil was present in 'Goliath' gel. Feeding stimulation ranked 'Avert' and 'Maxforce' gels higher than 'Goliath' gel, and 'Drax' gel was inferior. With ageing up to 3 months, the feeding stimulation power of 'Goliath' and 'Maxforce' gels increased, whereas that of 'Avert' fluctuated. Assuming that all types of bait effectively kill cockroaches once ingested, these results illustrate the importance of behavioural observations on bait efficiency and show that ranking of these different food baits varies in relation to the parameter analysed.

  15. Unbiased identification of protein-bait interactions using biochemical enrichment and quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Ong, Shao-En

    2010-03-01

    The use of recombinant proteins, antibodies, small molecules, or nucleic acids as affinity reagents is a simple yet powerful strategy to study the protein-bait interactions that drive biological processes. However, such experiments are often analyzed by Western blotting, limiting the ability to detect novel protein interactors. Unbiased protein identification by mass spectrometry (MS) extends these experiments beyond the study of pairwise interactions, allowing analyses of whole networks of protein-bait interactions. With the latest advances in MS, it is not uncommon to identify thousands of proteins from complex mixtures. Paradoxically, the improved sensitivity of proteomic analyses can make it more difficult to distinguish bait-specific interactions from the large background of identified proteins. In quantitative proteomics, MS signals from protein populations labeled with stable isotopes such as (13)C and (15)N can be identified and quantified relative to unlabeled counterparts. Using quantitative proteomics to compare biochemical enrichments with the bait of interest against those obtained with control baits allows sensitive detection and discrimination of specific protein-bait interactions among the large number of nonspecific interactions with beads. Ad hoc optimization of enrichment conditions is minimized, and mild purification conditions preserve secondary or high-order protein-protein interactions. The combination of biochemical enrichment and quantitative proteomics allows rapid characterization of molecular baits with their interacting proteins, providing tremendous insight into their biological mechanisms of action.

  16. Field evaluation of two commercial mosquito traps baited with different attractants and colored lights for malaria vector surveillance in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Khongtak, Patcharee; Jaichapor, Boonsong; Pongsiri, Arissara; Evans, Brian P

    2017-08-07

    Sampling for adult mosquito populations is a means of evaluating the efficacy of vector control operations. The goal of this study was to evaluate and identify the most efficacious mosquito traps and combinations of attractants for malaria vector surveillance along the Thai-Myanmar border. In the first part of the study, the BG-Sentinel™ Trap (BGS Trap) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light trap (CDC LT) baited with different attractants (BG-lure® and CO2) were evaluated using a Latin square experimental design. The six configurations were BGS Trap with BG-lure, BGS Trap with BG-lure plus CO2, BGS Trap with CO2, CDC LT with BG-lure, CDC LT with BG lure plus CO2, and CDC LT with CO2. The second half of the study evaluated the impact of light color on malaria vector collections. Colors included the incandescent bulb, ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED), green light stick, red light stick, green LED, and red LED. A total of 8638 mosquitoes consisting of 42 species were captured over 708 trap-nights. The trap types, attractants, and colored lights affected numbers of female anopheline and Anopheles minimus collected (GLM, P < 0.01). Results revealed that BGS Trap captured many anophelines but was significantly less than the CDC LT. The CDC LT, when baited with BG-lure plus CO2 captured the greatest number of anopheline females with a catch rate significantly higher than the CDC LT baited with BG-lure or CO2 alone (P < 0.05). The number of anopheline females collected from the CDC LT baited with CO2 was greater than the CDC LT baited with BG-lure (646 vs 409 females). None of the alternative lights evaluated exceeded the performance of the incandescent light bulb in terms of the numbers of anopheline and An. minimus collected. We conclude that the CDC LT augmented with an incandescent light shows high potential for malaria vector surveillance when baited with CO2 and the BG-lure in combination and can be effectively used as the

  17. Alternative silvicultural practices in Appalachian forest ecosystems: implications for species diversity, ecosystem resilience, and commercial timber production

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Fox; Carola A. Haas; David W. Smith; David L. Loftis; Shepard M. Zedaker; Robert H. Jones; A.L. Hammett

    2007-01-01

    Increasing demands for timber and non-timber forest products often conflict with demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem processes. To examine tradeoffs between these goals, we implemented six alternative management systems using a stand-level, replicated experiment. The treatments included four silvicultural regeneration methods designed to sustain timber...

  18. Effects of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention on Speech Production in Children with Autism: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Wendt, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review aimed to determine the effects of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention on speech production in children with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. Method: A systematic review methodology was utilized to limit bias in searching, selecting, coding, and…

  19. Long-term influence of alternative forest management treatments on total ecosystem and wood product carbon storage

    Treesearch

    Joshua J. Puhlick; Aaron R. Weiskittel; Ivan J. Fernandez; Shawn Fraver; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; Randall K. Kolka; Lindsey E. Rustad; John C. Brissette

    2016-01-01

    Developing strategies for reducing atmospheric CO2 is one of the foremost challenges facing natural resource professionals today. The goal of this study was to evaluate total ecosystem and harvested wood product carbon (C) stocks among alternative forest management treatments (selection cutting, shelterwood cutting, commercial clearcutting, and...

  20. Primary Healthcare Provider Knowledge, Beliefs and Clinic-Based Practices Regarding Alternative Tobacco Products and Marijuana: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S.; Scott, Kimberly N.; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A.; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This…

  1. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources... either of the emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that... device. Use cements and solvents in such a way that the monthly average HAP emissions do not exceed...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources... either of the emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that... device. Use cements and solvents in such a way that the monthly average HAP emissions do not exceed...

  3. Primary Healthcare Provider Knowledge, Beliefs and Clinic-Based Practices Regarding Alternative Tobacco Products and Marijuana: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S.; Scott, Kimberly N.; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A.; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This…

  4. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...

  5. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...

  6. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...

  7. Transitivity Alternations and Sequence Learning: Insights from L2 Spanish Production Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyzik, Eve

    2006-01-01

    This article examines alternating verbs (such as "quemar"(se) "to burn") in second language (L2) Spanish by considering the learnability problem from a sequence learning perspective (N. Ellis, 1996, 2002). In Spanish, verbs of the alternating class are obligatorily marked with the clitic "se" in their intransitive form. Errors of omission among…

  8. Comparison of a synthetic chemical lure and standard fermented baits for trapping Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Cowles, Richard S; Vogt, Heidrun; Loeb, Gregory M; Landolt, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    We determined the attractiveness of a new chemical lure compared with fermented food baits in use for trapping Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in Connecticut, New York, and Washington in the United States and at Dossenheim in Germany. The chemical lure (SWD lure) and food baits were compared in two types of traps: the dome trap and a cup trap. Regardless of trap type, numbers of male and female D. suzukii trapped were greater with the SWD lure compared with apple cider vinegar (ACV) baits at the Washington and New York sites, and were comparable with numbers of D. suzukii captured with a wine plus vinegar bait (W + V) at Germany site and a combination bait meant to mimic W + V at the Connecticut site. Averaged over both types of attractants, the numbers of D. suzukii captured were greater in dome traps than in cup traps in New York and Connecticut for both male and female D. suzukii and in Washington for male D. suzukii. No such differences were found between trap types at the Washington site for female and Germany for male and female D. suzukii. Assessments were also made of the number of large (>0.5 cm) and small (<0.5 cm) nontarget flies trapped. The SWD lure captured fewer nontarget small flies and more large flies compared with ACV bait in New York and fewer nontarget small flies compared with W + V in Germany, although no such differences were found in Washington for the SWD lure versus ACV bait and in Connecticut for the SWD lure versus the combination bait, indicating that these effects are likely influenced by the local nontarget insect community active at the time of trapping. In New York, Connecticut, and Germany, dome traps caught more nontarget flies compared with cup traps. Our results suggest that the four-component SWD chemical lure is an effective attractant for D. suzukii and could be used in place of fermented food-type baits.

  9. Efficiency of baited hoop nets for sampling catfish in southeastern U.S. small impoundments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Benjamin C.; Weaver, Daniel M.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Many U.S. natural resource agencies stock catfish (Ictaluridae) into small impoundments to provide recreational fishing opportunities. However, effective standardized methods for sampling catfish in small impoundments have not been developed for wide application, particularly in the southeastern United States. We evaluated the efficiency of three bait treatments (i.e., soybean cake, sunflower cake, and no bait) of tandem hoop nets in two North Carolina small impoundments during the fall of 2008 and spring of 2009 in a factorial experimental design. The impoundments were stocked with catchable-size channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus at contrastingly low (5.5 fi sh/ha) and high (90.0 fi sh/ha) rates prior to our sampling. Nets baited with soybean cake consistently sampled more channel catfish than any other treatment. Channel catfish catch ranged as high as 3,251 fi sh per net series during the fall in nets baited with soybean cake in the intensively stocked impoundment and was up to 8.5 and 15.3 times higher during the fall than in the spring in each impoundment. Nets baited with soybean cake sampled significantly (12 and 24 times) more channel catfish than those with no bait in the two impoundments. These trends did not occur among other catfish species. Nonictalurid fish and turtle catch was higher during spring compared to that of fall, corresponding with low channel catfish catches. Our results indicate that tandem hoop nets baited with soybean cake during the fall is a more efficient method for sampling channel catfish compared to nets baited with sunflower cake or no bait in spring or fall. Our findings validate this technique for application in southeastern U.S. small impoundments to assess catfish abundance to guide management and evaluate the success of catfish stocking programs.

  10. US adult tobacco users' absolute harm perceptions of traditional and alternative tobacco products, information-seeking behaviors, and (mis)beliefs about chemicals in tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Bernat, Jennifer K; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Margolis, Katherine A; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-08-01

    Harm perceptions about tobacco products may influence initiation, continued use, and cessation efforts. We assessed associations between adult traditional tobacco product use and absolute harm perceptions of traditional and alternative tobacco products. We also described the topics individuals looked for during their last search for information, their beliefs about chemicals in cigarettes/cigarette smoke, and how both relate to harm perceptions. We ran multivariable models with jackknife replicate weights to analyze data from the 2015 administration of the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey (N=3376). Compared to never users, individuals reported lower perceived levels of harm for products they use. Among current tobacco users, ethnicity, thinking about chemicals in tobacco, and information-seeking were all factors associated with tobacco product harm perceptions. In the full sample, some respondents reported searching for information about health effects and cessation and held misperceptions about the source of chemicals in tobacco. This study fills a gap in the literature by assessing the absolute harm perceptions of a variety of traditional and alternative tobacco products. Harm perceptions vary among tobacco products, and the relationship among tobacco use, information seeking, thoughts about chemicals in tobacco products, and harm perceptions is complex. Data suggest that some individuals search for information about health effects and cessation and hold misperceptions about chemicals in tobacco products. Future inquiry could seek to understand the mechanisms that contribute to forming harm perceptions and beliefs about chemicals in tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of corn germ from ethanol production as an alternative fat source in dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, M M; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-03-01

    . Germ removed from corn grain before ethanol production provides an alternative source of fat for energy in lactating dairy cows when fed at 7 and 14% of diet DM. Our results suggest that fat from corn germ may be relatively protected with no adverse effect on DM intake, milk production, and milk composition when fed up to 14% of diet DM.

  12. Alternate Wetting and Drying as an Effective Management Practice to Reduce Methane in Arkansas Rice Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, B.; Smith, S. F.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 15% of the global 308 Tg CH4 emitted by anthropogenic sources is currently attributed to rice cultivation. Arkansas, the leading state in rice cultivation, produces over 42% of the total rice and represents over 43% of total land planted to rice in the US. Although rice production is generally water-intensive, some rice producers have adopted a conservation practice, 'Alternate Wetting and Drying' (AWD), in which the flood is released periodically during the growing season. In addition, implementing AWD can reduce CH4 emissions though the introduction of aerobic conditions. To assess the magnitude of this reduction, conventionally flooded (CONV) and AWD fields were identically instrumented for the 2015 season and fluxes of CH4 were measured with an open path IRGA. Other biophysical variables were monitored to determine the relative dominance of potential drivers. Half-hourly CH4 fluxes from the AWD and CONV fields during their similar initial flood (DOY 138-161) were well correlated (R2 = 0.762), indicating similar mechanisms controlling CH4 emissions in both fields. After the initial drydown event in the AWD field (162 DOY), daily median CH4 fluxes continued to rise to 7.80 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 on 163 DOY before subsiding to a local minimum of 0.162 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 on 171 DOY. Daily median CH4 fluxes between 9.24 and 16.0 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 were observed in the CONV field during this same period. Cumulative emissions from both fields following the drydown event and prior to rewetting demonstrated a reduction in CH4 emissions by the AWD treatment by 82%. The substantial decrease in CH4 emissions by AWD in the early growing season supports and expands upon previous chamber-based research and offers strong evidence for the efficacy of AWD in reducing CH4 emissions in AR rice production. The presentation will also assess the latter portion of the growing season, currently underway, and will provide process-based relationships between biophysical parameters and CH

  13. Sex-biased captures of sarcosaprophagous Diptera in carrion-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vega, Daniel; Baz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The use of carrion-baited traps is a common and widely extended practice in the study of sarcosaprophagous Diptera. However, it implies different areas of bias, one of them being the different responses of males and females to carrion bait, which results in possible biased sex ratios in the captures. In the present study, the use of carrion-baited traps revealed significant female-biased captures in the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae, whereas the collected species of the families Piophilidae, Heleomyzidae, and Ulidiidae showed different patterns in the observed sex ratios. Possible explanations according to existing literature and the types of mating behaviors of the different families are discussed.

  14. An aerial baiting system for the distribution of attenuated or recombinant rabies vaccines for foxes, raccoons, and skunks.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D H; Voigt, D R; MacInnes, C D; Bachmann, P; Lawson, K F; Rupprecht, C E

    1988-01-01

    An aerial baiting system was developed to deliver oral rabies vaccines to wild carnivore vectors of rabies, e.g., red fox, striped skunk, and raccoon. The bait consists of a polyethylene bag that contains either a 30-g hamburger ball or a 25-mL cube of polyurethane sponge coated with a wax-beef tallow mixture containing 100-150 mg of tetracycline as a biomarker. Attractants used with the sponge were added to the bag (e.g., liver slurry, cheeses, fish oils, or fruits). Baits (greater than 80,000) were dropped from light aircraft at densities of 18-120 baits/km2 over test areas in Ontario and Pennsylvania. Rates of bait acceptance were assessed by the presence of fluorescent tetracycline deposits in the teeth of animals obtained from hunters and trappers. Bait acceptance reached 74% in foxes, 54% in skunks, 43% in raccoons, and 85% in coyotes in the Ontario trials; bait acceptance by raccoons in a small trial in Pennsylvania reached 76%. Also, 66% of juvenile foxes that ate baits ate a second bait 7 or more days after eating the first, thus giving the potential for a booster effect. The cost of aerial distribution of bait (excluding cost of bait and vaccine) in Canadian dollars was $1.45/km2. The aerial distribution system is capable of economically reaching a high proportion of foxes, skunks, and raccoons over large areas. Trials with attenuated ERA (Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth) vaccines are under way in Ontario.

  15. Primary healthcare provider knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding alternative tobacco products and marijuana: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S; Scott, Kimberly N; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J

    2016-06-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This qualitative study explored knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding traditional and alternative tobacco products (cigar-like products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, e-cigarettes) and marijuana among rural and urban Georgia primary healthcare providers. The sample comprised 20 healthcare providers in primary care settings located in the Atlanta Metropolitan area and rural southern Georgia who participated in semi-structured interviews. Results indicated a lack of knowledge about these products, with some believing that some products were less harmful than traditional cigarettes or that they may be effective in promoting cessation or harm reduction. Few reported explicitly assessing use of these various products in clinic. In addition, healthcare providers reported a need for empirical evidence to inform their clinical practice. Healthcare providers must systematically assess use of the range of tobacco products and marijuana. Evidence-based recommendations or information sources are needed to inform clinical practice and help providers navigate conversations with patients using or inquiring about these products.

  16. Improving food and agriculture productivity and the environment: Canadian initiatives in methyl bromide alternatives and emission control technologies. Revised edition

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, M.; Tibelius, C.

    1998-12-31

    Methyl bromide, a fumigant used in the agricultural sector, was listed as an ozone-depleting substance under the Montreal Protocol and is scheduled for phasing out in Canada. This report begins with a review of the joint industry/government approach being taken to plan and manage this phase-out. It then reviews alternative solutions that have been formulated and tested as replacements for the use of methyl bromide in greenhouse cultivation, soil fumigation, strawberry transplant production, tobacco production, grain production, and food processing facilities. Contact names and addresses are provided for those seeking further information. The final sections describe activities in methyl bromide recovery and recycling and list industry and government organizations that have expertise in methyl bromide alternatives.

  17. Responses of the sheep blowflies Lucilia sericata and L. cuprina to odour and the development of semiochemical baits.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, J R; Wall, R

    1994-10-01

    The literature relating to the attraction of the sheep blowflies Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina to their ovine hosts is reviewed. The responses of the two species are similar and different components of the behaviour leading to host location and oviposition appear to involve at least two distinct sets of semiochemical cues. Activation, upwind orientation and landing appear to occur in response to putrefactive sulphur-rich volatiles, originating from bacterial decomposition products. Oviposition is elicited primarily by the presence of decomposition products. Oviposition is elicited primarily by the presence of ammonia-rich compounds; moisture, pheromones and tactile stimuli may also act as oviposition stimuli. There is a pronounced sex difference in the response of Lucilia to semiochemicals with a higher proportion of females attracted than males and a higher proportion of gravid than non-gravid females. While the mechanisms of host location by Lucilia are of intrinsic interest, understanding the responses to semiochemicals is important in the attempt to develop powerful synthetic baits for deployment with the traps or targets used for population sampling or suppression. The literature is discussed with respect to the development of synthetic semiochemical baits.

  18. Worm Grunting, Fiddling, and Charming—Humans Unknowingly Mimic a Predator to Harvest Bait

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2008-01-01

    Background For generations many families in and around Florida's Apalachicola National Forest have supported themselves by collecting the large endemic earthworms (Diplocardia mississippiensis). This is accomplished by vibrating a wooden stake driven into the soil, a practice called “worm grunting”. In response to the vibrations, worms emerge to the surface where thousands can be gathered in a few hours. Why do these earthworms suddenly exit their burrows in response to vibrations, exposing themselves to predation? Principal Findings Here it is shown that a population of eastern American moles (Scalopus aquaticus) inhabits the area where worms are collected and that earthworms have a pronounced escape response from moles consisting of rapidly exiting their burrows to flee across the soil surface. Recordings of vibrations generated by bait collectors and moles suggest that “worm grunters” unknowingly mimic digging moles. An alternative possibility, that worms interpret vibrations as rain and surface to avoid drowning is not supported. Conclusions Previous investigations have revealed that both wood turtles and herring gulls vibrate the ground to elicit earthworm escapes, indicating that a range of predators may exploit the predator-prey relationship between earthworms and moles. In addition to revealing a novel escape response that may be widespread among soil fauna, the results show that humans have played the role of “rare predators” in exploiting the consequences of a sensory arms race. PMID:18852902

  19. Worm grunting, fiddling, and charming--humans unknowingly mimic a predator to harvest bait.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2008-01-01

    For generations many families in and around Florida's Apalachicola National Forest have supported themselves by collecting the large endemic earthworms (Diplocardia mississippiensis). This is accomplished by vibrating a wooden stake driven into the soil, a practice called "worm grunting". In response to the vibrations, worms emerge to the surface where thousands can be gathered in a few hours. Why do these earthworms suddenly exit their burrows in response to vibrations, exposing themselves to predation? Here it is shown that a population of eastern American moles (Scalopus aquaticus) inhabits the area where worms are collected and that earthworms have a pronounced escape response from moles consisting of rapidly exiting their burrows to flee across the soil surface. Recordings of vibrations generated by bait collectors and moles suggest that "worm grunters" unknowingly mimic digging moles. An alternative possibility, that worms interpret vibrations as rain and surface to avoid drowning is not supported. Previous investigations have revealed that both wood turtles and herring gulls vibrate the ground to elicit earthworm escapes, indicating that a range of predators may exploit the predator-prey relationship between earthworms and moles. In addition to revealing a novel escape response that may be widespread among soil fauna, the results show that humans have played the role of "rare predators" in exploiting the consequences of a sensory arms race.

  20. Evaluating the feeding preferences of West Nile virus mosquito vectors using bird-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Victoriano Llopis, Isis; Tomassone, Laura; Grego, Elena; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mosca, Andrea; Vaschetti, Gabriella; Andrade, Daniela; Rossi, Luca

    2016-08-31

    The total contact rates (TCRs) between mosquito vectors and their potential hosts have a serious impact on disease transmission dynamics. Culex pipiens (sensu stricto) (s.s.) is considered the main vector of the West Nile Virus (WNV) in Europe and birds are the reservoir hosts. The results of our previous study showed that WNV seroreactors are significantly more prevalent among raptors compared to a range of other wild avian groups. The current study aims to assess the role of bird type (raptor vs others) and bird size on mosquito feeding preferences in a free-choice experiment using bird-baited traps. From July to September 2014, a battery of six bird-baited traps was operated in twelve mosquito capture sessions. Eight bird species, belonging to five different orders, including raptors, were used. After each session, the trapped mosquitoes were collected and identified using standard keys. Two sets of independent generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to assess mosquito vector feeding preferences (MFp) among different bird species and types. A total of 304 mosquitoes belonging to seven taxa were collected, C. pipiens being by far the most abundant (84.2 % of the total mosquito catch). Most C. pipiens were engorged (83.59 %). The selected model showed that 25.6 % of the observed variability of MFp is explained by the interaction between bird size and bird type, with C. pipiens preferring to feed on large birds, especially raptors. The proportion of engorged mosquitoes was 1.9-fold higher in large (22.88 %; range 0-42 %) than in medium-sized raptors (11.71 %; range 0-33 %), and was nearly the same in medium-sized (9.08 %; range 0-26 %) and large (8.5 %; 6-24 %) non-raptor species. Culex pipiens showed an obvious preference for large raptors, which concurs with the higher seroprevalence to WNV in our previous study. The appreciable feeding by C. pipiens on large raptors makes them useful alternative sentinels to poultry for WNV surveillance. Thus

  1. Application of Paraffin Bait Technique to the Isolation of Nocardia asteroides from Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, S. K.; Randhawa, H. S.

    1969-01-01

    The principal findings of a study for further evaluating paraffin baiting as a routine laboratory diagnostic procedure in the isolation of Nocardia asteroides, the etiological agent of nocardiosis, are reported. PMID:4905040

  2. MORE THAN JUST BAIT: BURROWING SHRIMP AS ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS IN OREGON ESTUARIES - SEPTEMBER 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp may be most widely known as excellent fishing bait, but they also play important roles in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. These shrimps strongly affect carbon and nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, food web structure and dynamics, sediment stability,...

  3. Optimising bait for pitfall trapping of Amazonian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Marsh, Charles J; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology.

  4. The use of environmental DNA in invasive species surveillance of the Great Lakes commercial bait trade.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Lucas R; Jerde, Christopher L; Budny, Michelle L; Mahon, Andrew R

    2015-04-01

    Over 180 non-native species have been introduced in the Laurentian Great Lakes region, many posing threats to native species and ecosystem functioning. One potential pathway for introductions is the commercial bait trade; unknowing or unconcerned anglers commonly release unused bait into aquatic systems. Previous surveillance efforts of this pathway relied on visual inspection of bait stocks in retail shops, which can be time and cost prohibitive and requires a trained individual that can rapidly and accurately identify cryptic species. Environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance, a molecular tool that has been used for surveillance in aquatic environments, can be used to efficiently detect species at low abundances. We collected and analyzed 576 eDNA samples from 525 retail bait shops throughout the Laurentian Great Lake states. We used eDNA techniques to screen samples for multiple aquatic invasive species (AIS) that could be transported in the bait trade, including bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus), Eurasian rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Twenty-seven samples were positive for at least one target species (4.7% of samples), and all target species were found at least once, except bighead carp. Despite current regulations, the bait trade remains a potential pathway for invasive species introductions in the Great Lakes region. Alterations to existing management strategies regarding the collection, transportation, and use of live bait are warranted, including new and updated regulations, to prevent future introductions of invasive species in the Great Lakes via the bait trade.

  5. Mortality and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of food.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2011-02-01

    Spinosad bait is used to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), by killing flies before they oviposit. However, effects of different insecticide baits on management of reproductively mature flies are largely unknown. Objectives here were to determine mortality and oviposition of reproductively mature R. indifferens exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of dried yeast extract and sucrose food. Spinosad bait (spinosad in a mix of protein, sugar, and other ingredients) was compared with acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure + sucrose bait. When flies were exposed to treatments and then offered cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., for oviposition or when they were exposed to treatments and cherries simultaneously, both thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait resulted in higher mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait. Exposures to thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait for six and 24 h were similarly effective, but 6-h exposures to spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait were less effective than 24-h exposures. There was little difference between sucrose and Nu-Lure + sucrose baits. When food was present, thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait caused greater mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait, but when food was absent, patterns were less consistent. Because of its ability to kill flies sooner after it is exposed to flies when food is present or absent, thiamethoxam or imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure bait may reduce infestations in cherries more than spinosad bait when mature R. indifferens are present in orchards.

  6. Small Bait Traps as Accurate Predictors of Dipteran Early Colonizers in Forensic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, Ana; Dourado, Catarina G.; Centeio, Neiva; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Dias, Deodália; Rebelo, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Insect carrion communities vary among habitats and over time. Concerning the dipteran early colonizers of carrion, the use of small bait traps should be accurate because the odors emitted from meat baits should contain many of the volatile organic compounds emitted from the freshly dead mammals. In addition, this kind of trap is easy to replicate and set in position in a given habitat. In the present study, small bait preferences of early Diptera carrion colonizers were examined in an urban biotope. Specifically, three baits were compared (pork muscle, pork liver, and fish flavored cat food) in respect to the number of specimens and species captured and the presence or absence of oviposition at high and low environmental temperatures. A total of 2371 specimens were trapped, primarily belonging to three insect orders, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera. Diptera was the predominant order, with blowflies (Calliphoridae) being the most representative family, followed by filth flies (Muscidae). The pork muscle bait was responsible for the highest number of captures and the highest diversity. The community of Diptera collected with the most efficient bait, pork muscle, was compared with the carrion communities reported in the literature from the Iberian Peninsula. Similar taxonomic species composition was found regarding Calliphoridae species. A specimen from all species morphologically identified were also identified at a molecular level using the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode region, and the sequences were submitted to online databases. PMID:25373224

  7. "Bait vehicle" technologies and motor vehicle theft along the southwest border.

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2007-09-01

    In 2005, over 33% of all the vehicles reported stolen in the United States occurred in the four southwestern border states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, which all have very high vehicle theft rates in comparison to the national average. This report describes the utilization of 'bait vehicles' and associated technologies in the context of motor vehicle theft along the southwest border of the U.S. More than 100 bait vehicles are estimated to be in use by individual agencies and auto theft task forces in the southwestern border states. The communications, tracking, mapping, and remote control technologies associated with bait vehicles provide law enforcement with an effective tool to obtain arrests in vehicle theft 'hot spots'. Recorded audio and video from inside the vehicle expedite judicial proceedings as offenders rarely contest the evidence presented. At the same time, law enforcement is very interested in upgrading bait vehicle technology through the use of live streaming video for enhanced officer safety and improved situational awareness. Bait vehicle effectiveness could be enhanced by dynamic analysis of motor theft trends through exploitation of geospatial, timeline, and other analytical tools to better inform very near-term operational decisions, including the selection of particular vehicle types. This 'information-led' capability would especially benefit from more precise and timely information on the location of vehicles stolen in the United States and found in Mexico. Introducing Automated License Plate Reading (ALPR) technology to collect information associated with stolen motor vehicles driven into Mexico could enhance bait vehicle effectiveness.

  8. Disappearance rate of praziquantel-containing bait around villages and small towns in southern Bavaria, Germany.

    PubMed

    Janko, Christof; König, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has increasingly occupied urban areas in central Europe. Meanwhile, prevalence of infection in foxes with the small fox tapeworm (Echinococcus multilocularis) has increased, thereby increasing the human risk of infection with the parasite, which causes alveolar echinococcosis. Baiting strategies to counteract E. multilocularis have been implemented in cities and the open countryside, but there are few data on the situation in villages and small towns (<10,000 inhabitants). We recorded disappearance rates of praziquantel-containing bait within villages and small towns and on settlement edges for 7 days after distribution. Disappearance rates were 89.2% in villages, 88.8% in small towns, and 91.8% in settlement edges. More than 75% of the bait was consistently taken within the first three nights. There were no significant differences in disappearance rates between years or among seasons (Cox proportional hazard model). The survival time of the bait in small towns (P=0.021) and villages (P=0.026) depended on the zone (zone 1, first row of houses bordering on open countryside; zone 2, second to fourth rows, zone 3; beyond the fifth row) in which bait was distributed. In villages, the probability of bait being eaten in zone 1 was 119% higher than it was in zone 3 (P=0.007). In small towns, the probability was 60% higher (P=0.006).

  9. Small bait traps as accurate predictors of dipteran early colonizers in forensic studies.

    PubMed

    Farinha, Ana; Dourado, Catarina G; Centeio, Neiva; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Dias, Deodália; Rebelo, Maria Teresa

    2014-05-30

    Insect carrion communities vary among habitats and over time. Concerning the dipteran early colonizers of carrion, the use of small bait traps should be accurate because the odors emitted from meat baits should contain many of the volatile organic compounds emitted from the freshly dead mammals. In addition, this kind of trap is easy to replicate and set in position in a given habitat. In the present study, small bait preferences of early Diptera carrion colonizers were examined in an urban biotope. Specifically, three baits were compared (pork muscle, pork liver, and fish flavored cat food) in respect to the number of specimens and species captured and the presence or absence of oviposition at high and low environmental temperatures. A total of 2371 specimens were trapped, primarily belonging to three insect orders, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera. Diptera was the predominant order, with blowflies (Calliphoridae) being the most representative family, followed by filth flies (Muscidae). The pork muscle bait was responsible for the highest number of captures and the highest diversity. The community of Diptera collected with the most efficient bait, pork muscle, was compared with the carrion communities reported in the literature from the Iberian Peninsula. Similar taxonomic species composition was found regarding Calliphoridae species. A specimen from all species morphologically identified were also identified at a molecular level using the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode region, and the sequences were submitted to online databases.

  10. Digestion of Termiticide Bait Matrices by the Pest Termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Sethi, Amit; Karl, Zachary J; Scharf, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    Termites are highly effective digesters of wood lignocellulose, which is a central factor contributing to their global status as pests of wooden structures. For the same reason, termite baits that combine cellulosic matrices with slow-acting insecticides are both effective and popular as a reduced-risk approach for termite control. This study took a novel approach for assessing digestibility of termite bait matrices and matrix components to gain potentially new insights into bait attractiveness and efficacy. The rationale behind this study is that termite baits that are more digestible should have more nutritional value to termites and thus encourage maximal feeding and trophallactic transfer of active ingredients through termite colonies. Studies were done using in vitro digestion assays with termite gut protein extracts followed by colorimetric detection of released glucose and pentose monosaccharides from test substrates. The substrates tested included two commercial bait matrices (Recruit IV and Recruit II HD), two matrix components (compressed and toasted compressed cellulose), and two natural pine woods as positive controls (southern yellow and northern pine). Overall results show equal or greater monosaccharide availability for some commercial matrices than standard pine lignocelluloses, suggesting sufficient nutritional value for the proprietary matrices. Another more prominent trend was significant intercolony variation in digestibility across substrates, possibly resulting from differences in microbiota composition, long-term diet adaptation, or both. These findings thus illuminate new nutrition-based factors that can potentially impact bait feeding, trophallactic exchange, and efficacy.

  11. Bait type influences on catch and bycatch in tandem hoop nets set in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Stewart, David R.; Shiflet, Jeremy; Balsman, Dane; Shoup, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Tandem hoop nets have become the primary gear for sampling channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but suffer from high incidences of bycatch, particularly aquatic turtles that usually drown as a result. We sought to determine if bait type, ZOTE© soap and ground cheese logs, would influence catch of channel catfish (CPUE and mean TL) and bycatch of fishes and aquatic turtles. We sampled with tandem hoop nets in 13 Kentucky reservoirs (5–73 ha) using a crossover design and two sampling events. We found no difference in channel catfish catch rates between bait types, but mean sizes of fish caught using ZOTE© soap were approximately 24 mm longer compared to cheese. Fish bycatch was similar between bait types, but tandem hoop nets baited with ZOTE© soap caught up to 61% fewer turtles and mortality of turtles that were captured was up to 12% lower than those baited with cheese. Depth of net set, water temperature, and Secchi depth were environmental factors measured that affected catch and bycatch, but varied among species. Using ZOTE© soap as bait in tandem hoop nets appears to be a fairly simple and straightforward method for maintaining high catch rates of channel catfish while minimizing turtle mortality.

  12. Evaluation of boric acid sugar baits against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in tropical environments.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Diana P; Qualls, Whitney A; Müller, Gunter C; Samson, Dayana M; Roque, Deborah; Alimi, Temitope; Arheart, Kristopher; Beier, John C; Xue, Rui-De

    2013-04-01

    Attractive toxic sugar bait (active ingredient, 1% boric acid) was evaluated against Aedes albopictus Skuse populations in the laboratory, semi-field trials, and field trials in residential communities in St. Augustine, Florida. Laboratory evaluations of boric acid sugar baits applied to the plant Pentas lanceolata (Rubiaceae) demonstrated 100 and 92% mortality of A. albopictus at day 7 and 14, respectively. A semi-field study evaluating the bait application to the upperside or topside of leaves resulted in no significant difference on mortality (P>0.05). Overall combined top and bottom boric acid sugar bait application mortality at day 7 was 95% based on leaf bioassays. Field application of the boric acid sugar baits significantly (P<0.05) decreased adult A. albopictus populations up to day 21 post-treatment compared to the pre-treatment population numbers. A significant reduction in oviposition was demonstrated both at day 7 and 14 post-application (P=0.001) as monitored by ovitraps. Attractive toxic sugar bait application in tropical environments demonstrated efficacy, persistence, and feasibility in controlling A. albopictus populations.

  13. Comparison of naturally and synthetically baited spruce beetle trapping systems in the central Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E M; Vandygriff, J C; Cain, R J; Wakarchuk, D

    2006-04-01

    We compared naturally baited trapping systems to synthetically baited funnel traps and fallen trap trees for suppressing preoutbreak spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby, populations. Lures for the traps were fresh spruce (Picea spp.) bolts or bark sections, augmented by adding female spruce beetles to create secondary attraction. In 2003, we compared a naturally baited system ("bolt trap") with fallen trap trees and with synthetically baited funnel traps. Trap performance was evaluated by comparing total beetle captures and spillover of attacks into nearby host trees. Overall, the trap systems did not significantly differ in spruce beetle captures, although bolt traps caught 6 to 7 times more beetles than funnel traps during the first 4 wk of testing. Funnel traps with synthetic lures had significantly more spillover than either trap trees or bolt traps. The study was repeated in 2004 with modifications including an enhanced blend synthetic lure. Again, trap captures were generally similar among naturally and synthetically baited traps, but naturally baited traps had significantly less spillover. Although relatively labor-intensive, the bolt trap could be used to suppress preoutbreak beetle populations, especially when spillover is undesirable. Our work provides additional avenues for management of spruce beetles and suggests that currently used synthetic lures can be improved.

  14. Responses of Tabanidae (Diptera) to canopy traps baited with 4-methylphenol, 3-isopropylphenol, and naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Krcmar, Stjepan

    2007-12-01

    The attraction of female tabanids to unbaited and single-baited canopy traps using 4-methylphenol, 3-isopropylphenol, and naphthalene was studied in three forest localities in eastern Croatia. Tabanids were collected in a significantly higher number in traps baited with these chemicals compared to unbaited control traps. The number of females of Tabanus bromius, Tabanus sudeticus, Tabanus tergestinus, Hybomitra ciureai, Haematopota pluvialis, and Tabanus maculicornis collected from 4-methylphenol baited canopy traps and traps baited with other attractants differed significantly. A total of 89.0% of tabanids collected belonged to these six species. The response of the other species to used chemicals was not analyzed because of small sample sizes. Moreover, the results with 3-isopropylphenol and naphthalene are very similar and not significant for some tabanids. Tabanus bromius was the most abundant species with 48.4% in the sample collected by canopy traps. Finally, the 4-methylphenol baited canopy traps collected 16 times more tabanids than unbaited traps, while 3-isopropylphenol and naphthalene baited traps collected 3.5 and 2 times as many tabanids, respectively, than unbaited traps. Also, 4-methylphenol appeared to be a very effective attractant for Lucilia caesar (Calliphoridae), Sarcophaga carnaria (Sarcophagidae), and Musca domestica (Muscidae).

  15. Use of Herring Bait to Farm Lobsters in the Gulf of Maine

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Clesceri, Erika J.; Baukus, Adam J.; Gaudette, Julien; Weber, Matthew; Yund, Philip O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus) are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free) sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S. Conclusions/Significance Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions. PMID:20419167

  16. Direct Detection of Alternative Open Reading Frames Translation Products in Human Significantly Expands the Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Vanderperre, Benoît; Lucier, Jean-François; Bissonnette, Cyntia; Motard, Julie; Tremblay, Guillaume; Vanderperre, Solène; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Boisvert, François-Michel; Roucou, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    A fully mature mRNA is usually associated to a reference open reading frame encoding a single protein. Yet, mature mRNAs contain unconventional alternative open reading frames (AltORFs) located in untranslated regions (UTRs) or overlapping the reference ORFs (RefORFs) in non-canonical +2 and +3 reading frames. Although recent ribosome profiling and footprinting approaches have suggested the significant use of unconventional translation initiation sites in mammals, direct evidence of large-scale alternative protein expression at the proteome level is still lacking. To determine the contribution of alternative proteins to the human proteome, we generated a database of predicted human AltORFs revealing a new proteome mainly composed of small proteins with a median length of 57 amino acids, compared to 344 amino acids for the reference proteome. We experimentally detected a total of 1,259 alternative proteins by mass spectrometry analyses of human cell lines, tissues and fluids. In plasma and serum, alternative proteins represent up to 55% of the proteome and may be a potential unsuspected new source for biomarkers. We observed constitutive co-expression of RefORFs and AltORFs from endogenous genes and from transfected cDNAs, including tumor suppressor p53, and provide evidence that out-of-frame clones representing AltORFs are mistakenly rejected as false positive in cDNAs screening assays. Functional importance of alternative proteins is strongly supported by significant evolutionary conservation in vertebrates, invertebrates, and yeast. Our results imply that coding of multiple proteins in a single gene by the use of AltORFs may be a common feature in eukaryotes, and confirm that translation of unconventional ORFs generates an as yet unexplored proteome. PMID:23950983

  17. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cloyd, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems. PMID:26463188

  18. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A

    2015-04-09

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  19. Influence of Fermenting Bait and Vertical Position of Traps on Attraction of Cerambycid Beetles to Pheromone Lures.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joseph C H; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-10-01

    Because larvae of cerambycid beetles feed within woody plants, they are difficult to detect, and are readily transported in lumber and other wooden products. As a result, increasing numbers of exotic cerambycid species are being introduced into new regions of the world through international commerce, and many of these species pose a threat to woody plants in natural and managed forests. There is a great need for effective methods for detecting exotic and potentially invasive cerambycid species, and for monitoring native species for conservation purposes. Here, we describe a field experiment in east-central Illinois which tested whether attraction of beetles to a blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones would be enhanced by volatiles from fermenting bait composed of crushed fruit, sugars, yeast, and wood chips. A second experiment tested the same treatments, but also assessed how trap catch was influenced by the vertical position of traps within forests (understory versus within the canopy). During the two experiments, 885 cerambycid beetles of 37 species were caught, with Xylotrechus colonus (F.) (subfamily Cerambycinae) being the most numerous (∼52% of total). Adults of several cerambycid species were significantly attracted by the pheromone blend, but the fermenting bait significantly enhanced attraction only for X. colonus and Graphisurus fasciatus (Degeer) (subfamily Lamiinae). Traps in the forest understory caught the greatest number of X. colonus and G. fasciatus, whereas more adults of the cerambycine Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (F.) were caught in the forest canopy rather than the understory.

  20. A Changing Number of Alternative States in the Boreal Biome: Reproducibility Risks of Replacing Remote Sensing Products.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chi; Holmgren, Milena; Van Nes, Egbert H; Hirota, Marina; Chapin, F Stuart; Scheffer, Marten

    2015-01-01

    Publicly available remote sensing products have boosted science in many ways. The openness of these data sources suggests high reproducibility. However, as we show here, results may be specific to versions of the data products that can become unavailable as new versions are posted. We focus on remotely-sensed tree cover. Recent studies have used this public resource to detect multi-modality in tree cover in the tropical and boreal biomes. Such patterns suggest alternative stable states separated by critical tipping points. This has important implications for the potential response of these ecosystems to global climate change. For the boreal region, four distinct ecosystem states (i.e., treeless, sparse and dense woodland, and boreal forest) were previously identified by using the Collection 3 data of MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF). Since then, the MODIS VCF product has been updated to Collection 5; and a Landsat VCF product of global tree cover at a fine spatial resolution of 30 meters has been developed. Here we compare these different remote-sensing products of tree cover to show that identification of alternative stable states in the boreal biome partly depends on the data source used. The updated MODIS data and the newer Landsat data consistently demonstrate three distinct modes around similar tree-cover values. Our analysis suggests that the boreal region has three modes: one sparsely vegetated state (treeless), one distinct 'savanna-like' state and one forest state, which could be alternative stable states. Our analysis illustrates that qualitative outcomes of studies may change fundamentally as new versions of remote sensing products are used. Scientific reproducibility thus requires that old versions remain publicly available.

  1. A Changing Number of Alternative States in the Boreal Biome: Reproducibility Risks of Replacing Remote Sensing Products

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chi; Holmgren, Milena; Van Nes, Egbert H.; Hirota, Marina; Chapin, F. Stuart; Scheffer, Marten

    2015-01-01

    Publicly available remote sensing products have boosted science in many ways. The openness of these data sources suggests high reproducibility. However, as we show here, results may be specific to versions of the data products that can become unavailable as new versions are posted. We focus on remotely-sensed tree cover. Recent studies have used this public resource to detect multi-modality in tree cover in the tropical and boreal biomes. Such patterns suggest alternative stable states separated by critical tipping points. This has important implications for the potential response of these ecosystems to global climate change. For the boreal region, four distinct ecosystem states (i.e., treeless, sparse and dense woodland, and boreal forest) were previously identified by using the Collection 3 data of MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF). Since then, the MODIS VCF product has been updated to Collection 5; and a Landsat VCF product of global tree cover at a fine spatial resolution of 30 meters has been developed. Here we compare these different remote-sensing products of tree cover to show that identification of alternative stable states in the boreal biome partly depends on the data source used. The updated MODIS data and the newer Landsat data consistently demonstrate three distinct modes around similar tree-cover values. Our analysis suggests that the boreal region has three modes: one sparsely vegetated state (treeless), one distinct ‘savanna-like’ state and one forest state, which could be alternative stable states. Our analysis illustrates that qualitative outcomes of studies may change fundamentally as new versions of remote sensing products are used. Scientific reproducibility thus requires that old versions remain publicly available. PMID:26571014

  2. Skyline logging productivity under alternative harvesting prescriptions and levels of utilization in larch-fir stands

    Treesearch

    Rulon B. Gardner

    1980-01-01

    Larch-fir stands in northwest Montana were experimentally logged to determine the influence of increasingly intensive levels of utilization upon rates of yarding production, under three different silvicultural prescriptions. Variables influencing rate of production were also identified.

  3. Economic potential of compost amendment as an alternative to irrigation in Maine potato production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato productivity in the northeastern U.S. has been relatively constant for over fifty years, raising questions about what factors are limiting productivity. Research was initiated in 2004 to identify key constraints to potato productivity by evaluating Status Quo, Soil Conserving, and Soil Improv...

  4. Production and Reception Formats: An Alternative Participation Framework for Analysis of Classroom Discourse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to offer an alternative to traditional participation frameworks used to analyse teacher/pupil talk in the classroom. Within curricular areas where learners are encouraged to articulate their own meaning and be creative in their use of language, a traditional participation framework, such as Initiation, Response, Follow-up, may…

  5. Early Sentence Productions of 5-Year-Old Children Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binger, Cathy; Kent-Walsh, Jennifer; King, Marika; Webb, Eliza; Buenviaje, Elijia

    2017-01-01

    Four 5-year-old children with receptive language within normal limits and who required augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) received instruction in producing six different semantic--syntactic structures (three treatment and three generalization targets). Participants accessed single-meaning graphic symbols using an AAC app on an iPad…

  6. Methyl Bromide alternatives for vegetable production in Georgia: On-farm trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three fumigant alternatives, methyl iodide plus chloropicirn (MIDAS), dimethyl disulfide plus chloropicrin (DMDS), and Telone II plus chloropicrin plus Vapam (3-Way) have exhibited promising results in small plot trials for the control of pests (weeds, pathogens, nematodes) in plasticulture producti...

  7. EVALUATION OF CURRENTLY AVAILABLE ALTERNATIVES TO METHYL BROMIDE FOR ORNAMENTAL CROP PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were designed to test the efficacy of the chemical alternatives, Midas™ (iodomethane:chloropicrin (pic) 50:50 [MI 50:50] and 98:2 [MI 98:2], Arysta LifeScience Corp., Cary, NC) and dimethyl disulfide:pic (Paladin™ 79:21 [DMDS], United Phosphorous, Inc., King of Prussia, PA) compared with met...

  8. Alternatives to antibiotics as growth promoters for use in swine production: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the past two decades, an intensive amount of research has been focused on the development of alternatives to antibiotics to maintain swine health and performance. The most widely researched alternatives include probiotics, prebiotics, acidifiers, plant extracts and neutraceuticals such as copper and zinc. Since these additives have been more than adequately covered in previous reviews, the focus of this review will be on less traditional alternatives. The potential of antimicrobial peptides, clay minerals, egg yolk antibodies, essential oils, eucalyptus oil-medium chain fatty acids, rare earth elements and recombinant enzymes are discussed. Based on a thorough review of the literature, it is evident that a long and growing list of compounds exist which have been tested for their ability to replace antibiotics as feed additives in diets fed to swine. Unfortunately, the vast majority of these compounds produce inconsistent results and rarely equal antibiotics in their effectiveness. Therefore, it would appear that research is still needed in this area and that the perfect alternative to antibiotics does not yet exist. PMID:24034214

  9. Production and Reception Formats: An Alternative Participation Framework for Analysis of Classroom Discourse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to offer an alternative to traditional participation frameworks used to analyse teacher/pupil talk in the classroom. Within curricular areas where learners are encouraged to articulate their own meaning and be creative in their use of language, a traditional participation framework, such as Initiation, Response, Follow-up, may…

  10. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Junior, Nelson Alves; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

  11. A new alternative use for coffee pulp from semi-dry process to β-glucosidase production by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Dias, M; Melo, M M; Schwan, R F; Silva, C F

    2015-12-01

    Coffee is among the most preferred nonalcoholic drinks, and its consumption is distributed globally. During the coffee fruiting process, however, a large amount of waste is generated in the form of pulp, mucilage, husks, and water waste. The pulp and mucilage have the chemical composition to support the growth of micro-organisms and the production of value-added product. The aim was testify pulp coffee can be considered as carbon and inductor source for β-glucosidase by Bacillus subtilis CCMA 0087. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed for this optimization. The methodology used in the optimization process was validated by testing the best conditions obtained and comparing them with the values predicted by the model. The highest β-glucosidase production (22·59 UI ml(-1) ) was reached in 24 h of culturing at coffee pulp concentration of 36·8 g l(-1) , temperature of 36·6°C, and pH of 3·64. Countries whose economy is based on agricultural activities generate a great deal of liquid and solid waste. Thus, it is important to develop new alternatives for using this waste rather than disposing it in the environment. The production of enzymes, and particularly cellulase, is one such alternative. In this study, we proposed to produce β-glucosidase production from pulp coffee extract using a Bacillus subtilis strain. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. A comparative human health risk assessment of p-dichlorobenzene-based toilet rimblock products versus fragrance/surfactant-based alternatives.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Dallas B; Bosch, Stephen; Gray, D Anthony; Howard, Philip H; Guiney, Patrick D

    2007-10-01

    A comparison of the human health risk to consumers using one of two types of toilet rimblock products, either a p-dichlorobenzene-based rimblock or two newer fragrance/surfactant-based alternatives, was conducted. Rimblock products are designed for global use by consumers worldwide and function by releasing volatile compounds into indoor air with subsequent exposure presumed to be mainly by inhalation of indoor air. Using the THERdbASE exposure model and experimentally determined emission data, indoor air concentrations and daily intake values were determined for both types of rimblock products. Modeled exposure concentrations from a representative p-dichlorobenzene rimblock product are an order of magnitude higher than those from the alternative rimblock products due to its nearly pure composition and high sublimation rate. Lifetime exposure to p-dichlorobenzene or the subset of fragrance components with available RfD values is not expected to lead to non-cancer-based adverse health effects based on the exposure concentrations estimated using the THERdbASE model. A similar comparison of cancer-based effects was not possible as insufficient data were available for the fragrance components.

  13. Androgen production in pediatric adrenocortical tumors may occur via both the classic and/or the alternative backdoor pathway.

    PubMed

    Marti, Nesa; Malikova, Jana; Galván, José A; Aebischer, Maude; Janner, Marco; Sumnik, Zdenek; Obermannova, Barbora; Escher, Genevieve; Perren, Aurel; Flück, Christa E

    2017-09-05

    Children with adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) often present with virilization due to high tumoral androgen production, with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as most potent androgen. Recent work revealed two pathways for DHT biosynthesis, the classic and the backdoor pathway. Usage of alternate routes for DHT production has been reported in castration-resistant prostate cancer, CAH and PCOS. To assess whether the backdoor pathway may contribute to the virilization of pediatric ACTs, we investigated seven children suffering from androgen producing tumors using steroid profiling and immunohistochemical expression studies. All cases produced large amounts of androgens of the classic and/or backdoor pathway. Variable expression of steroid enzymes was observed in carcinomas and adenomas. We found no discriminative pattern. This suggests that enhanced androgen production in pediatric ACTs is the result of deregulated steroidogenesis through multiple steroid pathways. Thus future treatments of ACTs targeting androgen overproduction should consider these novel steroid production pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An alternative discourse of productive aging: A self-restrained approach in older Chinese people in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Luo, Minxia; Chui, Ernest Wing-Tak

    2016-08-01

    While Western discourses regarding productive aging emphasize individuals' contributions to economic productivity, the Confucian cultural heritage of the Chinese community may provide an alternative perspective. This qualitative study explores interpretations of what constitutes productive aging, based on a series of in-depth interviews with older Chinese people in Hong Kong. It shows that some of these individuals adopted a passive and indirect interpretation of productive aging, distinct from that found in Western countries. The Confucianism-based, collectivist, normative order underpinning Hong Kong society disposed these older people to adopting a self-restrained attitude with the aim of avoiding becoming a burden to others, especially family members. Such a tendency toward self-restraint or avoidance also encompassed a compromise between ideals and reality, with the older people opting to compromise their expectations of the younger generation as a whole, their adult children in particular, in terms of respect and reciprocity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Olive fruit fly adult response to attract-and-kill bait stations in greenhouse cages with weathered bait spray and a commercial table olive orchard

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) adults, and olive foliage sprayed with insecticidal bait spray were evaluated for efficacy after 1-4 weeks in outdoor weather. Adults caged for 1-3 days with weathered material on foliage and traps in the greenhouse resulted in h...

  16. Domains of occupation of abyssal scavengers inferred from baited cameras and traps on the Demerara Abyssal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Gilbert T.; Sibuet, Myriam; Vangriesheim, Annick

    1986-04-01

    Baited cameras and traps were deployed on the Demerara Abyssal Plain at a depth of 4850 m to assess the behavior, diversity, vertical zonation and abundance of motile near-bottom scavengers. The composition of the fauna that was attracted differed with type of bait and distance from bottom. While several fishes (primarily the ophidiid cf. Barathrites iris) and a penaeid crustacean (cf. Plesiopenaius edwardsi) were attracted to bait on the bottom, only a large mysid (cf. Gnathophausia ingens) gathered to a large tuna bait moored at 200 m off bottom. In no case was the bait utilized extensively. Rates of arrival over time were estimated for each species at each bait. These rates of recruitment were used in a model of "attractant dispersal" to define a "domain of occupation" for each of the common species. The possible ranges in animal abundances, given the uncertainties in the model, have been evaluated for each species.

  17. Alternative-fuel production facility for City of Huntsville, Alabama. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    The feasibility of a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)-to-energy project in the Huntsville area was invetigated and found to be an environmentally attractive and cost effective method of MSW disposal. Of nine likely alternatives, that were developed for detailed evaluation and analysis. Alternative 1M surfaced as best for the City. It is described as follows: a MSW-To-Energy Plant, consisting of two 300 TPD Mass Burning Waterwall Furnace/Boiler Systems at Lowe Industrial Park to provide low pressure steam to industries in the park. A MSW Transfer Station at the existing landfill and MSW as well as residue transport rolling stock equipment is included to facilitate movement of the waste materials between the two locations that are some twelve miles apart.

  18. An Analysis of Alternative Shore Activity Personnel Execution to Improve Productive Work

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Naval History and Heritage Command n.d.) 1 The Navy is also moving to align with civilian workforces, both in pay schedules and work life balance...similar to many attempts to increase job satisfaction in the civilian job marketplace. This alternative may provide all the benefits included with both...in Hotel Work.” Applied Ergonomics 42: 225–232. Moore, Carol S., and Anita U. Hattiangadi. 2002. Inside the Black Box: Assessing the Navy’s

  19. A Note on a Family of Alternating Sums of Products of Binomial Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, N.

    2013-01-01

    We study the following family of integral-valued alternating sums, where -infinity equal to or less than m equal to or less than infinity and n equal to or greater than 0 are integers [equation omitted]. We first consider h[subscript m](n) for m and n non-negative integers and show that it is of the form 2[superscript n + 2m] - P[subscript m](n),…

  20. A Note on a Family of Alternating Sums of Products of Binomial Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, N.

    2013-01-01

    We study the following family of integral-valued alternating sums, where -infinity equal to or less than m equal to or less than infinity and n equal to or greater than 0 are integers [equation omitted]. We first consider h[subscript m](n) for m and n non-negative integers and show that it is of the form 2[superscript n + 2m] - P[subscript m](n),…

  1. Culicoides midge trap enhancement with animal odour baits in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Mands, V; Kline, D L; Blackwell, A

    2004-12-01

    Examples of the commercial trap Mosquito Magnet Pro (MMP emitting attractant 1-octen-3-ol in carbon dioxide 500 mL/min generated from propane fuel), were run 24 h/day on the Isle of Skye, Scotland, during June-August 2001 and evaluated for catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). From 30 days trapping, the catch averaged 2626 +/- 1358 Culicoides females/trap/day (mean +/- SE, range 558 +/- 139 to 6088 +/- 3597, for five sets of six consecutive nights), predominantly the pest Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer (68% overall), plus C. vexans (Staeger) > C. delta Edwards > C. pulicaris (L.) > C. lupicaris Downs & Kettle > C. albicans (Winnertz) > other Culicoides spp. Attempts were made to enhance the odour baiting system by adding hexane-extracts (2.1 mg/day) of hair samples from large host animals, resulting in the following effects on Culicoides collections: sheep - 53 %, red deer - 26 %, calf + 20%, pony + 40%, water buffalo + 262%, with greatest increases for C. impunctatus and C. pulicaris. Serial concentrations of these animal extracts (10(-1) - 10(-3) x 2.2 g/mL) were assayed on parous female C. impunctatus response in a Y-tube olfactometer (air-flow 150 mL/min), and by electroantennogram (EAG) on Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen laboratory-reared parous females. Positive behavioural responses to host odours were dose-dependent: the water buffalo extract being most active (threshold 0.22 g/mL), similar to deer, whereas other host extracts were > or = 10-fold less active. Correspondingly, the EAG threshold was lowest for water buffalo, 10-fold greater for deer, calf and pony, but not detected for sheep. If the active component(s) of these host extracts can be identified and synthesized, they might be employed to improve the capture of Culicoides midges for local control by removal trapping.

  2. Bed bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) attraction to pitfall traps baited with carbon dioxide, heat, and chemical lure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Gibb, Timothy; Bennett, Gary W; McKnight, Susan

    2009-08-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), heat, and chemical lure (1-octen-3-ol and L-lactic acid) were tested as attractants for bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae), by using pitfall traps. Both CO2 and heat were attractive to bed bugs. CO2 was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than heat. Traps baited with chemical lure attracted more bed bugs but at a statistically nonsignificant level. In small arena studies (56 by 44 cm), pitfall traps baited with CO2 or heat trapped 79.8 +/- 6.7 and 51.6 +/- 0.9% (mean +/- SEM) of the bed bugs after 6 h, respectively. Traps baited with CO2 + heat, CO, + chemical lure, or CO2 + heat + chemical lure captured > or = 86.7% of the bed bugs after 6 h, indicating baited pitfall traps were highly effective in attracting and capturing bed bugs from a short distance. In 3.1- by 1.8-m environmental chambers, a pitfall trap baited with CO, + heat + chemical lure trapped 57.3 +/- 6.4% of the bed bugs overnight. The pitfall trap was further tested in four bed bug-infested apartments to determine its efficacy in detecting light bed bug infestations. Visual inspections found an average of 12.0 +/- 5.4 bed bugs per apartment. The bed bugs that were found by visual inspections were hand-removed during inspections. A pitfall trap baited with CO2 and chemical lure was subsequently placed in each apartment with an average of 15.0 +/- 6.4 bed bugs collected per trap by the next morning. We conclude that baited pitfall traps are potentially effective tools for evaluating bed bug control programs and detecting early bed bug infestations.

  3. Alternatively spliced products lacking exon 12 dominate the expression of fragile X mental retardation 1 gene in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianguo; Zheng, Dezhu; Liao, Juan; Li, Qingqin; Lin, Yuxiang; Zhang, Duo; Yan, Aizhen; Lan, Fenghua

    2015-08-01

    Fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) expression is associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and exhibits several splicing products. However, the proportion of spliced isoforms that are expressed in different tissues remains unclear. In the present study, long-chain reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with a T cloning-sequencing method was conducted in order to analyze the entire coding region of the FMR1 gene in human tissues. In particular, FXS-associated tissues were analyzed, including the brain and testis. Twenty alternatively spliced isoforms were observed among 271 recombinants, including six novel ones. The isoform that consisted of the entire FMR1 coding region (ISO1) accounted for a small proportion of all isoforms. Isoforms lacking exon 12 were the most abundant. In particular, spliced isoforms ISO7 and ISO17 were the most abundant. However, their relative abundance varied between the peripheral blood cells, and the testis and brain tissues. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that exon 12 may be the sole exon undergoing positive selection. The results of the present study suggested that the mechanisms underlying alternative splicing (AS) of the FMR1 gene may be more complex. Furthermore, the functions of alternatively spliced products lacking exon 12 require further investigation. The results of the present study provide novel insights into the association between AS and the structure and function of the FMR1 gene.

  4. An Alternate Look at Educational Psychologist's Productivity from 1991 to 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Acee, Taylor; Chung, Wen-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Kim, Hyunjin; Thomas, Greg D.; You, Ji-in; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations of the productivity of educational psychologists (Smith et al., 1998 and Smith et al., 2003) have used a points system that defines high productivity as having few co-authors and high authorship placement. Due to the increasingly collaborative nature of educational psychology research (Robinson, McKay, Katayama, & Fan,…

  5. Non-timber forest products: alternative multiple-uses for sustainable forest management

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain; Mary Predny

    2003-01-01

    Forests of the southern United States are the source of a great diversity of flora, much of which is gathered for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). These products are made from resources that grow under the forest canopy as trees, herbs, shrubs, vines, moss and even lichen. They occur naturally in forests or may be cultivated under the forest canopy or in...

  6. Networking Resources, Owning Productivity: A Post-Development Alternative in Mindanao?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Lindsey K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the practices of one small non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Mindanao working innovatively to challenge power and interests by linking resources to local communities who control their productivity. While this may seem like social capital, I suggest that the agency over production, and the deeply political and ideological…

  7. An Alternate Look at Educational Psychologist's Productivity from 1991 to 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Acee, Taylor; Chung, Wen-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Kim, Hyunjin; Thomas, Greg D.; You, Ji-in; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations of the productivity of educational psychologists (Smith et al., 1998 and Smith et al., 2003) have used a points system that defines high productivity as having few co-authors and high authorship placement. Due to the increasingly collaborative nature of educational psychology research (Robinson, McKay, Katayama, & Fan,…

  8. The acceptability of nicotine containing products as alternatives to cigarettes: findings from two pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Borland, Ron; Li, Lin; Mortimer, Kevin; McNeil, Ann; King, Bill; O'Connor, Richard J

    2011-10-12

    This study aimed to explore issues that might impact on the acceptability and feasibility of offering smokers nicotine containing products either to quit nicotine use altogether by using as a short term means of quitting cigarettes or as a longer term substitute. Two small pilot studies, one in the UK (n = 34) involving face to face contact and direct provision of the product, the other in Australia (n = 31) conducted remotely with products sent in the mail. Nicotine lozenges were the most popular products, but significant minorities liked a smokeless product more. Use stimulated interest in quitting, and although many failed to use all the products provided, most were interested in future use, more often to help quit than as a planned long-term substitute. These studies indicate an untapped interest in the use of substitutes to reduce the harmfulness of smoking. Studies of this sort do not inhibit interest in quitting nicotine altogether, and may facilitate it. The greater the range of products on offer, the more smokers are likely to try a product to quit.

  9. Networking Resources, Owning Productivity: A Post-Development Alternative in Mindanao?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Lindsey K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the practices of one small non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Mindanao working innovatively to challenge power and interests by linking resources to local communities who control their productivity. While this may seem like social capital, I suggest that the agency over production, and the deeply political and ideological…

  10. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix C: Alternate product facility designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The study of the production of methane, methanol, gasoline, and hydrogen by an add-on facility to a Koppers-Totzek based MBG plant is presented. Applications to a Texaco facility are inferred by evaluation of delta effects from the K-T cases. The production of methane from an add-on facility to a Lurgi based MBG plant and the co-production of methane and methanol from a Lurgi based system is studied. Studies are included of the production of methane from up to 50 percent of the MBG produced in an integrated K-T based plant and the production of methane from up to 50 percent of the MBG produced from an integrated plant in which module 1 is based on K-T technology and modules 2, 3, and 4 are based on Texaco technology.

  11. Granulocyte transfusion experience in pediatric neutropenic fever: Splitted product can be an alternative?

    PubMed

    Oymak, Yesim; Ayhan, Yüce; Karapinar, Tuba Hilkay; Devrim, Ilker; Ay, Yilmaz; Sarihan, Hafize; Vergin, Canan

    2015-12-01

    The granulocyte transfusion (GTX) has been used for a long time due to uncontrolled neutropenic fever with antimicrobial agents. In some cases, the product needs to be splitted for using in the next 12 hours. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of splitted product and clinical response to GTX. In this study, 15 patients with malignancy with 19 neutropenic fever, who had received 56 GTX, were included. Seventeen of 56 GTX were splitted and used in maximum 12 hours during infections which did not respond to antibacterial and antifungal therapy in 7 days. The patients were divided in to response groups as a complete, partial and progressive. The predictive factors for response group were evaluated. GTX were well tolerated in all patients. The median granulocyte dose was 1.26 (0.38-5.22) × 10(9)/kg. Total response rate was 89.5%. The infection-related mortality rate was 10.5%. Although the granulocyte doses are the same in both of the product groups, an hour later ANC increment of primer product was higher than that of splitted product (p = 0.001). Among the products, 48.7% of primer product and 17.6% of splitted product had induced ≥ 1000/mm(3) ANC increment after an hour (p = 0.039). Granulocyte transfusion is safe and effective in controlling the febrile neutropenia attack. GTX should be applied in a short time to provide effective ANC increment. For now, main granulocyte product instead of splitted product should be preferred in case of uncontrolled neutropenic fever with antibacterial/antifungal agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of intensive and alternative production systems on the technological and quality parameters of rapeseed seed (Brassica napus L. 'Siska').

    PubMed

    Turinek, Maja; Bavec, Martina; Repič, Milan; Turinek, Matjaž; Krajnc, Andreja Urbanek; Möllers, Christian; Tres, Alba; Bavec, Franc

    2017-06-01

    Organic production is widely assumed to affect quality and nutritional parameters of arable crops. A field experiment was started in 2009 following integrated (INT), organic (ORG) and biodynamic (BD) production standards for wheat, maize and rapeseed production. With resort to standard analytical procedures and chemometrics, compositional parameters of Brassica napus L. 'Siska' seed (water, protein, oil and glucosinolate content) by non-destructive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography, were assessed. The BD and ORG production systems positively influenced oleic fatty acid and oil content in comparison to INT, which had higher levels of protein and water content (19.8% and 4.7%, respectively), as well as linolenic (3.8%), gadoleic (12.6%) and hexadecadienoic (15.5%) fatty acids. Increases in the listed parameters were linked to mineral fertilizer application in the INT production system. With principal component analysis (PCA) the INT samples were clearly differentiated. The PCA results were influenced by differences in linolenic, gadoleic and behenic fatty acid levels as well as protein and water content. Because quality parameters in rapeseed are increased in alternative production systems, production with an understanding of the soil processes and yield formation presents an opportunity for ORG and BD farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Field evaluation of CDC and Mosquito Magnet X traps baited with dry ice, CO2 sachet, and octenol against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Rui-De; Doyle, Melissa A; Kline, Daniel L

    2008-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and Mosquito Magnet X (MMX) traps baited with dry ice, octenol, and a new formulation (granular) of carbon dioxide (CO2) were evaluated against adult mosquitoes in the field. The results showed that the MMX traps (68.6%) baited with dry ice collected more mosquitoes compared to the CDC light traps (32.4%) only. The CDC traps baited with dry ice (64%) collected significantly more mosquitoes than traps baited with CO2 sachets (11%) or octenol (23%). The MMX traps baited with dry ice (85.5%) collected significantly more mosquitoes than traps baited with CO2 sachets (6.5%) or octenol (9%). The CDC traps baited with the formulations of normal and slow release CO2 sachets collected more mosquitoes than the formulation of fast release sachets. The CDC traps baited with fresh sachets and 24-h-exposed sachets collected significantly more mosquitoes than the traps baited with 48-h- and 72-h-exposed sachets.

  14. Acceptance and palatability for domestic and wildlife hosts of baits designed to deliver a tuberculosis vaccine to wild boar piglets.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Cristina; Vicente, Joaquín; Morriss, Grant; Jockney, Ivor; Rodríguez, Oscar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2011-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, is an important health problem worldwide. The control of TB through vaccination of wildlife reservoirs may potentially have advantages over other management strategies. The most practical approach to deliver vaccines to wildlife is using oral baits that are stable under field conditions and effective in reaching the target species. Baits were developed in our laboratory to deliver oral vaccines to wild boar piglets. However, these baits were well accepted by other wild species. Therefore, bait consumption by different M. bovis hosts was evaluated herein. The results showed that the baits were well accepted by cattle, feral pigs, and adult red deer whereas small mammals like badgers and possums showed varying bait acceptance. Bait acceptance by different species has the advantage of targeting more than one wildlife reservoir when they coexist in the same area and need to be vaccinated for TB control. However, bait delivery methods such as the use of selective feeders to target the desired species should be developed to avoid bait consumption by other species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ammonium Acetate Enhances the Attractiveness of a Variety of Protein-Based Baits to Female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Smith, Trevor R; Fox, Abbie J; Vargas, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used by female fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally based control strategies such as food-based lures and insecticidal baits targeting pestiferous fruit fly species. In field cage studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioral response of laboratory-reared male and female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to seven commercially available protein baits and to beer waste, a relatively inexpensive and readily available substance. Each material was tested alone or in combination with either ammonium acetate or ammonium carbonate. For the majority of baits evaluated, the presence of ammonium acetate, but not ammonium carbonate, elicited a significantly greater level of response of female C. capitata compared with the protein baits alone. The addition of ammonium acetate to selected baits increased bait attractiveness to a level comparable with that elicited by the most widely used spinosad-based protein bait, GF-120. Our findings indicate that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait's effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression.

  16. Evaluation of the combination of dimethyl disulfide and dazomet as an efficient methyl bromide alternative for cucumber production in China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liangang; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Liu, Pengfei; Shen, Jin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2014-05-28

    The combination of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dazomet (DZ) is a potential alternative to methyl bromide (MB) for soil disinfestation. The efficacy of DMDS plus DZ in controlling key soilborne pests was evaluated in a laboratory study and in two commercial cucumber greenhouses. Laboratory studies found that all of the combinations had positive synergistic effects on root-knot nematodes, two key soilborne fungi, and two major weed seeds. Greenhouse trials revealed that the combination of DMDS and DZ (30 + 25 g m(-2)) successfully suppressed Meloidogyne spp. root galling, sharply reduced the colony-forming units of Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. on media, maintained high cucumber yields, and was not significantly different from MB or DMDS alone, but better than DZ alone. All of the chemical treatments provided significantly better results than the nontreated control. The results indicate that the combination of DMDS and DZ is an efficient MB alternative for cucumber production.

  17. Wildlife Interactions on Baited Places and Waterholes in a French Area Infected by Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Ariane; Philipon, Sixtine; Hars, Jean; Dufour, Barbara; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    Interactions among wildlife species are major drivers for the transmission of multi-host pathogens, such as Mycobacterium bovis, which also affect livestock. Although France is officially free from bovine tuberculosis (bTB), some areas are still harboring infection in cattle and wildlife. We aimed at characterizing the visits of susceptible wild species (badger, red deer, and wild boar) at baited places and waterholes, considered as possible hotspots for contacts. We described the visits in terms of frequency, duration, and number of individuals and studied the influence of the season. Then, we estimated the frequency of intraspecies and interspecies interactions occurring at baited places and waterholes which may lead to bTB transmission, including direct and indirect contacts through the soil or water. We used camera traps placed on baited places and waterholes on 13 locations monitored during 21 months. The number of visits, their duration, and the number of individuals per visit were analyzed by generalized linear mixed models for each targeted species. The frequency of the interspecies and intraspecies interactions was also analyzed separately. The season, the type of site (baited place or waterhole), and the location were the explanatory variables. Badgers’ visits and interactions were more frequent than for other species (mean: 0.60 visit/day and 5.42 interactions/day) especially on baited places. Red deer only visited waterholes. Wild boars visited most often baited places in spring–summer and waterholes in autumn–winter. They came in higher number than other species, especially on baited places. Direct interactions were uncommon. The most frequent interspecies interactions occurred between red deer and wild boar (mean: 4.02 interactions/day). Baited places and waterholes are important interfaces between the different wild species involved in the bTB multi-host system in this area. They can thus promote intraspecies and interspecies b

  18. Wildlife Interactions on Baited Places and Waterholes in a French Area Infected by Bovine Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Payne, Ariane; Philipon, Sixtine; Hars, Jean; Dufour, Barbara; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Interactions among wildlife species are major drivers for the transmission of multi-host pathogens, such as Mycobacterium bovis, which also affect livestock. Although France is officially free from bovine tuberculosis (bTB), some areas are still harboring infection in cattle and wildlife. We aimed at characterizing the visits of susceptible wild species (badger, red deer, and wild boar) at baited places and waterholes, considered as possible hotspots for contacts. We described the visits in terms of frequency, duration, and number of individuals and studied the influence of the season. Then, we estimated the frequency of intraspecies and interspecies interactions occurring at baited places and waterholes which may lead to bTB transmission, including direct and indirect contacts through the soil or water. We used camera traps placed on baited places and waterholes on 13 locations monitored during 21 months. The number of visits, their duration, and the number of individuals per visit were analyzed by generalized linear mixed models for each targeted species. The frequency of the interspecies and intraspecies interactions was also analyzed separately. The season, the type of site (baited place or waterhole), and the location were the explanatory variables. Badgers' visits and interactions were more frequent than for other species (mean: 0.60 visit/day and 5.42 interactions/day) especially on baited places. Red deer only visited waterholes. Wild boars visited most often baited places in spring-summer and waterholes in autumn-winter. They came in higher number than other species, especially on baited places. Direct interactions were uncommon. The most frequent interspecies interactions occurred between red deer and wild boar (mean: 4.02 interactions/day). Baited places and waterholes are important interfaces between the different wild species involved in the bTB multi-host system in this area. They can thus promote intraspecies and interspecies bTB transmission

  19. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design

    PubMed Central

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry. PMID:24860803

  20. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-05-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry.