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Sample records for alternative cell source

  1. Alternative Cell Sources to Adult Hepatocytes for Hepatic Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Gómez-Lechón, María José; Tolosa, Laia

    2017-01-01

    Adult hepatocyte transplantation is limited by scarce availability of suitable donor liver tissue for hepatocyte isolation. New cell-based therapies are being developed to supplement whole-organ liver transplantation, to reduce the waiting-list mortality rate, and to obtain more sustained and significant metabolic correction. Fetal livers and unsuitable neonatal livers for organ transplantation have been proposed as potential useful sources of hepatic cells for cell therapy. However, the major challenge is to use alternative cell sources for transplantation that can be derived from reproducible methods. Different types of stem cells with hepatic differentiation potential are eligible for generating large numbers of functional hepatocytes for liver cell therapy to treat degenerative disorders, inborn hepatic metabolic diseases, and organ failure. Clinical trials are designed to fully establish the safety profile of such therapies and to define target patient groups and standardized protocols.

  2. Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matikainen, Tiina; Laine, Jarmo . E-mail: jarmo.laine@bts.redcoss.fi

    2005-09-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications.

  3. Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolbank, Susanne; van Griensven, Martijn; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Peterbauer-Scherb, Anja

    Human amniotic membrane is a highly promising cell source for tissue engineering. The cells thereof, human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), may be immunoprivileged, they represent an early developmental status, and their application is ethically uncontroversial. Cell banking strategies may use freshly isolated cells or involve in vitro expansion to increase cell numbers. Therefore, we have thoroughly characterized the effect of in vitro cultivation on both phenotype and differentiation potential of hAEC. Moreover, we present different strategies to improve expansion including replacement of animal-derived supplements by human platelet products or the introduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase to extend the in vitro lifespan of amniotic cells. Characterization of the resulting cultures includes phenotype, growth characteristics, and differentiation potential, as well as immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties.

  4. Alternative sources of pluripotency: science, ethics, and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kastenberg, Zachary J; Odorico, Jon S

    2008-07-01

    Despite many advances in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) technology the ethical dilemma involving the destruction of a human embryo is one factor that has limited the development of hESC based clinical therapies. Two recent reports describing the production of pluripotent stem cells following the in vitro reprogramming of human somatic cells with certain defined factors illustrate one potential method of bypassing the ethical debate surrounding hESCs (Yu J, Vodyanik MA, Smuga-Otto K, et al. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells. Science. 2007 Dec;318(5858):1917-1920; Takahashi K, Tanabe K, Ohnuki M, et al. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. Cell. 2007 Nov;131(5): 861-872.). Other alternative methods include nuclear transfer, altered nuclear transfer, and parthenogenesis; each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. This review discusses recent advances in these technologies with specific focus on the issues of embryo destruction, oocyte recovery, and the potential of each technology to produce large scale, patient specific cell transplantation therapies that would require little or no immunosuppression.

  5. Alternative sources of adult stem cells: a possible solution to the embryonic stem cell debate.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kim E; Mills, Jeanette F; Thornton, Melissa M

    2006-09-01

    The complex moral and ethical debate surrounding the definition of the origins of human life, together with conflicting current and proposed legislation on state and federal levels, is hindering the course of research into the therapeutic uses of human embryonic stem cells. However, newly identified sources of adult stem cells, free from many of the ethical and legal concerns attached to embryonic stem cell research, may offer great promise for the advancement of medicine. These alternative sources may alleviate the need to resolve the stem cell debate before further therapeutic benefits of stem cell research can be realized. While legislation and ethics evolve to address the legal and moral issues of embryonic stem cell research, innovative researchers will continue to search for and find real and present solutions for cell-based therapies using adult stem cells.

  6. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  7. Dental stem cells as an alternative source for cardiac regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xin, Loo Zhang; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Musa, Sabri; Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty

    2013-10-01

    Dental tissues contains stem cells or progenitors that have high proliferative capacity, are clonogenic in vitro and demonstrate the ability to differentiate to multiple type cells involving neurons, bone, cartilage, fat and smooth muscle. Numerous experiments have demonstrated that the multipotent stem cells are not rejected by immune system and therefore it may be possible to use these cells in allogeneic settings. In addition, these remarkable cells are easily abundantly available couple with less invasive procedure in isolating comparing to bone marrow aspiration. Here we proposed dental stem cells as candidate for cardiac regeneration based on its immature characteristic and propensity towards cardiac lineage via PI3-Kinase/Aktsignalling pathway.

  8. Dedifferentiated fat cells: an alternative source of adult multipotent cells from the adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie-fei; Sugawara, Atsunori; Yamashita, Joe; Ogura, Hideo; Sato, Soh

    2011-01-01

    When adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are retrieved from the stromal vascular portion of adipose tissue, a large amount of mature adipocytes are often discarded. However, by modified ceiling culture technique based on their buoyancy, mature adipocytes can be easily isolated from the adipose cell suspension and dedifferentiated into lipid-free fibroblast-like cells, named dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. DFAT cells re-establish active proliferation ability and undertake multipotent capacities. Compared with ASCs and other adult stem cells, DFAT cells showed unique advantages in their abundance, isolation and homogeneity. In this concise review, the establishment and culture methods of DFAT cells are introduced and the current profiles of their cellular nature are summarized. Under proper induction culture in vitro or environment in vivo, DFAT cells could demonstrate adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic and myogenic potentials. In angiogenic conditions, DFAT cells could exhibit perivascular characteristics and elicit neovascularization. Our preliminary findings also suggested the pericyte phenotype underlying such cell lineage, which supported a novel interpretation about the common origin of mesenchymal stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells within blood vessel walls. Current research on DFAT cells indicated that this alternative source of adult multipotent cells has great potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:21789960

  9. Dedifferentiated fat cells: an alternative source of adult multipotent cells from the adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie-fei; Sugawara, Atsunori; Yamashita, Joe; Ogura, Hideo; Sato, Soh

    2011-07-01

    When adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are retrieved from the stromal vascular portion of adipose tissue, a large amount of mature adipocytes are often discarded. However, by modified ceiling culture technique based on their buoyancy, mature adipocytes can be easily isolated from the adipose cell suspension and dedifferentiated into lipid-free fibroblast-like cells, named dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. DFAT cells re-establish active proliferation ability and undertake multipotent capacities. Compared with ASCs and other adult stem cells, DFAT cells showed unique advantages in their abundance, isolation and homogeneity. In this concise review, the establishment and culture methods of DFAT cells are introduced and the current profiles of their cellular nature are summarized. Under proper induction culture in vitro or environment in vivo, DFAT cells could demonstrate adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic and myogenic potentials. In angiogenic conditions, DFAT cells could exhibit perivascular characteristics and elicit neovascularization. Our preliminary findings also suggested the pericyte phenotype underlying such cell lineage, which supported a novel interpretation about the common origin of mesenchymal stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells within blood vessel walls. Current research on DFAT cells indicated that this alternative source of adult multipotent cells has great potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  10. Potentiality of embryonic stem cells: an ethical problem even with alternative stem cell sources.

    PubMed

    Denker, H-W

    2006-11-01

    The recent discussions about alternative sources of human embryonic stem cells (White Paper of the US President's Council on Bioethics, 2005), while stirring new interest in the developmental potential of the various abnormal embryos or constructs proposed as such sources, also raise questions about the potential of the derived embryonic stem cells. The data on the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells that seem relevant for ethical considerations and aspects of patentability are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the meaning of "totipotency, omnipotency and pluripotency" as illustrated by a comparison of the developmental potential of three-dimensional clusters of blastomeres (morula), embryonic stem cells, somatic or (adult) stem cells or other somatic (non-stem) cells. This paper focuses on embryoid bodies and on direct cloning by tetraploid complementation. Usage and patenting of these cells cannot be considered to be ethically sound as long as totipotency and tetraploid complementability of embryonic stem cells are not excluded for the specific cell line in question. Testing this poses an ethical problem in itself and needs to be discussed in the future.

  11. Potentiality of embryonic stem cells: an ethical problem even with alternative stem cell sources

    PubMed Central

    Denker, H‐W

    2006-01-01

    The recent discussions about alternative sources of human embryonic stem cells (White Paper of the US President's Council on Bioethics, 2005), while stirring new interest in the developmental potential of the various abnormal embryos or constructs proposed as such sources, also raise questions about the potential of the derived embryonic stem cells. The data on the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells that seem relevant for ethical considerations and aspects of patentability are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the meaning of “totipotency, omnipotency and pluripotency” as illustrated by a comparison of the developmental potential of three‐dimensional clusters of blastomeres (morula), embryonic stem cells, somatic or (adult) stem cells or other somatic (non‐stem) cells. This paper focuses on embryoid bodies and on direct cloning by tetraploid complementation. Usage and patenting of these cells cannot be considered to be ethically sound as long as totipotency and tetraploid complementability of embryonic stem cells are not excluded for the specific cell line in question. Testing this poses an ethical problem in itself and needs to be discussed in the future. PMID:17074826

  12. Is the search for alternative sources of human pluripotent stem cells a mistake?

    PubMed

    Devereaux, Mary

    2005-12-01

    One response to the controversy in the United States over the moral status of the early embryo has been the proposal that scientists search for alternative sources of pluripotent stem cells. Is this a good idea? The present article argues that it is not. Following a brief look at the ethical standing of the four proposals assessed by the President's Council on Bioethics in 2005, the author addresses the fundamental question of the wisdom of pursuing alternatives to current methods of stem cell derivation. The author concludes that, given the poor prospects for finding alternatives that are both scientifically and ethically sound, and the costs of diverting energy and resources from established embryonic methods, further investment in the search for alternative methods is unwise.

  13. Alternative fuel information sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  14. Cell sources, liver support systems and liver tissue engineering: alternatives to liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Han Joon; Choi, Dongho

    2015-05-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body; it has a complex architecture, wide range of functions and unique regenerative capacity. The growing incidence of liver diseases worldwide requires increased numbers of liver transplant and leads to an ongoing shortage of donor livers. To meet the huge demand, various alternative approaches are being investigated including, hepatic cell transplantation, artificial devices and bioprinting of the organ itself. Adult hepatocytes are the preferred cell sources, but they have limited availability, are difficult to isolate, propagate poor and undergo rapid functional deterioration in vitro. There have been efforts to overcome these drawbacks; by improving culture condition for hepatocytes, providing adequate extracellular matrix, co-culturing with extra-parenchymal cells and identifying other cell sources. Differentiation of human stem cells to hepatocytes has become a major interest in the field of stem cell research and has progressed greatly. At the same time, use of decellularized organ matrices and 3 D printing are emerging cutting-edge technologies for tissue engineering, opening up new paths for liver regenerative medicine. This review provides a compact summary of the issues, and the locations of liver support systems and tissue engineering, with an emphasis on reproducible and useful sources of hepatocytes including various candidates formed by differentiation from stem cells.

  15. Cell Sources, Liver Support Systems and Liver Tissue Engineering: Alternatives to Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Han Joon; Choi, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body; it has a complex architecture, wide range of functions and unique regenerative capacity. The growing incidence of liver diseases worldwide requires increased numbers of liver transplant and leads to an ongoing shortage of donor livers. To meet the huge demand, various alternative approaches are being investigated including, hepatic cell transplantation, artificial devices and bioprinting of the organ itself. Adult hepatocytes are the preferred cell sources, but they have limited availability, are difficult to isolate, propagate poor and undergo rapid functional deterioration in vitro. There have been efforts to overcome these drawbacks; by improving culture condition for hepatocytes, providing adequate extracellular matrix, co-culturing with extra-parenchymal cells and identifying other cell sources. Differentiation of human stem cells to hepatocytes has become a major interest in the field of stem cell research and has progressed greatly. At the same time, use of decellularized organ matrices and 3 D printing are emerging cutting-edge technologies for tissue engineering, opening up new paths for liver regenerative medicine. This review provides a compact summary of the issues, and the locations of liver support systems and tissue engineering, with an emphasis on reproducible and useful sources of hepatocytes including various candidates formed by differentiation from stem cells. PMID:26019753

  16. Alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, R. W.

    1982-04-01

    Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

  17. The use of mud as an alternative source for bioelectricity using microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, Raden; Widjaja, Arief; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Hendrianie, Nuniek; Hidaya, Chanifah; Sari, Dessy Rosita; Suwito, Morimura, Shigeru; Tominaga, Masato

    2017-05-01

    Alternative energy sources to substitute fossil-based energy is expected, as the fossil energy reserves decreasing every day. Mud is considered to be economical as the material sources for generating the electricity where it could be found easily and abundantly in Indonesia. The existence of a lot of mud that contains organic material has great potential as a source of electrical energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). It provides a promising technology by degrading organic compounds to yield the sustainable energy. The different sampling sites were determined to find out the electricity production, i.e. mud from soil water, brackish water and sea water using an anode immersed of 10 cm2. The results suggest that the electricity generation of the three areas are 0.331, 0.327 and 0.398 V (in terms of voltage); 0.221, 0.050 and 0.325 mA (in terms of electric current), respectively. It is investigated that the mud obtained the sea water exhibits the highest power potential compared to that obtained from the brackish and soil water.

  18. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from alternative sources in adults with high-risk acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Franco; Reisner, Yair; Martelli, Massimo F

    2004-01-01

    Since 75% of patients with high-risk acute leukemia do not have a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling, alternative sources for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are matched unrelated donors (MUD), unrelated umbilical cord blood (UD-UCB) and one HLA haplotype mismatched family members (haploidentical). The chance of finding a suitable donor in the international voluntary donor registries is limited by frequency of the HLA phenotype and the time required to identify the right donor from a potential panel, to establish eligibility and to harvest the cells. In adult MUD recipients, event-free survival ranges up to 50% and refers only to patients who undergo transplant, without taking into account those who do not find a donor. Umbilical cord blood offers the advantages of easy procurement, the absence of risks to donors, the reduced risk of transmitting infections, immediate availability of cryopreserved samples and acceptance of mismatches at two of the six antigens. Although UD-UCB transplantation is a viable option for children, it is seldom considered for adults. The great divergency between body weight and the number of hematopoietic cells in a standard cord blood unit, particularly if associated with a two-antigen mismatch, increases the risk of graft failure and delays hematopoietic reconstitution. Work on full-haplotype mismatched transplants has been proceeding for over 20 years. Originally, outcome in leukemia patients was disappointing because of high incidence of severe graft-vs.-host disease in T-replete transplants and high rejection rates in T-cell-depleted transplants. The breakthrough came with the use of a megadose of T-cell-depleted progenitor cells after a high-intensity conditioning regimen. Treating end-stage patients inevitably confounded clinical outcome in the early pilot studies. Today, high-risk acute leukemia patients are treated at less advanced stages of disease, receive a reasonably well tolerated conditioning

  19. Potential Use of Lime as Nitric Acid Source for Alternative Electrolyte Fuel-Cell Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianto, V.; Smarandache, Florentin

    2011-04-01

    Despite growing popularity for the use of biofuel and other similar methods to generate renewable energy sources from natural plantation in recent years, there is also growing concern over its disadvantage, i.e. that the energy use of edible plants may cause unwanted effects, because the plantation price tends to increase following the oil price. Therefore an alternative solution to this problem is to find `natural plantation' which have no direct link to `food chain' (for basic foods, such as palm oil etc.).

  20. Sourcing of an Alternative Pericyte-Like Cell Type from Peripheral Blood in Clinically Relevant Numbers for Therapeutic Angiogenic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Blocki, Anna; Wang, Yingting; Koch, Maria; Goralczyk, Anna; Beyer, Sebastian; Agarwal, Nikita; Lee, Michelle; Moonshi, Shehzahdi; Dewavrin, Jean-Yves; Peh, Priscilla; Schwarz, Herbert; Bhakoo, Kishore; Raghunath, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Autologous cells hold great potential for personalized cell therapy, reducing immunological and risk of infections. However, low cell counts at harvest with subsequently long expansion times with associated cell function loss currently impede the advancement of autologous cell therapy approaches. Here, we aimed to source clinically relevant numbers of proangiogenic cells from an easy accessible cell source, namely peripheral blood. Using macromolecular crowding (MMC) as a biotechnological platform, we derived a novel cell type from peripheral blood that is generated within 5 days in large numbers (10–40 million cells per 100 ml of blood). This blood-derived angiogenic cell (BDAC) type is of monocytic origin, but exhibits pericyte markers PDGFR-β and NG2 and demonstrates strong angiogenic activity, hitherto ascribed only to MSC-like pericytes. Our findings suggest that BDACs represent an alternative pericyte-like cell population of hematopoietic origin that is involved in promoting early stages of microvasculature formation. As a proof of principle of BDAC efficacy in an ischemic disease model, BDAC injection rescued affected tissues in a murine hind limb ischemia model by accelerating and enhancing revascularization. Derived from a renewable tissue that is easy to collect, BDACs overcome current short-comings of autologous cell therapy, in particular for tissue repair strategies. PMID:25582709

  1. Sourcing of an alternative pericyte-like cell type from peripheral blood in clinically relevant numbers for therapeutic angiogenic applications.

    PubMed

    Blocki, Anna; Wang, Yingting; Koch, Maria; Goralczyk, Anna; Beyer, Sebastian; Agarwal, Nikita; Lee, Michelle; Moonshi, Shehzahdi; Dewavrin, Jean-Yves; Peh, Priscilla; Schwarz, Herbert; Bhakoo, Kishore; Raghunath, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Autologous cells hold great potential for personalized cell therapy, reducing immunological and risk of infections. However, low cell counts at harvest with subsequently long expansion times with associated cell function loss currently impede the advancement of autologous cell therapy approaches. Here, we aimed to source clinically relevant numbers of proangiogenic cells from an easy accessible cell source, namely peripheral blood. Using macromolecular crowding (MMC) as a biotechnological platform, we derived a novel cell type from peripheral blood that is generated within 5 days in large numbers (10-40 million cells per 100 ml of blood). This blood-derived angiogenic cell (BDAC) type is of monocytic origin, but exhibits pericyte markers PDGFR-β and NG2 and demonstrates strong angiogenic activity, hitherto ascribed only to MSC-like pericytes. Our findings suggest that BDACs represent an alternative pericyte-like cell population of hematopoietic origin that is involved in promoting early stages of microvasculature formation. As a proof of principle of BDAC efficacy in an ischemic disease model, BDAC injection rescued affected tissues in a murine hind limb ischemia model by accelerating and enhancing revascularization. Derived from a renewable tissue that is easy to collect, BDACs overcome current short-comings of autologous cell therapy, in particular for tissue repair strategies.

  2. Alternative nitrogen sources for cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several alternative nitrogen (N) sources, rates of N, and amendments were evaluated at Prattville, Alabama, on cotton in 2008. Nitrogen rates reported are for sidedress application only. Dry urea produced the highest yield, averaging 1100 pounds lint per acre. Ammonia volatilization was measured fr...

  3. Alternative Sources of Student Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Dolores E.

    Financial barriers to college attendance that affect women, minorities, low-income, and other nontraditional students are identified, along with alternative sources of student financial aid. Research has suggested that financially-independent students are most vulnerable to fluctuations in aid, and tend to have low incomes, be minority members or…

  4. Alternative sources of pluripotent stem cells: ethical and scientific issues revisited.

    PubMed

    Condic, Maureen L; Rao, Mahendra

    2010-08-01

    Stem cell researchers in the United States continue to face an uncertain future, because of the changing federal guidelines governing this research, the restrictive patent situation surrounding the generation of new human embryonic stem cell lines, and the ethical divide over the use of embryos for research. In this commentary, we describe how recent advances in the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells and the isolation of germ-line-derived pluripotent stem cells resolve a number of these uncertainties. The availability of patient-matched, pluripotent stem cells that can be obtained by ethically acceptable means provides important advantages for stem cell researchers, by both avoiding protracted ethical debates and giving U.S. researchers full access to federal funding. Thus, ethically uncompromised stem cells, such as those derived by direct reprogramming or from germ-cell precursors, are likely to yield important advances in stem cell research and move the field rapidly toward clinical applications.

  5. Alternative Sources of Pluripotent Stem Cells: Ethical and Scientific Issues Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mahendra

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell researchers in the United States continue to face an uncertain future, because of the changing federal guidelines governing this research, the restrictive patent situation surrounding the generation of new human embryonic stem cell lines, and the ethical divide over the use of embryos for research. In this commentary, we describe how recent advances in the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells and the isolation of germ-line-derived pluripotent stem cells resolve a number of these uncertainties. The availability of patient-matched, pluripotent stem cells that can be obtained by ethically acceptable means provides important advantages for stem cell researchers, by both avoiding protracted ethical debates and giving U.S. researchers full access to federal funding. Thus, ethically uncompromised stem cells, such as those derived by direct reprogramming or from germ-cell precursors, are likely to yield important advances in stem cell research and move the field rapidly toward clinical applications. PMID:20397928

  6. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell aspirates from alternative sources: is the knee as good as the iliac crest?

    PubMed

    Narbona-Carceles, Javier; Vaquero, Javier; Suárez-Sancho, Susana B S; Forriol, Francisco; Fernández-Santos, Maria Eugenia

    2014-10-01

    The most common method to obtain human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is bone marrow aspiration from the iliac crest, but MSCs have also been isolated from different bones. The main purpose of this study was to compare bone marrow MSCs aspirated from the metaphysis of the distal femur and the proximal tibia with those obtained from the iliac crest, and to determine whether these locations represent potential alternative sources of MSCs for research and clinical application. Bone marrow was aspirated from the iliac crest and the metaphysis of the distal femur and the proximal tibia during total knee arthroplasty in 20 patients. The aspirates were centrifuged by density gradient, then mononucleated cell (MNC) concentration in the different aspirates was determined using a Coulter counter. MSCs were isolated, cultivated and characterised by their immunophenotype and by their in vitro potential for differentiation into osteoblasts, chondroblasts and adipocytes in specific media. Expansion and cell viability were quantified using trypan blue staining and cell counting with a haemocytometer (Neubauer chamber). The three sources were compared in terms of MNC concentration, viability of the cultures and presence of MSC using the Wilcoxon test. MNC concentration was significantly higher in the iliac crest (10.05 Millions/ml) compared with the femur (0.67 Millions/ml) and tibia (1.7 Millions/ml). Culture success rates were 90%, 71% and 47% for MSCs from the iliac crest, femur and tibia, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed the presence of CD90+, CD105+, CD73+, VEGF+, CD71+, HLA-DR-, CD45-, CD34-, CD19-, and CD14- cells. The immunophenotype pattern of MSCs was similar for the three locations. Trilineage differentiation was achieved with all samples. MSCs can be found in bone marrow from the metaphysis of both the distal femur and the proximal tibia. The phenotype and differentiation potential of these cells are similar to those of bone marrow MSCs from the iliac crest

  7. Endometrial stem cell transplantation in MPTP- exposed primates: an alternative cell source for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Erin F; Mutlu, Levent; Massasa, Efi E; Elsworth, John D; Eugene Redmond, D; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Cell-replacement therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to slow down or replace neuronal loss. Compared to other stem cell types, endometrium-derived stem cells (EDSCs) are an attractive source of stem cells for cellular therapies because of their ease of collection and vast differentiation potential. Here we demonstrate that endometrium-derived stem cells may be transplanted into an MPTP exposed monkey model of PD. After injection into the striatum, endometrium-derived stem cells engrafted, exhibited neuron-like morphology, expressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and increased the numbers of TH positive cells on the transplanted side and dopamine metabolite concentrations in vivo. Our results suggest that endometrium-derived stem cells may provide a therapeutic benefit in the primate model of PD and may be used in stem cell based therapies. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  8. Oral mucosa: an alternative epidermic cell source to develop autologous dermal-epidermal substitutes from diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    GUZMÁN-URIBE, Daniela; ALVARADO-ESTRADA, Keila Neri; PIERDANT-PÉREZ, Mauricio; TORRES-ÁLVAREZ, Bertha; SÁNCHEZ-AGUILAR, Jesus Martin; ROSALES-IBÁÑEZ, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Oral mucosa has been highlighted as a suitable source of epidermal cells due to its intrinsic characteristics such as its higher proliferation rate and its obtainability. Diabetic ulcers have a worldwide prevalence that is variable (1%-11%), meanwhile treatment of this has been proven ineffective. Tissue-engineered skin plays an important role in wound care focusing on strategies such autologous dermal-epidermal substitutes. Objective The aim of this study was to obtain autologous dermal-epidermal skin substitutes from oral mucosa from diabetic subjects as a first step towards a possible clinical application for cases of diabetic foot. Material and Methods Oral mucosa was obtained from diabetic and healthy subjects (n=20 per group). Epidermal cells were isolated and cultured using autologous fibrin to develop dermal-epidermal in vitro substitutes by the air-liquid technique with autologous human serum as a supplement media. Substitutes were immunocharacterized with collagen IV and cytokeratin 5-14 as specific markers. A Student´s t- test was performed to assess the differences between both groups. Results It was possible to isolate epidermal cells from the oral mucosa of diabetic and healthy subjects and develop autologous dermal-epidermal skin substitutes using autologous serum as a supplement. Differences in the expression of specific markers were observed and the cytokeratin 5-14 expression was lower in the diabetic substitutes, and the collagen IV expression was higher in the diabetic substitutes when compared with the healthy group, showing a significant difference. Conclusion Cells from oral mucosa could be an alternative and less invasive source for skin substitutes and wound healing. A difference in collagen production of diabetic cells suggests diabetic substitutes could improve diabetic wound healing. More research is needed to determine the crosstalk between components of these skin substitutes and damaged tissues. PMID:28403359

  9. Oral mucosa: an alternative epidermic cell source to develop autologous dermal-epidermal substitutes from diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Uribe, Daniela; Alvarado-Estrada, Keila Neri; Pierdant-Pérez, Mauricio; Torres-Álvarez, Bertha; Sánchez-Aguilar, Jesus Martin; Rosales-Ibáñez, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain autologous dermal-epidermal skin substitutes from oral mucosa from diabetic subjects as a first step towards a possible clinical application for cases of diabetic foot. Oral mucosa was obtained from diabetic and healthy subjects (n=20 per group). Epidermal cells were isolated and cultured using autologous fibrin to develop dermal-epidermal in vitro substitutes by the air-liquid technique with autologous human serum as a supplement media. Substitutes were immunocharacterized with collagen IV and cytokeratin 5-14 as specific markers. A Student´s t- test was performed to assess the differences between both groups. It was possible to isolate epidermal cells from the oral mucosa of diabetic and healthy subjects and develop autologous dermal-epidermal skin substitutes using autologous serum as a supplement. Differences in the expression of specific markers were observed and the cytokeratin 5-14 expression was lower in the diabetic substitutes, and the collagen IV expression was higher in the diabetic substitutes when compared with the healthy group, showing a significant difference. Cells from oral mucosa could be an alternative and less invasive source for skin substitutes and wound healing. A difference in collagen production of diabetic cells suggests diabetic substitutes could improve diabetic wound healing. More research is needed to determine the crosstalk between components of these skin substitutes and damaged tissues.

  10. Trophic Effects and Regenerative Potential of Mobilized Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue as Alternative Cell Sources for Pulp/Dentin Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masashi; Hayashi, Yuki; Iohara, Koichiro; Osako, Yohei; Hirose, Yujiro; Nakashima, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) subsets mobilized by granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are safe and efficacious for complete pulp regeneration. The supply of autologous pulp tissue, however, is very limited in the aged. Therefore, alternative sources of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) are needed for the cell therapy. In this study, DPSCs, bone marrow (BM), and adipose tissue (AD)-derived stem cells of the same individual dog were isolated using G-CSF-induced mobilization (MDPSCs, MBMSCs, and MADSCs). The positive rates of CXCR4 and G-CSFR in MDPSCs were similar to MADSCs and were significantly higher than those in MBMSCs. Trophic effects of MDPSCs on angiogenesis, neurite extension, migration, and antiapoptosis were higher than those of MBMSCs and MADSCs. Pulp-like loose connective tissues were regenerated in all three MSC transplantations. Significantly higher volume of regenerated pulp and higher density of vascularization and innervation were observed in response to MDPSCs compared to MBMSC and MADSC transplantation. Collagenous matrix containing dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)-positive odontoblast-like cells was the highest in MBMSCs and significantly higher in MADSCs compared to MDPSCs. MBMSCs and MADSCs, therefore, have potential for pulp regeneration, although the volume of regenerated pulp tissue, angiogenesis, and reinnervation, were less. Thus, in conclusion, an alternative cell source for dental pulp/dentin regeneration are stem cells from BM and AD tissue.

  11. [Pollution and alternative energy sources].

    PubMed

    Melino, C

    1989-01-01

    In order to reach higher standards of living, man has always been interested in searching new energy sources. Natural energy from sun, wind and water has been overcame by more sophisticated resources such as coal, vapour, hydroelectricity, natural gas, petroleum, and, at least, nuclear energy. However all these resources present unwanted effects, namely various hazards to man and environment. On this matter society is quering the risk-benefit balance of some energy choices and optimum performance with new safety means to limit dangerousness are being pursued and developed. It is necessary to evaluate carefully every aspect of safety without under-estimating or over-evaluating problems. For each energy source a "real price" has to be paired, even more in the future, since more energy will be required to guarantee the necessary technological progress linked to a better quality of life. In the present review all risks related to different energy sources are described and discussed aiming at defining: 1) specific risks for different sources 2) benefit from their utilization 3) means of defence guaranteeing security for man and environment. Italy is strictly dependent for energy production, which comes for 80% from abroad. An appropriate balance is required considering economical and social factors and real availability of energy. This balance needs therefore to be clearly evaluated hoping in a better future for an alternative energy, less dangerous and more clear, such as that from nuclear fusion.

  12. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-09-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

  13. Alternative sources of natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Mooibroek, H; Cornish, K

    2000-04-01

    Rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is one of the most important polymers naturally produced by plants because it is a strategic raw material used in more than 40,000 products, including more than 400 medical devices. The sole commercial source, at present, is natural rubber harvested from the Brazilian rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. Primarily due to its molecular structure and high molecular weight (> 1 million daltons) this rubber has high performance properties that cannot easily be mimicked by artificially produced polymers, such as those derived from, e.g., bacterial poly-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). These high performance properties include resilience, elasticity, abrasion resistance, efficient heat dispersion (minimizing heat build-up under friction), and impact resistance. Medical rubber gloves need to fit well, be break-resistant, allow the wearer to retain fine tactile sensation, and provide an effective barrier against pathogens. The sum of all these characteristics cannot yet be achieved using synthetic gloves. The lack of biodiversity in natural rubber production renders continuity of supply insecure, because of the risk of crop failure, diminishing acreage, and other disadvantages outlined below. A search for alternative sources of natural rubber production has already resulted in a large number of interesting plants and prospects for immediate industrial exploitation of guayule (Parthenium argentatum) as a source of high quality latex. Metabolic engineering will permit the production of new crops designed to accumulate new types of valued isoprenoid metabolites, such as rubber and carotenoids, and new combinations extractable from the same crop. Currently, experiments are underway to genetically improve guayule rubber production strains in both quantitative and qualitative respects. Since the choice for gene activities to be introduced or changed is under debate, we have set up a complementary approach to guayule with yeast species, which may more quickly

  14. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  15. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  16. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  17. [Bone marrow stromal cells. An alternative source of restorative therapy in degenerative diseases of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Alberti-Amador, E; García-Miniet, R

    The aim of this study is to describe the capacity of bone marrow cells to limit or slow down the damage and chronic neuronal degeneration produced by degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), as well as the potential capacity of the method to provide other substances or genetic material. The search for new sources of cells that maintain the ability to divide and distinguish themselves from different cellular phenotypes opens up huge new opportunities in the restorative therapy of these clinical entities. Bone marrow cells, and especially stromal stem cells, have been seen to conserve a high capacity to distinguish and originate different strains of characteristic brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and glial cells), and also the capacity to restore the population of stem cells when they are stimulated in a suitable fashion. Future experimental studies will be aimed at searching for new ways to enhance the composition, viability and differentiation of the cells to be implanted and will evaluate their effects on diseases of the CNS.

  18. Alternative fuels for cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Melissa M; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metabolism is significantly altered to support the various metabolic needs of tumor cells. The most prominent change is the increased tumor glycolysis that leads to increased glucose uptake and utilization. However, it has become obvious that many non-glucose nutrients, such as amino acids, lactate, acetate, and macromolecules, can serve as alternative fuels for cancer cells. This knowledge reveals an unexpected flexibility and evolutionarily conserved model in which cancer cells uptake nutrients from their external environment to fulfill their necessary energetic needs. Tumor cells may have evolved the ability to utilize different carbon sources because of the limited supply of nutrients in their microenvironment, which can be driven by oncogenic mutations or tumor microenvironmental stresses. In certain cases, these factors permanently alter the tumor cells' metabolism, causing certain nutrients to become indispensable and thus creating opportunities for therapeutic intervention to eradicate tumors by their metabolic vulnerabilities.

  19. Alternate Sources for Propellant Ingredients.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-07

    friction welding, adhesive bonding, non-destructive test methods for reduction of critical materials needed. 6 NSWC/WOL/NP 76-19 Miscellaneou; products...with the compound. MAPO: Category 1, P, K. Triz (2-methyl-l-aziridinyl) phosphine oxide (MAPO) is used as a crosslinking agent for polymers containing...using thuse nitro-plasticizers in several advance solid propellant formulations and is looking for a source of supply. The pr-evious method of

  20. Alternative Fuels for Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Melissa; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metabolism is significantly altered to support the various metabolic needs of tumor cells. The most prominent change is the increased tumor glycolysis that leads to increased glucose uptake and utilization. However, it has become obvious that many non-glucose nutrients, such as amino acids, lactate, acetate and macromolecules, can serve as alternative fuels for cancer cells. This knowledge reveals an unexpected flexibility and evolutionarily-conserved model in which cancer cells uptake nutrients from their external environment to fulfill their necessary energetic needs. It is possible that tumor cells have evolved the ability to utilize different carbon sources due to the limited supply of nutrient that can be driven by oncogenic mutations and tumor microenvironmental stresses. In certain cases, these factors permanently alter the tumor cells’ metabolism, causing certain nutrients to become indispensable and thus creating opportunities for therapeutic intervention to eradicate tumors by their metabolic vulnerabilities. PMID:25815843

  1. Peripheral blood cell-free DNA is an alternative tumor DNA source reflecting disease status in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Akihiro; Nakamura, Fumika; Iriyama, Chisako; Shirahata-Adachi, Mizuho; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Akashi, Akimi; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Kaneda, Norio; Kiyoi, Hitoshi

    2016-09-01

    Genetic alterations in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are critical for pathogenesis. We previously showed that peripheral blood cell-free DNA (PBcfDNA) may be more sensitive for genetic/epigenetic analyses than whole bone marrow (BM) cells and mononuclear cells in peripheral blood (PB). Here we analyzed the detailed features of PBcfDNA and its utility in genetic analyses in MDS. The plasma-PBcfDNA concentration in MDS and related diseases (N = 33) was significantly higher than that in healthy donors (N = 14; P = 0.041) and in International Prognostic Scoring System higher-risk groups than that in lower-risk groups (P = 0.034). The concentration of plasma-/serum-PBcfDNA was significantly correlated with the serum lactate dehydrogenase level (both P < 0.0001) and the blast cell count in PB (P = 0.034 and 0.025, respectively). One nanogram of PBcfDNA was sufficient for one assay of Sanger sequencing using optimized primer sets to amplify approximately 160-bp PCR products. PBcfDNA (approximately 50 ng) can also be utilized for targeted sequencing. Almost all mutations detected in BM-DNA were also detected using corresponding PBcfDNA. Analyses using serially harvested PBcfDNA from an RAEB-2 patient showed that the somatic mutations and a single nucleotide polymorphism that were detected before allogeneic transplantation were undetectable after transplantation, indicating that PBcfDNA likely comes from MDS clones that reflect the disease status. PBcfDNA may be a safer and easier alternative to obtain tumor DNA in MDS.

  2. Could fetal fluid and membranes be an alternative source for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the feline species? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Eleonora; Cunto, Marco; Zambelli, Daniele; Ricci, Francesca; Tazzari, Pier Luigi; Merlo, Barbara

    2012-06-01

    Domestic cats are preferred models for normal physiology and several human diseases. In the present study feline fetal fluids and membranes were evaluated as possible sources of MSCs. Samples were recovered from 4 pregnant queens after ovarian-hysterectomy. Gestational sacs were separated from uterine wall; after allantoic and amniotic fluids aspiration and chorion-allantois and amniotic membranes separation, all cell lineages were cultured into 25 cm(2) flasks, in DMEM/TCM199, in a 5% CO(2) incubator at 38.5 °C. At passage 3, chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation ability were evaluated by culturing cell monolayers in differentiating media for 21 days. Cellular characterization with CD90, CD44, CD105, CD73, CD34, CD14, CD45, was performed by flow cytometry. In all samples, adherent fibroblastoid spindle-shaped cells were observed. Positive von Kossa and Alizarin Red staining confirmed osteogenesis. Alcian blue staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis, and positive Oil Red O lipid droplets within cell cytoplasm suggested adipogenesis. All cell lines isolated were positive for CD90, CD44, CD105 and negative for CD34, CD14 and CD45; as unexpected and different from human cells, feline cells resulted negative for CD73. Based on this preliminary results, fetal fluids and membranes could represent an alternative sources for mesenchymal stem cells in feline species.

  3. The potential of genetically-engineered pigs in providing an alternative source of organs and cells for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, David K C; Hara, Hidetaka; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Phelps, Carol; Ayares, David; Dai, Yifan

    2013-07-01

    There is a critical shortage of organs, cells, and corneas from deceased human donors worldwide. There are also shortages of human blood for transfusion. A potential solution to all of these problems is the transplantation of organs, cells, and corneas from a readily available animal species, such as the pig, and the transfusion of red blood cells from pigs into humans. However, to achieve these ends, major immunologic and other barriers have to be overcome. Considerable progress has been made in this respect by the genetic modification of pigs to protect their tissues from the primate immune response and to correct several molecular incompatibilities that exist between pig and primate. These have included knockout of genes responsible for the expression of major antigenic targets for primate natural anti-pig antibodies, insertion of human complement- and coagulation-regulatory transgenes, and knockdown of swine leukocyte antigens that stimulate the primate's adaptive immune response. As a result of these manipulations, the administration of novel immunosuppressive agents, and other innovations, pig hearts have now functioned in baboons for 6-8 months, pig islets have maintained normoglycemia in diabetic monkeys for > 1 year, and pig corneas have maintained transparency for several months. Clinical trials of pig islet transplantation are already in progress. Future developments will involve further genetic manipulations of the organ-source pig, with most of the genes that are likely to be beneficial already identified.

  4. Human mesenchymal stem cells: a bank perspective on the isolation, characterization and potential of alternative sources for the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Lorenzo; Fornasari, Pier Maria

    2013-04-01

    The continuous discovery of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in different tissues is stirring up a tremendous interest as a cell source for regenerative medicine therapies. Historically, hMSCs have been always considered a sub-population of mononuclear cells present in the bone marrow (BM). Although BM-hMSCs are still nowadays considered as the most promising mesenchymal stem cell population to reach the clinics due to their capacity to differentiate into multiple tissues, hMSCs derived from other adult and fetal tissues have also demonstrated to possess similar differentiation capacities. Furthermore, different reports have highlighted a higher recurrence of hMSCs in some of these tissues as compared to BM. This offer a fascinating panorama for cell banking, since the creation of a stem cell factory could be envisioned where hMSCs are stocked and used for ad hoc clinical applications. In this review, we summarize the main findings and state of the art in hMSCs isolation, characterization, and differentiation from alternative tissue sources and we attempt to compare their potency for musculoskeletal regeneration.

  5. Denitrification-Efficiencies of Alternate Carbon Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    MUNITIONS COMPOUNDS HAZARDS CARBON HAZARDOUS MATERIALS NITRATES WASTE WATER CONTAMINATION DENITRIFICATION 20. AljThACT (Cinfbu m reveri Ohl It neffe6617 and...carbon source evaluated, while sweet whey, corn steep liquor, acid whey and soluble potato solids followed in order of decreasing efficiency. Three of...contaminated munitions process waters the use of alternate carbon sources will be needed not only for biological nitrate reduction but also for the

  6. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  7. Supplementing Conservation Practices with Alternative Energy Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraetsch, Gayla A.

    1981-01-01

    Universities and colleges have two major roles: to reduce their own energy consumption and costs, and to develop and test new energy options. Alternative energy sources considered include solar energy, wind power, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal heat, coal, and nuclear energy. (MLW)

  8. Supplementing Conservation Practices with Alternative Energy Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraetsch, Gayla A.

    1981-01-01

    Universities and colleges have two major roles: to reduce their own energy consumption and costs, and to develop and test new energy options. Alternative energy sources considered include solar energy, wind power, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal heat, coal, and nuclear energy. (MLW)

  9. Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: Six Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Ed; McPherson, Michael R.; Vaughan, Joseph; Rowe, Theresa; Pickett, Michael P.; Bielec, John A.

    2011-01-01

    IT leaders today must not only provide but also decide: which tools and services should they continue to supply, which are better delivered by others, and perhaps most critically, which methods from among the bewildering array of alternative sourcing strategies will best serve their faculty, staff, and students. In 2009, the EDUCAUSE Center for…

  10. Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: Six Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Ed; McPherson, Michael R.; Vaughan, Joseph; Rowe, Theresa; Pickett, Michael P.; Bielec, John A.

    2011-01-01

    IT leaders today must not only provide but also decide: which tools and services should they continue to supply, which are better delivered by others, and perhaps most critically, which methods from among the bewildering array of alternative sourcing strategies will best serve their faculty, staff, and students. In 2009, the EDUCAUSE Center for…

  11. An alternative animal protein source: cultured beef.

    PubMed

    Post, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    Alternative sources of animal proteins are needed that can be produced efficiently, thereby providing food security with diminished ecological burden. It is feasible to culture beef from bovine skeletal muscle stem cells, but the technology is still under development. The aim is to create a beef mimic with equivalent taste, texture, and appearance and with the same nutritional value as livestock-produced beef. More specifically, there is a need for optimization of protein content and fat content. In addition, scalability of production requires modification of current small-scale bioreactors to the largest possible scale. The necessary steps and current progress suggest that this aim is achievable, but formal evidence is still required. Similarly, we can be optimistic about consumer acceptance based on initial data, but detailed studies are needed to gain more insight into potential psychological obstacles that could lead to rejection. These challenges are formidable but likely surmountable. The severity of upcoming food-security threats warrants serious research and development efforts to address the challenges that come with bringing cultured beef to the market. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

    Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

  13. Radiogenic metabolism: an alternative cellular energy source.

    PubMed

    Benford, M S

    2001-01-01

    The concept of 'healing energy' is commonly used in complementary and alternative medicine; however, efforts to define this concept using contemporary scientific theory, and measure it using modern scientific methods, have been limited to date. Recent experimental testing by Benford et al. observed a uniform, substantial, and consistent decrease in gamma radiation during alternative healing sessions, thus supporting a new energy-balance paradigm hypothesizing ionizing radiation as an alternative cellular energy source. This hypothesis extends the known elements of radiogenic metabolism to potentially explain a number of presumably biopositive energy-related phenomena, including fasting and radiation hormesis, as well as to demystify unexplained anomalies such as idiopathic thermogenesis, halos and auras, and incorruptibility of human corpses.

  14. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  15. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  16. An alternate light source to detect semen.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David G; Santucci, Karen A

    2002-10-01

    The Wood's lamp (WL) has been used in sexual assault evaluations. Recent data have shown that semen does not fluoresce with a WL and that physicians are unable to differentiate semen from other common medicaments using a WL. To determine whether physicians could differentiate semen from other products using an alternate light source (ALS), and to investigate whether a brief training period with the ALS would enhance physicians' ability to differentiate between semen and other commonly used products. An ALS, Bluemaxx BM500, was found to cause semen to fluoresce. Physicians were first asked to use this ALS to identify semen and then to distinguish between a semen sample and other products. Physicians then received a training class on the use of the ALS and were then asked to differentiate semen from other products. All physicians identified the semen as fluorescing and 25% successfully differentiated the semen from the other products using the ALS. Products most commonly mistaken for semen were a hand cream, Castille soap, and bacitracin. After the training session, 83% of the physicians successfully differentiated the semen from other products. The ALS, while not specific for semen identification, was 100% sensitive for it. Physicians instructed in the use of an alternate light source (BM 500) are able to identify semen as fluorescing and can differentiate semen (after a training session) from other commonly used products.

  17. In-vitro chondrogenic potential of synovial stem cells and chondrocytes allocated for autologous chondrocyte implantation - a comparison : Synovial stem cells as an alternative cell source for autologous chondrocyte implantation.

    PubMed

    Kubosch, Eva Johanna; Heidt, Emanuel; Niemeyer, Philipp; Bernstein, Anke; Südkamp, Norbert P; Schmal, Hagen

    2017-05-01

    The use of passaged chondrocytes is the current standard for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). De-differentiation due to amplification and donor site morbidity are known drawbacks highlighting the need for alternative cell sources. Via clinically validated flow cytometry analysis, we compared the expression of human stem cell and cartilage markers (collagen type 2 (Col2), aggrecan (ACAN), CD44) of chondrocytes (CHDR), passaged chondrocytes for ACI (CellGenix™), bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC), and synovial derived stem cells (SDSC). Primary, human BMSC and SDSC revealed similar adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation potential and stem cell marker expression. However, the expression of the chondrogenic markers Col2 and ACAN was statistically significant higher in SDSC. CHDR and SDSC expressed ACAN and CD44 equally, but Col2 was expressed more strongly on the SDSC surface. The marker expression of SDSC from osteoarthritic joints (Kellgren-Lawrence score ≥3) versus normal knees (Kellgren-Lawrence score ≤2) did not differ. Similarly, there was no difference between temporarily frozen and fresh SDSC. Col2 and ACAN surface expression declined with further passaging, whereas CD44 remained unchanged. We observed the same effect after reducing the serum content. When comparing CHDR for ACI with SDSC of the same passage (P2/3), both Col2 and ACAN, correlating with clinical outcome, were expressed higher in SDSC. In summary, SDSC demonstrated high differentiation potential and a stable chondrogenic phenotype. They might therefore be better suitable for ACI than BMSC or passaged CHDR.

  18. Alternative Sources of Energy: A Course in Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Gian

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course designed to familiarize students with alternative sources of energy, with emphasis on problem-solving strategies. Includes list of major topics/subtopics addressed and list of textbooks and recommended readings on alternative energy sources. (JN)

  19. Alternative Sources of Energy: A Course in Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Gian

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course designed to familiarize students with alternative sources of energy, with emphasis on problem-solving strategies. Includes list of major topics/subtopics addressed and list of textbooks and recommended readings on alternative energy sources. (JN)

  20. Alternative Fuel Sources for Military Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    currently used in aviation. The invention of the silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell in 1954, led the way for solar power to become a viable energy source...barrels per day); Canada (2,028), Saudi Arabia (1,461), Mexico (1,296), Venezuela (1,071), Nigeria (775), Iraq (452), Angola (438), Algeria (381), Brazil...Pacific Missile Range Facility PV photovoltaic R&D Research and Development US ; ~ United States UAV Unmanned Air Vehicle 27 BmLIOGRAPHY Amos, Jonathan

  1. Effects of alternative reinforcement sources: A reevaluation

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Abdulrazaq A.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of two alternative sources of food delivery on the key-peck responding of pigeons were examined. Pecking was maintained by a variable-interval 3-min schedule. In the presence of this schedule in different conditions, either a variable-time 3-min schedule delivering food independently of responding or an equivalent schedule that required a minimum 2-s pause between a key peck and food delivery (a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule) was added. The differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule reduced response rates more than did the variable-time schedule in most instances. The delay between a key peck and the next reinforcer consistently was longer under the differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule than under the variable-time schedule. Response rates and median delay between responses and reinforcers were negatively correlated. These results contradict earlier conclusions about the behavioral effects of alternative reinforcement. They suggest that an interpretation in terms of response–reinforcer contiguity is consistent with the data. PMID:16812558

  2. 49 CFR 193.2915 - Alternative power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative power sources. 193.2915 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2915 Alternative power sources. An alternative source of power that meets the requirements of § 193.2445 must be provided for security lighting...

  3. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a) General... seek alternative sources of power. RUS will determine, based on information provided by the borrower or...

  4. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a) General... seek alternative sources of power. RUS will determine, based on information provided by the borrower or...

  5. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a) General... seek alternative sources of power. RUS will determine, based on information provided by the borrower or...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2915 - Alternative power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative power sources. 193.2915 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2915 Alternative power sources. An alternative source of power that meets the requirements of § 193.2445 must be provided for security lighting and...

  7. 49 CFR 7.46 - Alternative sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative sources of information. 7.46 Section 7... § 7.46 Alternative sources of information. In the interest of making documents of general interest publicly available at as low a cost as possible, alternative sources will be arranged whenever possible. In...

  8. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... continuous availability of a reliable source of supplies or services; (5) Satisfy projected needs based on a... maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... of Sources 6.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may exclude a...

  9. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... continuous availability of a reliable source of supplies or services; (5) Satisfy projected needs based on a... maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... of Sources 6.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may exclude a...

  10. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... maintaining alternative sources. 206.202 Section 206.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...

  11. Bone Grafting: Sourcing, Timing, Strategies, and Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Egol, Kenneth A; Nauth, Aaron; Lee, Mark; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Watson, J Tracy; Borrelli, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Acute fractures, nonunions, and nonunions with bone defects or osteomyelitis often need bone graft to facilitate union. There are several factors to consider when it is determined that a bone graft is needed. These factors include the source of the bone graft (autograft vs. allograft), proper timing for placement of the bone graft, strategies to avoid further complications (particularly in the setting of osteomyelitis), and with the development of a variety of bone graft substitutes, whether alternatives to autograft are available and appropriate for the task at hand. Autograft bone has commonly been referred to as the "gold standard" of bone grafts, against which the efficacy of other grafts has been measured. The best timing for when to place a bone graft or substitute is also somewhat controversial, particularly after an open fracture or a potentially contaminated bed. The treatment of infected nonunions, particularly those that require a graft to facilitate healing, can be quite challenging. Typically, the infection is completely eradicated before placement of a bone graft, but achieving a sterile bed and the timing of a bone graft require strategic thinking and planning. This review outlines the benefits of autografts, the most suitable sites for harvesting bone grafts, the timing of bone graft procedures, the potential risks and benefits of grafting in the face of infection, and the currently available bone graft extenders.

  12. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  13. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  14. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  15. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  16. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  17. 48 CFR 715.370 - Alternative source selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative source... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 715.370 Alternative source selection procedures. The following selection procedures may be used,...

  18. 48 CFR 715.370 - Alternative source selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative source... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 715.370 Alternative source selection procedures. The following selection procedures may be used, when...

  19. 48 CFR 715.370 - Alternative source selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative source... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 715.370 Alternative source selection procedures. The following selection procedures may be used, when...

  20. 48 CFR 715.370 - Alternative source selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative source... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 715.370 Alternative source selection procedures. The following selection procedures may be used, when...

  1. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 1306.202 Section 1306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 1306.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. The authority to...

  2. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 306.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) The reference to...

  3. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 606.202 Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. The Procurement Executive is the...

  4. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) The HCA is delegated authority to approve a D&F in support of a... maintaining alternative sources. 3006.202 Section 3006.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  5. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 1406.202 Section 1406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 1406.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. HCAs are...

  6. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 406.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. The Senior Procurement...

  7. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 6.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may exclude a...

  8. 48 CFR 2406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... alternative sources. 2406.202 Section 2406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 2406.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) The...

  9. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  10. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  11. Alternative energy sources for surgical atrial ablation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mathew R; Garrido, Mauricio; Oz, Mehmet C; Argenziano, Michael

    2004-01-01

    As less complex modifications of the Maze procedure have been developed, a number of energy sources have been introduced to facilitate the creation of electrically isolating lesions within the atria. These include cryoablation, radiofrequency, microwave, laser, and focused ultrasound. Although each of these sources works slightly differently, the goal of all thermal sources is to heat tissue to a temperature (50 degrees C) above which irreversible electrical isolation occurs. These sources have been utilized both endocardially in arrested heart procedures as well as epicardially in the beating heart setting. There are several obstacles to the use of these sources epicardially, mostly related to the heat sink effect of endocardial blood. Several recent modifications have been introduced that will hopefully increase the efficacy of these sources in beating heart applications.

  12. 49 CFR 7.46 - Alternative sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative sources of information. 7.46 Section 7.46 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Fees § 7.46 Alternative sources of information. In the interest of making documents of general interest...

  13. Identification of Alternative Power Sources for Dredged Material Processing Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    This report provides a basis for selecting alternative, renewable power sources specifically for operating dredged material processing systems. A...obtaining power from solid waste (such as incineration of trash), but was discarded. Of all the alternative power sources studied, wind electric generation seems to be the most practical and versatile to apply at this time.

  14. Alternative coherent-mode representation of a planar source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovsky, Andrey S.; Zemliak, Alexander M.; Hernández-García, Edgar

    2005-05-01

    The problem of the coherent-mode representation of a planar source with unknown cross-spectral density function is considered. It is proposed the alternative coherent-mode representation of a source which does not involve the solution of the Fredholm integral equation but may be obtained from the results of radiometric measurements. The basic concept is illustrated by the example of the alternative coherent-mode representation calculated for the 1D Lambertian source.

  15. Do alternative energy sources displace fossil fuels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Richard

    2012-06-01

    A fundamental, generally implicit, assumption of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and many energy analysts is that each unit of energy supplied by non-fossil-fuel sources takes the place of a unit of energy supplied by fossil-fuel sources. However, owing to the complexity of economic systems and human behaviour, it is often the case that changes aimed at reducing one type of resource consumption, either through improvements in efficiency of use or by developing substitutes, do not lead to the intended outcome when net effects are considered. Here, I show that the average pattern across most nations of the world over the past fifty years is one where each unit of total national energy use from non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel energy use and, focusing specifically on electricity, each unit of electricity generated by non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-tenth of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These results challenge conventional thinking in that they indicate that suppressing the use of fossil fuel will require changes other than simply technical ones such as expanding non-fossil-fuel energy production.

  16. New Cell Sources for T Cell Engineering and Adoptive Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Themeli, Maria; Rivière, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The promising clinical results obtained with engineered T cells, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy, call for further advancements to facilitate and broaden their applicability. One potentially beneficial innovation is to exploit new T cell sources that reduce the need for autologous cell manufacturing and enable cell transfer across histocompatibility barriers. Here we review emerging T cell engineering approaches that utilize alternative T cell sources, which include virus-specific or T cell receptor-less allogeneic T cells, expanded lymphoid progenitors, and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived T lymphocytes. The latter offer the prospect for true off-the-shelf, genetically enhanced, histocompatible cell therapy products. PMID:25842976

  17. Chondrogenic induction of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells from Wharton's jelly embedded in alginate hydrogel and without added growth factor: an alternative stem cell source for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Reppel, Loïc; Schiavi, Jessica; Charif, Naceur; Leger, Léonore; Yu, Hao; Pinzano, Astrid; Henrionnet, Christel; Stoltz, Jean-François; Bensoussan, Danièle; Huselstein, Céline

    2015-12-30

    express specific cartilage-related genes and matrix proteins. Today, WJ-MSC represent a real alternative source of stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

  18. Hospital length of stay in the first 100 days after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute leukemia in remission: comparison among alternative graft sources.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Karen K; Joffe, Steven; Brazauskas, Ruta; Wang, Zhiwei; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Akpek, Görgün; Dandoy, Christopher; Frangoul, Haydar A; Freytes, César O; Khera, Nandita; Lazarus, Hillard M; LeMaistre, Charles F; Mehta, Paulette; Parsons, Susan K; Szwajcer, David; Ustun, Celalettin; Wood, William A; Majhail, Navneet S

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have shown comparable survival outcomes with different graft sources, but the relative resource needs of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) by graft source have not been well studied. We compared total hospital length of stay in the first 100 days after HCT in 1577 patients with acute leukemia in remission who underwent HCT with an umbilical cord blood (UCB), matched unrelated donor (MUD), or mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) graft between 2008 and 2011. To ensure a relatively homogenous study population, the analysis was limited to patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first or second complete remission who underwent HCT in the United States. To account for early deaths, we compared the number of days alive and out of the hospital in the first 100 days post-transplantation. For children who received myeloablative conditioning, the median time alive and out of the hospital in the first 100 days was 50 days for single UCB recipients, 54 days for double UCB recipients, and 60 days for MUD bone marrow (BM) recipients. In multivariate analysis, use of UCB was significantly associated with fewer days alive and out of the hospital compared with MUD BM. For adults who received myeloablative conditioning, the median time alive and out of the hospital in first 100 days was 52 days for single UCB recipients, 55 days for double UCB recipients, 69 days for MUD BM recipients, 75 days for MUD peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) recipients, 63 days for MMUD BM recipients, and 67 days for MMUD PBSC recipients. In multivariate analysis, UCB and MMUD BM recipients had fewer days alive and out of the hospital compared with recipients of other graft sources. For adults who received a reduced-intensity preparative regimen, the median time alive and out of the hospital during the first 100 days was 65 days for single UCB recipients, 63 days for double UCB recipients, 79 days for MUD PBSC recipients, and 79 days for MMUD PBSC

  19. Hospital Length of Stay in the First 100 Days After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Acute Leukemia in Remission: Comparison among Alternative Graft Sources

    PubMed Central

    Ballen, Karen K.; Joffe, Steven; Brazauskas, Ruta; Wang, Zhiwe; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Akpek, Görgün; Dandoy, Christopher; Frangoul, Haydar A.; Freytes, César O.; Khera, Nandita; Lazarus, Hillard M.; LeMaistre, Charles F.; Mehta, Paulette; Parsons, Susan K.; Szwajcer, David; Ustun, Celalettin; Wood, William A.; Majhail, Navneet S.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown comparable survival outcomes among different graft sources, but the relative resource needs of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) by graft source have not been well studied. We compared total hospital length of stay in the first 100 days after HCT in 1577 patients with acute leukemia in remission receiving umbilical cord blood (UCB), matched unrelated donor (MUD) or mismatched unrelated donors (MMUD) HCT from 2008–2011. To ensure a relatively homogenous study population, the analysis was limited to patients with acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first or second complete remission who received HCT in the United States. To account for early deaths, we compared the number of days alive and out of hospital in the first 100 days. For children receiving myeloablative conditioning, median days alive and out of hospital in the first 100 days were 50, 54 and 60 days for single UCB, double UCB and MUD bone marrow (BM) recipients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, use of UCB was significantly associated with fewer days alive and out of the hospital compared to MUD BM. For adults receiving HCT using myeloablative conditioning, median days alive and out of hospital in first 100 days were 52 for single UCB, 55 for double UCB, 69 for MUD BM, 75 for MUD peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC), 63 for MMUD BM and 67 days MMUD PBSC recipients. In multivariate analysis, UCB and MMUD BM recipients had fewer days alive and out of the hospital compared to other graft sources. For adults receiving a reduced intensity preparative regimen, median days alive and out of hospital during the first 100 days for single UCB, double UCB, MUD PBSC and MMUD PBSC were 65, 63, 79, and 79, respectively. Similar to the other two groups, use of UCB was associated with a fewer days alive and out of the hospital. In conclusion, length of stay in the first 100 days varies by graft source and is greater for UCB HCT recipients. These data provide

  20. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Veitzer, Seth A. Kundrapu, Madhusudhan Stoltz, Peter H. Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-15

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H{sup −} source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H{sup −} ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two

  1. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models

  2. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources.

    PubMed

    Veitzer, Seth A; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H; Beckwith, Kristian R C

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H(-) source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H(-) ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD

  3. Alternative biomass sources for thermal energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steensen, Torge; Müller, Sönke; Dresen, Boris; Büscher, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, renewable biomass energy sources comprise forests, agriculture and other large vegetation units. With the increasing demand on those landscape elements, including conflicts of interest to nature conservation and food production, the research focus should also incorporate smaller vegetation entities. In this study, we highlight the availability of small-scale features like roadside vegetation or hedges, which are rarely featured in maps. Roadside vegetation, however, is well known and regularly trimmed to allow the passing of traffic but the cut material is rarely harvested. Here, we combine a remote-sensing-based approach to quantify the seasonal biomass harvests with a GIS-based method to outline optimal transportation routes to, and the location of, storage units and power plants. Our main data source will be ESA's upcoming Sentinel-2 optical satellite. Spatial resolution of 10 meters in the visible and near infrared requires the use of spectral unmixing to derive end member spectra of the targeted biomass objects. Additional stereo-matching and LIDAR measurements allow the accompanying height estimate to derive the biomass volume and its changes over time. GIS data bases from the target areas allow the discrimination between traditional, large features (e.g. forests and agriculture) as well as previously unaccounted for, smaller vegetation units. With the mapped biomass occurrence and additional, GIS-based infrastructure information, we can outline transport routes that take into account local restrictions like nature reserve areas, height or weight limitations as well as transport costs in relation to potential gains. This information can then be processed to outline optimal places for power plants. To simulate the upcoming Sentinel-2 data sets, we use airborne data from the AISA Eagle, spatially and spectrally down-sampled to match Sentinel 2's resolution. Our test scenario is an area in western Germany, the Kirchheller Heide, close to the city

  4. Alternate methods of applying diffusants to silicon solar cells. [screen printing of thick-film paste materials and vapor phase transport from solid sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. W.; Field, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Low-melting phosphate and borate glasses were screen printed on silicon wafers and heated to form n and p junctions. Data on surface appearance, sheet resistance and junction depth are presented. Similar data are reported for vapor phase transport from sintered aluminum metaphosphate and boron-containing glass-ceramic solid sources. Simultaneous diffusion of an N(+) layer with screen-printed glass and a p(+) layer with screen-printed Al alloy paste was attempted. No p(+) back surface field formation was achieved. Some good cells were produced but the heating in an endless-belt furnace caused a large scatter in sheet resistance and junction depth for three separate lots of wafers.

  5. Alternative Energy Sources. Experiments You Can Do...from Edison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benrey, Ronald M.; Schultz, Robert F.

    Eight experiments dealing with alternative energy sources are presented. Each experiment includes an introductory section which provides background information and discusses the promises and problems of the particular energy source, a list of materials needed to complete the experiment, and the procedures to be used. The experiments involve:…

  6. Alternative Energy Sources. Experiments You Can Do...from Edison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benrey, Ronald M.; Schultz, Robert F.

    Eight experiments dealing with alternative energy sources are presented. Each experiment includes an introductory section which provides background information and discusses the promises and problems of the particular energy source, a list of materials needed to complete the experiment, and the procedures to be used. The experiments involve:…

  7. Assessment of alternative power sources for mobile mining machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairelli, J. E.; Tomazic, W. A.; Evans, D. G.; Klann, J. L.

    1981-12-01

    Alternative mobile power sources for mining applications were assessed. A wide variety of heat engines and energy systems was examined as potential alternatives to presently used power systems. The present mobile power systems are electrical trailing cable, electrical battery, and diesel - with diesel being largely limited in the United States to noncoal mines. Each candidate power source was evaluated for the following requirements: (1) ability to achieve the duty cycle; (2) ability to meet Government regulations; (3) availability (production readiness); (4) market availability; and (5) packaging capability. Screening reduced the list of candidates to the following power sources: diesel, stirling, gas turbine, rankine (steam), advanced electric (batteries), mechanical energy storage (flywheel), and use of hydrogen evolved from metal hydrides. This list of candidates is divided into two classes of alternative power sources for mining applications, heat engines and energy storage systems.

  8. Assessment of alternative power sources for mobile mining machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J. E.; Tomazic, W. A.; Evans, D. G.; Klann, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Alternative mobile power sources for mining applications were assessed. A wide variety of heat engines and energy systems was examined as potential alternatives to presently used power systems. The present mobile power systems are electrical trailing cable, electrical battery, and diesel - with diesel being largely limited in the United States to noncoal mines. Each candidate power source was evaluated for the following requirements: (1) ability to achieve the duty cycle; (2) ability to meet Government regulations; (3) availability (production readiness); (4) market availability; and (5) packaging capability. Screening reduced the list of candidates to the following power sources: diesel, stirling, gas turbine, rankine (steam), advanced electric (batteries), mechanical energy storage (flywheel), and use of hydrogen evolved from metal hydrides. This list of candidates is divided into two classes of alternative power sources for mining applications, heat engines and energy storage systems.

  9. Alternative splicing modulates stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ru-Huei; Liu, Shih-Ping; Ou, Chen-Wei; Yu, Hsiu-Hui; Li, Kuo-Wei; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells have the surprising potential to develop into many different cell types. Therefore, major research efforts have focused on transplantation of stem cells and/or derived progenitors for restoring depleted diseased cells in degenerative disorders. Understanding the molecular controls, including alternative splicing, that arise during lineage differentiation of stem cells is crucial for developing stem cell therapeutic approaches in regeneration medicine. Alternative splicing to allow a single gene to encode multiple transcripts with different protein coding sequences and RNA regulatory elements increases genomic complexities. Utilizing differences in alternative splicing as a molecular marker may be more sensitive than simply gene expression in various degrees of stem cell differentiation. Moreover, alternative splicing maybe provide a new concept to acquire induced pluripotent stem cells or promote cell-cell transdifferentiation for restorative therapies and basic medicine researches. In this review, we highlight the recent advances of alternative splicing regulation in stem cells and their progenitors. It will hopefully provide much needed knowledge into realizing stem cell biology and related applications.

  10. A transdisciplinary approach to the initial validation of a single cell protein as an alternative protein source for use in aquafeeds.

    PubMed

    Tlusty, Michael; Rhyne, Andrew; Szczebak, Joseph T; Bourque, Bradford; Bowen, Jennifer L; Burr, Gary; Marx, Christopher J; Feinberg, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    The human population is growing and, globally, we must meet the challenge of increased protein needs required to feed this population. Single cell proteins (SCP), when coupled to aquaculture production, offer a means to ensure future protein needs can be met without direct competition with food for people. To demonstrate a given type of SCP has potential as a protein source for use in aquaculture feed, a number of steps need to be validated including demonstrating that the SCP is accepted by the species in question, leads to equivalent survival and growth, does not result in illness or other maladies, is palatable to the consumer, is cost effective to produce and can easily be incorporated into diets using existing technology. Here we examine white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) growth and consumer taste preference, smallmouth grunt (Haemulon chrysargyreum) growth, survival, health and gut microbiota, and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) digestibility when fed diets that substitute the bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens at a level of 30% (grunts), 100% (shrimp), or 55% (salmon) of the fishmeal in a compound feed. In each of these tests, animals performed equivalently when fed diets containing M. extorquens as when fed a standard aquaculture diet. This transdisciplinary approach is a first validation of this bacterium as a potential SCP protein substitute in aquafeeds. Given the ease to produce this SCP through an aerobic fermentation process, the broad applicability for use in aquaculture indicates the promise of M. extorquens in leading toward greater food security in the future.

  11. Solar cell system having alternating current output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A monolithic multijunction solar cell was modified by fabricating an integrated circuit inverter on the back of the cell to produce a device capable of generating an alternating current output. In another embodiment, integrated curcuit power conditioning electronics was incorporated in a module containing a solar cell power supply.

  12. Preservation of Antigen-Specific Functions of αβ T Cells and B Cells Removed from Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants Suggests Their Use As an Alternative Cell Source for Advanced Manipulation and Adoptive Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li Pira, Giuseppina; Di Cecca, Stefano; Biagini, Simone; Girolami, Elia; Cicchetti, Elisabetta; Bertaina, Valentina; Quintarelli, Concetta; Caruana, Ignazio; Lucarelli, Barbarella; Merli, Pietro; Pagliara, Daria; Brescia, Letizia Pomponia; Bertaina, Alice; Montanari, Mauro; Locatelli, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is standard therapy for numerous hematological diseases. The use of haploidentical donors, sharing half of the HLA alleles with the recipient, has facilitated the use of this procedure as patients can rely on availability of a haploidentical donor within their family. Since HLA disparity increases the risk of graft-versus-host disease, T-cell depletion has been used to remove alloreactive lymphocytes from the graft. Selective removal of αβ T cells, which encompass the alloreactive repertoire, combined with removal of B cells to prevent EBV-related lymphoproliferative disease, proved safe and effective in clinical studies. Depleted αβ T cells and B cells are generally discarded as by-products. Considering the possible use of donor T cells for donor lymphocyte infusions or for generation of pathogen-specific T cells as mediators of graft-versus-infection effect, we tested whether cells in the discarded fractions were functionally intact. Response to alloantigens and to viral antigens comparable to that of unmanipulated cells indicated a functional integrity of αβ T cells, in spite of the manipulation used for their depletion. Furthermore, B cells proved to be efficient antigen-presenting cells, indicating that antigen uptake, processing, and presentation were fully preserved. Therefore, we propose that separated αβ T lymphocytes could be employed for obtaining pathogen-specific T cells, applying available methods for positive selection, which eventually leads to indirect allodepletion. In addition, these functional T cells could undergo additional manipulation, such as direct allodepletion or genetic modification. PMID:28386262

  13. Using Alternate Energy Sources. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with using alternate energy sources. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons:…

  14. Alternative Funding Sources. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, James L., Ed.; Arnold, Allen D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to identify and tap new sources of funds for community colleges, this monograph presents a series of descriptive articles on the most successful alternative funding ventures. In addition, the sourcebook provides a sense of where and how new ventures have aided two-year colleges and how other institutions might follow in this pursuit.…

  15. Using Alternate Energy Sources. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with using alternate energy sources. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons:…

  16. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation: technical section

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Eighteen different alternative fuels were considered in the preliminary screening, from three basic resource bases. Coal can be used to provide 13 of the fuels; oil shale was the source for three of the fuels; and biomass provided the resource base for two fuels not provided from coal. In the case of biomass, six different fuels were considered. Nuclear power and direct solar radiation were also considered. The eight prime movers that were considered in the preliminary screening are boiler/steam turbine; open and closed cycle gas turbines; low and medium speed diesels; spark ignited and stratified charge Otto cycles; electric motor; Stirling engine; free piston; and fuel cell/electric motor. Modes of transport considered are pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft. Section 2 gives the overall summary and conclusions, the future outlook for each mode of transportation, and the R and D suggestions by mode of transportation. Section 3 covers the preliminary screening phase and includes a summary of the data base used. Section 4 presents the methodology used to select the fuels and prime movers for the detailed study. Sections 5 through 8 cover the detailed evaluation of the pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft modes of transportation. Section 9 covers the demand related issues.

  17. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Maria R. C.; Kerr, Katherine R.; Fahey, George C.

    2013-01-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  18. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-06

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  19. Erythroleukemia cells acquire an alternative mitophagy capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Fang, Yixuan; Yan, Lili; Yuan, Na; Zhang, Suping; Xu, Li; Nie, Meilan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wang, Jianrong

    2016-04-19

    Leukemia cells are superior to hematopoietic cells with a normal differentiation potential in buffering cellular stresses, but the underlying mechanisms for this leukemic advantage are not fully understood. Using CRISPR/Cas9 deletion of the canonical autophagy-essential gene Atg7, we found that erythroleukemia K562 cells are armed with two sets of autophagic machinery. Alternative mitophagy is functional regardless of whether the canonical autophagic mechanism is intact or disrupted. Although canonical autophagy defects attenuated cell cycling, proliferation and differentiation potential, the leukemia cells retained their abilities for mitochondrial clearance and for maintaining low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Treatment with a specific inducer of mitophagy revealed that the canonical autophagy-defective erythroleukemia cells preserved a mitophagic response. Selective induction of mitophagy was associated with the upregulation and localization of RAB9A on the mitochondrial membrane in both wild-type and Atg7(-/-) leukemia cells. When the leukemia cells were treated with the alternative autophagy inhibitor brefeldin A or when the RAB9A was knocked down, this mitophagy was prohibited. This was accompanied by elevated ROS levels and apoptosis as well as reduced DNA damage repair. Therefore, the results suggest that erythroleukemia K562 cells possess an ATG7-independent alternative mitophagic mechanism that functions even when the canonical autophagic process is impaired, thereby maintaining the ability to respond to stresses such as excessive ROS and DNA damage.

  20. Erythroleukemia cells acquire an alternative mitophagy capability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Fang, Yixuan; Yan, Lili; Yuan, Na; Zhang, Suping; Xu, Li; Nie, Meilan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wang, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia cells are superior to hematopoietic cells with a normal differentiation potential in buffering cellular stresses, but the underlying mechanisms for this leukemic advantage are not fully understood. Using CRISPR/Cas9 deletion of the canonical autophagy-essential gene Atg7, we found that erythroleukemia K562 cells are armed with two sets of autophagic machinery. Alternative mitophagy is functional regardless of whether the canonical autophagic mechanism is intact or disrupted. Although canonical autophagy defects attenuated cell cycling, proliferation and differentiation potential, the leukemia cells retained their abilities for mitochondrial clearance and for maintaining low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Treatment with a specific inducer of mitophagy revealed that the canonical autophagy-defective erythroleukemia cells preserved a mitophagic response. Selective induction of mitophagy was associated with the upregulation and localization of RAB9A on the mitochondrial membrane in both wild-type and Atg7−/− leukemia cells. When the leukemia cells were treated with the alternative autophagy inhibitor brefeldin A or when the RAB9A was knocked down, this mitophagy was prohibited. This was accompanied by elevated ROS levels and apoptosis as well as reduced DNA damage repair. Therefore, the results suggest that erythroleukemia K562 cells possess an ATG7-independent alternative mitophagic mechanism that functions even when the canonical autophagic process is impaired, thereby maintaining the ability to respond to stresses such as excessive ROS and DNA damage. PMID:27091640

  1. A transdisciplinary approach to the initial validation of a single cell protein as an alternative protein source for use in aquafeeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The human population is growing and, globally, we must meet the challenge of increased protein needs required to feed this population. Single cell proteins (SCP), when coupled to aquaculture production, offers a means to ensure future protein needs can be met without direct competition with food for...

  2. Alternative nutrient sources for biotechnological use of Sporosarcina pasteurii.

    PubMed

    Cuzman, Oana Adriana; Richter, Katharina; Wittig, Linda; Tiano, Piero

    2015-06-01

    The potential use of Sporosarcina pasteurii in possible biotechnological applications on a large scale (ground improvement, consolidation of building structures and ornamental stone, or in developing bio-materials for the building industry), is based on its ability to produce high amounts of carbonate in a short period of time via urea hydrolysis. Industrial biomass production would have a low environmental impact and would be most economical if the standard growth media could be replaced with alternative nutrient sources, such as byproducts or wastes from other industries, or other low cost ingredients. The use of cost effective ingredients must guarantee ureolytic activities and growth conditions that are comparable to those resulting from the standard nutrient medium. In this work, three types of alternative media were tested for growing the ureolytic active bacteria S. pasteurii: (1) alternative nutrient sources such as industrial wastes resulting from the dairy and brewery industries, (2) fertilizer urea as an alternative urea substitute, and (3) different types of poultry manure based fertilizers as nutrient and urea substitutes. The comparison between the standard media, the nutrient alternatives and urea substitutes was possible by taking the protein concentration and nitrogen content into account. Bacterial activity was evaluated in terms of biomass changes over time (CFU, optical density, ATP measurements) and indirect estimation of the enzyme production (Nessler assay, conductivity measurement). The results revealed that some of the dairy wastes tested, such as whey and buttermilk, are potential alternative nutrients for bacterial development, while the urea fertilizer is perfectly suitable as an economical substitute for pure laboratory grade urea.

  3. Central airport energy systems using alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop the concept of a central airport energy system designed to supply energy for aircraft ground support and terminal complex utility systems using municipal waste as a fuel. The major task was to estimate the potential for reducing aircraft and terminal fuel consumption by the use of alternate renewable energy sources. Additional efforts included an assessment of indirect benefits of reducing airport atmospheric and noise pollution.

  4. The use of hydrazine as an alternate source of energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Bressan, C.; Ferreira, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The potentials of using hydrazine as an alternative source of energy was studied. Three chemical reactions are considered: oxidation with air, oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, and thermocatalytic decomposition. Performance data of gasoline, ethylic alcohol, and propane are compared. An item about the NO(x) emissions by the various investigated reactions is included. Promising results are shown, mainly those regarding the available energy per unit volume of unburned gases (vaporized fuel and oxidizer).

  5. Alternative Cell Death Pathways and Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Simone

    2013-01-01

    While necroptosis has for long been viewed as an accidental mode of cell death triggered by physical or chemical damage, it has become clear over the last years that necroptosis can also represent a programmed form of cell death in mammalian cells. Key discoveries in the field of cell death research, including the identification of critical components of the necroptotic machinery, led to a revised concept of cell death signaling programs. Several regulatory check and balances are in place in order to ensure that necroptosis is tightly controlled according to environmental cues and cellular needs. This network of regulatory mechanisms includes metabolic pathways, especially those linked to mitochondrial signaling events. A better understanding of these signal transduction mechanisms will likely contribute to open new avenues to exploit our knowledge on the regulation of necroptosis signaling for therapeutic application in the treatment of human diseases. PMID:23401689

  6. Guayule and Russian dandelion as alternative sources of natural rubber.

    PubMed

    van Beilen, Jan B; Poirier, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Natural rubber, obtained almost exclusively from the Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), is a unique biopolymer of strategic importance that, in many of its most significant applications, cannot be replaced by synthetic rubber alternatives. Several pressing motives lead to the search for alternative sources of natural rubber. These include increased evidence of allergenic reactions to Hevea rubber, the danger that the fungal pathogen Microcyclus ulei, causative agent of South American Leaf Blight (SALB), might spread to Southeast Asia, which would severely disrupt rubber production, potential shortages of supply due to increasing demand and changes in land use, and a general trend towards the replacement of petroleum-derived chemicals with renewables. Two plant species have received considerable attention as potential alternative sources of natural rubber: the Mexican shrub Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) and the Russian dandelion (Taraxacum koksaghyz). This review will summarize the current production methods and applications of natural rubber (dry rubber and latex), the threats to the production of natural rubber from the rubber tree, and describe the current knowledge of the production of natural rubber from guayule and Russian dandelion.

  7. Is soil an alternative source of leprosy infection?

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, A N; Dastidar, S G

    Leprosy is believed to be transmitted only through human contacts. However, many anomalous observations had gradually accumulated which had weakened such beliefs. These are: only 1/3 rd cases of leprosy give a definite history of being transmitted from other known cases; life-long spouses, in whom only one has leprosy, seldom lead to leprosy to others; while MDT applied intensively in most leprosy endemic countries, could successfully reduce incidence of leprosy, however, simultaneously new cases arise unabated. Besides, a close look at animal leprosies also suggested a mode of transmission other than human-type contact. Thus, a search for alternative hypothesis led to the findings that leprosy bacillus (LB) could be a soil chemoautotroph and could facultatively live both in the human body and the soil which could serve as an alternative source of infection. Evaluation of accumulated evidences points to this possibility.

  8. Alternative source models of very low frequency events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Agnew, D.C.; Schwartz, S.Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present alternative source models for very low frequency (VLF) events, previously inferred to be radiation from individual slow earthquakes that partly fill the period range between slow slip events lasting thousands of seconds and low-frequency earthquakes (LFE) with durations of tenths of a second. We show that VLF events may emerge from bandpass filtering a sum of clustered, shorter duration, LFE signals, believed to be the components of tectonic tremor. Most published studies show VLF events occurring concurrently with tremor bursts and LFE signals. Our analysis of continuous data from Costa Rica detected VLF events only when tremor was also occurring, which was only 7% of the total time examined. Using analytic and synthetic models, we show that a cluster of LFE signals produces the distinguishing characteristics of VLF events, which may be determined by the cluster envelope. The envelope may be diagnostic of a single, dynamic, slowly slipping event that propagates coherently over kilometers or represents a narrowly band-passed version of nearly simultaneous arrivals of radiation from slip on multiple higher stress drop and/or faster propagating slip patches with dimensions of tens of meters (i.e., LFE sources). Temporally clustered LFE sources may be triggered by single or multiple distinct aseismic slip events or represent the nearly simultaneous chance occurrence of background LFEs. Given the nonuniqueness in possible source durations, we suggest it is premature to draw conclusions about VLF event sources or how they scale.

  9. Alternative source models of very low frequency events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J.; Agnew, D. C.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2016-09-01

    We present alternative source models for very low frequency (VLF) events, previously inferred to be radiation from individual slow earthquakes that partly fill the period range between slow slip events lasting thousands of seconds and low-frequency earthquakes (LFE) with durations of tenths of a second. We show that VLF events may emerge from bandpass filtering a sum of clustered, shorter duration, LFE signals, believed to be the components of tectonic tremor. Most published studies show VLF events occurring concurrently with tremor bursts and LFE signals. Our analysis of continuous data from Costa Rica detected VLF events only when tremor was also occurring, which was only 7% of the total time examined. Using analytic and synthetic models, we show that a cluster of LFE signals produces the distinguishing characteristics of VLF events, which may be determined by the cluster envelope. The envelope may be diagnostic of a single, dynamic, slowly slipping event that propagates coherently over kilometers or represents a narrowly band-passed version of nearly simultaneous arrivals of radiation from slip on multiple higher stress drop and/or faster propagating slip patches with dimensions of tens of meters (i.e., LFE sources). Temporally clustered LFE sources may be triggered by single or multiple distinct aseismic slip events or represent the nearly simultaneous chance occurrence of background LFEs. Given the nonuniqueness in possible source durations, we suggest it is premature to draw conclusions about VLF event sources or how they scale.

  10. Denitrification of high nitrate concentration wastewater using alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nava, Y; Marañón, E; Soons, J; Castrillón, L

    2010-01-15

    The use of different organic carbon sources in the denitrification of wastewater containing 2500 mg nitrates/L in a SBR was studied. Three alternative sources of carbon were tested: wastewater from a sweet factory, a residue from a soft drinks factory and a residue from a dairy plant. The first two are sugar-rich, whereas the third presents a high content in lactic acid. Maximum specific denitrification rates of between 42 and 48 mg NO(3)-N/g VSS h were obtained. The effluents were nitrate-free and very low COD concentrations were obtained in 4-6h reaction time, especially with the sugar-rich carbon sources. The values of the denitrifier net yield coefficient were higher than when using methanol (0.93-1.75 g VSS(formed)/g NO(x)-N(reduced)). The lowest value was obtained using the lactic acid-rich residue. The optimum COD/N ratios varied between 4.6 for the lactic acid-rich carbon source and 5.5-6.5 for the sugar-rich carbon sources.

  11. Alternative energy sources could support life on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N.

    Energy pervades the solar system in a variety of forms, including electromagnetic and particle radiation, magnetism, heat, kinetic motion, and gravitational interactions. Life on Earth is sustained by the conversion of light and chemical energy into proton gradients across membranes that drive the phosphorylation of high-energy intermediate metabolites.The use of light and reduced chemical bonds as energy sources is not surprising on Earth, where the intensity of light is strong and an oxidizing atmosphere favors energy-yielding chemical reactions. However, any naturally occurring energy gradient that generates charge separation across boundary layers could theoretically yield the free energy needed to sustain life. Using specific, plausible examples from Jupiter's ice-covered satellite Europa, we propose that alternative energy sources could sustain life where neither light nor an oxidizing atmosphere is available.

  12. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerz, D. A.

    1987-12-01

    Fusion, the process that powers our Sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on Earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the Moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical.

  14. Recent advances in 2D and 3D in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes, alternative hepatocyte sources and non-parenchymal liver cells and their use in investigating mechanisms of hepatotoxicity, cell signaling and ADME.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Patricio; Hewitt, Nicola J; Albrecht, Ute; Andersen, Melvin E; Ansari, Nariman; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Bode, Johannes Georg; Bolleyn, Jennifer; Borner, Christoph; Böttger, Jan; Braeuning, Albert; Budinsky, Robert A; Burkhardt, Britta; Cameron, Neil R; Camussi, Giovanni; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Craig Rowlands, J; Dahmen, Uta; Damm, Georg; Dirsch, Olaf; Donato, María Teresa; Dong, Jian; Dooley, Steven; Drasdo, Dirk; Eakins, Rowena; Ferreira, Karine Sá; Fonsato, Valentina; Fraczek, Joanna; Gebhardt, Rolf; Gibson, Andrew; Glanemann, Matthias; Goldring, Chris E P; Gómez-Lechón, María José; Groothuis, Geny M M; Gustavsson, Lena; Guyot, Christelle; Hallifax, David; Hammad, Seddik; Hayward, Adam; Häussinger, Dieter; Hellerbrand, Claus; Hewitt, Philip; Hoehme, Stefan; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Houston, J Brian; Hrach, Jens; Ito, Kiyomi; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Keitel, Verena; Kelm, Jens M; Kevin Park, B; Kordes, Claus; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; LeCluyse, Edward L; Lu, Peng; Luebke-Wheeler, Jennifer; Lutz, Anna; Maltman, Daniel J; Matz-Soja, Madlen; McMullen, Patrick; Merfort, Irmgard; Messner, Simon; Meyer, Christoph; Mwinyi, Jessica; Naisbitt, Dean J; Nussler, Andreas K; Olinga, Peter; Pampaloni, Francesco; Pi, Jingbo; Pluta, Linda; Przyborski, Stefan A; Ramachandran, Anup; Rogiers, Vera; Rowe, Cliff; Schelcher, Celine; Schmich, Kathrin; Schwarz, Michael; Singh, Bijay; Stelzer, Ernst H K; Stieger, Bruno; Stöber, Regina; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Tetta, Ciro; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu; Weiss, Thomas S; Widera, Agata; Woods, Courtney G; Xu, Jinghai James; Yarborough, Kathy M; Hengstler, Jan G

    2013-08-01

    This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically aggravate the initial damage. Hepatotoxicity, as well as hepatic metabolism, is controlled by a set of nuclear receptors (including PXR, CAR, HNF-4α, FXR, LXR, SHP, VDR and PPAR) and signaling pathways. When isolating liver cells, some pathways are activated, e.g., the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway, whereas others are silenced (e.g. HNF-4α), resulting in up- and downregulation of hundreds of genes. An understanding of these changes is crucial for a correct interpretation of in vitro data. The possibilities and limitations of the most useful liver in vitro systems are summarized, including three-dimensional culture techniques, co-cultures with non-parenchymal cells, hepatospheres, precision cut liver slices and the isolated perfused liver. Also discussed is how closely hepatoma, stem cell and iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like-cells resemble real hepatocytes. Finally, a summary is given of the state of the art of liver in vitro and mathematical modeling systems that are currently used in the pharmaceutical industry with an emphasis on drug metabolism, prediction of clearance, drug interaction, transporter studies and hepatotoxicity. One key message is that despite our enthusiasm for in vitro systems, we must never lose sight of the in vivo situation. Although hepatocytes have been isolated for decades, the hunt for relevant alternative systems has only just begun.

  15. Ambulatory blood pressure status in children: comparing alternate limit sources.

    PubMed

    Bell, Cynthia S; Poffenbarger, Tim S; Samuels, Joshua A

    2011-12-01

    The American Heart Association has included alternate ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) limits for children published by Wühl in 2002. These updated limits employ the same pediatric cohort data as the previous ABP limits published by Soergel in 1997 but differ in analysis technique. The implications of changing ABP limit source on the diagnosis of hypertension has yet to be examined in a large pediatric cohort. We reviewed 741 ABP monitorings performed in children referred to our hypertension clinic between 1991-2007. Hypertension was defined as 24-h mean blood pressure ≥ 95 th percentile or 24-h blood pressure load ≥ 25%, by Soergel and Wühl limits separately. Six hundred seventy-three (91%) children were classified the same by both limit sources. Wühl limits were more likely than Soergel to classify a child as hypertensive (443 vs. 409, respectively). There was an increased classification of prehypertension and decreased white-coat hypertension by the Wühl method, whereas ambulatory and severe hypertension counts remained relatively the same by both limits sources. The use of either limit source will not significantly affect most clinical outcomes but should remain consistent over long-term research projects. Collection of new normative data from a larger, multiethnic population is needed for better measurement of ABP in children.

  16. Alternate Light Source Findings of Common Topical Products

    PubMed Central

    Pollitt, Erin N.; Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Scafide, Katherine N.; Holbrook, Debra; D’Silva, Glynis; Sheridan, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Background One of the important roles of a forensic clinician is to perform examinations of patients who are victims and suspects of crime. Alternate light source (ALS) is a tool that can improve evidence collection and enhance visualization of injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine if commonly used topical products fluoresce or absorb when examined with an ALS. Secondly, we aim to identify patient and exam variables that may impact findings. Methods A convenience sample of 81 subjects was used. Following the application of 14 over-the-counter products, researchers observed the participants’ skin with an ALS under 18 combinations of wavelengths and colored filters. Results Of the 14 products viewed (n=1458 observations per product), six were found to fluoresce under alternate light in more than 40% of observations, 5 fluoresced in 1–10% of observations and 3 fluoresced less than 1% of the time. One product (a make-up product) absorbed ALS light consistently (81%), a second (a sunscreen product) absorbed in 7%, while the remaining 12 products produced absorption findings in less than1% of observations. In generalized mixed linear models, absorption findings were more commonly identified in participants with light or medium skin tones when compared to those with dark skin tones. Discussion These results suggest the presence of topical products may impact ALS findings. A thorough forensic clinical assessment should include a documented history, including assessment of potential sources of findings to aid in interpretation. PMID:27428790

  17. Validation of alternate light sources for detection of bruises in non-embalmed and embalmed cadavers.

    PubMed

    Olds, Kelly; Byard, Roger W; Winskog, Calle; Langlois, Neil E I

    2017-03-01

    Bruising is frequently documented in cases of violence for use as forensic evidence. However, bruises can be overlooked if they are not visible to the naked eye. Alternate light sources such as ultraviolet, narrow band, and infrared have been used in an attempt to reveal the presence of bruising that is not otherwise apparent. However, there is a significant gap in knowledge surrounding this technique as it has not been validated against histology to confirm that bruising is genuinely being enhanced. A recent study evaluated the ability of alternate light sources to enhance visibility of bruises using a pigskin model. However, histological confirmation of bruising in humans using these light sources has not yet been performed. In this study, embalmed and non-embalmed human cadavers were used. Bodies were surveyed with alternate light sources, and enhanced regions that were unapparent under white light were photographed with the alternate light sources and sampled for histological assessment. Immunohistochemical staining for the red blood cell surface protein glycophorin was used determine if the enhanced area was a bruise (defined by the presence of extravasated erythrocytes). Photographs of areas confirmed to be bruises were analyzed using the program Fiji to measure enhancement, which was defined as an increase in the measured transverse diameter. In the non-embalmed and the embalmed cadavers violet alternate light produced the greatest enhancement of histologically confirmed bruises, followed by blue (both p < 0.0001). Regions that were not confirmed as bruises also enhanced, indicating that light sources may not be specific. This suggests that the use of light sources to enhance the visibility of bruising should be undertaken with caution and further studies are required.

  18. Alternative fuels for mobile fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese Barton, Scott Andrew

    1999-11-01

    Because of limitations associated with the use of hydrogen fuel, the direct use of alternative fuels in fuel cells has been the focus of intense research. Two fuels worthy of consideration are methanol and zinc. This work considers aspects of implementing these fuels in mobile fuel cell applications. Two chapters treat topics relating to direct methanol fuel cells, and three chapters consider the cathode and anode of the zinc-air cell. A methanol concentration sensor is crucial to the control of a direct methanol fuel cell system. The design considered here is based on current output limited by methanol diffusion through a proton exchange membrane. The sensor provides first-order response to changes in concentration and temperature over a concentration range of 0 to 3 M, with a response on the order of 10 seconds. A mixed-reactant, strip-cell direct methanol fuel cell concept is discussed. In this type of cell, reaction-selective electrodes are mounted in an alternating fashion on the same side of a membrane electrolyte, allowing mixing of feed streams, and reduced system complexity. The performance of prototypical cells is demonstrated, and improved fuel efficiency at low current density is predicted. Geometric constraints on the performance of such cells are also considered. A primary zinc-air cell may be considered a fuel cell if the anode is replaceable. The cathode of such a cell is analyzed using a numerical model. Results indicate that oxygen solubility and diffusion in the electrolyte dominate polarization losses. Reduced catalyst particle size and decreased electrolyte concentration are suggested to improve cathode performance. Whereas the air cathode may be modeled adequately, given the wealth of information available on oxygen kinetics, the oxidation of zinc is not well-understood. Thus, the mass-transfer-limited region of zinc electrodissolution was investigated using a zinc rotating disk electrode and electrochemical impedance techniques. The zincate

  19. Identification of agents that reduce renal hypoxia-reoxygenation injury using cell-based screening: purine nucleosides are alternative energy sources in LLC-PK1 cells during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Szoleczky, Petra; Módis, Katalin; Nagy, Nóra; Dóri Tóth, Zoltán; DeWitt, Douglas; Szabó, Csaba; Gero, Domokos

    2012-01-01

    Acute tubular necrosis is a clinical problem that lacks specific therapy and is characterized by high mortality rate. The ischemic renal injury affects the proximal tubule cells causing dysfunction and cell death after severe hypoperfusion. We utilized a cell-based screening approach in a hypoxia-reoxygenation model of tubular injury to search for cytoprotective action using a library of pharmacologically active compounds. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) induced ATP depletion, suppressed aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, increased the permeability of the monolayer, caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and caspase-dependent cell death. The only compound that proved cytoprotective either applied prior to the hypoxia induction or during the reoxygenation was adenosine. The protective effect of adenosine required the coordinated actions of adenosine deaminase and adenosine kinase, but did not requisite the purine receptors. Adenosine and inosine better preserved the cellular ATP content during ischemia than equimolar amount of glucose, and accelerated the restoration of the cellular ATP pool following the OGD. Our results suggest that radical changes occur in the cellular metabolism to respond to the energy demand during and following hypoxia, which include the use of nucleosides as an essential energy source. Thus purine nucleoside supplementation holds promise in the treatment of acute renal failure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternative estimate of source distribution in microbial source tracking using posterior probabilities.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Joshua; Price, Bertram; Ware, Adam

    2010-04-01

    Microbial source tracking (MST) is a procedure used to determine the relative contributions of humans and animals to fecal microbial contamination of surface waters in a given watershed. Studies of MST methodology have focused on optimizing sampling, laboratory, and statistical analysis methods in order to improve the reliability of determining which sources contributed most to surface water fecal contaminant. The usual approach for estimating a source distribution of microbial contamination is to classify water sample microbial isolates into discrete source categories and calculate the proportion of these isolates in each source category. The set of proportions is an estimate of the contaminant source distribution. In this paper we propose and compare an alternative method for estimating a source distribution-averaging posterior probabilities of source identity across isolates. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation covering a wide variety of watershed scenarios to compare the two methods. The results show that averaging source posterior probabilities across isolates leads to more accurate source distribution estimates than proportions that follow classification.

  1. Proceedings of the conference on alternative energy sources for Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, I.N.

    1981-01-01

    Four primary areas of study for alternative energy sources for Texas are considered. These are: energy demand supply and economics; prospects for energy resources (oil, lignite, coal, nuclear, goethermal and solar) and conservation; financial and technical constraints; and future planning. The following papers are presented: US energy outlook to 1990; energy supply and demand projections; comparative economics of solar energy in the generation of big power; gas present and future prospects; prospects for enhanced recovery of oil in Texas; the outlook for coal in USA; implementation of nuclear power in Texas; future outlook - geopressured-geothermal energy for Texas; future prospects for conservation and solar energy; financing and money supply constraints; technical constraints to energy supply increase; planning for the future - the crisis that drones on. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  2. local alternative sources for cogeneration combined heat and power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer

    Global demand for energy continues to grow while countries around the globe race to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions by implementing policy measures and advancing technology. Sustainability has become an important issue in transportation and infrastructure development projects. While several agencies are trying to incorporate a range of sustainability measures in their goals and missions, only a few planning agencies have been able to implement these policies and they are far from perfect. The low rate of success in implementing sustainable policies is primarily due to incomplete understanding of the system and the interaction between various elements of the system. The conventional planning efforts focuses mainly on performance measures pertaining to the system and its impact on the environment but seldom on the social and economic impacts. The objective of this study is to use clean and alternative energy can be produced from many sources, and even use existing materials for energy generation. One such pathway is using wastewater, animal and organic waste, or landfills to create biogas for energy production. There are three tasks for this study. In topic one evaluated the energy saving that produced from combined hydrogen, heat, and power and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using local sustainable energy at the Missouri S&T campus to reduce energy consumption and fossil fuel usage. Second topic aimed to estimate energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source by using Rankin steam cycle from municipal solid waste at Benghazi-Libya. And the last task is in progress. The results for topics one and two have been presented.

  3. Alternative current source based Schottky contact with additional electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, R. K.; Aslanova, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    Additional electric field (AEF) in the Schottky contacts (SC) that covered the peripheral contact region wide and the complete contact region narrow (as TMBS diode) SC. Under the influence of AEF is a redistribution of free electrons produced at certain temperatures of the semiconductor, and is formed the space charge region (SCR). As a result of the superposition of the electric fields SCR and AEF occurs the resulting electric field (REF). The REF is distributed along a straight line perpendicular to the contact surface, so that its intensity (and potential) has a minimum value on the metal surface and the maximum value at a great distance from the metal surface deep into the SCR. Under the influence of AEF as a sided force the metal becomes negative pole and semiconductor - positive pole, therefore, SC with AEF becomes an alternative current source (ACS). The Ni-nSi SC with different diameters (20-1000 μm) under the influence of the AEF as sided force have become ACS with electromotive force in the order of 0.1-1.0 mV, which are generated the electric current in the range of 10-9-10-7 A, flowing through the external resistance 1000 Ohm.

  4. Don't forget alternate energy sources: biomass, geothermal, wind

    SciTech Connect

    Miskell, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The United States is probably the most fortunate country in the world in terms of potential energy resources, and that is part of the problem in developing alternate sources. Which ones should be given preference, and which ones will give the quickest, most economic return on investment. The exploration of converting potential plant life to energy is already underway. One such plant is the milkweed. The milky latex substance of the weed contains 30% hydrocarbon and 70% water. About 7% to 10% of the plant weight is extractable crude oil. The unused plant residue can be processed to produce alcohol. In Utah, a milkweed project yielded 2.5 pounds of oil from 35 lbs. of milkweed. The California Commission is looking into the possibility of using two million tons of rice straw, now left in the fields to be burned. The basic thrust of geothermal activity is still the dry steam plants in the Geyser field in California, but the movement to develop more prevalent hot water persists. Binary production and the use of moderate hot water are gaining in acceptance. The government's goal for wind for the year 2000 is 2% of total energy usage. Both utility and consumer participation will be required to meet that goal. Utilities will have to install 20,000 to 30,000 large-scale machines and nearly 1 million would have to be installed by consumers for homes and farms. Movement is already underway.

  5. Use of an alternative light source to assess strangulation victims.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Debra S; Jackson, M Christine

    2013-01-01

    Alternative light sources (ALSs) are commonly used at crime scenes and in forensic laboratories to collect evidence such as latent fingerprints, body fluids, hair, and fibers. This article describes the use of this technology to reveal soft tissue injuries that are not visible to the naked or unaided eye in patients who report strangulation. The value of this information to the medical, nursing, and judicial systems is discussed. The records of the 172 strangulation patients seen in our forensic nurse examiner program between 2009 and 2010 were reviewed. The SPEX Crimescope (SPEX Forensics, Edison, New Jersey) was used during the assessment of all of them. Ninety-three percent of the patients had no visible evidence of external injuries on physical examination. The ALS revealed positive findings of intradermal injuries in 98% of that group. Information obtained with ALS devices helps medical and nursing practitioners understand the gravity of patients' injuries, influences medical treatment decisions and follow-up care, and supports the prosecution of the perpetrators of crimes of violence. Educational programs about the application of ALS and the interpretation of its findings are valuable for medical, nursing, and other forensic disciplines.

  6. Alternate Energy Sources for Thermalplastic Binding Agent Consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate microwave and electron beam technologies as alternate energy sources to consolidate fiber coated with a thermoplastic binding agent into preforms for composite molding applications. Bench experiments showed that both microwave and electron beam energy can produce heat sufficient to melt and consolidate a thermoplastic binding agent applied to fiberglass mat, and several two- and three-dimensional fiberglass preforms were produced with each method. In both cases, it is postulated that the heating was accomplished by the effective interaction of the microwave or electron beam energy with the combination of the mat preform and the tooling used to shape the preform. Both methods contrast with conventional thermal energy applied via infrared heaters or from a heated tool in which the heat to melt the thermoplastic binding agent must diffuse over time from the outer surface of the preform toward its center under a thermal gradient. For these reasons, the microwave and electron beam energy techniques have the potential to rapidly consolidate thick fiber preforms more efficiently than the thermal process. With further development, both technologies have the potential to make preform production more cost effective by decreasing cycle time in the preform tool, reducing energy costs, and by enabling the use of less expensive tooling materials. Descriptions of the microwave and electron beam consolidation experiments and a summary of the results are presented in this report.

  7. Alternative allogeneic donor sources for transplantation for childhood diseases: unrelated cord blood and haploidentical family donors.

    PubMed

    Cairo, Mitchell S; Rocha, Vanderson; Gluckman, Eliane; Hale, Gregory; Wagner, John

    2008-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation has been demonstrated to be curative in a wide variety of pediatric malignant and nonmalignant diseases, and can be traced back over 50 years ago to the original report of Thomas et al. HLA matched sibling donors have been the gold standard for pediatric recipients requiring allogeneic donors for both nonmalignant and malignant conditions. However, only 25% of potential pediatric recipients possesses an HLA-matched sibling donor, and the frequency is even less in those with genetic nonmalignant conditions because of genetically affected other siblings within the family. Therefore, 75% to 90% of potential pediatric recipients require alternative allogeneic donor cells for treatment of their underlying conditions. Potential alternative allogeneic donor sources include unrelated cord blood donors, unrelated adult donors, and haploidentical family donors. In this article we review the experience of both unrelated cord blood donor and haploidentical family donor transplants in selected pediatric malignant and nonmalignant conditions.

  8. 48 CFR 1806.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a) and (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 1806.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a) and (b)) (a) The authority of FAR 6.202 is... alternative sources. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a) and (b)) 1806.202 Section 1806.202 Federal Acquisition...

  9. COMBINING SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: ALTERNATIVE METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...

  10. COMBINING SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: ALTERNATIVE METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...

  11. Human Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes: An Alternative ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chemical spills and associated deaths in the US has increased 2.6-fold and 16-fold from 1983 to 2012, respectfully. In addition, the number of chemicals to which humans are exposed to in the environment has increased almost 10-fold from 2001 to 2013 within the US. Internationally, a WHO report on the global composite impact of chemicals on health reported that 16% of the total burden of cardiovascular disease was attributed to environmental chemical exposure with 2.5 million deaths per year. Clearly, the cardiovascular system, at all its various developmental and life stages, represents a critical target organ system that can be adversely affected by existing and emerging chemicals (e.g., engineered nanomaterials) in a variety of environmental media. The ability to assess chemical cardiac risk and safety is critically needed but extremely challenging due to the number and categories of chemicals in commerce, as indicated. This presentation\\session will evaluate the use of adult human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes, and existing platforms, as an alternative model to evaluate environmental chemical cardiac toxicity as well as provide key information for the development of predictive adverse outcomes pathways associated with environmental chemical exposures. (This abstract does not represent EPA policy) Rapid and translatable chemical safety screening models for cardiotoxicity current status for informing regulatory decisions, a workshop sponsored by the Society

  12. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and dependable source of power is available to meet the consumers' needs; or (ii) Where the rates offered by other power sources would result in a higher cost of power to the consumers than the cost from... facilities bears a significant relationship to the amount of the proposed loan. (2) If a borrower...

  13. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin

    2004-01-21

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.

  14. Alternative N sources for corn and cotton in Alabama

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because of high fertilizer N prices, growers are interested in using less expensive sources of N and using fertilizer additives to reduce ammonia volatilization losses from urea sources. An experiment on a Lucedale fine sandy loam in Central Alabama (Prattville Research Unit) was conducted in 2007 ...

  15. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.

  16. 77 FR 41873 - In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil... current and accurate information concerning the securities of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc. because it...

  17. Examining Alternatives to Wavelet Denoising for Astronomical Source Finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurek, R.; Brown, S.

    2012-08-01

    The Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders ASKAP and MeerKAT will produce prodigious amounts of data that necessitate automated source finding. The performance of automated source finders can be improved by pre-processing a dataset. In preparation for the WALLABY and DINGO surveys, we have used a test HI datacube constructed from actual Westerbork Telescope noise and WHISP HI galaxies to test the real world improvement of linear smoothing, the Duchamp source finder's wavelet denoising, iterative median smoothing and mathematical morphology subtraction, on intensity threshold source finding of spectral line datasets. To compare these pre-processing methods we have generated completeness-reliability performance curves for each method and a range of input parameters. We find that iterative median smoothing produces the best source finding results for ASKAP HI spectral line observations, but wavelet denoising is a safer pre-processing technique. In this paper we also present our implementations of iterative median smoothing and mathematical morphology subtraction.

  18. Botryococcus as an alternative source of carotenoids and its possible applications - an overview.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Gogisetty, Deepika; Aswathnarayana Gokare, Ravishankar; Ravi, Sarada; Bikkina, Panduranga Narasimharao; Su, Yuepeng; Lei, Bo

    2017-09-22

    The enhanced interest in carotenoid research arises partly because of their application in the food and health industries and partly because of the necessity to find a commercially viable natural source for their mass production. The bottlenecks in finding a natural source of carotenoids which can compete with the synthetic products is the mass production of the organism that produces carotenoids, cell harvesting and extraction methods of carotenoids. The microalga Botryococcus braunii is an interesting organism for its commercial value as a rich source of carotenoids. It contains lutein as major carotenoid which is considered to be one of the beneficial carotenoids in human health applications. The current paper reviews the status of B. braunii as an alternative source of carotenoid production on the commercial scale addressing aspects like cultures of algae, factors that enhance the production and accumulation of carotenoids, cell harvesting methods, and carotenoid extraction. The paper also presents an overview of identification, characterization and structural elucidation of carotenoids from B. braunii and their bioactivity.

  19. Alternative medicine remedies might stimulate viability of leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Styczynski, Jan; Wysocki, Mariusz

    2006-01-01

    Ex vivo activity of three products of alternative therapy against leukemic and normal cells was analyzed. Extracts of Viscum album, Uncaria tomentosa, and Croton lechleri were used for the study. Leukemic cells of 53 children with acute leukemias and four cell lines, Jurkat, CCRF-CEM, HL-60, and K-562 were tested for sensitivity to alternative medicine remedies by the MTT assay, cell-cycle analysis and annexin-V binding assay. Leukemic cells showed high resistance to tested three compounds of alternative medicine in all performed assays. Additionally, tested remedies stimulated survival of leukemic cells in 45%, 96%, and 83% cases, respectively; while no effect was observed in normal lymphocytes. In combination studies, Viscum album extract did not increase prednisolone and cytarabine cytotoxicity in leukemic cells. We conclude that some alternative medicine remedies might stimulate the viability of childhood leukemic cells.

  20. Opportunities to enhance alternative sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids within the diet.

    PubMed

    Delarue, Jacques; Guriec, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Health benefits or advocated health benefits of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA are better known by medical doctors as well as by consumers, so that consumption increases. In addition, the development of aquaculture requires more fishmeal and fish oil. Humanisation of care of companion animals is also associated with addition of LC n-3 PUFA in pet foods. The risk of the increased demand for LC n-3 PUFA is the excess harvesting of natural sources, especially of marine origin (oily fishes, krill). In order to improve sustainability, alternative sources of LC n-3 PUFA have been developed. These alternative sources are: (a) terrestrial plants naturally or genetically enriched in stearidonic acid (SDA), which bypasses the first limiting step of (i.e. ∆6 desaturase) of the biosynthesis of LC n-3 PUFA; (b) single-cell oils rich in LC n-3 PUFA (microalgae, Escherichia coli) and krill. Currently, plants rich in SDA are expensive, metabolic engineering is unfavourably accepted by consumers in many countries, cultivation of microalgae is very expensive even though their ability (for some of them) to synthesise biofuels could induce a decrease in industrial costs, and Antarctic krill harvest must be restricted. Thus, it is difficult to predict their real development in the future.

  1. Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Jr., Francis Marion; Goodwin, Charles R [League City, TX; Richard, Jr., James

    2011-03-22

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one system for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The system may include an intermittent power source; a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source, and a tap controller coupled to the transformer. The transformer may be configured to transform power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters. The tap controller may be configured to monitor and control the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters from the transformer regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

  2. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation: executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. In the near term (present-1985), there is unlikely to be any major change in the fuels used in any of the four modes of transportation except that the average quality of the marine fuel is likely to get worse. In the mid-term period (1985-2000), there will be a transition to non-petroleum fuels, based primarily on shale oil derived liquids assuming a shale oil industry is started during this time.

  3. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

  4. Alternative IT Sourcing: A Discussion of Privacy, Security, and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The sourcing of IT systems and services takes many shapes in higher education. Campus central IT organizations are increasingly responsible for the administration of enterprise systems and for the consolidation of operations into a single data center. Specialized academic and administrative systems may be run by local IT departments. In addition,…

  5. Alternative IT Sourcing: A Discussion of Privacy, Security, and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The sourcing of IT systems and services takes many shapes in higher education. Campus central IT organizations are increasingly responsible for the administration of enterprise systems and for the consolidation of operations into a single data center. Specialized academic and administrative systems may be run by local IT departments. In addition,…

  6. Geothermal, an alternate energy source for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, H.A.

    1985-02-01

    The economic development of nations depends on an escalating use of energy sources. With each passing year the dependence increases, reaching a point where the world will require, in the next six years, a volume of energetics equal to that consumed during the last hundred years. Statistics show that in 1982 about 70% of the world's energy requirements were supplied by oil, natural gas and coal. The remaining 30% came from other sources such as nuclear energy, hydroelectricity, and geothermal. In Mexico the situation is more extreme. For the same year (1982) 85% of the total energy consumed was supplied through the use of hydrocarbons, and only 15% through power generated by the other sources of electricity. Of the 15%, 65% used hydrocarbons somewhere in the power generation system. Geothermal is an energy source that can help solve the problem, particularly in Mexico, because the geological and structural characteristics of Mexico make it one of the countries in the world with a tremendous geothermal potential. The potential of geothermal energy for supplying part of Mexico's needs is discussed.

  7. Household use of and satisfaction with alternative water sources in Victoria Australia.

    PubMed

    Hurlimann, Anna

    2011-10-01

    Climate change is increasing the variability of rainfall, and thus the availability of water supplies in many areas of the world. These impacts are already being felt in the state of Victoria, Australia where a 12 year drought period was recently experienced. Restrictions to water use have been implemented, as one component of a broad policy approach to manage the drought. While anecdotal evidence suggests that the substitution of centralised water supplies is occurring, this has not been proven empirically. This paper reports results from a survey of households in Victoria regarding their use of alternative water sources. The study found that substitution is occurring. Garden watering is the purpose which has the highest rate of alternative water source use. In total 41.6% of respondents always, and 33.2% sometimes use an alternative water source for garden watering. The most commonly used alternative source of water for garden watering is water previously used in the laundry (30.7%). The alternative source of water used was found to vary depending on the purpose of the water use. High levels of satisfaction were found for all alternative water sources used. Several barriers were found to the use of alternative water sources, the main of which were: inflexibility of existing infrastructure, cost, policy, and housing status. The results have implications for water retailers, policy makers and governments in locations facing water shortage.

  8. Cell Culture as an Alternative in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardone, Roland M.

    1990-01-01

    Programs that are intended to inform and provide "hands-on" experience for students and to facilitate the introduction of cell culture-based laboratory exercises into the high school and college laboratory are examined. The components of the CellServ Program and the Cell Culture Toxicology Training Programs are described. (KR)

  9. Cell Culture as an Alternative in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardone, Roland M.

    1990-01-01

    Programs that are intended to inform and provide "hands-on" experience for students and to facilitate the introduction of cell culture-based laboratory exercises into the high school and college laboratory are examined. The components of the CellServ Program and the Cell Culture Toxicology Training Programs are described. (KR)

  10. Alternate sources of Nitrogen in the Kronian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eviatar, A.; Goldstein, R.; Crary, F. J.; Young, D. T.

    2011-12-01

    The failure of Titan to live up to its anticipated role as main Nitrogen source for the magnetospheric plasma of Saturn was compensated by the output of the geysering satellite Enceladus located well inside the region of closed flux tubes. It was soon found by various researchers(Smith, Johnson inter alia) that the output of Enceladus was adequate to provide the N+ seen throughout the inner and outer magnetosphere. Recently, however, textit{Cassini/CAPS} data have shown that Rhea appears to be an independent source of Nitrogen plasma (vid. Reisenfeld et al. COSPAR 2011). In this study, we investigate the hypothesis that all the icy satellites in the inner magnetosphere are sources of N+. We find that for the case of Dione there is strong evidence for the existence of indigenous Nitrogen at the satellite with enhanced density around the orbit as well. The case of Tethys is ambiguous because of the dearth of Cassini/CAPSdata at the sole targeted encounter. Enhanced density and a significant N+ fraction are observed around the orbit but comparison to the immediate environment of the satellite is not possible.

  11. Alternative RF coupling configurations for H- ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briefi, S.; Gutmann, P.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    RF heated sources for negative hydrogen ions both for fusion and accelerators require very high RF powers in order to achieve the required H- current what poses high demands on the RF generators and the RF circuit. Therefore it is highly desirable to improve the RF efficiency of the sources. This could be achieved by applying different RF coupling concepts than the currently used inductive coupling via a helical antenna, namely Helicon coupling or coupling via a planar ICP antenna enhanced with ferrites. In order to investigate the feasibility of these concepts, two small laboratory experiments have been set up. The PlanICE experiment, where the enhanced inductive coupling is going to be investigated, is currently under assembly. At the CHARLIE experiment systematic measurements concerning Helicon coupling in hydrogen and deuterium are carried out. The investigations show that a prominent feature of Helicon discharges occurs: the so-called low-field peak. This is a local improvement of the coupling efficiency at a magnetic field strength of a few mT which results in an increased electron density and dissociation degree. The full Helicon mode has not been achieved yet due to the limited available RF power and magnetic field strength but it might be sufficient for the application of the coupling concept to ion sources to operate the discharge in the low-field-peak region.

  12. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  13. Development of alternate methods of determining integrated SMR source terms

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Kenneth

    2014-06-10

    The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Licensing Task Force (TF) has been evaluating licensing issues unique and important to iPWRs, ranking these issues, and developing NEI position papers for submittal to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) during the past three years. Papers have been developed and submitted to the NRC in a range of areas including: Price-Anderson Act, NRC annual fees, security, modularity, and staffing. In December, 2012, NEI completed a draft position paper on SMR source terms and participated in an NRC public meeting presenting a summary of this paper, which was subsequently submitted to the NRC. One important conclusion of the source term paper was the evaluation and selection of high importance areas where additional research would have a significant impact on source terms. The highest ranked research area was iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition. The NRC accepts the use of existing aerosol deposition correlations in Regulatory Guide 1.183, but these were developed for large light water reactor (LWR) containments. Application of these correlations to an iPWR design has resulted in greater than a ten-fold reduction of containment airborne aerosol inventory as compared to large LWRs. Development and experimental justification of containment aerosol natural deposition correlations specifically for the unique iPWR containments is expected to result in a large reduction of design basis and beyond-design-basis accident source terms with concomitantly smaller dose to workers and the public. Therefore, NRC acceptance of iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition correlations will directly support the industry’s goal of reducing the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for SMRs. Based on the results in this work, it is clear that thermophoresis is relatively unimportant for iPWRs. Gravitational settling is well understood, and may be the dominant process for a dry environment. Diffusiophoresis and enhanced

  14. Alternative sources of drug information: indexing and abstracting systems.

    PubMed

    Schneiweiss, F

    1979-09-01

    The proliferation of information and literature in medicine, therapy, and pharmacy practice in general has created a need for a centralized source of indexing that enables individuals to efficiently locate this type of literature. An excellent example of this type of system would be Index Medicus. But Index Medicus is voluminous and all-encompassing in its coverage. The need for fast, convenient access to publications in specialty areas has led to decentralized specialty indexing and abstracting systems that deal with a particular area of medicine, therapy, or pharmacy practice. This article deals with these specialty systems and encourages their investigation and use when searching the literature.

  15. Clinical Application of Pluripotent Stem Cells: An Alternative Cell-Based Therapy for Treating Liver Diseases?

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Laia; Pareja, Eugenia; Gómez-Lechón, Maria José

    2016-12-01

    The worldwide shortage of donor livers for organ and hepatocyte transplantation has prompted the search for alternative therapies for intractable liver diseases. Cell-based therapy is envisaged as a useful therapeutic option to recover and stabilize the lost metabolic function for acute liver failure, end-stage and congenital liver diseases, or for those patients who are not considered eligible for organ transplantation. In recent years, research to identify alternative and reliable cell sources for transplantation that can be derived by reproducible methods has been encouraged. Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which comprise both embryonic and induced PSCs, may offer many advantages as an alternative to hepatocytes for liver cell therapy. Their capacity for expansion, hepatic differentiation and self-renewal make them a promising source of unlimited numbers of hepatocyte-like cells for treating and repairing damaged livers. Immunogenicity and tumorigenicity of human PSCs remain the bottleneck for successful clinical application. However, recent advances made to develop disease-corrected hepatocyte-like cells from patients' human-induced PSCs by gene editing have opened up many potential gateways for the autologous treatment of hereditary liver diseases, which may likely reduce the risk of rejection and the need for lifelong immunosuppression. Well-defined methods to reduce the expression of oncogenic genes in induced PSCs, including protocols for their complete and safe hepatic differentiation, should be established to minimize the tumorigenicity of transplanted cells. On top of this, such new strategies are currently being rigorously tested and validated in preclinical studies before they can be safely transferred to clinical practice with patients.

  16. Energy accounting for solar and alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, W. D., Jr.

    Shortcomings in energy data collection, display and accounting practices are of minor consequence in an economy of today in which most end use services are provided via fossil fuels and electricity. However, the emergence of a variety of alternative technologies that might be used to provide these services suggests that present accounting practices be reexamined and a more appropriate system devised. The paper proposes an energy accounting framework based upon the actual services provided to end users. An energy service is a measure of the service actually provided to ultimate consumers by their own use of energy, quantified, for example, using units of work or of heat at various temperatures. Fifteen categories of energy service are described and some of their characteristics are identified. The proposed energy accounting framework consists of two matrices - an energy service matrix and an energy carrier matrix. The energy service matrix displays quantities of energy carriers used to provide energy services. The energy carrier matrix displays quantities of energy carriers used to produce and distribute energy carriers to ultimate consumers.

  17. The use of alternate light sources in the clinical evaluation of child abuse and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Bonnie; Jenny, Carole

    2014-03-01

    Alternate light sources are devices that produce visible and invisible light at specific wavelengths to allow for enhanced visualization of fluorescent substances. These devices (which include Wood's lamp and blue light) are often used in forensics for evidence collection and can be quite useful to physicians in the medical evaluation of suspected physical or sexual assault. An understanding of the proper applications, as well as the limitations, of each alternate light source is imperative to correctly performing and interpreting medical evaluations in the emergency department. This review discusses the evidence from prospective trials in children and adults on the ability of specific alternate light sources to identify evidence of physical or sexual assault and also highlights some promising new technological adjuncts to alternate light sources that may allow for accurate dating of bruising.

  18. Bioactivities of alternative protein sources and their potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Pihlanto, A; Mattila, P; Mäkinen, S; Pajari, A-M

    2017-08-14

    Increasing the utilisation of plant proteins is needed to support the production of protein-rich foods that could replace animal proteins in the human diet so as to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. Lupins, quinoa and hempseed are significant sources of energy, high quality proteins, fibre, vitamins and minerals. In addition, they contain compounds such as polyphenols and bioactive peptides that can increase the nutritional value of these plants. From the nutritional standpoint, the right combination of plant proteins can supply sufficient amounts of essential amino acids for human requirements. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge of the nutritional properties, beneficial and non-nutritive compounds, storage proteins, and potential health benefits of lupins, quinoa and hempseed.

  19. Indirect solar wind geothermal: Alternative energy sources 4, volume 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    The utilities are obliged to provide electricity in a reliable and cost effective manner. Some unique problems posed by large scale wind turbines as an electricity source have to be considered. A value model is presented which is based upon the fuel displacement capability and the capacity displacement capability of wind turbines. The amount of fossil fuels which is saved by wind turbines depends on the forecasted wind power output, the actual power output fluctuations of the wind turbines and on system operation. The highly controversial capacity credit of wind turbines is discussed under the aspect of system reliability. It is shown that calculations of the capacity credit should be based upon detailed investigations with regard to the time dependence of the hourly wind power output.

  20. Alternative coherent-mode representation of a random source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovsky, A. S.; Zemliak, A. M.; Olvera, M. Á.; Romero, P. C.

    2011-01-01

    The coherent-mode representation (CMR) of an optical random source is a very powerful tool in contemporary optics. However, the practical value of the CMR is essentially restricted because of the complexity of solving the Fredholm integral equation with the field cross-spectral density as a kernel. Moreover, in practice, the analytical expression for the cross-spectral density of the field, as a rule is unknown, a fact that makes this solution impossible in general. Here we propose a technique for determination of the field CMR that does not involve solving the Fredholm integral equation but is based on usual radiometric measurement. We illustrate the proposed technique with the results of mathematical simulation.

  1. Pueraria mirifica leaves, an alternative potential isoflavonoid source.

    PubMed

    Jungsukcharoen, Jutarmas; Dhiani, Binar Asrining; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Sangvanich, Polkit; Boonchird, Chuenchit

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the major leaf isoflavonoid contents of Pueraria mirifica from three different cultivars (PM-III, PM-IV, and PM-V) using reverse RP-HPLC analysis. The proportions and net levels of puerarin, daidzin, genistin, and daidzein in P. mirifica leaves were found to depend on the plant cultivar and to correlate with cultivation temperature and rainfall amount. The crude leaf-extracts were tested using the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay with both human estrogen receptors (hERα and hERβ). Their estrogenic activity was higher when determined by the YES system containing hERβ than that with hERα and was also higher when the Δsnq2 than the wildtype yeast was employed. The results open the possibility of selecting and cultivating certain P. mirifica cultivars at a farm scale to produce a sufficient supply of leaf material to act as a starting source for the commercial scale extraction of these major isoflavonoids.

  2. Alternate Tunings for the Linac Coherent Light Source Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey, C.; Emma, P.; /SLAC

    2006-03-17

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) project based on the SLAC linac. The LCLS Photoinjector beamline has been designed to deliver 10-ps long electron bunches of 1 nC with a normalized projected transverse emittance smaller than 1.2 mm-mrad at 135 MeV. Tolerances and regulation requirements are tight for this tuning. Half of the total emittance at the end of the injector comes from the ''cathode emittance'' which is 0.7 mm-mrad for our nominal 1nC tuning. As the ''cathode emittance'' scales linearly with laser spot radius, the emittance will be dramatically reduced for smaller radius, but this is only possible at lower charge. In particular, for a 0.2 nC charge, we believe we can achieve an emittance closer to 0.4 mm-mrad. This working point will be easier to tune and the beam quality should be much easier to maintain than for the 1 nC case. In the second half of this paper, we discuss optimum laser pulse shapes. We demonstrate that the benefits of the ellipsoidal shapes seem to be important enough so that serious investigations should be carried out in the production of such pulses.

  3. Embryonic stem cells as sources of donor-independent platelets.

    PubMed

    Canver, Matthew C; Bauer, Daniel E; Orkin, Stuart H

    2015-06-01

    The creation of a donor-independent source of platelets has been challenging; however, recent advances show growing promise for alternative platelet sources. Pluripotent stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into mature megakaryocytes with the ability to produce functional platelets. In this issue of JCI, Noh et al. provide a proof-of-principle demonstration that embryonic stem cells can be used to produce platelets on a clinical scale by controlling the level of the transcription factor GATA1. This study emphasizes the importance of precise regulation of gene expression for regenerative medicine applications.

  4. Embryonic stem cells as sources of donor-independent platelets

    PubMed Central

    Canver, Matthew C.; Bauer, Daniel E.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2015-01-01

    The creation of a donor-independent source of platelets has been challenging; however, recent advances show growing promise for alternative platelet sources. Pluripotent stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into mature megakaryocytes with the ability to produce functional platelets. In this issue of JCI, Noh et al. provide a proof-of-principle demonstration that embryonic stem cells can be used to produce platelets on a clinical scale by controlling the level of the transcription factor GATA1. This study emphasizes the importance of precise regulation of gene expression for regenerative medicine applications. PMID:25961451

  5. Alternative Energy Sources for Heating the Stratospheres of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, K.; Freedman, R.; Lodders, K.; Fortney, J.

    2009-09-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope observations have constrained the atmospheric thermal structure of many transiting extrasolar giant planets. Many of these planets, like their solar system cousins, apparently have hot stratospheres. It has been suggested that absorption in the optical by gaseous TiO and VO provides the necessary energy source to power their thermal emission. While this mechanism is certainly plausible in the hottest Jupiters, temperature inversions have also been observed in cooler planets in which TiO and VO should be condensed into grains. Motivated by the importance of photochemistry in producing important atmospheric absorbers in the solar system, we have explored the role of atmospheric sulfur photochemistry in hot Jupiter atmospheres. Our photochemical kinetics code was previously used to study various problems in solar system, including the aftermath of the S/L-9 impacts into Jupiter. We find that the optically active gases S2 and HS (mercapto) are generated photochemically and thermochemically at T > 1200 K from H2S with peak abundances between 1 and 10 mbar. S2 absorbs UV between 240 and 340 nm and is optically thick for metallicities higher than solar. HS is generally more abundant than S2 and absorbs between 300 and 460 nm. Together these species play an important role in the stratospheric energy budget of hot Jupiters and may provide a mechanism for producing temperature inversions under conditions where gaseous TiO and VO are not present. At lower temperatures, below 1200 K, we find that the atmospheric chemistry enters a different domain where the production of soots may be favored. Such soots may be responsible for the haze detected in the atmosphere of HD189733 and may also play a role in the stratospheric energy budgets of cooler planets.

  6. Current State of Research of Alternate Fuel Sources for Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Lee

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to report on the current state of research in the field of alternate fuel sources for passenger vehicles. Because the number of alternate fuel options is very large, this study focuses on selected bio-fuels and briefly describes a couple of the most popular non-bio and non-renewable alternatives. The fuel and energy sources studied are compared using well-to-wheel and well-to-tank net energy balances. Data also includes relative production capabilities by volume in terms of current fossil fuels. Qualitative data includes production methods and transportability.

  7. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    its mission and capabilities. To resolve these resource constraints, we recommend the creation of an endowment, funded entirely through private contributions. Our initial estimates for the endowment are that a €2B principal. This level of capitalization could provide significant support to all aspects of the IAEA’s mission, including Capital Investment and Innovation; Technical Cooperation; as well as incentivizing the policy and technology entrepreneurship that will be necessary for the future health of the nonproliferation regime. Given this potential, our future efforts will focus on a more rigorous assessment of the financial requirements, while simultaneously creating the beginnings of a functional organization. These include: organizational structure, metrics for grant-making and performance evaluation, and outreach and fundraising strategies. At the end of this process, there should be sufficient information and engagement to begin to operationalize the endowment through external funding sources.

  8. Alternate method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry: No electrodeposition, no hydrofluoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosaki, Hiromu; Mueller, Rebecca J.; Lambert, Susan B.; Rao, Govind R.

    2016-07-15

    An alternate method of preparing actinide alpha counting sources was developed in place of electrodeposition or lanthanide fluoride micro-precipitation. The method uses lanthanide hydroxide micro-precipitation to avoid the use of hazardous hydrofluoric acid. Lastly, it provides a quicker, simpler, and safer way of preparing actinide alpha counting sources in routine, production-type laboratories that process many samples daily.

  9. Alternative Sources of Funding Early Childhood Education for School Effectiveness in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olubor, Roseline O.; Inua, Ofe I.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the sources of funding early childhood education in existence in Nigeria with a view towards suggesting alternative sources to boost the revenue base for school effectiveness. The diminishing culture of the extended family system and the need for both parents to be in employment coupled with the need to provide access and…

  10. Alternate method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry: No electrodeposition, no hydrofluoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosaki, Hiromu; Mueller, Rebecca J.; Lambert, Susan B.; Rao, Govind R.

    2016-07-15

    An alternate method of preparing actinide alpha counting sources was developed in place of electrodeposition or lanthanide fluoride micro-precipitation. The method uses lanthanide hydroxide micro-precipitation to avoid the use of hazardous hydrofluoric acid. Lastly, it provides a quicker, simpler, and safer way of preparing actinide alpha counting sources in routine, production-type laboratories that process many samples daily.

  11. Alternative Sources of Funding Early Childhood Education for School Effectiveness in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olubor, Roseline O.; Inua, Ofe I.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the sources of funding early childhood education in existence in Nigeria with a view towards suggesting alternative sources to boost the revenue base for school effectiveness. The diminishing culture of the extended family system and the need for both parents to be in employment coupled with the need to provide access and…

  12. Reliability and cost-benefits of adding alternate power sources to an independent micro-grid community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanrioven, M.

    Interest in alternative energy resources such as wind, solar energy and fuel cell (FC) has been on the increase due to improved public awareness of the high energy cost and adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. Therefore, the rapid growth and potential future demand for these energy sources suggest a need to consider both reliability and cost-benefits of the supply for each case. This paper presents a simulation methodology for reliability and cost assessment of these energy sources in an independent micro-grid (IMG) system, which is a distribution system with distributed energy sources such as micro-turbine, photovoltaic and fuel cells. A systematic technique and a computer program for reliability and cost assessment of the IMG system containing FC, photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy (WE) have been developed. The adequacy of the IMG is evaluated in three steps: (i) atmospheric data is generated for PV and WE in addition to the development of a 50 kW PEM FC generation and energy conversion model, (ii) the power delivered by these energy sources is calculated, and (iii) system adequacy and energy indices are calculated based on the system load balance equation, which is the combination of generated power and system load demand. The suggested technique can then be used to help system planners to provide objective indicators for suitable installation locations, operating policies, and energy type and size selection for IMG system containing alternative energy sources.

  13. Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Shipkovs, P.; Grislis, V.; Zebergs, V. )

    1991-01-01

    The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made use of to ensure the optimum temperature on residential and industrial premises. The influence of climatic conditions on the selection of heat supply systems has been studied at large. In the present paper the use of alternative energy sources (AES) in combined heat supply systems (CHSS) is described.

  14. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  15. The determinants of alternative RNA splicing in human cells.

    PubMed

    Ramanouskaya, Tatsiana V; Grinev, Vasily V

    2017-07-13

    Alternative splicing represents an important level of the regulation of gene function in eukaryotic organisms. It plays a critical role in virtually every biological process within an organism, including regulation of cell division and cell death, differentiation of tissues in the embryo and the adult organism, as well as in cellular response to diverse environmental factors. In turn, studies of the last decade have shown that alternative splicing itself is controlled by different mechanisms. Unfortunately, there is no clear understanding of how these diverse mechanisms, or determinants, regulate and constrain the set of alternative RNA species produced from any particular gene in every cell of the human body. Here, we provide a consolidated overview of alternative splicing determinants including RNA-protein interactions, epigenetic regulation via chromatin remodeling, coupling of transcription-to-alternative splicing, effect of secondary structures in pre-RNA, and function of the RNA quality control systems. We also extensively and critically discuss some mechanistic insights on coordinated inclusion/exclusion of exons during the formation of mature RNA molecules. We conclude that the final structure of RNA is pre-determined by a complex interplay between cis- and trans-acting factors. Altogether, currently available empirical data significantly expand our understanding of the functioning of the alternative splicing machinery of cells in normal and pathological conditions. On the other hand, there are still many blind spots that require further deep investigations.

  16. Cell sources for in vitro human liver cell culture models

    PubMed Central

    Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Knöspel, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    In vitro liver cell culture models are gaining increasing importance in pharmacological and toxicological research. The source of cells used is critical for the relevance and the predictive value of such models. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are currently considered to be the gold standard for hepatic in vitro culture models, since they directly reflect the specific metabolism and functionality of the human liver; however, the scarcity and difficult logistics of PHH have driven researchers to explore alternative cell sources, including liver cell lines and pluripotent stem cells. Liver cell lines generated from hepatomas or by genetic manipulation are widely used due to their good availability, but they are generally altered in certain metabolic functions. For the past few years, adult and pluripotent stem cells have been attracting increasing attention, due their ability to proliferate and to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. However, controlling the differentiation of these cells is still a challenge. This review gives an overview of the major human cell sources under investigation for in vitro liver cell culture models, including primary human liver cells, liver cell lines, and stem cells. The promises and challenges of different cell types are discussed with a focus on the complex 2D and 3D culture approaches under investigation for improving liver cell functionality in vitro. Finally, the specific application options of individual cell sources in pharmacological research or disease modeling are described. PMID:27385595

  17. Cell sources for in vitro human liver cell culture models.

    PubMed

    Zeilinger, Katrin; Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Knöspel, Fanny

    2016-09-01

    In vitro liver cell culture models are gaining increasing importance in pharmacological and toxicological research. The source of cells used is critical for the relevance and the predictive value of such models. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are currently considered to be the gold standard for hepatic in vitro culture models, since they directly reflect the specific metabolism and functionality of the human liver; however, the scarcity and difficult logistics of PHH have driven researchers to explore alternative cell sources, including liver cell lines and pluripotent stem cells. Liver cell lines generated from hepatomas or by genetic manipulation are widely used due to their good availability, but they are generally altered in certain metabolic functions. For the past few years, adult and pluripotent stem cells have been attracting increasing attention, due their ability to proliferate and to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro However, controlling the differentiation of these cells is still a challenge. This review gives an overview of the major human cell sources under investigation for in vitro liver cell culture models, including primary human liver cells, liver cell lines, and stem cells. The promises and challenges of different cell types are discussed with a focus on the complex 2D and 3D culture approaches under investigation for improving liver cell functionality in vitro Finally, the specific application options of individual cell sources in pharmacological research or disease modeling are described.

  18. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic performance

  19. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr; Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr; Koh, Eui Kwan

    2014-11-17

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields.

  20. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  1. Alternatives assessment other contamination sources, interim response action, shell section 36 trenches, RMA. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the process and results of the alternatives assessment conducted for the Shell Section 36 trenches (site 36-3), approximately 31 trenches used from 1952 to 1966 for land disposal of liquid and solid wastes generated from pesticide manufacture. They have been shown to be a source of ground water contamination. A dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) is also believed to have originated from the trenches. The assessment includes the following: (1) site characteristics. (2) discussion of alternative strategies and technologies, (3) evaluation of alternatives, and (4) conclusions. The preferred interim response action consists of a physical barrier encircling the trenches and a soil and vegetative cover.

  2. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  3. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. A theoretical expression for the rotating ring-disk electrode technique; the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures are covered.

  4. Open source bioimage informatics for cell biology.

    PubMed

    Swedlow, Jason R; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2009-11-01

    Significant technical advances in imaging, molecular biology and genomics have fueled a revolution in cell biology, in that the molecular and structural processes of the cell are now visualized and measured routinely. Driving much of this recent development has been the advent of computational tools for the acquisition, visualization, analysis and dissemination of these datasets. These tools collectively make up a new subfield of computational biology called bioimage informatics, which is facilitated by open source approaches. We discuss why open source tools for image informatics in cell biology are needed, some of the key general attributes of what make an open source imaging application successful, and point to opportunities for further operability that should greatly accelerate future cell biology discovery.

  5. Stem cell sources for cardiac regeneration.

    PubMed

    Roccio, M; Goumans, M J; Sluijter, J P G; Doevendans, P A

    2008-03-01

    Cell-based cardiac repair has the ambitious aim to replace the malfunctioning cardiac muscle developed after myocardial infarction, with new contractile cardiomyocytes and vessels. Different stem cell populations have been intensively studied in the last decade as a potential source of new cardiomyocytes to ameliorate the injured myocardium, compensate for the loss of ventricular mass and contractility and eventually restore cardiac function. An array of cell types has been explored in this respect, including skeletal muscle, bone marrow derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and more recently cardiac progenitor cells. The best-studied cell types are mouse and human ESC cells, which have undisputedly been demonstrated to differentiate into cardiomyocyte and vascular lineages and have been of great help to understand the differentiation process of pluripotent cells. However, due to their immunogenicity, risk of tumor development and the ethical challenge arising from their embryonic origin, they do not provide a suitable cell source for a regenerative therapy approach. A better option, overcoming ethical and allogenicity problems, seems to be provided by bone marrow derived cells and by the recently identified cardiac precursors. This report will overview current knowledge on these different cell types and their application in cardiac regeneration and address issues like implementation of delivery methods, including tissue engineering approaches that need to be developed alongside.

  6. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  7. Evaluation of Peanut Meal as an Alternative Dietary Protein Source for Channel Catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Use of peanut meal as an alternative protein source in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in a 9-week study under controlled laboratory conditions. Five practical diets (28% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) were formulated to contain 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25% peanut meal as a ...

  8. Reinvigorating Adolescent Sexuality Education through Alternate Reality Games: The Case of "The Source"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouris, Alida; Mancino, Jenny; Jagoda, Patrick; Hill, Brandon J.; Gilliam, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a focus group study conducted to evaluate "The Source," an alternate reality game (ARG). ARGs are a relatively new genre of interactive digital games that use a variety of media to engage game players. We developed modules on sexual health, sexual orientation, and homophobia in a game that was delivered…

  9. Reinvigorating Adolescent Sexuality Education through Alternate Reality Games: The Case of "The Source"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouris, Alida; Mancino, Jenny; Jagoda, Patrick; Hill, Brandon J.; Gilliam, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a focus group study conducted to evaluate "The Source," an alternate reality game (ARG). ARGs are a relatively new genre of interactive digital games that use a variety of media to engage game players. We developed modules on sexual health, sexual orientation, and homophobia in a game that was delivered…

  10. Biomass: An Alternative Source of Energy for Eighth or Ninth Grade Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Lillie; Murff, Marye

    This teaching unit develops the possibility of using biomass as an alternative source of energy. The concept of biomass is explained and the processes associated with its conversion to energy are stated. Suggestions for development of biomass technology in different geographic areas are indicated. Lessons for 6 days are presented for use with…

  11. Distillers dried grains with solubles as alternative protein source in diets of tilapia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research efforts by nutritionists to reduce feed costs have resulted in increased use of lower cost alternative plant proteins in fish feed formulations as replacements of fish meal and other expensive protein sources. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a dried residue that remains after ...

  12. Distillers dried grains with solubles as alternative protein sources in diets of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research efforts by nutritionist to reduce feed costs have resulted in increased use of lower cost alternative plant proteins in fish feed formulations as replacements of fish meal and other more expensive protein sources. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a dried residue that remains af...

  13. 77 FR 4735 - Regional Haze: Revisions to Provisions Governing Alternatives to Source-Specific Best Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 51 and 52 RIN 2060-AR05 Regional Haze: Revisions to Provisions Governing Alternatives to Source-Specific Best Available Retrofit Technology (BART) Determinations, Limited SIP...

  14. Fallen fruit as a putative alternative food source of the Small Hive Beetle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) (SHB) is reputed to occasionally use fallen fruit as an alternative food source in the absence of honey bee hives. However, attraction to fruit has not been adequately documented, nor has the effect of fruit age or microbial infection on attraction been consid...

  15. Alternate Sources of Funding: Scholarship Fund Raising. and Anne Arundel Community College Scholarship Fund Raising Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Barry M.

    This two-part paper provides guidance on alternative sources of funding for college scholarships and describes Anne Arundel Community College's (AACC's) Scholarship Fund Raising Campaign. First, an outline is presented, covering: (1) prerequisites to fundraising (i.e., leadership, sense of direction, commitment, and a plan for identifying,…

  16. Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: From the Campus to the Cloud. ECAR Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from the 2009 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study, "Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: From the Campus to the Cloud," by Philip J. Goldstein. The study explores a multitude of strategies used by colleges and university information technology organizations to deliver the breadth of technologies…

  17. Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: From the Campus to the Cloud. ECAR Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from the 2009 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study, "Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: From the Campus to the Cloud," by Philip J. Goldstein. The study explores a multitude of strategies used by colleges and university information technology organizations to deliver the breadth of technologies…

  18. Sourcing different neuro-progenitor cell for the use of nerve construct.

    PubMed

    Yazid, A G M; Anuar, A; Onhmar, H T W E; Ng, A M H; Ruszymah, B H I; Amaramalar, S N

    2008-07-01

    Spinal cord, sciatic nerve, olfactory ensheathing cell and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated as an alternative source for tissue engineering of nerve conduit. All cell sources were cultured in alpha-MEM medium. Olfactory Ensheathing Cell (OEC) showed the best result with higher growth kinetic compared to the others. Spinal cord and sciatic nerve were positive for GFAP, OEC were positive for GFAP, S100b and anti-cytokeratin 18 but negative for anti-Human Fibroblast.

  19. Adult tissue sources for new β cells.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Robert J; New, Connie; Annes, Justin P

    2014-04-01

    The diabetes pandemic incurs extraordinary public health and financial costs that are projected to expand for the foreseeable future. Consequently, the development of definitive therapies for diabetes is a priority. Currently, a wide spectrum of therapeutic strategies-from implantable insulin delivery devices to transplantation-based cell replacement therapy, to β-cell regeneration-focus on replacing the lost insulin-producing capacity of individuals with diabetes. Among these, β-cell regeneration remains promising but heretofore unproved. Indeed, recent experimental work has uncovered surprising biology that underscores the potential therapeutic benefit of β-cell regeneration. These studies have elucidated a variety of sources for the endogenous production of new β cells from existing cells. First, β cells, long thought to be postmitotic, have demonstrated the potential for regenerative capacity. Second, the presence of pancreatic facultative endocrine progenitor cells has been established. Third, the malleability of cellular identity has availed the possibility of generating β cells from other differentiated cell types. Here, we review the exciting developments surrounding endogenous sources of β-cell production and consider the potential of realizing a regenerative therapy for diabetes from adult tissues. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternative approach of cell encapsulation by Volvox spheres.

    PubMed

    Teong, Benjamin; Manousakas, Ioannis; Chang, Shwu Jen; Huang, Han Hsiang; Ju, Kuen-Cheng; Kuo, Shyh Ming

    2015-10-01

    Volvox sphere is a bio-mimicking concept of a biomaterial structure design able to encapsulate chemicals, drugs and/or cells. The aim of this study was to prepare Volvox spheres encapsulating AML12 liver cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) via a high voltage electrostatic field system. The results demonstrated that AML12 liver cells and MSCs could be successfully encapsulated into the inner spheres and the outer sphere of the Volvox spheres. The improved cell viability of MSCs was achieved by the addition of collagen and polyethylene glycol into the preparation components of the Volvox spheres. Collagen material potentially provides extracellular matrix-like structure for cell adhesion while polyethylene glycol provides a void/loose space for permeability of metabolites. The encapsulated MSCs were able to differentiate into hepatocytes or hepatocyte-like cells and express liver cell markers including albumin, alpha feto-protein and cytokeratin 18. The encapsulated cells secreted albumin to about 140 ng on day 14. Based on these observations, we conclude that Volvox spheres can be used as an alternative approach to encapsulate multiple types of cells, here AML12 hepatocyte cell line and MSCs. Nevertheless, efforts are still needed to improve the viability of the encapsulated cells and increase the differentiation of MSCs into functional liver cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amino acids as possible alternative nitrogen source for growth of Euglena gracilis Z in life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P. R.; Liu, Y.; An, Y.; Li, X.; Nasir, A.; Strauch, S. M.; Becker, I.; Krüger, J.; Schuster, M.; Ntefidou, M.; Daiker, V.; Haag, F. W. M.; Aiach, A.; Lebert, M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent times Euglena gracilis Z was employed as primary producer in closed environmental life-support system (CELSS), e.g. in space research. The photosynthetic unicellular flagellate is not capable of utilizing nitrate, nitrite, and urea as nitrogen source. Therefore, ammonium is supplied as an N-source in the lab (provided as diammonium-dihydrogenphosphate, (NH4)2HPO4) to E. gracilis cultures. While nitrate exerts low toxicity to organisms, ammonium is harmful for many aquatic organisms especially, at high pH-values, which causes the ionic NH+4 (low toxicity) to be partially transformed into the highly toxic ammonia, NH3. In earlier reports, Euglena gracilis was described to grow with various amino acids as sole N-source. Our aim was to investigate alternatives for (NH4)2HPO4 as N-source with lower toxicity for organisms co-cultivated with Euglena in a CELSS. The growth kinetics of Euglena gracilis cultures was determined in the presence of different amino acids (glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, leucine, and threonine). In addition, uptake of those amino acids by the cells was measured. Cell growth in the presence of glycine and glutamine was quite comparable to the growth in (NH4)2HPO4 containing cultures while a delay in growth was observed in the presence of leucine and threonine. Unlike, aforementioned amino acids glutamate consumption was very poor. Cell density and glutamate concentration were almost unaltered throughout the experiment and the culture reached the stationary phase within 8 days. The data are compared with earlier studies in which utilization of amino acids in Euglena gracilis was investigated. All tested amino acids (glutamate with limitations) were found to have the potential of being an alternative N-source for Euglena gracilis. Hence, these amino acids can be used as a non-toxic surrogate for (NH4)2HPO4.

  2. Cell Source for Tissue and Organ Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao; Yuan, Yuyu; Yoo, James J.

    Organ printing, a novel approach in tissue engineering, applies computer-driven deposition of cells, growth factors, biomaterials layer-by-layer to create complex 3D tissue or organ constructs. This emerging technology shows great promise in regenerative medicine, because it may help to address current crisis of tissue and organ shortage for transplantation. Organ printing is developing fast, and there are exciting new possibilities in this area. Successful cell and organ printing requires many key elements. Among these, the choice of appropriate cells for printing is vital. This chapter surveys available cell sources for cell and organ printing application and discusses factors that affect cell choice. Special emphasis is put on several important factors, including the proposed printing system and bioprinters, the assembling method, and the target tissues or organs, which need to be considered to select proper cell sources and cell types. In this chapter, characterizations of the selected cells to justify and/or refine the cell selection will also be discussed. Finally, future prospects in this field will be envisioned.

  3. Odontogenic epithelial stem cells: hidden sources.

    PubMed

    Padma Priya, Sivan; Higuchi, Akon; Abu Fanas, Salem; Pooi Ling, Mok; Kumari Neela, Vasantha; Sunil, P M; Saraswathi, T R; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    The ultimate goal of dental stem cell research is to construct a bioengineered tooth. Tooth formation occurs based on the well-organized reciprocal interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The dental mesenchymal stem cells are the best explored, but because the human odontogenic epithelium is lost after the completion of enamel formation, studies on these cells are scarce. The successful creation of a bioengineered tooth is achievable only when the odontogenic epithelium is reconstructed to produce a replica of natural enamel. This article discusses the untapped sources of odontogenic epithelial stem cells in humans, such as those present in the active dental lamina in postnatal life, in remnants of dental lamina (the gubernaculum cord), in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and in reduced enamel epithelium. The possible uses of these stem cells in regenerative medicine, not just for enamel formation, are discussed.

  4. The socio-economic determinants of alternative sources of antenatal care in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celik, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper tries to ascertain the factors affecting the choice of alternative sources for antenatal care. The analysis is based on data collected from ever-married women in the 1998 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS). The developing country setting provides substantial variation in the type of facility chosen, ranging from no antenatal care, to formal health care personnel, to modern private hospitals. The alternatives vary greatly in quality and price, making this an ideal context for examining the role of these variables in choosing a facility. The logit model specifications estimated individual, household-level and community-level characteristics of the women in the urban and rural sample as well as in the total sample in this study. The estimation results indicate that individual characteristics such as educational attainment and birth order are significant determinants of choosing alternative sources for antenatal care. The results also indicate that household-level characteristics such as health insurance coverage, car ownership, household assets and community-level characteristics are the other significant determinants of using alternative sources for antenatal care.

  5. Stem cells in dentistry--part I: stem cell sources.

    PubMed

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties.

  6. The effect of alternating influent carbon source composition on activated sludge bioflocculation.

    PubMed

    Van Dierdonck, J; Van den Broeck, R; Vervoort, E; Van Impe, J; Smets, I

    2013-09-10

    The impact of alternating influent carbon sources, i.e., glucose and starch, on activated sludge bioflocculation was investigated. To this end, four lab-scale reactors were operated during a long-term experiment. During this period the influent carbon source ratio (glucose/starch) was alternated every 7 or 35 days (i.e., a fast and slow switching frequency). Bioflocculation was monitored throughout the entire experiment using an extensive set of parameters, including macroscopic and microscopic activated sludge characteristics. Sludge hydrophobicity remained high (>80%) throughout the experiment indicating good bioflocculation. However, sludge settleability decreased for all four reactors after a 60 day adaptation period to the applied alternation in influent carbon source. During this adaptation period, floc size decreased due to the release of microcolonies. The subsequent period was characterized by a decrease in settleability, coinciding with a release of primary particles and an increase in floc size. The observed phenomena could be linked with the protein concentration near the floc surface. This fraction mainly consists of hydrolytic enzymes necessary for the degradation of starch and is responsible for a progressive deterioration of the EPS matrix. The results of this specific study indicate to be independent of the influent carbon source ratio or switching frequency.

  7. Governmental regulation in the sector of alternative energy sources: some pros and cons

    SciTech Connect

    Grivoyannis, E.C.

    1983-12-01

    The energy crisis of the 1970s has lead to a demand for increased regulation of the energy sector by certain governments for several reasons. Increased regulation is viewed as a means of assuring access to alternative energy sources for all people. This is the welfare argument. Regulation is also viewed as a means of rationalizing the system of energy delivery. This is the efficiency argument. Under this traditional view of regulation the prices and profits of the regulated energy industry are expected to be lower and the allocation of energy sources more efficient. However, this traditional view of alternative energy source regulation is not without flaw. Firms of the energy producing industry can use several methods to ''capture'' established regulatory agencies and ''force'' them to ''regulate'' the dissatisfaction of the general public rather than the behavior of the firms. As a result, regulatory agencies can formulate decisions that are approximate to what the regulated energy industry desires instead of what the public expects. This paper will apply the arguments of the capture theory and the theory of political-economy for regulatory agencies in the alternative energy sources sector. Further, it will analyze a firm's behavior under uncertainty about demand and cost conditions. These conditions make it difficult for regulatory agencies to force a monopoly to make competitive investment and output decisions. Finally, it will discuss some of the problems associated with cost-benefit analysis which is widely used by regulatory agencies in their decision-making process.

  8. Development of Towed Marine Seismic Vibrator as an Alternative Seismic Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozasa, H.; Mikada, H.; Murakami, F.; Jamali Hondori, E.; Takekawa, J.; Asakawa, E.; Sato, F.

    2015-12-01

    The principal issue with respect to marine impulsive sources to acquire seismic data is if the emission of acoustic energy inflicts harm on marine mammals or not, since the volume of the source signal being released into the marine environment could be so large compared to the sound range of the mammals. We propose a marine seismic vibrator as an alternative to the impulsive sources to mitigate a risk of the impact to the marine environment while satisfying the necessary conditions of seismic surveys. These conditions include the repeatability and the controllability of source signals both in amplitude and phase for high-quality measurements. We, therefore, designed a towed marine seismic vibrator (MSV) as a new type marine vibratory seismic source that employed the hydraulic servo system for the controllability condition in phase and in amplitude that assures the repeatability as well. After fabricating a downsized MSV that requires the power of 30 kVA at a depth of about 250 m in water, several sea trials were conducted to test the source characteristics of the downsized MSV in terms of amplitude, frequency, horizontal and vertical directivities of the generated field. The maximum sound level satisfied the designed specification in the frequencies ranging from 3 to 300 Hz almost omnidirectionally. After checking the source characteristics, we then conducted a trial seismic survey, using both the downsized MSV and an airgun of 480 cubic-inches for comparison, with a streamer cable of 2,000m long right above a cabled earthquake observatory in the Japan Sea. The result showed that the penetration of seismic signals generated by the downsized MSV was comparable to that by the airgun, although there was a slight difference in the signal-to-noise ratio. The MSV could become a versatile source that will not harm living marine mammals as an alternative to the existing impulsive seismic sources such as airgun.

  9. Impact of alternate energy sources in the Greater Egypt region: Franklin, Jackson, Jefferson, Perry and Williamson Counties, Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    Economic and environmental aspects of alternate energy sources for the five county Greater Egypt Economic Development District in Southern Illinois are discussed. Various energy sources available, including coal, oil, gas, coal, solar and geothermal are discussed.

  10. Cell of Origin: Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Contributor to Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bo R. Rueda, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Massachusetts General Hospital...Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0192 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...to that of primary human ovarian cancer . We have also successfully introduced in human oogonial stem cells genetic alterations commonly detected in

  11. Cell Supermarket: Adipose Tissue as a Source of Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, M.V.; Wei, S.; Duarte, M.; Du, M.; Jiang, Z.; Hausman, G.J.; Bergen, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years this tissue has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical and scientific applications. The focus of this paper is to reflect on this area of research and to provide a list of potential (future) research areas. PMID:25031654

  12. Alternate Lattice Design for Advanced Photon Source Multi-Bend Achromat Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yipeng; Borland, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A 67-pm hybrid-seven-bend achromat (H7BA) lattice is proposed for a futureAdvanced Photon Source (APS)multibend- achromat (MBA) upgrade. This lattice requires use of a swap-out (on-axis) injection scheme. Alternate lattice design work has also been performed to achieve better beam dynamics performance than the nominal APS MBA lattice, in order to allow beam accumulation. One of such alternate H7BA lattice designs, which still targets a very low emittance of 76 pm, is discussed in this paper. With these lattices, existing APS injector complex can be employed without the requirement of a very high charge operation. Studies show that an emittance below 76 pm can be achieved with the employment of reverse bends in an alternate lattice. We discuss the predicted performance and requirements for these lattices and compare them to the nominal lattice.

  13. n-3 Oil sources for use in aquaculture--alternatives to the unsustainable harvest of wild fish.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2008-12-01

    The present review examines renewable sources of oils with n-3 long-chain (> or = C20) PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA) as alternatives to oil from wild-caught fish in aquafeeds. Due to the increased demand for and price of wild-caught marine sources of n-3 LC-PUFA-rich oil, their effective and sustainable replacement in aquafeeds is an industry priority, especially because dietary n-3 LC-PUFA from eating fish are known to have health benefits in human beings. The benefits and challenges involved in changing dietary oil in aquaculture are highlighted and four major potential sources of n-3 LC-PUFA for aquafeeds, other than fish oil, are compared. These sources of oil, which contain n-3 LC-PUFA, specifically EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3) or precursors to these key essential fatty acids, are: (1) other marine sources of oil; (2) vegetable oils that contain biosynthetic precursors, such as stearidonic acid, which may be used by fish to produce n-3 LC-PUFA; (3) single-cell oil sources of n-3 LC-PUFA; (4) vegetable oils derived from oil-seed crops that have undergone genetic modification to contain n-3 LC-PUFA. The review focuses on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), because it is the main intensively cultured finfish species and it both uses and stores large amounts of oil, in particular n-3 LC-PUFA, in the flesh.

  14. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. The areas covered were: (1) development of a theoretical expression for the rotating ring disk electrode technique; (2) determination of the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; (3) determination of oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoreomethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) which was considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and (4) the measurement of transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures.

  15. Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source for Aviation-A Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowellBomani, Bilal M.; Bulzan, Dan L.; Centeno-Gomez, Diana I.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years because of their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. As a renewable energy source, biofuels can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We investigate past, present, and possible future biofuel alternatives currently being researched and applied around the world. More specifically, we investigate the use of ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel (palm oil, algae, and halophytes), and synthetic fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and nonaerospace applications. We also investigate the processing of biomass via gasification, hydrolysis, and anaerobic digestion as a way to extract fuel oil from alternative biofuels sources.

  16. Using an alternate light source to detect electrically singed feathers and hair in a forensic setting.

    PubMed

    Viner, Tabitha C; Kagan, Rebecca A; Johnson, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Mortality due to electrical injury in wildlife may occur in the form of lightning strike or power line contact. Evidence of electrical contact may be grossly obvious, with extensive singeing, curling, and blackening of feathers, fur, or skin. Occasionally, changes may be subtle, owing to lower current or reduced conductivity, making a definitive diagnosis of electrocution more difficult. We describe the use of an alternate light source in the examination of cases of lightning strike and power line contact in wildlife, and the enhanced detection of changes due to electrical currents in the hair and feathers of affected animals. Subtle changes in the wing feathers of 12 snow geese and 1 wolf that were struck by separate lightning events were made obvious by the use of an alternate light source. Similarly, this technique can be used to strengthen the evidence for power line exposure in birds. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. ECAS Phase I fuel cell results. [Energy Conservation Alternatives Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses the fuel cell system results of Phase I of the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). Ten advanced electric powerplant systems for central-station baseload generation using coal were studied by NASA in ECAS. Three types of low-temperature fuel cells (solid polymer electrolyte, SPE, aqueous alkaline, and phosphoric acid) and two types of high-temperature fuel cells (molten carbonate, MC, and zirconia solid electrolyte, SE) were studied. The results indicate that (1) overall efficiency increases with fuel cell temperature, and (2) scale-up in powerplant size can produce a significant reduction in cost of electricity (COE) only when it is accompanied by utilization of waste fuel cell heat through a steam bottoming cycle and/or integration with a gasifier. For low-temperature fuel cell systems, the use of hydrogen results in the highest efficiency and lowest COE. In spite of higher efficiencies, because of higher fuel cell replacement costs integrated SE systems have higher projected COEs than do integrated MC systems. Present data indicate that life can be projected to over 30,000 hr for MC fuel cells, but data are not yet sufficient for similarly projecting SE fuel cell life expectancy.

  18. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Kohout, L. L.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, James C.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    To support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), a study was performed to investigate power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area, and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  19. Final Alternatives Assessment: Other Contamination Sources: Interim Response Action, South Tank Farm Plume

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    SEURTYCLS~FCAIO I;.SEUIT .IOA I UNCLASSIFIED 90262R01 1ST COPY 3 FINAL ALTERNATIVES ASSESSMENT OTHER CONTAMINATION SOURCES INTERIM RESPONSE ACTION SOUTH... original objective of the IRA was to prevent the STFP from reaching Lake Ladora prior to the implementation of the I final remedy. However, recent...concentrations also occur near tanks 3 463A, 463E, and 463G, and Tanks 462A, 463B, and 463F may be potential sources of contaminants common to the defined STFP

  20. NASA Alternative Orion Small Cell Battery Design Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Chuck

    2016-01-01

    and analysis were completed and reviewed for endorsement by NASA Engineering and Safety Center team members. All Key Test Objectives were met and the small cell design alternative was demonstrated and selected to be a feasible drop in replacement for the MPCV Orion CM Battery for EM2 mission.

  1. Changes observed in erythrocyte cells exposed to an alternating current.

    PubMed

    Jeican, Ionut Isaia; Matei, Horea; Istrate, Alexandru; Mironescu, Eugen; Bâlici, Ştefana

    2017-01-01

    Appliance of electric pulses induces red blood cells (RBCs) membrane poration, membrane aminophospholipid perturbation and alteration of the normal flip-flop process, resulting in various shape changes of the RBCs. We studied morphological and water permeability changes of RBCs bombarded with electrons in an alternating current circuit. We used three venous blood samples of 100 mL and an alternating current device. The harvested blood was divided into four experimental sets to be used for various exposure times: 0 hours (control RBCs), 0.5h, 3h and 6h (electric-stimulated RBCs). Following the electric current each of the four sets were further divided into three samples: one for the assessment of the echinocytes/RBCs ratio, another for the electron microscopy study of ultrastructural changes induced by the alternating electrical current and a larger third one for determining water permeability of RCBs by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and morphological measurements. There is a small but statistically significant effect of the RBC exposure to alternating electric current on cell diameters. Exposure to electric current is positively and strongly correlated with the percentage of echinocytes in a duration-dependent manner. There is a strong and statistically significant correlation between electric current exposure and permeability to water as measured by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Following interactions between electric current and RBC membrane, certain modifications were observed in the erythrocyte structure. We attribute the increased cell size to a higher permeability to water and a decreased tonicity. This leads to the transformation of the RBCs into echinocytes.

  2. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, Ralph; Schindler, Anton; Duke, Steve; Burch, Thom; Bransby, David; Stafford, Don

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  3. Production, Characterization and Biocompatibility of Marine Collagen Matrices from an Alternative and Sustainable Source: The Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    PubMed Central

    Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Barbaglio, Alice; Martinello, Tiziana; Alongi, Valentina; Fassini, Dario; Cullorà, Emanuele; Patruno, Marco; Bonasoro, Francesco; Barbosa, Mario Adolfo; Candia Carnevali, Maria Daniela; Sugni, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Collagen has become a key-molecule in cell culture studies and in the tissue engineering field. Industrially, the principal sources of collagen are calf skin and bones which, however, could be associated to risks of serious disease transmission. In fact, collagen derived from alternative and riskless sources is required, and marine organisms are among the safest and recently exploited ones. Sea urchins possess a circular area of soft tissue surrounding the mouth, the peristomial membrane (PM), mainly composed by mammalian-like collagen. The PM of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus therefore represents a potential unexploited collagen source, easily obtainable as a food industry waste product. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to extract native collagen fibrils from the PM and produce suitable substrates for in vitro system. The obtained matrices appear as a homogeneous fibrillar network (mean fibril diameter 30–400 nm and mesh < 2 μm) and display remarkable mechanical properties in term of stiffness (146 ± 48 MPa) and viscosity (60.98 ± 52.07 GPa·s). In vitro tests with horse pbMSC show a good biocompatibility in terms of overall cell growth. The obtained results indicate that the sea urchin P. lividus can be a valuable low-cost collagen source for mechanically resistant biomedical devices. PMID:25255130

  4. Production, characterization and biocompatibility of marine collagen matrices from an alternative and sustainable source: the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Cristiano Di; Barbaglio, Alice; Martinello, Tiziana; Alongi, Valentina; Fassini, Dario; Cullorà, Emanuele; Patruno, Marco; Bonasoro, Francesco; Barbosa, Mario Adolfo; Carnevali, Maria Daniela Candia; Sugni, Michela

    2014-09-24

    Collagen has become a key-molecule in cell culture studies and in the tissue engineering field. Industrially, the principal sources of collagen are calf skin and bones which, however, could be associated to risks of serious disease transmission. In fact, collagen derived from alternative and riskless sources is required, and marine organisms are among the safest and recently exploited ones. Sea urchins possess a circular area of soft tissue surrounding the mouth, the peristomial membrane (PM), mainly composed by mammalian-like collagen. The PM of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus therefore represents a potential unexploited collagen source, easily obtainable as a food industry waste product. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to extract native collagen fibrils from the PM and produce suitable substrates for in vitro system. The obtained matrices appear as a homogeneous fibrillar network (mean fibril diameter 30-400 nm and mesh < 2 μm) and display remarkable mechanical properties in term of stiffness (146 ± 48 MPa) and viscosity (60.98 ± 52.07 GPa·s). In vitro tests with horse pbMSC show a good biocompatibility in terms of overall cell growth. The obtained results indicate that the sea urchin P. lividus can be a valuable low-cost collagen source for mechanically resistant biomedical devices.

  5. Leukocytic cell sources of airway tissue kallikrein

    PubMed Central

    Lauredo, Isabel T.; Forteza, Rosanna M.; Botvinnikova, Yelena; Abraham, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Lung tissue kallikrein (TK) is a serine proteinase that putatively plays a role in the pathophysiology of asthma by generating kallidin and bradykinin, mediators that contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. In previous studies we observed biphasic increases in TK activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid following airway allergen challenge in allergic sheep. Although glandular TK is likely a major source of the initial increase in TK, the sources of the late increases in TK that are associated with the development of airway hyperresponsiveness may be dependent on activated resident and recruited inflammatory cells including alveolar macrophages (AMs) and neutrophils (PMNs). These cells increase concomitantly with the late increases in TK activity. To test this hypothesis, we obtained AMs from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and PMNs and monocytes (precursors of AMs) from sheep blood and determined whether these cells contained TK and whether these same cells could release TK upon activation. Using confocal microscopy, immunocytochemical techniques, and enzyme activity assays, we found that all three cell types contained and secreted TK. All three cell types demonstrated basal release of TK, which could be increased after stimulation with zymosan. In addition, PMNs also released TK in the presence of phorbol ester, suggesting multiple secretory pathways in these cells. Further-more, we showed that human monocytes also contain and secrete TK. We conclude that in the airways, monocytes, PMNs, and AMs may contribute to increased TK activity. Knowing the sources of TK in the airways could be important in understanding the mechanisms of inflammation that contribute to the pathophysiology of asthma and may help in the development of new therapies to control the disease. PMID:14660481

  6. Alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for Fanconi anemia.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Margaret L; DeFor, Todd E; Young, Jo-Anne H; Dusenbery, Kathryn E; Blazar, Bruce R; Slungaard, Arne; Zierhut, Heather; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Wagner, John E

    2015-06-11

    Historically, alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for Fanconi anemia (FA) patients resulted in excessive morbidity and mortality. To improve outcomes, we made sequential changes to the HCT conditioning regimen. A total of 130 FA patients (median age, 9.0 years; range, 1-48) underwent alternative donor HCT at the University of Minnesota between 1995 and 2012. All patients received cyclophosphamide (CY), single fraction total body irradiation (TBI), and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) with or without fludarabine (FLU), followed by T-cell-depleted bone marrow or unmanipulated umbilical cord blood transplantation. The addition of FLU enhanced engraftment 3-fold. The incidence of grades 2-4 acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was 20% and 10%, respectively. Severe toxicity was highest in patients >10 years of age or those with a history of opportunistic infections or transfusions before HCT. Mortality was lowest in patients without a history of opportunistic infection or transfusions and who received conditioning with TBI 300 cGy, CY, FLU, and ATG. These patients had a probability of survival of 94% at 5 years. Alternative donor HCT is now associated with excellent survival for patients without prior opportunistic infections or transfusions and should be considered for all FA patients after the onset of marrow failure. These studies were registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005898, NCT00167206, and NCT00352976.

  7. ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF SEALING PLANAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Coyle, Christopher A.; Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Xia, Gordon

    2005-03-01

    One of the key limiting issues in designing and fabricating a high performance planar solid oxide fuel cell (pSOFC) stack is the development of the appropriate materials and techniques for hermetically sealing the metal and ceramic components. There are essentially two standard methods of sealing: (1) by forming a rigid joint or (2) by constructing a compressive “sliding” seal. While short-term success has been achieved with both techniques, it is apparent that to meet the long-term operational needs of stack designers, alternative sealing concepts will need to be conceived. Described below are two alternative pSOFC sealing methods that have been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  8. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  9. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases. PMID:25506353

  10. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases.

  11. Analysis of persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds containing fish oil and other alternative lipid sources.

    PubMed

    You, Jing; Kelley, Rebecca A; Crouse, Curtis C; Trushenski, Jesse T; Lydy, Michael J

    2011-09-15

    A trade-off exists between beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated acids and toxic persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), both of which primarily originate from fish oil commonly used in fish feeds. Alternative lipid sources are being investigated for use in fish feeds to reduce harmful contaminant accumulation, hence, research is needed to evaluate PHHs in fish feeds with various lipid compositions. An analytical method was developed for PHHs including nine organochlorine insecticides (OCPs), 26 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish feeds with differing proportions of fish oils and alternative lipid sources by GC-ECD after accelerated solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and sulfuric acid cleanup. The GPC removed the majority of the neutral lipids and sulfuric acid treatment effectively destroyed the polar lipids. Thus, the combination of the two methods removed approximately 99.7% of the lipids in the extracts. The method detection limits were less than 5 ng/g dry weight (dw) for most PHHs, while recoveries were 75-118%, 67-105%, 69-92%, 63-100% and 94-144% with relative standard deviations of 0.2-39%, 0.3-20%, 0.5-12%, 1.5-18% and 1.5-15% for PHHs in five types of fish feeds made from different lipid sources. Although the source of lipid showed no impact on cleanup efficiency and the developed method worked well for all feeds, fish feeds with 100% fish oil contained background PHHs and more interference than feeds containing alternative lipids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dedifferentiated fat cells: A cell source for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Jumabay, Medet; Boström, Kristina I

    2015-11-26

    The identification of an ideal cell source for tissue regeneration remains a challenge in the stem cell field. The ability of progeny cells to differentiate into other cell types is important for the processes of tissue reconstruction and tissue engineering and has clinical, biochemical or molecular implications. The adaptation of stem cells from adipose tissue for use in regenerative medicine has created a new role for adipocytes. Mature adipocytes can easily be isolated from adipose cell suspensions and allowed to dedifferentiate into lipid-free multipotent cells, referred to as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. Compared to other adult stem cells, the DFAT cells have unique advantages in their abundance, ease of isolation and homogeneity. Under proper condition in vitro and in vivo, the DFAT cells have exhibited adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, cardiomyogenc, angiogenic, myogenic, and neurogenic potentials. In this review, we first discuss the phenomena of dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation of cells, and then dedifferentiation of adipocytes in particular. Understanding the dedifferentiation process itself may contribute to our knowledge of normal growth processes, as well as mechanisms of disease. Second, we highlight new developments in DFAT cell culture and summarize the current understanding of DFAT cell properties. The unique features of DFAT cells are promising for clinical applications such as tissue regeneration.

  13. Dedifferentiated fat cells: A cell source for regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jumabay, Medet; Boström, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ideal cell source for tissue regeneration remains a challenge in the stem cell field. The ability of progeny cells to differentiate into other cell types is important for the processes of tissue reconstruction and tissue engineering and has clinical, biochemical or molecular implications. The adaptation of stem cells from adipose tissue for use in regenerative medicine has created a new role for adipocytes. Mature adipocytes can easily be isolated from adipose cell suspensions and allowed to dedifferentiate into lipid-free multipotent cells, referred to as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. Compared to other adult stem cells, the DFAT cells have unique advantages in their abundance, ease of isolation and homogeneity. Under proper condition in vitro and in vivo, the DFAT cells have exhibited adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, cardiomyogenc, angiogenic, myogenic, and neurogenic potentials. In this review, we first discuss the phenomena of dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation of cells, and then dedifferentiation of adipocytes in particular. Understanding the dedifferentiation process itself may contribute to our knowledge of normal growth processes, as well as mechanisms of disease. Second, we highlight new developments in DFAT cell culture and summarize the current understanding of DFAT cell properties. The unique features of DFAT cells are promising for clinical applications such as tissue regeneration. PMID:26640620

  14. An alternative model of cancer cell growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Jayant S

    2007-04-01

    I propose an alternative model of cancer in which metastasis need not all arise out of spread from the "original" tumour. The model assumes that cancer cells arise from stem cells that best grow in the organ of their differentiation. When the internal milieu allows it they also grow at other sites as well, thus complementing the conventional (spreading) metastatic process. Several phenomena in the natural history of cancer, especially breast cancer, that challenge the conventional model, fit well after inclusion of the new model. These are (a) a very modest benefit of screening (b) frequent sparing of lungs from haematogenous metastasis (c) presence of occult cancers in autopsy studies (d) only a modest effect of local treatment (e) relative ineffectiveness of high-dose chemotherapy (f) constant time between surgery and peak of hazard of relapse irrespective of stage of the tumour. All these phenomena are much easier to explain when one rejects the dogma that all metastasis arise only from the primary tumour. This paper is aimed only to suggest an alternative perspective of natural history of solid tumours--to stimulate research on the complex internal milieu that allows cancer cells to develop in new light.

  15. Evaluation of alternate construction materials for a lithium electrolysis cell

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Olsen, A.R.; DiStefano, J.R.

    1988-05-01

    Electrolytic cells currently used for the production of lithium metal are constructed of A285 Grade A steel (carbon content less than 0.15%). Failures of the cell wall have frequently occurred after 2 to 5 years of service, and these failures have been attributed to corrosion resulting from the reaction of iron carbide with lithium. An examination of a recent failure confirmed this conclusion. In an effort to identify alternate construction materials with better corrosion resistance for this application, five materials with very low carbon levels and/or carbides more stable than those in A285 were selected for evaluation. Materials were evaluated after exposure in an operating electrolytic cell, after exposure to pure lithium, and after exposure to a moist air-chlorine mixture. Results show that all five of the alternative materials selected are more corrosion resistant than A285, but two were eliminated from further consideration because of other potential shortcomings. Additional long-term corrosion tests are recommended for the remaining three candidate materials. Final selection should be based on considerations of cost, availability, and fabricability in addition to compatibility. 26 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Autologous stem cell transplantation versus alternative allogeneic donor transplants in adult acute leukemias.

    PubMed

    Claude Gorin, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    The availability of alternative sources of stem cells including most recently T-replete haploidentical marrow or peripheral blood, and the increasing use of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), renders feasible an allogeneic transplant to almost all patients with acute leukemia up to 70 years of age. Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for consolidation of complete remission (CR), however, offers in some circumstances an alternative option. Although associated with a higher relapse rate, autologous transplant benefits from a lower non-relapse mortality, the absence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and a better quality of life for long-term survivors. The recent use of intravenous busulfan (IVBU) with high-dose melphalan, better monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD), and maintenance therapy post autografting bring new interest. Few retrospective studies compared the outcome following alternative donor versus autologous transplants for remission consolidation. Genoidentical and phenoidentical allogeneic stem cell transplantations are undisputed gold standards, but there are no data showing the superiority of alternative allogeneic donor over autologous transplantation, at the time of undetectable MRD, in patients with good- and intermediate-1 risk acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1), acute promyelocytic leukemia in second complete remission (CR2), and Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).

  17. Multi-source/component spray coating for polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Min; Hong, Ziruo; Kwan, Wei Lek; Lu, Cheng-Hsueh; Lai, Yi-Feng; Lei, Bao; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Yang, Yang

    2010-08-24

    A multi-source/component spray coating process to fabricate the photoactive layers in polymer solar cells is demonstrated. Well-defined domains consisting of polymer:fullerene heterojunctions are constructed in ambient conditions using an alternating spray deposition method. This approach preserves the integrity of the layer morphology while forming an interpenetrating donor (D)/acceptor (A) network to facilitate charge transport. The formation of multi-component films without the prerequisite of a common solvent overcomes the limitations in conventional solution processes for polymer solar cells and enables us to process a wide spectrum of materials. Polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C(61) butyric acid methyl ester spray-coated using this alternating deposition method deliver a power conversion efficiency of 2.8%, which is comparable to their blend solution counterparts. More importantly, this approach offers the versatility to independently select the optimal solvents for the donor and acceptor materials that will deliver well-ordered nanodomains. This method also allows the direct stacking of multiple photoactive polymers with controllable absorption in a tandem structure even without an interconnecting junction layer. The introduction of multiple photoactive materials through multisource/component spray coating offers structural flexibility and tenability of the photoresponse for future polymer solar cell applications.

  18. Alternative pharmacologic therapy for aggressive central giant cell granuloma: denosumab.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Willem H; Coumou, Annet W; Kessler, Peter A H W; de Lange, Jan

    2014-07-01

    In the search for new pharmacologic therapies for central giant cell granuloma (CGCG), proteins that are essential to osteoclastogenesis are intriguing potential targets. In the present case report, we describe a 25-year-old patient with an aggressive CGCG of the maxilla, who was successfully treated with the antiresorptive agent denosumab, after other pharmacologic treatment had failed to achieve regression or stabilization of the tumor. Denosumab could be a promising alternative to potentially mutilating surgery for CGCG. However, more research is needed before definite conclusions can be drawn about the potential role of this agent in the treatment of CGCG.

  19. Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, S.; Prouse, D.; Khandkar, A.; Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L.

    1992-11-01

    The potential of high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells as high performance, high efficiency energy conversion device is well known. Investigation of several cell designs have been undertaken by various researchers to derive the maximum performance benefit from the device while maintaining a lower cost of production to meet the commercialization cost target. The present investigation focused on the planar SOFC design which allows for the use of mature low cost production processes to be employed. A novel design concept was investigated which allows for improvements in performance through increased interface stability, and lowering of cost through enhanced structural integrity and the use of low cost metal interconnects. The new cell design consisted of a co-sintered porous/dense/porous zirconia layer with the electrode material infiltrated into the porous layers. The two year program conducted by a team involving Ceramatec and the Institute of Gas Technology, culminated in a multi-cell stack test that exhibited high performance. Considerable progress was achieved in the selection of cell components, and establishing and optimizing the cell and stack fabrication parameters. It was shown that the stack components exhibited high conductivities and low creep at the operating temperature. The inter-cell resistive losses were shown to be small through out-of-cell characterization. The source of performance loss was identified to be the anode electrolyte interface. This loss however can be minimized by improving the anode infiltration technique. Manifolding and sealing of the planar devices posed considerable challenge. Even though the open circuit voltage was 250 mV/cell lower than theoretical, the two cell stack had a performance of 300 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.4V/cell with an area specific resistance of 1 {Omega}-cm{sup 2}/cell. improvements in manifolding are expected to provide much higher performance.

  20. Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, S.; Prouse, D.; Khandkar, A.; Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L. )

    1992-11-01

    The potential of high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells as high performance, high efficiency energy conversion device is well known. Investigation of several cell designs have been undertaken by various researchers to derive the maximum performance benefit from the device while maintaining a lower cost of production to meet the commercialization cost target. The present investigation focused on the planar SOFC design which allows for the use of mature low cost production processes to be employed. A novel design concept was investigated which allows for improvements in performance through increased interface stability, and lowering of cost through enhanced structural integrity and the use of low cost metal interconnects. The new cell design consisted of a co-sintered porous/dense/porous zirconia layer with the electrode material infiltrated into the porous layers. The two year program conducted by a team involving Ceramatec and the Institute of Gas Technology, culminated in a multi-cell stack test that exhibited high performance. Considerable progress was achieved in the selection of cell components, and establishing and optimizing the cell and stack fabrication parameters. It was shown that the stack components exhibited high conductivities and low creep at the operating temperature. The inter-cell resistive losses were shown to be small through out-of-cell characterization. The source of performance loss was identified to be the anode electrolyte interface. This loss however can be minimized by improving the anode infiltration technique. Manifolding and sealing of the planar devices posed considerable challenge. Even though the open circuit voltage was 250 mV/cell lower than theoretical, the two cell stack had a performance of 300 mA/cm[sup 2] at 0.4V/cell with an area specific resistance of 1 [Omega]-cm[sup 2]/cell. improvements in manifolding are expected to provide much higher performance.

  1. Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, S.; Prouse, D.; Khandkar, A.; Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L.

    1992-11-01

    The potential of high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) as high performance, high efficiency energy conversion devices is well known. Investigation of several cell designs have been undertaken by various researchers to derive the maximum performance benefit from the device while maintaining a lower cost of production to meet the commercialization cost target. The present investigation focused on the planar SOFC design which allows for the use of mature low cost production processes. A novel design concept was investigated which allows for the following: improvements in performance through increased interface stability, and lowering of cost through enhanced structural integrity and the use of low cost metal interconnects. The new cell design consisted of a co-sintered porous/dense/porous zirconia layer with the electrode material infiltrated into the porous layers. The two year program conducted by a team involving Ceramatec and the Institute of Gas Technology culminated in a multi-cell stack test that exhibited high performance. Considerable progress was achieved in the selection of cell components and establishing and optimizing the cell and stack fabrication parameters. It was shown that the stack components exhibited high conductivities and low creep at the operating temperature. The inter-cell resistive losses were shown to be small through out-of-cell characterization. The source of performance loss was identified to be the anode electrolyte interface. This loss however can be minimized by improving the anode infiltration technique. Manifolding and sealing of the planar devices posed considerable challenge. Even though the open circuit voltage was 250 mV/cell lower than theoretical, the two cell stack had a performance of 300 mA/sq cm at 0.4V/cell with an area specific resistance of 1 Ohm-sq cm/cell. Improvements in manifolding are expected to provide much higher performance.

  2. Alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for Fanconi anemia

    PubMed Central

    DeFor, Todd E.; Young, Jo-Anne H.; Dusenbery, Kathryn E.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Slungaard, Arne; Zierhut, Heather; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Wagner, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for Fanconi anemia (FA) patients resulted in excessive morbidity and mortality. To improve outcomes, we made sequential changes to the HCT conditioning regimen. A total of 130 FA patients (median age, 9.0 years; range, 1-48) underwent alternative donor HCT at the University of Minnesota between 1995 and 2012. All patients received cyclophosphamide (CY), single fraction total body irradiation (TBI), and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) with or without fludarabine (FLU), followed by T-cell–depleted bone marrow or unmanipulated umbilical cord blood transplantation. The addition of FLU enhanced engraftment 3-fold. The incidence of grades 2-4 acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was 20% and 10%, respectively. Severe toxicity was highest in patients >10 years of age or those with a history of opportunistic infections or transfusions before HCT. Mortality was lowest in patients without a history of opportunistic infection or transfusions and who received conditioning with TBI 300 cGy, CY, FLU, and ATG. These patients had a probability of survival of 94% at 5 years. Alternative donor HCT is now associated with excellent survival for patients without prior opportunistic infections or transfusions and should be considered for all FA patients after the onset of marrow failure. These studies were registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005898, NCT00167206, and NCT00352976. PMID:25824692

  3. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Dulce Alves; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Pereira, Hugo; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Varela, João; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

    2013-01-01

    The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented. PMID:23807546

  4. Alternative sources of omega-3 fats: can we find a sustainable substitute for fish?

    PubMed

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2013-04-18

    Increasing demand for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) containing fish oils is putting pressure on fish species and numbers. Fisheries provide fish for human consumption, supplement production and fish feeds and are currently supplying fish at a maximum historical rate, suggesting mass-scale fishing is no longer sustainable. However, the health properties of EPA and DHA long-chain (LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) demonstrate the necessity for these oils in our diets. EPA and DHA from fish oils show favourable effects in inflammatory bowel disease, some cancers and cardiovascular complications. The high prevalence of these diseases worldwide indicates the requirement for alternative sources of LC-PUFA. Strategies have included plant-based fish diets, although this may compromise the health benefits associated with fish oils. Alternatively, stearidonic acid, the product of α-linolenic acid desaturation, may act as an EPA-enhancing fatty acid. Additionally, algae oils may be a promising omega-3 PUFA source for the future. Algae are beneficial for multiple industries, offering a source of biodiesel and livestock feeds. However, further research is required to develop efficient and sustainable LC-PUFA production from algae. This paper summarises the recent research for developing prospective substitutes for omega-3 PUFA and the current limitations that are faced.

  5. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum aimed at alternative carbon sources and new products

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, Ahmed; Lindner, Steffen N.; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as the amino acid-producing workhorse of fermentation industry, being used for multi-million-ton scale production of glutamate and lysine for more than 60 years. However, it is only recently that extensive research has focused on engineering it beyond the scope of amino acids. Meanwhile, a variety of corynebacterial strains allows access to alternative carbon sources and/or allows production of a wide range of industrially relevant compounds. Some of these efforts set new standards in terms of titers and productivities achieved whereas others represent a proof-of-principle. These achievements manifest the position of C. glutamicum as an important industrial microorganism with capabilities far beyond the traditional amino acid production. In this review we focus on the state of the art of metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for utilization of alternative carbon sources, (e.g. coming from wastes and unprocessed sources), and construction of C. glutamicum strains for production of new products such as diamines, organic acids and alcohols PMID:24688664

  6. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum aimed at alternative carbon sources and new products.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Ahmed; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as the amino acid-producing workhorse of fermentation industry, being used for multi-million-ton scale production of glutamate and lysine for more than 60 years. However, it is only recently that extensive research has focused on engineering it beyond the scope of amino acids. Meanwhile, a variety of corynebacterial strains allows access to alternative carbon sources and/or allows production of a wide range of industrially relevant compounds. Some of these efforts set new standards in terms of titers and productivities achieved whereas others represent a proof-of-principle. These achievements manifest the position of C. glutamicum as an important industrial microorganism with capabilities far beyond the traditional amino acid production. In this review we focus on the state of the art of metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for utilization of alternative carbon sources, (e.g. coming from wastes and unprocessed sources), and construction of C. glutamicum strains for production of new products such as diamines, organic acids and alcohols.

  7. Alternative energy sources and new energy technologies for Turkish rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ultanir, M.O.

    1983-12-01

    Modern agriculture is an energy consumer sector, also agriculture is an energy conversion process. In addition to biomass energy's raw materials are harvested by agriculture. The concept of energy in agriculture, energy is one of the main and outstanding factor which renders the realization of the overall development of the agriculture and rural areas. Agricultural income depends on total mechanical power in agricultural mechanization; general energy consumption of rural sector; cultural energy consumption by agricultural inputs which are fertilizer, pesticides, indirect energy in machinery, irrigation equipments, buildings and other services; direct energy consumption in agricultural mechanization which are fuel and electricity etc. In general, energy input in the rural areas is classified as direct and indirect. Direct energy input reflects demands for mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. Indirect energy consists of inputs which have been produced by industrial sector and introduced into rural sector. Although conventional energy sources, especially petroleum products are used in meeting direct energy input requirements, alternative energy sources may be used as well in this respect. Especially emphasis is being given to new and renewable alternative sources for heat and electrical energy requirements.

  8. Alternative Sources of Omega-3 Fats: Can We Find a Sustainable Substitute for Fish?

    PubMed Central

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demand for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) containing fish oils is putting pressure on fish species and numbers. Fisheries provide fish for human consumption, supplement production and fish feeds and are currently supplying fish at a maximum historical rate, suggesting mass-scale fishing is no longer sustainable. However, the health properties of EPA and DHA long-chain (LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) demonstrate the necessity for these oils in our diets. EPA and DHA from fish oils show favourable effects in inflammatory bowel disease, some cancers and cardiovascular complications. The high prevalence of these diseases worldwide indicates the requirement for alternative sources of LC-PUFA. Strategies have included plant-based fish diets, although this may compromise the health benefits associated with fish oils. Alternatively, stearidonic acid, the product of α-linolenic acid desaturation, may act as an EPA-enhancing fatty acid. Additionally, algae oils may be a promising omega-3 PUFA source for the future. Algae are beneficial for multiple industries, offering a source of biodiesel and livestock feeds. However, further research is required to develop efficient and sustainable LC-PUFA production from algae. This paper summarises the recent research for developing prospective substitutes for omega-3 PUFA and the current limitations that are faced. PMID:23598439

  9. Phytomedicines and nutraceuticals: alternative therapeutics for sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Imaga, Ngozi Awa

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a genetically inherited disease in which the "SS" individual possesses an abnormal beta globin gene. A single base substitution in the gene encoding the human β -globin subunit results in replacement of β 6 glutamic acid by valine, leading to the devastating clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease. This substitution causes drastic reduction in the solubility of sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS) when deoxygenated. Under these conditions, the HbS molecules polymerize to form long crystalline intracellular mass of fibers which are responsible for the deformation of the biconcave disc shaped erythrocyte into a sickle shape. First-line clinical management of sickle cell anemia include, use of hydroxyurea, folic acid, amino acids supplementation, penicillinprophylaxis, and antimalarial prophylaxis to manage the condition and blood transfusions to stabilize the patient's hemoglobin level. These are quite expensive and have attendant risk factors. However, a bright ray of hope involving research into antisickling properties of medicinal plants has been rewarding. This alternative therapy using phytomedicines has proven to not only reduce crisis but also reverse sickling (in vitro). The immense benefits of phytomedicines and nutraceuticals used in the management of sickle cell anemia are discussed in this paper.

  10. Phytomedicines and Nutraceuticals: Alternative Therapeutics for Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Imaga, Ngozi Awa

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a genetically inherited disease in which the “SS” individual possesses an abnormal beta globin gene. A single base substitution in the gene encoding the human β-globin subunit results in replacement of β6 glutamic acid by valine, leading to the devastating clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease. This substitution causes drastic reduction in the solubility of sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS) when deoxygenated. Under these conditions, the HbS molecules polymerize to form long crystalline intracellular mass of fibers which are responsible for the deformation of the biconcave disc shaped erythrocyte into a sickle shape. First-line clinical management of sickle cell anemia include, use of hydroxyurea, folic acid, amino acids supplementation, penicillinprophylaxis, and antimalarial prophylaxis to manage the condition and blood transfusions to stabilize the patient's hemoglobin level. These are quite expensive and have attendant risk factors. However, a bright ray of hope involving research into antisickling properties of medicinal plants has been rewarding. This alternative therapy using phytomedicines has proven to not only reduce crisis but also reverse sickling (in vitro). The immense benefits of phytomedicines and nutraceuticals used in the management of sickle cell anemia are discussed in this paper. PMID:23476125

  11. Alternative donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Alfraih, Feras; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Kassim, Adetola A

    2016-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a curative therapy for patients with hemoglobinopathies, mainly severe sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia (TM). However, the applicability of HSCT has been limited mainly by donor availability, with a less than 25%-30% of eligible patients having human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors. Previous outcomes using alternate donor options have been markedly inferior due to increased regimen-related toxicity, transplant-related mortality, graft failure, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Advances in transplant technology, including high-resolution HLA typing, improved GVHD prophylactic approaches with tolerance induction, and better supportive care over the last decade, are addressing these historical challenges, resulting in increasing donor options. Herein, we review alternate donor HSCT approaches for severe SCD and TM using unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood units, or related haploidentical donors. Though this is an emerging field, early results are promising and in selected patients, this may be the preferred option to mitigate against the age-related morbidity and early mortality associated with these disorders.

  12. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? You...

  13. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must use...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources...

  15. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? You...

  16. Amino acids as possible alternative nitrogen source for growth of Euglena gracilis Z in life support systems.

    PubMed

    Richter, P R; Liu, Y; An, Y; Li, X; Nasir, A; Strauch, S M; Becker, I; Krüger, J; Schuster, M; Ntefidou, M; Daiker, V; Haag, F W M; Aiach, A; Lebert, M

    2015-01-01

    In recent times Euglena gracilis Z was employed as primary producer in closed environmental life-support system (CELSS), e.g. in space research. The photosynthetic unicellular flagellate is not capable of utilizing nitrate, nitrite, and urea as nitrogen source. Therefore, ammonium is supplied as an N-source in the lab (provided as diammonium-dihydrogenphosphate, (NH4)2HPO4) to E. gracilis cultures. While nitrate exerts low toxicity to organisms, ammonium is harmful for many aquatic organisms especially, at high pH-values, which causes the ionic NH4+ (low toxicity) to be partially transformed into the highly toxic ammonia, NH3. In earlier reports, Euglena gracilis was described to grow with various amino acids as sole N-source. Our aim was to investigate alternatives for (NH4)2HPO4 as N-source with lower toxicity for organisms co-cultivated with Euglena in a CELSS. The growth kinetics of Euglena gracilis cultures was determined in the presence of different amino acids (glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, leucine, and threonine). In addition, uptake of those amino acids by the cells was measured. Cell growth in the presence of glycine and glutamine was quite comparable to the growth in (NH4)2HPO4 containing cultures while a delay in growth was observed in the presence of leucine and threonine. Unlike, aforementioned amino acids glutamate consumption was very poor. Cell density and glutamate concentration were almost unaltered throughout the experiment and the culture reached the stationary phase within 8 days. The data are compared with earlier studies in which utilization of amino acids in Euglena gracilis was investigated. All tested amino acids (glutamate with limitations) were found to have the potential of being an alternative N-source for Euglena gracilis. Hence, these amino acids can be used as a non-toxic surrogate for (NH4)2HPO4. Copyright © 2014 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Current status of reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation using alternative donors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-B; Spitzer, T R

    2008-01-01

    The optimal donor for a patient undergoing reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation remains a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched relative. Alternative donors such as matched unrelated donors (MUDs), mismatched related donors (haploidentical), or unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB) units have emerged as options as well. The most experience thus far has been with MUD donors, mostly attributed to the development of allele-specific DNA-based HLA-typing methods. The biggest drawback remains the significant delay needed to locate a donor. Haploidentical donors exist for almost all patients, and offer the convenience of a living related donor. However, significant rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and other toxicities continue to complicate such HLA mismatching. UCB is the most recent option for source of stem cells. Frozen cord blood units can be acquired almost immediately and are able to safely traverse 1 or 2-HLA antigen mismatch barriers. The experience with UCB has been limited by the low cell dose, although recent innovations are attempting to overcome this. In this review, we summarize the current experience and knowledge with alternative donors as stem cell sources for reduced-intensity transplantation.

  18. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Mckissock, B. I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, J. C.; Schmitz, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the study performed to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which investigated power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that would be used for construction and operation of a lunar base is described. Using the mission requirements and power profiles that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of the mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  19. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Mckissock, B. I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, J. C.; Schmitz, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the study performed to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which investigated power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that would be used for construction and operation of a lunar base is described. Using the mission requirements and power profiles that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of the mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  20. Combustion quality analysis of briquettes from variety of agricultural waste as source of alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.; Yuliah, Y.; Mulyana, C.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing in world population and the industrial sector led to increased demand for energy sources. To do this by utilizing the agricultural waste as a fuel source of alternative energy in the form of bio briquette. The aim at this study was to obtain data onto the characteristics of a wide variety of biomass briquettes from waste agricultural industry. The basic ingredients used are biomass waste from coconut husks, sawdust, rice husks and coffee husks. Each of these biomass residues are dried, crushed, then mixed with starch adhesives. This mixture is molded and dried using sunlight. Each type of briquettes was characterized and analyzed the physical-chemical properties, including calorific value, water content, fixed carbon content and the results were compared with charcoal and coal that was used as fuel in public. The results showed that bio briquettes from coconut husks get the highest calorific value of 4,451 cal/g.

  1. Cost implications of alternative sources of (n-3) fatty acid consumption in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen T; Luo, Hanqi; Ausman, Lynne M

    2012-03-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 provides authoritative advice on what Americans should eat to stay healthy. These guidelines provide a quantitative recommendation to consume 250 mg/d of (n-3) fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids). To achieve this goal, Americans would need to more than triple the amount of EPA and DHA currently consumed. This paper assessed the cost implications of increased levels of EPA and DHA from marine and nonmarine food sources using data from the 2007-2008 NHANES, USDA nutrient data base, and the USDA Center for the Nutrition Policy and Promotion food price data. Stearidonic acid (SDA)-enhanced soybean oil is a lower cost alternative to commonly consumed marine food as a source of EPA. In addition, given that SDA-enhanced soybean oil is intended to be used as an ingredient in a variety of products, this may enable consumers to increase consumption of EPA through commonly consumed foods.

  2. A Review on Alternative Carbon Sources for Biological Treatment of Nitrate Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhamole, Pradip B.; D'Souza, S. F.; Lele, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Huge amount of wastewater containing nitrogen is produced by various chemical and biological industries. Nitrogen is present in the form of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. This review deals with treatment of nitrate based effluent using biological denitrification. Because of its adverse effect on aquatic life and human health, treatment of nitrate bearing effluents has become mandatory before discharge. Treatment of such wastes is a liability for the industries and incurs cost. However, the economics of the process can be controlled by selection of proper method and reduction in the operating cost. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of nitrate removal with emphasis on biological denitrification. The cost of biological denitrification is controlled by the carbon source. Hence, use of alternative carbon sources such as agricultural wastes, industrial effluent or by products is reviewed in this paper. Policies for reducing the cost of nitrate treatment and enhancing the efficiency have been recommended.

  3. Electron Microscopy in the Catalysis of Alkane Oxidation, Environmental Control, and Alternative Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Pratibha L.; Calvino, Jose J.

    2005-08-01

    The key role of electron microscopy in understanding and creating advanced catalyst materials and processes in selective alkane oxidation, environmental control, and alternative energy sources is reviewed. In many technological processes, catalysts are increasingly nanoscale heterogeneous materials. With growing regulatory guidelines requiring efficient and environmentally compatible catalytic processes, it is crucial to have a fundamental understanding of the catalyst nanostructure and modes of operation under reaction conditions to design novel catalysts and processes. The review highlights the pioneering development and applications of atomic resolution in situ-environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) for probing dynamic catalysis directly at the atomic level, high-resolution electron microscopy, and analytical spectroscopic methods in the development of alkane catalyzation, environmental protection, and new energy sources.

  4. Alternate light sources in the detection of bone after an accelerated fire: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Amber S

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the ability of alternate light sources to detect bone that has been exposed to fire when identification of bone remains is difficult to ascertain. It is intended as a tool for fire investigators to quickly determine whether an area should be considered a forensic scene. After being subjected to a test burn, pig bones were viewed and photographed with the use of a laser, and later compared with a UV light source. A secondary study observing stages of a human cremation was conducted to assess how various levels of burnt flesh affect the ability of bone to fluoresce utilizing a laser. Both studies demonstrated success in detecting bone while fluorescing with a molten lava type of appearance that has the potential to distinguish bone from its surrounding environment. Limitations and recommendations are discussed by the author including the need for future studies to expand on this research.

  5. An evaluation of alternate energy sources for the Guyana energy crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankies, M.

    Hydropower, tidal power, and Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) are evaluated as energy sources for the economic development of Guyana. The realization of a 3000 MW hydropower scheme is expected to promote industries such as an aluminum smelting plant and an ammonium nitrate plant in the hinterland. A proposal is made for a tidal power plant on the Saint John River with a million kW capacity. Although Guyana's geological location and atmospheric conditions make it a favorable site for solar seapower, OTEC cannot be considered as a current alternative. It is concluded that hydropower will play an important role as an inexpensive source of energy for industry, and that tidal power will supply coastal areas and function as part of the sea-defense system.

  6. Alternative splicing regulates pluripotent state in pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ling; Bai, Qiang; Tang, Liling

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) generates multiple mature mRNAs from a single pre-mRNA, so AS is the main contributor for the diversity of the proteins, participating in most of the cellular processes. For pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), great effort has been made to search for pluripotency-related genes and their regulatory mechanisms. However, the sophisticated regulation still remains to be clear. Recent studies indicate that stem cells undergo a unique AS pattern and have a different protein expression profile from differentiated cells, giving a new clue that AS switching or AS itself may play a significant role in the processes of differentiation and somatic reprogramming. Indeed, accumulating evidences prove that AS plays critical roles in maintaining pluripotent homeostasis in PSCs. In this review, we summarized recent researches on AS in ESCs and iPSCs, including some distinct AS events in pluripotent cells, and then discussed the new progress on mechanisms for AS in ESCs and iPSCs differentiation and somatic reprogramming.

  7. A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Takanashi, Kazumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukunaga, Tomoko; Ogawa, Seiji; Sugawara, Kana; Shinoda, Kosaku; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kuji, Naoaki; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Tomita, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-(13)C(8)] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development.

  8. Investigation of alternate power source for Space Shuttle Orbiter hydraulic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, William E.; Young, Fred M.

    1993-05-01

    This investigation consists of a short-term feasibility study to determine whether or not an alternate electrical power source would trade favorably from a performance, reliability, safety, operation, and weight standpoint in replacing the current auxiliary power unit subsystems with its attendant components (water spray boiler, hydrazine fuel and tanks, feed and vent lines, controls, etc.), operating under current flight rules. Results of this feasibility study are used to develop recommendations for the next step (e.g., to determine if such an alternate electrical power source would show an advantage given that the current operational flight mode of the system could be modified in such a way as not to constrain the operational capability and safety of the vehicle). However, this next step is not within the scope of this investigation. This study does not include a cost analysis, nor does it include investigation of the integration aspects involved in such a trade, except in a qualitative sense for the determination of concept feasibility.

  9. Copper dynamics under alternating redox conditions is influenced by soil properties and contamination source.

    PubMed

    Balint, Ramona; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effect of soil redox conditions on contaminant dynamics is of significant importance for evaluating their lability, mobility and potential transfer to other environmental compartments. Under changing redox conditions, soil properties and constituents such as Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and organic matter (OM) may influence the behavior of associated metallic elements (MEs). In this work, the redox-driven release and redistribution of Cu between different soil pools was studied in three soils having different contamination sources. This was achieved by subjecting soil columns to a series of alternating reducing and oxidizing cycles under non-limiting C conditions, and assessing their influence on soil pore water, leachate and solid phase composition. Results showed that, in all soils, alternating redox conditions led to an increase in the distribution of Cu in the more labile fractions, consequently enhancing its susceptibility to loss. This was generally linked to the redox-driven cycling of Fe, Mn and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In fact, results suggested that the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and subsequent reprecipitation as poorly-ordered phases under oxic conditions contributed to the release and mobilization of Cu and/or Cu-containing organometallic complexes. However, the behavior of Cu, as well as the mechanisms controlling Cu release and loss with redox cycling, was influenced by both soil properties (e.g. pH, contents of easily reducible Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides) and source of Cu contamination.

  10. Reclaimed water as an alternative source of water for the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Ncube, Mthokozisi

    Perennial water problems, precipitated by increased water demand in Bulawayo, the second largest city in Zimbabwe, has prompted the consideration of a wide array of strategies from demand management and water conservation measures to exploitation of alternative water sources. One of such strategies in the latter category includes recycling of blue water for both potable and non-potable purposes. This paper examines the existing reclaimed water system with a view at revamping the existing infrastructure to maximise reclaimed water use for purposes that are amenable to water of lower quality. It is a generally accepted practice to avoid the use of water of high quality for purposes that can tolerate a lower grade, unless it is in excess in amount [ Okun, D.A., 1973. Planning for water reuse. Journal of AWWA 65(10)]. The reclaimed water is assessed in terms of its quality and quantity vis-à-vis possible uses. Perceptions and expectations of both current and identified prospective consumers are examined and discussed, in addition to the feasibility of accommodating these identified prospective consumers in an expanded network. Apart from enhancement of the existing infrastructure, the paper highlights the need for social marketing and education in order to realise the optimum benefits of this alternative water source. The cost implications of implementing the proposed project are evaluated, including suggestions on suitable tariff structure and an allocation distribution that achieves equity.

  11. Copper dynamics under alternating redox conditions is influenced by soil properties and contamination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Ramona; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effect of soil redox conditions on contaminant dynamics is of significant importance for evaluating their lability, mobility and potential transfer to other environmental compartments. Under changing redox conditions, soil properties and constituents such as Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and organic matter (OM) may influence the behavior of associated metallic elements (MEs). In this work, the redox-driven release and redistribution of Cu between different soil pools was studied in three soils having different contamination sources. This was achieved by subjecting soil columns to a series of alternating reducing and oxidizing cycles under non-limiting C conditions, and assessing their influence on soil pore water, leachate and solid phase composition. Results showed that, in all soils, alternating redox conditions led to an increase in the distribution of Cu in the more labile fractions, consequently enhancing its susceptibility to loss. This was generally linked to the redox-driven cycling of Fe, Mn and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In fact, results suggested that the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides and subsequent reprecipitation as poorly-ordered phases under oxic conditions contributed to the release and mobilization of Cu and/or Cu-containing organometallic complexes. However, the behavior of Cu, as well as the mechanisms controlling Cu release and loss with redox cycling, was influenced by both soil properties (e.g. pH, contents of easily reducible Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides) and source of Cu contamination.

  12. Investigation of alternate power source for Space Shuttle Orbiter hydraulic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Young, Fred M.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation consists of a short-term feasibility study to determine whether or not an alternate electrical power source would trade favorably from a performance, reliability, safety, operation, and weight standpoint in replacing the current auxiliary power unit subsystems with its attendant components (water spray boiler, hydrazine fuel and tanks, feed and vent lines, controls, etc.), operating under current flight rules. Results of this feasibility study are used to develop recommendations for the next step (e.g., to determine if such an alternate electrical power source would show an advantage given that the current operational flight mode of the system could be modified in such a way as not to constrain the operational capability and safety of the vehicle). However, this next step is not within the scope of this investigation. This study does not include a cost analysis, nor does it include investigation of the integration aspects involved in such a trade, except in a qualitative sense for the determination of concept feasibility.

  13. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2011-08-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and with the

  14. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are... emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that, as purchased... constituent option). (b) Monthly average alternative, without using an add-on control device. Use cements...

  15. Infection Rates among Acute Leukemia Patients receiving Alternative Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ballen, Karen; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Chen, Min; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Ahmed, Ibrahim; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Antin, Joseph; Bhatt, Ami S.; Boeckh, Michael; Chen, George; Dandoy, Christopher; George, Biju; Laughlin, Mary J.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; MacMillan, Margaret L.; Margolis, David A.; Marks, David I.; Norkin, Maxim; Rosenthal, Joseph; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin; Schouten, Harry C.; Storek, Jan; Szabolcs, Paul; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R.; Waller, Edmund K.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Williams, Kirsten M.; Wingard, John R.; Wirk, Baldeep; Wolfs, Tom; Young, Jo-Anne H.; Auletta, Jeffrey; Komanduri, Krishna V.; Lindemans, Caroline; Riches, Marcie L.

    2016-01-01

    Alternative graft sources, [umbilical cord blood (UCB), matched unrelated donors (MUD), or mismatched unrelated donors (MMUD)] enable patients without a matched sibling donor to receive potentially curative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Retrospective studies demonstrate comparable outcomes among different graft sources. However, the risk and types of infections have not been compared among graft sources. Such information may influence the choice of a particular graft source. We compared the incidence of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in 1,781 adults with acute leukemia who received alternative donor HCT (UCB = 568, MUD = 930, MMUD = 283) between 2008 and 2011. The incidence of bacterial infection at one year was 72%, 59%, and 65% (p<0.0001) for UCB, MUD and MMUD, respectively. Incidence of viral infection at one year was 68%, 45%, 53% (p<0.0001) for UCB, MUD, and MMUD respectively. In multivariable analysis, bacterial, fungal, and viral infections were more common after either UCB or MMUD than MUD, (p<0.0001). Bacterial and viral, but not fungal, infections were more common after UCB than MMUD (p=0.0009 and <0.0001, respectively). The presence of viral infection was not associated with an increased mortality. Overall survival (OS) was comparable among UCB and MMUD patients with Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥90%, but was inferior for UCB for patients with KPS < 90%. Bacterial and fungal infections were associated with poorer OS. Future strategies focusing on infection prevention and treatment are indicated to improve HCT outcomes. PMID:27343716

  16. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  17. Differential expression and alternative splicing of cell cycle genes in imatinib-treated K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Lin, Jin; Huang, Lin-Feng; Huang, Bo; Xu, Yan-Mei; Li, Jing; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Wei-Ming; Min, Qing-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Cancer progression often involves the disorder of the cell cycle, and a number of effective chemotherapeutic drugs have been shown to induce cell cycle arrest. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively investigate the effects of imatinib on the expression profile of cell cycle genes in the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cell line. In addition, we also investigated alternative splicing of the cell cycle genes affected by imatinib, since an important relationship has been shown to exist between RNA splicing and cell cycle progression. Exon array analysis was performed using total RNA purified from normal and imatinib-treated K562 cells. We identified 185 differentially expressed genes and 277 alternative splicing events between the two cell groups. A detailed analysis by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) of key genes confirmed the experimental results of the exon array. These results suggested that treatment of K562 cells with imatinib shifts the expression and alternative splicing profiles of several cell cycle-related genes. Importantly, these findings may help improve imatinib treatment strategies in patients with CML and may be useful for imatinib resistance research and CML drug development.

  18. Lepidopteran cells, an alternative for the production of recombinant antibodies?

    PubMed Central

    Cérutti, Martine; Golay, Josée

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are used with great success in many different therapeutic domains. In order to satisfy the growing demand and to lower the production cost of these molecules, many alternative systems have been explored. Among them, the baculovirus/insect cells system is a good candidate. This system is very safe, given that the baculoviruses have a highly restricted host range and they are not pathogenic to vertebrates or plants. But the major asset is the speed with which it is possible to obtain very stable recombinant viruses capable of producing fully active proteins whose glycosylation pattern can be modulated to make it similar to the human one. These features could ultimately make the difference by enabling the production of antibodies with very low costs. However, efforts are still needed, in particular to increase production rates and thus make this system commercially viable for the production of these therapeutic agents. PMID:22531440

  19. Physiological adaptation of Corynebacterium glutamicum to benzoate as alternative carbon source - a membrane proteome-centric view.

    PubMed

    Haussmann, Ute; Qi, Su-Wei; Wolters, Dirk; Rögner, Matthias; Liu, Shuang-Jiang; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2009-07-01

    The ability of microorganisms to assimilate aromatic substances as alternative carbon sources is the basis of biodegradation of natural as well as industrial aromatic compounds. In this study, Corynebacterium glutamicum was grown on benzoate as sole carbon and energy source. To extend the scarce knowledge about physiological adaptation processes occurring in this cell compartment, the membrane proteome was investigated under quantitative and qualitative aspects by applying shotgun proteomics to reach a comprehensive survey. Membrane proteins were relatively quantified using an internal standard metabolically labeled with (15)N. Altogether, 40 proteins were found to change their abundance during growth on benzoate in comparison to glucose. A global adaptation was observed in the membrane of benzoate-grown cells, characterized by increased abundance of proteins of the respiratory chain, by a starvation response, and by changes in sulfur metabolism involving the regulator McbR. Additional to the relative quantification, stable isotope-labeled synthetic peptides were used for the absolute quantification of the two benzoate transporters of C. glutamicum, BenK and BenE. It was found that both transporters were expressed during growth on benzoate, suggesting that both contribute substantially to benzoate uptake.

  20. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  1. Fuel cell power source for a cold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, B. K.; Velayutham, G.; Goud, A. Prasad

    Electric power generation at Maitri—the Indian Antarctic station is based on a conventional diesel generator. In spite of the high reliability and simplicity of operation, the main disadvantages of this kind of power source are its pollution potential and fuel transportation costs. In a place like Antarctica environmental protection requirements are of prime importance. Apart from gas pollution, they also suffer from various other problems such as degradation of performance due to sub-zero temperature of operation, noise pollution, solidification of lubricants and mechanical wear and tear. Fuel cells find an ideal application for alternate energy solution, and can maintain the pristine nature of Antarctica. With this objective in mind, Research & Development Establishment (Engineers), Pune, Defence Research & Development Organisation, Ministry of Defence, Government of India joined hands with Centre for Electro-Chemical & Energy Research, SPIC Science Foundation, Chennai and developed three prototype 500 W, 12 V, PEMFC fuel cell power sources for this application. PEMFC has been chosen for study and experimentation at Antarctica because the solid electrolyte Nafion-117 is used in this cell and the electro-chemical reaction is exothermic so that the fuel cell can be activated at low temperature. PEMFC was first installed and successfully demonstrated during the XVII Indian Antarctic Expedition. Further studies continued during the XVIII Indian Antarctic Expedition and a series of scientific experiments were conducted in the areas of optimisation of humidification, temperature for reactants (hydrogen and oxygen), elimination of existing humidification system, feasibility of provision of air-cooling system in lieu of water cooling system, humidifcation of gases using membrane as a medium, charging/discharging characteristics of a metal hydride container for hydrogen storage, and performance of a dc-dc converter and static inverter under sub-zero temperature of

  2. The use of an alternative light source to detect semen in clinical forensic medical practice.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, C A; McBride, P M; Turbett, G R; Garbin, C D; MacDonald, E J

    2006-05-01

    One of the primary aims of forensic examination in sexual offences is to detect and recover biological material that will link the offender with the complainant. One potentially valuable method by which trace biological evidence may be identified in other forensic settings is via the use of an Alternate Light Source (ALS). The aim of this study was to determine whether or not there was any potential benefit in using an ALS as an adjunct in sexual assault examinations to aid the detection of forensically relevant areas on the body which are not identifiable on visual inspection for sampling. We present two case reports, which illustrate the potential value of using an ALS in clinical forensic medical practice as an adjunct in sexual assault examinations to detect potentially forensically useful areas of skin to sample for semen. Prior to introducing the ALS into our clinical forensic medical practice, we undertook a number of simple laboratory studies to determine a protocol for its use. Semen is known to fluoresce using an ALS at a wavelength of 450 nm. Although we did not conduct a rigorous scientific evaluation of the technique, we evaluated the use of an ALS to detect semen on a range of inanimate surfaces as well as human skin. On all surfaces, visibility of fluorescence was increased by reduced distance of light source from the surface and increased concentration of semen on the surface, but was not noticeably affected by the angle at which the light source was held in relation to the surface.

  3. Crowd-sourcing and author submission as alternatives to professional curation.

    PubMed

    Karp, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Can we decrease the costs of database curation by crowd-sourcing curation work or by offloading curation to publication authors? This perspective considers the significant experience accumulated by the bioinformatics community with these two alternatives to professional curation in the last 20 years; that experience should be carefully considered when formulating new strategies for biological databases. The vast weight of empirical evidence to date suggests that crowd-sourced curation is not a successful model for biological databases. Multiple approaches to crowd-sourced curation have been attempted by multiple groups, and extremely low participation rates by 'the crowd' are the overwhelming outcome. The author-curation model shows more promise for boosting curator efficiency. However, its limitations include that the quality of author-submitted annotations is uncertain, the response rate is low (but significant), and to date author curation has involved relatively simple forms of annotation involving one or a few types of data. Furthermore, shifting curation to authors may simply redistribute costs rather than decreasing costs; author curation may in fact increase costs because of the overhead involved in having every curating author learn what professional curators know: curation conventions, curation software and curation procedures. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Crowd-sourcing and author submission as alternatives to professional curation

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Can we decrease the costs of database curation by crowd-sourcing curation work or by offloading curation to publication authors? This perspective considers the significant experience accumulated by the bioinformatics community with these two alternatives to professional curation in the last 20 years; that experience should be carefully considered when formulating new strategies for biological databases. The vast weight of empirical evidence to date suggests that crowd-sourced curation is not a successful model for biological databases. Multiple approaches to crowd-sourced curation have been attempted by multiple groups, and extremely low participation rates by ‘the crowd’ are the overwhelming outcome. The author-curation model shows more promise for boosting curator efficiency. However, its limitations include that the quality of author-submitted annotations is uncertain, the response rate is low (but significant), and to date author curation has involved relatively simple forms of annotation involving one or a few types of data. Furthermore, shifting curation to authors may simply redistribute costs rather than decreasing costs; author curation may in fact increase costs because of the overhead involved in having every curating author learn what professional curators know: curation conventions, curation software and curation procedures. PMID:28025340

  5. The vulnerabilities of the power-grid system: renewable microgrids as an alternative source of energy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Victor; Myres, Charles; Bakshi, Nitin

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the vulnerabilities of current power-grid systems and to propose alternatives to using fossil fuel power generation and infrastructure solutions in the form of microgrids, particularly those from renewable energy sources. One of the key potential benefits of microgrids, apart from their inherent sustainability and ecological advantages, is increased resilience. The analysis is targeted towards the context of business process outsourcing in India. However, much of the research on vulnerabilities has been derived from the USA and as such many of the examples cite vulnerabilities in the USA and other developed economies. Nevertheless, the vulnerabilities noted are to a degree common to all grid systems, and so the analysis may be more broadly applicable.

  6. The use of an alternate light source for detecting bones underwater.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Horn, Kevin J; Smith, Victoria A

    2014-07-01

    When searching underwater crime scenes or disaster scenes for fragmentary human remains, it may be advantageous for forensic divers to be able to detect the presence of bones and teeth among other marine materials (such as shells and rocks). In terrestrial environments, this can typically be accomplished by visual and instrumental methods, but underwater conditions make it difficult to employ detection and sorting techniques in these environments. This study investigates fluorescence of bones and teeth and other marine materials using a submersible alternate light source (ALS) and concludes that an ALS can be a useful tool for detecting bones and teeth in underwater searches as well in terrestrial searches and laboratory environments. The results could impact the methods and equipment used by forensic divers and forensic anthropologists when searching for skeletal remains, potentially increasing the quantity and efficiency of forensic evidence recovered. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. [Identification of semen in bloodstains with the use of alternative light source and biochemical screening tests].

    PubMed

    Gorzkiewicz, Marta; Woźniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Łuczak, Sylwia; Linkowska, Katarzyna; Daca, Patrycja

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was the verification of the presence of semen in stains constituting mixtures of semen and blood employing alternative light source (ALS) and commercially available biochemical screening tests based on the activity of acid phosphatase (AP) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The tests demonstrated that discrimination between particular components of a blood-semen mixture was impossible either with the naked eye, as well as with the use of ALS. White fluorescence was observed only in stains consisting of pure semen and semen-blood mixtures at a ratio of 100:1. The assay for PSA was positive in the case of all the examined semen dilutions and semen-blood mixtures, whereas the sensitivity of the AP-based test assay was lower by one order of magnitude.

  8. Northern Regions of Russia as Alternative Sources of Pure Water for Sustainable Development: Challenges and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukerman, V. A.; Gudkov, A. V.; Ivanov, S. V.

    The paper discusses problems associated with the existing crisis of water scarcity in the modern conditions of the global water use. Available alternative sources of fresh water may be underground and surface waters of the North and the Arctic. Investigated the current situation and condition of fresh water resources in the technological and industrial development of the North and Arctic. The necessity of developing and using green technologies and measures to prevent pollution of surface and ground water from industrial sectors of the Northern regions is shown. Studied modern technologies and techniques for monitoring groundwater and determination of their age in order to avoid and prevent the effects of environmental contaminants. The ways of use of innovative production technologies of fresh and clean water of north Russia for sustainable development, and delivery of water in the needy regions of the world are investigated.

  9. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  10. Alternative disposal for Investigation Derived Wastes (IDW) containing low activity source material

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, H.T.; Majer, T.

    2007-07-01

    As part of a Remedial Investigation (RI) at a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Site, approximately 77,111 kg (85 tons) I would use the actual tons of investigation derived wastes (IDW) were generated from exploratory soil borings and as part of removal activities at a former drum burial area. Characterization of these materials indicated elevated concentrations of metals including uranium and thorium (source material). Concentrations of uranium and thorium were at levels less than 0.05% by mass, which is the threshold for exempt source material under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Disposal of this material was evaluated as low-level radioactive waste and as exempt radioactive waste. The NRC has established a process for evaluation and review of exempt source material transfer and direct disposal in a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) landfill. These requests are normally approved if the dose to a member of the general public is unlikely to exceed 0.25 mSv per year (25 milli-rem per year). The soil was evaluated for disposal as exempt radioactive waste at a RCRA landfill, which included dose modeling to workers during transportation and disposal as well as potential dose to members of the public after closure of the disposal facility. These evaluations determined that the potential dose was very small, and review by the agreement state regulatory agency indicated that this disposal process should not result in any undue hazard to public health and safety or property. The advantage of this approach is that disposal of 77,111 kg (85 tons) of IDW at a RCRA landfill is estimated to result in a savings of $80,000 as compared to disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Alternative waste disposal of exempt source material provides more disposal options and can lead to significant cost savings. (authors)

  11. Effect of dietary alternative lipid sources on haematological parameters and serum constituents of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Babalola, T O O; Adebayo, M A; Apata, D F; Omotosho, J S

    2009-03-01

    The worldwide increase in aquaculture production and the decrease of wild fish stocks has made the replacement of fish oil (FO) in aquafeed industry a priority. Therefore, the use of terrestrial animal fats and vegetable oils, which has lower cost and larger supplies, may be good as substitute for FO. This study investigate the effects of total replacement of FO by two terrestrial animal fats (pork lard and poultry fat) and three vegetable oils (palm kernel oil, sheabutter oil and sunflower oil) on haematological and serum biochemical profile of Heterobranchus longifilis over 70 days. FO-diet was used as the control. The haematological parameters were significantly affected by dietary lipid sources. Serum total protein was not influenced by the dietary lipids. However, serum cholesterol was significantly higher in fish fed diet containing sunflower oil. Glucose and activities of liver enzymes in blood serum were significantly reduced in fish fed alternative lipids when compared with the control. These results indicate that FO can be replaced completely with alternative lipids without any serious negative health impacts.

  12. Impact of alternative n fertilizer sources on cotton yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a coastal plain soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interest in the use of alternative fertilizer sources have increased in recent years. This is partially attributed to the belief that the new enhanced-efficiency N fertilizer sources can potentially increase crop yield, while at the same time decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, a field stud...

  13. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production...

  15. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production...

  16. Liver tissue engineering and cell sources: issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Palakkan, Anwar A; Hay, David C; Anil Kumar, P R; Kumary, T V; Ross, James A

    2013-05-01

    Liver diseases are of major concern as they now account for millions of deaths annually. As a result of the increased incidence of liver disease, many patients die on the transplant waiting list, before a donor organ becomes available. To meet the huge demand for donor liver, alternative approaches using liver tissue engineering principles are being actively pursued. Even though adult hepatocytes, the primary cells of the liver are most preferred for tissue engineering of liver, their limited availability, isolation from diseased organs, lack of in vitro propagation and deterioration of function acts as a major drawback to their use. Various approaches have been taken to prevent the functional deterioration of hepatocytes including the provision of an adequate extracellular matrix and co-culture with non-parenchymal cells of liver. Great progress has also been made to differentiate human stem cells to hepatocytes and to use them for liver tissue engineering applications. This review provides an overview of recent challenges, issues and cell sources with regard to liver tissue engineering.

  17. Alternative Protein Sources in the Diet Modulate Microbiota and Functionality in the Distal Intestine of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo-Torres, Alexander; Kortner, Trond M.; Merrifield, Daniel L.; Tinsley, John; Bakke, Anne Marie; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to investigate whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in modifications in host intestinal function and health status. A 48-day feeding trial was conducted, in which groups of fish received one of five diets: a reference diet in which fishmeal (diet FM) was the only protein source and four experimental diets with commercially relevant compositions containing alternative ingredients as partial replacements of fishmeal, i.e., poultry meal (diet PM), a mix of soybean meal and wheat gluten (diet SBMWG), a mix of soy protein concentrate and poultry meal (diet SPCPM), and guar meal and wheat gluten (diet GMWG). Samples were taken of DI digesta and mucosa for microbial profiling using high-throughput sequencing and from DI whole tissue for immunohistochemistry and expression profiling of marker genes for gut health. Regardless of diet, there were significant differences between the microbial populations in the digesta and the mucosa in the salmon DI. Microbial richness was higher in the digesta than the mucosa. The digesta-associated bacterial communities were more affected by the diet than the mucosa-associated microbiota. Interestingly, both legume-based diets (SBMWG and GMWG) presented high relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in addition to alteration in the expression of a salmon gene related to cell proliferation (pcna). It was, however, not possible to ascertain the cause-effect relationship between changes in bacterial communities and the host's intestinal responses to the diets. IMPORTANCE The intestine of cultivated Atlantic salmon shows symptoms of compromised function, which are most likely caused by imbalances related to the use of new feed ingredients. Intestinal microbiota profiling may become in the future a valuable endpoint measurement in order to assess fish intestinal

  18. Alternative Protein Sources in the Diet Modulate Microbiota and Functionality in the Distal Intestine of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Gajardo, Karina; Jaramillo-Torres, Alexander; Kortner, Trond M; Merrifield, Daniel L; Tinsley, John; Bakke, Anne Marie; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in modifications in host intestinal function and health status. A 48-day feeding trial was conducted, in which groups of fish received one of five diets: a reference diet in which fishmeal (diet FM) was the only protein source and four experimental diets with commercially relevant compositions containing alternative ingredients as partial replacements of fishmeal, i.e., poultry meal (diet PM), a mix of soybean meal and wheat gluten (diet SBMWG), a mix of soy protein concentrate and poultry meal (diet SPCPM), and guar meal and wheat gluten (diet GMWG). Samples were taken of DI digesta and mucosa for microbial profiling using high-throughput sequencing and from DI whole tissue for immunohistochemistry and expression profiling of marker genes for gut health. Regardless of diet, there were significant differences between the microbial populations in the digesta and the mucosa in the salmon DI. Microbial richness was higher in the digesta than the mucosa. The digesta-associated bacterial communities were more affected by the diet than the mucosa-associated microbiota. Interestingly, both legume-based diets (SBMWG and GMWG) presented high relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in addition to alteration in the expression of a salmon gene related to cell proliferation (pcna). It was, however, not possible to ascertain the cause-effect relationship between changes in bacterial communities and the host's intestinal responses to the diets.IMPORTANCE The intestine of cultivated Atlantic salmon shows symptoms of compromised function, which are most likely caused by imbalances related to the use of new feed ingredients. Intestinal microbiota profiling may become in the future a valuable endpoint measurement in order to assess fish intestinal health

  19. Photoelectron emission as an alternative electron impact ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gamez, Gerardo; Zhu, Liang; Schmitz, Thomas A; Zenobi, Renato

    2008-09-01

    Electron impact ionization has several known advantages; however, heated filament electron sources have pressure limitations and their power consumption can be significant for certain applications, such as in field-portable instruments. Herein, we evaluate a VUV krypton lamp as an alternative source for ionization inside the ion trap of a mass spectrometer. The observed fragmentation patterns are more characteristic of electron impact ionization than photoionization. In addition, mass spectra of analytes with ionization potentials higher than the lamp's photon energy (10.6 eV) can be easily obtained. A photoelectron impact ionization mechanism is suggested by the observed data allowed by the work function of the ion trap electrodes (4.5 eV), which is well within the lamp's photon energy. In this case, the photoelectrons emitted at the surface of the ion trap end-cap electrode are accelerated by the applied rf field to the ring electrode. This allows the photoelectrons to gain sufficient energy to ionize compounds with high ionization potentials to yield mass spectra characteristic of electron impact. In this manner, electron impact ionization can be used in ion trap mass spectrometers at low powers and without the limitations imposed by elevated pressures on heated filaments.

  20. Survival and preference of cotton boll weevil adults for alternative food sources.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, M; Mata, R A; Venzon, M; Cunha, D N C; Fontes, E M G; Pires, C S S; Sujii, E R

    2016-06-01

    Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues) to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar) provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp). Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus' flowers (166.6 ± 74.4) and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9) than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage.

  1. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy--Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Catharina M; Heerfordt, Ida M; Heydenreich, Jakob; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-02-29

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (daylight PDT) is a simple and pain free treatment of actinic keratoses. Weather conditions may not always allow daylight PDT outdoors. We compared the spectrum of five different lamp candidates for indoor "daylight PDT" and investigated their ability to photobleach protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Furthermore, we measured the amount of PpIX activating daylight available in a glass greenhouse, which can be an alternative when it is uncomfortable for patients to be outdoors. The lamps investigated were: halogen lamps (overhead and slide projector), white light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, red LED panel and lamps used for conventional PDT. Four of the five light sources were able to photobleach PpIX completely. For halogen light and the red LED lamp, 5000 lux could photobleach PpIX whereas 12,000 lux were needed for the white LED lamp. Furthermore, the greenhouse was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) radiation passes through the greenhouse glass, so sun protection is not needed.

  2. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy—Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Lerche, Catharina M.; Heerfordt, Ida M.; Heydenreich, Jakob; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (daylight PDT) is a simple and pain free treatment of actinic keratoses. Weather conditions may not always allow daylight PDT outdoors. We compared the spectrum of five different lamp candidates for indoor “daylight PDT” and investigated their ability to photobleach protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Furthermore, we measured the amount of PpIX activating daylight available in a glass greenhouse, which can be an alternative when it is uncomfortable for patients to be outdoors. The lamps investigated were: halogen lamps (overhead and slide projector), white light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, red LED panel and lamps used for conventional PDT. Four of the five light sources were able to photobleach PpIX completely. For halogen light and the red LED lamp, 5000 lux could photobleach PpIX whereas 12,000 lux were needed for the white LED lamp. Furthermore, the greenhouse was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) radiation passes through the greenhouse glass, so sun protection is not needed. PMID:26938525

  3. Toenails as an alternative source material for the extraction of DNA from decomposed human remains.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Andrew; Grimble, Katelyn; Azim, Arani; Owen, Rebecca; Hartman, Dadna

    2016-01-01

    The DNA identification of decomposed human remains for coronial investigations at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine routinely requires the retrieval and processing of a bone sample obtained from the deceased. Bone is a difficult sample type to work with as it requires surgical removal from the deceased, refrigerated storage, and additional processing steps prior to DNA analysis in comparison to other samples types such as buccal swabs or blood stains. In an attempt to overcome the issues posed by bone, a DNA extraction method utilising toenails as an alternate source material was optimised and trialled. Two DNA extraction methods were optimised for digestion of toenail material, with the method utilising the QIAGEN DNA Investigator Kit selected for a casework trial. Single source DNA profiles, matching those of the conventional samples taken, were obtained for toenail samples collected from 28 of 30 coronial cases available for this study. Of these, 26 toenail samples produced full profiles. Although the overall DNA profile quality from the toenails was less than that of the conventional sample, the profiles from toenails met the reporting requirements for identification. Based on the results obtained, the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine will be implementing toenails as the primary sample type for collection from decomposed remains when blood is not a suitable sample type. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    PubMed

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-06-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    PubMed Central

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  6. Host carbon sources modulate cell wall architecture, drug resistance and virulence in a fungal pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Ene, Iuliana V; Adya, Ashok K; Wehmeier, Silvia; Brand, Alexandra C; MacCallum, Donna M; Gow, Neil A R; Brown, Alistair J P

    2012-01-01

    The survival of all microbes depends upon their ability to respond to environmental challenges. To establish infection, pathogens such as Candida albicans must mount effective stress responses to counter host defences while adapting to dynamic changes in nutrient status within host niches. Studies of C. albicans stress adaptation have generally been performed on glucose-grown cells, leaving the effects of alternative carbon sources upon stress resistance largely unexplored. We have shown that growth on alternative carbon sources, such as lactate, strongly influence the resistance of C. albicans to antifungal drugs, osmotic and cell wall stresses. Similar trends were observed in clinical isolates and other pathogenic Candida species. The increased stress resistance of C. albicans was not dependent on key stress (Hog1) and cell integrity (Mkc1) signalling pathways. Instead, increased stress resistance was promoted by major changes in the architecture and biophysical properties of the cell wall. Glucose- and lactate-grown cells displayed significant differences in cell wall mass, ultrastructure, elasticity and adhesion. Changes in carbon source also altered the virulence of C. albicans in models of systemic candidiasis and vaginitis, confirming the importance of alternative carbon sources within host niches during C. albicans infections. PMID:22587014

  7. Solar-hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source for mobile robots and the new-age car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, A.; Inambao, F.; Bright, G.

    2014-07-01

    The disastrous effects of climate change as witnessed in recent violent storms, and the stark reality that fossil fuels are not going to last forever, is certain to create renewed demands for alternative energy sources. One such alternative source, namely solar energy, although unreliable because of its dependence on available sunlight, can nevertheless be utilised to generate a secondary source of energy, namely hydrogen, which can be stored and thereby provide a constant and reliable source of energy. The only draw-back with hydrogen, though, is finding efficient means for its storage. This study demonstrates how this problem can be overcome by the use of metal hydrides which offers a very compact and safe way of storing hydrogen. It also provides a case study of how solar and hydrogen energy can be combined in an energy system to provide an efficient source of energy that can be applied for modern technologies such as a mobile robot. Hydrogen energy holds out the most promise amongst the various alternative energy sources, so much so that it is proving to be the energy source of choice for automobile manufacturers in their quest for alternative fuels to power their cars of the future.

  8. Alternative luciferase for monitoring bacterial cells under adverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Siouxsie; Ferguson, Kathryn; Stefanidou, Martha; Young, Douglas B; Robertson, Brian D

    2005-07-01

    The availability of cloned luciferase genes from fireflies (luc) and from bacteria (luxAB) has led to the widespread use of bioluminescence as a reporter to measure cell viability and gene expression. The most commonly occurring bioluminescence system in nature is the deep-sea imidazolopyrazine bioluminescence system. Coelenterazine is an imidazolopyrazine derivative which, when oxidized by an appropriate luciferase enzyme, produces carbon dioxide, coelenteramide, and light. The luciferase from the marine copepod Gaussia princeps (Gluc) has recently been cloned. We expressed the Gluc gene in Mycobacterium smegmatis using a shuttle vector and compared its performance with that of an existing luxAB reporter. In contrast to luxAB, the Gluc luciferase retained its luminescence output in the stationary phase of growth and exhibited enhanced stability during exposure to low pH, hydrogen peroxide, and high temperature. The work presented here demonstrated the utility of the copepod luciferase bioluminescent reporter as an alternative to bacterial luciferase, particularly for monitoring responses to environmental stress stimuli.

  9. Cell-free unnatural amino acid incorporation with alternative energy systems and linear expression templates.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prashanta; Smith, Mark Thomas; Bundy, Bradley Charles

    2014-01-25

    Site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids (uAAs) during protein synthesis expands the proteomic code through the addition of unique residue chemistry. This field provides a unique tool to improve pharmacokinetics, cancer treatments, vaccine development, proteomics and protein engineering. The limited ability to predict the characteristics of proteins with uAA-incorporation creates a need for a low-cost system with the potential for rapid screening. Escherichia coli-based cell-free protein synthesis is a compelling platform for uAA incorporation due to the open and accessible nature of the reaction environment. However, typical cell-free systems can be expensive due to the high cost of energizing reagents. By employing alternative energy sources, we reduce the cost of uAA-incorporation in CFPS by 55%. While alternative energy systems reduce cost, the time investment to develop gene libraries can remain cumbersome. Cell-free systems allow the direct use of PCR products known as linear expression templates, thus alleviating tedious plasmid library preparations steps. We report the specific costs of CFPS with uAA incorporation, demonstrate that LETs are suitable expression templates with uAA-incorporation, and consider the substantial reduction in labor intensity using LET-based expression for CFPS uAA incorporation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. PAX6 maintains β cell identity by repressing genes of alternative islet cell types

    PubMed Central

    Swisa, Avital; Avrahami, Dana; Eden, Noa; Zhang, Jia; Feleke, Eseye; Dahan, Tehila; Cohen-Tayar, Yamit; Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Glaser, Benjamin; Ashery-Padan, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is thought to involve a compromised β cell differentiation state, but the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction remain unclear. Here, we report a key role for the TF PAX6 in the maintenance of adult β cell identity and function. PAX6 was downregulated in β cells of diabetic db/db mice and in WT mice treated with an insulin receptor antagonist, revealing metabolic control of expression. Deletion of Pax6 in β cells of adult mice led to lethal hyperglycemia and ketosis that were attributed to loss of β cell function and expansion of α cells. Lineage-tracing, transcriptome, and chromatin analyses showed that PAX6 is a direct activator of β cell genes, thus maintaining mature β cell function and identity. In parallel, we found that PAX6 binds promoters and enhancers to repress alternative islet cell genes including ghrelin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Chromatin analysis and shRNA-mediated gene suppression experiments indicated a similar function of PAX6 in human β cells. We conclude that reduced expression of PAX6 in metabolically stressed β cells may contribute to β cell failure and α cell dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:27941241

  11. Open Source software and social networks: disruptive alternatives for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Ratib, Osman; Rosset, Antoine; Heuberger, Joris

    2011-05-01

    In recent decades several major changes in computer and communication technology have pushed the limits of imaging informatics and PACS beyond the traditional system architecture providing new perspectives and innovative approach to a traditionally conservative medical community. Disruptive technologies such as the world-wide-web, wireless networking, Open Source software and recent emergence of cyber communities and social networks have imposed an accelerated pace and major quantum leaps in the progress of computer and technology infrastructure applicable to medical imaging applications. This paper reviews the impact and potential benefits of two major trends in consumer market software development and how they will influence the future of medical imaging informatics. Open Source software is emerging as an attractive and cost effective alternative to traditional commercial software developments and collaborative social networks provide a new model of communication that is better suited to the needs of the medical community. Evidence shows that successful Open Source software tools have penetrated the medical market and have proven to be more robust and cost effective than their commercial counterparts. Developed by developers that are themselves part of the user community, these tools are usually better adapted to the user's need and are more robust than traditional software programs being developed and tested by a large number of contributing users. This context allows a much faster and more appropriate development and evolution of the software platforms. Similarly, communication technology has opened up to the general public in a way that has changed the social behavior and habits adding a new dimension to the way people communicate and interact with each other. The new paradigms have also slowly penetrated the professional market and ultimately the medical community. Secure social networks allowing groups of people to easily communicate and exchange information

  12. Investigations on caesium-free alternatives for H- formation at ion source relevant parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurutz, U.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    Negative hydrogen ions are efficiently produced in ion sources by the application of caesium. Due to a thereby induced lowering of the work function of a converter surface a direct conversion of impinging hydrogen atoms and positive ions into negative ions is maintained. However, due to the complex caesium chemistry and dynamics a long-term behaviour is inherent for the application of caesium that affects the stability and reliability of negative ion sources. To overcome these drawbacks caesium-free alternatives for efficient negative ion formation are investigated at the flexible laboratory setup HOMER (HOMogenous Electron cyclotron Resonance plasma). By the usage of a meshed grid the tandem principle is applied allowing for investigations on material induced negative ion formation under plasma parameters relevant for ion source operation. The effect of different sample materials on the ratio of the negative ion density to the electron density nH- /ne is compared to the effect of a stainless steel reference sample and investigated by means of laser photodetachment in a pressure range from 0.3 to 3 Pa. For the stainless steel sample no surface induced effect on the negative ion density is present and the measured negative ion densities are resulting from pure volume formation and destruction processes. In a first step the dependency of nH- /ne on the sample distance has been investigated for a caesiated stainless steel sample. At a distance of 0.5 cm at 0.3 Pa the density ratio is 3 times enhanced compared to the reference sample confirming the surface production of negative ions. In contrast for the caesium-free material samples, tantalum and tungsten, the same dependency on pressure and distance nH- /ne like for the stainless steel reference sample were obtained within the error margins: A density ratio of around 14.5% is measured at 4.5 cm sample distance and 0.3 Pa, linearly decreasing with decreasing distance to 7% at 1.5 cm. Thus, tantalum and tungsten do not

  13. Dental stem cells and their sources.

    PubMed

    Sedgley, Christine M; Botero, Tatiana M

    2012-07-01

    The search for more accessible mesenchymal stem cells than those found in bone marrow has propelled interest in dental tissues. Human dental stem/progenitor cells (collectively termed dental stem cells [DSCs]) that have been isolated and characterized include dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, periodontal ligament stem cells, and dental follicle progenitor cells. Common characteristics of these cell populations are the capacity for self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into multiple lineages. In vitro and animal studies have shown that DSCs can differentiate into osseous, odontogenic, adipose, endothelial, and neural-like tissues.

  14. Expert stakeholder attitudes and support for alternative water sources in a groundwater depleted region.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Treavor H; Overdevest, Christine; Christiansen, Lisa; Ishii, Stephanie K L

    2012-10-15

    The main objectives of this research were to quantify the risks/benefits and impacts of alternative water sources (AWSs) as perceived by expert stakeholders and to evaluate the overall support for multiple AWSs by expert stakeholders. The St. Johns River (SJR) basin, FL, USA was chosen as a case study for AWSs because it is a fresh groundwater depleted region and there are ongoing activities related to water supply planning. Expert stakeholders included federal, state, and local governments, public utilities, consulting engineering and industry, and environmental and social non-governmental organizations. AWSs under consideration in the SJR basin include surface water, desalination, water reclamation, and water conservation. A two-phase research approach was followed that focused on expert stakeholders. First, an elicitation study was used to identify salient beliefs about AWSs. Open-ended questions were asked about the risks/benefits of AWSs in terms of the three pillars of sustainability: ecological, economic, and human health impacts. Second, an online survey was constructed using beliefs identified during the elicitation study. The online survey was used to quantify attitudes toward and overall support for AWSs. The salient beliefs of expert stakeholders were dominated by the ecological pillar of sustainability. The support of expert stakeholders for AWSs, from least favorable to most favorable, was surface water withdrawals

  15. Decision analysis: a tool to guide the R and D selection of alternative energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, T.

    1980-05-01

    The array of alternative energy sources which are vying for the federal government's R and D dollar is formidable when compared to the politically acceptable amount which can be used to fund the research. To guide how these funds should be dispersed, a rational, defensible procedure is needed which can repeatedly be applied as new technologies and new information become available. The procedure advanced in this paper is a decision analysis technique known as multi attribute decision analysis (MADA) and its use is illustrated in an evaluation and ranking of solar thermal electric power generating systems. Since the ultimate purchase decision is made in the market place, the preferences of potential users have been sampled and brought to bear on the ranking. The focus of this description is on the formulation of the problem structure and the decision model, the treatment of uncertainty, and how the results relate to the questions asked by and of the Department of Energy, which funded the study. A final note proposes how decision analysis can be used to address the broader questions of choice among competing technologies with cautions concerning misuse of the procedure.

  16. Alternate light sources in sexual assault examinations: an evidence-based practice project.

    PubMed

    Eldredge, Kelli; Huggins, Emily; Pugh, Linda C

    2012-03-01

    The ability of sexual assault nurse examiners to correctly identify and collect DNA evidence improves patient outcomes and prosecution rates. The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a collaborative evidence-based practice (EBP) project between forensic nurses and baccalaureate nursing students. The goal of the project was to determine best practice using an alternate light source (ALS) to identify trace DNA evidence in sexual assault forensic examinations. Using the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-based Practice model, the team searched several databases to summarize the limited amount of evidence available regarding this topic. Recommendations from the EBP project include: elimination of the Wood's lamp in sexual assault examinations; use of an ALS that provides appropriate wavelengths to detect DNA; education of forensic nurses about the advantages and limitations of an ALS; and additional research related to use of an ALS. By participating in similar collaborative efforts, practicing forensic nurses have the opportunity to collaborate with local colleges and universities to make complex projects more manageable while fulfilling the International Association of Forensic Nurses vision for ethical practice.

  17. Evaluation of alternative sources of collagen fractions from Loligo vulgaris squid mantle.

    PubMed

    Cozza, Natascia; Bonani, Walter; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Acid-Solubilized Collagen (ASC) and Pepsin-Solubilized Collagen (PSC) were extracted from the mantle of the common European squid, and were comparatively characterized. ASC and PSC were isolated with an extraction yield of 5.1 and 24.2% (on dry weight basis), respectively. SDS-PAGE showed that the ASC was mostly comprised of α1- and α2-chains; while the PSC presented relevant β- and γ-components. GPC analysis confirmed that both the ASC and the PSC consisted of fractions characterized by different molecular weight. Thermal denaturation behavior of ASC and PSC were followed by calorimetric and rheological analyses; denaturation temperature was estimated to be 22°C for ASC and 21°C for PSC. Amino acid composition and solubility of collagen were also investigated. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the isolated collagen was evaluated in vitro and no cytotoxic activity caused by the collagen extracts was observed. This study demonstrated that squid mantle has potential as an alternative source of collagen-derived materials.

  18. Infection Rates among Acute Leukemia Patients Receiving Alternative Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Karen; Woo Ahn, Kwang; Chen, Min; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Ahmed, Ibrahim; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Antin, Joseph; Bhatt, Ami S; Boeckh, Michael; Chen, George; Dandoy, Christopher; George, Biju; Laughlin, Mary J; Lazarus, Hillard M; MacMillan, Margaret L; Margolis, David A; Marks, David I; Norkin, Maxim; Rosenthal, Joseph; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin; Schouten, Harry C; Storek, Jan; Szabolcs, Paul; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R; Waller, Edmund K; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Williams, Kirsten M; Wingard, John R; Wirk, Baldeep; Wolfs, Tom; Young, Jo-Anne H; Auletta, Jeffrey; Komanduri, Krishna V; Lindemans, Caroline; Riches, Marcie L

    2016-09-01

    Alternative graft sources (umbilical cord blood [UCB], matched unrelated donors [MUD], or mismatched unrelated donors [MMUD]) enable patients without a matched sibling donor to receive potentially curative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Retrospective studies demonstrate comparable outcomes among different graft sources. However, the risk and types of infections have not been compared among graft sources. Such information may influence the choice of a particular graft source. We compared the incidence of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in 1781 adults with acute leukemia who received alternative donor HCT (UCB, n= 568; MUD, n = 930; MMUD, n = 283) between 2008 and 2011. The incidences of bacterial infection at 1 year were 72%, 59%, and 65% (P < .0001) for UCB, MUD, and MMUD, respectively. Incidences of viral infection at 1 year were 68%, 45%, and 53% (P < .0001) for UCB, MUD, and MMUD, respectively. In multivariable analysis, bacterial, fungal, and viral infections were more common after either UCB or MMUD than after MUD (P < .0001). Bacterial and viral but not fungal infections were more common after UCB than MMUD (P = .0009 and <.0001, respectively). The presence of viral infection was not associated with an increased mortality. Overall survival (OS) was comparable among UCB and MMUD patients with Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥ 90% but was inferior for UCB for patients with KPS < 90%. Bacterial and fungal infections were associated with poorer OS. Future strategies focusing on infection prevention and treatment are indicated to improve HCT outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternative flow cytometry strategies to analyze stem cells and cell death in planarians

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Tanuja Harshani; García‐Ojeda, Marcos E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Planarians possess remarkable stem cell populations that continuously support cellular turnover and are instrumental in the regeneration of tissues upon injury. Cellular turnover and tissue regeneration in planarians rely on the proper integration of local and systemic signals that regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Thus, understanding the signals controlling cellular proliferation and cell death in planarians could provide valuable insights for maintenance of adult body homeostasis and the biology of regeneration. Flow cytometry techniques have been utilized widely to identify, isolate, and characterize planarian stem cell populations. We developed alternative flow cytometry strategies that reduce the number of reagents and the time of sample preparation to analyze stem cells and cell death in planarians. The sensitivity of these methods is validated with functional studies using RNA interference and treatment with  γ irradiation or stressful conditions that are known to trigger cell death. Altogether, we provide a community resource intended to minimize adverse effects during ex vivo studies of stem cells and cell death in planarians. PMID:27307993

  20. Validation of ultraviolet, infrared, and narrow band light alternate light sources for detection of bruises in a pigskin model.

    PubMed

    Olds, Kelly; Byard, Roger W; Winskog, Calle; Langlois, Neil E I

    2016-12-01

    Alternate light sources such as ultraviolet, narrow band, and infrared have been used in an attempt to reveal the presence of bruising that is not otherwise apparent (inapparent). The following study evaluates the ability of alternate light sources to enhance visibility of bruises by employing an objective assessment of digital photography images in conjunction with histology. A pigskin model was employed with bruises created by injection of blood to be not visible or barely visible (inapparent) under white light. The pigskin was photographed using alternate light source illumination. Images were assessed using the program Fiji(®) to measure enhancement in terms of bruise length (cm). Photography results were compared with histology to confirm the presence of bruising. Violet and blue light sources produced the greatest enhancement, both with a p < 0.0001. Regions that were not bruises were also enhanced with light sources in this study, indicating that light sources are not specific, and that their use to enhance the visibility of bruising should be undertaken with caution.

  1. Stem cells sources for intervertebral disc regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vadalà, Gianluca; Russo, Fabrizio; Ambrosio, Luca; Loppini, Mattia; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc regeneration field is rapidly growing since disc disorders represent a major health problem in industrialized countries with very few possible treatments. Indeed, current available therapies are symptomatic, and surgical procedures consist in disc removal and spinal fusion, which is not immune to regardable concerns about possible comorbidities, cost-effectiveness, secondary risks and long-lasting outcomes. This review paper aims to share recent advances in stem cell therapy for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. In literature the potential use of different adult stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration has already been reported. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, adipose tissue derived stem cells, synovial stem cells, muscle-derived stem cells, olfactory neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, disc stem cells, and embryonic stem cells have been studied for this purpose either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, several engineered carriers (e.g., hydrogels), characterized by full biocompatibility and prompt biodegradation, have been designed and combined with different stem cell types in order to optimize the local and controlled delivery of cellular substrates in situ. The paper overviews the literature discussing the current status of our knowledge of the different stem cells types used as a cell-based therapy for disc regeneration. PMID:27247704

  2. Continuous cell-free protein synthesis using glycolytic intermediates as energy sources.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Cheol; Kim, Tae-Wan; Park, Chang-Gil; Oh, In-Seok; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2008-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that glycolytic intermediates can serve as efficient energy sources to regenerate ATP during continuous-exchange cell-free (CECF) protein synthesis reactions. Through the use of an optimal energy source, approximately 10 mg/ml of protein was generated from CECF protein synthesis reaction at greatly reduced reagent costs. Compared with the conventional reactions utilizing phosphoenol pyruvate as an energy source, the described method yields 10-fold higher productivity per unit reagent cost, making the techniques of CECF protein synthesis more realistic alternative for rapid protein production.

  3. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources... either of the emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that... device. Use cements and solvents in such a way that the monthly average HAP emissions do not exceed...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources... either of the emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that... device. Use cements and solvents in such a way that the monthly average HAP emissions do not exceed...

  5. Feasibility of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes as an Alternative Light Source for Photocatalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Langanf H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Soler, Robert; Maxik, Fred; Coutts, Janelle; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) could serve as an alternative photon source efficiently for heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO). An LED module consisting of 12 high-power UV-A LEDs was designed to be interchangeable with a UV-A fluorescent black light blue (BLB) lamp in a Silica-Titania Composite (STC) packed bed annular reactor. Lighting and thermal properties were characterized to assess the uniformity and total irradiant output. A forward current of (I(sub F)) 100 mA delivered an average irradiance of 4.0 m W cm(exp -2), which is equivalent to the maximum output of the BLB, but the irradiance of the LED module was less uniform than that of the BLB. The LED- and BLB-reactors were tested for the oxidization of 50 ppmv ethanol in a continuous flow-through mode with 0.94 sec space time. At the same irradiance, the UV-A LED reactor resulted in a lower PCO rate constant than the UV-A BLB reactor (19.8 vs. 28.6 nM CO2 sec-I), and consequently lower ethanol removal (80% vs. 91%) and mineralization efficiency (28% vs. 44%). Ethanol mineralization increased in direct proportion to the irradiance at the catalyst surface. This result suggests that reduced ethanol mineralization in the LED- reactor could be traced to uneven irradiance over the photocatalyst, leaving a portion of the catalyst was under-irradiated. The potential of UV-A LEDs may be fully realized by optimizing the light distribution over the catalyst and utilizing their instantaneous "on" and "off' feature for periodic irradiation. Nevertheless, the current UV-A LED module had the same wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 13% as that of the UV-A BLB. These results demonstrated that UV-A LEDs are a viable photon source both in terms of WPE and PCO efficiency.

  6. Fermentative production of L-pipecolic acid from glucose and alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Fernando; Max Risse, Joe; Friehs, Karl; Wendisch, Volker F

    2017-02-07

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the million-ton scale production of amino acids and has recently been engineered for production of the cyclic non-proteinogenic amino acid L-pipecolic acid (L-PA). In this synthetic pathway L-lysine was converted to L-PA by oxidative deamination, dehydration and reduction by L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (deaminating) from Silicibacter pomeroyi and pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase from C. glutamicum. However, production of L-PA occurred as by-product of L-lysine production only. Here, the author show that abolishing L-lysine export by the respective gene deletion resulted in production of L-PA as major product without concomitant lysine production while the specific growth rate was reduced due to accumulation of high intracellular lysine concentrations. Increasing expression of the genes encoding L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase and pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase in C. glutamicum strain PIPE4 increased the L-PA titer to 3.9 g L(-1) , and allowed faster growth and, thus, a higher volumetric productivity of 0.08 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1) respectively. Secondly, expression of heterologous genes for utilization of glycerol, xylose, glucosamine, and starch in strain PIPE4 enabled L-PA production from these alternative carbon sources. Third, in a glucose/sucrose-based fed-batch fermentation with C. glutamicum PIPE4 L-PA was produced to a titer of 14.4 g L(-1) with a volumetric productivity of 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1) and an overall yield of 0.20 g g(-1) .

  7. Local indigenous fruit derived juices as alternate source of acidity regulators.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Cassandra; Fernandes, Rosaline; Kudale, Subhash; Naik, Azza Silotry

    2017-09-20

    Acidity regulators are additives that alter and control food acidity. The objective of this study was to explore local indigenous fruits as source of natural acidity regulators. Juices extracted from Garcinia indica (kokum), Embilica officinalis (amla) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) were used as acidulants for medium such as coconut milk and bottle gourd juice. The buffering capacity (β), acid composition, antioxidant activity and shelf-life study of the acidified media were estimated. Potentiometric titration showed G. indica to possess highest buffering capacity in both ranges. HPLC analysis showed T. indica contained high level of tartaric acid (4.84 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) ) while G. indica had citric acid (22.37 ± 0.84 mg g(-1) ) and E. officinalis had citric acid (2.75 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) ) along with ascorbic acid (2.68 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) ). DPPH scavenging activity was high for E. officinalis (91.24 ± 0.66 %) and T. indica (90.93 ± 0.817 %) and relatively lower for G. indica (34.61 ± 3.66 %). Shelf life study showed total plate count to be within the prescribed limits upto a week in accordance to safety regulations. The present investigation confirmed the suitability of indigenous fruit juices as alternatives to existing acidity regulators. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternative splicing of breast cancer associated gene BRCA1 from breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Lixia, Miao; Zhijian, Cao; Chao, Shen; Chaojiang, Gu; Congyi, Zheng

    2007-01-31

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women, and mutations in the BRCA1 gene produce increased susceptibility to these malignancies in certain families. In this study, the forward 1-13 exons of breast cancer associated gene BRCA1 were cloned from breast cancer cell line ZR-75-30 by RT-PCR method. Sequence analysis showed that nine BRCA1 splice forms were isolated and characterized, compared with wild-type BRCA1 gene, five splice forms of which were novel. These splice isoforms were produced from the molecular mechanism of 5' and 3' alternative splicing. All these splice forms deleting exon 11b and the locations of alternative splicing were focused on two parts:one was exons 2 and 3, and the other was exons 9 and 10. These splice forms accorded with GT-AG rule. Most these BRCA1 splice variants still kept the original reading frame. Western blot analysis indicated that some BRCA1 splice variants were expressed in ZR-75-30 cell line at the protein level. In addition, we confirmed the presence of these new transcripts of BRCA1 gene in MDA-MB-435S, K562, Hela, HLA, HIC, H9, Jurkat and human fetus samples by RT-PCR analysis. These results suggested that breast cancer associated gene BRCA1 may have unexpectedly a large number of splice variants. We hypothesized that alternative splicing of BRCA1 possibly plays a major role in the tumorigenesis of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Thus, the identification of cancer-specific splice forms will provide a novel source for the discovery of diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers and tumor antigens suitable as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  9. Cell dualism: presence of cells with alternative membrane potentials in growing populations of bacteria and yeasts.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Volodymyr; Rezaeinejad, Saeid; Chu, Jian

    2013-10-01

    It is considered that all growing cells, for exception of acidophilic bacteria, have negatively charged inside cytoplasmic membrane (Δψ⁻-cells). Here we show that growing populations of microbial cells contain a small portion of cells with positively charged inside cytoplasmic membrane (Δψ⁺-cells). These cells were detected after simultaneous application of the fluorescent probes for positive membrane potential (anionic dye DIBAC⁻) and membrane integrity (propidium iodide, PI). We found in exponentially growing cell populations of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae that the content of live Δψ⁻-cells was 93.6 ± 1.8 % for bacteria and 90.4 ± 4.0 % for yeasts and the content of live Δψ⁺-cells was 0.9 ± 0.3 % for bacteria and 2.4 ± 0.7 % for yeasts. Hypothetically, existence of Δψ⁺-cells could be due to short-term, about 1 min for bacteria and 5 min for yeasts, change of membrane potential from negative to positive value during the cell cycle. This change has been shown by the reversions of K⁺, Na⁺, and Ca²⁺ ions fluxes across the cell membrane during synchronous yeast culture. The transformation of Δψ(⁻-cells to Δψ⁺-cells can be explained by slow influx of K⁺ ions into Δψ⁻-cell to the trigger level of K⁺ concentration ("compression of potassium spring"), which is forming "alternative" Δψ⁺-cell for a short period, following with fast efflux of K⁺ ions out of Δψ⁺-cell ("release of potassium spring") returning cell to normal Δψ⁻ state. We anticipate our results to be a starting point to reveal the biological role of cell dualism in form of Δψ⁻- and Δψ⁺- cells.

  10. What Is the Reference? An Examination of Alternatives to the Reference Sources Used in IES TM-30-15

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.

    2016-12-22

    A study was undertaken to document the role of the reference illuminant in the IES TM-30-15 method for evaluating color rendition. TM-30-15 relies on a relative reference scheme; that is, the reference illuminant and test source always have the same correlated color temperature (CCT). The reference illuminant is a Planckian radiator, model of daylight, or combination of those two, depending on the exact CCT of the test source. Three alternative reference schemes were considered: 1) either using all Planckian radiators or all daylight models; 2) using only one of ten possible illuminants (Planckian, daylight, or equal energy), regardless of the CCT of the test source; 3) using an off-Planckian reference illuminant (i.e., a source with a negative Duv). No reference scheme is inherently superior to another, with differences in metric values largely a result of small differences in gamut shape of the reference alternatives. While using any of the alternative schemes is more reasonable in the TM-30-15 evaluation framework than it was with the CIE CRI framework, the differences still ultimately manifest only as changes in interpretation of the results. References are employed in color rendering measures to provide a familiar point of comparison, not to establish an ideal source.

  11. Genome-wide profiling of chemoradiation‑induced changes in alternative splicing in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Gao, Depei; Li, Yunfeng; Liu, Xin; Dai, Peiling; Qin, Jiyong; Wang, Guanshun; Li, Kangming; Bai, Han; Li, Wenhui

    2016-10-01

    Alternative splicing is a key mechanism that regulates protein diversity and has been found to be associated with colon cancer progression and metastasis. However, the function of alternative splicing in chemoradiation‑resistant colon cancer remains elusive. In this study, we constructed a chemoradiation‑resistant colon cancer cell line. Through RNA-sequencing of normal and chemoradiation‑resistant colon cancer cells (HCT116), we found 818 genes that were highly expressed in the normal HCT116 cells, whereas 285 genes were highly expressed in the chemoradiation-resistant HCT116 (RCR-HCT116) cells. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that genes that were highly expressed in the HCT116 cells were enriched in GO categories related to cell cycle and cell division, whereas genes that were highly expressed in the RCR-HCT116 cells were associated with regulation of system processes and response to wounding. Analysis of alternative splicing events revealed that exon skipping was significantly increased in the chemoradiation‑resistant colon cancer cells. Moreover, we identified 323 alternative splicing events in 293 genes that were significantly different between the two different HCT116 cell types. These alternative splicing‑related genes were clustered functionally into several groups related with DNA replication, such as deoxyribonucleotide metabolic/catabolic processes, response to DNA damage stimulus and helicase activity. These findings enriched our knowledge by elucidating the function of alternative splicing in chemoradiation-resistant colon cancer.

  12. Cell therapy for full-thickness wounds: are fetal dermal cells a potential source?

    PubMed

    Akershoek, J J; Vlig, M; Talhout, W; Boekema, B K H L; Richters, C D; Beelen, R H J; Brouwer, K M; Middelkoop, E; Ulrich, M M W

    2016-04-01

    The application of autologous dermal fibroblasts has been shown to improve burn wound healing. However, a major hurdle is the availability of sufficient healthy skin as a cell source. We investigated fetal dermal cells as an alternative source for cell-based therapy for skin regeneration. Human (hFF), porcine fetal (pFF) or autologous dermal fibroblasts (AF) were seeded in a collagen-elastin substitute (Novomaix, NVM), which was applied in combination with an autologous split thickness skin graft (STSG) to evaluate the effects of these cells on wound healing in a porcine excisional wound model. Transplantation of wounds with NVM+hFF showed an increased influx of inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages, CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes) compared to STSG, acellular NVM (Acell-NVM) and NVM+AF at post-surgery days 7 and/or 14. Wounds treated with NVM+pFF presented only an increase in CD8(+) lymphocyte influx. Furthermore, reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression in wound areas and reduced contraction of the wounds was observed with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM. Xenogeneic transplantation of NVM+hFF increased αSMA expression in wounds compared to NVM+AF. An improved scar quality was observed for wounds treated with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM, NVM+hFF and NVM+pFF at day 56. In conclusion, application of autologous fibroblasts improved the overall outcome of wound healing in comparison to fetal dermal cells and Acell-NVM, whereas application of fetal dermal fibroblasts in NVM did not improve wound healing of full-thickness wounds in a porcine model. Although human fetal dermal cells demonstrated an increased immune response, this did not seem to affect scar quality.

  13. Cell Source and Mechanism of Hair Cell Regeneration in the Neonatal Mouse Cochlea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    VA 22060-6218 As required, enclosed is the final technical report for Award N00014-13-1-0569, "Cell source and mechanism of hair cell regeneration...IL 62702 C. Award# N00014-13-1-0569 D. Cell source and mechanism of hair cell regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea Scientific and Technical...Objectives Specific Aims: Aim 1: To determine the cell source of regenerated hair cells in the neonatal mouse cochlea. Aim 2: To determine the

  14. Cell Type-specific Alternative Splicing Governs Cell Fate in the Developing Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaochang; Chen, Ming Hui; Wu, Xuebing; Kodani, Andrew; Fan, Jean; Doan, Ryan; Ozawa, Manabu; Ma, Jacqueline; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Reiter, Jeremy F.; Black, Douglas L.; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Sharp, Phillip A.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Alternative splicing is prevalent in the mammalian brain. To interrogate the functional role of alternative splicing in neural development, we analyzed purified neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurons from developing cerebral cortices, revealing hundreds of differentially spliced exons that preferentially alter key protein domains—especially in cytoskeletal proteins—and can harbor disease-causing mutations. We show that Ptbp1 and Rbfox proteins antagonistically govern the NPC-to-neuron transition by regulating neuron-specific exons. While Ptbp1 maintains apical progenitors partly through suppressing a poison exon of Flna in NPCs, Rbfox proteins promote neuronal differentiation by switching Ninein from a centrosomal splice form in NPCs to a non-centrosomal isoform in neurons. We further uncover an intronic human mutation within a PTBP1 binding site that disrupts normal skipping of the FLNA poison exon in NPCs and causes a brain-specific malformation. Our study indicates that dynamic control of alternative splicing governs cell fate in cerebral cortical development. PMID:27565344

  15. Cell of Origin: Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Our studies to date have determined that human oogonial stem cells , while far less stable than their murine counterparts, can be successfully expanded...DNA signature of the oogonial stem cell -derived tumors to that of primary human ovarian cancer. We have also successfully introduced in human...oogonial stem cells genetic alterations commonly detected in ovarian cancer. We are now generating tumors from these altered oogonial stem cells and will

  16. Growth of Candida albicans Cells on the Physiologically Relevant Carbon Source Lactate Affects Their Recognition and Phagocytosis by Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ene, Iuliana V.; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Netea, Mihai G.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a normal resident of the human gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts and also a prevalent fungal pathogen. During both commensalism and infection, it must match the immunological defenses of its host while adapting to environmental cues and the local nutrient status. C. albicans regularly colonizes glucose-poor niches, thereby depending upon alternative carbon sources for growth. However, most studies of host immune responses to C. albicans have been performed on fungal cells grown on glucose, and the extent to which alternative physiologically relevant carbon sources impact innate immune responses has not been studied. The fungal cell wall is decorated with multifarious pathogen-associated molecular patterns and is the main target for recognition by host innate immune cells. Cell wall architecture is both robust and dynamic, and it is dramatically influenced by growth conditions. We found that growth of C. albicans cells on lactate, a nonfermentative carbon source available in numerous anatomical niches, modulates their interactions with immune cells and the resultant cytokine profile. Notably, lactate-grown C. albicans stimulated interleukin-10 (IL-10) production while decreasing IL-17 levels, rendering these cells less visible to the immune system than were glucose-grown cells. This trend was observed in clinical C. albicans isolates from different host niches and from different epidemiological clades. In addition, lactate-grown C. albicans cells were taken up by macrophages less efficiently, but they were more efficient at killing and escaping these phagocytic cells. Our data indicate that carbon source has a major impact upon the C. albicans interaction with the innate immune system. PMID:23115042

  17. Division Planes Alternate in Spherical Cells of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Begg, K. J.; Donachie, W. D.

    1998-01-01

    In the spherical cells of Escherichia coli rodA mutants, division is initiated at a single point, from which a furrow extends progressively around the cell. Using “giant” rodA ftsA cells, we confirmed that each new division furrow is initiated at the midpoint of the previous division plane and runs perpendicular to it. PMID:9573213

  18. Taenia crassiceps: fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy source in in vitro cysticerci exposed to anthelminthic drugs.

    PubMed

    Vinaud, Marina Clare; Ferreira, Cirlane Silva; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto

    2009-07-01

    Cysticerci metabolic studies demonstrate alternative pathways responsible for its survival, such as energy sources, fatty acids oxidation and excretion of beta-hydroxybutyrate, which indicates the capability of energy production from proteins. The aim of this study was to detect alternative metabolic pathways for energy production and its end products in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole, in sub-lethal doses. Spectrophotometer and chromatographic analysis were performed to detect: propionate, acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, urea and creatinine, SE by cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole. The drugs influenced the metabolism by inducing the creatinine phosphate phosphorylation as an alternative energy source, inhibiting the use of proteins and amino acids in the acid nucleic synthesis; and preventing the budding and replication of the cysticerci. This study also highlights the description of urea excretion, which is an important metabolic pathway to excrete toxic products such as ammonia, and the fatty acid oxidation as an alternative energy source in cysticerci exposed to anthelmintic drugs.

  19. Alternative splicing in the nervous system: an emerging source of diversity and regulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher J; Irizarry, Kris

    2003-10-15

    Alternative splicing is emerging as a major mechanism of functional regulation in the human genome. Previously considered to be an unusual event, it has been detected by many genomics studies in 40%-60% of human genes. Moreover, it appears to be of central importance for neuronal genes and other genes involved in "information processing" functions. In this review, we will summarize alternative splicing's effects on mRNA transcripts, protein products, biological function, and human disease, focusing on genes of neuropsychiatric interest. We will also describe the latest experimental methods and database resources that can help neuroscientists make use of alternative splicing in their own research.

  20. Evaluation of corn germ from ethanol production as an alternative fat source in dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, M M; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-03-01

    . Germ removed from corn grain before ethanol production provides an alternative source of fat for energy in lactating dairy cows when fed at 7 and 14% of diet DM. Our results suggest that fat from corn germ may be relatively protected with no adverse effect on DM intake, milk production, and milk composition when fed up to 14% of diet DM.

  1. Oxya hyla hyla (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as an Alternative Protein Source for Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mousumi; Mandal, Suman Kalyan

    2014-01-01

    .8%), higher feed intake (33.6 g/day/bird), and age at 1st laid egg than the grasshopper meal and fish meal based diets. So growth and laying performance of the birds were significantly better in grasshopper meal and fish meal added diet fed sets than the reference diet fed group; among all the dietary groups 100 g/kg grasshopper meal added diet mostly gave significantly better results followed by 150 g/kg fish meal added diets. It was ascertained that the O. hyla hyla meal had pronounced positive response on the birds. So, the quails could be easily fed 100 g/kg grasshopper meal added diet as it was the most suitable alternative feedstuff compared to the conventional protein source based diets. PMID:27355015

  2. Miami International Conference on Alternative Energy Sources, 5th, Miami Beach, FL, December 13-15, 1982, Proceedings of Condensed Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    1982-10-01

    The rate of progress and state of the art in various alternative energy systems is assessed in a series of extended abstracts. Renewable energy sources such as hydroelectricity, solar heating, wind power, solar cells, bioconversion, OTEC, and alcohol are discussed. Attention is given to thermal energy storage, solar stills, hydrogen fuel systems, and the economics of wind power. Fusion, breeder, and fission reactors are considered, as are geothermal energy extraction, wave energy systems, the CO2 effects on the atmosphere caused by burning fuels, and conservation and waste utilization technologies. Finally, energy education programs and national energy policy are investigated

  3. Bio-tarp alternative daily cover prototypes for methane oxidation atop open landfill cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, Bryn L; Besnard, Fabien; Bogner, Jean; Hilger, Helene

    2011-05-01

    Final landfill covers are highly engineered to prevent methane release into the atmosphere. However, methane production begins soon after waste placement and is an unaddressed source of emissions. The methane oxidation capacity of methanotrophs embedded in a "bio-tarp" was investigated as a means to mitigate methane release from open landfill cells. The bio-tarp would also serve as an alternative daily cover during routine landfill operation. Evaluations of nine synthetic geotextiles identified two that would likely be suitable bio-tarp components. Pilot tarp prototypes were tested in continuous flow systems simulating landfill gas conditions. Multilayered bio-tarp prototypes consisting of alternating layers of the two geotextiles were found to remove 16% of the methane flowing through the bio-tarp. The addition of landfill cover soil, compost, or shale amendments to the bio-tarp increased the methane removal up to 32%. With evidence of methane removal in a laboratory bioreactor, prototypes were evaluated at a local landfill using flux chambers installed atop intermediate cover at a landfill. The multilayered bio-tarp and amended bio-tarp configurations were all found to decrease landfill methane flux; however, the performance efficacy of bio-tarps was not significantly different from controls without methanotrophs. Because highly variable methane fluxes at the field site likely confounded the test results, repeat field testing is recommended under more controlled flux conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cell death induced by the application of alternating magnetic fields to nanoparticle-loaded dendritic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos-Campos, I.; Asín, L.; Torres, T. E.; Marquina, C.; Tres, A.; Ibarra, M. R.; Goya, G. F.

    2011-05-01

    In this work, the capability of primary, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) to uptake iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is assessed and a strategy to induce selective cell death in these MNP-loaded DCs using external alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) is reported. No significant decrease in the cell viability of MNP-loaded DCs, compared to the control samples, was observed after five days of culture. The number of MNPs incorporated into the cytoplasm was measured by magnetometry, which confirmed that 1-5 pg of the particles were uploaded per cell. The intracellular distribution of these MNPs, assessed by transmission electron microscopy, was found to be primarily inside the endosomic structures. These cells were then subjected to an AMF for 30 min and the viability of the blank DCs (i.e. without MNPs), which were used as control samples, remained essentially unaffected. However, a remarkable decrease of viability from approximately 90% to 2-5% of DCs previously loaded with MNPs was observed after the same 30 min exposure to an AMF. The same results were obtained using MNPs having either positive (NH2 + ) or negative (COOH - ) surface functional groups. In spite of the massive cell death induced by application of AMF to MNP-loaded DCs, the number of incorporated magnetic particles did not raise the temperature of the cell culture. Clear morphological changes at the cell structure after magnetic field application were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, local damage produced by the MNPs could be the main mechanism for the selective cell death of MNP-loaded DCs under an AMF. Based on the ability of these cells to evade the reticuloendothelial system, these complexes combined with an AMF should be considered as a potentially powerful tool for tumour therapy.

  5. Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation at the Cell Population and Single-Cell Levels Under Alternating Electric Current

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Marissa E.; Hermann, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells, precursors that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, have tremendous potential for derivation of cells with specific (e.g., osteogenic) phenotypes for tissue engineering and tissue regeneration applications. To date, the predominant strategy to achieve directed differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts was to recapitulate the normal developmental ontogeny of osteoblasts using growth factors (e.g., bone morphogenetic proteins). In contrast, the effects of biophysical stimuli alone on such outcomes remain, at best, partially understood. This in vitro study examined and optimized the effects of alternating electric current alone on the differentiation of adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) at the cell population and single-cell levels. hMSCs, cultured on flat, indium-tin-oxide-coated glass in the absence of supplemented exogenous growth factors were exposed to alternating electric current (5–40 μA, 5–10 Hz frequency, sinusoidal waveform), for 1–24 h daily for up to 21 consecutive days. Compared to results obtained from the respective controls, hMSC populations exposed to the alternating electric current alone (in the absence of exogenous growth factors) expressed genes at various stages of differentiation (specifically, TAZ, Runx-2, Osterix, Osteopontin, and Osteocalcin). Optimal osteogenic differentiation was achieved when hMSCs were exposed to a 10 μA, 10 Hz alternating electric current for 6 h daily for up to 21 days. Exclusive osteodifferentiation was observed since genes for the chondrocyte (Collagen Type II) and adipocyte (FABP-4) lineages were not expressed under all conditions of the biophysical stimulus tested. Single cell mRNAs for 45 genes (indicative of hMSC differentiation) were monitored using Fluidigm Systems. Homogeneous expression of the early osteodifferentiation genes (specifically, TAZ and Runx-2) was observed in hMSCs exposed to the alternating electric current at 7 and

  6. Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation at the Cell Population and Single-Cell Levels Under Alternating Electric Current.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Marissa E; Hermann, Brian P; Bizios, Rena

    2015-12-28

    Mesenchymal stem cells, precursors that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, have tremendous potential for derivation of cells with specific (e.g., osteogenic) phenotypes for tissue engineering and tissue regeneration applications. To date, the predominant strategy to achieve directed differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts was to recapitulate the normal developmental ontogeny of osteoblasts using growth factors (e.g., bone morphogenetic proteins). In contrast, the effects of biophysical stimuli alone on such outcomes remain, at best, partially understood. This in vitro study examined and optimized the effects of alternating electric current alone on the differentiation of adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) at the cell population and single-cell levels. hMSCs, cultured on flat, indium-tin-oxide-coated glass in the absence of supplemented exogenous growth factors were exposed to alternating electric current (5-40 μA, 5-10 Hz frequency, sinusoidal waveform), for 1-24 h daily for up to 21 consecutive days. Compared to results obtained from the respective controls, hMSC populations exposed to the alternating electric current alone (in the absence of exogenous growth factors) expressed genes at various stages of differentiation (specifically, TAZ, Runx-2, Osterix, Osteopontin, and Osteocalcin). Optimal osteogenic differentiation was achieved when hMSCs were exposed to a 10 μA, 10 Hz alternating electric current for 6 h daily for up to 21 days. Exclusive osteodifferentiation was observed since genes for the chondrocyte (Collagen Type II) and adipocyte (FABP-4) lineages were not expressed under all conditions of the biophysical stimulus tested. Single cell mRNAs for 45 genes (indicative of hMSC differentiation) were monitored using Fluidigm Systems. Homogeneous expression of the early osteodifferentiation genes (specifically, TAZ and Runx-2) was observed in hMSCs exposed to the alternating electric current at 7 and 21

  7. Cost competitiveness of a solar cell array power source for ATS-6 educational TV terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A cost comparison is made between a terrestrial solar cell array power system and a variety of other power sources for the ATS-6 Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) TV terminals in India. The solar array system was sized for a typical Indian location, Lahore. Based on present capital and fuel costs, the solar cell array power system is a close competitor to the least expensive alternate power system. A feasibility demonstration of a terrestrial solar cell array system powering an ATS-6 receiver terminal at Cleveland, Ohio is described.

  8. Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Prouse, D.; Elangovan, S.; Khandkar, A. ); Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L. )

    1989-01-01

    During this quarter, progress was made at Ceramatec in seal development and conductivity measurements of YIG compositions. A creep test was completed on the porous/dense/porous triilayer. IGT provided a discussion on possible interconnect materials. The following tasks are reported on: cell design analysis, program liaison and test facility preparation, cell component fabrication/development, out-of-cell tests. 9 figs, 2 tabs.

  9. Changes in cell wall polysaccharide composition, gene transcription and alternative splicing in germinating barley embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qisen; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Pettolino, Filomena; Zhou, Gaofeng; Li, Chengdao

    2016-02-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed germination initiates many important biological processes such as DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs. However, little is known on cell wall modifications in germinating embryos. We have investigated cell wall polysaccharide composition change, gene transcription and alternative splicing events in four barley varieties at 24h and 48 h germination. Cell wall components in germinating barley embryos changed rapidly, with increases in cellulose and (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-glucan (20-100%) within 24h, but decreases in heteroxylan and arabinan (3-50%). There were also significant changes in the levels of type I arabinogalactans and heteromannans. Alternative splicing played very important roles in cell wall modifications. At least 22 cell wall transcripts were detected to undergo either alternative 3' splicing, alternative 5' splicing or intron retention type of alternative splicing. These genes coded enzymes catalyzing synthesis and degradation of cellulose, heteroxylan, (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-glucan and other cell wall polymers. Furthermore, transcriptional regulation also played very important roles in cell wall modifications. Transcript levels of primary wall cellulase synthase, heteroxylan synthesizing and nucleotide sugar inter-conversion genes were very high in germinating embryos. At least 50 cell wall genes changed transcript levels significantly. Expression patterns of many cell wall genes coincided with changes in polysaccharide composition. Our data showed that cell wall polysaccharide metabolism was very active in germinating barley embryos, which was regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  10. Evaluating alternative stem cell hypotheses for adult corneal epithelial maintenance

    PubMed Central

    West, John D; Dorà, Natalie J; Collinson, J Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this review we evaluate evidence for three different hypotheses that explain how the corneal epithelium is maintained. The limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) hypothesis is most widely accepted. This proposes that stem cells in the basal layer of the limbal epithelium, at the periphery of the cornea, maintain themselves and also produce transient (or transit) amplifying cells (TACs). TACs then move centripetally to the centre of the cornea in the basal layer of the corneal epithelium and also replenish cells in the overlying suprabasal layers. The LESCs maintain the corneal epithelium during normal homeostasis and become more active to repair significant wounds. Second, the corneal epithelial stem cell (CESC) hypothesis postulates that, during normal homeostasis, stem cells distributed throughout the basal corneal epithelium, maintain the tissue. According to this hypothesis, LESCs are present in the limbus but are only active during wound healing. We also consider a third possibility, that the corneal epithelium is maintained during normal homeostasis by proliferation of basal corneal epithelial cells without any input from stem cells. After reviewing the published evidence, we conclude that the LESC and CESC hypotheses are consistent with more of the evidence than the third hypothesis, so we do not consider this further. The LESC and CESC hypotheses each have difficulty accounting for one main type of evidence so we evaluate the two key lines of evidence that discriminate between them. Finally, we discuss how lineage-tracing experiments have begun to resolve the debate in favour of the LESC hypothesis. Nevertheless, it also seems likely that some basal corneal epithelial cells can act as long-term progenitors if limbal stem cell function is compromised. Thus, this aspect of the CESC hypothesis may have a lasting impact on our understanding of corneal epithelial maintenance, even if it is eventually shown that stem cells are restricted to the limbus as proposed

  11. Removal or storage of environmental pollutants and alternative fuel sources with inorganic adsorbents via host–guest encapsulation

    DOE PAGES

    Cramer, Alisha J.; Cole, Jacqueline M.

    2017-05-08

    The ever-increasing demands of the modern world continue to place substantial strain on the environment. To help alleviate the damage done to the natural world, the encapsulation of small molecules or ions (guests) into porous inorganic structural frameworks (hosts) provides a potential remedy for some of the environmental concerns facing us today. These concerns include the removal of harmful pollutants from water or air, the safe entrapment of nuclear waste materials, or the purification and storage of small molecules that act as alternative fuel sources. For this study, we review the trends in using inorganic materials as hostmedia for themore » removal or storage of various wastes and alternative fuels. In conclusion, we cover the treatment of water contaminated with dyes or heavy metals, air pollution alleviation via CO2, SOx, NOx, and volatile organic compound containment, nuclear waste immobilization, and storage for H2 and methane as alternative fuels.« less

  12. Projection of needs for gamma radiation sources and other radioisotopes and assessment of alternatives for providing radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Jensen, G.A.; Clark, L.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Jarrett, J.H.; Katayama, Y.B.; McKee, R.W.; Morgan, L.G.; Nealey, S.M.; Platt, A.M.; Tingey, G.L.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the projected uses and demands for a variety of nuclear byproducts. Because the major large-scale near-term demand is for gamma irradiation sources, this report concentrates on the needs for gamma sources and evaluates the options for providing the needed material. Projections of possible growth in the irradiation treatment industry indicate that there will be a need for 180 to 320 MCi of /sup 60/Co (including /sup 137/Cs equivalent) in service in the year 2000. The largest current and projected use of gamma irradiation is for the sterilization of medical devices and disposable medical supplies. Currently, 40% of US disposable medical products are treated by irradiation, and within 10 years it is expected that 90% will be treated in this manner. Irradiation treatment of food for destruction of pathogens or parasites, disinfestation, or extension of allowable storage periods is estimated to require an active inventory of 75 MCi of /sup 60/Co-equivalent gamma source in about a decade. 90 refs., 7 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. A plan for the study of the costs and environmental impact of fusion compared with alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, W. R.; Monsler, M. J.

    1990-03-01

    Based on our work during this contract and our discussions with LLNL personnel at the presentation made to LLNL on Wednesday, February 14, we have defined the following set of tasks for a study on the total cost of fusion compared to alternative energy sources. The proposed study is not intended to be exhaustive or comprehensive. It will, however, help LLNL to develop a greater understanding, to quantify some comparisons between fusion power and alternative energy sources, and to communicate the benefits of fusion to Congress and other decision makers. We recommend that the study focus on energy use in the U.S., but conclusions relative to global factors should be included to the extent possible.

  14. Alternative (M2) activation of Kupffer cells by PPARδ ameliorates obesity-induced insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Justin I.; Ricardo-Gonzalez, Roberto R.; Eagle, Alex Red; Vats, Divya; Morel, Christine R.; Goforth, Matthew H.; Subramanian, Vidya; Mukundan, Lata; Ferrante, Anthony W.; Chawla, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Macrophage infiltration and activation in metabolic tissues underlie obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. While inflammatory activation of resident hepatic macrophages potentiates insulin resistance, the functions of alternatively activated Kupffer cells in metabolic disease remain unknown. Here we show that, in response to the Th2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor δ (PPARδ) directs expression of the alternative phenotype in Kupffer cells and adipose tissue macrophages of lean mice. However, adoptive transfer of PPARδ null bone marrow into wild type mice only diminishes alternative activation of hepatic macrophages, causing hepatic dysfunction and systemic insulin resistance. Suppression of hepatic oxidative metabolism is recapitulated by treatment of primary hepatocytes with conditioned media from PPARδ null macrophages, indicating direct involvement of Kupffer cells in liver lipid metabolism. Taken together, these data suggest an unexpected beneficial role for alternatively activated Kupffer cells in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:18522831

  15. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  16. Induced pluripotent stem cells from pigs and other ungulate species: an alternative to embryonic stem cells?

    PubMed

    Ezashi, T; Telugu, B P V L; Roberts, R M

    2012-08-01

    Robust embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines from livestock species have been difficult to derive and maintain, and unlike mouse ESC, have not contributed to our ability to understand directed differentiation in vitro. Nor have such cells yet provided a simpler means than pronuclear injection to manipulate the genomes of agriculturally important species, such as cattle, sheep and pigs. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) generated by reprogramming somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, with a set of stemness genes, most usually but not exclusively POU5F1, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC, offer an alternative to ESC in these regards, as they exhibit a pluripotent phenotype resembling that of ESC, yet are readily generated in the laboratory. Accordingly, such cells, in association with cloning technologies, may be useful for introducing complex genetic changes into livestock, although this potential has yet to be demonstrated. Porcine iPSC may be especially valuable because the pig is a prime biomedical model for tissue transplantation. In general, iPSC from livestock, like those from humans, are of the epiblast type and depend upon FGF2 and activin/nodal signalling systems to maintain their pluripotency and growth. Recent experiments, in which newly reprogrammed porcine and bovine cells were selected on a LIF-based medium in presence of specific protein kinase inhibitors, have allowed iPSC cells of the naïve type, resembling the more amenable blastocyst-derived mouse ESC and iPSC to be isolated. However, hurdles still remain if such cells are to achieve their biotechnological promise. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Adipose stem cells as alternatives for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in oral ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Aziz Aly, Lobna Abdel; Menoufy, Hala El-; Ragae, Alyaa; Rashed, Laila Ahmed; Sabry, Dina

    2012-11-01

    Adipose tissue is now recognized as an accessible, abundant, and reliable site for the isolation of adult stem cells suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Oral ulcers were induced by topical application of formocresol in the oral cavity of dogs. Transplantation of undifferentiated GFP-labeled Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell (BMSCs), Adipose Derived Stem Cell (ADSCs) or vehicle (saline) was injected around the ulcer in each group. The healing process of the ulcer was monitored clinically and histopathologically. Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected in MSCs by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Expression of VEGF and collagen genes was detected in biopsies from all ulcers. MSCs expressed mRNA for VEGF MSCs transplantation significantly accelerated oral ulcer healing compared with controls. There was increased expression of both collagen and VEGF genes in MSCs-treated ulcers compared to controls. MSCs transplantation may help to accelerate oral ulcer healing, possibly through the induction of angiogenesis by VEGF together with increased intracellular matrix formation as detected by increased collagen gene expression. This body of work has provided evidence supporting clinical applications of adipose-derived cells in safety and efficacy trials as an alternative for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in oral ulcer healing.

  18. Adipose Stem Cells as Alternatives for Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Oral Ulcer Healing

    PubMed Central

    Aziz Aly, Lobna Abdel; Menoufy, Hala El-; Ragae, Alyaa; Rashed, Laila Ahmed; Sabry, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Adipose tissue is now recognized as an accessible, abundant, and reliable site for the isolation of adult stem cells suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Methods and Results Oral ulcers were induced by topical application of formocresol in the oral cavity of dogs. Transplantation of undifferentiated GFP-labeled Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell (BMSCs), Adipose Derived Stem Cell (ADSCs) or vehicle (saline) was injected around the ulcer in each group. The healing process of the ulcer was monitored clinically and histopathologically. Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected in MSCs by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Expression of VEGF and collagen genes was detected in biopsies from all ulcers. Results: MSCs expressed mRNA for VEGF MSCs transplantation significantly accelerated oral ulcer healing compared with controls. There was increased expression of both collagen and VEGF genes in MSCs-treated ulcers compared to controls. Conclusions MSCs transplantation may help to accelerate oral ulcer healing, possibly through the induction of angiogenesis by VEGF together with increased intracellular matrix formation as detected by increased collagen gene expression. This body of work has provided evidence supporting clinical applications of adipose-derived cells in safety and efficacy trials as an alternative for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in oral ulcer healing. PMID:24298363

  19. Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Jr., Francis Marion; Goodwin, Charles R; Richard, Jr., James E

    2014-10-14

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The method may include monitoring one or more operating parameters of the heaters, the intermittent power source, and a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source that transforms power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters; and controlling the power output of the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

  20. Gene, Stem Cell, and Alternative Therapies for SCA 1

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Jacob L.; O'Connor, Deirdre M.; Donsante, Anthony; Boulis, Nicholas M.

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 1 is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by neurodegeneration and motor dysfunction. In disease pathogenesis, polyglutamine expansion within Ataxin-1, a gene involved in transcriptional repression, causes protein nuclear inclusions to form. Most notably, neuronal dysfunction presents in Purkinje cells. However, the effect of mutant Ataxin-1 is not entirely understood. Two mouse models are employed to represent spinocerebellar ataxia 1, a B05 transgenic model that specifically expresses mutant Ataxin-1 in Purkinje cells, and a Sca1 154Q/2Q model that inserts the polyglutamine expansion into the mouse Ataxin-1 locus so that the mutant Ataxin-1 is expressed in all cells that express Ataxin-1. This review aims to summarize and evaluate the wide variety of therapies proposed for spinocerebellar ataxia 1, specifically gene and stem cell therapies. PMID:27570504

  1. Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Prouse, D.; Elangovan, S.; Khandkar, A. ); Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L. )

    1988-01-01

    The following Ceramatec tasks are reported: electrolyte development and fabrication, edge seal development/fabrication, electrode, and interconnector. The following IGT tasks are reported: cell design analysis, and program liaison and test facility preparation.

  2. Necroptosis: an alternative cell death program defending against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongshi; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of cancer is resistance to programmed cell death, which maintains the survival of cells en route to oncogenic transformation and underlies therapeutic resistance. Recent studies demonstrate that programmed cell death is not confined to caspase-dependent apoptosis, but includes necroptosis, a form of necrotic death governed by Receptor-Interacting Protein 1 (RIP1), RIP3, and Mixed Lineage Kinase Domain-Like (MLKL). Necroptosis serves as a critical cell-killing mechanism in response to severe stress and blocked apoptosis, and can be induced by inflammatory cytokines or chemotherapeutic drugs. Genetic or epigenetic alterations of necroptosis regulators such as RIP3 and cylindromatosis (CYLD), are frequently found in human tumors. Unlike apoptosis, necroptosis elicits a more robust immune response that may function as a defensive mechanism by eliminating tumor-causing mutations and viruses. Furthermore, several classes of anticancer agents currently under clinical development, such as SMAC and BH3 mimetics, can promote necroptosis in addition to apoptosis. A more complete understanding of the interplay among necroptosis, apoptosis, and other cell death modalities is critical for developing new therapeutic strategies to enhance killing of tumor cells. PMID:26968619

  3. Fat pad-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a potential source for cell-based adipose tissue repair strategies.

    PubMed

    Khan, W S; Adesida, A B; Tew, S R; Longo, U G; Hardingham, T E

    2012-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are able to undergo adipogenic differentiation and present a possible alternative cell source for regeneration and replacement of adipose tissue. The human infrapatellar fat pad is a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells with many source advantages over from bone marrow. It is important to determine whether a potential mesenchymal stem-cell exhibits tri-lineage differentiation potential and is able to maintain its proliferation potential and cell-surface characterization on expansion in tissue culture. We have previously shown that mesenchymal stem cells derived from the fat pad can undergo chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation, and we characterized these cells at early passage. In the study described here, proliferation potential and characterization of fat pad-derived mesenchymal stem cells were assessed at higher passages, and cells were allowed to undergo adipogenic differentiation. Infrapatellar fat pad tissue was obtained from six patients undergoing total knee replacement. Cells isolated were expanded to passage 18 and proliferation rates were measured. Passage 10 and 18 cells were characterized for cell-surface epitopes using a range of markers. Passage 2 cells were allowed to undergo differentiation in adipogenic medium. The cells maintained their population doubling rates up to passage 18. Cells at passage 10 and passage 18 had cell-surface epitope expression similar to other mesenchymal stem cells previously described. By staining it was revealed that they highly expressed CD13, CD29, CD44, CD90 and CD105, and did not express CD34 or CD56, they were also negative for LNGFR and STRO1. 3G5 positive cells were noted in cells from both passages. These fat pad-derived cells had adipogenic differentiation when assessed using gene expression for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 and lipoprotein lipase, and oil red O staining. These results indicate that the cells maintained their proliferation rate, and continued

  4. Current Research on Molasses as an Alternative Energy Source for Organic Dairy Herds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As organic grain prices have increased and organic milk prices have decreased, dairy farmers are seeking lower-cost supplementation strategies. Sugarcane molasses, a rich source of sucrose, seems to be a viable option as a source of energy. Molasses frequently costs less per pound of dry matter than...

  5. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  6. Presenting an Alternative Source Code Plagiarism Detection Framework for Improving the Teaching and Learning of Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattingh, Frederik; Buitendag, Albertus A. K.; van der Walt, Jacobus S.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer and teaching of programming and programming related skills has become, increasingly difficult on an undergraduate level over the past years. This is partially due to the number of programming languages available as well as access to readily available source code over the Web. Source code plagiarism is common practice amongst many…

  7. 76 FR 82219 - Regional Haze: Revisions to Provisions Governing Alternatives to Source-Specific Best Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... to Source-Specific Best Available Retrofit Technology (BART) Determinations, Limited SIP Disapprovals... of achieving natural visibility conditions in Class I areas than source-specific Best Available... distance at which one can see a scene. PM 2.5 can also cause serious health effects and mortality in humans...

  8. Presenting an Alternative Source Code Plagiarism Detection Framework for Improving the Teaching and Learning of Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattingh, Frederik; Buitendag, Albertus A. K.; van der Walt, Jacobus S.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer and teaching of programming and programming related skills has become, increasingly difficult on an undergraduate level over the past years. This is partially due to the number of programming languages available as well as access to readily available source code over the Web. Source code plagiarism is common practice amongst many…

  9. Replacing Soybean Meal with Alternative Protein Sources in Diets for Pond-raised hybrid catfish, ¿ Ictalurus punctatus × ¿ Ictalurus furcatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study investigated the replacement of soybean meal with combinations of two or three alternative protein sources in diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, ' Ictalurus punctatus × ' Ictalurus furcatus. Alternative protein sources evaluated included cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains ...

  10. Effects of hydrogen sulfide on alternative pathway respiration and induction of alternative oxidase gene expression in rice suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Man; Ma, Jun; Li, Hongyu; Jin, Han; Feng, Hanqing

    2010-01-01

    The toxic effects of H2S on plants are well documented. However, the molecular mechanisms reponsible for inhibition of plants by H2S are still not completely understood. We determined the effects of NaHS in the range of 0.5-10 mM on the growth of rice suspension culture cells, as well as on the expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX) gene. AOX is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway (AP) and exists in plant mitochondria. The results showed that H2S treatment enhanced the AP activity. During the process of H2S treatment for 4 h, the AP activity increased dramatically and achieved the peak value at a concentration of 2 mM NaHS. Then it declined at higher concentrations of NaHS (5-10 mM) and maintained a steady level. The AOX1 gene transcript level also showed a similar change as the AP activity. Interestingly, different NaHS concentrations seemed to have different effects on the expression of AOX1a, AOX1b, and AOX1c. The induction of AOX expression by low concentrations of NaHS was inferred through a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent pathway. At the same time, rice cells grown in culture were very sensitive to H2S, different H2S concentrations induced an increase in the cell viability. These results indicate that the H2S-induced AOX induction might play a role in inhibiting the ROS production and have an influence on cell viability.

  11. Land-Rich Colleges Explore Opportunities to Create Alternative-Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In a time of expensive energy and concerns about climate change, land may be a major asset for colleges, providing a vastly different opportunity than it did in the past, when it was merely a place to set down new buildings, new campuses, or research parks. Since new alternative-energy technologies like wind and solar demand a lot of land--along…

  12. "The Source": An Alternate Reality Game to Spark STEM Interest and Learning among Underrepresented Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Melissa; Bouris, Alida; Hill, Brandon; Jagoda, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Alternate Reality Games (ARGs) are multiplayer role-playing games that use the real world as their primary platform and incorporate a range of media, including video, audio, email, mobile technologies, websites, live performance, and social networks. This paper describes the development, implementation, and player reception of "The…

  13. "The Source": An Alternate Reality Game to Spark STEM Interest and Learning among Underrepresented Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Melissa; Bouris, Alida; Hill, Brandon; Jagoda, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Alternate Reality Games (ARGs) are multiplayer role-playing games that use the real world as their primary platform and incorporate a range of media, including video, audio, email, mobile technologies, websites, live performance, and social networks. This paper describes the development, implementation, and player reception of "The…

  14. Land-Rich Colleges Explore Opportunities to Create Alternative-Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In a time of expensive energy and concerns about climate change, land may be a major asset for colleges, providing a vastly different opportunity than it did in the past, when it was merely a place to set down new buildings, new campuses, or research parks. Since new alternative-energy technologies like wind and solar demand a lot of land--along…

  15. A Half-Flipped Classroom or an Alternative Approach?: Primary Sources and Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermann, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines an alternate approach to the "flipped" classroom paradigm for an upper level history class using a blended on-line and in-class format. The concept of the flipped classroom has received increasing emphasis based on its potential to create a student-centered learning environment that incorporates practical instruction…

  16. National Science Teachers Association Factsheet No. 18: Alternative Energy Sources - A Glossary of Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, John M.; Kryger, King C.

    This glossary of over 100 energy-related terms is intended to accompany the National Science Teachers Association's (NSTA) Fact Sheet on alternative energy technologies. Brief definitions of common concepts, principles, and expressions related to energy education are provided. (Author/CP)

  17. Alternative School Revenue Sources: There Are Many Fish in the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijanowski, John C.; Monk, David H.

    1996-01-01

    To ease fiscal strain, many school districts employ alternative fund-raising initiatives. They are forming local foundations or booster clubs, soliciting businesses or volunteers for in-kind donations, selling and leasing services and facilities, generating investment income, collecting user fees, cooperating with social service providers,…

  18. Telomere elongation involves intra-molecular DNA replication in cells utilizing alternative lengthening of telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Muntoni, Alessandra; Neumann, Axel A.; Hills, Mark; Reddel, Roger R.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a telomere length maintenance mechanism based on recombination, where telomeres use other telomeric DNA as a template for DNA synthesis. About 10% of all human tumors depend on ALT for their continued growth, and understanding its molecular details is critically important for the development of cancer treatments that target this mechanism. We have previously shown that telomeres of ALT-positive human cells can become lengthened via inter-telomeric copying, i.e. by copying the telomere of another chromosome. The possibility that such telomeres could elongate by using other sources of telomeric DNA as copy templates has not been investigated previously. In this study, we have determined whether a telomere can become lengthened by copying its own sequences, without the need for using another telomere as a copy template. To test this, we transduced an ALT cell line with a telomere-targeting construct and obtained clones with a single tagged telomere. We showed that the telomere tag can be amplified without the involvement of other telomeres, indicating that telomere elongation can also occur by intra-telomeric DNA copying. This is the first direct evidence that the ALT mechanism involves more than one method of telomere elongation. PMID:19095716

  19. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived limbal epithelial cells (LiPSC) as a cellular alternative for in vitro ocular toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Aberdam, Edith; Petit, Isabelle; Sangari, Linda; Aberdam, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great potential to produce unlimited amount of differentiated cells as cellular source for regenerative medicine but also for in vitro drug screening and cytotoxicity tests. Ocular toxicity testing is mandatory to evaluate the risks of drugs and cosmetic products before their application to human patients by preventing eye irritation or insult. Since the global ban to use animals, many human-derived alternatives have been proposed, from ex-vivo enucleated postmortem cornea, primary corneal cell culture and immortalized corneal epithelial cell lines. All of them share limitations for their routine use. Using an improved protocol, we derived limbal epithelial cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells, named LiPSC, that are able to be passaged and differentiate further into corneal epithelial cells. Comparative RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry analysis and zymography assays demonstrate that LiPSC are morphologically and molecularly similar to the adult stem cells. Moreover, contrary to HCE, LiPSC and primary limbal cells display similarly sensitive to cytotoxicity treatment among passages. Our data strongly suggest that LiPSC could become a powerful alternative cellular model for cosmetic and drug tests.

  20. Theoretical study of alternative thin film solar cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pauwels, H.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation covers two main subjects:- (1) energy barriers and interface effects on the efficiency of heterojunction solar cells, and (2) a literature search on materials that would perform best in optimum structures. Work reported on point (1) includes the effect of tunnelling, the generation and recombination of charge carriers, as well as on the current-voltage characteristics of solar cells. After detailed studies on the best performing materials, subjects for future work were suggested, such as research into metal-semi-conductor junctions. Appendices give relevant extracts from various publications.

  1. Alternate splicing regulated by butyrate in the bovine epithelial cell

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a signaling molecule and a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HADCs), butyrate exerts its impacts on a broad range of biological processes, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to its critical role in energy metabolism in ruminants. In this study, we examined the effect of...

  2. Regenerative Fuel Cell System As Alternative Energy Storage For Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, J.; Bockstahler, K.; Funke, H.; Jehle, W.; Markgraf, S.; Henn, N.; Schautz, M.

    2011-10-01

    Next generation telecommunication satellites will demand more power. Power levels of 20 to 30kW are foreseen for the next 10 years. Battery technology that can sustain 30kW for eclipse lengths of up to 72 minutes (equals amount of stored energy of 36kWh) will represent a major impact on the total mass of the satellite, even with Li-ion battery technologies, which are estimated to reach an energy density of 250Wh/kg (begin of life) on cell level i.e. 150Wh/kg on subsystem level in 10 years. For the high power level another technology is needed to reach the next goal of 300 - 350Wh/kg on subsystem level. One candidate is the Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) technology which proves to be superior to batteries with increasing power demand and increasing discharge time. Such an RFC system based on hydrogen and oxygen technology consists of storage for the reactants (H2, O2 and H2O), a fuel cell (FC) and an electrolyser (ELY). In charge mode, the electrolyser splits water in hydrogen and oxygen using electrical power from solar cells. The gases are stored in appropriate tanks. In discharge mode, during time intervals of power demand, O2 and H2 are converted in the fuel cell to generate electricity under formation of water as by-product. The water is stored in tanks and during charge mode rerouted to the electrolyser thus creating a closed-loop process. Today Astrium is developing an RFCS as energy storage and supply unit for some future ESA missions. A complete RFCS breadboard has been established and the operational behaviour of the system is being tested. First test results, dedicated experience gained from system testing and a comparison with the analytical prediction will be discussed and presented.

  3. CD133+ cell selection is an alternative to CD34+ cell selection for ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kobari, L; Giarratana, M C; Pflumio, F; Izac, B; Coulombel, L; Douay, L

    2001-04-01

    CD133 is a new stem cell antigen that may provide an alternative to CD34 for the selection and expansion of hematopoietic cells for transplantation. This study compared the expansion capacities of CD133(+) and CD34(+) cells isolated from the same cord blood (CB) samples. After 14 days culture in stroma-free, serum-free medium in the presence of stem cell factor (SCF), Flt3-1, megakaryocyte growth and development factor (MGDF), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), the CD133(+) and CD34(+) fractions displayed comparable expansion of the myeloid compartment (CFC, LTC-IC, and E-LTC-IC). The expansion of CD133(+) CB cells was up to 1262-fold for total cells, 99-fold for CD34(+) cells, 109-fold for CD34(+) CD133(+) cells, 133-fold for CFU-GM, 14.5-fold for LTC-IC, and 7.5-fold for E-LTC-IC. Moreover, the expanded population was able to generate lymphoid B (CD19(+)), NK (CD56(+)), and T (CD4(+) CD8(+)) cells in liquid or fetal thymic organ cultures, while expression of the homing antigen CXCR4 was similar on expanded and nonexpanded CD133(+) or CD34(+) cells. Thus, the CD133(+) subset could be expanded in the same manner as the CD34(+) subset and conserved its multilineage capacity, which would support the relevance of CD133 for clinical hematopoietic selection.

  4. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 4: Heat Sources, balance of plant and auxiliary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Data and information established for heat sources balance of plant items, thermal energy storage, and heat pumps are presented. Design case descriptions are given along with projected performance values. Capital cost estimates for representative cogeneration plants are also presented.

  5. Experimental determining the alternative coherent-mode representation of a planar source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovsky, A. S.; Zemliak, A. M.; Olvera, M. Á.

    2011-06-01

    The coherent-mode representation (CMR) of an optical random source is a very powerful tool in contemporary optics. However, the practical value of the CMR is essentially restricted because of the complexity of solving the Fredholm integral equation with the source cross-spectral density as a kernel. Moreover, in practice, the analytical expression for the cross-spectral density of the source, as a rule, is unknown, a fact that makes this solution impossible in general. Here we propose a technique for the determination of the source CMR that does not involve solving the Fredholm integral equation but is based on usual radiometric measurements. We illustrate the proposed technique with the results of mathematical simulation.

  6. Fibromodulin reprogrammed cells: A novel cell source for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Shuang; Yang, Pu; Ting, Kang; Aghaloo, Tara; Lee, Soonchul; Zhang, Yulong; Khalilinejad, Kambiz; Murphy, Maxwell C; Pan, Hsin Chuan; Zhang, Xinli; Wu, Benjamin; Zhou, Yan-Heng; Zhao, Zhihe; Zheng, Zhong; Soo, Chia

    2016-03-01

    Pluripotent or multipotent cell-based therapeutics are vital for skeletal reconstruction in non-healing critical-sized defects since the local endogenous progenitor cells are not often adequate to restore tissue continuity or function. However, currently available cell-based regenerative strategies are hindered by numerous obstacles including inadequate cell availability, painful and invasive cell-harvesting procedures, and tumorigenesis. Previously, we established a novel platform technology for inducing a quiescent stem cell-like stage using only a single extracellular proteoglycan, fibromodulin (FMOD), circumventing gene transduction. In this study, we further purified and significantly increased the reprogramming rate of the yield multipotent FMOD reprogrammed (FReP) cells. We also exposed the 'molecular blueprint' of FReP cell osteogenic differentiation by gene profiling. Radiographic analysis showed that implantation of FReP cells into a critical-sized SCID mouse calvarial defect, contributed to the robust osteogenic capability of FReP cells in a challenging clinically relevant traumatic scenario in vivo. The persistence, engraftment, and osteogenesis of transplanted FReP cells without tumorigenesis in vivo were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical staining. Taken together, we have provided an extended potency, safety, and molecular profile of FReP cell-based bone regeneration. Therefore, FReP cells present a high potential for cellular and gene therapy products for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alternative method to trace sediment sources in a subtropical rural catchment of southern Brazil by using near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiecher, Tales; Caner, Laurent; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Ciotti, Lucas; Antônio Bender, Marcos; dos Santos Rheinheimer, Danilo

    2014-05-01

    Conventional fingerprinting methods based on geochemical composition still require a time-consuming and critical preliminary sample preparation. Thus, fingerprinting characteristics that can be measured in a rapid and cheap way requiring a minimal sample preparation, such as spectroscopy methods, should be used. The present study aimed to evaluate the sediment sources contribution in a rural catchment by using conventional method based on geochemical composition and on an alternative method based on near-infrared spectroscopy. This study was carried out in a rural catchment with an area of 1,19 km2 located in southern Brazil. The sediment sources evaluated were crop fields (n=20), unpaved roads (n=10) and stream channels (n=10). Thirty suspended sediment samples were collected from eight significant storm runoff events between 2009 and 2011. Sources and sediment samples were dried at 50oC and sieved at 63 µm. The total concentration of Ag, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were estimated by ICP-OES after microwave assisted digestion with concentrated HNO3 and HCl. Total organic carbon (TOC) was estimated by wet oxidation with K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The near-infrared spectra scan range was 4000 to 10000 cm-1 at a resolution of 2 cm-1, with 100 co added scans per spectrum. The steps used in the conventional method were: i) tracer selection based on Kruskal-Wallis test, ii) selection of the best set of tracers using discriminant analyses and finally iii) the use of a mixed linear model to calculate the sediment sources contribution. The steps used in the alternative method were i) principal component analyses to reduce the number of variables, ii) discriminant analyses to determine the tracer potential of the near-infrared spectroscopy, and finally iii) the use of past least square based on 48 mixtures of the sediment sources in various weight proportions to calculate the sediment sources

  8. Alternative experiments using the geophysical fluid flow cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    This study addresses the possibility of doing large scale dynamics experiments using the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell. In particular, cases where the forcing generates a statically stable stratification almost everywhere in the spherical shell are evaluated. This situation is typical of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. By calculating the strongest meridional circulation expected in the spacelab experiments, and testing its stability using quasi-geostrophic stability theory, it is shown that strongly nonlinear baroclinic waves on a zonally symmetric modified thermal wind will not occur. The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell does not have a deep enough fluid layer to permit useful studies of large scale planetary wave processes arising from instability. It is argued, however, that by introducing suitable meridional barriers, a significant contribution to the understanding of the oceanic thermocline problem could be made.

  9. Solar electron source and thermionic solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaghoobi, Parham; Vahdani Moghaddam, Mehran; Nojeh, Alireza

    2012-12-01

    Common solar technologies are either photovoltaic/thermophotovoltaic, or use indirect methods of electricity generation such as boiling water for a steam turbine. Thermionic energy conversion based on the emission of electrons from a hot cathode into vacuum and their collection by an anode is also a promising route. However, thermionic solar conversion is extremely challenging as the sunlight intensity is too low for heating a conventional cathode to thermionic emission temperatures in a practical manner. Therefore, compared to other technologies, little has been done in this area, and the devices have been mainly limited to large experimental apparatus investigated for space power applications. Based on a recently observed "Heat Trap" effect in carbon nanotube arrays, allowing their efficient heating with low-power light, we report the first compact thermionic solar cell. Even using a simple off-the-shelf focusing lens, the device delivered over 1 V across a load. The device also shows intrinsic storage capacity.

  10. Cell Sources for Bone Tissue Engineering: Insights from Basic Science

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of bone tissue engineering is to design delivery methods for skeletal stem/progenitor cells to repair or replace bone. Although the materials used to retain cells play a central role in the quality of the constructs, the source of cells is key for bone regeneration. Bone marrow is the most common cell source, but other tissues are now being explored, such as the periosteum, fat, muscle, cord blood, and embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. The therapeutic effect of exogenous stem/progenitor cells is accepted, yet their contribution to bone repair is not well defined. The in vitro osteo- and/or chondrogenic potential of these skeletal progenitors do not necessarily predict their differentiation potential in vivo and their function may be affected by their ability to home correctly to bone. This review provides an overview of animal models used to test the efficacy of cell-based approaches. We examine the mechanisms of endogenous cell recruitment during bone repair and compare the role of local versus systemic cell recruitment. We discuss how the normal repair process can help define efficacious cell sources for bone tissue engineering and improve their methods of delivery. PMID:21902612

  11. Pulp tissue from primary teeth: new source of stem cells

    PubMed Central

    TELLES, Paloma Dias; MACHADO, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; SAKAI, Vivien Thiemy; NÖR, Jacques Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth) represent a population of postnatal stem cells capable of extensive proliferation and multipotential differentiation. Primary teeth may be an ideal source of postnatal stem cells to regenerate tooth structures and bone, and possibly to treat neural tissue injury or degenerative diseases. SHED are highly proliferative cells derived from an accessible tissue source, and therefore hold potential for providing enough cells for clinical applications. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about dental pulp stem cells and discuss tissue engineering approaches that use SHED to replace irreversibly inflamed or necrotic pulps with a healthy and functionally competent tissue that is capable of forming new dentin. PMID:21625731

  12. Fuel cell/battery passive hybrid power source for electric powertrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Jérôme; Hofer, Marcel; Hannesen, Uwe; Toth, Antoine; Tsukada, Akinori; Büchi, Félix N.; Dietrich, Philipp

    The concept of passive hybrid, i.e. the direct electrical coupling between a fuel cell system and a battery without using a power converter, is presented as a feasible solution for powertrain applications. As there are no DC/DC converters, the passive hybrid is a cheap and simple solution and the power losses in the electronic hardware are eliminated. In such a powertrain topology where the two devices always have the same voltage, the active power sharing between the two energy sources can not be done in the conventional way. As an alternative, control of the fuel cell power by adjusting its operating pressure is elaborated. Only pure H 2/O 2 fuel cell systems are considered in this approach. Simulation and hardware in the loop (HIL) results for the powertrain show that this hybrid power source is able to satisfy the power demand of an electric vehicle while sustaining the battery state of charge.

  13. Sources of adult mesenchymal stem cells for ligament and tendon tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Dhinsa, Baljinder S; Mahapatra, Anant N; Khan, Wasim S

    2015-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injuries are common, and repair slowly with reduced biomechanical properties. With increasing financial demands on the health service and patients to recover from tendon and ligament injuries faster, and with less morbidity, health professionals are exploring new treatment options. Tissue engineering may provide the answer, with its unlimited source of natural cells that in the correct environment may improve repair and regeneration of tendon and ligament tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells have demonstrated the ability to self renew and have multilineage differentiation potential. The use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells has been reported, however significant in vitro culture expansion is required due to the low yield of cells, which has financial implications. Harvesting of bone marrow cells also has associated morbidity. Several studies have looked at alternative sources for mesenchymal stem cells. Reports in literature from animal studies have been encouraging, however further work is required. This review assesses the potential sources of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering in tendons and ligaments.

  14. Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suitor, J.W.; Clark, D.J.; Losey, R.W.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation. (VC)

  15. Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, J. W.; Clark, D. J.; Losey, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation.

  16. Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Suitor, J.W.; Clark, D.J.; Losey, R.W.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation. (VC)

  17. Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, J. W.; Clark, D. J.; Losey, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation.

  18. Umbilical cord as a mesenchymal stem cell source for treating joint pathologies.

    PubMed

    Arufe, Maria Carmen; De la Fuente, Alexandre; Fuentes, Isaac; Toro, Francisco Javier De; Blanco, Francisco Javier

    2011-06-18

    Articular cartilage disorders and injuries often result in life-long chronic pain and compromised quality of life. Regrettably, the regeneration of articular cartilage is a continuing challenge for biomedical research. One of the most promising therapeutic approaches is cell-based tissue engineering, which provides a healthy population of cells to the injured site but requires differentiated chondrocytes from an uninjured site. The use of healthy chondrocytes has been found to have limitations. A promising alternative cell population is mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), known to possess excellent proliferation potential and proven capability for differentiation into chondrocytes. The "immunosuppressive" property of human MSCs makes them an important candidate for allogeneic cell therapy. The use of allogeneic MSCs to repair large defects may prove to be an alternative to current autologous and allogeneic tissue-grafting procedures. An allogeneic cell-based approach would enable MSCs to be isolated from any donor, expanded and cryopreserved in allogeneic MSC banks, providing a readily available source of progenitors for cell replacement therapy. These possibilities have spawned the current exponential growth in stem cell research in pharmaceutical and biotechnology communities. Our objective in this review is to summarize the knowledge about MSCs from umbilical cord stroma and focus mainly on their applications for joint pathologies.

  19. Umbilical cord as a mesenchymal stem cell source for treating joint pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Arufe, Maria Carmen; De la Fuente, Alexandre; Fuentes, Isaac; Toro, Francisco Javier De; Blanco, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage disorders and injuries often result in life-long chronic pain and compromised quality of life. Regrettably, the regeneration of articular cartilage is a continuing challenge for biomedical research. One of the most promising therapeutic approaches is cell-based tissue engineering, which provides a healthy population of cells to the injured site but requires differentiated chondrocytes from an uninjured site. The use of healthy chondrocytes has been found to have limitations. A promising alternative cell population is mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), known to possess excellent proliferation potential and proven capability for differentiation into chondrocytes. The “immunosuppressive” property of human MSCs makes them an important candidate for allogeneic cell therapy. The use of allogeneic MSCs to repair large defects may prove to be an alternative to current autologous and allogeneic tissue-grafting procedures. An allogeneic cell-based approach would enable MSCs to be isolated from any donor, expanded and cryopreserved in allogeneic MSC banks, providing a readily available source of progenitors for cell replacement therapy. These possibilities have spawned the current exponential growth in stem cell research in pharmaceutical and biotechnology communities. Our objective in this review is to summarize the knowledge about MSCs from umbilical cord stroma and focus mainly on their applications for joint pathologies. PMID:22474635

  20. Alternatives Assessment of Interim Response Actions for Other Contamination Sources. Motor Pool Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    technologies have been identified for onsite temporary storage of solid wastes: * Temporary waste pile 0 Solid waste landfill 5 3.2.6.1.1 Temporary Waste Pile...Area. 3.2.6.1.2 Solid Waste Landfill . A selected soil treatment technology may be effective in declassifying the material as hazardous as defined in...EPA’s solid waste landfill requirements may be feasible for temporary storage. 3.2.6.2 Offsite Dissal S Two alternative methods are available for offsite

  1. Stem/progenitor cells: a potential source of retina-specific cells for retinal repair.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yong-Yan; Feng, Dong-Fu; Pan, Dong-Chao

    2009-11-01

    Retinal injury generally results in permanent visual disturbance or even blindness. Any effort to restore vision in such condition would require replacement of the highly specialized retinal cells. Stem/progenitor cells have been proposed as a potential source of new retina-specific cells to replace those lost due to retina injury. Evidence to date suggests that continued development of stem cell therapies may ultimately lead to viable treatment options for retina injury. A wide range of stem/progenitor cells from various sources is currently being investigated for the treatment of retinal injury. This article reviews the recent achievements about stem/progenitor cell source for retinal repair.

  2. [Microbial fuel cells as an alternative power supply].

    PubMed

    Il'in, V K; Smirnov, I A; Soldatov, P É; Korshunov, D V; Tiurin-Kuz'min, A Iu; Starkova, L V; Chumakov, P E; Emel'ianova, L K; Novikova, L M; Debabov, V G; Voeĭkova, T A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the work was designing and prototyping of microbial fuel cells (MFC) and comparative evaluation of the electrogenic activity of wastewater autochthonous microorganisms as well as bacterial monocultures. Objects were model electrogenic strain Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and an Ochrobactrum sp. strain isolated from the active anode biofilm of MFC composed as an electricity generating system. The study employed the methods typically used for aerobic and anaerobic strains, current measurement, identification of new electrogenic strains in microbial association of wastewater sludge and species definition by rRNA 16-S. As a result, two MFCs prototypes were tried out. Besides, it was shown that electrogenic activity of S. oneidensis MR-1 and Ochrobactrum sp. monocultures is similar but differs from that of the microbial association of the anode biofilm.

  3. Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Banda, Sembeyawo C. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies in many developing countries have shown that Small Scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) in low-income areas (LIAs) are practical alternatives to water utilities. This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n = 120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n = 24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n = 25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n = 24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, water temperature, salinity, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl-, F-, NO3-, alkalinity, water hardness, Fecal coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) bacteria. Water quality data was compared with Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. Shallow wells were reported (65%, n = 120) to be the main source of water for household use in all areas. Some policies like prohibition of boreholes and shallow wells in City locations were in conflict with other provisions of water supply, sanitation and housing. High levels of FC (0-2100 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-1490 cfu/100 mL) at several sites (>90%, n = 24) suggest water contamination likely to impact on human health. This calls for upgrading and recognition of the water sources for improved water service delivery.

  4. Multiobjective optimization of cluster-scale urban water systems investigating alternative water sources and level of decentralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. P.; Dandy, G. C.; Maier, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    In many regions, conventional water supplies are unable to meet projected consumer demand. Consequently, interest has arisen in integrated urban water systems, which involve the reclamation or harvesting of alternative, localized water sources. However, this makes the planning and design of water infrastructure more difficult, as multiple objectives need to be considered, water sources need to be selected from a number of alternatives, and end uses of these sources need to be specified. In addition, the scale at which each treatment, collection, and distribution network should operate needs to be investigated. In order to deal with this complexity, a framework for planning and designing water infrastructure taking into account integrated urban water management principles is presented in this paper and applied to a rural greenfield development. Various options for water supply, and the scale at which they operate were investigated in order to determine the life-cycle trade-offs between water savings, cost, and GHG emissions as calculated from models calibrated using Australian data. The decision space includes the choice of water sources, storage tanks, treatment facilities, and pipes for water conveyance. For each water system analyzed, infrastructure components were sized using multiobjective genetic algorithms. The results indicate that local water sources are competitive in terms of cost and GHG emissions, and can reduce demand on the potable system by as much as 54%. Economies of scale in treatment dominated the diseconomies of scale in collection and distribution of water. Therefore, water systems that connect large clusters of households tend to be more cost efficient and have lower GHG emissions. In addition, water systems that recycle wastewater tended to perform better than systems that captured roof-runoff. Through these results, the framework was shown to be effective at identifying near optimal trade-offs between competing objectives, thereby enabling

  5. An alternative renewable source of squalene for use in emulsion adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis A; Chan, Michelle; Baudner, Barbara; Gallorini, Simona; Santos, George; O'Hagan, Derek T; Singh, Manmohan

    2011-08-26

    Emulsions have been used to boost immunogenicity of antigens since the discovery of complete Freunds adjuvant. Optimization to reduce reactogenicity of emulsion adjuvants lead to the development of oil in water emulsions based on squalene. MF59 is an oil-in-water emulsion that is a component of an approved influenza product in Europe. Currently MF59 is manufactured from squalene derived from an animal source. Recently a high purity plant-derived squalene source has become available at an appropriate purity for a vaccine adjuvant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare animal-derived squalene and plant-derived squalene for equivalency. Nanoemulsions were prepared and analyzed for size and viscosity prepared from each source. The two emulsions were administered in two separate animal studies, one focusing on Neisseria meningitidis B, and one focusing on influenza. Readouts were ELISA titers for each antigen and serum bactericidal activity for N. meningitidis B, and hemagglutinin inhibition for influenza to see the functionality of the antibodies produced. Results indicate that there are no differences between the antibodies elicited after immunization from an emulsion made with oil derived from either an animal or plant-source. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of Equine Fecal Contamination: The Search for Alternative Bacterial Source-tracking Targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicat...

  7. Assessment of Equine Fecal Contamination: The Search for Alternative Bacterial Source-tracking Targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicat...

  8. Adult Tissue Sources for New β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Robert J.; New, Connie; Annes, Justin P.

    2014-01-01

    The diabetes pandemic incurs extraordinary public health and financial costs that are projected to expand for the foreseeable future. Consequently, the development of definitive therapies for diabetes is a priority. Currently, a wide spectrum of therapeutic strategies, from implantable insulin-delivery devices to transplantation-based cell replacement therapy, to β-cell regeneration, focus on replacing the lost insulin-production capacity of diabetics. Among these, β-cell regeneration remains promising but heretofore unproven. Indeed, recent experimental work has uncovered surprising biology that underscores the potential therapeutic benefit of β-cell regeneration. These studies have elucidated a variety of sources for the endogenous production of new β-cells from existing cells. First, β-cells, long thought to be post-mitotic, have demonstrate potential for regenerative capacity. Second, the presence of pancreatic facultative endocrine progenitor cells has been established. Third, the malleability of cellular identity has availed the possibility of generating β-cells from other differentiated cell types. Here, we will review the exciting developments surrounding endogenous sources of β-cell production and consider the potential of realizing a regenerative therapy for diabetes from adult tissues. PMID:24345765

  9. Carbon Source Metabolism and Its Regulation in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chengqian; Qie, Shuo; Sang, Nianli

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cell proliferation and progression require sufficient supplies of nutrients including carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and molecular oxygen. Particularly, carbon sources and molecular oxygen are critical for the generation of ATP and building blocks, and for the maintenance of intracellular redox status. However, solid tumors frequently outgrow the blood supply, resulting in nutrient insufficiency. Accordingly, cancer cell metabolism shows aberrant biochemical features that are consequences of oncogenic signaling and adaptation. Those adaptive metabolism features, including the Warburg effect and addiction to glutamine, may form the biochemical basis for resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. A better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that link the signaling pathways to adaptive metabolic reprogramming may identify novel biomarkers for drug development. In this review we focus on the regulation of carbon source utilization at a cellular level, emphasizing its relevance to proliferative biosynthesis in cancer cells. We summarize the essential needs of proliferating cells and the metabolic features of glucose, lipids, and glutamine, and we review the roles of transcription regulators (i.e.,HIF-l, c-Myc, and p53) and two major oncogenic signaling pathways (i.e., PI3K-Akt and MAPK) in regulating the utilization of carbon sources. Finally, the effects of glucose on cell proliferation and perspective from both biochemical and cellular angles are discussed. PMID:22339657

  10. A Rapidly-Converging Alternative to Source Iteration for Solving the Discrete Ordinates Radiation Transport Equations in Slab Geometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    distribution iteration method because it combines a non-linear, high angular-resolution flux approximation within individual spatial cells with a...iteration converges cell coupling coefficients which depend on the angular distribution of the flux and (for EC) the spatial distribution of the...iterative scheme that converges flux distribution as opposed to scattering source in order to solve the BTE iteratively. The method is implemented

  11. Corticotropin (ACTH) regulates alternative RNA splicing in Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Schimmer, Bernard P; Cordova, Martha

    2015-06-15

    The stimulatory effect of ACTH on gene expression is well documented and is thought to be a major mechanism by which ACTH maintains the functional and structural integrity of the gland. Previously, we showed that ACTH regulates the accumulation of over 1200 transcripts in Y1 adrenal cells, including a cluster with functions in alternative splicing of RNA. On this basis, we postulated that some of the effects of ACTH on the transcription landscape of Y1 cells are mediated by alternative splicing. In this study, we demonstrate that ACTH regulates the alternative splicing of four transcripts - Gnas, Cd151, Dab2 and Tia1. Inasmuch as alternative splicing potentially affects transcripts from more than two-thirds of the mouse genome, we suggest that these findings are representative of a genome-wide effect of ACTH that impacts on the mRNA and protein composition of the adrenal cortex.

  12. Stem cells: a promising source for vascular regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Rammal, Hassan; Harmouch, Chaza; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Laurent-Maquin, Dominique; Labrude, Pierre; Menu, Patrick; Kerdjoudj, Halima

    2014-12-15

    The rising and diversity of many human vascular diseases pose urgent needs for the development of novel therapeutics. Stem cell therapy represents a challenge in the medicine of the twenty-first century, an area where tissue engineering and regenerative medicine gather to provide promising treatments for a wide variety of diseases. Indeed, with their extensive regeneration potential and functional multilineage differentiation capacity, stem cells are now highlighted as promising cell sources for regenerative medicine. Their multilineage differentiation involves environmental factors such as biochemical, extracellular matrix coating, oxygen tension, and mechanical forces. In this review, we will focus on human stem cell sources and their applications in vascular regeneration. We will also discuss the different strategies used for their differentiation into both mature and functional smooth muscle and endothelial cells.

  13. Alternative splicing of MALT1 controls signalling and activation of CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Meininger, Isabel; Griesbach, Richard A; Hu, Desheng; Gehring, Torben; Seeholzer, Thomas; Bertossi, Arianna; Kranich, Jan; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Eitelhuber, Andrea C; Greczmiel, Ute; Gewies, Andreas; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Ruland, Jürgen; Brocker, Thomas; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Heyd, Florian; Krappmann, Daniel

    2016-04-12

    MALT1 channels proximal T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling to downstream signalling pathways. With MALT1A and MALT1B two conserved splice variants exist and we demonstrate here that MALT1 alternative splicing supports optimal T-cell activation. Inclusion of exon7 in MALT1A facilitates the recruitment of TRAF6, which augments MALT1 scaffolding function, but not protease activity. Naive CD4(+) T cells express almost exclusively MALT1B and MALT1A expression is induced by TCR stimulation. We identify hnRNP U as a suppressor of exon7 inclusion. Whereas selective depletion of MALT1A impairs T-cell signalling and activation, downregulation of hnRNP U enhances MALT1A expression and T-cell activation. Thus, TCR-induced alternative splicing augments MALT1 scaffolding to enhance downstream signalling and to promote optimal T-cell activation.

  14. Alternative splicing of MALT1 controls signalling and activation of CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Meininger, Isabel; Griesbach, Richard A.; Hu, Desheng; Gehring, Torben; Seeholzer, Thomas; Bertossi, Arianna; Kranich, Jan; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Eitelhuber, Andrea C.; Greczmiel, Ute; Gewies, Andreas; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Ruland, Jürgen; Brocker, Thomas; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Heyd, Florian; Krappmann, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    MALT1 channels proximal T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling to downstream signalling pathways. With MALT1A and MALT1B two conserved splice variants exist and we demonstrate here that MALT1 alternative splicing supports optimal T-cell activation. Inclusion of exon7 in MALT1A facilitates the recruitment of TRAF6, which augments MALT1 scaffolding function, but not protease activity. Naive CD4+ T cells express almost exclusively MALT1B and MALT1A expression is induced by TCR stimulation. We identify hnRNP U as a suppressor of exon7 inclusion. Whereas selective depletion of MALT1A impairs T-cell signalling and activation, downregulation of hnRNP U enhances MALT1A expression and T-cell activation. Thus, TCR-induced alternative splicing augments MALT1 scaffolding to enhance downstream signalling and to promote optimal T-cell activation. PMID:27068814

  15. Characterization and profiling of immunomodulatory genes of equine mesenchymal stromal cells from non-invasive sources

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively studied for their promising capabilities in regenerative medicine. Although bone marrow is the best-known source for isolating equine MSCs, non-invasive alternative sources such as umbilical cord blood (UCB), umbilical cord matrix (UCM), and peripheral blood (PB) have also been reported. Methods Equine MSCs from three non-invasive alternative sources were isolated from six individual mares (PB) and their foals (UCB and UCM) at parturition. To minimize inter-horse variability, the samples from the three sources were matched within the same mare and for UCB and UCM even within the same foal from that specific mare. The following parameters were analyzed: (i) success rate of isolation, (ii) proliferation capacity, (iii) tri-lineage differentiation ability, (iv) immunophenotypical protein, and (v) immunomodulatory mRNA profiles. Linear regression models were fit to determine the association between the source of MSCs (UCB, UCM, PB) and (i) the moment of first observation, (ii) the moment of first passage, (iii) cell proliferation data, (iv) the expression of markers related to cell immunogenicity, and (v) the mRNA profile of immunomodulatory factors, except for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as no normal distribution could be obtained for the latter variable. To evaluate the association between the source of MSCs and the mRNA expression of HGF, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was performed instead. Results While equine MSCs could be isolated from all the UCB and PB samples, isolation from UCM was successful in only two samples because of contamination issues. Proliferation data showed that equine MSCs from all three sources could be easily expanded, although UCB-derived MSCs appeared significantly faster in culture than PB- or UCM-derived MSCs. Equine MSCs from both UCB and PB could be differentiated toward the osteo-, chondro-, and adipogenic lineage, in contrast to UCM-derived MSCs in which

  16. Characterization and profiling of immunomodulatory genes of equine mesenchymal stromal cells from non-invasive sources.

    PubMed

    De Schauwer, Catharina; Goossens, Karen; Piepers, Sofie; Hoogewijs, Maarten K; Govaere, Jan L J; Smits, Katrien; Meyer, Evelyne; Van Soom, Ann; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2014-01-13

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively studied for their promising capabilities in regenerative medicine. Although bone marrow is the best-known source for isolating equine MSCs, non-invasive alternative sources such as umbilical cord blood (UCB), umbilical cord matrix (UCM), and peripheral blood (PB) have also been reported. Equine MSCs from three non-invasive alternative sources were isolated from six individual mares (PB) and their foals (UCB and UCM) at parturition. To minimize inter-horse variability, the samples from the three sources were matched within the same mare and for UCB and UCM even within the same foal from that specific mare. The following parameters were analyzed: (i) success rate of isolation, (ii) proliferation capacity, (iii) tri-lineage differentiation ability, (iv) immunophenotypical protein, and (v) immunomodulatory mRNA profiles. Linear regression models were fit to determine the association between the source of MSCs (UCB, UCM, PB) and (i) the moment of first observation, (ii) the moment of first passage, (iii) cell proliferation data, (iv) the expression of markers related to cell immunogenicity, and (v) the mRNA profile of immunomodulatory factors, except for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as no normal distribution could be obtained for the latter variable. To evaluate the association between the source of MSCs and the mRNA expression of HGF, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was performed instead. While equine MSCs could be isolated from all the UCB and PB samples, isolation from UCM was successful in only two samples because of contamination issues. Proliferation data showed that equine MSCs from all three sources could be easily expanded, although UCB-derived MSCs appeared significantly faster in culture than PB- or UCM-derived MSCs. Equine MSCs from both UCB and PB could be differentiated toward the osteo-, chondro-, and adipogenic lineage, in contrast to UCM-derived MSCs in which only chondro- and adipogenic

  17. The placenta as a cell source in fetal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kaviani, Amir; Perry, Tjörvi E; Barnes, Carmen M; Oh, Jung-Tak; Ziegler, Moritz M; Fishman, Steven J; Fauza, Dario O

    2002-07-01

    This study was aimed at determining whether fetal tissue constructs can be engineered from cells derived from the placenta. A subpopulation of morphologically distinct cells was isolated mechanically from specimens of human placenta (n = 6) and selectively expanded. The lineage of these cells was determined by immunofluorescent staining against multiple intermediate filaments and surface antigens. Cell proliferation rates were determined by oxidation assays and compared with those of immunocytochemically identical cells derived from human amniotic fluid samples (n = 6). Statistical analysis was by analysis of variance (ANOVA). After expansion, the cells were seeded onto a polyglycolic acid polymer/poly-4-hydroxybutyrate scaffold. The resulting construct was analyzed by both optical and scanning electron microscopy. The immunocytochemical profile of expanded placental cells was consistent with a nontrophoblastic, mesenchymal origin. Their proliferation rate in culture was not significantly different when compared with mesenchymal fetal cells isolated from human amniotic fluid; however, it was greater than previously reported rates for similar cells obtained from postnatal or adult tissues. Construct analysis showed dense layers of cells firmly attached to the scaffold without evidence of cell death. Subpopulations of nontrophoblastic, mesenchymal cells can be isolated consistently from the human placenta. These cells proliferate as rapidly as fetal mesenchymal amniocytes in vitro and attach firmly to polyglycolic acid scaffolds. The placenta can be a valuable and practical source of cells for the engineering of select fetal tissue constructs. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  18. Deciphering the Mechanism of Alternative Cleavage and Polyadenylation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Cleavage and Polyadenylation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chioniso Masamha, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0218 Deciphering the Mechanism of Alternative Cleavage and Polyadenylation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) 5b...shorten the 3’UTR of their mRNAs has important implications in cancer. Truncation of the cyclin D1 mRNA in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one of the

  19. EIIP volume 4: Mobile sources preferred and alternative methods. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This volume presents guidance on the use of three specific data sources for use in developing distributions used in the MOBILE emission factor model. These distributions include registration, mileage accumulation, travel distributions, fuel consumption, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT). In this document, methodologies and example calculations of the estimation of local on-road vehicle fleet characteristics and activity from inspection and maintenance (I/M) program, remote sensing, and fuel sales data are presented. Specific evaluations include the estimation of mileage accumulation rates, registration distributions, diurnal travel distributions and regional vehicle miles traveled (VMT). This guidance is separated into three topics according to the type of data being evaluated: develoment of regestration distributions and mileage accumulation rates from I/M program data; development of registration distributions, diurnal travel distributions, VMT mix, fleet registration information, and I/M program status from remote sensing program data; and development of fuel consumption and VMT from tax revenue and other data sources.

  20. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Molofsky, Ari B.; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Liang, Hong-Erh; Van Dyken, Steven J.; Cheng, Laurence E.; Mohapatra, Alexander; Chawla, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have been implicated in metabolic homeostasis and the maintenance of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs). The absence of eosinophils can lead to adiposity and systemic insulin resistance in experimental animals, but what maintains eosinophils in adipose tissue is unknown. We show that interleukin-5 (IL-5) deficiency profoundly impairs VAT eosinophil accumulation and results in increased adiposity and insulin resistance when animals are placed on a high-fat diet. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) are resident in VAT and are the major source of IL-5 and IL-13, which promote the accumulation of eosinophils and AAM. Deletion of ILC2s causes significant reductions in VAT eosinophils and AAMs, and also impairs the expansion of VAT eosinophils after infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, an intestinal parasite associated with increased adipose ILC2 cytokine production and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Further, IL-33, a cytokine previously shown to promote cytokine production by ILC2s, leads to rapid ILC2-dependent increases in VAT eosinophils and AAMs. Thus, ILC2s are resident in VAT and promote eosinophils and AAM implicated in metabolic homeostasis, and this axis is enhanced during Th2-associated immune stimulation. PMID:23420878

  1. The Ski2-family helicase Obelus regulates Crumbs alternative splicing and cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Vichas, Athea; Laurie, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing can have profound consequences for protein activity, but the functions of most alternative splicing regulators are not known. We show that Obelus, a conserved Ski2-family helicase, is required for cell polarity and adherens junction organization in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. In obelus mutants, epithelial cells display an expanded apical domain, aggregation of adherens junctions at the cell membrane, and microtubule-dependent defects in centrosome positioning. Through whole-genome transcriptome analysis, we found that Obelus is required for the alternative splicing of a small number of transcripts in the early embryo, including the pre-mRNA that encodes the apical polarity protein Crumbs. In obelus mutants, inclusion of an alternative exon results in increased expression of a Crumbs isoform that contains an additional epidermal growth factor–like repeat in the extracellular domain. Overexpression of this alternative Crumbs isoform recapitulates the junctional aggregation and centrosome positioning defects of obelus mutants. These results indicate that regulation of Crumbs alternative splicing by the Obelus helicase modulates epithelial polarity during development. PMID:26644515

  2. Alternative RF coupling configurations for H{sup −} ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.; Gutmann, P.

    2015-04-08

    RF heated sources for negative hydrogen ions both for fusion and accelerators require very high RF powers in order to achieve the required H{sup −} current what poses high demands on the RF generators and the RF circuit. Therefore it is highly desirable to improve the RF efficiency of the sources. This could be achieved by applying different RF coupling concepts than the currently used inductive coupling via a helical antenna, namely Helicon coupling or coupling via a planar ICP antenna enhanced with ferrites. In order to investigate the feasibility of these concepts, two small laboratory experiments have been set up. The PlanICE experiment, where the enhanced inductive coupling is going to be investigated, is currently under assembly. At the CHARLIE experiment systematic measurements concerning Helicon coupling in hydrogen and deuterium are carried out. The investigations show that a prominent feature of Helicon discharges occurs: the so-called low-field peak. This is a local improvement of the coupling efficiency at a magnetic field strength of a few mT which results in an increased electron density and dissociation degree. The full Helicon mode has not been achieved yet due to the limited available RF power and magnetic field strength but it might be sufficient for the application of the coupling concept to ion sources to operate the discharge in the low-field-peak region.

  3. Improved Single-Source Precursors for Solar-Cell Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder K.; Harris, Jerry; Hepp, Aloysius

    2007-01-01

    Improved single-source precursor compounds have been invented for use in spray chemical vapor deposition (spray CVD) of chalcopyrite semiconductor absorber layers of thin-film cells. A "single-source precursor compound" is a single molecular compound that contains all the required elements, which when used under the spray CVD conditions, thermally decomposes to form CuIn(x)Ga(1-x)S(y)Se(2-y).

  4. Final alternatives assessment: Other contamination sources: Interim response action, South Tank Farm Plume. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The South Tank Farm Plume (STFP) is located in the southern half of sections 1 and 2. It is a composite plume of C6H6, MEC6H5, XYLEN, DCPD, and BCHPD which is migrating from the area of tank 464A. Recent investigations have shown that the STFP is being biodegraded naturally and will not migrate into either Lake Ladora or Lower Derby Lake prior to implementation of the final remedy. Monitoring with the specific objectives of (1) Verifying the rate of migration and (2) Locating the leading edge of the plume over the time frame of the IRA is proposed as the preferred alternative action. Sections of this assessment provide information on: (1) Site description-history, previous investigations, hydrogeology, LNAPL plume; (2) IRA objectives and evaluation; and (3) Work plan of the IRA-well network, sampling frequency. Appendices include comments and responses.

  5. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with fatty acids and alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pui-Ling; Yu, Vincent; Wai, Lam; Yu, Hoi-Fu

    2006-01-01

    In this study, medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) were produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using different carbon sources. Decanoic acid induced the highest (9.71% [+/- 0.7]) mcl-PHAs accumulation in bacterial cells at 47 h. The cells preferred to accumulate and degrade the polyhydroxyoctanoate than polyhydroxydecanoate (PHD) during early stage and final stage of the growth, respectively. The production cost of mcl-PHAs can be reduced by using edible oils as the carbon source. The bacteria accumulated 6% (+/- 0.7) of mcl-PHAs in the presence of olive oil. Besides, reused oil was another potential carbon source for the reduction of the production cost of mcl-PHAs. Overall, PHD was the major constituent in the accumulated mcl-PHAs.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of rice husk and coconut shell charcoal based bio-briquettes as alternative energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliah, Y.; Kartawidjaja, M.; Suryaningsih, S.; Ulfi, K.

    2017-05-01

    Rice husk and coconut shell have been disposed or burned as waste. As biomass, both of materials are the potential sources of carbon which can be utilized as alternative energy sources. The energy content can be exploited more intensively when packaged in a brief and convenient. In this work, the mixtures of rice husks and coconut shells charcoal were prepared as briquettes. After going through the carbonization process, several measurements have been taken to find out the factors that determine the value of heat energy contains by each component of the charcoals. The basic ingredients briquettes prepared from rice husk and coconut shell charcoal with varying composition and addition of tapioca starch gradually as adhesive material to obtain briquettes in solid with the maximum heat energy content. After going through pressing and drying process, the briquettes with 50:50 percent of composition and the 6% addition of adhesive was found has the highest heat energy content, equal to 4966 cal/g.

  7. Human Term Placenta as a Source of Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Serikov, Vladimir; Hounshell, Catherine; Larkin, Sandra; Green, William; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Walters, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    The main barrier to a broader clinical application of umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation is its limiting cellular content. Thus, the discovery of hematopoietic progenitor cells in murine placental tissue led us investigate whether the human placenta contains hematopoietic cells, sites of hematopoiesis, and to develop a procedure of processing and storing placental hematopoietic cells for transplantation. Here we show that the human placenta contains large numbers of CD34-expressing hematopoietic cells, with the potential to provide a cellular yield several-fold greater than that of a typical UCB harvest. Cells from fresh or cryopreserved placental tissue generated erythroid and myeloid colonies in culture, and also produced lymphoid cells after transplantation in immunodeficient mice. These results suggest that human placenta could become an important new source of hematopoietic cells for allogeneic transplantation. PMID:19429852

  8. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina; Redal, María Ana; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shamy, Magdy; Muñoz, Manuel J; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2015-07-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing.

  9. Southern California Earthquake Center - SCEC1: Final Report Summary Alternative Earthquake Source Characterization for the Los Angeles Region

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, B

    2003-02-26

    The objective my research has been to synthesize current understanding of the tectonics and faults of the Los Angeles Basin and surrounding region to quantify uncertainty in the characterization of earthquake sources used for geologically- and geodetically-based regional earthquake likelihood models. This work has focused on capturing epistemic uncertainty; i.e. uncertainty stemming from ignorance of the true characteristics of the active faults in the region and of the tectonic forces that drive them. In the present context, epistemic uncertainty has two components: First, the uncertainty in source geometrical and occurrence rate parameters deduced from the limited geological, geophysical and geodetic observations available; and second. uncertainties that result from fundamentally different interpretations of regional tectonic deformation and faulting. Characterization of the large number of active and potentially active faults that need to be included in estimating earthquake occurrence likelihoods for the Los Angeles region requires synthesis and evaluation of large amounts of data and numerous interpretations. This was accomplished primarily through a series of carefully facilitated workshops, smaller meetings involving key researchers, and email groups. The workshops and meetings were made possible by the unique logistical and financial resources available through SCEC, and proved to be extremely effective forums for the exchange and critical debate of data and interpretations that are essential in constructing fully representative source models. The main products from this work are a complete source model that characterizes all know or potentially active faults in the greater Los Angeles region. which includes the continental borderland as far south as San Diego, the Ventura Basin, and the Santa Barbara Channel. The model constitutes a series of maps and representative cross-sections that define alternative fault geometries, a table containing rault

  10. Alternative methods of reducing air pollution from low-emissions sources in Krakow

    SciTech Connect

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Nedoma, J.; Pierce, B.

    1994-10-01

    A study on air quality monitoring carried out in the 1980s indicated that around 40% of the high concentrations of air pollutants adversely affecting residents and the natural environment were contributed by coal-fired home stoves and boiler houses using solid fuels. These heat sources discharging particulate matters at low heights, basically lacking any pollution control devices, are called the ``low emission sources.`` The American-Polish Program on Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency in Krakow, which began in 1992, was preceded by a detailed inventory of low emissions sources completed in 1991. In the American-Polish program it has been accepted that all possible technical means would be used to reduce pollution, mainly those which enable utilization of reserves present in the existing networks of: district heating; gas distribution; and power distribution. The analysis indicated that the following activities can bring about realistic progress in reducing air pollution: elimination of the existing solid fuel boiler houses by connecting the buildings they serve to the municipal district heating network; elimination of solid fuel boiler houses by converting them to natural gas; elimination of solid fuel-fired home stoves by replacing them with electric heating; modernization of those solid fuel boiler houses which cannot by eliminated because of their function; and reducing the adverse environmental effects of home stove use throughout the city by changes in the combustion process, eliminating coal and replacing it with natural gas or electricity, and/or looking for combustion devices that can burn coal without producing air pollutants.

  11. Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells: A Novel Source for Modeling of Human Genetic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Ivana; Provenzano, Martina; Rodrigues, Melissa; Pantalone, Andrea; Salini, Vincenzo; Ballerini, Patrizia; Borlongan, Cesar V.; Stuppia, Liborio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the use of Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS) for modeling of human genetic diseases, due to the possibility of reprogramming somatic cells of affected patients into pluripotent cells, enabling differentiation into several cell types, and allowing investigations into the molecular mechanisms of the disease. However, the protocol of iPS generation still suffers from technical limitations, showing low efficiency, being expensive and time consuming. Amniotic Fluid Stem cells (AFS) represent a potential alternative novel source of stem cells for modeling of human genetic diseases. In fact, by means of prenatal diagnosis, a number of fetuses affected by chromosomal or Mendelian diseases can be identified, and the amniotic fluid collected for genetic testing can be used, after diagnosis, for the isolation, culture and differentiation of AFS cells. This can provide a useful stem cell model for the investigation of the molecular basis of the diagnosed disease without the necessity of producing iPS, since AFS cells show some features of pluripotency and are able to differentiate in cells derived from all three germ layers “in vitro”. In this article, we describe the potential benefits provided by using AFS cells in the modeling of human genetic diseases. PMID:27110774

  12. Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells: A Novel Source for Modeling of Human Genetic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Ivana; Provenzano, Martina; Rodrigues, Melissa; Pantalone, Andrea; Salini, Vincenzo; Ballerini, Patrizia; Borlongan, Cesar V; Stuppia, Liborio

    2016-04-22

    In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the use of Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS) for modeling of human genetic diseases, due to the possibility of reprogramming somatic cells of affected patients into pluripotent cells, enabling differentiation into several cell types, and allowing investigations into the molecular mechanisms of the disease. However, the protocol of iPS generation still suffers from technical limitations, showing low efficiency, being expensive and time consuming. Amniotic Fluid Stem cells (AFS) represent a potential alternative novel source of stem cells for modeling of human genetic diseases. In fact, by means of prenatal diagnosis, a number of fetuses affected by chromosomal or Mendelian diseases can be identified, and the amniotic fluid collected for genetic testing can be used, after diagnosis, for the isolation, culture and differentiation of AFS cells. This can provide a useful stem cell model for the investigation of the molecular basis of the diagnosed disease without the necessity of producing iPS, since AFS cells show some features of pluripotency and are able to differentiate in cells derived from all three germ layers "in vitro". In this article, we describe the potential benefits provided by using AFS cells in the modeling of human genetic diseases.

  13. Myc and SAGA rewire an alternative splicing network during early somatic cell reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Calley L.; Coban Akdemir, Zeynep; Wang, Li; Jayakumaran, Gowtham; Trcka, Dan; Weiss, Alexander; Hernandez, J. Javier; Pan, Qun; Han, Hong; Xu, Xueping; Xia, Zheng; Salinger, Andrew P.; Wilson, Marenda; Vizeacoumar, Frederick; Datti, Alessandro; Li, Wei; Cooney, Austin J.; Barton, Michelle C.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are maintained in a self-renewing and pluripotent state by multiple regulatory pathways. Pluripotent-specific transcriptional networks are sequentially reactivated as somatic cells reprogram to achieve pluripotency. How epigenetic regulators modulate this process and contribute to somatic cell reprogramming is not clear. Here we performed a functional RNAi screen to identify the earliest epigenetic regulators required for reprogramming. We identified components of the SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex, in particular Gcn5, as critical regulators of reprogramming initiation. Furthermore, we showed in mouse pluripotent stem cells that Gcn5 strongly associates with Myc and that, upon initiation of somatic reprogramming, Gcn5 and Myc form a positive feed-forward loop that activates a distinct alternative splicing network and the early acquisition of pluripotency-associated splicing events. These studies expose a Myc–SAGA pathway that drives expression of an essential alternative splicing regulatory network during somatic cell reprogramming. PMID:25877919

  14. Myc and SAGA rewire an alternative splicing network during early somatic cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Calley L; Coban Akdemir, Zeynep; Wang, Li; Jayakumaran, Gowtham; Trcka, Dan; Weiss, Alexander; Hernandez, J Javier; Pan, Qun; Han, Hong; Xu, Xueping; Xia, Zheng; Salinger, Andrew P; Wilson, Marenda; Vizeacoumar, Frederick; Datti, Alessandro; Li, Wei; Cooney, Austin J; Barton, Michelle C; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Dent, Sharon Y R

    2015-04-15

    Embryonic stem cells are maintained in a self-renewing and pluripotent state by multiple regulatory pathways. Pluripotent-specific transcriptional networks are sequentially reactivated as somatic cells reprogram to achieve pluripotency. How epigenetic regulators modulate this process and contribute to somatic cell reprogramming is not clear. Here we performed a functional RNAi screen to identify the earliest epigenetic regulators required for reprogramming. We identified components of the SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex, in particular Gcn5, as critical regulators of reprogramming initiation. Furthermore, we showed in mouse pluripotent stem cells that Gcn5 strongly associates with Myc and that, upon initiation of somatic reprogramming, Gcn5 and Myc form a positive feed-forward loop that activates a distinct alternative splicing network and the early acquisition of pluripotency-associated splicing events. These studies expose a Myc-SAGA pathway that drives expression of an essential alternative splicing regulatory network during somatic cell reprogramming.

  15. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Enhancement of dibenzothiophene desulfurization by Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B using sugar beet molasses as alternative carbon source.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luís; Paixão, Susana M

    2014-03-01

    There are several problems limiting an industrial application of fossil fuel biodesulfurization, and one of them is the cost of culture media used to grow the microorganisms involved in the process. In this context, the utilization of alternative carbon sources resulting from agro-industrial by-products could be a strategy to reduce the investment in the operating expenses of a future industrial application. Recently, Gordonia alkanivorans 1B was described as a fructophilic desulfurizing bacterium, and this characteristic opens a new interest in alternative carbon sources rich in fructose. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the utilization of sugar beet molasses (SBM) in the dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization process using strain 1B. SBM firstly treated with 0.25% BaCl2 (w/v) was used after sucrose acidic hydrolysis or in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process with a Zygosaccharomyces bailii Talf1 invertase (1%), showing promising results. In optimal conditions, strain 1B presented a μ max of 0.0795 h(-1), and all DBT was converted to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (250 μM) within 48 h with a maximum production rate of 7.78 μM h(-1). Our results showed the high potential of SBM to be used in a future industrial fossil fuel biodesulfurization process using strain 1B.

  17. Nonhematopoietic cells are the primary source of bone marrow-derived lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kassmer, Susannah H; Bruscia, Emanuela M; Zhang, Ping-Xia; Krause, Diane S

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bone marrow (BM)-derived cells differentiate into nonhematopoietic cells of multiple tissues. To date, it remains unknown which population(s) of BM cells are primarily responsible for this engraftment. To test the hypothesis that nonhematopoietic stem cells in the BM are the primary source of marrow-derived lung epithelial cells, either wild-type hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic BM cells were transplanted into irradiated surfactant-protein-C (SPC)-null mice. Donor-derived, SPC-positive type 2 pneumocytes were predominantly detected in the lungs of mice receiving purified nonhematopoietic cells and were absent from mice receiving purified hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We conclude that cells contained in the nonhematopoietic fraction of the BM are the primary source of marrow-derived lung epithelial cells. These nonhematopoietic cells may represent a primitive stem cell population residing in adult BM.

  18. Nonhematopoietic Cells are the Primary Source of Bone Marrow-Derived Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kassmer, Susannah H.; Bruscia, Emanuela M.; Zhang, Ping-Xia; Krause, Diane S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bone marrow (BM)-derived cells differentiate into nonhematopoietic cells of multiple tissues. To date, it remains unknown which population(s) of BM cells are primarily responsible for this engraftment. To test the hypothesis that nonhematopoietic stem cells in the BM are the primary source of marrow-derived lung epithelial cells, either wild-type hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic BM cells were transplanted into irradiated surfactant-protein-C (SPC)-null mice. Donor-derived, SPC-positive type 2 pneumocytes were predominantly detected in the lungs of mice receiving purified nonhematopoietic cells and were absent from mice receiving purified hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We conclude that cells contained in the nonhematopoietic fraction of the BM are the primary source of marrow-derived lung epithelial cells. These nonhematopoietic cells may represent a primitive stem cell population residing in adult BM. PMID:22162244

  19. Intracerebral transplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells alternatively activates microglia and ameliorates neuropathological deficits in Alzheimer's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tuo; Gong, Kai; Ao, Qiang; Yan, Yufang; Song, Bo; Huang, Hongyun; Zhang, Xiufang; Gong, Yandao

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells might have therapeutic effects in preventing pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are a promising new cell source for regenerative therapy. However, whether transplantation of ADSCs could actually ameliorate the neuropathological deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the mechanisms involved has not yet been established. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of intracerebral ADSC transplantation on AD pathology and spatial learning/memory of APP/PS1 double transgenic AD model mice. Results showed that ADSC transplantation dramatically reduced β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide deposition and significantly restored the learning/memory function in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. It was observed that in both regions of the hippocampus and the cortex there were more activated microglia, which preferentially surrounded and infiltrated into plaques after ADSC transplantation. The activated microglia exhibited an alternatively activated phenotype, as indicated by their decreased expression levels of proinflammatory factors and elevated expression levels of alternative activation markers, as well as Aβ-degrading enzymes. In conclusion, ADSC transplantation could modulate microglial activation in AD mice, mitigate AD symptoms, and alleviate cognitive decline, all of which suggest ADSC transplantation as a promising choice for AD therapy. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) supplement issue of Cell Transplantation.

  20. Identification of a third region of cell-specific alternative splicing in human fibronectin mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, A; Kornblihtt, A R

    1987-01-01

    We describe here a third region of variability in human fibronectin (FN) due to alternative RNA splicing. Two other positions of alternative splicing have been reported previously (ED and IIICS). The third region involves a 273-nucleotide exon encoding exactly one 91-amino acid repeat of type III homology, located between the DNA- and the cell-binding domains of FN, which is either included in or excluded from FN mRNA. The two mRNA variants arising by an exon-skipping mechanism are present in cells known to synthesize the cellular form of FN. However, liver cells, which are the source of plasma FN, produce only messengers without the extra type III sequence. Therefore, the region described here resembles, both structurally and functionally, the previously described ED (for extra domain) region, located toward the C terminus of the molecule, between the cell- and heparin- (hep 2) binding domains. We conclude that both the extra type III repeat (named EDII) and ED represent sequences restricted to cellular FN. Combination of all the possible patterns of splicing in the three regions described to date may generate up to 20 distinct FN polypeptides from a single gene. Images PMID:3478690

  1. Identification of a third region of cell-specific alternative splicing in human fibronectin mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gutman, A.; Kornblihtt, A.R.

    1987-10-01

    The authors describe here a third region of variability in human fibronectin (FN) due to alternative RNA splicing. Two other positions of alternative splicing have been reported previously (ED and IIICS). The third region involves a 273-nucleotide exon encoding exactly one 91-amino acid repeat of type III homology, located between the DNA- and the cell-binding domains of FN, which is either included in or excluded from FN mRNA. The two mRNA variants arising by an exon-skipping mechanism are present in cells known to synthesize the cellular form of FN. However, liver cells, which are the source of plasma FN, produce only messengers without the extra type III sequence. Therefore, the region described here resembles, both structurally and functionally, the previously described ED (for extra domain) region, located toward the C terminus of the molecule between the cell- and heparin- (hep 2) binding domains. The authors conclude that both the extra type III repeat (names EDII) and ED represent sequences restricted to cellular FN. Combination of all the possible patterns of splicing in the three regions described to date may generate up to 20 distinct FN polypeptides from a single gene.

  2. Alternate hybrid power sources for remote site applications. Final report, February 1980-February 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, W.R.; Taylor, R.J.; Baron, J.L.; Mengel, E.E.; Ray, J.C.

    1981-02-01

    Unmanned Coast Guard lighthouses currently dependent on diesel generators are classified into six climatic groups and three power classes for generic analysis. Methods for describing both the hourly average and statistical characteristics of the solar energy and wind power available in each of these six climatic regions are developed. The technology currently available or expected during the next five years for collecting energy from the environment and storing it for subsequent generation of electric power is reviewed. A method for computing battery life as a function of the hourly use pattern is developed . A life-cycle-cost analysis methodology applicable to continuously variable life expectancies is developed and illustrated. Diesel generator costs, including service visit expense, are modeled. Other factors relating to the analysis of alternate energy systems as supplements to diesel-electric generators at remote sites are discussed. Simulations show that the use of storage batteries and a DC to AC inverter permits the diesel to be off during periods of low power demand with significant reduction in both annual fuel use and cost. Supplementing this basic diesel-battery hybrid with energy collected from the environment is cost effective and saves additional fuel. Other hourly simulation model results are given and generic systems are recommended for construction and test.

  3. Sources of human embryos for stem cell research: ethical problems and their possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Hug, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    Using different sources of human embryonic stem cells for research raises different ethical problems. Experimenting on embryos created for in vitro fertilization but left unused, or embryos, created specially for research raise ethical questions. In the first case--whether using "spare" human embryos for research means a lack of respect for the beginning of human life, and in the second--whether creation of embryos for research is morally worse than experimentation on already created, but unused human embryos. The possibility of therapeutic cloning also raises a question whether it is ethical to create human embryos for therapeutic purposes. When balancing the possible benefit of embryonic stem cell research inventing new therapies, and the ethical problems, raised by this research, a question is posed whether there are any equally effective alternatives to research on viable human embryos that could avoid or at least decrease these problems. The aim of this literature review is to present the main arguments for and against using different sources of human embryonic stem cells and to acquaint with possible alternatives to human embryo research. The literature review of the last five years. The currently used sources of human embryonic stem cells and research methods raise ethical objections in certain sectors of society, based on the arguments for the need of respect for the human embryo. However, there already theoretical possibilities of embryonic stem cell research exist, the application of which could decrease the ethical objections to such research. This should be taken into consideration when making decisions on the regulation of embryonic stem cell research. But so far there is no consensus on these questions, and the article presents both favorable and unfavorable opinions regarding this research.

  4. Tissue Engineering of Tendons: A Comparison of Muscle-Derived Cells, Tenocytes, and Dermal Fibroblasts as Cell Sources.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Ding, Jinping; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Wang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The rapid development of tendon tissue-engineering technology may offer an alternative graft for reconstruction of severe tendon losses. One critical factor for tendon tissue engineering is the optimization of seed cells. Little is known about the optimal cell source for engineered tendons. The aim of this study was to compare mouse muscle-derived cells, dermal fibroblasts, and tenocytes and determine the optimal cell source for tendon tissue engineering. Mouse muscle-derived cells, dermal fibroblasts, and tenocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro. At passage 1, cellular morphology, cell proliferation, and tenogenic marker expression were evaluated. After seeding on the polyglycolic acid scaffolds for 2 weeks in vitro and 12 weeks in vivo, histologic qualities, ultrastructure, and biomechanical characteristics were evaluated. Proliferation and cellular morphology were similar for dermal fibroblasts and tenocytes, whereas muscle-derived cells proliferated faster than the other two groups. With regard to the phenotype difference between them, muscle-derived cells and tenocytes shared the gene expression of SCX, TNMD, GDF-8, and Col-I, but with MyoD gene expression only in muscle-derived cells. In contrast to dermal fibroblast and tenocyte constructed tendons, neotendon with muscle-derived cells exhibited better aligned collagen fibers, more mature collagen fibril structure, and stronger mechanical properties, whereas no significant difference in the dermal fibroblast and tenocyte groups was observed. Although dermal fibroblasts are candidates for tendon tissue engineering because they are similar to tenocytes in proliferation and neotendon formation, muscle-derived cells appear to be the most suitable cells for further study and development of engineered tendon.

  5. An alternative look at new particle formation: Undefined days and the effect of source area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buenrostro Mazon, Stephany; Manninen, Hanna E.; Lampilahti, Janne; Nieminen, Tuomo; Aalto, Pasi; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    The presence of the EU project PEGASOS in the SMEAR II field station, Hyytiälä, Southern Finland, during the months of May and June 2013 was aimed at elucidating the synergetic processes between atmospheric chemistry, boundary layer micrometeorology and aerosol particle formation. However, it must be noted that during the two spring months, the Hyytiälä ground station while we recognize 22 'event days' (days with new particle formation occurring, NPF), 30 days where left as 'undefined', that is, a day which was not successfully classified as either presenting NPF or not (nonevent day). The ratio of unclassified days to event and nonevent days leaves a great portion of the data untouched. A previous study specifically investigated the undefined days using an 11-year time series (1996 to 2006) from Hyytiälä station. The results showed that undefined days could highlight intermediate or incomplete conditions when compared to a day presenting NPF: relative humidity, condensation sink and radiation values lay precisely in between event and nonevent values. A sub-classification of undefined days into a 'failed events' class allows for the possibility of days that are to a degree truncated or advected event days, and which show parameters closer in value to event than to nonevent days. By including undefined days in the analysis of the spring 2013 data, we look for the micrometeorology process that could help explain the 'failed events' day conditions, and thus shed more light on NPF dynamics. Furthermore we propose that NPF need not be at a regional scale as previously thought, but rather, specific local sources could bring about NPF, captured at the ground station with the right wind conditions. To analyze for possible local versus regional sources for NPF, we aim to correlate micrometeorological parameters, including boundary layer stability, wind vectors and air chemistry, in order to capture what is happening when one variable changes, scanning each day as

  6. Th2-Associated Alternative Kupffer Cell Activation Promotes Liver Fibrosis without Inducing Local Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    López-Navarrete, Giuliana; Ramos-Martínez, Espiridión; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; Aguirre-García, Jesús; Ledezma-Soto, Yadira; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Gudiño-Zayas, Marco; Guzmán, Carolina; Gutiérrez-Reyes, Gabriela; Hernández-Ruíz, Joselín; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Kershenobich, David; Terrazas, Luis I.; Escobedo, Galileo

    2011-01-01

    Cirrhosis is the final outcome of liver fibrosis. Kupffer cell-mediated hepatic inflammation is considered to aggravate liver injury and fibrosis. Alternatively-activated macrophages are able to control chronic inflammatory events and trigger wound healing processes. Nevertheless, the role of alternative Kupffer cell activation in liver harm is largely unclear. Thus, we evaluated the participation of alternatively-activated Kupffer cells during liver inflammation and fibrosis in the murine model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage. To stimulate alternative activation in Kupffer cells, 20 Taenia crassiceps (Tc) larvae were inoculated into BALBc/AnN female mice. Six weeks post-inoculation, carbon tetrachloride or olive oil were orally administered to Tc-inoculated and non-inoculated mice twice per week during other six weeks. The initial exposure of animals to T. crassiceps resulted in high serum concentrations of IL-4 accompanied by a significant increase in the hepatic mRNA levels of Ym-1, with no alteration in iNOS expression. In response to carbon tetrachloride, recruitment of inflammatory cell populations into the hepatic parenchyma was 5-fold higher in non-inoculated animals than Tc-inoculated mice. In contrast, carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis was significantly less in non-inoculated animals than in the Tc-inoculated group. The latter showed elevated IL-4 serum levels and low IFN-γ concentrations during the whole experiment, associated with hepatic expression of IL-4, TGF-β, desmin and α-sma, as well as increased mRNA levels of Arg-1, Ym-1, FIZZ-1 and MMR in Kupffer cells. These results suggest that alternative Kupffer cell activation is favored in a Th2 microenvironment, whereby such liver resident macrophages could exhibit a dichotomic role during chronic hepatic damage, being involved in attenuation of the inflammatory response but at the same time exacerbation of liver fibrosis. PMID:22110380

  7. An alternating pressure sequence proposal for an air-cell cushion for preventing pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Arias, Sandra; Cardiel, Eladio; Rogeli, Pablo; Mori, Taketoshi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and release of pressure on ischial regions are two important parameters for evaluating the effectiveness of a cushion; especially the release of pressure over time on ischial tuberosities, which is significant for preventing pressure ulcers. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect on interface pressure through the application of a proposed alternating pressure sequence for an air-cell cushion. Six healthy volunteers were asked to sit on the air cell cushion, in static and alternating modes, as well as on a typical foam cushion for 12 minutes. Interface pressure was monitored with a matrix sensor system. Interface pressure values on ischial tuberosities, user contact area and pressure distribution were analyzed. Results showed that IP on IT tends to increase in both foam and static cushions, while in alternating cushion IP on IT tends to decrease. User contact area was significantly larger in alternating cushion than in static or foam cushions. Moreover, there is a better pressure re-distribution with alternating cushion than with the other cushions. The goal of the alternating sequence is to redistribute pressure and stimulate the ischial regions in order to promote blood flow and prevent pressure occurring in wheelchair users.

  8. Initialization of a mesoscale model for April 10, 1979, using alternative data sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalb, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    A 35 km grid limited area mesoscale model was initialized with high density SESAME radiosonde data and high density TIROS-N satellite temperature profiles for April 10, 1979. These data sources were used individually and with low level wind fields constructed from surface wind observations. The primary objective was to examine the use of satellite temperature data for initializing a mesoscale model by comparing the forecast results with similar experiments employing radiosonde data. The impact of observed low level winds on the model forecasts was also investigated with experiments varying the method of insertion. All forecasts were compared with each other and with mesoscale observations for precipitation, mass and wind structure. Several forecasts produced convective precipitation systems with characteristics satisfying criteria for a mesoscale convective complex. High density satellite temperature data and balanced winds can be used in a mesoscale model to produce forecasts which verify favorably with observations.

  9. Rosmarinus eriocalyx: An alternative to Rosmarinus officinalis as a source of antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Bendif, Hamdi; Boudjeniba, Messaoud; Djamel Miara, Mohamed; Biqiku, Loreta; Bramucci, Massimo; Caprioli, Giovanni; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Sagratini, Gianni; Vitali, Luca A; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    Rosmarinus eriocalyx is an aromatic evergreen bush endemic to Algeria where it is used as a condiment to flavour soups and meat and as a traditional remedy. In the present work we have analyzed for the first time the phenolic composition of polar extracts obtained from stems, leaves and flowers of R. eriocalyx by HPLC, and determined the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, ORAC and agar disc diffusion methods, respectively. Results showed that ethanolic extracts of leaves and flowers are a rich source of phenolic compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol that are the main responsible for the noteworthy antioxidant activity observed in the assays. This study showed that R. eriocalyx might be a spice to be included in the European food additive list and used as a preservative agent besides R. officinalis.

  10. Thermoascus aurantiacus CBHI/Cel7A Production in Trichoderma reesei on Alternative Carbon Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkő, Zsuzsa; Drahos, Eszter; Szengyel, Zsolt; Puranen, Terhi; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Réczey, Kati

    To develop functional enzymes in cellulose hydrolysis at or above 70°C the cellobiohydrolase (CBHI/Cel7A) of Thermoascus aurantiacus was cloned and expressed in Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 under the strong cbh1 promoter. Cellulase production of the parental strain and the novel strain (RF6026) was examined in submerged fermentation experiments using various carbon sources, which were lactose, Solka Floc 200 cellulose powder, and steam pretreated corn stover. An industrially feasible production medium was used containing only distiller's spent grain, KH2PO4, and (NH4)2SO4. Enzyme production was followed by measurements of protein concentration, total cellulase enzyme activity (filter paper activity), β-glucosidase activity, CBHI activity, and endogenase I (EGI) activity. The Thermoascus CBHI/Cel7A activity was taken as an indication of the heterologous gene expression under the cbh1 promoter.

  11. Development of Indonesia corncob and rice husk biobriquette as alternative energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyana, Cukup; Wulandari, Asry Peni; Hidayat, Darmawan; Wibawa, Bambang Mukti; Aditya Permana, P.

    2016-02-01

    Facing the increasing of fuel price and lacking of world oil resource, research for biobriquette as alternative energy for fossil fuel is conducted. Indonesia has considerable amount of biomass and it is still remain unused that can be used as biobriquette. As the initial research, Garut, Ciamis, and Sumedang district, West Java are selected which have rice husk and corncob commodities. In these disrticts, rice husk and corncob potency are respectively 4,460.73 tons and 3,222.85 tons and potentially result 57,572.86 GJ from husk and 60,911.86 GJ from corncob. To optimize mechanical properties and calorie value of biobriquette, research for calorie content and combination of rice husk and corncob are being conducted with various adhesive content and mixture. The best result of shatter index, durability, and calorie test on the corncob biobriquette is from biobriquette with 6% adhesive with calorie content as 5,516.85 kkal/kg. While the best calorie content for husk biobriquette is 6% adhesive with calorie content as 2,650.20 kkal/kg. The best calorie content for mixed biobriquette is biobriquette with 75% corncob and 25% rice husk with calorie content as 5,331.95 kkal/kg. Economy analysis show for corncob and husk biobriquette production cost per kg are respectively Rp 2,585.00 and Rp 2.625.00 with price of Rp 5,000.00 and Rp 3,000.00 obtained nett profit respectively Rp 2,173.00 and Rp 338.00.

  12. The nutritional value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) as an alternate forage source for sheep.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Bezabih, Melkamu; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Rahman, Altafur

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and feeding value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) produced under tropical environment as an alternate forage resource for sheep. Peanut hay was appreciably high in crude protein [CP; 105 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and lower in neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 466 g/kg DM). Moreover, peanut hay was rich in Ca (12 g/kg DM) and P (1.7 g/kg DM). A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of substituting wheat straw with peanut hay on nutrient intake, digestibility, and N utilization. Four adult Ramghani (Kaghani × Rambouillet) wethers (60 ± 2.5 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four rations were formulated on isonitrogenous and isocaloric bases and differed in the proportion (in grams per kilogram DM) of wheat straw/peanut hay, i.e., 700:0, 460:240, 240:460, and 0:700. The replacement of wheat straw with peanut hay increased the intakes of DM (P < 0.001), NDF (P < 0.01), and N (P < 0.001). Moreover, apparent in vivo digestibility of DM, NDF, and CP increased (P < 0.001) with the increasing proportion of peanut hay in the ration. Nitrogen retention in the body increased (P < 0.01; 3.2 to 8.1 g/day) with the replacement of wheat straw with peanut hay. These findings showed that substitution of wheat straw with peanut hay can improve DM and nutrients intake, digestibility, and N retention in sheep.

  13. GaP betavoltaic cells as a power source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, F. S.; Stella, Paul M.; Anspaugh, B.

    1991-01-01

    Maximum power output for the GaP cells of this study was found to be on the order of 1 microW. This resulted from exposure to 200 and 40 KeV electrons at a flux of 2 x 10(exp 9) electrons/sq cm/s, equivalent to a 54 mCurie source. The efficiencies of the cells ranged from 5 to 9 percent for 200 and 40 KeV electrons respectively. The lower efficiency at higher energy is due to a substantial fraction of energy deposition in the substrate, further than a diffusion length from the depletion region of the cell. Radiation damage was clearly observed in GaP after exposure to 200 KeV electrons at a fluence of 2 x 10(exp 12) electrons/sq cm. No discernable damage was observed after exposure to 40 KeV electrons at the same fluence. Analysis indicates that a GaP betavoltaic system would not be practical if limited to low energy beta sources. The power available would be too low even in the ideal case. By utilizing high activity beta sources, such as Sr-90/Y-90, it may be possible to achieve performance that could be suitable for some space power applications. However, to utilize such a source the problem of radiation damage in the beta cell material must be overcome.

  14. Cell structure imaging with bright and homogeneous nanometric light source.

    PubMed

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Ono, Atsushi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Shen, Lin; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terekawa, Susumu

    2017-04-01

    Label-free optical nano-imaging of dendritic structures and intracellular granules in biological cells is demonstrated using a bright and homogeneous nanometric light source. The optical nanometric light source is excited using a focused electron beam. A zinc oxide (ZnO) luminescent thin film was fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to produce the nanoscale light source. The ZnO film formed by ALD emitted the bright, homogeneous light, unlike that deposited by another method. The dendritic structures of label-free macrophage receptor with collagenous structure-expressing CHO cells were clearly visualized below the diffraction limit. The inner fiber structure was observed with 120 nm spatial resolution. Because the bright homogeneous emission from the ZnO film suppresses the background noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the imaging results was greater than 10. The ALD method helps achieve an electron beam excitation assisted microscope with high spatial resolution and high SNR.

  15. Origins of the breast milk-derived cells; an endeavor to find the cell sources.

    PubMed

    Sani, Mahsa; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Salmannejad, Mahin; Aleahmad, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Sepideh; Jahanshahi, Samira; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh

    2015-05-01

    Fresh human breast milk consists of a heterogeneous population of cells that may offer a non-invasive source of cells for therapeutic proposes. The aims of this study were to characterize the breast milk-derived cells cultured in vitro. To do this, the cells from human breast milk were cultured and the expression of the CD markers along with the embryonic stem cell markers, endothelial and luminal mammary epithelial cell markers was evaluated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. The presence of fetal microchimerism among the isolated cells was also determined by the presence of SRY gene. They were also differentiated into adipocytes and osteoblasts. The results showed that a remarkable number of cells expressed the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers such as CD90, CD44, CD271, and CD146. A subpopulation of the human breast milk-derived cells (HBMDC) also expressed the embryonic stem cell markers, such as TRA 60-1, Oct4, Nanog and Sox2 but not SSEA1 or 4. The frequencies of the cells which expressed the endothelial, hematopoietic cell markers were negligible. SRY gene was not detected in the breast milk isolated cells. A subpopulation of the cells also expressed cytokeratin 18, the marker of luminal mammary epithelial cells. These cells showed the capability to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. In conclusion, these finding highlighted the presence of cells with various sources in the breast milk. Different stem cells including MSCs or embryonic stem cell-like cell along with the exfoliated cells from luminal epithelial cells were found among the isolated cells. The breast milk-derived stem cells might be considered as a non-invasive source of the stem cells for therapeutic purpose.

  16. Complimentary endothelial cell/smooth muscle cell co-culture systems with alternate smooth muscle cell phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Stacey L; Babensee, Julia E

    2007-08-01

    Development of in vitro models of native and injured vasculature is crucial for better understanding altered wound healing in disease, device implantation, or tissue engineering. Conditions were optimized using polyethyleneteraphalate transwell filters for human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC)/smooth muscle cell (HASMC) co-cultures with divergent HASMC phenotypes ('more or less secretory') while maintaining quiescent HAECs. Resulting HASMC phenotype was studied at 48 and 72 h following co-culture initiation, and compared to serum and growth factor starved monocultured 'forced contractile' HASMCs. Forced contractile HASMCs demonstrated organized alpha-smooth muscle actin filaments, minimal interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion, and low intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and tissue factor expression. Organization of alpha-smooth muscle actin was lost in 'more secretory' HASMCs in co-culture with HAECs, and IL-8 and MCP-1 secretion, as well as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and tissue factor expression were significantly upregulated at both time points. Alternately, 'less secretory' HASMCs in co-culture with HAECs showed similar characteristics to forced contractile HASMCs at the 48 h time point, while by the 72 h time point they behaved similarly to 'more secretory' HASMCs. These co-culture systems could be useful in better understanding vascular healing, however there remain time constraint considerations for maintaining culture integrity/cell phenotype.

  17. Heat sources in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramousse, Julien; Lottin, Olivier; Didierjean, Sophie; Maillet, Denis

    In order to model accurately heat transfer in PEM fuel cell, a particular attention had to be paid to the assessment of heat sources in the cell. Although the total amount of heat released is easily computed from its voltage, local heat sources quantification and localization are not simple. This paper is thus a discussion about heat sources/sinks distribution in a single cell, for which many bold assumptions are encountered in the literature. The heat sources or sinks under consideration are: (1) half-reactions entropy, (2) electrochemical activation, (3) water sorption/desorption at the GDL/membrane interfaces, (4) Joule effect in the membrane and (5) water phase change in the GDL. A detailed thermodynamic study leads to the conclusion that the anodic half-reaction is exothermic (Δ Sr ev a = - 226 J mo l-1 K-1) , instead of being athermic as supposed in most of the thermal studies. As a consequence, the cathodic half-reaction is endothermic (Δ Sr ev c = + 62.8 J mo l-1 K-1) , which results in a heat sink at the cathode side, proportional to the current. In the same way, depending on the water flux through the membrane, sorption can create a large heat sink at one electrode and an equivalent heat source at the other. Water phase change in the GDL - condensation/evaporation - results in heat sources/sinks that should also be taken into account. All these issues are addressed in order to properly set the basis of heat transfer modeling in the cell.

  18. Robust detection of alternative splicing in a population of single cells

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Joshua D.; Hu, Yin; Prins, Jan F.

    2016-01-01

    Single cell RNA-seq experiments provide valuable insight into cellular heterogeneity but suffer from low coverage, 3′ bias and technical noise. These unique properties of single cell RNA-seq data make study of alternative splicing difficult, and thus most single cell studies have restricted analysis of transcriptome variation to the gene level. To address these limitations, we developed SingleSplice, which uses a statistical model to detect genes whose isoform usage shows biological variation significantly exceeding technical noise in a population of single cells. Importantly, SingleSplice is tailored to the unique demands of single cell analysis, detecting isoform usage differences without attempting to infer expression levels for full-length transcripts. Using data from spike-in transcripts, we found that our approach detects variation in isoform usage among single cells with high sensitivity and specificity. We also applied SingleSplice to data from mouse embryonic stem cells and discovered a set of genes that show significant biological variation in isoform usage across the set of cells. A subset of these isoform differences are linked to cell cycle stage, suggesting a novel connection between alternative splicing and the cell cycle. PMID:26740580

  19. Research and Development for an Alternative RF Source Using Magnetrons in CEBAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    At Jefferson Lab, klystrons are currently used as a radiofrequency (RF) power source for the 1497 MHz Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Continuous Wave (CW) system. A drop-in replacement for the klystrons in the form of a system of magnetrons is being developed. The klystron DC-RF efficiency at CEBAF is 35-51% while the estimated magnetron efficiency is 80-90%. Thus, the introduction of magnetrons to CEBAF will have enormous benefits in terms of electrical power saving. The primary focus of this project was to characterize a magnetron's frequency pushing and pulling curves at 2.45 GHz with stub tuner and anode current adjustments so that a Low Level RF controller for a new 1.497 GHz magnetron can be built. A Virtual Instrument was created in LabVIEW, and data was taken. The resulting data allowed for the creation of many constant lines of frequency and output power. Additionally, the results provided a characterization of magnetron oven temperature drift over the operation time and the relationship between anode current and frequency. Using these results, the control model of different variables and their feedback or feedforward that affect the frequency pushing and pulling of the magnetron is better developed. Department of Energy, Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships, and Jefferson Lab.

  20. Risks and psychic costs of alternative energy sources for generating electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    Divisive personal issues will continue to impede the formulation of a coherent national energy policy until we come to grips with the disagreements and anxieties behind the issues. Variations in individual anxiety profiles and limited knowledge are the major sources of conflict. A structured approach for analyzing psychic costs in the risk-cost-benefit analyses of energy options focuses on the electric-utility industry. Coupling psychic costs with economic costs requires an understanding of how social values interact to produce either risk acceptance or risk rejection. A review of the literature shows that people experiencing a continuous anxiety state may come to value the focus of their fear as a policy issue more than on loss of life. Public reaction after the Three Mile Island accident illustrates this condition. Personal bias in risk perception is variable partly because of differences in information. Information and personal values, however, can be mutually incompatible and lead to psychic conflicts. Proponents of soft energy technology, for example, are criticized for their lack of information about the associated risks and not credited for the psychic benefits of their goals. 58 references. (DCK)

  1. Alternative Energy Sources for Stratospheric Heating in the Atmospheres of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, K.; Fortney, J.; Lodders, K.; Freedman, R.

    2009-05-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transiting hot Jupiter exoplanets have revealed that some possess hot stratospheres, well in excess of the planetary equilibrium temperatures. Stratospheres are a commonplace attribute of solar system planetary atmospheres and are often heated by absorption of incident UV flux by photochemically produced species. Hubeny et al. (2003) and Fortney et al. (2008), however, suggested that strong optical absorption by equilibrium gaseous atmospheric TiO and VO could provide the necessary energy source for at least some hot Jupiters. Fortney et al. in fact suggested that hot Jupiters might be spectroscopically classified on the basis of the presence or absence of these species into pM and pL spectral classes, analogously to ultracool dwarfs. However there are difficulties with this mechanism, most notably that TiO and VO may condense out into a refractory cloud layer relatively deeply in the atmosphere of even very hot giant planets. Guided by the prediction of Zahnle et al. (2009) that sulfur photochemistry will produce copious S2 in hot Jupiter atmospheres, we explore the heating potential of this and other photochemical species. We find that sulfur products, in at least some cases, may provide an important component of the stratospheric energy budget. This prediction may be tested by UV transit spectroscopy.

  2. Alternate propulsion energy sources. Final report, 3 March-21 September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Forward, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    This report contains a summary of the non-proprietary technical results of the referenced contract. The objective of the contract was to survey the entire field of advanced propulsion to uncover and carry out a technical assessment of any concept that showed promise of leading to a major advance in available energy sources for space power and propulsion in the next century. In general, any concept that might derive energy from the space environment was to be considered, as well as any unconventional methods of storing energy in a compact form that may have applicability to space power and propulsion. In Phase I, 64 concepts were uncovered and preliminary technical assessments were carried out on 28 of the more promising concepts. For Phase 2, it was recommended that further studies be carried out on solid metastable helium, solar heated plasmas, perforated solar sails, and antiproton annihilation propulsion. Of these, the Air Force selected two concepts to receive the major portion of the Phase 2 effort, solar heated plasmas and antiproton annihilation.

  3. Hybrid approaches to clinical trial monitoring: Practical alternatives to 100% source data verification

    PubMed Central

    De, Sourabh

    2011-01-01

    For years, a vast majority of clinical trial industry has followed the tenet of 100% source data verification (SDV). This has been driven partly by the overcautious approach to linking quality of data to the extent of monitoring and SDV and partly by being on the safer side of regulations. The regulations however, do not state any upper or lower limits of SDV. What it expects from researchers and the sponsors is methodologies which ensure data quality. How the industry does it is open to innovation and application of statistical methods, targeted and remote monitoring, real time reporting, adaptive monitoring schedules, etc. In short, hybrid approaches to monitoring. Coupled with concepts of optimum monitoring and SDV at site and off-site monitoring techniques, it should be possible to save time required to conduct SDV leading to more available time for other productive activities. Organizations stand to gain directly or indirectly from such savings, whether by diverting the funds back to the R&D pipeline; investing more in technology infrastructure to support large trials; or simply increasing sample size of trials. Whether it also affects the work-life balance of monitors who may then need to travel with a less hectic schedule for the same level of quality and productivity can be predicted only when there is more evidence from field. PMID:21897885

  4. Sources of (co)variation in alternative siring routes available to male great tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Araya-Ajoy, Yimen G; Kuhn, Sylvia; Mathot, Kimberley J; Mouchet, Alexia; Mutzel, Ariane; Nicolaus, Marion; Wijmenga, Jan J; Kempenaers, Bart; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2016-10-01

    Males of socially monogamous species can increase their siring success via within-pair and extra-pair fertilizations. In this study, we focused on the different sources of (co)variation between these siring routes, and asked how each contributes to total siring success. We quantified the fertilization routes to siring success, as well as behaviors that have been hypothesized to affect siring success, over a five-year period for a wild population of great tits Parus major. We considered siring success and its fertilization routes as "interactive phenotypes" arising from phenotypic contributions of both members of the social pair. We show that siring success is strongly affected by the fecundity of the social (female) partner. We also demonstrate that a strong positive correlation between extra-pair fertilization success and paternity loss likely constrains the evolution of these two routes. Moreover, we show that more explorative and aggressive males had less extra-pair fertilizations, whereas more explorative females laid larger clutches. This study thus demonstrates that (co)variation in siring routes is caused by multiple factors not necessarily related to characteristics of males. We thereby highlight the importance of acknowledging the multilevel structure of male fertilization routes when studying the evolution of male mating strategies.

  5. Cord Blood as a Source of Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rohtesh S.; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Rezvani, Katayoun

    2016-01-01

    Cord blood (CB) offers several unique advantages as a graft source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The risk of relapse and graft vs. host disease after cord blood transplantation (CBT) is lower than what is typically observed after other graft sources with a similar degree of human leukocyte antigen mismatch. Natural killer (NK) cells have a well-defined role in both innate and adaptive immunity and as the first lymphocytes to reconstitute after HSCT and CBT, and they play a significant role in protection against early relapse. In this article, we highlight the uses of CB NK cells in transplantation and adoptive immunotherapy. First, we will describe differences in the phenotype and functional characteristics of NK cells in CB as compared with peripheral blood. Then, we will review some of the obstacles we face in using resting CB NK cells for adoptive immunotherapy, and discuss methods to overcome them. We will review the current literature on killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors ligand mismatch and outcomes after CBT. Finally, we will touch on current strategies for the use of CB NK cells in cellular immunotherapy. PMID:26779484

  6. Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts of Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Satchwell, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2010-08-06

    Increased interest by state (and federal) policymakers and regulatory agencies in pursuing aggressive energy efficiency efforts could deliver significant utility bill savings for customers while having long-term implications for ratepayers (e.g. potential rate impacts). Equity and distributional concerns associated with the authorized recovery of energy efficiency program costs may necessitate the pursuit of alternative program funding approaches. In 2008, Massachusetts passed the Green Communities Act which directed its energy efficiency (EE) program administrators to obtain all cost-effective EE resources. This goal has translated into achieving annual electric energy savings equivalent to a 2.4% reduction in retail sales from energy efficiency programs in 2012. Representatives of electricity consumer groups supported the new portfolio of EE programs (and the projected bill savings) but raised concerns about the potential rate impacts associated with achieving such aggressive EE goals, leading policymakers to seek out alternative funding sources which can potentially mitigate these effects. Utility administrators have also raised concerns about under-recovery of fixed costs when aggressive energy efficiency programs are pursued and have proposed ratemaking policies (e.g. decoupling) and business models that better align the utility's financial interests with the state's energy efficiency public policy goals. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other states looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. We use a pro-forma utility financial model to quantify the bill and rate impacts on electricity customers when very aggressive annual energy efficiency savings goals ({approx}2.4%) are achieved over the long-term and also assess the impact of different

  7. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina; Redal, María Ana; Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shamy, Magdy; Muñoz, Manuel J.; and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  8. Novel design of high voltage pulse source for efficient dielectric barrier discharge generation by using silicon diodes for alternating current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Hoa Thi; Hayashi, Misaki; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Yasunori; Ishijima, Tatsuo

    2017-06-01

    This work focuses on design, construction, and optimization of configuration of a novel high voltage pulse power source for large-scale dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generation. The pulses were generated by using the high-speed switching characteristic of an inexpensive device called silicon diodes for alternating current and the self-terminated characteristic of DBD. The operation started to be powered by a primary DC low voltage power supply flexibly equipped with a commercial DC power supply, or a battery, or DC output of an independent photovoltaic system without transformer employment. This flexible connection to different types of primary power supply could provide a promising solution for the application of DBD, especially in the area without power grid connection. The simple modular structure, non-control requirement, transformer elimination, and a minimum number of levels in voltage conversion could lead to a reduction in size, weight, simple maintenance, low cost of installation, and high scalability of a DBD generator. The performance of this pulse source has been validated by a load of resistor. A good agreement between theoretically estimated and experimentally measured responses has been achieved. The pulse source has also been successfully applied for an efficient DBD plasma generation.

  9. Selenium bioaccumulation in shiitake mushrooms: a nutritional alternative source of this element.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Regiane Gonçalves Feitosa Leal; da Luz, Jose Maria R; Freitas, Rodrigo de B; Higuchi, Angela; Kasuya, Maria Catarina M; Vanetti, Maria Cristina D

    2012-09-01

    Mushrooms have effective mechanisms to absorb and accumulate trace elements from substrates and, therefore could be used as a strategy to produce mineral-enriched food and nutritional supplements. This study aimed to enrich shiitake mushrooms with selenium (Se), an important dietary element in human health. Strains of Lentinula edodes (Berk.) were grown on artificial logs composed of eucalyptus sawdust, and were subjected to cold shock in water containing sodium selenite (Na(2)SeO(3) ) at concentrations of up to 1.28 mM. The content of Se in the mushrooms increased linearly with increasing amounts of Na(2)SeO(3) added to the cold water although above 0.96 mM, mushroom formation was inhibited. Concentrations greater than 17 mg Se 100/g of dried mushrooms were observed after treatment with 0.64 mM Na(2)SeO(3). Shiitake mushroom had a demonstrate potential to offer an effective and economical way to produce Se-enriched products and, the strategy of adding selenite in cold water, used in this study, showed promising once it does not interfere with mycelial growth. Selenium is an essential trace element for both human and animals and is required for the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, which is used for the synthesis of about a dozen selenoenzymes. In this study, it is demonstrated that shiitake mushroom is a good Se accumulator and only one step during fructification was necessary to obtained enriched mushroom. Se enriched shiitake mushroom can be considered to be an excellent source of this element and used to consumption in different ways. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Biofabrication and Bone Tissue Regeneration: Cell Source, Approaches, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Orciani, Monia; Fini, Milena; Di Primio, Roberto; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The growing occurrence of bone disorders and the increase in aging population have resulted in the need for more effective therapies to meet this request. Bone tissue engineering strategies, by combining biomaterials, cells, and signaling factors, are seen as alternatives to conventional bone grafts for repairing or rebuilding bone defects. Indeed, skeletal tissue engineering has not yet achieved full translation into clinical practice because of several challenges. Bone biofabrication by additive manufacturing techniques may represent a possible solution, with its intrinsic capability for accuracy, reproducibility, and customization of scaffolds as well as cell and signaling molecule delivery. This review examines the existing research in bone biofabrication and the appropriate cells and factors selection for successful bone regeneration as well as limitations affecting these approaches. Challenges that need to be tackled with the highest priority are the obtainment of appropriate vascularized scaffolds with an accurate spatiotemporal biochemical and mechanical stimuli release, in order to improve osseointegration as well as osteogenesis.

  11. Biofabrication and Bone Tissue Regeneration: Cell Source, Approaches, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Orciani, Monia; Fini, Milena; Di Primio, Roberto; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The growing occurrence of bone disorders and the increase in aging population have resulted in the need for more effective therapies to meet this request. Bone tissue engineering strategies, by combining biomaterials, cells, and signaling factors, are seen as alternatives to conventional bone grafts for repairing or rebuilding bone defects. Indeed, skeletal tissue engineering has not yet achieved full translation into clinical practice because of several challenges. Bone biofabrication by additive manufacturing techniques may represent a possible solution, with its intrinsic capability for accuracy, reproducibility, and customization of scaffolds as well as cell and signaling molecule delivery. This review examines the existing research in bone biofabrication and the appropriate cells and factors selection for successful bone regeneration as well as limitations affecting these approaches. Challenges that need to be tackled with the highest priority are the obtainment of appropriate vascularized scaffolds with an accurate spatiotemporal biochemical and mechanical stimuli release, in order to improve osseointegration as well as osteogenesis. PMID:28386538

  12. CDK12 regulates alternative last exon mRNA splicing and promotes breast cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Tien, Jerry F; Mazloomian, Alborz; Cheng, S-W Grace; Hughes, Christopher S; Chow, Christalle C T; Canapi, Leanna T; Oloumi, Arusha; Trigo-Gonzalez, Genny; Bashashati, Ali; Xu, James; Chang, Vicky C-D; Shah, Sohrab P; Aparicio, Samuel; Morin, Gregg B

    2017-06-20

    CDK12 (cyclin-dependent kinase 12) is a regulatory kinase with evolutionarily conserved roles in modulating transcription elongation. Recent tumor genome studies of breast and ovarian cancers highlighted recurrent CDK12 mutations, which have been shown to disrupt DNA repair in cell-based assays. In breast cancers, CDK12 is also frequently co-amplified with the HER2 (ERBB2) oncogene. The mechanisms underlying functions of CDK12 in general and in cancer remain poorly defined. Based on global analysis of mRNA transcripts in normal and breast cancer cell lines with and without CDK12 amplification, we demonstrate that CDK12 primarily regulates alternative last exon (ALE) splicing, a specialized subtype of alternative mRNA splicing, that is both gene- and cell type-specific. These are unusual properties for spliceosome regulatory factors, which typically regulate multiple forms of alternative splicing in a global manner. In breast cancer cells, regulation by CDK12 modulates ALE splicing of the DNA damage response activator ATM and a DNAJB6 isoform that influences cell invasion and tumorigenesis in xenografts. We found that there is a direct correlation between CDK12 levels, DNAJB6 isoform levels and the migration capacity and invasiveness of breast tumor cells. This suggests that CDK12 gene amplification can contribute to the pathogenesis of the cancer. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. CDK12 regulates alternative last exon mRNA splicing and promotes breast cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Mazloomian, Alborz; Cheng, S.-W. Grace; Hughes, Christopher S.; Chow, Christalle C.T.; Canapi, Leanna T.; Oloumi, Arusha; Trigo-Gonzalez, Genny; Bashashati, Ali; Xu, James; Chang, Vicky C.-D.; Shah, Sohrab P.; Aparicio, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract CDK12 (cyclin-dependent kinase 12) is a regulatory kinase with evolutionarily conserved roles in modulating transcription elongation. Recent tumor genome studies of breast and ovarian cancers highlighted recurrent CDK12 mutations, which have been shown to disrupt DNA repair in cell-based assays. In breast cancers, CDK12 is also frequently co-amplified with the HER2 (ERBB2) oncogene. The mechanisms underlying functions of CDK12 in general and in cancer remain poorly defined. Based on global analysis of mRNA transcripts in normal and breast cancer cell lines with and without CDK12 amplification, we demonstrate that CDK12 primarily regulates alternative last exon (ALE) splicing, a specialized subtype of alternative mRNA splicing, that is both gene- and cell type-specific. These are unusual properties for spliceosome regulatory factors, which typically regulate multiple forms of alternative splicing in a global manner. In breast cancer cells, regulation by CDK12 modulates ALE splicing of the DNA damage response activator ATM and a DNAJB6 isoform that influences cell invasion and tumorigenesis in xenografts. We found that there is a direct correlation between CDK12 levels, DNAJB6 isoform levels and the migration capacity and invasiveness of breast tumor cells. This suggests that CDK12 gene amplification can contribute to the pathogenesis of the cancer. PMID:28334900

  14. Osteoarthritis-derived chondrocytes are a potential source of multipotent progenitor cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Oda, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Tadahiro; Hiraiwa, Hideki; Hamada, Takashi; Ono, Yohei; Nakashima, Motoshige; Ishizuka, Shinya; Matsukawa, Tetsuya; Yamashita, Satoshi; Tsuchiya, Saho; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-10-21

    The natural healing capacity of damaged articular cartilage is poor, rendering joint surface injuries a prime target for regenerative medicine. While autologous chondrocyte or mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) implantation can be applied to repair cartilage defects in young patients, no appropriate long-lasting treatment alternative is available for elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Multipotent progenitor cells are reported to present in adult human articular cartilage, with a preponderance in OA cartilage. These facts led us to hypothesize the possible use of osteoarthritis-derived chondrocytes as a cell source for cartilage tissue engineering. We therefore analyzed chondrocyte- and stem cell-related markers, cell growth rate, and multipotency in OA chondrocytes (OACs) and bone marrow-derived MSCs, along with normal articular chondrocytes (ACs) as a control. OACs demonstrated similar phenotype and proliferation rate to MSCs. Furthermore, OACs exhibited multilineage differentiation ability with a greater chondrogenic differentiation ability than MSCs, which was equivalent to ACs. We conclude that chondrogenic capacity is not significantly affected by OA, and OACs could be a potential source of multipotent progenitor cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Wastewater Filtration and Re-use: An Alternative Water Source for London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, J. D.; Blunt, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid growth and climate of the Greater London region have contributed towards large deficits in water supply. Inexpensive, energy-efficient and sustainable water resource schemes are increasingly sought as a means to boost supply. We propose a small-scale recycling scheme whereby tertiary-treated wastewater is pumped to the Cretaceous chalk of the London Basin. By taking advantage of the natural filtration properties of the underlying chalk, contaminants can be effectively attenuated over relatively short length scales to result in a useful complementary pure water source for such a densely populated area. First, we define two localities where such a pumping scheme might operate; regions of thick unsaturated zone and high chalk transmissivity are essential to ensure maximum contaminant removal and minimum environmental impact. Secondly, the effects of pumping fluid into the Chalk at the two localities are quantified using a finite-difference groundwater flow model. Thirdly, we consider the effect of fractures on channelling rapid fluid flow within the rock mass. By digitising a fracture map based upon outcrop measurements from chalk exposed on the southern coast similar to that beneath London, we are able to quantify the transport patterns of wastewater after injection. Imbibition to the chalk matrix (and therefore filtration) will occur where fluid pressure gradients are highest, for instance around fracture tips. Finally we inject an analogue `effluent' through a chalk core in the laboratory and perform ICP-AES analysis on the recovered solution, showing contaminant (viz. a suite of heavy metals) retardation or removal over relatively short time- and length-scales. Numerical and analytical solutions fit the data poorly, shedding some light on the importance of hydrodynamic dispersion on aqueous contaminants within chalk. We have been encouraged by (i) the success of other similar schemes worldwide in places as far apart (both physically and economically) as

  16. Alternative messenger RNA splicing of autophagic gene Beclin 1 in human B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yu-Na; Liu, Qing-Qing; Zhang, Su-Ping; Yuan, Na; Cao, Yan; Cai, Jin-Yang; Lin, Wei-Wei; Xu, Fei; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Bo; Wang, Jian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Beclin 1 is a key factor for initiation and regulation of autophagy, which is a cellular catabolic process involved in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of alternative splicing of Beclin1 in the regulation of autophagy in leukemia cells, Beclin1 mRNA from 6 different types of cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 2 healthy volunteers was reversely transcribed, subcloned, and screened for alternative splicing. New transcript variants were analyzed by DNA sequencing. A transcript variant of Beclin 1 gene carrying a deletion of exon 11, which encoded a C-terminal truncation of Beclin 1 isoform, was found. The alternative isoform was assessed by bioinformatics, immunoblotting and subcellular localization. The results showed that this variable transcript is generated by alternative 3' splicing, and its translational product displayed a reduced activity in induction of autophagy by starvation, indicating that the spliced isoform might function as a dominant negative modulator of autophagy. Our findings suggest that the alternative splicing of Beclin 1 might play important roles in leukemogenesis regulated by autophagy.

  17. Impact of dopant concentrations on emitter formation with spin on dopant source in n-type crystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, Bandana; Solanki, Chetan Singh

    2016-05-06

    Use of a suitable dopant source for emitter formation is an essential requirement in n-type crystalline silicon solar cells. Boron spin on dopant source, used as alternative to mostly used BBr{sub 3} liquid source, can yield an emitter with less diffusion induced defects under controlled conditions. Different concentrations of commercially available spin on dopant source is used and optimized in this work for sheet resistance values of the emitter ranging from 30 Ω/□ to 70 Ω/□ with emitter doping concentrations suitable for ohmic contacts. The dopant concentrations diluted with different ratios improves the carrier lifetime and thus improves the emitter performance. Hence use of suitable dopant source is essential in forming emitters in n-type crystalline silicon solar cells.

  18. The need for xenotransplantation as a source of organs and cells for clinical transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ekser, Burcin; Cooper, David K C; Tector, A Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The limited availability of deceased human organs and cells for the purposes of clinical transplantation remains critical worldwide. Despite the increasing utilization of 'high-risk', 'marginal', or 'extended criteria' deceased donors, in the U.S. each day 30 patients either die or are removed from the waiting list because they become too sick to undergo organ transplantation. In certain other countries, where there is cultural resistance to deceased donation, e.g., Japan, the increased utilization of living donors, e.g., of a single kidney or partial liver, only very partially addresses the organ shortage. For transplants of tissues and cells, e.g., pancreatic islet transplantation for patients with diabetes, and corneal transplantation for patients with corneal blindness (whose numbers worldwide are potentially in the millions), allotransplantation will never prove a sufficient source. There is an urgent need for an alternative source of organs and cells. The pig could prove to be a satisfactory source, and clinical xenotransplantation using pig organs or cells, particularly with the advantages provided by genetic engineering to provide resistance to the human immune response, may resolve the organ shortage. The physiologic compatibilities and incompatibilities of the pig and the human are briefly reviewed.

  19. THE NEED FOR XENOTRANSPLANTATION AS A SOURCE OF ORGANS AND CELLS FOR CLINICAL TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Ekser, Burcin; Cooper, David K.C.; Tector, A. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The limited availability of deceased human organs and cells for the purposes of clinical transplantation remains critical worldwide. Despite the increasing utilization of ‘high-risk’, ‘marginal’, or ‘extended criteria’ deceased donors, in the U.S. each day 30 patients either die or are removed from the waiting list because they become too sick to undergo organ transplantation. In certain other countries, where there is cultural resistance to deceased donation, e.g., Japan, the increased utilization of living donors, e.g., of a single kidney or partial liver, only very partially addresses the organ shortage. For transplants of tissues and cells, e.g., pancreatic islet transplantation for patients with diabetes, and corneal transplantation for patients with corneal blindness (whose numbers worldwide are potentially in the millions), allotransplantation will never prove a sufficient source. There is an urgent need for an alternative source of organs and cells. The pig could prove to be a satisfactory source, and clinical xenotransplantation using pig organs or cells, particularly with the advantages provided by genetic engineering to provide resistance to the human immune response, may resolve the organ shortage. The physiologic compatibilities and incompatibilities of the pig and the human are briefly reviewed. PMID:26188183

  20. Stem Cell Sources for Vascular Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the stem cell sources with the potential to be used in vascular tissue engineering and to promote vascular regeneration. The first clinical studies using tissue-engineered vascular grafts are already under way, supporting the potential of this technology in the treatment of cardiovascular and other diseases. Despite progress in engineering biomaterials with the appropriate mechanical properties and biological cues as well as bioreactors for generating the correct tissue microenvironment, the source of cells that make up the vascular tissues remains a major challenge for tissue engineers and physicians. Mature cells from the tissue of origin may be difficult to obtain and suffer from limited proliferative capacity, which may further decline as a function of donor age. On the other hand, multipotent and pluripotent stem cells have great potential to provide large numbers of autologous cells with a great differentiation capacity. Here, we discuss the adult multipotent as well as embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, their differentiation potential toward vascular lineages, and their use in engineering functional and implantable vascular tissues. We also discuss the associated challenges that need to be addressed in order to facilitate the transition of this technology from the bench to the bedside. PMID:22571595