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Sample records for alternative complement activation

  1. NETosing Neutrophils Activate Complement Both on Their Own NETs and Bacteria via Alternative and Non-alternative Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Joshua; Pluthero, Fred G.; Douda, David N.; Riedl, Magdalena; Cherry, Ahmed; Ulanova, Marina; Kahr, Walter H. A.; Palaniyar, Nades; Licht, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils deposit antimicrobial proteins, such as myeloperoxidase and proteases on chromatin, which they release as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils also carry key components of the complement alternative pathway (AP) such as properdin or complement factor P (CFP), complement factor B (CFB), and C3. However, the contribution of these complement components and complement activation during NET formation in the presence and absence of bacteria is poorly understood. We studied complement activation on NETs and a Gram-negative opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01, PAKwt, and PAKgfp). Here, we show that anaphylatoxin C5a, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), which activates NADPH oxidase, induce the release of CFP, CFB, and C3 from neutrophils. In response to PMA or P. aeruginosa, neutrophils secrete CFP, deposit it on NETs and bacteria, and induce the formation of terminal complement complexes (C5b–9). A blocking anti-CFP antibody inhibited AP-mediated but not non-AP-mediated complement activation on NETs and P. aeruginosa. Therefore, NET-mediated complement activation occurs via both AP- and non AP-based mechanisms, and AP-mediated complement activation during NETosis is dependent on CFP. These findings suggest that neutrophils could use their “AP tool kit” to readily activate complement on NETs and Gram-negative bacteria, such as P. aeruginosa, whereas additional components present in the serum help to fix non-AP-mediated complement both on NETs and bacteria. This unique mechanism may play important roles in host defense and help to explain specific roles of complement activation in NET-related diseases. PMID:27148258

  2. The quantitative role of alternative pathway amplification in classical pathway induced terminal complement activation.

    PubMed

    Harboe, M; Ulvund, G; Vien, L; Fung, M; Mollnes, T E

    2004-12-01

    Complement activation with formation of biologically potent mediators like C5a and the terminal C5b-9 complex (TCC) contributes essentially to development of inflammation and tissue damage in a number of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. A particular role for complement in the ischaemia/reperfusion injury of the heart, skeletal muscle, central nervous system, intestine and kidney has been suggested from animal studies. Previous experiments in C3 and C4 knockout mice suggested an important role of the classical or lectin pathway in initiation of complement activation during intestinal ischaemia/reperfusion injury while later use of factor D knockout mice showed the alternative pathway to be critically involved. We hypothesized that alternative pathway amplification might play a more critical role in classical pathway-induced C5 activation than previously recognized and used pathway-selective inhibitory mAbs to further elucidate the role of the alternative pathway. Here we demonstrate that selective blockade of the alternative pathway by neutralizing factor D in human serum diluted 1 : 2 with mAb 166-32 inhibited more than 80% of C5a and TCC formation induced by solid phase IgM and solid- and fluid-phase human aggregated IgG via the classical pathway. The findings emphasize the influence of alternative pathway amplification on the effect of initial classical pathway activation and the therapeutic potential of inhibiting the alternative pathway in clinical conditions with excessive and uncontrolled complement activation. PMID:15544620

  3. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, A.A.C.; Petroni, T.F.; Fedatto, P.F.; Bianchini, R.R.; Venancio, E.J.; Itano, E.N.; Ono, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50) hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p ≤ 0.05). This is the first report of dog alternative complement pathway activation by P. brasiliensis and suggests that it may play a protective role in canine paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:24031350

  4. Alternative pathway of complement activation in full term and premature infants.

    PubMed

    Strunk, R C; Fenton, L J; Gaines, J A

    1979-05-01

    Classical and alternative pathway complement levels were measured in the cord blood sera of 60 newly born infants, with weights ranging from 1200--4165 g. The impact of maternal illness and infant illness on the complement levels was also evaluated. The mean values for CH50, C3, C4, PH50, factor B, and properdin were all significantly less than normal adult levels (P less than 0.0001). All of the above determinations were significantly correlated with one another except for the relationship between properdin and factor B. CH50, PH50, C4, and properdin levels were significantly correlated with birth weight although there was much residual scatter. Neither maternal illness nor mild to moderate illness in the newborn altered the birth weight-complement relationships. Severe infant illness did significantly alter the relationship between birth weight and complement. However, the impact of this variable on the birth weight-complement relationships was not consistent among the various components. These inconsistencies and the small sample size preclude drawing any strong conclusions about severe illness and complement levels. PMID:471596

  5. Alternative pathway of complement activation in full term and premature infants.

    PubMed

    Strunk, R C; Fenton, L J; Gaines, J A

    1979-05-01

    Classical and alternative pathway complement levels were measured in the cord blood sera of 60 newly born infants, with weights ranging from 1200--4165 g. The impact of maternal illness and infant illness on the complement levels was also evaluated. The mean values for CH50, C3, C4, PH50, factor B, and properdin were all significantly less than normal adult levels (P less than 0.0001). All of the above determinations were significantly correlated with one another except for the relationship between properdin and factor B. CH50, PH50, C4, and properdin levels were significantly correlated with birth weight although there was much residual scatter. Neither maternal illness nor mild to moderate illness in the newborn altered the birth weight-complement relationships. Severe infant illness did significantly alter the relationship between birth weight and complement. However, the impact of this variable on the birth weight-complement relationships was not consistent among the various components. These inconsistencies and the small sample size preclude drawing any strong conclusions about severe illness and complement levels.

  6. Activation of the alternative complement pathway by exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine on erythrocytes from sickle cell disease patients.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, R H; Phillips, G; Medof, M E; Mold, C

    1993-01-01

    Deoxygenation of erythrocytes from sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients alters membrane phospholipid distribution with increased exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer leaflet. This study investigated whether altered membrane phospholipid exposure on sickle erythrocytes results in complement activation. In vitro deoxygenation of sickle but not normal erythrocytes resulted in complement activation measured by C3 binding. Additional evidence indicated that this activation was the result of the alterations in membrane phospholipids. First, complement was activated by normal erythrocytes after incubation with sodium tetrathionate, which produces similar phospholipid changes. Second, antibody was not required for complement activation by sickle or tetrathionate-treated erythrocytes. Third, the membrane regulatory proteins, decay-accelerating factor (CD55) and the C3b/C4b receptor (CD35), were normal on sickle and tetrathionate-treated erythrocytes. Finally, insertion of PE or PS into normal erythrocytes induced alternative pathway activation. SCA patients in crisis exhibited increased plasma factor Bb levels compared with baseline, and erythrocytes isolated from hospitalized SCA patients had increased levels of bound C3, indicating that alternative pathway activation occurs in vivo. Activation of complement may be a contributing factor in sickle crisis episodes, shortening the life span of erythrocytes and decreasing host defense against infections. Images PMID:7690777

  7. Activation of the alternative complement pathway by natural antibody to glycolipids in guinea-pig serum.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, N; Yasuda, T; Tsumita, T; Okada, H

    1983-01-01

    Liposomes containing paragloboside (PG) on their membrane were readily lysed by C4-deficient guinea-pig serum (C4D-GPS) through activation of the alternative complement pathway (ACP). Therefore we examined the reactivity of several types of guinea-pig serum (GPS) on PG-liposomes and determined that all GPS except that from specific pathogen-free (SPF) Hartley guinea-pigs had lytic capacity in Mg-EGTA-GVB (gelatin veronal-buffered saline containing Mg++ and ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetraacetate). This lytic capacity of GPS corresponded with the amount of natural antibody to PG in those sera. Although GPS of SPF guinea-pigs (SPF-GPS) could not lyse PG-liposomes in Mg-EGTA-GVB, it could lyse the liposomes when heated C4D-GPS or Hartley GPS was added. Natural antibody to PG in the heated sera was regarded to have sensitized PG-liposomes to lysis by SPF-GPS via ACP activation. Since the antibody to PG-liposomes was removed by lacto-N-nor-hexaosylceramide which has the same chemical structure in the terminal oligosaccharide, the antibody to PG in GPS was suggested to have a specificity to the terminal structure of oligosaccharide shared by lacto-N-nor-hexaosylceramide. Furthermore, the IgM fraction, which had been prepared by gel filtration of heated C4D-GPS on a Sephadex G200 column, could also sensitize PG-liposomes to lytic reaction of SPF-GPS in Mg-EGTA-GVB. This sensitizing capacity of heated C4D-GPS was suppressed by absorption of the serum or its IgM fraction with anti-guinea-pig mu-chain antibody coupled to Sepharose. Therefore, it was concluded that the lysis of PG-liposomes by GPS in Mg-EGTA-GVB was a result of ACP activation mediated by natural antibodies to PG of the IgM type which are present in usual GPS. This conclusion indicated that natural antibodies of the IgM type might play a role with ACP in host defence, especially in C4-deficient guinea-pigs where the classical complement pathway is impaired. PMID:6193057

  8. Alternative Pathway Dysregulation and the Conundrum of Complement Activation by IgG4 Immune Complexes in Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN), a major cause of nephrotic syndrome, is a non-inflammatory immune kidney disease mediated by IgG antibodies that form glomerular subepithelial immune complexes. In primary MN, autoantibodies target proteins expressed on the podocyte surface, often phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1). Pathology is driven by complement activation, leading to podocyte injury and proteinuria. This article overviews the mechanisms of complement activation and regulation in MN, addressing the paradox that anti-PLA2R1 and other antibodies causing primary MN are predominantly (but not exclusively) IgG4, an IgG subclass that does not fix complement. Besides immune complexes, alterations of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in MN may lead to impaired regulation of the alternative pathway (AP). The AP amplifies complement activation on surfaces insufficiently protected by complement regulatory proteins. Whereas podocytes are protected by cell-bound regulators, the GBM must recruit plasma factor H, which inhibits the AP on host surfaces carrying certain polyanions, such as heparan sulfate (HS) chains. Because HS chains present in the normal GBM are lost in MN, we posit that the local complement regulation by factor H may be impaired as a result. Thus, the loss of GBM HS in MN creates a micro-environment that promotes local amplification of complement activation, which in turn may be initiated via the classical or lectin pathways by subsets of IgG in immune complexes. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of complement activation and dysregulation in MN is important for designing more effective therapies. PMID:27199983

  9. Antibody directs properdin-dependent activation of the complement alternative pathway in a mouse model of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui-Fang; Yan, Huimin; Stover, Cordula M; Fernandez, Tamara Montes; Rodriguez de Cordoba, Santiago; Song, Wen-Chao; Wu, Xiaobo; Thompson, Robert W; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Atkinson, John P; Hourcade, Dennis E; Pham, Christine T N

    2012-02-14

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex inflammatory vascular disease. There are currently limited treatment options for AAA when surgery is inapplicable. Therefore, insights into molecular mechanisms underlying AAA pathogenesis may reveal therapeutic targets that could be manipulated pharmacologically or biologically to halt disease progression. Using an elastase-induced AAA mouse model, we previously established that the complement alternative pathway (AP) plays a critical role in the development of AAA. However, the mechanism by which complement AP is initiated remains undefined. The complement protein properdin, traditionally viewed as a positive regulator of the AP, may also initiate complement activation by binding directly to target surfaces. In this study, we sought to determine whether properdin serves as a focal point for the initiation of the AP complement activation in AAA. Using a properdin loss of function mutation in mice and a mutant form of the complement factor B protein that produces a stable, properdin-free AP C3 convertase, we show that properdin is required for the development of elastase-induced AAA in its primary role as a convertase stabilizer. Unexpectedly, we find that, in AAA, natural IgG antibodies direct AP-mediated complement activation. The absence of IgG abrogates C3 deposition in elastase-perfused aortic wall and protects animals from AAA development. We also determine that blockade of properdin activity prevents aneurysm formation. These results indicate that an innate immune response to self-antigens activates the complement system and initiates the inflammatory cascade in AAA. Moreover, the study suggests that properdin-targeting strategies may halt aneurysmal growth.

  10. TNF Regulates Essential Alternative Complement Pathway Components and Impairs Activation of Protein C in Human Glomerular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sartain, Sarah E; Turner, Nancy A; Moake, Joel L

    2016-01-15

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy with severe renal injury secondary to an overactive alternative complement pathway (AP). aHUS episodes are often initiated or recur during inflammation. We investigated gene expression of the surface complement regulatory proteins (CD55, CD59, CD46, and CD141 [thrombomodulin]) and AP components in human glomerular microvascular endothelial cells (GMVECs) and in HUVECs, a frequently used investigational model of endothelial cells. Surface complement regulatory proteins were also quantified by flow cytometry. All experiments were done with and without exposure to IL-1β or TNF. Without cytokine stimulation, we found that GMVECs had greater AP activation than did HUVECs. With TNF stimulation, THBD gene expression and corresponding CD141 surface presence in HUVECs and GMVECs were reduced, and gene expression of complement components C3 (C3) and factor B (CFB) was increased. Consequently, AP activation, measured by Ba production, was increased, and conversion of protein C (PC) to activated PC by CD141-bound thrombin was decreased, in GMVECs and HUVECs exposed to TNF. IL-1β had similar, albeit lesser, effects on HUVEC gene expression, and it only slightly affected GMVEC gene expression. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of the expression/display of AP components and surface regulatory proteins in GMVECs with and without cytokine stimulation. In aHUS patients with an underlying overactive AP, additional stimulation of the AP and inhibition of activated PC-mediated anticoagulation in GMVECs by the inflammatory cytokine TNF are likely to provoke episodes of renal failure. PMID:26673143

  11. Immunologic Defect of the Alternate Pathway-of-Complement Activation Postsplenectomy: A Possible Relation Between Splenectomy and Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Ciutiis, Alfred; Polley, Margaret J.; Metakis, Linda J.; Peterson, Charles M.

    1978-01-01

    Total hemolytic complement (CH50) and activation of the alternate mechanism were measured in eight patients before and after splenectomy and compared to similar measurements made in a control group of patients following other abdominal surgery. In the splenectomy group, alternate-pathway-mediated activation of C3 was significantly different from the controls. The mean five-day postsplenectomy value of 16 percent for the immunoelectrophoretic conversion of C3 to C3i was depressed (p<0.001) from the presplenectomy value of 85 percent and five-month postsplenectomy level of 71 percent (p<0.01). The difference between presplenectomy and five-month postsplenectomy values was not significant. Further, activation of C3 in patients five days postsplenectomy was significantly less (p<0.01) than in the five-day postoperative controls. In both the splenectomized patients and control group, five-day postoperative determinations indicated an increase in CH50 values and a decrease in degree of activation of Factor B. The spleen appears to manufacture certain substances required for activation of C3 via the alternate mechanism. That the manufacture is eventually assumed by other immune-competent organs is shown by the eventual increase of activation toward preoperative levels five months postsplenectomy. This defect in C3 activation may account for the tendency of splenectomized patients to have an increased incidence of bacterial infections and sepsis in the postoperative period. PMID:702600

  12. Soluble Collectin-12 (CL-12) Is a Pattern Recognition Molecule Initiating Complement Activation via the Alternative Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying Jie; Hein, Estrid; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Bayarri-Olmos, Rafael; Romani, Luigina; Garred, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Soluble defense collagens including the collectins play important roles in innate immunity. Recently, a new member of the collectin family named collectin-12 (CL-12 or CL-P1) has been identified. CL-12 is highly expressed in umbilical cord vascular endothelial cells as a transmembrane receptor and may recognize certain bacteria and fungi, leading to opsonophagocytosis. However, based on its structural and functional similarities with soluble collectins, we hypothesized the existence of a fluid-phase analog of CL-12 released from cells, which may function as a soluble pattern-recognition molecule. Using recombinant CL-12 full length or CL-12 extracellular domain, we determined the occurrence of soluble CL-12 shed from in vitro cultured cells. Western blot showed that soluble recombinant CL-12 migrated with a band corresponding to ∼ 120 kDa under reducing conditions, whereas under nonreducing conditions it presented multimeric assembly forms. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis of human umbilical cord plasma enabled identification of a natural soluble form of CL-12 having an electrophoretic mobility pattern close to that of shed soluble recombinant CL-12. Soluble CL-12 could recognize Aspergillus fumigatus partially through the carbohydrate-recognition domain in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. This led to activation of the alternative pathway of complement exclusively via association with properdin on A. fumigatus as validated by detection of C3b deposition and formation of the terminal complement complex. These results demonstrate the existence of CL-12 in a soluble form and indicate a novel mechanism by which the alternative pathway of complement may be triggered directly by a soluble pattern-recognition molecule.

  13. Alternative pathway of complement activation by stimulated T lymphocytes. II. Elevation of cytotoxic potential against complement receptor-carrying cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ramos, O F; Sármay, G; Eggertsen, G; Nilsson, B; Klein, E; Gergely, J

    1987-07-01

    Exposure of lectin-stimulated (concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen) blood lymphocytes to human serum or to purified C3 increased their cytotoxic capacity towards complement receptor positive targets such as Raji and Daudi cells. The lysis of complement receptor-negative lymphoblastoid cell lines was not influenced. The lytic capacity of lymphocytes exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate was not elevated by human serum. Lectin-stimulated lymphocytes were previously shown to activate and bind C3. The results using lymphocytes activated in different ways and targets with or without complement receptor expression suggest that the C3b deposited on lymphocytes binds to the complement receptor on the targets. This contact elevates the avidity between the two cells as indicated also by the increased frequency of the lymphocyte-target conjugates. On the basis of immune adherence the C3 fragment bound on the lymphocytes was identified as C3b. The increase of the conjugate formation and cytotoxicity was abrogated when the target cells, Raji, were pre-exposed to purified C3d which occupy the CR2 receptor. The majority of lymphocytes responsible for the cytotoxicity were CD8+. PMID:3111863

  14. Regulation of C3 Activation by the Alternative Complement Pathway in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jennifer A. E.; Stampoulis, Dimitris; Gunter, Chloe E.; Greenwood, John; Adamson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the retinas of mice carrying hemizygous and null double deletions of Cfb-/- and Cfh-/-, and to compare these with the single knockouts of Cfb, Cfh and Cfd. Retinas were isolated from wild type (WT), Cfb-/-/Cfh-/-, Cfb-/-/Cfh+/-, Cfh-/-/Cfb+/-, Cfb-/-, Cfh-/- Cfd-/-, and Cfd+/- mice. Complement proteins were evaluated by western blotting, ELISA and immunocytochemistry, and retinal morphology was assessed using toluidine blue stained semi-thin sections. WT mice showed staining for C3 and its breakdown products in the retinal vasculature and the basal surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cfb-/- mice exhibited a similar C3 staining pattern to WT in the retinal vessels but a decrease in C3 and its breakdown products at the basal surface of the RPE. Deletion of both Cfb and Cfh restored C3 to levels similar to those observed in WT mice, however this reversal of phenotype was not observed in Cfh-/-/Cfb+/- or Cfb-/-/Cfh+/- mice. Loss of CFD caused an increase in C3 and a decrease in C3 breakdown products along the basal surface of the RPE. Overall the retinal morphology and retinal vasculature did not appear different across the various genotypes. We observed that C3 accumulates at the basal RPE in Cfb-/-, Cfb-/-/Cfh-/-, Cfb-/-/Cfh+/-, Cfd-/- and WT mice, but is absent in Cfh-/- and Cfh-/-/Cfb+/- mice, consistent with its consumption in the serum of mice lacking CFH when CFB is present. C3 breakdown products along the surface of the RPE were either decreased or absent when CFB, CFH or CFD was deleted or partially deleted. PMID:27564415

  15. Regulation of C3 Activation by the Alternative Complement Pathway in the Mouse Retina.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jennifer A E; Stampoulis, Dimitris; Gunter, Chloe E; Greenwood, John; Adamson, Peter; Moss, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the retinas of mice carrying hemizygous and null double deletions of Cfb-/- and Cfh-/-, and to compare these with the single knockouts of Cfb, Cfh and Cfd. Retinas were isolated from wild type (WT), Cfb-/-/Cfh-/-, Cfb-/-/Cfh+/-, Cfh-/-/Cfb+/-, Cfb-/-, Cfh-/- Cfd-/-, and Cfd+/- mice. Complement proteins were evaluated by western blotting, ELISA and immunocytochemistry, and retinal morphology was assessed using toluidine blue stained semi-thin sections. WT mice showed staining for C3 and its breakdown products in the retinal vasculature and the basal surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cfb-/- mice exhibited a similar C3 staining pattern to WT in the retinal vessels but a decrease in C3 and its breakdown products at the basal surface of the RPE. Deletion of both Cfb and Cfh restored C3 to levels similar to those observed in WT mice, however this reversal of phenotype was not observed in Cfh-/-/Cfb+/- or Cfb-/-/Cfh+/- mice. Loss of CFD caused an increase in C3 and a decrease in C3 breakdown products along the basal surface of the RPE. Overall the retinal morphology and retinal vasculature did not appear different across the various genotypes. We observed that C3 accumulates at the basal RPE in Cfb-/-, Cfb-/-/Cfh-/-, Cfb-/-/Cfh+/-, Cfd-/- and WT mice, but is absent in Cfh-/- and Cfh-/-/Cfb+/- mice, consistent with its consumption in the serum of mice lacking CFH when CFB is present. C3 breakdown products along the surface of the RPE were either decreased or absent when CFB, CFH or CFD was deleted or partially deleted. PMID:27564415

  16. MASP-3 is the exclusive pro-factor D activator in resting blood: the lectin and the alternative complement pathways are fundamentally linked

    PubMed Central

    Dobó, József; Szakács, Dávid; Oroszlán, Gábor; Kortvely, Elod; Kiss, Bence; Boros, Eszter; Szász, Róbert; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter; Pál, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    MASP-3 was discovered 15 years ago as the third mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease of the complement lectin pathway. Lacking any verified substrate its role remained ambiguous. MASP-3 was shown to compete with a key lectin pathway enzyme MASP-2 for MBL binding, and was therefore considered to be a negative complement regulator. Later, knock-out mice experiments suggested that MASP-1 and/or MASP-3 play important roles in complement pro-factor D (pro-FD) maturation. However, studies on a MASP-1/MASP-3-deficient human patient produced contradicting results. In normal resting blood unperturbed by ongoing coagulation or complement activation, factor D is present predominantly in its active form, suggesting that resting blood contains at least one pro-FD activating proteinase that is not a direct initiator of coagulation or complement activation. We have recently showed that all three MASPs can activate pro-FD in vitro. In resting blood, however, using our previously evolved MASP-1 and MASP-2 inhibitors we proved that neither MASP-1 nor MASP-2 activates pro-FD. Other plasma proteinases, particularly MASP-3, remained candidates for that function. For this study we evolved a specific MASP-3 inhibitor and unambiguously proved that activated MASP-3 is the exclusive pro-FD activator in resting blood, which demonstrates a fundamental link between the lectin and alternative pathways. PMID:27535802

  17. MASP-3 is the exclusive pro-factor D activator in resting blood: the lectin and the alternative complement pathways are fundamentally linked.

    PubMed

    Dobó, József; Szakács, Dávid; Oroszlán, Gábor; Kortvely, Elod; Kiss, Bence; Boros, Eszter; Szász, Róbert; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter; Pál, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    MASP-3 was discovered 15 years ago as the third mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease of the complement lectin pathway. Lacking any verified substrate its role remained ambiguous. MASP-3 was shown to compete with a key lectin pathway enzyme MASP-2 for MBL binding, and was therefore considered to be a negative complement regulator. Later, knock-out mice experiments suggested that MASP-1 and/or MASP-3 play important roles in complement pro-factor D (pro-FD) maturation. However, studies on a MASP-1/MASP-3-deficient human patient produced contradicting results. In normal resting blood unperturbed by ongoing coagulation or complement activation, factor D is present predominantly in its active form, suggesting that resting blood contains at least one pro-FD activating proteinase that is not a direct initiator of coagulation or complement activation. We have recently showed that all three MASPs can activate pro-FD in vitro. In resting blood, however, using our previously evolved MASP-1 and MASP-2 inhibitors we proved that neither MASP-1 nor MASP-2 activates pro-FD. Other plasma proteinases, particularly MASP-3, remained candidates for that function. For this study we evolved a specific MASP-3 inhibitor and unambiguously proved that activated MASP-3 is the exclusive pro-FD activator in resting blood, which demonstrates a fundamental link between the lectin and alternative pathways.

  18. MASP-3 is the exclusive pro-factor D activator in resting blood: the lectin and the alternative complement pathways are fundamentally linked.

    PubMed

    Dobó, József; Szakács, Dávid; Oroszlán, Gábor; Kortvely, Elod; Kiss, Bence; Boros, Eszter; Szász, Róbert; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter; Pál, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    MASP-3 was discovered 15 years ago as the third mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease of the complement lectin pathway. Lacking any verified substrate its role remained ambiguous. MASP-3 was shown to compete with a key lectin pathway enzyme MASP-2 for MBL binding, and was therefore considered to be a negative complement regulator. Later, knock-out mice experiments suggested that MASP-1 and/or MASP-3 play important roles in complement pro-factor D (pro-FD) maturation. However, studies on a MASP-1/MASP-3-deficient human patient produced contradicting results. In normal resting blood unperturbed by ongoing coagulation or complement activation, factor D is present predominantly in its active form, suggesting that resting blood contains at least one pro-FD activating proteinase that is not a direct initiator of coagulation or complement activation. We have recently showed that all three MASPs can activate pro-FD in vitro. In resting blood, however, using our previously evolved MASP-1 and MASP-2 inhibitors we proved that neither MASP-1 nor MASP-2 activates pro-FD. Other plasma proteinases, particularly MASP-3, remained candidates for that function. For this study we evolved a specific MASP-3 inhibitor and unambiguously proved that activated MASP-3 is the exclusive pro-FD activator in resting blood, which demonstrates a fundamental link between the lectin and alternative pathways. PMID:27535802

  19. Quantitative Modeling of the Alternative Pathway of the Complement System

    PubMed Central

    Dorado, Angel; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is an integral part of innate immunity that detects and eliminates invading pathogens through a cascade of reactions. The destructive effects of the complement activation on host cells are inhibited through versatile regulators that are present in plasma and bound to membranes. Impairment in the capacity of these regulators to function in the proper manner results in autoimmune diseases. To better understand the delicate balance between complement activation and regulation, we have developed a comprehensive quantitative model of the alternative pathway. Our model incorporates a system of ordinary differential equations that describes the dynamics of the four steps of the alternative pathway under physiological conditions: (i) initiation (fluid phase), (ii) amplification (surfaces), (iii) termination (pathogen), and (iv) regulation (host cell and fluid phase). We have examined complement activation and regulation on different surfaces, using the cellular dimensions of a characteristic bacterium (E. coli) and host cell (human erythrocyte). In addition, we have incorporated neutrophil-secreted properdin into the model highlighting the cross talk of neutrophils with the alternative pathway in coordinating innate immunity. Our study yields a series of time-dependent response data for all alternative pathway proteins, fragments, and complexes. We demonstrate the robustness of alternative pathway on the surface of pathogens in which complement components were able to saturate the entire region in about 54 minutes, while occupying less than one percent on host cells at the same time period. Our model reveals that tight regulation of complement starts in fluid phase in which propagation of the alternative pathway was inhibited through the dismantlement of fluid phase convertases. Our model also depicts the intricate role that properdin released from neutrophils plays in initiating and propagating the alternative pathway during bacterial infection. PMID

  20. Quantitative Modeling of the Alternative Pathway of the Complement System.

    PubMed

    Zewde, Nehemiah; Gorham, Ronald D; Dorado, Angel; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is an integral part of innate immunity that detects and eliminates invading pathogens through a cascade of reactions. The destructive effects of the complement activation on host cells are inhibited through versatile regulators that are present in plasma and bound to membranes. Impairment in the capacity of these regulators to function in the proper manner results in autoimmune diseases. To better understand the delicate balance between complement activation and regulation, we have developed a comprehensive quantitative model of the alternative pathway. Our model incorporates a system of ordinary differential equations that describes the dynamics of the four steps of the alternative pathway under physiological conditions: (i) initiation (fluid phase), (ii) amplification (surfaces), (iii) termination (pathogen), and (iv) regulation (host cell and fluid phase). We have examined complement activation and regulation on different surfaces, using the cellular dimensions of a characteristic bacterium (E. coli) and host cell (human erythrocyte). In addition, we have incorporated neutrophil-secreted properdin into the model highlighting the cross talk of neutrophils with the alternative pathway in coordinating innate immunity. Our study yields a series of time-dependent response data for all alternative pathway proteins, fragments, and complexes. We demonstrate the robustness of alternative pathway on the surface of pathogens in which complement components were able to saturate the entire region in about 54 minutes, while occupying less than one percent on host cells at the same time period. Our model reveals that tight regulation of complement starts in fluid phase in which propagation of the alternative pathway was inhibited through the dismantlement of fluid phase convertases. Our model also depicts the intricate role that properdin released from neutrophils plays in initiating and propagating the alternative pathway during bacterial infection.

  1. Properdin in complement activation and tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Lesher, Allison M; Nilsson, Bo; Song, Wen-Chao

    2013-12-15

    The plasma protein properdin is the only known positive regulator of complement activation. Although regarded as an initiator of the alternative pathway of complement activation at the time of its discovery more than a half century ago, the role and mechanism of action of properdin in the complement cascade has undergone significant conceptual evolution since then. Despite the long history of research on properdin, however, new insight and unexpected findings on the role of properdin in complement activation, pathogen infection and host tissue injury are still being revealed by ongoing investigations. In this article, we provide a brief review on recent studies that shed new light on properdin biology, focusing on the following three topics: (1) its role as a pattern recognition molecule to direct and trigger complement activation, (2) its context-dependent requirement in complement activation on foreign and host cell surfaces, and (3) its involvement in alternative pathway complement-mediated immune disorders and considerations of properdin as a potential therapeutic target in human diseases.

  2. Alternative complement pathway activation is essential for inflammation and joint destruction in the passive transfer model of collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Banda, Nirmal K; Thurman, Joshua M; Kraus, Damian; Wood, Allyson; Carroll, Michael C; Arend, William P; Holers, V Michael

    2006-08-01

    Activation of each complement initiation pathway (classical, alternative, and lectin) can lead to the generation of bioactive fragments with resulting inflammation in target organs. The objective of the current study was to determine the role of specific complement activation pathways in the pathogenesis of experimental anti-type II collagen mAb-passive transfer arthritis. C57BL/6 mice were used that were genetically deficient in either the alternative pathway protein factor B (Bf(-/-)) or in the classical pathway component C4 (C4(-/-)). Clinical disease activity was markedly decreased in Bf(-/-) compared with wild-type (WT) mice (0.5 +/- 0.22 (n = 6) in Bf(-/-) vs 8.83 +/- 0.41 (n = 6) in WT mice (p < 0.0001)). Disease activity scores were not different between C4(-/-) and WT mice. Analyses of joints showed that C3 deposition, inflammation, pannus, cartilage, and bone damage scores were all significantly less in Bf(-/-) as compared with WT mice. There were significant decreases in mRNA levels of C3, C4, CR2, CR3, C3aR, and C5aR in the knees of Bf(-/-) as compared with C4(-/-) and WT mice with arthritis; mRNA levels for complement regulatory proteins did not differ between the three strains. These results indicate that the alternative pathway is absolutely required for the induction of arthritis following injection of anti-collagen Abs. The mechanisms by which these target organ-specific mAbs bypass the requirements for engagement of the classical pathway remain to be defined but do not appear to involve a lack of alternative pathway regulatory proteins. PMID:16849503

  3. Complement activation in chronic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, L E; De Villiers, D; Markham, D; Whaley, K; Thomas, H C

    1982-01-01

    Patients with HBsAg positive chronic active liver disease (CALD) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) exhibit increased C3d concentrations and changes in the serum concentrations of the complement components consistent with activation of the classical and alternative pathways. In these patients the concentrations of the regulatory proteins, C3b inactivator (C3bINA) and beta IH globulin, are normal. Patients with HBsAg negative CALD and alcohol induced liver disease (ALD) exhibit no evidence of an increased level of complement system activation. In these patients diminished serum concentrations of complement components appear to be related to diminished hepatic synthetic function. C4 synthesis may be specifically reduced in autoimmune chronic active liver disease. PMID:7083631

  4. Ixodes dammini: salivary anti-complement activity.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J M

    1987-12-01

    Saliva of the tick Ixodes dammini prevents hemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes by the human alternative pathway of complement. Deposition of C3b to activating surfaces and concomitant C3a release are inhibited. C3b deposition to activating surfaces is inhibited regardless the origin (humans, rat, mouse, guinea pig, and hamster) of the serum. The inhibitor elutes as a single peak upon gel filtration, with an apparent molecular weight of 49,000. Salivary anti-complement may contribute to successful feeding of I. dammini in their natural hosts. PMID:3119364

  5. Complement activation in discordant hepatic xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Tector, A J; Chen, X; Soderland, C; Tchervenkov, J I

    1998-11-01

    Little is known about hyperacute rejection in hepatic xenotransplantation. Information from clinical xenoperfusions suggests that the liver may be rejected by a mechanism less vigorous than either kidney or heart xenografts. We used the in vitro model of porcine hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (PHEC) incubated with either complement replete or deficient human serum to determine the relative roles of the classical and alternate pathways of complement in the immediate response to hepatic xenotransplantation. Our results suggest that either the classical or alternate pathways are capable of independently activating the complement cascade upon exposure to the porcine hepatic sinusoidal endothelium. Our results also imply that either pathway alone is capable of initiating similar degrees of injury as the entire cascade. PMID:9915253

  6. Alternative Complement Pathway Deregulation Is Correlated with Dengue Severity

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Silva, Ana M.; Cordeiro, Marli T.; Brito, Carlos A.; Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Braga-Neto, Ulisses; Marques, Ernesto T. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The complement system, a key component that links the innate and adaptive immune responses, has three pathways: the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways. In the present study, we have analyzed the levels of various complement components in blood samples from dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients and found that the level of complement activation is associated with disease severity. Methods and Results Patients with DHF had lower levels of complement factor 3 (C3; p = 0.002) and increased levels of C3a, C4a and C5a (p<0.0001) when compared to those with the less severe form, DF. There were no significant differences between DF and DHF patients in the levels of C1q, immunocomplexes (CIC-CIq) and CRP. However, small but statistically significant differences were detected in the levels of MBL. In contrast, the levels of two regulatory proteins of the alternative pathway varied widely between DF and DHF patients: DHF patients had higher levels of factor D (p = 0.01), which cleaves factor B to yield the active (C3bBb) C3 convertase, and lower levels of factor H (p = 0.03), which inactivates the (C3bBb) C3 convertase, than did DF patients. When we considered the levels of factors D and H together as an indicator of (C3bBb) C3 convertase regulation, we found that the plasma levels of these regulatory proteins in DHF patients favored the formation of the (C3bBb) C3 convertase, whereas its formation was inhibited in DF patients (p<0.0001). Conclusion The data suggest that an imbalance in the levels of regulatory factors D and H is associated with an abnormal regulation of complement activity in DHF patients. PMID:19707565

  7. Activation of Complement Following Total Hip Replacement.

    PubMed

    Thordardottir, S; Vikingsdottir, T; Bjarnadottir, H; Jonsson, H; Gudbjornsson, B

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether complement activation, via the classical and alternative pathways, occurs following a cemented total hip replacement (THR) surgery due to osteoarthritis. Blood samples were collected systematically from 12 patients - six male and six women, with a median age of 75 (range: 59-90 years) - preoperatively, 6 h post-operatively and on the first, second and third post-operative day. Total function of classical (CH50) and alternative pathways (AH50) was evaluated, along with the determination of serum concentrations of the complement proteins C3, C4, C3d, the soluble terminal complement complex (sTCC) sC5b-9, as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin. Measurements of CRP and albumin levels elucidated a marked inflammatory response following the operation. The CH50, AH50 and C3 and C4 levels were significantly lower 6 h after the surgery compared with the preoperative levels, but elevated above the preoperative levels during the following 3 days. The complement activation product C3d levels increased continually during the whole observation period, from 13.5 AU/ml (range: 8-19 AU/ml) preoperative to 20 AU/ml (range: 12-34 AU/ml) on the third post-operative day. Furthermore, we observed an increase in the sC5b-9 levels between the preoperative and the third post-operative day. These results demonstrate a significant activation of the complement system following cemented THR. Further studies are needed to elucidate the time frame and the pathogenic role of this observed complement activation.

  8. Dual modulating functions of thrombomodulin in the alternative complement pathway.

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Koichiro; Imaoka, Mio; Matsushita, Misao

    2016-07-19

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is a transmembrane protein expressed on vascular endothelial cells. TM has anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. It has recently been reported that TM modulates complement, an immune effector system that destroys pathogens and is also involved in inflammation. TM was demonstrated to enhance the degradation of C3b into iC3b by factor I and factor H, indicating that its role is in negative regulation in the alternative pathway of the complement system. In this study, we examined the effects of recombinant human soluble TM protein composed of the extracellular domains (rTM) on the alternative pathway. The degradation of C3b into iC3b by factor I and factor H was enhanced by rTM as assessed by SDS-PAGE, confirming the previous observation. We also found that rTM enhances the cleavage of C3 into C3b as a result of activation of the alternative pathway. These results indicate that TM has both activating and inactivating functions in the alternative pathway. PMID:27210597

  9. Complement

    MedlinePlus

    ... in: Cancer Certain infections Ulcerative colitis Decreased complement activity may be seen in: Cirrhosis Glomerulonephritis Hereditary angioedema Hepatitis Kidney transplant rejection Lupus nephritis Malnutrition Systemic lupus erythematosis

  10. Detection of complement activation by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE).

    PubMed

    Arroyave, C M; Tan, E M

    1976-01-01

    Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) was used as a method of detecting activation of the third component of the complement system (C3). Highly purified C3, normal human serum (NHS), EDTA-treated plasma and serum activated with aggregated human immunoglobulin (agg-IgG) or inulin were used as sources of C3 and/or C3 split products. Activation of the alternative pathway of complement was assayed in the presence of EGTA (10 mM) and MgCl2 (0.3 mM), conditions which block activation of the classical pathway. When purified native C3, fresh NHS and fresh EDTA-plasma were tested in CIE against either antisera to whole C3 or to C3 split products, only one precipitin line was found, which was identified as native C3. However, when serum activated with agg-IgG or inulin were tested against the same reagents, two precipitin lines were seen. The first, with more cathodal mobility was identical to that of native C3. The second line had a more anodal mobility, was distinctly separated from the first and contained C3c and C3d as shown immunochemically with specific antisera. Native C3 and split products of C3 were identified by this CIE method in patients showing evidence of activated complement by having subnormal total complement (CH50) levels. When C3 split products were identified, the C3c-C3d precipitin line could always be distinguished from native C3 by its different electrophoretic mobility, even when C3 concentrations in serum varied from 0.25 mg/ml to 1.5 mg/ml. The sensitivity of CIE was compared to that of CH50 by asssaying at different time intervals after agg-IgG was added to fresh NHS. C3c-C3d split products were detected by CIE before any fall in CH50 and at all times when a significant decrease in CH50 was present. This study shows that the CIE technique is a highly sensitive, specific and rapid method for detecting activation of the complement system via classical or alternative pathways in human disease.

  11. Complement receptor 2-mediated targeting of complement inhibitors to sites of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongbin; He, Chun; Knaak, Christian; Guthridge, Joel M; Holers, V Michael; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    In a strategy to specifically target complement inhibitors to sites of complement activation and disease, recombinant fusion proteins consisting of a complement inhibitor linked to a C3 binding region of complement receptor (CR) 2 were prepared and characterized. Natural ligands for CR2 are C3 breakdown products deposited at sites of complement activation. Fusion proteins were prepared consisting of a human CR2 fragment linked to either the N terminus or C terminus of soluble forms of the membrane complement inhibitors decay accelerating factor (DAF) or CD59. The targeted complement inhibitors bound to C3-opsonized cells, and all were significantly more effective (up to 20-fold) than corresponding untargeted inhibitors at protecting target cells from complement. CR2 fusion proteins also inhibited CR3-dependent adhesion of U937 cells to C3 opsonized erythrocytes, indicating a second potential anti-inflammatory mechanism of CR2 fusion proteins, since CR3 is involved in endothelial adhesion and diapedesis of leukocytes at inflammatory sites. Finally, the in vivo validity of the targeting strategy was confirmed by the demonstration that CR2-DAF, but not soluble DAF, targets to the kidney in mouse models of lupus nephritis that are associated with renal complement deposition.

  12. Complement receptor 2-mediated targeting of complement inhibitors to sites of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongbin; He, Chun; Knaak, Christian; Guthridge, Joel M; Holers, V Michael; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    In a strategy to specifically target complement inhibitors to sites of complement activation and disease, recombinant fusion proteins consisting of a complement inhibitor linked to a C3 binding region of complement receptor (CR) 2 were prepared and characterized. Natural ligands for CR2 are C3 breakdown products deposited at sites of complement activation. Fusion proteins were prepared consisting of a human CR2 fragment linked to either the N terminus or C terminus of soluble forms of the membrane complement inhibitors decay accelerating factor (DAF) or CD59. The targeted complement inhibitors bound to C3-opsonized cells, and all were significantly more effective (up to 20-fold) than corresponding untargeted inhibitors at protecting target cells from complement. CR2 fusion proteins also inhibited CR3-dependent adhesion of U937 cells to C3 opsonized erythrocytes, indicating a second potential anti-inflammatory mechanism of CR2 fusion proteins, since CR3 is involved in endothelial adhesion and diapedesis of leukocytes at inflammatory sites. Finally, the in vivo validity of the targeting strategy was confirmed by the demonstration that CR2-DAF, but not soluble DAF, targets to the kidney in mouse models of lupus nephritis that are associated with renal complement deposition. PMID:12813023

  13. Overview of Complement Activation and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Noris, Marina; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Summary Complement is an important component of the innate immune system that is crucial for defense from microbial infections and for clearance of immune complexes and injured cells. In normal conditions complement is tightly controlled by a number of fluid-phase and cell surface proteins to avoid injury to autologous tissues. When complement is hyperactivated, as occurs in autoimmune diseases or in subjects with dysfunctional regulatory proteins, it drives a severe inflammatory response in numerous organs. The kidney appears to be particularly vulnerable to complement-mediated inflammatory injury. Injury may derive from deposition of circulating active complement fragments in glomeruli, but complement locally produced and activated in the kidney also may have a role. Many kidney disorders have been linked to abnormal complement activation, including immune-complex–mediated glomerulonephritis and rare genetic kidney diseases, but also tubulointerstitial injury associated with progressive proteinuric diseases or ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:24161035

  14. Effects of complement activation on allograft injury

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Joong Hyuk; Heeger, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the current knowledge regarding mechanisms linking the complement system to transplant injury, highlighting findings reported since 2013. Recent findings Building upon the documentation that complement activation is a pathogenic mediator of post-transplant ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, emerging evidence indicates blocking either the classical or lectin pathways attenuates IR injury in animal models. Immune cell-derived and locally activated complement, including intracellular C3 positively modulates allo-reactive T cell activation and expansion, while simultaneously inhibiting regulatory T cell induction and function, together promoting transplant rejection. While alloantibody-initiated complement activation directly injures target cells, complement-dependent signals activate endothelial cells to facilitate T cell dependent inflammation. Complement activation within allografts contributes to progressive chronic injury and fibrosis. Summary The complement cascade, traditionally considered relevant to transplantation only as an effector mechanism of antibody-initiated allograft injury, is now understood to damage the allograft through multiple mechanisms. Complement activation promotes post-transplant IR injury, formation and function of allo-antibody, differentiation and function of alloreactive T cells, and contributes to chronic progressive allograft failure. The recognition that complement impacts transplant injury at many levels provides a foundation for targeting complement as a therapy to prolong transplant survival and improve patient health. PMID:26132735

  15. Complement Activation and Inhibition in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Jukema, Gerrolt N.; Nibbering, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Complement activation is needed to restore tissue injury; however, inappropriate activation of complement, as seen in chronic wounds can cause cell death and enhance inflammation, thus contributing to further injury and impaired wound healing. Therefore, attenuation of complement activation by specific inhibitors is considered as an innovative wound care strategy. Currently, the effects of several complement inhibitors, for example, the C3 inhibitor compstatin and several C1 and C5 inhibitors, are under investigation in patients with complement-mediated diseases. Although (pre)clinical research into the effects of these complement inhibitors on wound healing is limited, available data indicate that reduction of complement activation can improve wound healing. Moreover, medicine may take advantage of safe and effective agents that are produced by various microorganisms, symbionts, for example, medicinal maggots, and plants to attenuate complement activation. To conclude, for the development of new wound care strategies, (pre)clinical studies into the roles of complement and the effects of application of complement inhibitors in wound healing are required. PMID:23346185

  16. Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenette, J.; Cai, B.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Modified muscle use can result in muscle inflammation that is triggered by unidentified events. In the present investigation, we tested whether the activation of the complement system is a component of muscle inflammation that results from changes in muscle loading. Modified rat hindlimb muscle loading was achieved by removing weight-bearing from the hindlimbs for 10 days followed by reloading through normal ambulation. Experimental animals were injected with the recombinant, soluble complement receptor sCR1 to inhibit complement activation. Assays for complement C4 or factor B in sera showed that sCR1 produced large reductions in the capacity for activation of the complement system through both the classical and alternative pathways. Analysis of complement C4 concentration in serum in untreated animals showed that the classical pathway was activated during the first 2 hours of reloading. Analysis of factor B concentration in untreated animals showed activation of the alternative pathway at 6 hours of reloading. Administration of sCR1 significantly attenuated the invasion of neutrophils (-49%) and ED1(+) macrophages (-52%) that occurred in nontreated animals after 6 hours of reloading. The presence of sCR1 also reduced significantly the degree of edema by 22% as compared to untreated animals. Together, these data show that increased muscle loading activated the complement system which then briefly contributes to the early recruitment of inflammatory cells during modified muscle loading.

  17. Complement activation and protein adsorption by carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Morales, Carolina; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Sim, Edith; Sloan, Jeremy; Green, Malcolm L H; Sim, Robert B

    2006-02-01

    As a first step to validate the use of carbon nanotubes as novel vaccine or drug delivery devices, their interaction with a part of the human immune system, complement, has been explored. Haemolytic assays were conducted to investigate the activation of the human serum complement system via the classical and alternative pathways. Western blot and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) techniques were used to elucidate the mechanism of activation of complement via the classical pathway, and to analyse the interaction of complement and other plasma proteins with carbon nanotubes. We report for the first time that carbon nanotubes activate human complement via both classical and alternative pathways. We conclude that complement activation by nanotubes is consistent with reported adjuvant effects, and might also in various circumstances promote damaging effects of excessive complement activation, such as inflammation and granuloma formation. C1q binds directly to carbon nanotubes. Protein binding to carbon nanotubes is highly selective, since out of the many different proteins in plasma, very few bind to the carbon nanotubes. Fibrinogen and apolipoproteins (AI, AIV and CIII) were the proteins that bound to carbon nanotubes in greatest quantity.

  18. Genetic Association of the Porcine C9 Complement Component with Hemolytic Complement Activity

    PubMed Central

    Khoa, D. V. A.; Wimmers, K.

    2015-01-01

    The complement system is a part of the natural immune regulation mechanism against invading pathogens. Complement activation from three different pathways (classical, lectin, and alternative) leads to the formation of C5-convertase, an enzyme for cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b, followed by C6, C7, C8, and C9 in membrane attack complex. The C9 is the last complement component of the terminal lytic pathway, which plays an important role in lysis of the target cells depending on its self-polymerization to form transmembrane channels. To address the association of C9 with traits related to disease resistance, the complete porcine C9 cDNA was comparatively sequenced to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pigs of the breeds Hampshire (HS), Duroc (DU), Berlin miniature pig (BMP), German Landrace (LR), Pietrain (PIE), and Muong Khuong (Vietnamese potbelly pig). Genotyping was performed in 417 F2 animals of a resource population (DUMI: DU×BMP) that were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky diseases virus and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus at 6, 14 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Two SNPs were detected within the third exon. One of them has an amino acid substitution. The European porcine breeds (LR and PIE) show higher allele frequency of these SNPs than Vietnamese porcine breed (MK). Association of the substitution SNP with hemolytic complement activity indicated statistically significant differences between genotypes in the classical pathway but not in the alternative pathway. The interactions between eight time points of measurement of complement activity before and after vaccinations and genotypes were significantly different. The difference in hemolytic complement activity in the both pathways depends on genotype, kind of vaccine, age and the interaction to the other complement components. These results promote the porcine C9 (pC9) as a candidate gene to improve general animal health in the future. PMID:26194222

  19. Inhibition of the alternative complement pathway by antisense oligonucleotides targeting complement factor B improves lupus nephritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Tamar R; Hettrick, Lisa A; Johnson, Robert B; Hung, Gene; Peralta, Raechel; Watt, Andrew; Henry, Scott P; Adamson, Peter; Monia, Brett P; McCaleb, Michael L

    2016-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that manifests in widespread complement activation and deposition of complement fragments in the kidney. The complement pathway is believed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis and in the development of lupus nephritis. Complement factor B is an important activator of the alternative complement pathway and increasing evidence supports reducing factor B as a potential novel therapy to lupus nephritis. Here we investigated whether pharmacological reduction of factor B expression using antisense oligonucleotides could be an effective approach for the treatment of lupus nephritis. We identified potent and well tolerated factor B antisense oligonucleotides that resulted in significant reductions in hepatic and plasma factor B levels when administered to normal mice. To test the effects of factor B antisense oligonucleotides on lupus nephritis, we used two different mouse models, NZB/W F1 and MRL/lpr mice, that exhibit lupus nephritis like renal pathology. Antisense oligonucleotides mediated reductions in circulating factor B levels were associated with significant improvements in renal pathology, reduced glomerular C3 deposition and proteinuria, and improved survival. These data support the strategy of using factor B antisense oligonucleotides for treatment of lupus nephritis in humans.

  20. Complement activation in progressive renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Fearn, Amy; Sheerin, Neil Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and the cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The replacement of functioning nephrons by fibrosis is characteristic of progressive disease. The pathways that lead to fibrosis are not fully understood, although chronic non-resolving inflammation in the kidney is likely to drive the fibrotic response that occurs. In patients with progressive CKD there is histological evidence of inflammation in the interstitium and strategies that reduce inflammation reduce renal injury in pre-clinical models of CKD. The complement system is an integral part of the innate immune system but also augments adaptive immune responses. Complement activation is known to occur in many diverse renal diseases, including glomerulonephritis, thrombotic microangiopathies and transplant rejection. In this review we discuss current evidence that complement activation contributes to progression of CKD, how complement could cause renal inflammation and whether complement inhibition would slow progression of renal disease. PMID:25664245

  1. Activation of Complement by Cells Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thomas F.; Mcintosh, Kenneth; Fishaut, Mark; Henson, Peter M.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-infected HEp-2 cells in culture to activate complement was investigated. After incubation of cells with various complement sources and buffer, binding of C3b to surfaces of infected cells was demonstrated by immunofluorescence with a double-staining technique. Nonsyncytial and syncytial (i.e., fused, multinucleated) cells were separately enumerated. Also, lysis of RSV-infected cells was assessed by lactic dehydrogenase release. In this system only RSV-infected cells stained for C3b, and they did so only after incubation with functionally active complement. Blocking of classical pathway activation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid diminished the number of infected nonsyncytial cells positively stained for C3b, but had no effect on staining of syncytial cells. Blocking of alternative pathway activation with either zymosan incubation or heat treatment decreased the number of both syncytial and nonsyncytial cells stained for C3b. Decreasing immunoglobulin concentration of the serum used as the complement source also decreased numbers of both cell types stained for C3b. Eliminating specific anti-RSV antibody diminished numbers of both cell types stained for C3b, but staining was not eliminated. Lastly, incubation with functionally active complement markedly increased lactic dehydrogenase release from infected cells. This study demonstrated that RSV-infected nonsyncytial and syncytial cells are able to activate complement by both classical and alternative pathways. Activation of complement by syncytial cells appears to be less dependent on the classical pathway than is activation by nonsyncytial cells, and activation by syncytial cells may require immunoglobulin but not specific antibody. These experiments suggest the possibility of complement activation during respiratory tract infection by RSV. Implications of this are discussed. Images PMID:7263071

  2. Blockade of Alternative Complement Pathway in Dense Deposit Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sacquépée, Mathieu; Fila, Marc; Peuchmaur, Michel; Perrier-Cornet, Emilia; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Deschênes, Georges

    2014-01-01

    A patient aged 17 with dense deposit disease associated with complement activation, circulating C3 Nef, and Factor H mutation presented with nephrotic syndrome and hypertension. Steroid therapy, plasma exchange, and rituximab failed to improve proteinuria and hypertension despite a normalization of the circulating sC5b9 complex. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against C5, was used to block the terminal product of the complement cascade. The dose was adapted to achieve a CH50 below 10%, but proteinuria and blood pressure were not improved after 3 months of treatment. PMID:24672732

  3. Alternative Complement Pathway Deficiency Ameliorates Chronic Smoke-Induced Functional and Morphological Ocular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Woodell, Alex; Coughlin, Beth; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Casey, Sarah; Williamson, Tucker; Ferrell, W. Drew; Atkinson, Carl; Jones, Bryan W.; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2013-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a complex disease involving genetic variants and environmental insults, is among the leading causes of blindness in Western populations. Genetic and histologic evidence implicate the complement system in AMD pathogenesis; and smoking is the major environmental risk factor associated with increased disease risk. Although previous studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure (CE) causes retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) defects in mice, and smoking leads to complement activation in patients, it is unknown whether complement activation is causative in the development of CE pathology; and if so, which complement pathway is required. Methods Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or clean, filtered air for 6 months. The effects of CE were analyzed in wildtype (WT) mice or mice without a functional complement alternative pathway (AP; CFB−/−) using molecular, histological, electrophysiological, and behavioral outcomes. Results CE in WT mice exhibited a significant reduction in function of both rods and cones as determined by electroretinography and contrast sensitivity measurements, concomitant with a thinning of the nuclear layers as measured by SD-OCT imaging and histology. Gene expression analyses suggested that alterations in both photoreceptors and RPE/choroid might contribute to the observed loss of function, and visualization of complement C3d deposition implies the RPE/Bruch's membrane (BrM) complex as the target of AP activity. RPE/BrM alterations include an increase in mitochondrial size concomitant with an apical shift in mitochondrial distribution within the RPE and a thickening of BrM. CFB−/− mice were protected from developing these CE-mediated alterations. Conclusions Taken together, these findings provide clear evidence that ocular pathology generated in CE mice is dependent on complement activation and requires the AP. Identifying animal models with RPE/BrM damage and verifying which

  4. Functional analysis of the classical, alternative, and MBL pathways of the complement system: standardization and validation of a simple ELISA.

    PubMed

    Seelen, M A; Roos, A; Wieslander, J; Mollnes, T E; Sjöholm, A G; Wurzner, R; Loos, M; Tedesco, F; Sim, R B; Garred, P; Alexopoulos, E; Turner, M W; Daha, M R

    2005-01-01

    Primary defence against invading microorganisms depends on a functional innate immune system and the complement system plays a major role in such immunity. Deficiencies in one of the components of the complement system can cause severe and recurrent infections, systemic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and renal disease. Screening for complement deficiencies in the classical or alternative complement pathways has mainly been performed by haemolytic assays. Here, we describe a simple ELISA-based format for the evaluation of three pathways of complement activation. The assays are based on specific coatings for each pathway in combination with specific buffer systems. We have standardized these assays and defined cut off values to detect complement deficiencies at the different levels of the complement system. The results demonstrate the value of these ELISA-based procedures for the functional assessment of complement deficiencies in clinical practice. The assay is now available commercially in kit form.

  5. AMD and the alternative complement pathway: genetics and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Tan, Perciliz L; Bowes Rickman, Catherine; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an ocular neurodegenerative disorder and is the leading cause of legal blindness in Western societies, with a prevalence of up to 8 % over the age of 60, which continues to increase with age. AMD is characterized by the progressive breakdown of the macula (the central region of the retina), resulting in the loss of central vision including visual acuity. While its molecular etiology remains unclear, advances in genetics and genomics have illuminated the genetic architecture of the disease and have generated attractive pathomechanistic hypotheses. Here, we review the genetic architecture of AMD, considering the contribution of both common and rare alleles to susceptibility, and we explore the possible mechanistic links between photoreceptor degeneration and the alternative complement pathway, a cascade that has emerged as the most potent genetic driver of this disorder. PMID:27329102

  6. Complement Activation and Inhibition in Retinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Mark E; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Within the past several decades, a brigade of dedicated researchers from around the world has provided essential insights into the critical niche of immune-mediated inflammation in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Yet, the question has lingered as to whether disease-initiating events are more or less dependent on isolated immune-related responses, unimpeded inflammation, endogenous pathways of age-related cell senescence and oxidative stress, or any of the other numerous molecular derangements that have been identified in the natural history of AMD. There is now an abundant cache of data signifying immune system activation as an impetus in the pathogenesis of this devastating condition. Furthermore, recent rigorous investigations have revealed multiple inciting factors, including several important complement-activating components, thus creating a new array of disease-modulating targets for the research and development of molecular therapeutic interventions. While the precise in vivo effects of complement activation and inhibition in the progression and treatment of AMD remain to be determined, ongoing clinical trials of the first generation of complement-targeted therapeutics are hoped to yield critical data on the contribution of this pathway to the disease process. PMID:26501209

  7. Complement activation in amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Eikelenboom, P; Hack, C E; Rozemuller, J M; Stam, F C

    1989-01-01

    Amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's dementia contain complement factors C1q, C4 and C3. In the present study we demonstrate complement activation in amyloid plaques using immunoenzymatical techniques and specific antibodies against subunits of individual complement components and activated complement products. Amyloid plaques contain C1q and activated C3 fragments (C3c and C3d, g) but no C1s and C3a. These findings demonstrate that the complement components are not passively bound to the amyloid plaque structures but are the result of an activation process. The role of complement activation in the genesis of senile plaques is discussed.

  8. Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1) Rapidly Inhibits Complement Activation after Intravascular Injection in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julia A; Hair, Pamela S; Pallera, Haree K; Kumar, Parvathi S; Mauriello, Clifford T; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Phelps, Cody A; Park, Dalnam; Thielens, Nicole M; Pascal, Stephen M; Chen, Waldon; Duffy, Diane M; Lattanzio, Frank A; Cunnion, Kenji M; Krishna, Neel K

    2015-01-01

    The complement system has been increasingly recognized to play a pivotal role in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Consequently, therapeutic modulators of the classical, lectin and alternative pathways of the complement system are currently in pre-clinical and clinical development. Our laboratory has identified a peptide that specifically inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement and is referred to as Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1). In this study, we determined that the lead PIC1 variant demonstrates a salt-dependent binding to C1q, the initiator molecule of the classical pathway. Additionally, this peptide bound to the lectin pathway initiator molecule MBL as well as the ficolins H, M and L, suggesting a common mechanism of PIC1 inhibitory activity occurs via binding to the collagen-like tails of these collectin molecules. We further analyzed the effect of arginine and glutamic acid residue substitution on the complement inhibitory activity of our lead derivative in a hemolytic assay and found that the original sequence demonstrated superior inhibitory activity. To improve upon the solubility of the lead derivative, a pegylated, water soluble variant was developed, structurally characterized and demonstrated to inhibit complement activation in mouse plasma, as well as rat, non-human primate and human serum in vitro. After intravenous injection in rats, the pegylated derivative inhibited complement activation in the blood by 90% after 30 seconds, demonstrating extremely rapid function. Additionally, no adverse toxicological effects were observed in limited testing. Together these results show that PIC1 rapidly inhibits classical complement activation in vitro and in vivo and is functional for a variety of animal species, suggesting its utility in animal models of classical complement-mediated diseases. PMID:26196285

  9. Shiga toxin activates complement and binds factor H: evidence for an active role of complement in hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Orth, Dorothea; Khan, Abdul Basit; Naim, Asma; Grif, Katharina; Brockmeyer, Jens; Karch, Helge; Joannidis, Michael; Clark, Simon J; Day, Anthony J; Fidanzi, Sonja; Stoiber, Heribert; Dierich, Manfred P; Zimmerhackl, Lothar B; Würzner, Reinhard

    2009-05-15

    Infections with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are a major cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxins (Stxs), especially Stx2, are believed to represent major virulence factors of EHEC, contributing to HUS pathogenesis. Beside EHEC-associated HUS, there are hereditary atypical forms of HUS, which are mostly caused by mutations of complement regulators. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not complement is also involved in the pathogenesis of EHEC-induced typical HUS, by being activated either directly or indirectly by involvement of its inhibitors. Purified Stx2 markedly activated complement via the alternative pathway and was found to bind to factor H (FH), however, only when it was active. No apparent cleavage or destruction of FH was visible, and cofactor activity in fluid phase was unaffected, but clearly delayed for surface-attached FH, where it is essential for host cell protection. Binding studies using FH constructs revealed that Stx2 binds to short consensus repeats (SCRs) 6-8 and SCRs18-20, but not to SCRs16-17, i.e., to regions involved in the surface recognition function of FH. In conclusion, complement, and in particular FH, not only plays an important role in atypical HUS, but most probably also in EHEC-induced HUS.

  10. Acidosis activates complement system in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Emeis, M; Sonntag, J; Willam, C; Strauss, E; Walka, M M; Obladen, M

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro effect of different forms of acidosis (pH 7.0) on the formation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Metabolic acidosis due to addition of hydrochloric acid (10 micromol/ml blood) or lactic acid (5.5 micromol/ml) to heparin blood (N=12) caused significant activation of C3a and C5a compared to control (both p=0.002). Respiratory acidosis activated C3a (p=0.007) and C5a (p=0.003) compared to normocapnic controls. Making blood samples with lactic acidosis hypocapnic resulted in a median pH of 7.37. In this respiratory compensated metabolic acidosis, C3a and C5a were not increased. These experiments show that acidosis itself and not lactate trigger for activation of complement components C3 and C5. PMID:9927235

  11. C-reactive protein activates complement in infarcted human myocardium.

    PubMed

    Nijmeijer, Remco; Lagrand, Wim K; Lubbers, Yvonne T P; Visser, Cees A; Meijer, Chris J L M; Niessen, Hans W M; Hack, C Erik

    2003-07-01

    Circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) constitute a cardiovascular risk marker. Immunohistochemical studies have revealed co-localization of CRP and activated complement in human infarcted myocardium suggesting CRP to enhance inflammation in ischemic myocardium by inducing local complement activation. The aim was to establish whether CRP activates complement in infarcted human myocardium and to assess the relationship between this activation and the duration of infarction. Myocardial tissue samples from 56 patients that had died from acute myocardial infarction were evaluated. Specimens were taken from infarcted as well as noninfarcted sites of the heart. CRP-mediated complement activation was assessed by immunohistochemistry and by measuring levels of complement, CRP, and CRP-complement complexes, specific markers for CRP-mediated activation, in homogenates of the heart. Infarctions of 12 hours to 5 days had significantly more extensive depositions of complement and CRP and contained significantly more CRP, activated complement, and CRP-complement complexes than infarctions that were less than 12 hours old. Levels of CRP complexes correlated significantly with CRP and complement concentrations in the infarctions, as well as with the extent of complement and CRP depositions as measured via immunohistochemistry. Specific activation products of CRP-mediated activation of complement are increased in infarcts of more than 12 hours in duration and correlate with the extent of complement depositions. Hence, CRP seems to enhance local inflammatory reactions ensuing in human myocardial infarcts of more than 12 hours duration.

  12. An Inhibitor of the Alternative Pathway of Complement in Saliva of New World Anopheline Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Sousa, Antonio F; Queiroz, Daniel C; Vale, Vladimir F; Ribeiro, José M C; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Gontijo, Nelder F; Andersen, John F

    2016-07-15

    The complement system present in circulating blood is an effective mechanism of host defense, responsible for the killing of pathogens and the production of potent anaphylatoxins. Inhibitors of the complement system have been described in the saliva of hematophagous arthropods that are involved in the protection of digestive tissues against complement system-mediated damage. In this study, we describe albicin, a novel inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement from the salivary glands of the malaria vector, Anopheles albimanus The inhibitor was purified from salivary gland homogenates by reverse-phase HPLC and identified by mass spectrometry as a small (13.4-kDa) protein related to the gSG7 protein of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi Recombinant albicin was produced in Escherichia coli and found to potently inhibit lysis of rabbit erythrocytes in assays of the alternative pathway while having no inhibitory effect on the classical or lectin pathways. Albicin also inhibited the deposition of complement components on agarose-coated plates, although it could not remove previously bound components. Antisera produced against recombinant albicin recognized both the native and recombinant inhibitors and also blocked their activities in in vitro assays. Using surface plasmon resonance and enzymatic assays, we found that albicin binds and stabilizes the C3-convertase complex (C3bBb) formed on a properdin surface and inhibits the convertase activity of a reconstituted C3bBb complex in solution. The data indicate that albicin specifically recognizes the activated form of the complex, allowing more efficient inhibition by an inhibitor whose quantity is limited. PMID:27307559

  13. Human L-ficolin, a recognition molecule of the lectin activation pathway of complement, activates complement by binding to pneumolysin, the major toxin of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Ali, Youssif M; Kenawy, Hany I; Muhammad, Adnan; Sim, Robert B; Andrew, Peter W; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J

    2013-01-01

    The complement system is an essential component of the immune response, providing a critical line of defense against different pathogens including S. pneumoniae. Complement is activated via three distinct pathways: the classical (CP), the alternative (AP) and the lectin pathway (LP). The role of Pneumolysin (PLY), a bacterial toxin released by S. pneumoniae, in triggering complement activation has been studied in vitro. Our results demonstrate that in both human and mouse sera complement was activated via the CP, initiated by direct binding of even non-specific IgM and IgG3 to PLY. Absence of CP activity in C1q(-/-) mouse serum completely abolished any C3 deposition. However, C1q depleted human serum strongly opsonized PLY through abundant deposition of C3 activation products, indicating that the LP may have a vital role in activating the human complement system on PLY. We identified that human L-ficolin is the critical LP recognition molecule that drives LP activation on PLY, while all of the murine LP recognition components fail to bind and activate complement on PLY. This work elucidates the detailed interactions between PLY and complement and shows for the first time a specific role of the LP in PLY-mediated complement activation in human serum.

  14. Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces.

    PubMed

    Józsi, Mihály; Tortajada, Agustin; Uzonyi, Barbara; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2015-06-01

    Complement factor H-related proteins (FHRs) are strongly associated with different diseases involving complement dysregulation, which suggests a major role for these proteins regulating complement activation. Because FHRs are evolutionarily and structurally related to complement inhibitor factor H (FH), the initial assumption was that the FHRs are also negative complement regulators. Whereas weak complement inhibiting activities were originally reported for these molecules, recent developments indicate that FHRs may enhance complement activation, with important implications for the role of these proteins in health and disease. We review these findings here, and propose that FHRs represent a complex set of surface recognition molecules that, by competing with FH, provide improved discrimination of self and non-self surfaces and play a central role in determining appropriate activation of the complement pathway.

  15. Dimerization of complement factor H-related proteins modulates complement activation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Caesar, Joseph J E; Malik, Talat H; Patel, Mitali; Colledge, Matthew; Johnson, Steven; Hakobyan, Svetlana; Morgan, B Paul; Harris, Claire L; Pickering, Matthew C; Lea, Susan M

    2013-03-19

    The complement system is a key component regulation influences susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration, meningitis, and kidney disease. Variation includes genomic rearrangements within the complement factor H-related (CFHR) locus. Elucidating the mechanism underlying these associations has been hindered by the lack of understanding of the biological role of CFHR proteins. Here we present unique structural data demonstrating that three of the CFHR proteins contain a shared dimerization motif and that this hitherto unrecognized structural property enables formation of both homodimers and heterodimers. Dimerization confers avidity for tissue-bound complement fragments and enables these proteins to efficiently compete with the physiological complement inhibitor, complement factor H (CFH), for ligand binding. Our data demonstrate that these CFHR proteins function as competitive antagonists of CFH to modulate complement activation in vivo and explain why variation in the CFHRs predisposes to disease.

  16. A novel targeted inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement and its therapeutic application in ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuxiang; Qiao, Fei; Atkinson, Carl; Holers, V Michael; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2008-12-01

    Bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of soluble Crry, a mouse inhibitor of all complement activation pathways, is significantly enhanced when linked to a fragment of complement receptor 2 (CR2), a receptor that targets C3 activation products. In this study, we characterize alternative pathway-specific inhibitors consisting of a single or dimeric N-terminal region of mouse factor H (fH; short consensus repeats 1-5) linked to the same CR2 fragment (CR2-fH and CR2-fHfH). Both CR2-fH and CR2-fHfH were highly effective at inhibiting the alternative pathway in vitro and demonstrated a higher specific activity than CR2-Crry. CR2-fH was also more effective than endogenous serum fH in blocking target deposition of C3. Target binding and complement inhibitory activity of CR2-fH/CR2-fHfH was dependent on CR2- and C3-mediated interactions. The alternative pathway of complement plays a role in intestine ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, serum fH fails to provide protection against intestine ischemia/reperfusion injury although it can bind to and provide cell surfaces with protection from complement and is present in plasma at a high concentration. In a mouse model, CR2-fH and CR2-fHfH provided complete protection from local (intestine) and remote (lung) injury. CR2-fH targeted to the site of local injury and greatly reduced levels of tissue C3 deposition. Thus, the targeting mechanism significantly enhances alternative pathway-specific complement inhibitory activity of the N-terminal domain of fH and has the potential to reduce side effects that may be associated with systemic complement blockade. The data further indicate alternative pathway dependence for local and remote injury following intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in a clinically relevant therapeutic paradigm.

  17. A novel targeted inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement and its therapeutic application in ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuxiang; Qiao, Fei; Atkinson, Carl; Holers, V Michael; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2008-12-01

    Bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of soluble Crry, a mouse inhibitor of all complement activation pathways, is significantly enhanced when linked to a fragment of complement receptor 2 (CR2), a receptor that targets C3 activation products. In this study, we characterize alternative pathway-specific inhibitors consisting of a single or dimeric N-terminal region of mouse factor H (fH; short consensus repeats 1-5) linked to the same CR2 fragment (CR2-fH and CR2-fHfH). Both CR2-fH and CR2-fHfH were highly effective at inhibiting the alternative pathway in vitro and demonstrated a higher specific activity than CR2-Crry. CR2-fH was also more effective than endogenous serum fH in blocking target deposition of C3. Target binding and complement inhibitory activity of CR2-fH/CR2-fHfH was dependent on CR2- and C3-mediated interactions. The alternative pathway of complement plays a role in intestine ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, serum fH fails to provide protection against intestine ischemia/reperfusion injury although it can bind to and provide cell surfaces with protection from complement and is present in plasma at a high concentration. In a mouse model, CR2-fH and CR2-fHfH provided complete protection from local (intestine) and remote (lung) injury. CR2-fH targeted to the site of local injury and greatly reduced levels of tissue C3 deposition. Thus, the targeting mechanism significantly enhances alternative pathway-specific complement inhibitory activity of the N-terminal domain of fH and has the potential to reduce side effects that may be associated with systemic complement blockade. The data further indicate alternative pathway dependence for local and remote injury following intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in a clinically relevant therapeutic paradigm. PMID:19017999

  18. Membrane-bound complement regulatory activity is decreased on vaccinia virus-infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, L; Okada, N; Baranji, K; Takizawa, H; Okada, H

    1994-01-01

    Decay accelerating factor (DAF), membrane cofactor protein (MCP), complement receptor 1 and mouse Crry are cell surface-bound complement regulatory proteins capable of inhibiting C3 convertase activity on cell membranes, and therefore provide a substantial protection from attack by homologous complement activated either by the classical or by the alternative pathway. Decrease in complement regulatory activity might lead to spontaneous complement deposition and subsequent cell injury. MoAb 5I2 can inhibit the complement regulatory activity of molecules on rat cells, resulting in deposition of homologous complement. The antigen recognized by 5I2 MoAb in rats is homologous to mouse Crry. Fifteen to 20 h after infection with vaccinia virus, in vitro cultured KDH-8 rat hepatoma cells show a strong decrease in expression of Crry-like antigen, and proved to be sensitive to complement deposition when 1:5 diluted normal rat serum was added to the culture medium as a source of complement. Addition of complement to the cultured KDH-8 cells infected with a very low dose of vaccinia virus (1 plaque-forming unit (PFU)/1000 cells) substantially reduced spreading of virus infection in the cell culture, while inactivation of complement by heat or zymosan treatment abrogated the protective effect. PMID:7923872

  19. Complement alternative pathway genetic variation and Dengue infection in the Thai population.

    PubMed

    Kraivong, R; Vasanawathana, S; Limpitikul, W; Malasit, P; Tangthawornchaikul, N; Botto, M; Screaton, G R; Mongkolsapaya, J; Pickering, M C

    2013-11-01

    Dengue disease is a mosquito-borne infection caused by Dengue virus. Infection may be asymptomatic or variably manifest as mild Dengue fever (DF) to the most severe form, Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Mechanisms that influence disease severity are not understood. Complement, an integral component of the immune system, is activated during Dengue infection and the degree of activation increases with disease severity. Activation of the complement alternative pathway is influenced by polymorphisms within activation (factor B rs12614/rs641153, C3 rs2230199) and regulatory [complement factor H (CFH) rs800292] proteins, collectively termed a complotype. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the complotype influences disease severity during secondary Dengue infection. In addition to the complotype, we also assessed two other disease-associated CFH polymorphisms (rs1061170, rs3753394) and a structural polymorphism within the CFH protein family. We did not detect any significant association between the examined polymorphisms and Dengue infection severity in the Thai population. However, the minor allele frequencies of the factor B and C3 polymorphisms were less than 10%, so our study was not sufficiently powered to detect an association at these loci. We were also unable to detect a direct interaction between CFH and Dengue NS1 using both recombinant NS1 and DV2-infected culture supernatants. We conclude that the complotype does not influence secondary Dengue infection severity in the Thai population.

  20. Complement factor D homolog involved in the alternative complement pathway of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Molecular and functional characterization and immune responsive mRNA expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Godahewa, G I; Perera, N C N; Bathige, S D N K; Nam, Bo-Hye; Noh, Jae Koo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-08-01

    The complement system serves conventional role in the innate defense against common invading pathogens. Complement factor D (CfD) is vital to alternative complement pathway activation in cleaving complement factor B. This catalytic reaction forms the alternative C3 convertase that is crucial for complement-mediated pathogenesis. In this study, rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) CfD (OfCfD) was characterized and OfCfD mRNA expression was investigated. OfCfD encodes 277 amino acids (aa) for a 30-kDa polypeptide. A domain analysis of the deduced OfCfD aa sequence showed a single serine protease trypsin superfamily domain, a serine active region, three active sites, and three substrate-binding sites. Pairwise sequence comparisons indicated that OfCfD has the highest identity (84.5%) with Oreochromis niloticus CfD. The phylogenetic tree revealed a common ancestral origin of CfD members, with fish CfD distinct from other vertebrate orthologs. The structural arrangement of the OfCfD gene (2451 bp) contained five exons interrupted by four introns. A spatial transcriptional analysis indicated that OfCfD transcripts constitutively expressed in all of the examined rock bream tissues, and that they were highest in the spleen and liver. In addition, OfCfD transcripts were immunologically upregulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (12 h p.i.), Streptococcus iniae (12 h p.i.), rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) (6-12 h p.i.), and poly I:C (6 h p.i.) in spleen tissue. OfCfD is a trypsin protease and its recombinant protein showed strong protease activity similar to that of trypsin, indicating its catalytic function in the alternative pathway. Together, our findings suggest that OfCfD might be involved in immune responses in rock bream.

  1. Complement factor D homolog involved in the alternative complement pathway of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Molecular and functional characterization and immune responsive mRNA expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Godahewa, G I; Perera, N C N; Bathige, S D N K; Nam, Bo-Hye; Noh, Jae Koo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-08-01

    The complement system serves conventional role in the innate defense against common invading pathogens. Complement factor D (CfD) is vital to alternative complement pathway activation in cleaving complement factor B. This catalytic reaction forms the alternative C3 convertase that is crucial for complement-mediated pathogenesis. In this study, rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) CfD (OfCfD) was characterized and OfCfD mRNA expression was investigated. OfCfD encodes 277 amino acids (aa) for a 30-kDa polypeptide. A domain analysis of the deduced OfCfD aa sequence showed a single serine protease trypsin superfamily domain, a serine active region, three active sites, and three substrate-binding sites. Pairwise sequence comparisons indicated that OfCfD has the highest identity (84.5%) with Oreochromis niloticus CfD. The phylogenetic tree revealed a common ancestral origin of CfD members, with fish CfD distinct from other vertebrate orthologs. The structural arrangement of the OfCfD gene (2451 bp) contained five exons interrupted by four introns. A spatial transcriptional analysis indicated that OfCfD transcripts constitutively expressed in all of the examined rock bream tissues, and that they were highest in the spleen and liver. In addition, OfCfD transcripts were immunologically upregulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (12 h p.i.), Streptococcus iniae (12 h p.i.), rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) (6-12 h p.i.), and poly I:C (6 h p.i.) in spleen tissue. OfCfD is a trypsin protease and its recombinant protein showed strong protease activity similar to that of trypsin, indicating its catalytic function in the alternative pathway. Together, our findings suggest that OfCfD might be involved in immune responses in rock bream. PMID:27311435

  2. Therapeutic inhibition of the early phase of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anja; Ramwadhdoebé, Tamara H; Nauta, Alma J; Hack, C Erik; Daha, Mohamed R

    2002-09-01

    The complement system is a key component of innate immunity against invading pathogens. However, undesired activation of complement is involved in inflammation and associated tissue damage in a number of pathological conditions, such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, autoimmune diseases, and rejection of allo- and xenografts. During recent years, various therapeutically active complement inhibitors have been developed. In vivo studies using these inhibitors underscored the value of complement inhibition in the prevention of tissue damage. The currently available complement inhibitors mainly target the effector phase of the complement system that is common to all three activation pathways. Such a complete block of complement activation breaks the innate anti-microbial barrier, thereby increasing the risk for infection. Therefore, the development of potent complement inhibitors that interfere in the recognition phase of a specific complement activation pathway will generate important novel possibilities for treatment. The present review is focused on molecules that are able to inhibit the function of C1q and MBL, the recognition units of the classical pathway and the lectin pathway of complement, respectively. The potential value of these molecules for the development of therapeutically active complement inhibitors is discussed.

  3. Trichinella spiralis Paramyosin Binds Human Complement C1q and Inhibits Classical Complement Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ran; Zhao, Xi; Wang, Zixia; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Limei; Zhan, Bin; Zhu, Xinping

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichinella spiralis expresses paramyosin (Ts-Pmy) as a defense mechanism. Ts-Pmy is a functional protein with binding activity to human complement C8 and C9 and thus plays a role in evading the attack of the host’s immune system. In the present study, the binding activity of Ts-Pmy to human complement C1q and its ability to inhibit classical complement activation were investigated. Methods and Findings The binding of recombinant and natural Ts-Pmy to human C1q were determined by ELISA, Far Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, respectively. Binding of recombinant Ts-Pmy (rTs-Pmy) to C1q inhibited C1q binding to IgM and consequently inhibited C3 deposition. The lysis of antibody-sensitized erythrocytes (EAs) elicited by the classical complement pathway was also inhibited in the presence of rTs-Pmy. In addition to inhibiting classical complement activation, rTs-Pmy also suppressed C1q binding to THP-1-derived macrophages, thereby reducing C1q-induced macrophages migration. Conclusion Our results suggest that T. spiralis paramyosin plays an important role in immune evasion by interfering with complement activation through binding to C1q in addition to C8 and C9. PMID:26720603

  4. Physicochemical signatures of nanoparticle-dependent complement activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Dennis G.; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Tardiff, Mark F.; Xu, Zhixiang; Hourcade, Dennis E.; Pham, Christine T. N.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Weinberger, Kilian Q.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles are potentially powerful therapeutic tools that have the capacity to target drug payloads and imaging agents. However, some nanoparticles can activate complement, a branch of the innate immune system, and cause adverse side-effects. Recently, we employed an in vitro hemolysis assay to measure the serum complement activity of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles that differed by size, surface charge, and surface chemistry, quantifying the nanoparticle-dependent complement activity using a metric called Residual Hemolytic Activity (RHA). In the present work, we have used a decision tree learning algorithm to derive the rules for estimating nanoparticle-dependent complement response based on the data generated from the hemolytic assay studies. Our results indicate that physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, namely, size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and mole percentage of the active surface ligand of a nanoparticle, can serve as good descriptors for prediction of nanoparticle-dependent complement activation in the decision tree modeling framework.

  5. Rat C-reactive protein activates the autologous complement system.

    PubMed

    Diaz Padilla, Niubel; Bleeker, Wim K; Lubbers, Yvonne; Rigter, Gemma M M; Van Mierlo, Gerard J; Daha, Mohamed R; Hack, C Erik

    2003-08-01

    Activation of complement is a biological function of human C-reactive protein (hCRP), whereas rat CRP (rCRP) has been claimed to be unable to activate complement. As important biological functions of proteins are probably conserved among species, we re-evaluated, using various ligands, the capability of rCRP to activate complement. The activation of complement by hCRP and rCRP was investigated in solid- and fluid-phase systems. In the solid-phase system, purified CRP was fixed to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates and incubated with human or rat recalcified plasma. Dose-dependent binding of human and rat C3 and C4 was observed to human and rat CRP, respectively. In the fluid-phase system, recalcified rat plasma, which contains about 500 mg/l of CRP, or human plasma supplemented with hCRP, were incubated with lyso-phosphatidylcholine. A dose-dependent activation of complement was observed upon incubation with this ligand, as reflected by the generation of activated C4 as well as of CRP-complement complexes. This activation was, in both cases, inhibited by preincubation of plasma with p-aminophosphorylcholine, a specific inhibitor of the interaction of CRP with its ligands, or by chelation of calcium ions. We conclude that rat CRP, similarly to human CRP, can activate autologous complement. These results support the notion that opsonization of ligands with complement is an important biological function of CRP.

  6. Structure-activity relationships within the N-terminal short consensus repeats (SCR) of human CR1 (C3b/C4b receptor, CD35): SCR 3 plays a critical role in inhibition of the classical and alternative pathways of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Mossakowska, D; Dodd, I; Pindar, W; Smith, R A

    1999-06-01

    Genes coding for between one and four short consensus repeats (SCR) of the N-terminal region of human complement receptor 1 (CR1) were synthesized from oligonucleotides and those encoding SCR(1-2), SCR(1-3), SCR(1-4), SCR3 and SCR(3-4) were expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. Following solubilization in urea, the proteins were partially purified and refolded and the activity of each protein was assessed in both classical and alternative pathway complement assays. All fragments showed a varying degree of activity with the general order being SCR(1-3) = SCR(1-4) > SCR(1-2). Addition of SCR3 to SCR(1-2) significantly improved potency, whereas the addition of SCR4 conferred no additional benefit. This observation, coupled with the ability of the single-domain SCR3 to inhibit classical pathway mediated lysis with an IH50% (inhibition of hemolysis by 50%) of 4.8 microM, demonstrates that SCR3 provides key binding interactions with activated complement components. SCR(1-3) was able to inhibit both classical and alternative pathways of complement activation, showing that the N-terminal SCR of CR1 retain the ability to interact with C3b. Assays for CR1-like cofactor activity for factor I using C4b-like C4 or C3b-like C3 as substrates showed that SCR(1-3) possessed such cofactor activity and that C4b-like C4 was a better substrate. When compared to full-length (30 SCR) soluble CR1 (sCR1), SCR(1-3) was significantly less potent in accord with a model involving multi-valent binding of C3b/C4b to CR1.

  7. Complement Component C3 Binds to Activated Normal Platelets without Preceding Proteolytic Activation and Promotes Binding to Complement Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Osama A.; Nilsson, Per H.; Wouters, Diana; Lambris, John D.; Ekdahl, Kristina N.; Nilsson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that complement is activated on the surface of activated platelets, despite the presence of multiple regulators of complement activation. To reinvestigate the mechanisms by which activated platelets bind to complement components, the presence of complement proteins on the surfaces of nonactivated and thrombin receptor-activating peptide-activated platelets was analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blot analyses. C1q, C4, C3, and C9 were found to bind to thrombin receptor-activating peptide-activated platelets in lepirudin-anticoagulated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood. However, inhibiting complement activation at the C1q or C3 level did not block the binding of C3 to activated platelets. Diluting PRP and chelating divalent cations also had no effect, further indicating that the deposition of complement components was independent of complement activation. Furthermore, washed, activated platelets bound added C1q and C3 to the same extent as platelets in PRP. The use of mAbs against different forms of C3 demonstrated that the bound C3 consisted of C3(H2O). Furthermore, exogenously added soluble complement receptor 1 was shown to bind to this form of platelet-bound C3. These observations indicate that there is no complement activation on the surface of platelets under physiological conditions. This situation is in direct contrast to a number of pathological conditions in which regulators of complement activation are lacking and thrombocytopenia and thrombotic disease are the ultimate result. However, the generation of C3(H2O) represents nonproteolytic activation of C3 and after factor I cleavage may act as a ligand for receptor binding. PMID:20139276

  8. Characterization of a Factor H Mutation That Perturbs the Alternative Pathway of Complement in a Family with Membranoproliferative GN

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Edwin K.S.; Anderson, Holly E.; Herbert, Andrew P.; Challis, Rachel C.; Brown, Paul; Reis, Geisilaine S.; Tellez, James O.; Strain, Lisa; Fluck, Nicholas; Humphrey, Ann; Macleod, Alison; Richards, Anna; Ahlert, Daniel; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Barlow, Paul N.; Marchbank, Kevin J.; Harris, Claire L.; Goodship, Timothy H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Complement C3 activation is a characteristic finding in membranoproliferative GN (MPGN). This activation can be caused by immune complex deposition or an acquired or inherited defect in complement regulation. Deficiency of complement factor H has long been associated with MPGN. More recently, heterozygous genetic variants have been reported in sporadic cases of MPGN, although their functional significance has not been assessed. We describe a family with MPGN and acquired partial lipodystrophy. Although C3 nephritic factor was shown in family members with acquired partial lipodystrophy, it did not segregate with the renal phenotype. Genetic analysis revealed a novel heterozygous mutation in complement factor H (R83S) in addition to known risk polymorphisms carried by individuals with MPGN. Patients with MPGN had normal levels of factor H, and structural analysis of the mutant revealed only subtle alterations. However, functional analysis revealed profoundly reduced C3b binding, cofactor activity, and decay accelerating activity leading to loss of regulation of the alternative pathway. In summary, this family showed a confluence of common and rare functionally significant genetic risk factors causing disease. Data from our analysis of these factors highlight the role of the alternative pathway of complement in MPGN. PMID:24722444

  9. Complement System Part I – Molecular Mechanisms of Activation and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Merle, Nicolas S.; Church, Sarah Elizabeth; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Roumenina, Lubka T.

    2015-01-01

    Complement is a complex innate immune surveillance system, playing a key role in defense against pathogens and in host homeostasis. The complement system is initiated by conformational changes in recognition molecular complexes upon sensing danger signals. The subsequent cascade of enzymatic reactions is tightly regulated to assure that complement is activated only at specific locations requiring defense against pathogens, thus avoiding host tissue damage. Here, we discuss the recent advances describing the molecular and structural basis of activation and regulation of the complement pathways and their implication on physiology and pathology. This article will review the mechanisms of activation of alternative, classical, and lectin pathways, the formation of C3 and C5 convertases, the action of anaphylatoxins, and the membrane-attack-complex. We will also discuss the importance of structure–function relationships using the example of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Lastly, we will discuss the development and benefits of therapies using complement inhibitors. PMID:26082779

  10. Minor Role of Plasminogen in Complement Activation on Cell Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Hyvärinen, Satu; Jokiranta, T. Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, but severe thrombotic microangiopathy. In roughly two thirds of the patients, mutations in complement genes lead to uncontrolled activation of the complement system against self cells. Recently, aHUS patients were described with deficiency of the fibrinolytic protein plasminogen. This zymogen and its protease form plasmin have both been shown to interact with complement proteins in the fluid phase. In this work we studied the potential of plasminogen to restrict complement propagation. In hemolytic assays, plasminogen inhibited complement activation, but only when it had been exogenously activated to plasmin and when it was used at disproportionately high concentrations compared to serum. Addition of only the zymogen plasminogen into serum did not hinder complement-mediated lysis of erythrocytes. Plasminogen could not restrict deposition of complement activation products on endothelial cells either, as was shown with flow cytometry. With platelets, a very weak inhibitory effect on deposition of C3 fragments was observed, but it was considered too weak to be significant for disease pathogenesis. Thus it was concluded that plasminogen is not an important regulator of complement on self cells. Instead, addition of plasminogen was shown to clearly hinder platelet aggregation in serum. This was attributed to plasmin causing disintegration of formed platelet aggregates. We propose that reduced proteolytic activity of plasmin on structures of growing thrombi, rather than on complement activation fragments, explains the association of plasminogen deficiency with aHUS. This adds to the emerging view that factors unrelated to the complement system can also be central to aHUS pathogenesis and suggests that future research on the mechanism of the disease should expand beyond complement dysregulation. PMID:26637181

  11. Selective lysis of early embryonic cells by the alternative pathway of complement--a possible mechanism for programmed cell death in embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kircheis, R; Kircheis, L; Oshima, H; Kohchi, C; Soma, G; Mizuno, D

    1996-01-01

    Early embryonic cells and early mouse embryos were shown to activate the alternative pathway of complement, and to be highly sensitive to complement-mediated cytolysis (Kircheis et al, In Vivo 9: 85-98, 1995). Under further development embryonic cells become resistant. The induction of resistance to the alternative pathway of complement correlates with: a) altered splicing of Cr2-transcript and b) changes in the acidic glycolipids under differentiation. Early embryonic cells have low amounts of sialic acid-containing glycolipids or express mainly GM3. The induction of differentiation changes the glycolipid pattern leading to an increase in membrane-bound sialic acid. The importance of membrane-bound sialic acid in the restriction of complement activation is demonstrated by increased sensitivity to complement after pre-treatment of cells with neuraminidase. The results indicate that there is target-specific lysis of early embryonic cells by the alternative pathway of complement. Early embryonic cells activate the alternative pathway of complement by expressing activators and low levels of membrane-bound sialic acid. Induction of differentiation changes the glycolipid pattern, leading to an increase in membrane-bound sialic acid sufficient to restrict complement-activation on the cell surface. PMID:8839785

  12. Non-linear dynamics of the complement system activation.

    PubMed

    Korotaevskiy, Andrey A; Hanin, Leonid G; Khanin, Mikhail A

    2009-12-01

    The complement system (CS) plays a prominent role in the immune defense. The goal of this work is to study the dynamics of activation of the classic and alternative CS pathways based on the method of mathematical modeling. The principal difficulty that hinders modeling effort is the absence of the measured values of kinetic constants of many biochemical reactions forming the CS. To surmount this difficulty, an optimization procedure consisting of constrained minimization of the total protein consumption by the CS was designed. The constraints made use of published data on the in vitro kinetics of elimination of the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria by the CS. Special features of the problem at hand called for a significant modification of the general constrained optimization procedure to include a mathematical model of the bactericidal effect of the CS in the iterative setting. Determination of the unknown kinetic constants of biochemical reactions forming the CS led to a fully specified mathematical model of the dynamics of cell killing induced by the CS. On the basis of the model, effects of the initial concentrations of complements and their inhibitors on the bactericidal action of the CS were studied. Proteins playing a critical role in the regulation of the bactericidal action of the CS were identified. Results obtained in this work serve as an important stepping stone for the study of functioning of the CS as a whole as well as for developing methods for control of pathogenic processes. PMID:19854207

  13. The Alternative Pathway of Complement and the Evolving Clinical-Pathophysiological Spectrum of Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berger, Bruce E

    2016-08-01

    Complement-mediated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) comprises approximately 90% of cases of aHUS, and results from dysregulation of endothelial-anchored complement activation with resultant endothelial damage. The discovery of biomarker ADAMTS13 has enabled a more accurate diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and an appreciation of overlapping clinical features of TTP and aHUS. Given our present understanding of the pathogenic pathways involved in aHUS, it is unlikely that a specific test will be developed. Rather the use of biomarker data, complement functional analyses, genomic analyses and clinical presentation will be required to diagnose aHUS. This approach would serve to clarify whether a thrombotic microangiopathy present in a complement-amplifying condition arises from the unmasking of a genetically driven aHUS versus a time-limited complement storm-mediated aHUS due to direct endothelial damage in which no genetic predisposition is present. Although both scenarios result in the phenotypic expression of aHUS and involve the alternate pathway of complement activation, long-term management would differ.

  14. The Alternative Pathway of Complement and the Evolving Clinical-Pathophysiological Spectrum of Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berger, Bruce E

    2016-08-01

    Complement-mediated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) comprises approximately 90% of cases of aHUS, and results from dysregulation of endothelial-anchored complement activation with resultant endothelial damage. The discovery of biomarker ADAMTS13 has enabled a more accurate diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and an appreciation of overlapping clinical features of TTP and aHUS. Given our present understanding of the pathogenic pathways involved in aHUS, it is unlikely that a specific test will be developed. Rather the use of biomarker data, complement functional analyses, genomic analyses and clinical presentation will be required to diagnose aHUS. This approach would serve to clarify whether a thrombotic microangiopathy present in a complement-amplifying condition arises from the unmasking of a genetically driven aHUS versus a time-limited complement storm-mediated aHUS due to direct endothelial damage in which no genetic predisposition is present. Although both scenarios result in the phenotypic expression of aHUS and involve the alternate pathway of complement activation, long-term management would differ. PMID:27524217

  15. Bullous pemphigoid autoantibodies directly induce blister formation without complement activation.

    PubMed

    Ujiie, Hideyuki; Sasaoka, Tetsumasa; Izumi, Kentaro; Nishie, Wataru; Shinkuma, Satoru; Natsuga, Ken; Nakamura, Hideki; Shibaki, Akihiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Complement activation and subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells at the dermal/epidermal junction are thought to be essential for blister formation in bullous pemphigoid (BP), an autoimmune blistering disease induced by autoantibodies against type XVII collagen (COL17); however, this theory does not fully explain the pathological features of BP. Recently, the involvement of complement-independent pathways has been proposed. To directly address the question of the necessity of the complement activation in blister formation, we generated C3-deficient COL17-humanized mice. First, we show that passive transfer of autoantibodies from BP patients induced blister formation in neonatal C3-deficient COL17-humanized mice without complement activation. By using newly generated human and murine mAbs against the pathogenic noncollagenous 16A domain of COL17 with high (human IgG1, murine IgG2), low (murine IgG1), or no (human IgG4) complement activation abilities, we demonstrate that the deposition of Abs, and not complements, is relevant to the induction of blister formation in neonatal and adult mice. Notably, passive transfer of BP autoantibodies reduced the amount of COL17 in lesional mice skin, as observed in cultured normal human keratinocytes treated with the same Abs. Moreover, the COL17 depletion was associated with a ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. In conclusion, the COL17 depletion induced by BP autoantibodies, and not complement activation, is essential for the blister formation under our experimental system.

  16. IgG4 anti-phospholipase A2 receptor might activate lectin and alternative complement pathway meanwhile in idiopathic membranous nephropathy: an inspiration from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Chao; Jin, Liping; He, Fagui; Li, Changchun; Gao, Qingman; Chen, Guanglei; He, Zhijun; Song, Minghui; Zhou, Zhuliang; Shan, Fujun; Qi, Ka; Ma, Lu

    2016-08-01

    The deposition of IgG4 of antibodies against phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R) is predominating in the kidneys of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, while its predictive value has not been determined. It was a retrospective study, and 438 patients were included. Serum samples of two time points [before intervention (baseline) and after 1.5-year treatment (endpoint)] were detected for total and IgG4 anti-PLA2R. IgG4 <0.26 RU/mL or total <20 RU/mL was considered as seronegativity. Bi-positivity/bi-negativity was defined when patients'antibodies were found positive or negative both at the baseline and endpoint. Completed remission (CR) was a major clinical outcome. A series of complement ingredients (MASP-1/2, MBL, C3a, C5a, Factor B, Ba, Bb and C5b-9) were measured in the patients of bi-positivity and bi-negativity: (1) meta-analysis based on six papers conducted seropositivity of anti-PLA2R was a useful predictor for achieving CR, but there was a high heterogeneity; (2) there was significant correlation between the baseline and decrease in IgG4 subclass and the achievement of CR; (3) bi-negativity of IgG4 has a high accuracy of predicting CR compared with total antibodies; (4) in patients of bi-positivity, those achieving CR showed lower MASP-1/2, MBL, C3a, C5a, FB, Ba and Bb than patients failing to achieve CR; (5) the titers of endpoint and decrease in Ba and Bb were associated with improvement of 24 h-UP in those of bi-positivity; and (6) the decrease in Ba was a significant factor for achieving CR in those of bi-positivity. Continuous IgG4 negativity was a useful tool to predict the achievement of CR; however, in patients of continuous IgG4 positivity, those with lower activation of lectin and alternative pathways would still more probably achieve CR.

  17. A Targeted Inhibitor of the Alternative Complement Pathway Accelerates Recovery From Smoke-Induced Ocular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Woodell, Alex; Jones, Bryan W.; Williamson, Tucker; Schnabolk, Gloriane; Tomlinson, Stephen; Atkinson, Carl; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Morphologic and genetic evidence exists that an overactive complement system driven by the complement alternative pathway (AP) is involved in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Smoking is the only modifiable risk factor for AMD. As we have shown that smoke-related ocular pathology can be prevented in mice that lack an essential activator of AP, we ask here whether this pathology can be reversed by increasing inhibition in AP. Methods Mice were exposed to either cigarette smoke (CS) or filtered air (6 hours/day, 5 days/week, 6 months). Smoke-exposed animals were then treated with the AP inhibitor (CR2-fH) or vehicle control (PBS) for the following 3 months. Spatial frequency and contrast sensitivity were assessed by optokinetic response paradigms at 6 and 9 months; additional readouts included assessment of retinal morphology by electron microscopy (EM) and gene expression analysis by quantitative RT-PCR. Results The CS mice treated with CR2-fH showed significant improvement in contrast threshold compared to PBS-treated mice, whereas spatial frequency was unaffected by CS or pharmacologic intervention. Treatment with CR2-fH in CS animals reversed thinning of the retina observed in PBS-treated mice as analyzed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and reversed most morphologic changes in RPE and Bruch's membrane seen in CS animals by EM. Conclusions Taken together, these findings suggest that AP inhibitors not only prevent, but have the potential to accelerate the clearance of complement-mediated ocular injury. Improving our understanding of the regulation of the AP is paramount to developing novel treatment approaches for AMD. PMID:27064393

  18. Measuring initiator caspase activation by bimolecular fluorescence complementation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Melissa J; Bouchier-Hayes, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Initiator caspases, including caspase-2, -8, and -9, are activated by the proximity-driven dimerization that occurs after their recruitment to activation platforms. Here we describe the use of caspase bimolecular fluorescence complementation (caspase BiFC) to measure this induced proximity. BiFC assays rely on the use of a split fluorescent protein to identify protein-protein interactions in cells. When fused to interacting proteins, the fragments of the split fluorescent protein (which do not fluoresce on their own) can associate and fluoresce. In this protocol, we use the fluorescent protein Venus, a brighter and more photostable variant of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), to detect the induced proximity of caspase-2. Plasmids encoding two fusion products (caspase-2 fused to either the amino- or carboxy-terminal halves of Venus) are transfected into cells. The cells are then treated with an activating (death) stimulus. The induced proximity (and subsequent activation) of caspase-2 in the cells is visualized as Venus fluorescence. The proportion of Venus-positive cells at a single time point can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. Alternatively, the increase in fluorescence intensity over time can be evaluated by time-lapse confocal microscopy. The caspase BiFC strategy described here should also work for other initiator caspases, such as caspase-8 or -9, as long as the correct controls are used. PMID:25561623

  19. Direct evidence of complement activation in HELLP syndrome: A link to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vaught, Arthur J; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Hueppchen, Nancy; Blakemore, Karin; Yuan, Xuan; Seifert, Sara M; York, Sarah; Brodsky, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) is a severe variant of pre-eclampsia whose pathogenesis remains unclear. Recent evidence and clinical similarities suggest a link to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, a disease of excessive activation of the alternative complement pathway effectively treated with a complement inhibitor, eculizumab. Therefore, we used a functional complement assay, the modified Ham test, to analyze sera of women with classic or atypical HELLP syndrome, pre-eclampsia with severe features, normal pregnancies, and healthy nonpregnant women. Sera were also evaluated using levels of the terminal product of complement activation (C5b-9). We tested the in vitro ability of eculizumab to inhibit complement activation in HELLP serum. Increased complement activation was observed in participants with classic or atypical HELLP compared with those with normal pregnancies and nonpregnant controls. Mixing HELLP serum with eculizumab-containing serum resulted in a significant decrease in cell killing compared with HELLP serum alone. We found that HELLP syndrome is associated with increased complement activation as assessed with the modified Ham test. This assay may aid in the diagnosis of HELLP syndrome and could confirm that its pathophysiology is related to that of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

  20. CRP-mediated activation of complement in vivo: assessment by measuring circulating complement-C-reactive protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Wolbink, G J; Brouwer, M C; Buysmann, S; ten Berge, I J; Hack, C E

    1996-07-01

    The in vivo function of C-reactive protein (CRP) is unknown. Among the in vitro functions assigned to CRP is the ability to activate complement via the classical pathway. To date, there is no evidence supporting that CRP exerts this function in vivo. We here show a novel approach to assess CRP-mediated complement activation in vivo, which is based on the property that activated complement factors C3 and C4 fix to CRP during complement activation induced by this acute phase protein. We developed specific ELISAs for complexes between CRP and C4b, C4d, C3b, or C3d. We established that in vitro complement-CRP complexes were formed only during CRP-dependent activation, and not during activation by other activators, even in the presence of high CRP levels. Circulating levels of complement-CRP complexes were undetectable in normal donors, but significantly increased in nine patients following implantation of a renal allograft. Importantly, levels of complement-CRP complexes did not change in these patients upon a bolus infusion of mAb OKT3, which induces activation of the classical complement pathway, demonstrating in vivo that complement-CRP complexes are not formed during CRP-independent activation of complement, even when CRP is elevated. We conclude that measurement of complement-CRP complexes provides a suitable tool to study CRP-mediated activation of complement in vivo. Furthermore, increased levels of these complexes occur in clinical samples, indicating that CRP may induce activation of complement in vivo.

  1. Complement Activation in Patients with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Joshua M.; Wong, Maria; Renner, Brandon; Frazer-Abel, Ashley; Giclas, Patricia C.; Joy, Melanie S.; Jalal, Diana; Radeva, Milena K.; Gassman, Jennifer; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kaskel, Frederick; Friedman, Aaron; Trachtman, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent pre-clinical studies have shown that complement activation contributes to glomerular and tubular injury in experimental FSGS. Although complement proteins are detected in the glomeruli of some patients with FSGS, it is not known whether this is due to complement activation or whether the proteins are simply trapped in sclerotic glomeruli. We measured complement activation fragments in the plasma and urine of patients with primary FSGS to determine whether complement activation is part of the disease process. Study Design Plasma and urine samples from patients with biopsy-proven FSGS who participated in the FSGS Clinical Trial were analyzed. Setting and Participants We identified 19 patients for whom samples were available from weeks 0, 26, 52 and 78. The results for these FSGS patients were compared to results in samples from 10 healthy controls, 10 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), 20 patients with vasculitis, and 23 patients with lupus nephritis. Outcomes Longitudinal control of proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Measurements Levels of the complement fragments Ba, Bb, C4a, and sC5b-9 in plasma and urine. Results Plasma and urine Ba, C4a, sC5b-9 were significantly higher in FSGS patients at the time of diagnosis than in the control groups. Plasma Ba levels inversely correlated with the eGFR at the time of diagnosis and at the end of the study. Plasma and urine Ba levels at the end of the study positively correlated with the level of proteinuria, the primary outcome of the study. Limitations Limited number of patients with samples from all time-points. Conclusions The complement system is activated in patients with primary FSGS, and elevated levels of plasma Ba correlate with more severe disease. Measurement of complement fragments may identify a subset of patients in whom the complement system is activated. Further investigations are needed to confirm our findings and to determine the prognostic significance of

  2. Inhibition of aberrant complement activation by a dimer of acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonhee; Wathier, Matthew; Love, Jennifer A; McGeer, Edith; McGeer, Patrick L

    2015-10-01

    We here report synthesis for the first time of the acetyl salicylic acid dimer 5,5'-methylenebis(2-acetoxybenzoic acid) (DAS). DAS inhibits aberrant complement activation by selectively blocking factor D of the alternative complement pathway and C9 of the membrane attack complex. We have previously identified aurin tricarboxylic and its oligomers as promising agents in this regard. DAS is much more potent, inhibiting erythrocyte hemolysis by complement-activated serum with an IC50 in the 100-170 nanomolar range. There are numerous conditions where self-damage from the complement system has been implicated in the pathology, including such chronic degenerative diseases of aging as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and age-related macular degeneration. Consequently, there is a high priority for the discovery and development of agents that can successfully treat such conditions. DAS holds considerable promise for being such an agent.

  3. Physicochemical signatures of nanoparticle-dependent complement activation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Dennis G.; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Tardiff, Mark F.; Xu, Zhixiang; Hourcade, Dennis; Pham, Christine; Lanza, Gregory M.; Weinberger, Kilian Q.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2014-03-21

    Nanoparticles are potentially powerful therapeutic tools that have the capacity to target drug payloads and imaging agents. However, some nanoparticles can activate complement, a branch of the innate immune system, and cause adverse side-effects. Recently, we developed an in vitro hemolytic assay protocol for measuring the nanoparticle-dependent complement activity of serum samples and applied this protocol to several nanoparticle formulations that differed in size, surface charge, and surface chemistry; quantifying the nanoparticle-dependent complement activity using a metric called Residual Hemolytic Activity (RHA). In the present work, we have used a decision tree learning algorithm to derive the rules for estimating nanoparticle-dependent complement response based on the data generated from the hemolytic assay studies. Our results indicate that physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, namely, size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and mole percentage of the active surface ligand of a nanoparticle, can serve as good descriptors for prediction of nanoparticle-dependent complement activation in the decision tree modeling framework. The robustness and predictability of the model can be improved by training the model with additional data points that are uniformly distributed in the RHA/physicochemical descriptor space and by incorporating instability effects on nanoparticle physicochemical properties into the model.

  4. Activation of human complement by immunoglobulin G antigranulocyte antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, P K; Currie, M S; Logue, G L

    1982-01-01

    The ability of antigranulocyte antibody to fix the third component of complement (C3) to the granulocyte surface was investigated by an assay that quantitates the binding of monoclonal anti-C3 antibody to paraformaldehyde-fixed cells preincubated with Felty's syndrome serum in the presence of human complement. The sera from 7 of 13 patients with Felty's syndrome bound two to three times as much C3 to granulocytes as sera from patients with uncomplicated rheumatoid arthritis. The complement-activating ability of Felty's syndrome serum seemed to reside in the monomeric IgG-containing serum fraction. For those sera capable of activating complement, the amount of C3 fixed to granulocytes was proportional to the amount of granulocyte-binding IgG present in the serum. Thus, complement fixation appeared to be a consequence of the binding of antigranulocyte antibody to the cell surface. These studies suggest a role for complement-mediated injury in the pathophysiology of immune granulocytopenia, as has been demonstrated for immune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:7174786

  5. LPS induces pulp progenitor cell recruitment via complement activation.

    PubMed

    Chmilewsky, F; Jeanneau, C; Laurent, P; About, I

    2015-01-01

    Complement system, a major component of the natural immunity, has been recently identified as an important mediator of the dentin-pulp regeneration process through STRO-1 pulp cell recruitment by the C5a active fragment. Moreover, it has been shown recently that under stimulation with lipoteichoic acid, a complex component of the Gram-positive bacteria cell wall, human pulp fibroblasts are able to synthesize all proteins required for complement activation. However, Gram-negative bacteria, which are also involved in tooth decay, are known as powerful activators of complement system and inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of Gram-negative bacteria-induced complement activation on the pulp progenitor cell recruitment using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of all Gram-negative bacteria. Our results show that incubating pulp fibroblasts with LPS induced membrane attack complex formation and C5a release in serum-free fibroblast cultures. The produced C5a binds to the pulp progenitor cells' membrane and induces their migration toward the LPS stimulation chamber, as revealed by the dynamic transwell migration assays. The inhibition of this migration by the C5aR-specific antagonist W54011 indicates that the pulp progenitor migration is mediated by the interaction between C5a and C5aR. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a direct interaction between the recruitment of progenitor pulp cells and the activation of complement system generated by pulp fibroblast stimulation with LPS.

  6. Complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): Ofatumumab enhances alemtuzumab CDC and reveals cells resistant to activated complement

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Nisar A.; Taylor, Ronald P.; Lindorfer, Margaret A.; Church, Amy K.; LaPlant, Betsy R.; Pavey, Emily S.; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S.; Zent, Clive S.

    2016-01-01

    Complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) is an important mechanism of action for monoclonal antibodies (mAb) used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We hypothesized that alemtuzumab (ALM) mediated CDC would be increased by addition of ofatumumab (OFA). CLL cells from 21 previously untreated patients with progressive disease were tested in vitro for mAb binding, complement activation, and CDC. The subpopulation of CDC resistant CLL cells was examined for levels of C3b and C5b-9 binding, and expression of complement regulatory proteins. OFA significantly increased complement activation and CDC in ALM-treated CLL cells suggesting that combining ALM and OFA could improve clinical outcome in patients with CLL. Approximately 10% of CLL cells were resistant to CDC because of lower levels of complement activation or decreased cytotoxicity of activated complement. Improvement of clinical responses will require determining the mechanisms of CDC resistance and developing methods to overcome this problem. PMID:22475085

  7. Preliminary report: complement activation in wasp-sting anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, P W; Hack, C E; Kerckhaert, J A; Struyvenberg, A; van der Zwan, J C

    1990-10-13

    The generation of the anaphylatoxin C3a was measured after a wasp-sting challenge in eight patients with previous anaphylactic reactions to wasp stings. Whereas there was no change in C3a in one patient who showed no reaction and only a slight rise in three patients with mild reactions, C3a rose substantially in the four patients with severe anaphylactic reactions. This complement activation is the first in-vitro variable which correlates with the severity of wasp-sting anaphylactic reactions. A role for complement activation in the pathophysiology of wasp-sting anaphylaxis is therefore suggested.

  8. Hypersensitivity reactions to radiocontrast media: the role of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Szebeni, Janos

    2004-01-01

    Although intravenous use of radiocontrast media (RCM) for a variety of radiographic procedures is generally safe, clinically significant acute hypersensitivity reactions still occur in a significant percentage of patients. The mechanism of these anaphylactoid, or "pseudoallergic," reactions is complex, involving complement activation, direct degranulation of mast cells and basophils, and modulation of enzymes and proteolytic cascades in plasma. In this review, basic information on different RCMs and their reactogenicity is summarized and updated, and the prevalence, pathomechanism, prediction, prevention, treatment, and economic impact of hypersensitivity reactions are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting complement activation as an underlying cause of RCM reactions.

  9. Complement-Coagulation Cross-Talk: A Potential Mediator of the Physiological Activation of Complement by Low pH

    PubMed Central

    Kenawy, Hany Ibrahim; Boral, Ismet; Bevington, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The complement system is a major constituent of the innate immune system. It not only bridges innate and adaptive arms of the immune system but also links the immune system with the coagulation system. Current understanding of the role of complement has extended far beyond fighting of infections, and now encompasses maintenance of homeostasis, tissue regeneration, and pathophysiology of multiple diseases. It has been known for many years that complement activation is strongly pH sensitive, but only relatively recently has the physiological significance of this been appreciated. Most complement assays are carried out at the physiological pH 7.4. However, pH in some extracellular compartments, for example, renal tubular fluid in parts of the tubule, and extracellular fluid at inflammation loci, is sufficiently acidic to activate complement. The exact molecular mechanism of this activation is still unclear, but possible cross-talk between the contact system (intrinsic pathway) and complement may exist at low pH with subsequent complement activation. The current article reviews the published data on the effect of pH on the contact system and complement activity, the nature of the pH sensor molecules, and the clinical implications of these effects. Of particular interest is chronic kidney disease (CKD) accompanied by metabolic acidosis, in which therapeutic alkalinization of urine has been shown significantly to reduce tubular complement activation products, an effect, which may have important implications for slowing progression of CKD. PMID:25999953

  10. Complement and contact activation in term neonates after fetal acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, J.; Wagner, M.; Strauss, E.; Obladen, M.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate complement and contact activation after fetal acidosis.
METHODS—Fifteen term neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy after umbilical arterial pH < 7.10 were compared with 15 healthy neonates with umbilical arterial pH > 7.20. Determinations of the complement function and C1-inhibitor activity were performed as kinetic tests 22-28 hours after birth. C1q, C1-inhibitor, and factor B concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion and those of C3a, C5a, and factor XIIa by enzyme immunoabsorbent assay.
RESULTS—Median complement function (46 vs 73 %), C1q (4.3 vs 9.1 mg/dl), and factor B (5.2 vs 7.7 mg/dl) decreased after fetal acidosis. The activated split products C3a (260 vs 185 µg/l), C5a (5.0 vs 0.6 µg/l), and factor XIIa (3.2 vs 1.3 µg/l) increased in the neonates after fetal acidosis. No differences were found in the concentration and activity of C1-inhibitor.
CONCLUSIONS—Complement and contact activation occurred in the newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Activation of these systems generates mediators which can trigger inflammation and tissue injury.

 PMID:9577283

  11. Characterization of the third component of complement (C3) after activation by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Kew, R.R.; Ghebrehiwet, B.; Janoff, A.

    1987-08-01

    Activation of lung complement by tobacco smoke may be an important pathogenetic factor in the development of pulmonary emphysema in smokers. We previously showed that cigarette smoke can modify C3 and activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. However, the mechanism of C3 activation was not fully delineated in these earlier studies. In the present report, we show that smoke-treated C3 induces cleavage of the alternative pathway protein, Factor B, when added to serum containing Mg-EGTA. This effect of cigarette smoke is specific for C3 since smoke-treated C4, when added to Mg-EGTA-treated serum, fails to activate the alternative pathway and fails to induce Factor B cleavage. Smoke-modified C3 no longer binds significant amounts of (/sup 14/C)methylamine (as does native C3), and relatively little (/sup 14/C)methylamine is incorporated into its alpha-chain. Thus, prior internal thiolester bond cleavage appears to have occurred in C3 activated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke components also induce formation of noncovalently associated, soluble C3 multimers, with a Mr ranging from 1 to 10 million. However, prior cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 with methylamine prevents the subsequent formation of these smoke-induced aggregates. These data indicate that cigarette smoke activates the alternative pathway of complement by specifically modifying C3 and that these modifications include cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 and formation of noncovalently linked C3 multimers.

  12. Characterization of the third component of complement (C3) after activation by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Kew, R R; Ghebrehiwet, B; Janoff, A

    1987-08-01

    Activation of lung complement by tobacco smoke may be an important pathogenetic factor in the development of pulmonary emphysema in smokers. We previously showed that cigarette smoke can modify C3 and activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. However, the mechanism of C3 activation was not fully delineated in these earlier studies. In the present report, we show that smoke-treated C3 induces cleavage of the alternative pathway protein, Factor B, when added to serum containing Mg-EGTA. This effect of cigarette smoke is specific for C3 since smoke-treated C4, when added to Mg-EGTA-treated serum, fails to activate the alternative pathway and fails to induce Factor B cleavage. Smoke-modified C3 no longer binds significant amounts of [14C]methylamine (as does native C3), and relatively little [14C]methylamine is incorporated into its alpha-chain. Thus, prior internal thiolester bond cleavage appears to have occurred in C3 activated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke components also induce formation of noncovalently associated, soluble C3 multimers, with a Mr ranging from 1 to 10 million. However, prior cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 with methylamine prevents the subsequent formation of these smoke-induced aggregates. These data indicate that cigarette smoke activates the alternative pathway of complement by specifically modifying C3 and that these modifications include cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 and formation of noncovalently linked C3 multimers.

  13. A recombinant two-module form of human properdin is an inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway.

    PubMed

    Kouser, Lubna; Abdul-Aziz, Munirah; Tsolaki, Anthony G; Singhal, Dipti; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Urban, Britta C; Khan, Haseeb A; Sim, Robert B; Kishore, Uday

    2016-05-01

    Properdin upregulates the alternative complement pathway by binding and stabilising the C3 convertase complex (C3bBb). Properdin is a soluble glycoprotein and its flexible rod-like 53kDa monomers form cyclic polymers (dimers, trimers, tetramers and pentamers). The properdin monomer consists of seven thrombospondin type I repeats (TSR 0-6), which are similar and homologous to domains found in circumsporozoite and thrombospondin-related anonymous proteins of Plasmodium species, ETP100 of Eimeria tenella, various complement components C6-C9, and thrombospondin I and II. Using deletion constructs, TSR4 and TSR5 of human properdin were implicated in C3b binding and stabilising C3 convertase. However, individually expressed TSR4 or TSR5 failed to bind properdin ligands. Here, we have expressed and characterized biologically active TSR4 and TSR5 together (TSR4+5) in tandem in Escherichia coli, fused to maltose-binding protein. MBP-TSR4+5 bind solid-phase C3b, sulfatides and glycosaminoglycans. In addition, functionally active recombinant TSR4+5 modules inhibit the alternative pathway of complement. PMID:27060503

  14. Intracellular sensing of complement C3 activates cell autonomous immunity

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Jerry C.H.; Bidgood, Susanna R.; McEwan, William A.; James, Leo C.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens traverse multiple barriers during infection including cell membranes. Here we show that during this transition pathogens carry covalently attached complement C3 into the cell, triggering immediate signalling and effector responses. Sensing of C3 in the cytosol activates MAVS-dependent signalling cascades and induces proinflammatory cytokine secretion. C3 also flags viruses for rapid proteasomal degradation, thereby preventing their replication. This system can detect both viral and bacterial pathogens but is antagonized by enteroviruses, such as rhinovirus and poliovirus, which cleave C3 using their 3C protease. The antiviral Rupintrivir inhibits 3C protease and prevents C3 cleavage, rendering enteroviruses susceptible to intracellular complement sensing. Thus, complement C3 allows cells to detect and disable pathogens that have invaded the cytosol. PMID:25190799

  15. Factor D of the alternative pathway of human complement. Purification, alignment and N-terminal amino acid sequences of the major cyanogen bromide fragments, and localization of the serine residue at the active site.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D M; Gagnon, J; Reid, K B

    1980-01-01

    The serine esterase factor D of the complement system was purified from outdated human plasma with a yield of 20% of the initial haemolytic activity found in serum. This represented an approx. 60 000-fold purification. The final product was homogeneous as judged by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (with an apparent mol.wt. of 24 000), its migration as a single component in a variety of fractionation procedures based on size and charge, and its N-terminal amino-acid-sequence analysis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the first 36 residues of the intact molecule was found to be homologous with the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the catalytic chains of other serine esterases. Factor D showed an especially strong homology (greater than 60% identity) with rat 'group-specific protease' [Woodbury, Katunuma, Kobayashi, Titani, & Neurath (1978) Biochemistry 17, 811-819] over the first 16 amino acid residues. This similarity is of interest since it is considered that both enzymes may be synthesized in their active, rather than zymogen, forms. The three major CNBr fragments of factor D, which had apparent mol.wts. of 15 800, 6600 and 1700, were purified and then aligned by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and amino acid analysis. By using factor D labelled with di-[1,3-14C]isopropylphosphofluoridate it was shown that the CNBr fragment of apparent mol.wt. 6600, which is located in the C-terminal region of factor D, contained the active serine residue. The amino acid sequence around this residue was determined. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6821372

  16. Mild hypothermia inhibits systemic and cerebral complement activation in a swine model of cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ping; Zhao, Hong; Hua, Rong; Zhang, Mingyue; Tang, Ziren; Mei, Xue; Cui, Juan; Li, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    Complement activation has been implicated in ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study aimed to determine whether mild hypothermia (HT) inhibits systemic and cerebral complement activation after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Sixteen minipigs resuscitated from 8 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation were randomized into two groups: HT group (n=8), treated with HT (33°C) for 12 hours; and normothermia group (n=8), treated similarly as HT group except for cooling. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 0.5, 6, 12, and 24 hours after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The brain cortex was harvested 24 hours after ROSC. Complement and pro-inflammatory markers were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neurologic deficit scores were evaluated 24 hours after ROSC. C1q, Bb, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), C3b, C3a, C5a, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly increased under normothermia within 24 hours after ROSC. However, these increases were significantly reduced by HT. Hypothermia decreased brain C1q, MBL, C3b, and C5a contents 24 hours after ROSC. Hypothermic pigs had a better neurologic outcome than normothermic pigs. In conclusion, complement is activated through classic, alternative, and MBL pathways after ROSC. Hypothermia inhibits systemic and cerebral complement activation, which may provide an additional mechanism of cerebral protection. PMID:25757755

  17. Mild hypothermia inhibits systemic and cerebral complement activation in a swine model of cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Zhao, Hong; Hua, Rong; Zhang, Mingyue; Tang, Ziren; Mei, Xue; Cui, Juan; Li, Chunsheng

    2015-08-01

    Complement activation has been implicated in ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study aimed to determine whether mild hypothermia (HT) inhibits systemic and cerebral complement activation after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Sixteen minipigs resuscitated from 8 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation were randomized into two groups: HT group (n=8), treated with HT (33°C) for 12 hours; and normothermia group (n=8), treated similarly as HT group except for cooling. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 0.5, 6, 12, and 24 hours after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The brain cortex was harvested 24 hours after ROSC. Complement and pro-inflammatory markers were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neurologic deficit scores were evaluated 24 hours after ROSC. C1q, Bb, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), C3b, C3a, C5a, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly increased under normothermia within 24 hours after ROSC. However, these increases were significantly reduced by HT. Hypothermia decreased brain C1q, MBL, C3b, and C5a contents 24 hours after ROSC. Hypothermic pigs had a better neurologic outcome than normothermic pigs. In conclusion, complement is activated through classic, alternative, and MBL pathways after ROSC. Hypothermia inhibits systemic and cerebral complement activation, which may provide an additional mechanism of cerebral protection.

  18. A comparative study of mammalian and reptilian alternative pathway of complement-mediated killing of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi).

    PubMed

    Kuo, M M; Lane, R S; Giclas, P C

    2000-12-01

    The potential bactericidal activity of the alternative complement pathway of mammalian and reptilian sera to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) was evaluated in vitro. Complement-mediated killing was observed when cultured spirochetes were inoculated into sera from the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) and from the southern alligator lizard (Elgaria multicarinata), but not when they were inoculated into serum from either the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) or from humans. Spirochetes were still alive after 4 hr in lizard serum that had been preheated at 56 C for 30 min to inactivate complement. Furthermore, when lizard serum was chelated with 10 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to block all complement activation, borreliacidal activity was arrested. When lizard serum was chelated with 10 mM ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid plus 4 mM MgCl2 to block only classical complement pathway activation, >85% of spirochetes were immobilized within 1 hr. Differences in B. burgdorferi s.s. mortality were not observed when chelators with or without MgCl2 were added to serum from either deer mice or humans. Proteins comprising the alternative complement pathway are responsible for the borreliacidal activity observed in the blood of S. occidentalis and E. multicarinata. PMID:11191895

  19. Identification of peptidic inhibitors of the alternative complement pathway based on Staphylococcus aureus SCIN proteins.

    PubMed

    Summers, Brady J; Garcia, Brandon L; Woehl, Jordan L; Ramyar, Kasra X; Yao, Xiaolan; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2015-10-01

    The complement system plays a central role in a number of human inflammatory diseases, and there is a significant need for development of complement-directed therapies. The discovery of an arsenal of anti-complement proteins secreted by the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus brought with it the potential for harnessing the powerful inhibitory properties of these molecules. One such family of inhibitors, the SCINs, interact with a functional "hot-spot" on the surface of C3b. SCINs not only stabilize an inactive form of the alternative pathway (AP) C3 convertase (C3bBb), but also overlap the C3b binding site of complement factors B and H. Here we determined that a conserved Arg residue in SCINs is critical for function of full-length SCIN proteins. Despite this, we also found SCIN-specific differences in the contributions of other residues found at the C3b contact site, which suggested that a more diverse repertoire of residues might be able to recognize this region of C3b. To investigate this possibility, we conducted a phage display screen aimed at identifying SCIN-competitive 12-mer peptides. In total, seven unique sequences were identified and all exhibited direct C3b binding. A subset of these specifically inhibited the AP in assays of complement function. The mechanism of AP inhibition by these peptides was probed through surface plasmon resonance approaches, which revealed that six of the seven peptides disrupted C3bBb formation by interfering with factor B/C3b binding. To our knowledge this study has identified the first small molecules that retain inhibitory properties of larger staphylococcal immune evasion proteins.

  20. Pulp Fibroblasts Control Nerve Regeneration through Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Chmilewsky, F; About, I; Chung, S-H

    2016-07-01

    Dentin-pulp regeneration is closely linked to the presence of nerve fibers in the pulp and to the healing mechanism by sprouting of the nerve fiber's terminal branches beneath the carious injury site. However, little is known about the initial mechanisms regulating this process in carious teeth. It has been recently demonstrated that the complement system activation, which is one of the first immune responses, contributes to tissue regeneration through the local production of anaphylatoxins such as C5a. While few pulp fibroblasts in intact teeth and in untreated fibroblast cultures express the C5a receptor (C5aR), here we show that all dental pulp fibroblasts, localized beneath the carious injury site, do express this receptor. This observation is consistent with our in vitro results, which showed expression of C5aR in lipoteichoic acid-stimulated pulp fibroblasts. The interaction of C5a, produced after complement synthesis and activation from pulp fibroblasts, with the C5aR of these cells mediated the local brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) secretion. Overall, this activation guided the neuronal growth toward the lipoteichoic acid-stimulated fibroblasts. Thus, our findings highlight a new mechanism in one of the initial steps of the dentin-pulp regeneration process, linking pulp fibroblasts to the nerve sprouting through the complement system activation. This may provide a useful future therapeutic tool in targeting the fibroblasts in the dentin-pulp regeneration process. PMID:27053117

  1. The alternative complement pathway control protein H binds to immune complexes and serves their detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nydegger, U.E.; Corvetta, A.; Spaeth, P.J.; Spycher, M.

    1983-01-01

    During solubilization of immune complexes C3b becomes fixed to the immunoglobulin part and serves as a receptor for the alternative complement pathway control protein H. The H-C3b immune complex interaction can be made detectable using 4% polyethyleneglycol to separate free from bound /sup 125/I-H. Tetanus toxoid (Te)/anti-Te complexes kept soluble with fresh serum and containing 125 IU of specific antibody bound 18% of /sup 125/I-H; when fresh serum was chelated with 10 mM EDTA, /sup 125/I-H binding was only 5%. On sucrose density gradients, the H-binding material sedimented in the range of 12 to 30 S. In 36 serum samples from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and in 12 serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), /sup 125/I-H binding was significantly elevated to 9.5 +/- 4.7% (mean +/- 1 SD) and 13.3 +/- 5.6%, respectively, while /sup 125/I-H binding by 36 normal human sera was 4 +/- 2%. RA samples (17/36, 47%) and SLE samples (9/12, 75%) had H-binding values increased by more than 2 SD above the normal mean. The serum samples were also assessed for conglutinin- and C1q-binding activities; a significant correlation between H and C1q binding was observed (P less than 0.001); there was no correlation between H and conglutinin binding. Although binding to immune complexes through its interaction with C3b, H clearly detects a population of complexes other than conglutinin, thus expanding the possibilities of further characterizing pathological complexes.

  2. Studies on activation and levels of haemolytic complement of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). 1. Classical complement pathway.

    PubMed

    Jain, A; Goel, M C

    1989-12-01

    Optimum conditions for haemolytic complement (HC) assay in buffalo serum were standardized. In all, 11 indicator systems of red blood cells (RBC) and haemolysins were investigated. Maximum HC CH50 titre was obtained with rabbit RBC sensitized with goat haemolysin. The effect of pH, Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentration, ionic strength, time and temperature were studied. Of all the variables, ionic strength influenced the HC activity most significantly. The standard system for titrating the HC consisted of rabbit RBC sensitized with goat haemolysin, sucrose-veronal buffer with pH 7.5, ionic strength 0.023 M and Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations 6 x 10(-4) and 2 x 10(-3) M, respectively. Incubation at 37 degrees C for 2 h gave highest haemolytic activity. With this protocol 5-7-fold higher HC activity was recorded than with prestandardized conditions. Levels of HC were determined in the sera of 98 buffaloes aged from 1 month to 12 years. The lowest mean CH50 units of 401 +/- 0.35 per ml were recorded in buffalo calves below 3 months of age. The mean HC levels increased with age, reaching peak values of 2349 +/- 62.25 CH50 units/ml in 2-3-year-old buffalo. Animals in the age group 5-12 years had significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) mean HC levels of 1545 +/- 68.94.

  3. A targeted inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway reduces RPE injury and angiogenesis in models of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Bärbel; Long, Qin; Coughlin, Beth; Renner, Brandon; Huang, Yuxiang; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Ferreira, Viviana P; Pangburn, Michael K; Gilkeson, Gary S; Thurman, Joshua M; Tomlinson, Stephen; Holers, V Michael

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variations in complement factor H (fH), an inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway (CAP), and oxidative stress are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recently, novel complement therapeutics have been created with the capacity to be "targeted" to sites of complement activation. One example is our recombinant form of fH, CR2-fH, which consists of the N-terminus of mouse fH that contains the CAP-inhibitory domain, linked to a complement receptor 2 (CR2) targeting fragment that binds complement activation products. CR2-fH was investigated in vivo in the mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and in vitro in oxidatively stressed RPE cell monolayers. RPE deterioration and CNV development were found to require CAP activation, and specific CAP inhibition by CR2-fH reduced the loss of RPE integrity and angiogenesis in CNV. In both the in vivo and in vitro paradigm of RPE damage, a model requiring molecular events known to be involved in AMD, complement-dependent VEGF production, was confirmed. These data may open new avenues for AMD treatment strategies.

  4. A targeted inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway reduces RPE injury and angiogenesis in models of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Bärbel; Long, Qin; Coughlin, Beth; Renner, Brandon; Huang, Yuxiang; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Ferreira, Viviana P; Pangburn, Michael K; Gilkeson, Gary S; Thurman, Joshua M; Tomlinson, Stephen; Holers, V Michael

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variations in complement factor H (fH), an inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway (CAP), and oxidative stress are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recently, novel complement therapeutics have been created with the capacity to be "targeted" to sites of complement activation. One example is our recombinant form of fH, CR2-fH, which consists of the N-terminus of mouse fH that contains the CAP-inhibitory domain, linked to a complement receptor 2 (CR2) targeting fragment that binds complement activation products. CR2-fH was investigated in vivo in the mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and in vitro in oxidatively stressed RPE cell monolayers. RPE deterioration and CNV development were found to require CAP activation, and specific CAP inhibition by CR2-fH reduced the loss of RPE integrity and angiogenesis in CNV. In both the in vivo and in vitro paradigm of RPE damage, a model requiring molecular events known to be involved in AMD, complement-dependent VEGF production, was confirmed. These data may open new avenues for AMD treatment strategies. PMID:20711712

  5. Leishmania species: mechanisms of complement activation by five strains of promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Mosser, D M; Burke, S K; Coutavas, E E; Wedgwood, J F; Edelson, P J

    1986-12-01

    The interaction of fresh serum with promastigotes of Leishmania major, L. donovani, L. mexicana mexicana, L. mexicana amazonensis, and L. braziliensis guyanensis results in lysis of all strains tested with either fresh human or guinea pig serum at 37 C for 30 min. Lysis does not occur in the cold and requires divalent cations and complement that is active hemolytically. Serum deficient in the eighth component of complement is not lytic. Lysis of L. major, L. mexicana, and L. braziliensis proceeds fully in human serum containing EGTA/Mg2+ or in guinea pig serum deficient in the fourth complement component. These species consume only small amounts of C4 from human serum and do not require calcium to optimally bind C3. The data indicate that all are activators of the alternative complement pathway and that the classical pathway is not required for the lysis of these organisms. Promastigotes of L. donovani, in contrast, activate the classical pathway. The presence of calcium is required for both optimal C3 binding and parasite lysis, and L. donovani promastigotes consume C4 when incubated in human serum. In high concentrations, human serum agglutinates all tested Leishmania spp. The agglutinating factor does not require divalent cations, is heat stable, and works at 4 C, suggesting that it is an antibody. This "naturally occurring" antibody cross reacts with all Leishmania spp. and agglutinates them. The adsorption of serum with any Leishmania species or with beads that are Protein A coated, removes the agglutinogen. This factor causes a slight enhancement in alternative pathway activation by L. major and mediates the classical activation by L. donovani. In adsorbed serum, L. donovani promastigotes only weakly activate the alternative complement pathway. Increased concentrations of adsorbed serum are therefore necessary for lysis to proceed. The titer can be partially restored by the addition of heat inactivated serum. Using purified components of the classical cascade

  6. Regulation of the alternative pathway of complement modulates injury and immunity in a chronic model of dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Elvington, M; Schepp-Berglind, J; Tomlinson, S

    2015-01-01

    The role of complement in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been studied primarily using acute models, and it is unclear how complement affects processes in more relevant chronic models of IBD in which modulation of adaptive immunity and development of fibrosis have pathogenic roles. Using mice deficient in C1q/mannose-binding lectin (MBL) or C3, we demonstrated an important role for these opsonins and/or the classical pathway C3 convertase in providing protection against mucosal injury and infection in a model of chronic dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In contrast, deficiency of the alternative pathway (fB–/– mice) had significantly less impact on injury profiles. Consequently, the effect of a targeted inhibitor of the alternative pathway was investigated in a therapeutic protocol. Following the establishment of colitis, mice were treated with CR2-fH during subsequent periods of DSS treatment and acute injury (modelling relapse). CR2-fH significantly reduced complement activation, inflammation and injury in the colon, and additionally reduced fibrosis. Alternative pathway inhibition also altered the immune response in the chronic state in terms of reducing numbers of B cells, macrophages and mature dendritic cells in the lamina propria. This study indicates an important role for the alternative pathway of complement in the pathogenesis and the shaping of an immune response in chronic DSS-induced colitis, and supports further investigation into the use of targeted alternative pathway inhibition for the treatment of IBD. PMID:25293413

  7. Activation of endogenously expressed ion channels by active complement in the retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Genewsky, Andreas; Jost, Ingmar; Busch, Catharina; Huber, Christian; Stindl, Julia; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F; Rohrer, Bärbel; Strauß, Olaf

    2015-10-01

    Defective regulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system is believed to contribute to damage of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in age-related macular degeneration. Thus we investigated the effect of complement activation on the RPE cell membrane by analyzing changes in membrane conductance via patch-clamp techniques and Ca(2+) imaging. Exposure of human ARPE-19 cells to complement-sufficient normal human serum (NHS) (25 %) resulted in a biphasic increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i); an initial peak followed by sustained Ca(2+) increase. C5- or C7-depleted sera did not fully reproduce the signal generated by NHS. The initial peak of the Ca(2+) response was reduced by sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, L-type channel blockers (R)-(+)-BayK8644 and isradipine, transient-receptor-potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium-red and ryanodine receptor blocker dantrolene. The sustained phase was carried by CaV1.3 L-type channels via tyrosine-phosphorylation. Changes in [Ca(2+)]I were accompanied by an abrupt hyperpolarization, resulting from a transient increase in membrane conductance, which was absent under extracellular Ca(2+)- or K(+)-free conditions and blocked by (R)-(+)-BayK8644 or paxilline, a maxiK channel inhibitor. Single-channel recordings confirmed the contribution of maxiK channels. Primary porcine RPE cells responded to NHS in a comparable manner. Pre-incubation with NHS reduced H2O2-induced cell death. In summary, in a concerted manner, C3a, C5a and sC5b-9 increased [Ca(2+)]i by ryanodine-receptor-dependent activation of L-type channels in addition to maxi-K channels and TRP channels absent from any insertion of a lytic pore.

  8. The relative merits of therapies being developed to tackle inappropriate ('self'-directed) complement activation.

    PubMed

    Antwi-Baffour, Samuel; Kyeremeh, Ransford; Adjei, Jonathan Kofi; Aryeh, Claudia; Kpentey, George

    2016-12-01

    The complement system is an enzyme cascade that helps defend against infection. Many complement proteins occur in serum as inactive enzyme precursors or reside on cell surfaces. Complement components have many biologic functions and their activation can eventually damage the plasma membranes of cells and some bacteria. Although a direct link between complement activation and autoimmune diseases has not been found, there is increasing evidence that complement activation significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of a large number of inflammatory diseases that may have autoimmune linkage. The inhibition of complement may therefore be very important in a variety of autoimmune diseases since their activation may be detrimental to the individual involved. However, a complete and long-term inhibition of complement may have some contra side effects such as increased susceptibility to infection. The site of complement activation will, however, determine the type of inhibitor to be used, its route of application and dosage level. Compared with conventional drugs, complement inhibitors may be the best option for treatment of autoimmune diseases. The review takes a critical look at the relative merits of therapies being developed to tackle inappropriate complement activation that are likely to result in sporadic autoimmune diseases or worsen already existing one. It covers the complement system, general aspects of complement inhibition therapy, therapeutic strategies and examples of complement inhibitors. It concludes by highlighting on the possibility that a better inhibitor of complement activation when found will help provide a formidable treatment for autoimmune diseases as well as preventing one.

  9. Estrogen replacement raises rat CRP without evidence of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, S X; Diaz Padilla, N; Zhu, Q; Ma, X M; Sasso, D; Prestwood, K; Hack, C E; Kuchel, G A

    2005-01-01

    Given current controversies regarding anti- and pro-inflammatory effects of estrogen, there is a need to explore relationships between gonadal hormones and inflammation using appropriate animal models. It has been proposed that rats are not appropriate for such research since, contrary to the effect of estrogen in humans, earlier animal studies had reported that estrogen downregulates serum C-reactive protein (rCRP) levels in the rat. With these considerations in mind, we re-examined the effects of estrogen withdrawal and replacement on CRP expression and complement activation in the rat. F-344 rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy or sham surgery at 9-10 months of age. Four months later, ovariectomized rats were treated with traditional high-dose 17beta-estradiol (Hi-E2) capsules, lower-dose (Lo-E2) 17beta-estradiol capsules, or placebo capsules for 7 days prior to sacrifice. Levels of plasma rat C-reactive protein (rCRP) were significantly lower in ovariectomized vs. sham-operated animals (415.5 +/- 10.6 vs. 626.6 +/- 23.0 mg/L, p < 0.001). Estrogen replacement significantly raised rCRP levels in ovariectomized animals (690.0 +/- 28.0 mg/L in Lo-E2 and 735.5 +/- 35.8 mg/L in Hi-E2, respectively, p < 0.001). Plasma rCRP levels correlated significantly with both hepatic rCRP (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) and serum estradiol (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) levels. However, no significant differences were observed in indices of complement activation (C4b/c) or CRP-complement complex generation (rCRP-C3 complex). In the mature female rat, ovariectomy reduces and estrogen replacement raises rCRP. Effects of estrogen on plasma rCRP induction are mediated, at least in part, through hepatic mechanisms and do not appear to require or be associated with complement activation.

  10. Differential Complement Activation Pathways Promote C3b Deposition on Native and Acetylated LDL thereby Inducing Lipoprotein Binding to the Complement Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Klop, Boudewijn; van der Pol, Pieter; van Bruggen, Robin; Wang, Yanan; de Vries, Marijke A.; van Santen, Selvetta; O'Flynn, Joseph; van de Geijn, Gert-Jan M.; Njo, Tjin L.; Janssen, Hans W.; de Man, Peter; Jukema, J. Wouter; Rabelink, Ton J.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; van Kooten, Cees; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2014-01-01

    Lipoproteins can induce complement activation resulting in opsonization and binding of these complexes to complement receptors. We investigated the binding of opsonized native LDL and acetylated LDL (acLDL) to the complement receptor 1 (CR1). Binding of complement factors C3b, IgM, C1q, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and properdin to LDL and acLDL were investigated by ELISA. Subsequent binding of opsonized LDL and acLDL to CR1 on CR1-transfected Chinese Hamster Ovarian cells (CHO-CR1) was tested by flow cytometry. Both native LDL and acLDL induced complement activation with subsequent C3b opsonization upon incubation with normal human serum. Opsonized LDL and acLDL bound to CR1. Binding to CHO-CR1 was reduced by EDTA, whereas MgEGTA only reduced the binding of opsonized LDL, but not of acLDL suggesting involvement of the alternative pathway in the binding of acLDL to CR1. In vitro incubations showed that LDL bound C1q, whereas acLDL bound to C1q, IgM, and properdin. MBL did neither bind to LDL nor to acLDL. The relevance of these findings was demonstrated by the fact that ex vivo up-regulation of CR1 on leukocytes was accompanied by a concomitant increased binding of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to leukocytes without changes in LDL-receptor expression. In conclusion, CR1 is able to bind opsonized native LDL and acLDL. Binding of LDL to CR1 is mediated via the classical pathway, whereas binding of acLDL is mediated via both the classical and alternative pathways. Binding of lipoproteins to CR1 may be of clinical relevance due to the ubiquitous cellular distribution of CR1. PMID:25349208

  11. Complement activation on poly(ethylene oxide)-like RFGD-deposited surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Szott, Luisa Mayorga; Stein, M. Jeanette; Ratner, Buddy D.; Horbett, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Non-specific protein adsorption, particularly fibrinogen (Fg), is thought to be an initiating step in the foreign body response (FBR) to biomaterials by promoting phagocyte attachment. In previous studies, we therefore prepared radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) polyethylene oxide (PEO)-like tetraglyme coatings (CH3O(CH2CH2O)4CH3) adsorbing less than 10 ng/cm2 Fg and showed that they had the expected low monocyte adhesion in vitro. However, when these were implanted in vivo, many adherent inflammatory cells and a fibrous capsule were found, suggesting the role of alternative proteins, such as activated complement proteins, in the FBR to these materials. We therefore investigated complement interactions with the tetraglyme surfaces. First, because of its well known role in complement C3 activation, we measured the hydroxyl group (-OH) content of tetraglyme, but found it to be very low. Second, we measured C3 adsorption to tetraglyme from plasma. Low amounts of C3 adsorbed on tetraglyme, though it displayed higher binding strength than the control surfaces. Finally, complement activation was determined by measuring C3a and SC5b-9 levels in serum after incubating with tetraglyme, as well as other surfaces that served as positive and negative controls, namely poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels, Silastic sheeting, and poly(ethylene glycol) self-assembled monolayers with different end groups. Despite displaying low hydroxyl group concentration, relatively high C3a and SC5b-9 levels were found in serum exposed to tetraglyme, similar to the values due to our positive control, PVA. Our results support the conclusion that complement activation by tetraglyme is a possible mechanism involved in the FBR to these biomaterials. PMID:21105163

  12. Complement factor B activation in patients with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Velickovic, Ivan; Dalloul, Mudar; Wong, Karen A; Bakare, Olufunke; Schweis, Franz; Garala, Maya; Alam, Amit; Medranda, Giorgio; Lekovic, Jovana; Shuaib, Waqas; Tedjasukmana, Andreas; Little, Perry; Hanono, Daniel; Wijetilaka, Ruvini; Weedon, Jeremy; Lin, Jun; Toledano, Roulhac d'Arby; Zhang, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Bb, the active fragment of complement factor B (fB), has been reported to be a predictor of preeclampsia. However, conflicting results have been found by some investigators. We hypothesized that the disagreement in findings may be due to the racial/ethnic differences among various study groups, and that fB activation is significant in women of an ethnic minority with preeclampsia. We investigated the maternal and fetal levels of Bb (the activated fB fragment) in pregnant women of an ethnic minority with or without preeclampsia. We enrolled 291 pregnant women (96% of an ethnic minority, including 78% African-American). Thirteen percent of these were diagnosed with preeclampsia. Maternal venous blood was collected from all participants together with fetal umbilical cord blood samples from 154 deliveries in the 291 women. The results were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and multivariate analyses. Maternal Bb levels were significantly higher in the preeclamptic group than in the nonpreeclamptic group. Levels of Bb in fetal cord blood were similar in both groups. Subgroup analyses of African-American patients' results confirmed the study hypothesis that there would be a significant increase in Bb in the maternal blood of the preeclamptic group and no increase in Bb in the fetal cord blood of this group. These results suggest that a maternal immune response through complement fB might play a role in the development of preeclampsia, particularly in African-American patients.

  13. Anti-Mouse Properdin TSR 5/6 Monoclonal Antibodies Block Complement Alternative Pathway-dependent Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Paula; Akk, Antonina M.; Zhou, Hui-fang; Mitchell, Lynne M.; Pham, Christine T.N.

    2015-01-01

    The complement alternative pathway (AP) is a major contributor to a broad and growing spectrum of diseases that includes age-related macular degeneration, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and preeclampsia. As a result, there is much interest in the therapeutic disruption of AP activity. Properdin, the only positive regulator of the AP, is a particularly promising AP target. Several issues need to be clarified before the potential for properdin-directed therapy can be realized. In this report we use a portion of the mouse properdin protein, expressed in a bacterial system, to raise rabbit polyclonal and hamster monoclonal antibodies that block properdin-dependent pathogenesis. These antibodies, when employed with AP-dependent mouse disease models, can help evaluate the feasibility of properdin-directed therapy. PMID:25723276

  14. Potassium humate inhibits complement activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Naude, P.J.

    2009-08-15

    The effects of brown coal derived potassium humate on lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and complement activation were investigated in vitro. Potassium humate increased lymphocyte proliferation of phytohaemaglutinin A (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulated mononuclear lymphocytes (MNL) in vitro from concentrations of 20 to 80 {mu} g/ml, in a dose dependant manner. On the other hand potassium humate, at 40 {mu} g/ml, significantly inhibited the release of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PHA stimulated MNL. Regarding complement activation it was found that potassium humate inhibits the activation of both the alternative and classical pathways without affecting the stability of the red blood cell membranes. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory potential of potassium humate could be partially due to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for the initiation of these reactions as well as inhibition of complement activation. The increased lymphocyte proliferation observed, might be due to increased IL-2 production as previously been documented.

  15. Activation of Human Complement System by Dextran-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Is Not Affected by Dextran/Fe Ratio, Hydroxyl Modifications, and Crosslinking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guankui; Chen, Fangfang; Banda, Nirmal K.; Holers, V. Michael; Wu, LinPing; Moghimi, S. Moein; Simberg, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    While having tremendous potential as therapeutic and imaging tools, the clinical use of engineered nanoparticles has been associated with serious safety concerns. Activation of the complement cascade and the release of proinflammatory factors C3a and C5a may contribute to infusion-related reactions, whereas opsonization with C3 fragments promotes rapid recognition and clearance of nanomaterials by mononuclear phagocytes. We used dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), which are potent activators of the complement system, to study the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry in inciting complement in human serum. Using complement inhibitors and measuring levels of fluid phase markers (sC5b-9, C5a, and Bb), we found that the majority of human complement activation by SPIO is through the alternative pathways (AP). SPIO prepared with high dextran/iron ratio showed some complement activation via calcium-sensitive pathways, but the AP was responsible for the bulk of complement activation and amplification. Activation via the AP required properdin, the positive regulator of the alternative C3bBb convertase. Modification of sugar alcohols of dextran with alkylating, acylating, or crosslinking agents did not overcome complement activation and C3 opsonization. These data demonstrate that human complement activation is independent of dextran modification of SPIO and suggest a crucial role of the AP in immune recognition of nano-assemblies in human serum. PMID:27777575

  16. Activation of the lectin pathway of complement in experimental human keratitis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Osthoff, Michael; Brown, Karl D.; Kong, David C.M.; Daniell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) microbial keratitis (MK) is a sight-threatening disease. Previous animal studies have identified an important contribution of the complement system to the clearance of P. aeruginosa infection of the cornea. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern recognition receptor of the lectin pathway of complement, has been implicated in the host defense against P. aeruginosa. However, studies addressing the role of the lectin pathway in P. aeruginosa MK are lacking. Hence, we sought to determine the activity of the lectin pathway in human MK caused by P. aeruginosa. Methods Primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) from cadaveric donors were exposed to two different P. aeruginosa strains. Gene expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, MBL, and other complement proteins was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) and MBL synthesis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intracellular flow cytometry. Results MBL gene expression was not detected in unchallenged HCECs. Exposure of HCECs to P. aeruginosa resulted in rapid induction of the transcriptional expression of MBL, IL-6, and IL-8. In addition, expression of several complement proteins of the classical and lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, were upregulated after 5 h of challenge, including MBL-associated serine protease 1. However, MBL protein secretion was not detectable 18 h after challenge with P. aeruginosa. Conclusions MK due to P. aeruginosa triggers activation of MBL and the lectin pathway of complement. However, the physiologic relevance of this finding is unclear, as corresponding MBL oligomer production was not observed. PMID:24426774

  17. Activation of serum complement by polysaccharide-containing antigens of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Schifferle, R E; Wilson, M E; Levine, M J; Genco, R J

    1993-07-01

    We previously reported that hot aqueous phenol extraction of Porphyromonas gingivalis yields a preparation containing both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and an antigenically distinct capsular polysaccharide (PS). In the present study, we examined the capacity of phenol-water extracts from a number of strains of P. gingivalis to activate human serum complement. Anticomplementary activity of extracts from two invasive and two noninvasive strains of P. gingivalis was assessed in a sheep erythrocyte hemolytic assay and in an alternative pathway-selective rabbit erythrocyte hemolytic assay. In the sheep erythrocyte assay, extracts from noninvasive strains were found to exhibit greater anticomplementary activity than extracts derived from invasive strains. A phenol-water extract from invasive strain ATCC 53977 was further resolved into its LPS and PS fractions. Whereas isolated LPS from this strain exhibited strong anticomplementary activity, the PS fraction was only weakly active. Phenol-water extracts from three of four strains were found to be potent activators of the alternative pathway, with extracts from the two noninvasive strains being most active. The extract from the remaining strain (ATCC 53977) was a poor activator of the alternative pathway. Further analysis of this extract revealed, however, that the LPS fraction was a potent activator of the alternative pathway, although the PS fraction exhibited negligible activity. The results of this study indicate that phenol-water extracts of invasive and noninvasive strains of P. gingivalis differ in their respective anticomplementary activities, with invasive strains being less active. Although extracts from both invasive and noninvasive strains activated the alternative pathway, this activity appears to be attributable to the LPS, rather than the PS, component.

  18. Complement activation and complement receptors on follicular dendritic cells are critical for the function of a targeted adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Johan; Yrlid, Ulf; Stensson, Anneli; Schön, Karin; Karlsson, Mikael C I; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Lycke, Nils Y

    2011-10-01

    A detailed understanding of how activation of innate immunity can be exploited to generate more effective vaccines is critically required. However, little is known about how to target adjuvants to generate safer and better vaccines. In this study, we describe an adjuvant that, through complement activation and binding to follicular dendritic cells (FDC), dramatically enhances germinal center (GC) formation, which results in greatly augmented Ab responses. The nontoxic CTA1-DD adjuvant hosts the ADP-ribosylating CTA1 subunit from cholera toxin and a dimer of the D fragment from Staphylococcus aureus protein A. We found that T cell-dependent, but not -independent, responses were augmented by CTA1-DD. GC reactions and serum Ab titers were both enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. This effect required complement activation, a property of the DD moiety. Deposition of CTA1-DD to the FDC network appeared to occur via the conduit system and was dependent on complement receptors on the FDC. Hence, Cr2(-/-) mice failed to augment GC reactions and exhibited dramatically reduced Ab responses, whereas Ribi adjuvant demonstrated unperturbed adjuvant function in these mice. Noteworthy, the adjuvant effect on priming of specific CD4 T cells was found to be intact in Cr2(-/-) mice, demonstrating that the CTA1-DD host both complement-dependent and -independent adjuvant properties. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of an adjuvant that directly activates complement, enabling binding of the adjuvant to the FDC, which subsequently strongly promoted the GC reaction, leading to augmented serum Ab titers and long-term memory development. PMID:21880985

  19. Structural Analysis and Anti-Complement Activity of Polysaccharides from Kjellmaniella crsaaifolia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Delin; Zhao, Luyu; Wang, Jing; Duan, Delin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-01-01

    Two polysaccharides, named KCA and KCW, were extracted from Kjellmaniella crassifolia using dilute hydrochloric acid and water, respectively. Composition analysis showed that these polysaccharides predominantly consisted of fucose, with galactose, mannose and glucuronic acid as minor components. After degradation and partial desulfation, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was performed, which showed that the polysaccharides consisted of sulfated fucooligosaccharides, sulfated galactofucooligosaccharides and methyl glycosides of mono-sulfated/multi-sulfated fucooligosaccharides. The structures of the oligomeric fragments were further characterized by electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS2 and ESI-CID-MS3). Moreover, the activity of KCA and KCW against the hemolytic activity of both the classical and alternative complement pathways was determined. The activity of KCA was found to be similar to KCW, suggesting that the method of extraction did not influence the activity. In addition, the degraded polysaccharides (DKCA and DKCW) displayed lower activity levels than the crude polysaccharides (KCA and KCW), indicating that molecular weight had an effect on activity. Moreover, the desulfated fractions (ds-DKCA and ds-DKCW) showed less or no activity, which confirmed that sulfate was important for activity. In conclusion, polysaccharides from K. crassifolia may be good candidates for the treatment of diseases involving the complement pathway. PMID:25786064

  20. Potentiation of C1 inhibitor by glycosaminoglycans: dextran sulfate species are effective inhibitors of in vitro complement activation in plasma.

    PubMed

    Wuillemin, W A; te Velthuis, H; Lubbers, Y T; de Ruig, C P; Eldering, E; Hack, C E

    1997-08-15

    Activation of the complement system may contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Hence, an effective inhibitor of complement might be useful to reduce tissue damage. Some glycosaminoglycans (GAG), such as heparin, are known to inhibit the interaction of C1q with activators and the assembly of the classical and the alternative pathway C3 convertases. Furthermore, they may potentiate C1 inhibitor-mediated inactivation of C1s. To search for potential complement inhibitors, we systematically investigated the complement inhibitory properties of various synthetic and naturally occurring GAG (dextran sulfates 500,000 and 5,000, heparin, N-acetylheparin, heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfates A and C). First, we assessed the effect of GAG on the second-order rate constant of the inactivation of C1s by C1 inhibitor. This rate constant increased 6- to 130-fold in the presence of the GAG, dextran sulfate being the most effective. Second, all tested GAG were found to reduce deposition of C4 and C3 on immobilized aggregated human IgG (AHG) and to reduce fluid phase formation of C4b/c and C3b/c in recalcified plasma upon incubation with AHG. Dextran sulfate again was found to be most effective. We conclude that GAG modulate complement activation in vitro and that the low molecular weight dextran sulfate (m.w. 5000) may be a candidate for pharmacologic manipulation of complement activation via potentiation of C1 inhibitor.

  1. Variants in Complement Factor H and Complement Factor H-Related Protein Genes, CFHR3 and CFHR1, Affect Complement Activation in IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li; Zhai, Ya-Ling; Wang, Feng-Mei; Hou, Ping; Lv, Ji-Cheng; Xu, Da-Min; Shi, Su-Fang; Liu, Li-Jun; Yu, Feng; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Novak, Jan; Gharavi, Ali G.

    2015-01-01

    Complement activation is common in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and associated with disease severity. Our recent genome-wide association study of IgAN identified susceptibility loci on 1q32 containing the complement regulatory protein-encoding genes CFH and CFHR1–5, with rs6677604 in CFH as the top single-nucleotide polymorphism and CFHR3–1 deletion (CFHR3–1∆) as the top signal for copy number variation. In this study, to explore the clinical effects of variation in CFH, CFHR3, and CFHR1 on IgAN susceptibility and progression, we enrolled two populations. Group 1 included 1178 subjects with IgAN and available genome-wide association study data. Group 2 included 365 subjects with IgAN and available clinical follow-up data. In group 1, rs6677604 was associated with mesangial C3 deposition by genotype–phenotype correlation analysis. In group 2, we detected a linkage between the rs6677604-A allele and CFHR3–1∆ and found that the rs6677604-A allele was associated with higher serum levels of CFH and lower levels of the complement activation split product C3a. Furthermore, CFH levels were positively associated with circulating C3 levels and negatively associated with mesangial C3 deposition. Moreover, serum levels of the pathogenic galactose-deficient glycoform of IgA1 were also associated with the degree of mesangial C3 deposition in patients with IgAN. Our findings suggest that genetic variants in CFH, CFHR3, and CFHR1 affect complement activation and thereby, predispose patients to develop IgAN. PMID:25205734

  2. Expression of the Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase (AOX) in Drosophila complements defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Ayala, Daniel J M; Sanz, Alberto; Vartiainen, Suvi; Kemppainen, Kia K; Babusiak, Marek; Mustalahti, Eero; Costa, Rodolfo; Tuomela, Tea; Zeviani, Massimo; Chung, Jongkyeong; O'Dell, Kevin M C; Rustin, Pierre; Jacobs, Howard T

    2009-05-01

    Defects in mitochondrial OXPHOS are associated with diverse and mostly intractable human disorders. The single-subunit alternative oxidase (AOX) found in many eukaryotes, but not in arthropods or vertebrates, offers a potential bypass of the OXPHOS cytochrome chain under conditions of pathological OXPHOS inhibition. We have engineered Ciona intestinalis AOX for conditional expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous AOX expression produced no detrimental phenotype in wild-type flies. However, mitochondrial suspensions from AOX-expressing flies exhibited a significant cyanide-resistant substrate oxidation, and the flies were partially resistant to both cyanide and antimycin. AOX expression was able to complement the semilethality of partial knockdown of both cyclope (COXVIc) and the complex IV assembly factor Surf1. It also rescued the locomotor defect and excess mitochondrial ROS production of flies mutated in dj-1beta, a Drosophila homolog of the human Parkinson's disease gene DJ1. AOX appears to offer promise as a wide-spectrum therapeutic tool in OXPHOS disorders. PMID:19416715

  3. Genetically engineered fusion of MAP-1 and factor H domains 1-5 generates a potent dual upstream inhibitor of both the lectin and alternative complement pathways.

    PubMed

    Nordmaj, Mie Anemone; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Hein, Estrid; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Garred, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Inhibition of the complement cascade has emerged as an option for treatment of a range of diseases. Mannose-binding lectin/ficolin/collectin-associated protein (MAP-1) is a pattern recognition molecule (PRM)-associated inhibitor of the lectin pathway. The central regulator of the alternative pathway (AP) is complement factor H (FH). Our aim was to design a dual upstream inhibitor of both human lectin and APs by fusing MAP-1 with a part of FH. There were 2 different recombinant chimeric proteins comprising full-length human MAP-1 and the first 5 N-terminal domains of human FH designed. The FH domains were orientated either in the N- or C-terminal part of MAP-1. The complement inhibition potential in human serum was assessed. Both chimeric constructs displayed the characteristics of the native molecules and bound to the PRMs with an EC50 of ∼ 2 nM. However, when added to serum diluted 1:4 in a solid-phase functional assay, only the first 5 N-terminal domains of complement FH fused to the C-terminal part of full-length MAP-1 chimeric construct were able to combine inhibition of lectin and AP activation with an half maximal inhibitory concentration of ∼ 100 and 20 nM, respectively. No effect was seen on the classical pathway. Fusion of MAP-1 with FH domains represents a novel therapeutic approach for selective targeting upstream and central complement activation at sites of inflammation.

  4. Complement activation in the context of stem cells and tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    Schraufstatter, Ingrid U; Khaldoyanidi, Sophia K; DiScipio, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    The complement pathway is best known for its role in immune surveillance and inflammation. However, its ability of opsonizing and removing not only pathogens, but also necrotic and apoptotic cells, is a phylogenetically ancient means of initiating tissue repair. The means and mechanisms of complement-mediated tissue repair are discussed in this review. There is increasing evidence that complement activation contributes to tissue repair at several levels. These range from the chemo-attraction of stem and progenitor cells to areas of complement activation, to increased survival of various cell types in the presence of split products of complement, and to the production of trophic factors by cells activated by the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. This repair aspect of complement biology has not found sufficient appreciation until recently. The following will examine this aspect of complement biology with an emphasis on the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. PMID:26435769

  5. Decreased material-activation of the complement system using low-energy plasma polymerized poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) coatings.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Thomas E; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Skjødt, Mikkel-Ole; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Benter, Maike; Alei, Mojagan; Kolmos, Hans J; Koch, Claus; Kingshott, Peter

    2011-07-01

    In the current study we investigate the activation of blood complement on medical device silicone rubber and present a plasma polymerized vinyl pyrrolidone (ppVP) coating which strongly decreases surface-activation of the blood complement system. We show that uncoated silicone and polystyrene are both potent activators of the complement system, measured both as activated, deposited C3b and quantifying fluid-phase release of the cleavage fragment C3c. The ppVP coated silicone exhibits approximately 90% reduced complement activation compared to untreated silicone. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurements show relatively strong adsorption of blood proteins including native C3 to the ppVP surface, indicating that reduction of complement activation on ppVP is neither a result of low protein adsorption nor lower direct C3-binding, and is therefore possibly a consequence of differences in the adsorbed protein layer composition. The alternative and classical complement pathways are barely detectable on ppVP while the lectin pathway through MBL/ficolin-2 deposition remains active on ppVP suggesting this pathway is responsible for the remaining subtle activation on the ppVP coated surface. The ppVP surface is furthermore characterized physically and chemically using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), which indicates preservation of chemical functionality by the applied plasma process. Overall, the ppVP coating shows a potential for increasing complement-compatibility of blood-contacting devices.

  6. Immunologic injury of cultured cells infected with measles virus. I. role of IfG antibody and the alternative complement pathway

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    In these studies, a number of human cell lines including epithelial, neural, glial, and lymphoid cells infected with several strains of measles virus were found to be lysed upon incubation with fresh sera from humans containing antibody measles virus. In all instances, the cytolytic event was mediated by alternative complement (C) pathway without a significant contribution from classical pathway. In contrast, isolated measles virus in conjunction with antibody was found to selectively activate the classical C pathway. Measles antibodies of the IgG class, but not the IgA class, possessed cytolytic potential against cells infected with measles virus. Human IgG antibodies could directly activate the alternative C pathway. No defect was found in cytolytic measles antibody in sera or cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, nor was the alternative C pathway impaired in sera from these patients. Sera from newborn humans exhibited a functional alternative C pathway. PMID:1092789

  7. Effect of some essential oils on phagocytosis and complement system activity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Peñalver, Pedro; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2015-02-11

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro activity of 15 essential oils, 4 essential oil fractions, and 3 pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol) on phagocytosis by human neutrophils and on complement system. Samples were characterized by GC and GC-MS. Most of the oils (nutmeg, clove, niaouli, tea tree, bay laurel, lemon, red thyme, ginger), nutmeg terpenes, eugenol, and carvacrol showed mild to moderate inhibition of phagocytosis (25-40% inhibition at doses ranging from 40 to 60 μg/mL); highest inhibitory activity was found for thymol (72% at 56 μg/mL), whereas the mixture of bornyl and isobornyl acetates showed a mild stimulating activity (21% at 56 μg/mL). All samples were inactive in the alternative pathway of complement system, whereas on classical pathway, clove oil, eugenol, palmarosa oil, red thyme oil, tarragon oil, and carvacrol showed the highest activity, with IC50 values ranging from 65 to 78 μg/mL.

  8. Effect of some essential oils on phagocytosis and complement system activity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Peñalver, Pedro; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2015-02-11

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro activity of 15 essential oils, 4 essential oil fractions, and 3 pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol) on phagocytosis by human neutrophils and on complement system. Samples were characterized by GC and GC-MS. Most of the oils (nutmeg, clove, niaouli, tea tree, bay laurel, lemon, red thyme, ginger), nutmeg terpenes, eugenol, and carvacrol showed mild to moderate inhibition of phagocytosis (25-40% inhibition at doses ranging from 40 to 60 μg/mL); highest inhibitory activity was found for thymol (72% at 56 μg/mL), whereas the mixture of bornyl and isobornyl acetates showed a mild stimulating activity (21% at 56 μg/mL). All samples were inactive in the alternative pathway of complement system, whereas on classical pathway, clove oil, eugenol, palmarosa oil, red thyme oil, tarragon oil, and carvacrol showed the highest activity, with IC50 values ranging from 65 to 78 μg/mL. PMID:25599399

  9. Neutrophil extracellular traps that are not degraded in systemic lupus erythematosus activate complement exacerbating the disease.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Jonatan; Martin, Myriam; Gullstrand, Birgitta; Tydén, Helena; Lood, Christian; Truedsson, Lennart; Bengtsson, Anders A; Blom, Anna M

    2012-04-01

    Ongoing inflammation including activation of the complement system is a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Antimicrobial neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are composed of secreted chromatin that may act as a source of autoantigens typical for SLE. In this study, we investigated how complement interacts with NETs and how NET degradation is affected by complement in SLE patients. We found that sera from a subset of patients with active SLE had a reduced ability to degrade in vitro-generated NETs, which was mostly restored when these patients were in remission. Patients that failed to degrade NETs had a more active disease and they also displayed lower levels of complement proteins C4 and C3 in blood. We discovered that NETs activated complement in vitro and that deposited C1q inhibited NET degradation including a direct inhibition of DNase-I by C1q. Complement deposition on NETs may facilitate autoantibody production, and indeed, Abs against NETs and NET epitopes were more pronounced in patients with impaired ability to degrade NETs. NET-bound autoantibodies inhibited degradation but also further increased C1q deposition, potentially exacerbating the disease. Thus, NETs are a potent complement activator, and this interaction may play an important role in SLE. Targeting complement with inhibitors or by removing complement activators such as NETs could be beneficial for patients with SLE.

  10. Borrelia burgdorferi BBK32 Inhibits the Classical Pathway by Blocking Activation of the C1 Complement Complex.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Brandon L; Zhi, Hui; Wager, Beau; Höök, Magnus; Skare, Jon T

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens that traffic in blood, lymphatics, or interstitial fluids must adopt strategies to evade innate immune defenses, notably the complement system. Through recruitment of host regulators of complement to their surface, many pathogens are able to escape complement-mediated attack. The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, produces a number of surface proteins that bind to factor H related molecules, which function as the dominant negative regulator of the alternative pathway of complement. Relatively less is known about how B. burgdorferi evades the classical pathway of complement despite the observation that some sensu lato strains are sensitive to classical pathway activation. Here we report that the borrelial lipoprotein BBK32 potently and specifically inhibits the classical pathway by binding with high affinity to the initiating C1 complex of complement. In addition, B. burgdorferi cells that produce BBK32 on their surface bind to both C1 and C1r and a serum sensitive derivative of B. burgdorferi is protected from killing via the classical pathway in a BBK32-dependent manner. Subsequent biochemical and biophysical approaches localized the anti-complement activity of BBK32 to its globular C-terminal domain. Mechanistic studies reveal that BBK32 acts by entrapping C1 in its zymogen form by binding and inhibiting the C1 subcomponent, C1r, which serves as the initiating serine protease of the classical pathway. To our knowledge this is the first report of a spirochetal protein acting as a direct inhibitor of the classical pathway and is the only example of a biomolecule capable of specifically and noncovalently inhibiting C1/C1r. By identifying a unique mode of complement evasion this study greatly enhances our understanding of how pathogens subvert and potentially manipulate host innate immune systems.

  11. Borrelia burgdorferi BBK32 Inhibits the Classical Pathway by Blocking Activation of the C1 Complement Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Beau; Höök, Magnus; Skare, Jon T.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens that traffic in blood, lymphatics, or interstitial fluids must adopt strategies to evade innate immune defenses, notably the complement system. Through recruitment of host regulators of complement to their surface, many pathogens are able to escape complement-mediated attack. The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, produces a number of surface proteins that bind to factor H related molecules, which function as the dominant negative regulator of the alternative pathway of complement. Relatively less is known about how B. burgdorferi evades the classical pathway of complement despite the observation that some sensu lato strains are sensitive to classical pathway activation. Here we report that the borrelial lipoprotein BBK32 potently and specifically inhibits the classical pathway by binding with high affinity to the initiating C1 complex of complement. In addition, B. burgdorferi cells that produce BBK32 on their surface bind to both C1 and C1r and a serum sensitive derivative of B. burgdorferi is protected from killing via the classical pathway in a BBK32-dependent manner. Subsequent biochemical and biophysical approaches localized the anti-complement activity of BBK32 to its globular C-terminal domain. Mechanistic studies reveal that BBK32 acts by entrapping C1 in its zymogen form by binding and inhibiting the C1 subcomponent, C1r, which serves as the initiating serine protease of the classical pathway. To our knowledge this is the first report of a spirochetal protein acting as a direct inhibitor of the classical pathway and is the only example of a biomolecule capable of specifically and noncovalently inhibiting C1/C1r. By identifying a unique mode of complement evasion this study greatly enhances our understanding of how pathogens subvert and potentially manipulate host innate immune systems. PMID:26808924

  12. [The changes of complement activities in sera of mice after subcutaneous administration of beryllium chloride].

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, T; Sakaguchi, S; Nakamura, I; Kudo, Y

    1996-02-01

    We studied changes of the complement pathway activities and the content of C3 in sera of mice, administered BeCl2 (containing 5 micrograms of Be per mouse) or CuCl2 (containing 5 micrograms of Cu per mouse) by a single subcutaneous injection. The value of the classical complement pathway activity (CH50) of the Be group 3 days after administration was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.001). It was significantly lower than in the control group after 7 days (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the CH50 value of the Cu group 3 hr after administration tended to increase, however, it was significantly lower than in the control group after 7 days (P < 0.01). The change of the alternative complement pathway activity (ACH50) value of the Be group was similar to the change of the CH50 value of the group. The ACH50 value of the Cu group 3 days after administration tended to increase but it was the same as the ACH50 value of the control group after 7 days. The C3 contents of both the Be and Cu groups 3 days after administration were significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.001). The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity of the Be group 7 days after administration was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.01). By contrast, AST activity of the Cu group 3 hr after administration was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The value of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity of the Be group was low (P < 0.01), but that of the Cu group was high (P < 0.05), 3 hr after administration. These values of both groups after 7 days, however, were significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The AST/ALT ratio in mice was very high at 3 hr, and it remained high by 7 days after Be injection. On the other hand, the ratio of the Cu group was almost constant for 7 days after Cu injection. Thus, these values changed with relative expedition after Be injection. Therefore, we confirmed that measurements of

  13. Complement in hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Robert A

    2015-11-26

    Complement is increasingly being recognized as an important driver of human disease, including many hemolytic anemias. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) cells are susceptible to hemolysis because of a loss of the complement regulatory proteins CD59 and CD55. Patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) develop a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) that in most cases is attributable to mutations that lead to activation of the alternative pathway of complement. For optimal therapy, it is critical, but often difficult, to distinguish aHUS from other TMAs, such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; however, novel bioassays are being developed. In cold agglutinin disease (CAD), immunoglobulin M autoantibodies fix complement on the surface of red cells, resulting in extravascular hemolysis by the reticuloendothelial system. Drugs that inhibit complement activation are increasingly being used to treat these diseases. This article discusses the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy for PNH, aHUS, and CAD.

  14. Complement in hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Complement is increasingly being recognized as an important driver of human disease, including many hemolytic anemias. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) cells are susceptible to hemolysis because of a loss of the complement regulatory proteins CD59 and CD55. Patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) develop a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) that in most cases is attributable to mutations that lead to activation of the alternative pathway of complement. For optimal therapy, it is critical, but often difficult, to distinguish aHUS from other TMAs, such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; however, novel bioassays are being developed. In cold agglutinin disease (CAD), immunoglobulin M autoantibodies fix complement on the surface of red cells, resulting in extravascular hemolysis by the reticuloendothelial system. Drugs that inhibit complement activation are increasingly being used to treat these diseases. This article discusses the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy for PNH, aHUS, and CAD.

  15. Detection and characterisation of Complement protein activity in bovine milk by bactericidal sequestration assay.

    PubMed

    Maye, Susan; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Kelly, Philip M

    2015-08-01

    While the Complement protein system in human milk is well characterised, there is little information on its presence and activity in bovine milk. Complement forms part of the innate immune system, hence the importance of its contribution during milk ingestion to the overall defences of the neonate. A bactericidal sequestration assay, featuring a Complement sensitive strain, Escherichia coli 0111, originally used to characterise Complement activity in human milk was successfully applied to freshly drawn bovine milk samples, thus, providing an opportunity to compare Complement activities in both human and bovine milks. Although not identical in response, the levels of Complement activity in bovine milk were found to be closely comparable with that of human milk. Differential counts of Esch. coli 0111 after 2 h incubation were 6.20 and 6.06 log CFU/ml, for raw bovine and human milks, respectively - the lower value representing a stronger Complement response. Exposing bovine milk to a range of thermal treatments e.g. 42, 45, 65, 72, 85 or 95 °C for 10 min, progressively inhibited Complement activity by increasing temperature, thus confirming the heat labile nature of this immune protein system. Low level Complement activity was found, however, in 65 and 72 °C heat treated samples and in retailed pasteurised milk which highlights the outer limit to which high temperature, short time (HTST) industrial thermal processes should be applied if retention of activity is a priority. Concentration of Complement in the fat phase was evident following cream separation, and this was also reflected in the further loss of activity recorded in low fat variants of retailed pasteurised milk. Laboratory-based churning of the cream during simulated buttermaking generated an aqueous (buttermilk) phase with higher levels of Complement activity than the fat phase, thus pointing to a likely association with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) layer.

  16. The dual role of complement in the progression of renal disease in NZB/W F(1) mice and alternative pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Hideharu; Ruiz, Phillip; Gilkeson, Gary S; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Complement plays a dual role in the progression of systemic lupus erythematosus since it has important protective functions, such as the clearance of immune complexes and apoptotic cells, but is also a mediator of renal inflammation. To investigate this balance in a clinically relevant setting, we investigated how targeted inhibition of all complement pathways vs. targeted inhibition of only the alternative pathway impacts immune and therapeutic outcomes in NZB/W F(1) mice. Following onset of proteinuria, mice were injected twice weekly with CR2-fH (inhibits alternative pathway), CR2-Crry (inhibits all pathways at C3 activation step), sCR2 (C3d targeting vehicle) or saline. Sera were analyzed every 2 weeks for anti-dsDNA antibody levels, and urinary albumin excretion was determined. Kidneys were collected for histological evaluation at 32 weeks. Compared to the control group, all CR2-fH, CR2-Crry and sCR2 treated groups showed significantly reduced serum anti-dsDNA antibody levels and strong trends towards reduced glomerular IgG deposition levels. Glomerular C3 deposition levels were also significantly reduced in all three-treated groups. However, significant reductions of disease activity (albuminuria and glomerulonephritis) were only seen in the CR2-fH treated group. These data highlight the dual role played by complement in the pathogenesis of lupus, and demonstrate a benefit of selectively inhibiting the alternative complement pathway, presumably because of protective contributions from the classical and/or lectin pathways. The sCR2 targeting moiety appears to be contributing to therapeutic outcome via modulation of autoimmunity. Furthermore, these results are largely consistent with our previous data using the MRL/lpr lupus model, thus broadening the significance of these findings.

  17. The dual role of complement in the progression of renal disease in NZB/W F(1) mice and alternative pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Hideharu; Ruiz, Phillip; Gilkeson, Gary S; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Complement plays a dual role in the progression of systemic lupus erythematosus since it has important protective functions, such as the clearance of immune complexes and apoptotic cells, but is also a mediator of renal inflammation. To investigate this balance in a clinically relevant setting, we investigated how targeted inhibition of all complement pathways vs. targeted inhibition of only the alternative pathway impacts immune and therapeutic outcomes in NZB/W F(1) mice. Following onset of proteinuria, mice were injected twice weekly with CR2-fH (inhibits alternative pathway), CR2-Crry (inhibits all pathways at C3 activation step), sCR2 (C3d targeting vehicle) or saline. Sera were analyzed every 2 weeks for anti-dsDNA antibody levels, and urinary albumin excretion was determined. Kidneys were collected for histological evaluation at 32 weeks. Compared to the control group, all CR2-fH, CR2-Crry and sCR2 treated groups showed significantly reduced serum anti-dsDNA antibody levels and strong trends towards reduced glomerular IgG deposition levels. Glomerular C3 deposition levels were also significantly reduced in all three-treated groups. However, significant reductions of disease activity (albuminuria and glomerulonephritis) were only seen in the CR2-fH treated group. These data highlight the dual role played by complement in the pathogenesis of lupus, and demonstrate a benefit of selectively inhibiting the alternative complement pathway, presumably because of protective contributions from the classical and/or lectin pathways. The sCR2 targeting moiety appears to be contributing to therapeutic outcome via modulation of autoimmunity. Furthermore, these results are largely consistent with our previous data using the MRL/lpr lupus model, thus broadening the significance of these findings. PMID:22000720

  18. Electroluminescent TCC, C3dg and fB/Bb epitope assays for profiling complement cascade activation in vitro using an activated complement serum calibration standard.

    PubMed

    van Vuuren, B Jansen; Bergseth, G; Mollnes, T E; Shaw, A M

    2014-01-15

    Electroluminescent assays for epitopes on the complement components C3dg, terminal complement complex (TCC) and factor B/Bb (fB/Bb) have been developed with capture and detection antibodies to produce detection limits C3dg=91±9ng/mL, TCC=3±0.1ng/mL and fB=55.7±0.1ng/mL. The assay performance was assessed against a series of zymosan and heat aggregated IgG (HAIgG) in vitro activations of complement using a calibrated activated complement serum (ACS) as calibration standard. The ACS standard was stable within 20% accuracy over a 6-month period with freeze-thaw cycles as required. Differential activation of the complement cascade was observed for TCC showing a pseudo-first order formation half-life of 3.5h after activation with zymosan. The C3dg activation fragment indicates a 10% total activation for both activation agents. The kinetic-epitope analysis for fB indicates that the capture epitope is on the fB/Bb protein fragment which can then become covered by the formation of C3bBb or C3bBbP complexes during the time course of the cascade.

  19. Complement activation and expression during chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the Biozzi ABH mouse.

    PubMed

    Ramaglia, V; Jackson, S J; Hughes, T R; Neal, J W; Baker, D; Morgan, B P

    2015-06-01

    Chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (crEAE) in mice recapitulates many of the clinical and histopathological features of human multiple sclerosis (MS), making it a preferred model for the disease. In both, adaptive immunity and anti-myelin T cells responses are thought to be important, while in MS a role for innate immunity and complement has emerged. Here we sought to test whether complement is activated in crEAE and important for disease. Disease was induced in Biozzi ABH mice that were terminated at different stages of the disease to assess complement activation and local complement expression in the central nervous system. Complement activation products were abundant in all spinal cord areas examined in acute disease during relapse and in the progressive phase, but were absent in early disease remission, despite significant residual clinical disease. Local expression of C1q and C3 was increased at all stages of disease, while C9 expression was increased only in acute disease; expression of the complement regulators CD55, complement receptor 1-related gene/protein y (Crry) and CD59a was reduced at all stages of the disease compared to naive controls. These data show that complement is activated in the central nervous system in the model and suggest that it is a suitable candidate for exploring whether anti-complement agents might be of benefit in MS.

  20. Inhibition of heparin/protamine complex-induced complement activation by Compstatin in baboons.

    PubMed

    Soulika, A M; Khan, M M; Hattori, T; Bowen, F W; Richardson, B A; Hack, C E; Sahu, A; Edmunds, L H; Lambris, J D

    2000-09-01

    Complement activation products are major components of the inflammatory response induced by cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass which contribute to postoperative organ dysfunction, fluid accumulation, and morbidity. Activation of the complement system occurs during extracorporeal circulation, during reperfusion of ischemic tissue, and after the formation of heparin-protamine complexes. In this study we examine the efficacy of Compstatin, a recently discovered peptide inhibitor of complement, in preventing heparin/protamine-induced complement activation in baboons. The study was performed in baboons because Compstatin binds to baboon C3 and is resistant to proteolytic cleavage in baboon blood (similar to humans); Compstatin inhibits only the activation of primates' complement system. After testing various doses and administration regimens, Compstatin produced complete inhibition at a total dose of 21 mg/kg when given as a combination of bolus injection and infusion. Compstatin completely inhibited in vivo heparin/protamine-induced complement activation without adverse effects on heart rate or systemic arterial, central venous, and pulmonary arterial pressures. This study indicates that Compstatin is a safe and effective complement inhibitor that has the potential to prevent complement activation during and after clinical cardiac surgery. Furthermore, Compstatin can serve as the prototype for designing an orally administrated drug.

  1. A Serine Protease Isolated from the Bristles of the Amazonic Caterpillar, Premolis semirufa, Is a Potent Complement System Activator

    PubMed Central

    Villas Boas, Isadora Maria; Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; Magnoli, Fabio Carlos; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M.; van den Berg, Carmen W.; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The caterpillar of the moth Premolis semirufa, commonly named pararama, is found in the Brazilian Amazon region. Accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles causes an intense itching sensation, followed by symptoms of an acute inflammation, which last for three to seven days after the first incident. After multiple accidents a chronic inflammatory reaction, called “Pararamose”, characterized by articular synovial membrane thickening with joint deformities common to chronic synovitis, frequently occurs. Although complement mediated inflammation may aid the host defense, inappropriate or excessive activation of the complement system and generation of anaphylatoxins can lead to inflammatory disorder and pathologies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in vitro, whether the Premolis semirufa’s bristles extract could interfere with the human complement system. Results The bristles extract was able to inhibit the haemolytic activity of the alternative pathway, as well as the activation of the lectin pathway, but had no effect on the classical pathway, and this inhibition seemed to be caused by activation and consumption of complement components. The extract induced the production of significant amounts of all three anaphylatoxins, C3a, C4a and C5a, promoted direct cleavage of C3, C4 and C5 and induced a significant generation of terminal complement complexes in normal human serum. By using molecular exclusion chromatography, a serine protease of 82 kDa, which activates complement, was isolated from P. semirufa bristles extract. The protease, named here as Ps82, reduced the haemolytic activity of the alternative and classical pathways and inhibited the lectin pathway. In addition, Ps82 induced the cleavage of C3, C4 and C5 and the generation of C3a and C4a in normal human serum and it was capable to cleave human purified C5 and generate C5a. The use of Phenanthroline, metalloprotease inhibitor, in the reactions did not significantly

  2. Factor H-related protein 5 interacts with pentraxin 3 and the extracellular matrix and modulates complement activation.

    PubMed

    Csincsi, Ádám I; Kopp, Anne; Zöldi, Miklós; Bánlaki, Zsófia; Uzonyi, Barbara; Hebecker, Mario; Caesar, Joseph J E; Pickering, Matthew C; Daigo, Kenji; Hamakubo, Takao; Lea, Susan M; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Józsi, Mihály

    2015-05-15

    The physiological roles of the factor H (FH)-related proteins are controversial and poorly understood. Based on genetic studies, FH-related protein 5 (CFHR5) is implicated in glomerular diseases, such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, dense deposit disease, and CFHR5 nephropathy. CFHR5 was also identified in glomerular immune deposits at the protein level. For CFHR5, weak complement regulatory activity and competition for C3b binding with the plasma complement inhibitor FH have been reported, but its function remains elusive. In this study, we identify pentraxin 3 (PTX3) as a novel ligand of CFHR5. Binding of native CFHR5 to PTX3 was detected in human plasma and the interaction was characterized using recombinant proteins. The binding of PTX3 to CFHR5 is of ∼2-fold higher affinity compared with that of FH. CFHR5 dose-dependently inhibited FH binding to PTX3 and also to the monomeric, denatured form of the short pentraxin C-reactive protein. Binding of PTX3 to CFHR5 resulted in increased C1q binding. Additionally, CFHR5 bound to extracellular matrix in vitro in a dose-dependent manner and competed with FH for binding. Altogether, CFHR5 reduced FH binding and its cofactor activity on pentraxins and the extracellular matrix, while at the same time allowed for enhanced C1q binding. Furthermore, CFHR5 allowed formation of the alternative pathway C3 convertase and supported complement activation. Thus, CFHR5 may locally enhance complement activation via interference with the complement-inhibiting function of FH, by enhancement of C1q binding, and by activating complement, thereby contributing to glomerular disease.

  3. The Emerging Role of Complement Lectin Pathway in Trypanosomatids: Molecular Bases in Activation, Genetic Deficiencies, Susceptibility to Infection, and Complement System-Based Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Osses, Ingrid; de Messias-Reason, Iara; Ramirez, Marcel I.

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune system is evolutionary and ancient and is the pivotal line of the host defense system to protect against invading pathogens and abnormal self-derived components. Cellular and molecular components are involved in recognition and effector mechanisms for a successful innate immune response. The complement lectin pathway (CLP) was discovered in 1990. These new components at the complement world are very efficient. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin not only recognize many molecular patterns of pathogens rapidly to activate complement but also display several strategies to evade innate immunity. Many studies have shown a relation between the deficit of complement factors and susceptibility to infection. The recently discovered CLP was shown to be important in host defense against protozoan microbes. Although the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by MBL and Ficolins reveal efficient complement activations, an increase in deficiency of complement factors and diversity of parasite strategies of immune evasion demonstrate the unsuccessful effort to control the infection. In the present paper, we will discuss basic aspects of complement activation, the structure of the lectin pathway components, genetic deficiency of complement factors, and new therapeutic opportunities to target the complement system to control infection. PMID:23533355

  4. Effect of Artocarpus integer lectin on functional activity of guinea-pig complement.

    PubMed

    Hashim, O H; Gendeh, G S; Cheong, C N; Jaafar, M I

    1994-03-01

    The effect of Artocarpus integer lectin (lectin C) on the functional activity of guinea-pig complement was investigated. Purified and crude extract of lectin C from six cultivars of Artocarpus integer seeds were found to consume complement and thus decreased the complement-induced haemolytic activity of sensitized sheep erythrocytes. The change in the complement-mediated haemolytic activity was significantly decreased when incubation of the lectins was performed in the presence of melibiose. The reversal effect of the carbohydrate, which is a potent inhibitor of the lectin's binding to O-linked oligosaccharides of glycoprotein, demonstrate involvement of the lectins interaction with O-glycans of glycoproteins in the consumption of guinea-pig complement.

  5. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  6. Properdin can initiate complement activation by binding specific target surfaces and providing a platform for de novo convertase assembly.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Dirk; Mitchell, Lynne M; Atkinson, John P; Hourcade, Dennis E

    2007-08-15

    Complement promotes the rapid recognition and elimination of pathogens, infected cells, and immune complexes. The biochemical basis for its target specificity is incompletely understood. In this report, we demonstrate that properdin can directly bind to microbial targets and provide a platform for the in situ assembly and function of the alternative pathway C3 convertases. This mechanism differs from the standard model wherein nascent C3b generated in the fluid phase attaches nonspecifically to its targets. Properdin-directed complement activation occurred on yeast cell walls (zymosan) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Properdin did not bind wild-type Escherichia coli, but it readily bound E. coli LPS mutants, and the properdin-binding capacity of each strain correlated with its respective serum-dependent AP activation rate. Moreover, properdin:single-chain Ab constructs were used to direct serum-dependent complement activation to novel targets. We conclude properdin participates in two distinct complement activation pathways: one that occurs by the standard model and one that proceeds by the properdin-directed model. The properdin-directed model is consistent with a proposal made by Pillemer and his colleagues >50 years ago. PMID:17675523

  7. Role of complement activation and antibody in the interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, S; Rao, Narayan V; Ramanathan, V D

    2012-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antibodies possess immunomodulatory effects during tuberculosis infection. Prior sensitization to environmental mycobacteria is known to suppress immune responses against BCG and M. tuberculosis. Mycobacteria-induced antibodies can influence events such as complement activation and phagocytosis during infectious process. In the present study role of anti-M. tuberculosis IgG (anti-M. tb IgG) antibody during interaction between M. tuberculosis and human macrophages mediated through complement has been examined in vitro. Anti-M. tb IgG antibody significantly enhanced complement activation by M. tuberculosis. Phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis by macrophages increased significantly in the presence of complement and/or antibody. Moreover, antibody enhanced phagocytosis in the presence of complement. Addition of antibody alone or in combination with complement also augmented intracellular viability of bacilli within macrophages. Results of this study showed that anti-mycobacterial antibody enhances complement activation and anti-M. tb IgG antibody probably modulates effects of complement during early stages of tuberculosis infection.

  8. PpsA-mediated alternative pathway to complement RNase E essentiality in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masaru; Honda, Naoko; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Cohen, Stanley N; Kato, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Escherichia coli cells require RNase E, encoded by the essential gene rne, to propagate. The growth properties on different carbon sources of E. coli cells undergoing suppression of RNase E production suggested that reduction in RNase E is associated with decreased expression of phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase (PpsA), which converts pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate during gluconeogenesis. Western blotting and genetic complementation confirmed the role of RNase E in PpsA expression. Adventitious ppsA overexpression from a multicopy plasmid was sufficient to restore colony formation of ∆rne E. coli on minimal media containing glycerol or succinate as the sole carbon source. Complementation of ∆rne by ppsA overproduction was observed during growth on solid media but was only partial, and bacteria showed slowed cell division and grew as filamentous chains. We found that restoration of colony-forming ability by ppsA complementation occurred independent of the presence of endogenous RNase G or second-site suppressors of RNase E essentiality. Our investigations demonstrate the role of phosphoryl transfer catalyzable by PpsA as a determinant of RNase E essentiality in E. coli.

  9. The Overlapping Roles of Antimicrobial Peptides and Complement in Recruitment and Activation of Tumor-Associated Inflammatory Cells

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rayahi, Izzat A. M.; Sanyi, Raghad H. H.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent a group of small (6–100 amino acids), biologically active molecules, which are produced by plants, mammals, and microorganisms (1). An important element of the innate immune response, AMP, possesses potent antibiotic, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Furthermore, AMP may be involved in a number of other processes such as angiogenesis and modulation of the immune response such as stimulation of chemokines and chemotaxis of leukocytes. AMPs have been proposed as alternative therapies for infectious diseases. AMP may also exert cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. Further understanding of the biological function of these peptides during tumor development and progression may aid in the development of novel anti-tumor therapies with refined application of innate molecules. AMP and complement have distinct roles to play in shaping the microenvironment (Table 1). Components of the complement system are integral contributors in responding to infection and sterile inflammation. Moreover, complement plays a role in the trafficking of cells in the tumor microenvironment, and thereby possibly in the immune response to cancer. This article will try to outline characteristics of AMP and complement in mobilization and recruitment of cells in tumor microenvironment. PMID:25657649

  10. Recombinant complement receptor 2 radiolabeled with [99mTc(CO)3]+: a potential new radiopharmaceutical for imaging activated complement.

    PubMed

    Badar, Adam; DeFreitas, Sarah; McDonnell, James M; Yahya, Norhakim; Thakor, David; Razavi, Reza; Smith, Richard; Sacks, Steven; Mullen, Gregory E D

    2011-04-06

    We describe the design and synthesis of a new Tc-99m labeled bioconjugate for imaging activated complement, based on Short Consensus Repeats 1 and 2 of Complement Receptor 2 (CR2), the binding domain for C3d. To avoid non specific modification of CR2 and the potential for modifying lysine residues critical to the CR2/C3d contact surface, we engineered a new protein, recombinant CR2 (rCR2), to include the C-terminal sequence VFPLECHHHHHH, a hexahistidine tag (for site-specific radiolabeling with [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(OH(2))(3)](+)). The protein was characterized by N-terminal sequencing, SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography. To test the function of the recombinant CR2, binding to C3d was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The function was further confirmed by binding of rCR2 to C3d(+) red blood cells (RBC) which were generated by deposition of human or rat C3d and analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The affinity of rCR2 for C3d(+), in presence of 150 mM NaCl, was measured using surface plasma resonance giving rise to a K(D)≈500 nM. Radiolabeling of rCR2 or an inactive mutant of rCR2 (K41E CR2) or an unrelated protein of a similar size (C2A) with [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(OH(2))(3)](+) at gave radiochemical yields >95%. Site-specifically radiolabeled rCR2 bound to C3d to C3d(+) RBC. Binding of radiolabeled rCR2 to C3d was inhibited by anti-C3d and the radiolabeled inactive mutant K41E CR2 and C2A did not bind to C3d(+) RBCs. We conclude that rCR2-Tc(99m) has excellent radiolabeling, stability and C3d binding characteristics and warrants in vivo evaluation as an activated complement imaging agent.

  11. High Fc Density Particles Result in Binary Complement Activation but Tunable Macrophage Phagocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulchek, Todd; Pacheco, Patricia; White, David

    2014-03-01

    Macrophage phagocytosis and complement system activation represent two key components of the immune system and both can be activated through the presentation of multiple Fc domains of IgG antibodies. We have created functionalized micro- and nanoparticles with various densities of Fc domains to understand the modulation of the immune system for eventual use as a novel immunomodulation platform. Phagocytosis assays were carried out by adding functionalized particles to macrophage cells and quantitatively determined using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Complement system activation by the functionalized particles in human serum was quantified with an enzyme immunoassay. Our phagocytosis assay revealed a strong dependence on particle size and Fc density. For small particles, as the Fc density increased, the number of particles phagocytosed also increased. Large particles were phagocytosed at significantly lower levels and showed no dependency on Fc density. Complement was successfully activated at levels comparable to positive controls for small particles at high Fc densities. However at low Fc densities, there is a significant decrease in complement activation. This result suggests a binary response for complement system activation with a threshold density for successful activation. Therefore, varying the Fc density on micro/nanoparticles resulted in a tunable response in macrophage phagocytosis while a more binary response for complement activation.

  12. Complement activation in patients with sepsis is in part mediated by C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Wolbink, G J; Bossink, A W; Groeneveld, A B; de Groot, M C; Thijs, L G; Hack, C E

    1998-01-01

    The involvement of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the activation of complement in patients with sepsis was investigated. In 104 patients with infections of varying severity, circulating levels of CRP-complement complexes, which are specific indicators for CRP-mediated complement activation, were assessed. Complement-CRP complexes were increased in almost all patients and correlated significantly with levels of C3a (r = .59; P < .001) and C-reactive protein (r = .76; P < .001). In addition, they correlated with levels of secretory phospholipase A2 (r = .59; P < .001). Levels of complement-CRP complexes in patients with a pneumococcal type of infection were similar to those in patients with other types of infections. Complement-CRP complexes were significantly higher in patients with shock (P = .01) and in patients who died (P = .03). These results demonstrate that part of the complement activation in patients with sepsis is independent from a direct interaction with microorganisms but rather results from an endogenous mechanism involving CRP.

  13. The Structure-Activity Relationship between Marine Algae Polysaccharides and Anti-Complement Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Liang, Hongze; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 33 different polysaccharides were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationships between the polysaccharides, mainly from marine algae, and anti-complement activity in the classical pathway. Factors considered included extraction methods, fractionations, molecular weight, molar ratio of galactose to fucose, sulfate, uronic acid (UA) content, linkage, branching, and the type of monosaccharide. It was shown that the larger the molecular weights, the better the activities. The molar ratio of galactose (Gal) to fucose (Fuc) was a positive factor at a concentration lower than 10 µg/mL, while it had no effect at a concentration more than 10 µg/mL. In addition, sulfate was necessary; however, the sulfate content, the sulfate pattern, linkage and branching had no effect at a concentration of more than 10 µg/mL. Moreover, the type of monosaccharide had no effect. Laminaran and UA fractions had no activity; however, they could reduce the activity by decreasing the effective concentration of the active composition when they were mixed with the active compositions. The effect of the extraction methods could not be determined. Finally, it was observed that sulfated galactofucan showed good anti-complement activity after separation. PMID:26712768

  14. Enhancement of antibody-dependent mechanisms of tumor cell lysis by a targeted activator of complement.

    PubMed

    Imai, Masaki; Ohta, Rieko; Varela, Juan C; Song, Hongbin; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2007-10-01

    Complement inhibitors expressed on tumor cells provide a hindrance to the therapeutic efficacy of some monoclonal antibodies (mAb). We investigated a novel strategy to overwhelm complement inhibitor activity and amplify complement activation on tumor cells. The C3-binding domain of human complement receptor 2 (CR2; CD21) was linked to the complement-activating Fc region of human IgG1 (CR2-Fc), and the ability of the construct to target and amplify complement deposition on tumor cells was investigated. CR2 binds C3 activation fragments, and CR2-Fc targeted tumor cells by binding to C3 initially deposited by a tumor-specific antibody. Complement deposition on Du145 cells (human prostate cancer cell line) and anti-MUC1 mAb-mediated complement-dependent lysis of Du145 cells were significantly enhanced by CR2-Fc. Anti-MUC1 antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of Du145 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also significantly enhanced by CR2-Fc in both the presence and the absence of complement. Radiolabeled CR2-Fc targeted to s.c. Du145 tumors in nude mice treated with anti-MUC1 mAb, validating the targeting strategy in vivo. A metastatic model was used to investigate the effect of CR2-Fc in a therapeutic paradigm. Administration of CR2-Fc together with mAb therapy significantly improved long-term survival of nude mice challenged with an i.v. injection of EL4 cells. The data show that CR2-Fc enhances the therapeutic efficacy of antibody therapy, and the construct may provide particular benefits under conditions of limiting antibody concentration or low tumor antigen density.

  15. Enhancement of antibody-dependent mechanisms of tumor cell lysis by a targeted activator of complement.

    PubMed

    Imai, Masaki; Ohta, Rieko; Varela, Juan C; Song, Hongbin; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2007-10-01

    Complement inhibitors expressed on tumor cells provide a hindrance to the therapeutic efficacy of some monoclonal antibodies (mAb). We investigated a novel strategy to overwhelm complement inhibitor activity and amplify complement activation on tumor cells. The C3-binding domain of human complement receptor 2 (CR2; CD21) was linked to the complement-activating Fc region of human IgG1 (CR2-Fc), and the ability of the construct to target and amplify complement deposition on tumor cells was investigated. CR2 binds C3 activation fragments, and CR2-Fc targeted tumor cells by binding to C3 initially deposited by a tumor-specific antibody. Complement deposition on Du145 cells (human prostate cancer cell line) and anti-MUC1 mAb-mediated complement-dependent lysis of Du145 cells were significantly enhanced by CR2-Fc. Anti-MUC1 antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of Du145 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also significantly enhanced by CR2-Fc in both the presence and the absence of complement. Radiolabeled CR2-Fc targeted to s.c. Du145 tumors in nude mice treated with anti-MUC1 mAb, validating the targeting strategy in vivo. A metastatic model was used to investigate the effect of CR2-Fc in a therapeutic paradigm. Administration of CR2-Fc together with mAb therapy significantly improved long-term survival of nude mice challenged with an i.v. injection of EL4 cells. The data show that CR2-Fc enhances the therapeutic efficacy of antibody therapy, and the construct may provide particular benefits under conditions of limiting antibody concentration or low tumor antigen density. PMID:17909064

  16. Complement Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... helpful? Also known as: C1; C1q; C2; C3; C4; CH50; CH100 (among others) Formal name: Complement Activity; ... whether the system is functioning normally. C3 and C4 are the most frequently measured complement proteins. Total ...

  17. Inhibition of biomaterial-induced complement activation attenuates the inflammatory host response to implantation

    PubMed Central

    Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Rafail, Stavros; DeAngelis, Robert A.; Foukas, Periklis G.; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Although complement is a known contributor to biomaterial-induced complications, pathological implications and therapeutic options remain to be explored. Here we investigated the involvement of complement in the inflammatory response to polypropylene meshes commonly used for hernia repair. In vitro assays revealed deposition of complement activation fragments on the mesh after incubation in plasma. Moreover, significant mesh-induced complement and granulocyte activation was observed in plasma and leukocyte preparations, respectively. Pretreatment of plasma with the complement inhibitor compstatin reduced opsonization >2-fold, and compstatin and a C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRa) impaired granulocyte activation by 50 and 67%, respectively. We established a clinically relevant mouse model of implantation and could confirm deposition of C3 activation fragments on mesh implants in vivo using immunofluorescence. In meshes extracted after subcutaneous or peritoneal implantation, the amount of immune cell infiltrate in mice deficient in key complement components (C3, C5aR), or treated with C5aRa, was approximately half of that observed in wild-type littermates or mice treated with inactive C5aRa, respectively. Our data suggest that implantation of a widely used surgical mesh triggers the formation of an inflammatory cell microenvironment at the implant site through complement activation, and indicates a path for the therapeutic modulation of implant-related complications.—Kourtzelis, I., Rafail, S., DeAngelis, R. A., Foukas, P. G., Ricklin, D., Lambris, J. D. Inhibition of biomaterial-induced complement activation attenuates the inflammatory host response to implantation. PMID:23558338

  18. Increased activity of the complement system in the liver of patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong; French, Barbara A; Liu, Hui; Tillman, Brittany C; French, Samuel W

    2014-12-01

    Inflammation has been suggested as a mechanism underlying the development of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). The activation of the complement system plays an important role in inflammation. Although it has been shown that ethanol-induced activation of the complement system contributes to the pathophysiology of ethanol-induced liver injury in mice, whether ethanol consumption activates the complement system in the human liver has not been investigated. Using antibodies against C1q, C3, and C5, the immunoreactivity of the complement system in patients with AH was examined by immunohistochemistry and quantified by morphometric image analysis. The immunoreactivity intensity of C1q, C3, and C5 in patients with AH was significantly higher than that seen in normal controls. Further, the gene expression of C1q, C3, and C5 was examined using real-time PCR. There were increases in the levels of C1q and C5, but not C3 mRNA in AH. Moreover, the immunoreactivity of C5a receptor (C5aR) also increased in AH. To explore the functional implication of the activation of the complement system in AH, we examined the colocalization of C5aR in Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) forming balloon hepatocytes. C5aR was focally overexpressed in the MDB forming cells. Collectively, our study suggests that alcohol consumption increases the activity of the complement system in the liver cells, which contributes to the inflammation-associated pathogenesis of AH.

  19. A novel method for direct measurement of complement convertases activity in human serum.

    PubMed

    Blom, A M; Volokhina, E B; Fransson, V; Strömberg, P; Berghard, L; Viktorelius, M; Mollnes, T E; López-Trascasa, M; van den Heuvel, L P; Goodship, T H; Marchbank, K J; Okroj, M

    2014-10-01

    Complement convertases are enzymatic complexes that play a central role in sustaining and amplification of the complement cascade. Impairment of complement function leads directly or indirectly to pathological conditions, including higher infection rate, kidney diseases, autoimmune- or neurodegenerative diseases and ischaemia-reperfusion injury. An assay for direct measurement of activity of the convertases in patient sera is not available. Existing assays testing convertase function are based on purified complement components and, thus, convertase formation occurs under non-physiological conditions. We designed a new assay, in which C5 blocking compounds enabled separation of the complement cascade into two phases: the first ending at the stage of C5 convertases and the second ending with membrane attack complex formation. The use of rabbit erythrocytes or antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes as the platforms for convertase formation enabled easy readout based on measurement of haemolysis. Thus, properties of patient sera could be studied directly regarding convertase activity and membrane attack complex formation. Another advantage of this assay was the possibility to screen for host factors such as C3 nephritic factor and other anti-complement autoantibodies, or gain-of-function mutations, which prolong the half-life of complement convertases. Herein, we present proof of concept, detailed description and validation of this novel assay.

  20. Classical Complement Pathway Activation in the Kidneys of Women With Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Penning, Marlies; Chua, Jamie S; van Kooten, Cees; Zandbergen, Malu; Buurma, Aletta; Schutte, Joke; Bruijn, Jan Anthonie; Khankin, Eliyahu V; Bloemenkamp, Kitty; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Baelde, Hans

    2015-07-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that complement dysregulation plays a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The kidney is one of the major organs affected in preeclampsia. Because the kidney is highly susceptible to complement activation, we hypothesized that preeclampsia is associated with renal complement activation. We performed a nationwide search for renal autopsy material in the Netherlands using a computerized database (PALGA). Renal tissue was obtained from 11 women with preeclampsia, 25 pregnant controls, and 14 nonpregnant controls with hypertension. The samples were immunostained for C4d, C1q, mannose-binding lectin, properdin, C3d, C5b-9, IgA, IgG, and IgM. Preeclampsia was significantly associated with renal C4d-a stable marker of complement activation-and the classical pathway marker C1q. In addition, the prevalence of IgM was significantly higher in the kidneys of the preeclamptic women. No other complement markers studied differed between the groups. Our findings in human samples were validated using a soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 mouse model of preeclampsia. The kidneys in the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1-injected mice had significantly more C4 deposits than the control mice. The association between preeclampsia and renal C4d, C1q, and IgM levels suggests that the classical complement pathway is involved in the renal injury in preeclampsia. Moreover, our finding that soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1-injected mice develop excess C4 deposits indicates that angiogenic dysregulation may play a role in complement activation within the kidney. We suggest that inhibiting complement activation may be beneficial for preventing the renal manifestations of preeclampsia.

  1. Complement activation plays a key role in the side-effects of rituximab treatment.

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, L E; Grillo-López, A J; Baars, J W; Hack, C E; van Oers, M H

    2001-12-01

    Treatment with rituximab, a chimaeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can be associated with moderate to severe first-dose side-effects, notably in patients with high numbers of circulating tumour cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of these side-effects. At multiple early time points during the first infusion of rituximab, complement activation products (C3b/c and C4b/c) and cytokines [tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8] were measured in five relapsed low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients. Infusion of rituximab induced rapid complement activation, preceding the release of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8. Although the study group was small, the level of complement activation appeared to be correlated both with the number of circulating B cells prior to the infusion (r = 0.85; P = 0.07) and with the severity of the side-effects. We conclude that complement plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of side-effects of rituximab treatment. As complement activation can not be prevented by corticosteroids, it might be relevant to study the possible role of complement inhibitors during the first administration of rituximab.

  2. Extensive complement activation in hereditary porcine membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II (porcine dense deposit disease).

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J. H.; Høgåsen, K.; Mollnes, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Massive glomerular deposits of C3 and the terminal C5b-9 complement complex (TCC), but no immune complex deposits were detected by immunofluorescence in porcine membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II. TCC deposits were always observed with concomitant deposits of vitronectin (S-protein) in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, in contrast to a piglet with mesangial glomerulopathy where TCC was present without vitronectin co-deposition. Enzyme immunoassays revealed extensive systemic complement activation in 1-week-old affected piglets, observed by low plasma C3 (about 5% of normal) and high plasma TCC (about 10 x normal). Affected piglets revealed some plasma complement activation already at birth, 3 to 4 weeks before recognizable clinical disease. It is concluded that porcine membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis represents a nonimmune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis caused by unrestricted systemic complement activation with C3 consumption, TCC formation, and glomerular trapping of complement activation products. A pathogenetic mechanism of a defective or missing complement regulation protein is suggested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8238252

  3. Eculizumab treatment during pregnancy does not affect the complement system activity of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Hallstensen, Randi Fykse; Bergseth, Grethe; Foss, Stian; Jæger, Steinar; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Holt, Jan; Christiansen, Dorte; Lau, Corinna; Brekke, Ole-Lars; Armstrong, Elina; Stefanovic, Vedran; Andersen, Jan Terje; Sandlie, Inger; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2015-04-01

    Eculizumab is a humanized IgG2/4 chimeric anti-complement C5 antibody used to treat patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) or atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not the complement activity in newborns from pregnant women who receive eculizumab is impaired. A novel eculizumab-C5 complex (E-C5) specific assay was developed and revealed that two newborns carried only 6-7% of the E-C5 detected in their eculizumab-treated PNH mothers. Serum from the pregnant women completely lacked terminal complement pathway activity, whereas the complement activity in the serum of the newborns was completely normal. Data from the pregnant women and their newborns were compared with that of healthy age-matched female controls and healthy newborns, as well as a non-treated pregnant woman with PNH and her newborn. These all showed normal complement activity without detectable E-C5 complexes. Furthermore, absence of eculizumab or E-C5 in the newborn could not be explained by lack of eculizumab binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), as eculizumab bound strongly to the receptor in vitro. In conclusion, despite binding to FcRn neither eculizumab nor E-C5 accumulates in fetal plasma, and eculizumab treatment during pregnancy does not impair the complement function in the newborn.

  4. Terminal complement activation is increased and associated with disease severity in CIDP.

    PubMed

    Quast, Isaak; Keller, Christian W; Hiepe, Falk; Tackenberg, Björn; Lünemann, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic autoimmune neuropathy. While both cell-mediated and humoral mechanisms contribute to its pathogenesis, the rapid clinical response to plasmapheresis implicates a circulating factor responsible for peripheral nerve injury. We report that treatment-naïve patients with CIDP show increased serum and CSF levels of the anaphylatoxin C5a and the soluble terminal complement complex (sTCC). Systemic terminal complement activation correlates with clinical disease severity as determined by the Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability scale. These data indicate that complement activation contributes to peripheral nerve injury and suggest that complement inhibition should be explored for its potential therapeutic merit in CIDP. PMID:27648461

  5. Interrelation Between Oxidative Stress and Complement Activation in Models of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana M; Schäfer, Nicole; Kuhn, Laura B; Rohrer, Bärbel; Pauly, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Millions of individuals older than 50-years suffer from age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Associated with this multifactorial disease are polymorphisms of complement factor genes and a main environmental risk factor-oxidative stress. Until now the linkage between these risk factors for AMD has not been fully understood. Recent studies, integrating results on oxidative stress, complement activation, epidemiology and ocular pathology suggested the following sequence in AMD-etiology: initially, chronic oxidative stress results in modification of proteins and lipids in the posterior of the eye; these tissue alterations trigger chronic inflammation, involving the complement system; and finally, invasive immune cells facilitate pathology in the retina. Here, we summarize the results for animal studies which aim to elucidate this molecular interplay of oxidative events and tissue-specific complement activation in the eye.

  6. Relative importance of complement-mediated bactericidal and opsonic activity for protection against meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Granoff, Dan M

    2009-06-24

    Killing of Neisseria meningitidis can result from complement-mediated serum bactericidal activity (SBA) or opsonophagocytosis (OPA), or a combination of the two mechanisms. While SBA titers > or =1:4 confer protection, recent evidence suggests that this threshold titer may not be required. For example, the incidence of meningococcal disease declines between ages 1 and 4 years without evidence of acquisition of SBA titers > or =1:4. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccination also elicited OPA and lowered the risk of disease in patients with late complement component deficiencies whose sera did not support SBA. Sera from healthy adults immunized with an outer membrane vesicle vaccine showed OPA killing of N. meningitidis with C6-depleted complement, and whole blood from complement-sufficient non-immunized adults with SBA titers <1:4 also frequently had killing activity. Collectively the data indicate that SBA titers <1:4 and/or vaccine-induced OPA can confer protection against meningococcal disease.

  7. Complementing the Mainstream: An Exploration of Partnership Work between Complementary Alternative Provisions and Mainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennacchia, Jodie; Thomson, Pat

    2016-01-01

    In the English context, complementary alternative provisions (APs) can make specific positive contributions for young people at risk of exclusion from mainstream school. Whilst recognising the potential value of all complementary AP that is carefully selected and of high quality, we problematise the "repair and return" rationale that…

  8. CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY ACTIVATION IN THE KIDNEYS OF WOMEN WITH PREECLAMPSIA

    PubMed Central

    Penning, Marlies; Chua, Jamie S.; van Kooten, Cees; Zandbergen, Malu; Buurma, Aletta; Schutte, Joke; Bruijn, Jan Anthonie; Khankin, Eliyahu. V.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty; Karumanchi, S. Ananth.; Baelde, Hans

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that complement dysregulation plays a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The kidney is one of the major organs affected in preeclampsia. Because the kidney is highly susceptible to complement activation, we hypothesized that preeclampsia is associated with renal complement activation. We performed a nationwide search for renal autopsy material in the Netherlands using a computerized database (PALGA). Renal tissue was obtained from 11 women with preeclampsia, 25 pregnant controls, and 14 non-pregnant controls with hypertension. The samples were immunostained for C4d, C1q, MBL, properdin, C3d, C5b-9, IgA, IgG, and IgM. Preeclampsia was significantly associated with renal C4d—a stable marker of complement activation—and the classical pathway marker C1q. In addition, the prevalence of IgM was significantly higher in the kidneys of the preeclamptic women. No other complement markers studied differed between the groups. Our findings in human samples were validated using a soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) mouse model of preeclampsia. The kidneys in the sFlt-1–injected mice had significantly more C4 deposits than the control mice. The association between preeclampsia and renal C4d, C1q, and IgM levels suggests that the classical complement pathway is involved in the renal injury in preeclampsia. Moreover, our finding that sFlt-1–injected mice develop excess C4 deposits indicates that angiogenic dysregulation may play a role in complement activation within the kidney. We suggest that inhibiting complement activation may be beneficial for preventing the renal manifestations of preeclampsia. PMID:25941343

  9. Healing of complement activating Ti implants compared with non-activating Ti in rat tibia.

    PubMed

    Harmankaya, N; Igawa, K; Stenlund, P; Palmquist, A; Tengvall, P

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed that ozone ultraviolet (UVO) illumination of titanium (Ti) implants improves bone-implant anchorage by altering the physico-chemical and immune activating properties of the titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) layer. In the present rat tibia model, the authors compared the early events of inflammation and bone formation around UVO-treated Ti and complement activating immunoglobin g (IgG)-coated Ti. Machined Ti and machined Ti coated with a physical vapour-deposited Ti layer were used as references. Screw-shaped test and reference implants were implanted into rat tibia and harvested after 1, 7 and 28 days. Messenger RNA expression of implant adhered cells and peri-implant tissue ~250 μm from the surface were subsequently analysed with regard to IL-1β, TNF-α, osteocalcin, cathepsin K, BMP-2 and PDGF. Separate implants were retrieved after 7 and 28 days for removal torque measurements, and histological staining and histomorphometric analysis of bone area and bone-to-implant contact. While enhanced expression of inflammatory markers, TNF-α and IL-1β, was observed on IgG-coated surfaces throughout the observation time, UVO-treated surfaces indicated a significantly lower early inflammatory response. In the early phases (1 and 7 days), the UVO-treated surfaces displayed a significantly higher expression of osteoblast markers BMP-2 and osteocalcin. In summary, complement activating Ti implants elicited a stronger inflammatory response than UVO-treated Ti, with low complement activation during the first week of healing. In spite of this, the UVO-treated Ti induced only marginally more bone growth outside the implants.

  10. Assessment of in vivo complement activation on the Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst wall.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A M; Diaz, A; Fernandez, C; Sim, R B

    2001-12-01

    The larval stage of the parasite Echinococcus granulosus causes hydatid disease. The hydatid cyst is potentially capable of activating host complement, since it is a large, persistent, carbohydrate-rich structure, coated with host immunoglobulins, and localized in the host's internal organs. Nonetheless, in vitro studies have suggested that the cyst surface, the hydatid cyst wall (HCW), is a poor complement activator. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of in vivo complement activation on the hydatid cyst by measuring the levels of two complement activation products, C3d and complexes bearing a C9 activation neoepitope (TCC/MAC), in extracts from HCW of human origin. Low amounts of C3d and TCC/MAC were found in HCW in comparison with their levels in normal human plasma and activated human sera, suggesting that in vivo complement activation on HCW is efficiently down-regulated. This regulation may contribute to limit host inflammation which has been observed to correlate with parasite degeneration and death.

  11. Assessment of in vivo complement activation on the Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst wall.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A M; Diaz, A; Fernandez, C; Sim, R B

    2001-12-01

    The larval stage of the parasite Echinococcus granulosus causes hydatid disease. The hydatid cyst is potentially capable of activating host complement, since it is a large, persistent, carbohydrate-rich structure, coated with host immunoglobulins, and localized in the host's internal organs. Nonetheless, in vitro studies have suggested that the cyst surface, the hydatid cyst wall (HCW), is a poor complement activator. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of in vivo complement activation on the hydatid cyst by measuring the levels of two complement activation products, C3d and complexes bearing a C9 activation neoepitope (TCC/MAC), in extracts from HCW of human origin. Low amounts of C3d and TCC/MAC were found in HCW in comparison with their levels in normal human plasma and activated human sera, suggesting that in vivo complement activation on HCW is efficiently down-regulated. This regulation may contribute to limit host inflammation which has been observed to correlate with parasite degeneration and death. PMID:11737668

  12. Deficiencies and excessive human complement system activation in disorders of multifarious etiology.

    PubMed

    Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Complement is an integral part of the immune system protecting the host organism against invasion and proliferation of various microorganisms. It is also involved in the removal of the body's own damaged and altered cells. Activation of the complement system is a very precise process and it is strictly controlled by regulatory proteins present in both plasma and at host cells' surfaces. C3 protein plays a major role in the complement activation and generation of immune responses. Deficiencies of the C3 and other complement components, so-called early and late complement proteins, contribute to the emergence of recurrent bacterial, viral and fungal infections. The low level of mannose-binding lectin is also important. This protein plays a protective role in the early stages of infection and in the control of inflammation. Its deficit is one of the most common reasons for human immunodeficiency, observed in microbial infections as well as in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. On the other hand, the excessive activation of complement proteins is often discovered to be the reason for many diseases. These include e.g. autoimmune diseases, Alzheimer's syndrome, schizophrenia, atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome, angioedema, macular degeneration, and Crohn's disease.

  13. A universal method for measuring functional activity of complement in humans, laboratory, domestic, and agricultural animals, amphibians, and birds.

    PubMed

    Kuleshina, O N; Kozlov, L V; Cheremnykh, E G

    2014-06-01

    A new universal method for measuring activity of the serum complement system in humans, laboratory, domestic, agricultural animals, birds and amphibians is based on automated evaluation of the mortality of ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis under the effect of the complement system. In contrast to the hemolytic method, measured activity of the complement shows no erroneously high results caused by reactive lysis in febrile patients. The method can be used for studies of the complement system in humans and animals without species-specific adaptation.

  14. Complement activation promotes colitis-associated carcinogenesis through activating intestinal IL-1β/IL-17A axis.

    PubMed

    Ning, C; Li, Y-Y; Wang, Y; Han, G-C; Wang, R-X; Xiao, H; Li, X-Y; Hou, C-M; Ma, Y-F; Sheng, D-S; Shen, B-F; Feng, J-N; Guo, R-F; Li, Y; Chen, G-J

    2015-11-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is the most serious complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Excessive complement activation has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. However, its role in the development of CAC is largely unknown. Here, using a CAC model induced by combined administration of azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), we demonstrated that complement activation was required for CAC pathogenesis. Deficiency in key components of complement (e.g., C3, C5, or C5a receptor) rendered tumor repression in mice subjected to AOM/DSS. Mechanistic investigation revealed that complement ablation dramatically reduced proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β levels in the colonic tissues that was mainly produced by infiltrating neutrophils. IL-1β promoted colon carcinogenesis by eliciting IL-17 response in intestinal myeloid cells. Furthermore, complement-activation product C5a represented a potent inducer for IL-1β in neutrophil, accounting for downregulation of IL-1β levels in the employed complement-deficient mice. Overall, our study proposes a protumorigenic role of complement in inflammation-related colorectal cancer and that the therapeutic strategies targeting complement may be beneficial for the treatment of CAC in clinic. PMID:25736459

  15. SALSA: A Regulator of the Early Steps of Complement Activation on Mucosal Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Reichhardt, Martin Parnov; Meri, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Complement is present mainly in blood. However, following mechanical damage or inflammation, serous exudates enter the mucosal surfaces. Here, the complement proteins interact with other endogenous molecules to keep microbes from entering the parenteral tissues. One of the mucosal proteins known to interact with the early complement components of both the classical and the lectin pathway is the salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA). SALSA is also known as deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 and gp340. It is found both attached to the epithelium and secreted into the surrounding fluids of most mucosal surfaces. SALSA has been shown to bind directly to C1q, mannose-binding lectin, and the ficolins. Through these interactions SALSA regulates activation of the complement system. In addition, SALSA interacts with surfactant proteins A and D, secretory IgA, and lactoferrin. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are examples of diseases, where complement activation in mucosal tissues may occur. This review describes the latest advances in our understanding of how the early complement components interact with the SALSA molecule. Furthermore, we discuss how these interactions may affect disease propagation on mucosal surfaces in immunological and inflammatory diseases. PMID:27014265

  16. Anti-complement activity of tiliroside from the flower buds of Magnolia fargesii.

    PubMed

    Jung, K Y; Oh, S R; Park, S H; Lee, I S; Ahn, K S; Lee, J J; Lee, H K

    1998-10-01

    As part of the search for anticomplementary active components from natural products, the anticomplementary properties of methanolic extracts from the flower buds of Magnoliafargesii have been investigated. Bioassay-guided chromatographic separation of the active constituents led to the isolation of compound 1, whose structure was identified by spectroscopic methods to be kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-(6"-O-coumaroyl)glucopyranoside (tiliroside). Tiliroside showed very potent anti-complement activity (IC50=5.4 x 10(-5) M) on the classical pathway of the complement system, even higher than rosmarinic acid, which is a well-known inhibitor against the complement system. On the other hand, the hydrolysates of tiliroside, kaempferol, astragalin and p-coumaric acid showed very weak activity on this system.

  17. Anti-complementary constituents of Houttuynia cordata and their targets in complement activation cascade.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Yun-Yi; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Activity-guided fractionation for complement inhibitors led to the isolation of 23 known compounds from Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Seven flavonoids, two alkaloids, one coumarin and two phenols showed anti-complementary activity. Preliminary inhibitory mechanism of four flavonoids, including quercitrin, afzelin, isoquercitrin and quercetin in the complement activation cascade were examined for the first time. The results indicated that the target components of flavonols are different from those of flavonosides, and the glycoside moieties may be necessary to block C3 and C4 components. PMID:24423008

  18. Soluble and immobilized graphene oxide activates complement system differently dependent on surface oxidation state.

    PubMed

    Wibroe, Peter P; Petersen, Søren V; Bovet, Nicolas; Laursen, Bo W; Moghimi, S Moein

    2016-02-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is believed to become applicable in biomedical products and medicine, thereby necessitating appropriate safety evaluation dependent on their applications and the route of administration. We have examined the effect of GO form (in solution versus immobilized) and oxidation state on two related elements of innate immunity: the complement system and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release in human blood. In solution, there was a decrease in GO-mediated complement activation with decreasing surface oxygen content (and altered oxygen functionality), whereas with immobilized GO complement response were reversed and increased with decreasing oxygen content. GO solutions, at concentrations below complement activating threshold, did not induce IL-6 release from human blood leukocytes, and further dampened lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 release in the whole blood. The latter effect became more profound with GO's having higher oxygen content. This protective role of GO solutions, however, disappeared at higher concentrations above complement-activating threshold. We discuss these results in relation to GO surface structure and properties, and implications for local administration and development of GO-based implantable devices.

  19. Dialyzer membranes: effect of surface area and chemical modification of cellulose on complement and platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Mahiout, A; Meinhold, H; Kessel, M; Schulze, H; Baurmeister, U

    1987-04-01

    Using an ex vivo model, the effects of membrane composition and surface area on both the complement system (as reflected by plasma C3a levels) and platelets [as indicated by plasma concentrations of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and platelet factor 4 (PF4)] were studied. In this model, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was associated with less complement activation than cuprammonium cellulose (CC). A new "modified cellulose" (MC) membrane, in which a small number of the free hydroxyl groups on cellulose are substituted with a tertiary amino compound, was also associated with a low degree of complement activation, similar to that with PAN. However, the extent of hydroxyl group substitution in four MC membrane subtypes did not correlate with the reduction in complement activation. In studies using CC, the amount of generated C3a correlated with the membrane surface area, although the relationship was curvilinear. Plasma concentrations at the "dialyzer" outlet of TXB2 and PF4 were similar with CC, PAN, and MC. In studies with the MC subtypes, increasing the extent of hydroxyl group substitution paradoxically increased, albeit slightly, the amount of TXB2 generation. In studies with CC, a linear relationship between membrane surface area and TXB2 generation was found. The results suggest a dissociation between platelet and complement effects among different dialyzer membranes, and underline the importance of membrane surface area.

  20. Complexes between C1q and C3 or C4: novel and specific markers for classical complement pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Diana; Wiessenberg, Hans D; Hart, Margreet; Bruins, Peter; Voskuyl, Alexandre; Daha, Mohamed R; Hack, C Erik

    2005-03-01

    Classical pathway activation is often assessed by measuring circulating levels of activated C4. However, this parameter does not discriminate between activation through the classical or the lectin pathway. We hypothesized that during classical pathway activation, complexes are formed between C1q and activated C4 or C3. Using ELISA, we investigated whether such complexes constitute specific markers for classical pathway activation. In vitro, C1q-C3d/C4d complexes were generated upon incubation of normal recalcified plasma with aggregated IgG or an anti-C1q mAb that activates C1 (mAb anti-C1q-130). In contrast, during incubation with C1s or trypsin, C1q-C3d/C4d complexes were not generated, which excludes an innocent bystander effect. Additionally, C1q-C3d/C4d complexes were not generated during activation of the alternative or the lectin pathway. Repeated freezing and thawing did not influence levels of C1q-C3d/C4d complexes in recalcified plasma. To measure C1q-complement complexes in plasma samples, we separated unbound complement proteins from C1q-C3d/C4d complexes in the samples prior to testing with ELISA. In samples from patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery or suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, we found higher levels of C1q-C4 complexes than in samples from healthy individuals. We conclude that complexes between C1q and C4 or C3 are specific markers of classical complement pathway activation.

  1. The United States Chiropractic Workforce: An alternative or complement to primary care?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the United States (US) a shortage of primary care physicians has become evident. Other health care providers such as chiropractors might help address some of the nation’s primary care needs simply by being located in areas of lesser primary care resources. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of the chiropractic workforce across the country and compare it to that of primary care physicians. Methods We used nationally representative data to estimate the per 100,000 capita supply of chiropractors and primary care physicians according to the 306 predefined Hospital Referral Regions. Multiple variable Poisson regression was used to examine the influence of population characteristics on the supply of both practitioner-types. Results According to these data, there are 74,623 US chiropractors and the per capita supply of chiropractors varies more than 10-fold across the nation. Chiropractors practice in areas with greater supply of primary care physicians (Pearson’s correlation 0.17, p-value < 0.001) and appear to be more responsive to market conditions (i.e. more heavily influenced by population characteristics) in regards to practice location than primary care physicians. Conclusion These findings suggest that chiropractors practice in areas of greater primary care physician supply. Therefore chiropractors may be functioning in more complementary roles to primary care as opposed to an alternative point of access. PMID:23171540

  2. Complement activation cascade triggered by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes: the challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, S M; Andersen, A J; Hashemi, S H; Lettiero, B; Ahmadvand, D; Hunter, A C; Andresen, T L; Hamad, I; Szebeni, J

    2010-09-01

    Since their introduction, poly(ethylene glycol)-phospholipid (PEG-PL) conjugates have found many applications in design and engineering of nanosized delivery systems for controlled delivery of pharmaceuticals especially to non-macrophage targets. However, there are reports of idiosyncratic reactions to certain PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines in both experimental animals and man. These reactions are classified as pseudoallergy and may be associated with cardiopulmonary disturbance and other related symptoms of anaphylaxis. Recent studies suggest that complement activation may be a contributing, but not a rate limiting factor, in eliciting hypersensitivity reactions to such nanomedicines in sensitive individuals. This is rather surprising since PEGylated structures are generally assumed to suppress protein adsorption and blood opsonization events including complement. Here, we examine the molecular basis of complement activation by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes and discuss the challenges ahead.

  3. Discovery of Small Molecules for Fluorescent Detection of Complement Activation Product C3d.

    PubMed

    Gorham, Ronald D; Nuñez, Vicente; Lin, Jung-Hsin; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Vullev, Valentine I; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2015-12-24

    Complement activation plays a major role in many acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. C3d, a terminal product of complement activation, remains covalently attached to cells and is an excellent biomarker of complement-mediated inflammation. We employed a virtual high-throughput screening protocol to identify molecules with predicted binding to complement C3d and with intrinsic fluorescence properties to enable detection. Pharmacophore models were developed based on known C3d-ligand interactions and information from computational analysis of structural and molecular dynamics data. Iterative pharmacophore-based virtual screening was performed to identify druglike molecules with physicochemical similarity to the natural C3d ligand CR2. Hits from the pharmacophore screens were docked to C3d and ranked based on predicted binding free energies. Top-ranked molecules were selected for experimental validation of binding affinity to C3d, using microscale thermophoresis, and for their suitability to become molecular imaging agents, using fluorescence spectroscopy. This work serves as a foundation for identifying additional fluorescent molecules with high-affinity for C3d that will subsequently be explored as noninvasive in vivo diagnostics of complement-mediated inflammation, for spatiotemporal monitoring of disease progression, and for targeting therapeutics to sites of inflammation.

  4. Discovery of Small Molecules for Fluorescent Detection of Complement Activation Product C3d.

    PubMed

    Gorham, Ronald D; Nuñez, Vicente; Lin, Jung-Hsin; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Vullev, Valentine I; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2015-12-24

    Complement activation plays a major role in many acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. C3d, a terminal product of complement activation, remains covalently attached to cells and is an excellent biomarker of complement-mediated inflammation. We employed a virtual high-throughput screening protocol to identify molecules with predicted binding to complement C3d and with intrinsic fluorescence properties to enable detection. Pharmacophore models were developed based on known C3d-ligand interactions and information from computational analysis of structural and molecular dynamics data. Iterative pharmacophore-based virtual screening was performed to identify druglike molecules with physicochemical similarity to the natural C3d ligand CR2. Hits from the pharmacophore screens were docked to C3d and ranked based on predicted binding free energies. Top-ranked molecules were selected for experimental validation of binding affinity to C3d, using microscale thermophoresis, and for their suitability to become molecular imaging agents, using fluorescence spectroscopy. This work serves as a foundation for identifying additional fluorescent molecules with high-affinity for C3d that will subsequently be explored as noninvasive in vivo diagnostics of complement-mediated inflammation, for spatiotemporal monitoring of disease progression, and for targeting therapeutics to sites of inflammation. PMID:26613117

  5. Variable Antibody-dependent Activation of Complement by Functionalized Phospholipid Nanoparticle Surfaces*

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Christine T. N.; Mitchell, Lynne M.; Huang, Jennifer L.; Lubniewski, Christopher M.; Schall, Otto F.; Killgore, J. Kendall; Pan, Dipanjan; Wickline, Samuel A.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Hourcade, Dennis E.

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of nanomaterials are currently being developed for use in the detection and treatment of human diseases. However, there is no systematic way to measure and predict the action of such materials in biological contexts. Lipid-encapsulated nanoparticles (NPs) are a class of nanomaterials that includes the liposomes, the most widely used and clinically proven type of NPs. Liposomes can, however, activate the complement system, an important branch of innate immunity, resulting in undesirable consequences. Here, we describe the complement response to lipid-encapsulated NPs that are functionalized on the surface with various lipid-anchored gadolinium chelates. We developed a quantitative approach to examine the interaction of NPs with the complement system using in vitro assays and correlating these results with those obtained in an in vivo mouse model. Our results indicate that surface functionalization of NPs with certain chemical structures elicits swift complement activation that is initiated by a natural IgM antibody and propagated via the classical pathway. The intensity of the response is dependent on the chemical structures of the lipid-anchored chelates and not zeta potential effects alone. Moreover, the extent of complement activation may be tempered by complement inhibiting regulatory proteins that bind to the surface of NPs. These findings represent a step forward in the understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials and the host innate immune response and provide the basis for a systematic structure-activity relationship study to establish guidelines that are critical to the future development of biocompatible nanotherapeutics. PMID:21047788

  6. In-vitro activation of complement system by lactic acidosis in newborn and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Hecke, F; Hoehn, T; Strauss, E; Obladen, M; Sonntag, J

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Complement activation occurs secondary to a variety of external stimuli. Lactic acidosis has been previously shown to activate the complement factors C3a and C5a. In the present investigation we examined the differential effect of lactic acidosis on anaphylatoxin levels in cord and adult blood. Furthermore we aimed to determine if the entire complement cascade could be activated by lactic acidosis. METHODS: Cord and adult blood samples (n = 20 each) were collected and incubated for one hour in either untreated condition or with the addition of lactate in two concentrations (5.5 mmol/l vs. 22 mmol/l). Following incubation, levels of C3a, C5a and sC5b-9, and blood gas parameters were determined. RESULTS: Anaphylatoxin (C3a and C5a) and sC5b-9 levels increased with the addition of lactate in a dose-dependent manner in cord and adult blood (C3a: 1 h, 5.5 mmo/l, 22 mmol/l: 418/498/622 microg/l in cord blood; 1010/1056/1381 microg/l in adult blood, p<0,05; similar results were found for C5a and sC5b-9). CONCLUSION: Lactic acidosis leads to an activation of the entire complement system in neonates and in adults. This activation is dose-dependent and more pronounced in adults as compared to neonates. PMID:11324901

  7. Activation of complement by an IgG molecule without a genetic hinge.

    PubMed

    Brekke, O H; Michaelsen, T E; Sandin, R; Sandlie, I

    1993-06-17

    The hinge region links the two Fab arms to the Fc portion of the IgG molecule. It mediates flexibility to the molecule and serves as a connecting structure between the two heavy chains. In addition it provides space between the Fab and Fc parts. All three properties have been proposed to be important for the ability of IgG to initiate complement activation leading to complement-mediated cell lysis (CML). Here we report the construction of a hinge-deleted mouse-human chimaeric IgG3 molecule with specificity for the hapten NIP (3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-nitrophenacetyl), HM-1. HM-1 lacks the genetic hinge, but has an introduced cysteine between Ala 231 (EU numbering) and Pro 232 in the lower hinge encoded by the CH2 exon. The introduced cysteine forms a disulphide bond between the two heavy chains of the molecule. In CML, HM-1 shows a greater activity than IgG3 wild type. This is the first time an IgG molecule without a genetic hinge has been found to be active in CML. We conclude that the hinge functioning as a spacer is not a prerequisite for complement activation. Rather, its major role seems to be to connect the heavy chains to each other in the amino-terminal part of CH2. Because HM-1 is expected to have low Fab-Fc flexibility, this molecular feature is probably of no importance for complement activation.

  8. Alginate microsphere compositions dictate different mechanisms of complement activation with consequences for cytokine release and leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Ørning, Pontus; Hoem, Kine Samset; Coron, Abba Elizabeth; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Brekke, Ole-Lars; Espevik, Terje; Rokstad, Anne Mari

    2016-05-10

    The inflammatory potential of 12 types of alginate-based microspheres was assessed in a human whole blood model. The inflammatory potential could be categorized from low to high based on the four main alginate microsphere types; alginate microbeads, liquefied core poly-l-ornithine (PLO)-containing microcapsules, liquefied core poly-l-lysine (PLL)-containing microcapsules, and solid core PLL-containing microcapsules. No complement or inflammatory cytokine activation was detected for the Ca/Ba alginate microbeads. Liquefied core PLO- and PLL-containing microcapsules induced significant fluid phase complement activation (TCC), but with low complement surface deposition (anti-C3c), and a low proinflammatory cytokine secretion, with exception of an elevated MCP-1(CCL2) secretion. The solid core PLL-containing microcapsules generated lower TCC but a marked complement surface deposition and significant induction of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1)β, TNF, IL-6, the chemokines IL-8 (CXCL8), and MIP-1α (CCL3) and MCP-1(CCL2). Inhibition with compstatin (C3 inhibitor) completely abolished complement surface deposition, leukocyte adhesion and the proinflammatory cytokines. The C5 inhibitions partly lead to a reduction of the proinflammatory cytokines. The leukocyte adhesion was abolished by inhibitory antibodies against CD18 and partly reduced by CD11b, but not by CD11c. Anti-CD18 significantly reduced the (IL-1)β, TNF, IL-6 and MIP-1α and anti-CD11b significantly reduced the IL-6 and VEGF secretion. MCP-1 was strongly activated by anti-CD18 and anti-CD11b. In conclusion the initial proinflammatory cytokine responses are driven by the microspheres potential to trigger complement C3 (C3b/iC3b) deposition, leukocyte activation and binding through complement receptor CR3 (CD11b/CD18). MCP-1 is one exception dependent on the fluid phase complement activation mediated through CR3. PMID:26993426

  9. Creating functional sophistication from simple protein building blocks, exemplified by factor H and the regulators of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Makou, Elisavet; Herbert, Andrew P; Barlow, Paul N

    2015-10-01

    Complement control protein modules (CCPs) occur in numerous functionally diverse extracellular proteins. Also known as short consensus repeats (SCRs) or sushi domains each CCP contains approximately 60 amino acid residues, including four consensus cysteines participating in two disulfide bonds. Varying in length and sequence, CCPs adopt a β-sandwich type fold and have an overall prolate spheroidal shape with N- and C-termini lying close to opposite poles of the long axis. CCP-containing proteins are important as cytokine receptors and in neurotransmission, cell adhesion, blood clotting, extracellular matrix formation, haemoglobin metabolism and development, but CCPs are particularly well represented in the vertebrate complement system. For example, factor H (FH), a key soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation, is made up entirely from a chain of 20 CCPs joined by short linkers. Collectively, therefore, the 20 CCPs of FH must mediate all its functional capabilities. This is achieved via collaboration and division of labour among these modules. Structural studies have illuminated the dynamic architectures that allow FH and other CCP-rich proteins to perform their biological functions. These are largely the products of a highly varied set of intramolecular interactions between CCPs. The CCP can act as building block, spacer, highly versatile recognition site or dimerization mediator. Tandem CCPs may form composite binding sites or contribute to flexible, rigid or conformationally 'switchable' segments of the parent proteins.

  10. Creating functional sophistication from simple protein building blocks, exemplified by factor H and the regulators of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Makou, Elisavet; Herbert, Andrew P; Barlow, Paul N

    2015-10-01

    Complement control protein modules (CCPs) occur in numerous functionally diverse extracellular proteins. Also known as short consensus repeats (SCRs) or sushi domains each CCP contains approximately 60 amino acid residues, including four consensus cysteines participating in two disulfide bonds. Varying in length and sequence, CCPs adopt a β-sandwich type fold and have an overall prolate spheroidal shape with N- and C-termini lying close to opposite poles of the long axis. CCP-containing proteins are important as cytokine receptors and in neurotransmission, cell adhesion, blood clotting, extracellular matrix formation, haemoglobin metabolism and development, but CCPs are particularly well represented in the vertebrate complement system. For example, factor H (FH), a key soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation, is made up entirely from a chain of 20 CCPs joined by short linkers. Collectively, therefore, the 20 CCPs of FH must mediate all its functional capabilities. This is achieved via collaboration and division of labour among these modules. Structural studies have illuminated the dynamic architectures that allow FH and other CCP-rich proteins to perform their biological functions. These are largely the products of a highly varied set of intramolecular interactions between CCPs. The CCP can act as building block, spacer, highly versatile recognition site or dimerization mediator. Tandem CCPs may form composite binding sites or contribute to flexible, rigid or conformationally 'switchable' segments of the parent proteins. PMID:26517887

  11. Evaluation of in vivo immune complex formation and complement activation in patients receiving intravenous streptokinase.

    PubMed Central

    Freysdottir, J; Ormarsdottir, S; Sigfusson, A

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of several different methods for detecting immune complex formation and complement activation in the circulation were applied to samples from patients receiving intravenous Streptokinase therapy for myocardial infarction. Streptokinase is a foreign antigen and can cause immune reactions. We collected samples from 13 patients, before Streptokinase administration (baseline), at the end of infusion (1 h), 12 h later and on day 7. We measured IgG containing immune complexes (IgG-IC), free C3d and antibodies to Streptokinase by ELISA, and CR1, C3d and C4d on erythrocytes by flow cytometric assay. Antibodies to Streptokinase are common, as all but two of the patients had measurable antibody levels. During Streptokinase treatment there was a drop in antibody levels, most prominent in those patients who had high baseline levels. At the same time increased levels of free C3d and erythrocyte-bound C3d were observed. After 12 h free C3d was usually back to baseline level, but C3d on erythrocytes was still raised. These data indicate the formation of Streptokinase immune complexes in patients with high Streptokinase antibody levels, and show that these complexes are cleared rapidly from the circulation, leaving more persistent signs of complement activation. We conclude that free C3d is a good indicator of ongoing complement activation, whereas C3d on erythrocytes indicates that complement activation has recently taken place. PMID:8222319

  12. Factor C acts as a lipopolysaccharide-responsive C3 convertase in horseshoe crab complement activation.

    PubMed

    Ariki, Shigeru; Takahara, Shusaku; Shibata, Toshio; Fukuoka, Takaaki; Ozaki, Aya; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Koshiba, Takumi; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2008-12-01

    The complement system in vertebrates plays an important role in host defense against and clearance of invading microbes, in which complement component C3 plays an essential role in the opsonization of pathogens, whereas the molecular mechanism underlying C3 activation in invertebrates remains unknown. In an effort to understand the molecular activation mechanism of invertebrate C3, we isolated and characterized an ortholog of C3 (designated TtC3) from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. Flow cytometric analysis using an Ab against TtC3 revealed that the horseshoe crab complement system opsonizes both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Evaluation of the ability of various pathogen-associated molecular patterns to promote the proteolytic conversion of TtC3 to TtC3b in hemocyanin-depleted plasma indicated that LPS, but not zymosan, peptidoglycan, or laminarin, strongly induces this conversion, highlighting the selective response of the complement system to LPS stimulation. Although originally characterized as an LPS-sensitive initiator of hemolymph coagulation stored within hemocytes, we identified factor C in hemolymph plasma. An anti-factor C Ab inhibited various LPS-induced phenomena, including plasma amidase activity, the proteolytic activation of TtC3, and the deposition of TtC3b on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, activated factor C present on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria directly catalyzed the proteolytic conversion of the purified TtC3, thereby promoting TtC3b deposition. We conclude that factor C acts as an LPS-responsive C3 convertase on the surface of invading Gram-negative bacteria in the initial phase of horseshoe crab complement activation.

  13. Complement-fixing Activity of Fulvic Acid from Shilajit and Other Natural Sources

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Xie, Gang; Jutila, Mark A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Shilajit has been used traditionally in folk medicine for treatment of a variety of disorders, including syndromes involving excessive complement activation. Extracts of Shilajit contain significant amounts of fulvic acid (FA), and it has been suggested that FA is responsible for many therapeutic properties of Shilajit. However, little is known regarding physical and chemical properties of Shilajit extracts, and nothing is known about their effects on the complement system. To address this issue, we fractionated extracts of commercial Shilajit using anion exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. One neutral (S-I) and two acidic (S-II and S-III) fractions were isolated, characterized, and compared with standardized FA samples. The most abundant fraction (S-II) was further fractionated into three sub-fractions (S-II-1 to S-II-3). The van Krevelen diagram showed that the Shilajit fractions are products of polysaccharide degradation, and all fractions, except S-II-3, contained type II arabinogalactan. All Shilajit fractions exhibited dose-dependent complement-fixing activity in vitro with high potency. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between complement-fixing activity and carboxylic group content in the Shilajit fractions and other FA sources. These data provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic properties of Shilajit and other humic extracts. PMID:19107845

  14. Targeting complement activation in brain-dead donors improves renal function after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Damman, Jeffrey; Hoeger, Simone; Boneschansker, Leo; Theruvath, Ashok; Waldherr, Ruediger; Leuvenink, Henri G; Ploeg, Rutger J; Yard, Benito A; Seelen, Marc A

    2011-05-01

    Kidneys recovered from brain-dead donors have inferior outcomes after transplantation compared to kidneys from living donors. Since complement activation plays an important role in renal transplant related injury, targeting complement activation in brain-dead donors might improve renal function after transplantation. Brain death (BD) was induced in Fisher rats by inflation of an epidurally placed balloon catheter and ventilated for 6h. BD animals were treated with soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1) 1h before or 1h after BD. Kidney transplantation was performed and 7 days after transplantation animals were sacrificed. Plasma creatinine and urea were measured at days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 after transplantation. Renal function was significantly better at day 1 after transplantation in recipients receiving a sCR1 pre-treated donor kidney compared to recipients of a non-treated donor graft. Also treatment with sCR1, 1h after the diagnosis of BD, resulted in a better renal function after transplantation. Gene expression of IL-6, IL-1beta and TGF-beta were significantly lower in renal allografts recovered from treated donors. This study shows that targeting complement activation, during BD in the donor, leads to an improved renal function after transplantation in the recipient.

  15. Complement activation within the coeliac small intestine is localised to Brunner's glands.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, R B; Kelly, C P; Neville, S; Sheils, O; Weir, D G; Feighery, C F

    1989-01-01

    Complement activation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease. In the present study immunohistochemical localisation of C3 and of a neoantigen exposed only on the terminal C5b-9 complement complex has been performed on small intestinal biopsy sections from newly diagnosed untreated coeliac patients, from coeliac patients on long-term gluten-free diet and from disease controls. Levels of C3 were markedly increased in treated coeliac patients compared with controls. Staining of C3 was concentrated subepithelially and within the centre of the lamina propria. No staining was detected at these sites using antibody to the neoantigen, however, strongly suggesting that the increased levels of C3 seen in the coeliac patients was the result of increased extravasation of serum proteins rather than complement activation. Surprisingly, complement activation was detected within the glands of Brunner. Positive staining using anti-C5b-9 neoantigen was found in all coeliac patients, both treated and untreated. Three of the 13 disease controls also showed reactivity with this antibody. This novel finding suggests that Brunner's glands, hitherto largely neglected structures, may play an important role in the development of coeliac disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:2599443

  16. Relative contribution of contact and complement activation to inflammatory reactions in arthritic joints.

    PubMed

    Abbink, J J; Kamp, A M; Nuijens, J H; Erenberg, A J; Swaak, A J; Hack, C E

    1992-10-01

    Although both the complement and contact system are thought to contribute to the inflammatory reaction in arthritic joints, only activation of complement has so far been well established, whereas contact activation and its contribution to arthritis has not been systematically explored. Complement and contact activation were assessed in 71 patients with inflammatory arthropathies and 11 with osteoarthritis using sensitive assays for C3a, and C1-inhibitor (C1INH)-kallikrein and C1INH-factor XIIa complexes respectively. Increased plasma concentrations of kallikrein-and factor XIIa-C1INH complexes were found in two and seven of the 71 patients with inflammatory arthropathies, respectively, and in none of the patients with osteoarthritis. Increased synovial fluid concentrations of kallikrein and factor XIIa complexes occurred in 13 and 15 patients with inflammatory joint diseases respectively, and in two patients with osteoarthritis. Contact system parameters did not correlate with clinical symptoms, local activity, or neutrophil activation. In contrast, synovial fluid concentrations of C3a and C1INH-C1 complexes were increased in all patients and in 20 patients with inflammatory arthropathies respectively, and were higher in patients with a higher local activity score. Synovial fluid C3a correlated with parameters of neutrophil activation such as lactoferrin. Increased plasma concentrations of C3a and C1INH-C1 complexes occurred in 13 and 11 patients with inflammatory joint diseases, and in one and two patients with osteoarthritis respectively. Plasma concentrations of C3a correlated with the number of painful joints. Thus contact activation occurs only sporadically in patients with arthritis and contributes little if anything to the local inflammatory reaction and neutrophil activation. These latter events are significantly related to the extent of complement activation.

  17. Investigation of the role of complement and complement receptors in the modulation of B cell activation by a Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cell wall fraction.

    PubMed

    de Agostino Biella, Carla; Uecker, Marilei; Fernandes da Silva, Marcelo; Barbosa, José Elpidio; Silva, Célio Lopes; Crott, Luciana Simon Pereira

    2006-01-01

    F1 fraction from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a potent activator of the complement system. Considering that complement receptors CR1 and CR2 are involved in the regulation of B cell response, we evaluated the in vitro effect of the F1 in the activation of B lymphocytes, as well as the participation of complement receptors in this process. Murine splenocytes were cultured in order to evaluate the expression of CD40, CD45RB and CD69 on B lymphocyte, and IgG and IgM were quantified in the culture supernatant. F1 participated in the activation of B cells, showing a positive modulation effect on all markers analyzed. An increase in the production of IgG was detected in the supernatants when the opsonized F1 fraction was present. Complement receptor blockade with monoclonal antibodies led to a partial reduction in immunoglobulin secretion, suggesting that these receptors, especially CR2, play a role in modulating the function of B lymphocyte stimulated with the opsonized F1 fraction. These results may contribute for a better understanding of the B cell activation and differentiation processes in response to the F1 fraction from P. brasiliensis.

  18. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: a complement-mediated hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    DeZern, Amy E; Brodsky, Robert A

    2015-06-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is manifests with a chronic hemolytic anemia from uncontrolled complement activation, a propensity for thrombosis and marrow failure. The hemolysis is largely mediated by the alternative pathway of complement. Clinical manifestations result from the lack of specific cell surface proteins, CD55 and CD59, on PNH cells. Complement inhibition by eculizumab leads to dramatic clinical improvement. While this therapeutic approach is effective, there is residual complement activity resulting from specific clinical scenarios as well as from upstream complement components that can account for suboptimal responses in some patients. Complement inhibition strategies are an area of active research.

  19. Evolution of the complement system.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian complement system constitutes a highly sophisticated body defense machinery comprising more than 30 components. Research into the evolutionary origin of the complement system has identified a primitive version composed of the central component C3 and two activation proteases Bf and MASP in cnidaria. This suggests that the complement system was established in the common ancestor of eumetazoa more than 500 million years ago. The original activation mechanism of the original complement system is believed to be close to the mammalian lectin and alternative activation pathways, and its main role seems to be opsonization and induction of inflammation. This primitive complement system has been retained by most deuterostomes without major change until the appearance of jawed vertebrates. At this stage, duplication of the C3, Bf and MASP genes as well as recruitment of membrane attack components added the classical and lytic pathways to the primitive complement system, converting it to the modern complement system. In contrast, the complement system was lost multiple times independently in the protostome lineage.

  20. Complement activation in relation to capillary leakage in children with septic shock and purpura.

    PubMed

    Hazelzet, J A; de Groot, R; van Mierlo, G; Joosten, K F; van der Voort, E; Eerenberg, A; Suur, M H; Hop, W C; Hack, C E

    1998-11-01

    To assess the relationship between capillary leakage and inflammatory mediators during sepsis, blood samples were taken on hospital admission, as well as 24 and 72 h later, from 52 children (median age, 3.3 years) with severe meningococcal sepsis, of whom 38 survived and 14 died. Parameters related to cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6] IL-8, plasma phospholipase A2, and C-reactive protein [CRP]), to neutrophil degranulation (elastase and lactoferrin), to complement activation (C3a, C3b/c, C4b/c, and C3- and C4-CRP complexes), and to complement regulation (functional and inactivated C1 inhibitor and C4BP) were determined. The degree of capillary leakage was derived from the amount of plasma infused and the severity of disease by assessing the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score. Levels of IL-6, IL-8, C3b/c, C3-CRP complexes, and C4BP on admission, adjusted for the duration of skin lesions, were significantly different in survivors and nonsurvivors (C3b/c levels were on average 2.2 times higher in nonsurvivors, and C3-CRP levels were 1.9 times higher in survivors). Mortality was independently related to the levels of C3b/c and C3-CRP complexes. In agreement with this, levels of complement activation products correlated well with the PRISM score or capillary leakage. Thus, these data show that complement activation in patients with severe meningococcal sepsis is associated with a poor outcome and a more severe disease course. Further studies should reveal whether complement activation may be a target for therapeutical intervention in this disease.

  1. Complement activation in primiparous women from a malaria endemic area is associated with reduced birthweight.

    PubMed

    Khattab, A; Kremsner, P G; Meri, S

    2013-02-01

    The hallmark of placental malaria (PM) due to Plasmodium falciparum infection is the accumulation of mature-stage parasites, monocytes and macrophages in the maternal vascular bed of the placenta. The mechanisms leading to morbidity and mortality in PM are incompletely understood. However, an inflammatory response in the placenta has been related to both severe anemia in the mother and low birthweight (<2500 g) in the newborn. In this study we analyzed whether complement activation as a mediator of inflammation could contribute to poor pregnancy outcome in PM. The concentrations of the soluble terminal complement complex (TCC) were measured as an indicator of complement activation in placental, cord and peripheral blood samples from 146 women from a malaria endemic area. Placental and cord plasma samples of primiparous women, a group vulnerable to PM, showed significantly higher levels of TCC than multiparous women. Additionally, in women with malaria history during pregnancy or placental infection by P. falciparum at delivery, the TCC levels in the corresponding placental and cord plasma samples were significantly higher than in the malaria negative group. In multiple regression analysis parity was shown to be the main determinant of TCC levels. Placental plasma samples corresponding to babies weighing less than 2700 g had significantly higher levels of TCC than babies carrying more weight. In conclusion, both primiparity and P. falciparum infection were related to a local increase of complement activation in the placentas. Association between reduced birthweight and higher levels of TCC in placental blood suggests a role for complement activation in influencing the pregnancy outcome in malaria exposed women. PMID:23261341

  2. The complement system in human cardiometabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Hertle, E; Stehouwer, C D A; van Greevenbroek, M M J

    2014-10-01

    The complement system has been implicated in obesity, fatty liver, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Complement factors are produced in adipose tissue and appear to be involved in adipose tissue metabolism and local inflammation. Thereby complement links adipose tissue inflammation to systemic metabolic derangements, such as low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Furthermore, complement has been implicated in pathophysiological mechanisms of diet- and alcohol induced liver damage, hyperglycaemia, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and fibrinolysis. In this review, we summarize current evidence on the role of the complement system in several processes of human cardiometabolic disease. C3 is the central component in complement activation, and has most widely been studied in humans. C3 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, liver dysfunction, risk of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and CVD. C3 can be activated by the classical, the lectin and the alternative pathway of complement activation; and downstream activation of C3 activates the terminal pathway. Complement may also be activated via extrinsic proteases of the coagulation, fibrinolysis and the kinin systems. Studies on the different complement activation pathways in human cardiometabolic disease are limited, but available evidence suggests that they may have distinct roles in processes underlying cardiometabolic disease. The lectin pathway appeared beneficial in some studies on type 2 diabetes and CVD, while factors of the classical and the alternative pathway were related to unfavourable cardiometabolic traits. The terminal complement pathway was also implicated in insulin resistance and liver disease, and appears to have a prominent role in acute and advanced CVD. The available human data suggest a complex and potentially causal role for the complement system in human cardiometabolic disease. Further, preferably longitudinal studies are needed to

  3. Review on complement analysis method and the roles of glycosaminoglycans in the complement system.

    PubMed

    Li, Lian; Li, Yan; Ijaz, Muhammad; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Lian, Qianqian; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-12-10

    Complement system is composed of over 30 proteins and it plays important roles in self-defence and inflammation. There are three activation pathways, including classical pathway, alternative pathway and lectin pathway, in complement system, and they are associated with many diseases such as osteoarthritis and age-related macular degeneration. Modulation of the complement system may be a promising strategy in the treatment of related diseases. Glycosaminoglycans are anionic linear polysaccharides without branches. They are one kind of multi-functional macromolecules which have great potential in regulating complement system. This review is organized around two aspects between the introduction of complement system and the interaction of glycosaminoglycans with complement system. Three complement activation pathways and the biological significance were introduced first. Then functional analysis methods were compared to provide a strategy for potential glycosaminoglycans screen. Finally, the roles of glycosaminoglycans played in the complement system were summed up.

  4. Using an in vitro xenoantibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity model to evaluate the complement inhibitory activity of the peptidic C3 inhibitor Cp40

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junxiang; Wang, Lu; Xiang, Ying; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D.; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Simple and reliable methods for evaluating the inhibitory effects of drug candidates on complement activation are essential for preclinical development. Here, using an immortalized porcine aortic endothelial cell line (iPEC) as target, we evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of an in vitro xenoantibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) model for evaluating the complement inhibitory activity of Cp40, a potent analog of the peptidic C3 inhibitor compstatin. The binding of human xenoantibodies to iPECs led to serum dilution-dependent cell death. Pretreatment of the human serum with Cp40 almost completely inhibited the deposition of C3 fragments and C5b-9 on the cells, resulting in a dose-dependent inhibition of CDC against the iPECs. Using the same method to compare the effects of Cp40 on complement activation in humans, rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, we found that the inhibitory patterns were similar overall. Thus, the in vitro xenoantibody-mediated CDC assay may have considerable potential for future clinical use. PMID:26548839

  5. Fcγ and Complement Receptors and Complement Proteins in Neutrophil Activation in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Contribution to Pathogenesis and Progression and Modulation by Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Paoliello-Paschoalato, Adriana Balbina; Marchi, Larissa Fávaro; de Andrade, Micássio Fernandes; Kabeya, Luciana Mariko; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Lucisano-Valim, Yara Maria

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a highly disabling disease that affects all structures of the joint and significantly impacts on morbidity and mortality in RA patients. RA is characterized by persistent inflammation of the synovial membrane lining the joint associated with infiltration of immune cells. Eighty to 90% of the leukocytes infiltrating the synovia are neutrophils. The specific role that neutrophils play in the onset of RA is not clear, but recent studies have evidenced that they have an important participation in joint damage and disease progression through the release of proteolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokines, and neutrophil extracellular traps, in particular during frustrated phagocytosis of immune complexes (ICs). In addition, the local and systemic activation of the complement system contributes to the pathogenesis of RA and other IC-mediated diseases. This review discusses (i) the participation of Fcγ and complement receptors in mediating the effector functions of neutrophils in RA; (ii) the contribution of the complement system and ROS-dependent and ROS-independent mechanisms to joint damage in RA; and (iii) the use of plant extracts, dietary compounds, and isolated natural compounds in the treatment of RA, focusing on modulation of the effector functions of neutrophils and the complement system activity and/or activation. PMID:26346244

  6. Human complement C3 deficiency: Th1 induction requires T cell-derived complement C3a and CD46 activation.

    PubMed

    Ghannam, Arije; Fauquert, Jean-Luc; Thomas, Caroline; Kemper, Claudia; Drouet, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Human T helper type 1 (Th1) responses are essential in defense. Although T cell receptor (TCR) and co-stimulator engagement are indispensable for T cell activation, stimulation of additional receptor pathways are also necessary for effector induction. For example, engagement of the complement regulator CD46 by its ligand C3b generated upon TCR activation is required for IFN-γ production as CD46-deficient patients lack Th1 responses. Utilizing T cells from two C3-deficient patients we demonstrate here that normal Th1 responses also depend on signals mediated by the anaphylatoxin C3a receptor (C3aR). Importantly, and like in CD46-deficient patients, whilst Th1 induction are impaired in C3-deficient patients in vitro, their Th2 responses are unaffected. Furthermore, C3-deficient CD4(+) T cells present with reduced expression of CD25 and CD122, further substantiating the growing notion that complement fragments regulate interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) assembly and that disturbance of complement-guided IL-2R assembly contributes to aberrant Th1 effector responses. Lastly, sustained intrinsic production of complement fragments may participate in the Th1 contraction phase as both C3a and CD46 engagement regulate IL-10 co-expression in Th1 cells. These data suggest that C3aR and CD46 activation via intrinsic generation of their respective ligands is an integral part of human Th1 (but not Th2) immunity. PMID:24321396

  7. Complement activation during OKT3 treatment: a possible explanation for respiratory side effects.

    PubMed

    Raasveld, M H; Bemelman, F J; Schellekens, P T; van Diepen, F N; van Dongen, A; van Royen, E A; Hack, C E; ten Berge, I J

    1993-05-01

    Respiratory side effects that sometimes occur during treatment with anti-CD3 MAb OKT3 might result from pulmonary sequestration of activated neutrophils. Therefore, we studied complement activation in relation to activation and pulmonary sequestration of neutrophils during antirejection treatment with OKT3. In each of nine patients studied, plasma C3a-desarg and C4b/c levels increased compared with pretreatment values already in the first sample taken 15 minutes after the first dose of OKT3 (P < 0.05), with peak values at 15 and 30 minutes, respectively. Levels of neutrophil degranulation product elastase (complexed to alpha 1-antitrypsin) also increased already at 15 minutes after the first dose of OKT3 (P < 0.05), which is before elevated levels of the cytokines TNF alpha, IL-6 or IL-8 were detectable. In contrast, upon subsequent OKT3 administrations or in the control group treated with methylprednisolone, neither complement activation, cytokine release nor neutrophil degranulation occurred. In five studied patients treated with OKT3, pulmonary sequestration of radiolabeled granulocytes was observed from 3 until 15 minutes after the first dose of OKT3, together with peripheral blood granulocytopenia, which lasted at least 30 minutes. In conclusion, we demonstrate a simultaneous activation of complement and pulmonary sequestration of activated granulocytes immediately following the first dose of OKT3. These phenomena may be involved in the development of respiratory side effects complicating this therapy.

  8. Intracellular Complement Activation Sustains T Cell Homeostasis and Mediates Effector Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Liszewski, M. Kathryn; Kolev, Martin; Le Friec, Gaelle; Leung, Marilyn; Bertram, Paula G.; Fara, Antonella F.; Subias, Marta; Pickering, Matthew C.; Drouet, Christian; Meri, Seppo; Arstila, T. Petteri; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Ma, Margaret; Cope, Andrew; Reinheckel, Thomas; Rodriguez de Cordoba, Santiago; Afzali, Behdad; Atkinson, John P.; Kemper, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Summary Complement is viewed as a critical serum-operative component of innate immunity, with processing of its key component, C3, into activation fragments C3a and C3b confined to the extracellular space. We report here that C3 activation also occurred intracellularly. We found that the T cell-expressed protease cathepsin L (CTSL) processed C3 into biologically active C3a and C3b. Resting T cells contained stores of endosomal and lysosomal C3 and CTSL and substantial amounts of CTSL-generated C3a. While “tonic” intracellular C3a generation was required for homeostatic T cell survival, shuttling of this intracellular C3-activation-system to the cell surface upon T cell stimulation induced autocrine proinflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, T cells from patients with autoimmune arthritis demonstrated hyperactive intracellular complement activation and interferon-γ production and CTSL inhibition corrected this deregulated phenotype. Importantly, intracellular C3a was observed in all examined cell populations, suggesting that intracellular complement activation might be of broad physiological significance. PMID:24315997

  9. Intracellular complement activation sustains T cell homeostasis and mediates effector differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liszewski, M Kathryn; Kolev, Martin; Le Friec, Gaelle; Leung, Marilyn; Bertram, Paula G; Fara, Antonella F; Subias, Marta; Pickering, Matthew C; Drouet, Christian; Meri, Seppo; Arstila, T Petteri; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T; Ma, Margaret; Cope, Andrew; Reinheckel, Thomas; Rodriguez de Cordoba, Santiago; Afzali, Behdad; Atkinson, John P; Kemper, Claudia

    2013-12-12

    Complement is viewed as a critical serum-operative component of innate immunity, with processing of its key component, C3, into activation fragments C3a and C3b confined to the extracellular space. We report here that C3 activation also occurred intracellularly. We found that the T cell-expressed protease cathepsin L (CTSL) processed C3 into biologically active C3a and C3b. Resting T cells contained stores of endosomal and lysosomal C3 and CTSL and substantial amounts of CTSL-generated C3a. While "tonic" intracellular C3a generation was required for homeostatic T cell survival, shuttling of this intracellular C3-activation-system to the cell surface upon T cell stimulation induced autocrine proinflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, T cells from patients with autoimmune arthritis demonstrated hyperactive intracellular complement activation and interferon-γ production and CTSL inhibition corrected this deregulated phenotype. Importantly, intracellular C3a was observed in all examined cell populations, suggesting that intracellular complement activation might be of broad physiological significance. PMID:24315997

  10. Induction of human complement activation without cytolysis by mouse monoclonal antibodies to human leukocyte antigens.

    PubMed

    Sugita, K; Majdic, O; Stockinger, H; Holter, W; Burger, R; Knapp, W

    1987-04-01

    Ten monoclonal antibodies to human leukocyte subsets that had previously been shown to lyse their respective target cells in the presence of rabbit serum as complement source were evaluated for their cytolytic capacity with human complement. Four of the ten were lytic with human complement. All were of IgM type. Antibodies were also evaluated for their capacity to induce C3 binding to target cells. With this method we could demonstrate that, indeed, 3 of the 6 noncytolytic antibodies had the capacity to initiate the human complement activation process and to induce C3 binding. Two of these 3 antibodies were of IgM class (VIT3 and VIM13), one of IgG3 (562). From the practical point of view the most interesting of these 3 antibodies is the nonmitogenic anti-CD3 pan-T cell antibody VIT3. Therefore, this antibody was analyzed in more detail. VIT3 antibody concentrations needed to induce detectable C3 binding to human T cells are very low (down to 1 ng VIT3/ml). Human serum as complement source can also be considerably (100X) diluted before C3 binding becomes undetectable. Activation of C3 is a prerequesite for VIT3-induced C3 binding, and bound C3 seems to lack the C3a fragment. Bound C3, in contrast to the quickly occuring antigenic modulation of the CD3 complex and the simultaneous disappearance of the antibody coat, remains expressed also after prolonged incubation at 37 degrees C. C3 fragments bound to T cells after activation with VIT3 are also recognized by cells bearing C3 receptors of types CR1 and CR2. PMID:3576673

  11. Progranulin Deficiency Promotes Circuit-Specific Synaptic Pruning by Microglia via Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Lui, Hansen; Zhang, Jiasheng; Makinson, Stefanie R; Cahill, Michelle K; Kelley, Kevin W; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Shang, Yulei; Oldham, Michael C; Martens, Lauren Herl; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Sloan, Steven A; Hsieh, Christine L; Kim, Charles C; Bigio, Eileen H; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Rademakers, Rosa; Mackenzie, Ian R; Seeley, William W; Karydas, Anna; Miller, Bruce L; Borroni, Barbara; Ghidoni, Roberta; Farese, Robert V; Paz, Jeanne T; Barres, Ben A; Huang, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Microglia maintain homeostasis in the brain, but whether aberrant microglial activation can cause neurodegeneration remains controversial. Here, we use transcriptome profiling to demonstrate that deficiency in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) gene progranulin (Grn) leads to an age-dependent, progressive upregulation of lysosomal and innate immunity genes, increased complement production, and enhanced synaptic pruning in microglia. During aging, Grn(-/-) mice show profound microglia infiltration and preferential elimination of inhibitory synapses in the ventral thalamus, which lead to hyperexcitability in the thalamocortical circuits and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like grooming behaviors. Remarkably, deleting C1qa gene significantly reduces synaptic pruning by Grn(-/-) microglia and mitigates neurodegeneration, behavioral phenotypes, and premature mortality in Grn(-/-) mice. Together, our results uncover a previously unrecognized role of progranulin in suppressing aberrant microglia activation during aging. These results represent an important conceptual advance that complement activation and microglia-mediated synaptic pruning are major drivers, rather than consequences, of neurodegeneration caused by progranulin deficiency.

  12. In vitro activation of complement and contact system by lactic acidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, J; Emeis, M; Strauss, E; Obladen, M

    1998-01-01

    The activation of complement and contact systems occurs in reperfusion injuries with initial tissue hypoxia, and lactic acidosis such as mycardial infarction and birth asphyxia. The aim of our experiment was the formal proof of activation by sole lactic acidosis. Lactic acid was added to blood and plasma samples from 10 healthy volunteers. C5a and factor XIIa were measured by EIA after incubation at 37 degrees C for 1 h. Both concentrations increased (P < 0.0001 by Friedman analysis) in blood and plasma samples with increasing amount of added lactic acid. Lactic acidosis can activate C5 from the complement system and factor XII from the contact system directly, even in the absence of cellular components. PMID:9839699

  13. Progranulin Deficiency Promotes Circuit-Specific Synaptic Pruning by Microglia via Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Lui, Hansen; Zhang, Jiasheng; Makinson, Stefanie R; Cahill, Michelle K; Kelley, Kevin W; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Shang, Yulei; Oldham, Michael C; Martens, Lauren Herl; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Sloan, Steven A; Hsieh, Christine L; Kim, Charles C; Bigio, Eileen H; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Rademakers, Rosa; Mackenzie, Ian R; Seeley, William W; Karydas, Anna; Miller, Bruce L; Borroni, Barbara; Ghidoni, Roberta; Farese, Robert V; Paz, Jeanne T; Barres, Ben A; Huang, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Microglia maintain homeostasis in the brain, but whether aberrant microglial activation can cause neurodegeneration remains controversial. Here, we use transcriptome profiling to demonstrate that deficiency in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) gene progranulin (Grn) leads to an age-dependent, progressive upregulation of lysosomal and innate immunity genes, increased complement production, and enhanced synaptic pruning in microglia. During aging, Grn(-/-) mice show profound microglia infiltration and preferential elimination of inhibitory synapses in the ventral thalamus, which lead to hyperexcitability in the thalamocortical circuits and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like grooming behaviors. Remarkably, deleting C1qa gene significantly reduces synaptic pruning by Grn(-/-) microglia and mitigates neurodegeneration, behavioral phenotypes, and premature mortality in Grn(-/-) mice. Together, our results uncover a previously unrecognized role of progranulin in suppressing aberrant microglia activation during aging. These results represent an important conceptual advance that complement activation and microglia-mediated synaptic pruning are major drivers, rather than consequences, of neurodegeneration caused by progranulin deficiency. PMID:27114033

  14. Complement activation by in vivo neonatal and in vitro extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed Central

    Graulich, Johannes; Sonntag, Joseph; Marcinkowski, Monika; Bauer, Karl; Kössel, Hans; Bührer, Christoph; Obladen, Michael; Versmold, Hans T

    2002-01-01

    Complment activation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in newborns can be caused by both the underlying disease processes and by blood contact with the ECMO circuit. We investigated the relative importance of these mechanisms by measuring C3a, C5a and sC5b-9 before, during and after neonatal ECMO in six consecutive newborn patients using enzyme-linked immunoassay. In addition complement activation during in vitro ECMO with repeated flow of the same blood volume was measured using blood from healthy adult donors. C3a increased significantly in vivo after 1 h (from 1035+/-193 to 1865+/-419 microg/l) and in vitro ECMO (from 314+/-75 to 1962+/-1062 microg/l). C5a increased during ECMO without significant differences between in vivo and in vitro activation. In neonatal patients, sC5b-9 rose faster than in vitro, but the rapid increase was also significant for in vitro experiments (in vivo: from 328+/-63 to 1623+/-387 microg/l after 2 h; and in vitro: from 78+/-32 to 453+/-179 microg/l after 8 h). After this initial peak at 1-2 h, complement activation decreased gradually until 2-3 days after the initiation of ECMO. We conclude that in newborns the rapid activation of the complement system after the start of ECMO is predominantly caused by contact with artificial surfaces rather than the patient's underlying disease. PMID:12061426

  15. The Carbohydrate-linked Phosphorylcholine of the Parasitic Nematode Product ES-62 Modulates Complement Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Umul Kulthum; Maller, N. Claire; Iqbal, Asif J.; Al-Riyami, Lamyaa; Harnett, William; Raynes, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes manufacture various carbohydrate-linked phosphorylcholine (PCh)-containing molecules, including ES-62, a protein with an N-linked glycan terminally substituted with PCh. The PCh component is biologically important because it is required for immunomodulatory effects. We showed that most ES-62 was bound to a single protein, C-reactive protein (CRP), in normal human serum, displaying a calcium-dependent, high-avidity interaction and ability to form large complexes. Unexpectedly, CRP binding to ES-62 failed to efficiently activate complement as far as the C3 convertase stage in comparison with PCh-BSA and PCh-containing Streptococcus pneumoniae cell wall polysaccharide. C1q capture assays demonstrated an ES-62-CRP-C1q interaction in serum. The three ligands all activated C1 and generated C4b to similar extents. However, a C2a active site was not generated following ES-62 binding to CRP, demonstrating that C2 cleavage was far less efficient for ES-62-containing complexes. We proposed that failure of C2 cleavage was due to the flexible nature of carbohydrate-bound PCh and that reduced proximity of the C1 complex was the reason that C2 was poorly cleaved. This was confirmed using synthetic analogues that were similar to ES-62 only in respect of having a flexible PCh. Furthermore, ES-62 was shown to deplete early complement components, such as the rate-limiting C4, following CRP interaction and thereby inhibit classical pathway activation. Thus, flexible PCh-glycan represents a novel mechanism for subversion of complement activation. These data illustrate the importance of the rate-limiting C4/C2 stage of complement activation and reveal a new addition to the repertoire of ES-62 immunomodulatory mechanisms with possible therapeutic applications. PMID:27044740

  16. Effect of functionalization of carbon nanotubes with psychosine on complement activation and protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Rybak-Smith, Malgorzata J; Tripisciano, Carla; Borowiak-Palen, Ewa; Lamprecht, Constanze; Sim, Robert B

    2011-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes possess interesting physicochemical properties which make them potentially usable in medicine. Single-walled carbon nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, for example, may carry and deliver anticancer drugs, such as cisplatin. Magnetic nanoparticles, like iron filled MWCNT, can be used in hyperthermia therapy. However, their hydrophobic character is a major difficulty, as preparation of stable dispersions of carbon nanotubes in biological buffers is an essential step towards biomedical applications. Recently, a novel treatment using the glycolipid, Galactosyl-beta1-sphingosine (psychosine), was employed to make stable suspensions of psychosine-functionalized carbon nanotubes in biological buffers. In this paper, the interactions of psychosine-functionalized carbon nanotubes with a part of the human immune system, complement, is presented. To investigate if human serum complement proteins can interact with psychosine-functionalized carbon nanotubes, complement consumption (depletion) assays were conducted. Moreover, direct protein binding studies, to analyze the interaction of plasma proteins with the psychosine-functionalized carbon nanotubes, using affinity chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques, were applied. The psychosine-functionalized carbon nanotubes activate human complement via the classical pathway. Interestingly, as the hydrophilic part of the glycolipid may bind to ficolins, the lectin pathway could also be involved. Binding of human plasma proteins is very selective as only very few proteins adsorb to the psychosine-functionalized carbon nanotube surface, when placed in contact with human plasma. Bovine serum albumin-coated carbon nanotubes were used as a standard to find the differences in complement activation and protein adsorption patterns, caused by various non-covalent coatings of carbon nanotubes.

  17. Impaired NK Cell Activation and Chemotaxis toward Dendritic Cells Exposed to Complement-Opsonized HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Ellegård, Rada; Crisci, Elisa; Andersson, Jonas; Shankar, Esaki M.; Nyström, Sofia; Hinkula, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    Mucosa resident dendritic cells (DCs) may represent one of the first immune cells that HIV-1 encounters during sexual transmission. The virions in body fluids can be opsonized with complement factors because of HIV-mediated triggering of the complement cascade, and this appears to influence numerous aspects of the immune defense targeting the virus. One key attribute of host defense is the ability to attract immune cells to the site of infection. In this study, we investigated whether the opsonization of HIV with complement (C-HIV) or a mixture of complement and Abs (CI-HIV) affected the cytokine and chemokine responses generated by DCs, as well as their ability to attract other immune cells. We found that the expression levels of CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL3, and CCL17 were lowered after exposure to either C-HIV or CI-HIV relative to free HIV (F-HIV). DCs exposed to F-HIV induced higher cell migration, consisting mainly of NK cells, compared with opsonized virus, and the chemotaxis of NK cells was dependent on CCL3 and CXCL10. NK cell exposure to supernatants derived from HIV-exposed DCs showed that F-HIV induced phenotypic activation (e.g., increased levels of TIM3, CD69, and CD25) and effector function (e.g., production of IFNγ and killing of target cells) in NK cells, whereas C-HIV and CI-HIV did not. The impairment of NK cell recruitment by DCs exposed to complement-opsonized HIV and the lack of NK activation may contribute to the failure of innate immune responses to control HIV at the site of initial mucosa infection. PMID:26157174

  18. Impaired NK Cell Activation and Chemotaxis toward Dendritic Cells Exposed to Complement-Opsonized HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Ellegård, Rada; Crisci, Elisa; Andersson, Jonas; Shankar, Esaki M; Nyström, Sofia; Hinkula, Jorma; Larsson, Marie

    2015-08-15

    Mucosa resident dendritic cells (DCs) may represent one of the first immune cells that HIV-1 encounters during sexual transmission. The virions in body fluids can be opsonized with complement factors because of HIV-mediated triggering of the complement cascade, and this appears to influence numerous aspects of the immune defense targeting the virus. One key attribute of host defense is the ability to attract immune cells to the site of infection. In this study, we investigated whether the opsonization of HIV with complement (C-HIV) or a mixture of complement and Abs (CI-HIV) affected the cytokine and chemokine responses generated by DCs, as well as their ability to attract other immune cells. We found that the expression levels of CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL3, and CCL17 were lowered after exposure to either C-HIV or CI-HIV relative to free HIV (F-HIV). DCs exposed to F-HIV induced higher cell migration, consisting mainly of NK cells, compared with opsonized virus, and the chemotaxis of NK cells was dependent on CCL3 and CXCL10. NK cell exposure to supernatants derived from HIV-exposed DCs showed that F-HIV induced phenotypic activation (e.g., increased levels of TIM3, CD69, and CD25) and effector function (e.g., production of IFNγ and killing of target cells) in NK cells, whereas C-HIV and CI-HIV did not. The impairment of NK cell recruitment by DCs exposed to complement-opsonized HIV and the lack of NK activation may contribute to the failure of innate immune responses to control HIV at the site of initial mucosa infection. PMID:26157174

  19. Complement receptor activity of recombinant porcine CR1-like protein expressed in a eukaryotic system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Wei, Xiaoming; Jiang, Junbing; Fan, Kuohai; Zhao, Junxing; Sun, Na; Wang, Zhiwei; Sun, Yaogui; Ma, Haili; Zhao, Xin; Li, Hongquan

    2016-08-01

    Primate complement receptor type 1 (CR1) protein, a single-chain transmembrane glycoprotein, plays an important role in immune adherence and clearing complement-opsonized immune complexes. Here, the mRNA of the porcine primate-like complement receptor (CR1-like) gene was analyzed, and two domain sequences with potential functions were cloned into the pwPICZalpha vector for expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant proteins were purified with both Protein Pure Ni-NTA resin and strong anion exchange resin. The activities of the purified recombinant proteins were evaluated by SDS-PAGE, western blotting, and complement receptor assays. The results indicated that two domains of the CR1-like protein, CCP36 and CCP811 with molecular weights of 29.8 kDa and 30 kDa, respectively, were successfully expressed in P. pastoris. These two recombinant proteins possess some of the functions of the primate CR1 protein. Using these two proteins coupled with an antibody blocking technique, we also showed that CR1-like is expressed on natural porcine erythrocytes. PMID:26903010

  20. Inhibition of classical complement activation attenuates liver ischaemia and reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, B H M; Straatsburg, I H; Padilla, N D; Van Mierlo, G J; Hack, C E; Van Gulik, T M

    2006-01-01

    Activation of the complement system contributes to the pathogenesis of ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We evaluated inhibition of the classical pathway of complement using C1-inhibitor (C1-inh) in a model of 70% partial liver I/R injury in male Wistar rats (n = 35). C1-inh was administered at 100, 200 or 400 IU/kg bodyweight, 5 min before 60 min ischaemia (pre-I) or 5 min before 24 h reperfusion (end-I). One hundred IU/kg bodyweight significantly reduced the increase of plasma levels of activated C4 as compared to albumin-treated control rats and attenuated the increase of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). These effects were not better with higher doses of C1-inh. Administration of C1-inh pre-I resulted in lower ALT levels and higher bile secretion after 24 h of reperfusion than administration at end-I. Immunohistochemical assessment indicated that activated C3, the membrane attack complex C5b9 and C-reactive protein (CRP) colocalized in hepatocytes within midzonal areas, suggesting CRP is a mediator of I/R-induced, classical complement activation in rats. Pre-ischaemic administration of C1-inh is an effective pharmacological intervention to protect against liver I/R injury.

  1. Complement C1q-induced activation of β-catenin signalling causes hypertensive arterial remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Tomokazu; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Nomura, Seitaro; Nakagawa, Akito; Higo, Tomoaki; Hashimoto, Akihito; Okada, Katsuki; Sakai, Taku; Ito, Masamichi; Yamaguchi, Toshihiro; Oka, Toru; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Lee, Jong-Kook; Minamino, Tohru; Offermanns, Stefan; Noda, Tetsuo; Botto, Marina; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Morita, Hiroyuki; Manabe, Ichiro; Nagai, Toshio; Shiojima, Ichiro; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension induces structural remodelling of arteries, which leads to arteriosclerosis and end-organ damage. Hyperplasia of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and infiltration of immune cells are the hallmark of hypertensive arterial remodelling. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of arterial remodelling remain elusive. We have recently reported that complement C1q activates β-catenin signalling independent of Wnts. Here, we show a critical role of complement C1-induced activation of β-catenin signalling in hypertensive arterial remodelling. Activation of β-catenin and proliferation of VSMCs were observed after blood-pressure elevation, which were prevented by genetic and chemical inhibition of β-catenin signalling. Macrophage depletion and C1qa gene deletion attenuated the hypertension-induced β-catenin signalling, proliferation of VSMCs and pathological arterial remodelling. Our findings unveil the link between complement C1 and arterial remodelling and suggest that C1-induced activation of β-catenin signalling becomes a novel therapeutic target to prevent arteriosclerosis in patients with hypertension. PMID:25716000

  2. Activation and control of complement, inflammation, and infection associated with the use of biomedical polymers.

    PubMed

    Janatova, J

    2000-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that artificial biomaterials are much less immunologically active than transplants or tissue derived biomaterials. However, activation of both the coagulation cascade and the complement system is a common occurrence when human blood is exposed to biomaterial surfaces during extracorporeal procedures, such as renal hemodialysis or cardiopulmonary bypass. Both individual and collective activation of these cascades often produce local and systemic effects. A number of complement activation products function as the mediators of inflammation. They serve as ligands for specific receptors on polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and other cells. Such an interaction leads to induction of cellular responses in adhered cells, including release of oxidative products, lysosomal enzymes, or both, which often contribute to a number of pathologic conditions. Most pathogens invading the human body are attacked by the immune system directly following entry, especially when they are in contact with blood. However, bacteria and parasites have developed a large number of specific strategies to overcome immune defense among others by avoiding either recognition or eradication by complement. In this aspect, of concern are several microorganisms responsible for formation of antibiotic resistant biofilms on biomaterial surfaces, namely Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  3. Detection of complement activation using monoclonal antibodies against C3d

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Joshua M.; Kulik, Liudmila; Orth, Heather; Wong, Maria; Renner, Brandon; Sargsyan, Siranush A.; Mitchell, Lynne M.; Hourcade, Dennis E.; Hannan, Jonathan P.; Kovacs, James M.; Coughlin, Beth; Woodell, Alex S.; Pickering, Matthew C.; Rohrer, Bärbel; Holers, V. Michael

    2013-01-01

    During complement activation the C3 protein is cleaved, and C3 activation fragments are covalently fixed to tissues. Tissue-bound C3 fragments are a durable biomarker of tissue inflammation, and these fragments have been exploited as addressable binding ligands for targeted therapeutics and diagnostic agents. We have generated cross-reactive murine monoclonal antibodies against human and mouse C3d, the final C3 degradation fragment generated during complement activation. We developed 3 monoclonal antibodies (3d8b, 3d9a, and 3d29) that preferentially bind to the iC3b, C3dg, and C3d fragments in solution, but do not bind to intact C3 or C3b. The same 3 clones also bind to tissue-bound C3 activation fragments when injected systemically. Using mouse models of renal and ocular disease, we confirmed that, following systemic injection, the antibodies accumulated at sites of C3 fragment deposition within the glomerulus, the renal tubulointerstitium, and the posterior pole of the eye. To detect antibodies bound within the eye, we used optical imaging and observed accumulation of the antibodies within retinal lesions in a model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Our results demonstrate that imaging methods that use these antibodies may provide a sensitive means of detecting and monitoring complement activation–associated tissue inflammation. PMID:23619360

  4. An Anti-C1s Monoclonal, TNT003, Inhibits Complement Activation Induced by Antibodies Against HLA.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K A; Valenzuela, N M; Gjertson, D; Mulder, A; Fishbein, M C; Parry, G C; Panicker, S; Reed, E F

    2015-08-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of solid organ transplants (SOT) is characterized by damage triggered by donor-specific antibodies (DSA) binding donor Class I and II HLA (HLA-I and HLA-II) expressed on endothelial cells. While F(ab')2 portions of DSA cause cellular activation and proliferation, Fc regions activate the classical complement cascade, resulting in complement deposition and leukocyte recruitment, both hallmark features of AMR. We characterized the ability of an anti-C1s monoclonal antibody, TNT003, to inhibit HLA antibody (HLA-Ab)-induced complement activation. Complement deposition induced by HLA-Ab was evaluated using novel cell- and bead-based assays. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were cultured with HLA-Ab and human complement; production of activated complement proteins was measured by flow cytometry. Additionally, C3d deposition was measured on single antigen beads (SAB) mixed with HLA-Ab and human complement. TNT003 inhibited HLA-Ab mediated complement deposition on HAEC in a concentration-dependent manner; C3a, C4a and C5a anaphylatoxin production was also diminished by TNT003. Finally, TNT003 blocked C3d deposition induced by Class I (HLAI-Ab)- and Class II (HLAII-Ab)-specific antibodies on SAB. These data suggest TNT003 may be useful for modulating the effects of DSA, as TNT003 inhibits complement deposition and split product formation generated by HLA-I/II-Ab in vitro. PMID:25904443

  5. An Anti-C1s Monoclonal, TNT003, Inhibits Complement Activation Induced by Antibodies Against HLA

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, K A; Valenzuela, N M; Gjertson, D; Mulder, A; Fishbein, M C; Parry, G C; Panicker, S; Reed, E F

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of solid organ transplants (SOT) is characterized by damage triggered by donor-specific antibodies (DSA) binding donor Class I and II HLA (HLA-I and HLA-II) expressed on endothelial cells. While F(ab′)2 portions of DSA cause cellular activation and proliferation, Fc regions activate the classical complement cascade, resulting in complement deposition and leukocyte recruitment, both hallmark features of AMR. We characterized the ability of an anti-C1s monoclonal antibody, TNT003, to inhibit HLA antibody (HLA-Ab)-induced complement activation. Complement deposition induced by HLA-Ab was evaluated using novel cell- and bead-based assays. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were cultured with HLA-Ab and human complement; production of activated complement proteins was measured by flow cytometry. Additionally, C3d deposition was measured on single antigen beads (SAB) mixed with HLA-Ab and human complement. TNT003 inhibited HLA-Ab mediated complement deposition on HAEC in a concentration-dependent manner; C3a, C4a and C5a anaphylatoxin production was also diminished by TNT003. Finally, TNT003 blocked C3d deposition induced by Class I (HLAI-Ab)- and Class II (HLAII-Ab)-specific antibodies on SAB. These data suggest TNT003 may be useful for modulating the effects of DSA, as TNT003 inhibits complement deposition and split product formation generated by HLA-I/II-Ab in vitro. PMID:25904443

  6. Structural transitions of complement component C3 and its activation products

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Noritaka; Walz, Thomas; Springer, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    Complement sensitizes pathogens for phagocytosis and lysis. We use electron microscopy to examine the structural transitions in the activation of the pivotal protein in the complement pathway, C3. In the cleavage product C3b, the position of the thioester domain moves ≈100 Å, which becomes covalently coupled to antigenic surfaces. In the iC3b fragment, cleavage in an intervening domain creates a long flexible linker between the thioester domain and the macroglobulin domain ring of C3. Studies on two products of nucleophile addition to C3 reveal a structural intermediate in activation, and a final product, in which the anaphylatoxin domain has undergone a remarkable movement through the macroglobulin ring. PMID:17172439

  7. The role and regulation of complement activation as part of the thromboinflammation elicited in cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Bo; Teramura, Yuji; Ekdahl, Kristina N

    2014-10-01

    Cell therapies in which the cells come into direct contact with blood and other body fluids are emerging treatment procedures for patients with various diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, liver insufficiency, and graft-versus-host disease. However, despite recent progress, these procedures are associated with tissue loss caused by thromboinflammatory reactions. These deleterious reactions involve the activation of the complement and coagulation cascades and platelet and leukocyte activation, ultimately resulting in clot formation and damage to the implanted cells. In this concept review, we discuss the basic mechanisms underlying the thrombininflammatory process, with special reference to the engagement of complement and emerging strategies for the therapeutic regulation of these reactions that include the use of selective systemic inhibitors and various procedures to coat the surfaces of the cells. The coating procedures may also be applied to other treatment modalities in which similar mechanisms are involved, including whole organ transplantation, treatment with biomaterials in contact with blood, and extracorporeal procedures.

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin inhibits the complement lectin pathway activation by direct interaction with L-Ficolin.

    PubMed

    Sosoniuk, Eduardo; Vallejos, Gerardo; Kenawy, Hany; Gaboriaud, Christine; Thielens, Nicole; Fujita, Teizo; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Ferreira, Arturo; Valck, Carolina

    2014-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, the sixth neglected tropical disease worldwide, infects 10-12 million people in Latin America. Differently from T. cruzi epimastigotes, trypomastigotes are complement-resistant and infective. CRPs, T-DAF, sialic acid and lipases explain at least part of this resistance. In vitro, T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a chaperone molecule that translocates from the ER to the parasite surface: (a) Inhibits the human classical complement activation, by interacting with C1, (b) As a consequence, an increase in infectivity is evident and, (c) It inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. We report here that TcCRT also binds to the L-Ficolin collagenous portion, thus inhibiting approximately between 35 and 64% of the human complement lectin pathway activation, initiated by L-Ficolin, a property not shared by H-Ficolin. While L-Ficolin binds to 60% of trypomastigotes and to 24% of epimastigotes, 50% of the former and 4% of the latter display TcCRT on their surfaces. Altogether, these data indicate that TcCRT is a parasite inhibitory receptor for Ficolins. The resulting evasive activities, together with the TcCRT capacity to inhibit C1, with a concomitant increase in infectivity, may represent T. cruzi strategies to inhibit important arms of the innate immune response.

  9. Complement factor H modulates the activation of human neutrophil granulocytes and the generation of neutrophil extracellular traps.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Andrea E; Sándor, Noémi; Kárpáti, Éva; Józsi, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    Factor H (FH) is a major inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement activation in plasma and on certain host surfaces. In addition to being a complement regulator, FH can bind to various cells via specific receptors, including binding to neutrophil granulocytes through complement receptor type 3 (CR3; CD11b/CD18), and modulate their function. The cellular roles of FH are, however, poorly understood. Because neutrophils are important innate immune cells in inflammatory processes and the host defense against pathogens, we aimed at studying the effects of FH on various neutrophil functions, including the generation of extracellular traps. FH co-localized with CD11b on the surface of neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood of healthy individuals, and cell-bound FH retained its cofactor activity and enhanced C3b degradation. Soluble FH supported neutrophil migration and immobilized FH induced cell spreading. In addition, immobilized but not soluble FH enhanced IL-8 release from neutrophils. FH alone did not trigger the cells to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), but NET formation induced by PMA and by fibronectin plus fungal β-glucan were inhibited by immobilized, but not by soluble, FH. Moreover, in parallel with NET formation, immobilized FH also inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species induced by PMA and by fibronectin plus β-glucan. Altogether, these data indicate that FH has multiple regulatory roles on neutrophil functions. While it can support the recruitment of neutrophils, FH may also exert anti-inflammatory effects and influence local inflammatory and antimicrobial reactions, and reduce tissue damage by modulating NET formation. PMID:26938503

  10. Role of complement in experiment silicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Callis, A.H.; Sohnle, P.G.; Mandel, G.S.; Mandel, N.S.

    1986-08-01

    The role of the complement system in the pathogenesis of crystal-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was evaluated using a mouse model of silicosis and congenitally complement-deficient mice. Mice lacking the fifth component of complement (B10.D2/o) were compared to C5-sufficient animals (B10.D2/n) for pulmonary changes following intratracheal instillation of silica crystals. Complement-deficient mice demonstrated a significant reduction compared to complement-sufficient mice in both cell number and protein content of lung lavage fluid throughout the 12 weeks following silica exposure. Lung hydroxyproline content (indicative of collagen deposition) was equivalent for both strains and significantly higher than controls at all times points following silica instillation. Moreover, studies in vitro have shown that silica crystals are capable of activating complement via the alternative pathway. These studies indicate that the complement system may be responsible for some of the pulmonary inflammation, but not fibrosis elicited by silica exposure.

  11. Human C3 mutation reveals a mechanism of dense deposit disease pathogenesis and provides insights into complement activation and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Barricarte, Rubén; Heurich, Meike; Valdes-Cañedo, Francisco; Vazquez-Martul, Eduardo; Torreira, Eva; Montes, Tamara; Tortajada, Agustín; Pinto, Sheila; Lopez-Trascasa, Margarita; Morgan, B. Paul; Llorca, Oscar; Harris, Claire L.; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Dense deposit disease (DDD) is a severe renal disease characterized by accumulation of electron-dense material in the mesangium and glomerular basement membrane. Previously, DDD has been associated with deficiency of factor H (fH), a plasma regulator of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement activation, and studies in animal models have linked pathogenesis to the massive complement factor 3 (C3) activation caused by this deficiency. Here, we identified a unique DDD pedigree that associates disease with a mutation in the C3 gene. Mutant C3923ΔDG, which lacks 2 amino acids, could not be cleaved to C3b by the AP C3-convertase and was therefore the predominant circulating C3 protein in the patients. However, upon activation to C3b by proteases, or to C3(H2O) by spontaneous thioester hydrolysis, C3923ΔDG generated an active AP C3-convertase that was regulated normally by decay accelerating factor (DAF) but was resistant to decay by fH. Moreover, activated C3b923ΔDG and C3(H2O)923ΔDG were resistant to proteolysis by factor I (fI) in the presence of fH, but were efficiently inactivated in the presence of membrane cofactor protein (MCP). These characteristics cause a fluid phase–restricted AP dysregulation in the patients that continuously activated and consumed C3 produced by the normal C3 allele. These findings expose structural requirements in C3 that are critical for recognition of the substrate C3 by the AP C3-convertase and for the regulatory activities of fH, DAF, and MCP, all of which have implications for therapeutic developments. PMID:20852386

  12. A Novel Complotype Combination Associates with Age-Related Macular Degeneration and High Complement Activation Levels in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Paun, Constantin C.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; Groenewoud, Joannes M. M.; Altay, Lebriz; Schick, Tina; Daha, Mohamed R.; Fauser, Sascha; Hoyng, Carel B.; den Hollander, Anneke I.; de Jong, Eiko K.

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is the first line of defense against foreign intruders, and deregulation of this system has been described in multiple diseases. In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), patients have higher complement activation levels compared to controls. Recently, a combination of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the complement system, referred to as a complotype, has been described to increase complement activation in vitro. Here we describe a novel complotype composed of CFB (rs4151667)-CFB (rs641153)-CFH (rs800292), which is strongly associated with both AMD disease status (p = 5.84*10−13) and complement activation levels in vivo (p = 8.31*10−9). The most frequent genotype combination of this complotype was associated with the highest complement activation levels in both patients and controls. These findings are relevant in the context of complement-lowering treatments for AMD that are currently under development. Patients with a genetic predisposition to higher complement activation levels will potentially benefit the most of such treatments. PMID:27241480

  13. A novel antibody against human factor B that blocks formation of the C3bB proconvertase and inhibits complement activation in disease models.

    PubMed

    Subías, Marta; Tortajada, Agustín; Gastoldi, Sara; Galbusera, Miriam; López-Perrote, Andrés; Lopez, Lucia de Juana; González-Fernández, Fernando Ataúlfo; Villegas-Martínez, Ana; Dominguez, Mercedes; Llorca, Oscar; Noris, Marina; Morgan, B Paul; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2014-12-01

    The alternative pathway (AP) is critical for the efficient activation of complement regardless of the trigger. It is also a major player in pathogenesis, as illustrated by the long list of diseases in which AP activation contributes to pathology. Its relevance to human disease is further emphasized by the high prevalence of pathogenic inherited defects and acquired autoantibodies disrupting components and regulators of the AP C3-convertase. Because pharmacological downmodulation of the AP emerges as a broad-spectrum treatment alternative, there is a powerful interest in developing new molecules to block formation and/or activity of the AP C3-convertase. In this paper, we describe the generation of a novel mAb targeting human factor B (FB). mAb FB48.4.2, recognizing with high affinity an evolutionary-conserved epitope in the Ba fragment of FB, very efficiently inhibited formation of the AP C3-proconvertase by blocking the interaction between FB and C3b. In vitro assays using rabbit and sheep erythrocytes demonstrated that FB28.4.2 was a potent AP inhibitor that blocked complement-mediated hemolysis in several species. Using ex vivo models of disease we demonstrated that FB28.4.2 protected paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria erythrocytes from complement-mediated hemolysis and inhibited both C3 fragment and C5b-9 deposition on ADP-activated HMEC-1 cells, an experimental model for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Moreover, i.v. injection of FB28.4.2 in rats blocked complement activation in rat serum and prevented the passive induction of experimental autoimmune Myasthenia gravis. As a whole, these data demonstrate the potential value of FB28.4.2 for the treatment of disorders associated with AP complement dysregulation in man and animal models.

  14. Regulators of complement activity mediate inhibitory mechanisms through a common C3b-binding mode.

    PubMed

    Forneris, Federico; Wu, Jin; Xue, Xiaoguang; Ricklin, Daniel; Lin, Zhuoer; Sfyroera, Georgia; Tzekou, Apostolia; Volokhina, Elena; Granneman, Joke Cm; Hauhart, Richard; Bertram, Paula; Liszewski, M Kathryn; Atkinson, John P; Lambris, John D; Gros, Piet

    2016-05-17

    Regulators of complement activation (RCA) inhibit complement-induced immune responses on healthy host tissues. We present crystal structures of human RCA (MCP, DAF, and CR1) and a smallpox virus homolog (SPICE) bound to complement component C3b. Our structural data reveal that up to four consecutive homologous CCP domains (i-iv), responsible for inhibition, bind in the same orientation and extended arrangement at a shared binding platform on C3b. Large sequence variations in CCP domains explain the diverse C3b-binding patterns, with limited or no contribution of some individual domains, while all regulators show extensive contacts with C3b for the domains at the third site. A variation of ~100° rotation around the longitudinal axis is observed for domains binding at the fourth site on C3b, without affecting the overall binding mode. The data suggest a common evolutionary origin for both inhibitory mechanisms, called decay acceleration and cofactor activity, with variable C3b binding through domains at sites ii, iii, and iv, and provide a framework for understanding RCA disease-related mutations and immune evasion. PMID:27013439

  15. Complement activation and choriocapillaris loss in early AMD: implications for pathophysiology and therapy.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, S Scott; Sohn, Elliott H; Chirco, Kathleen R; Drack, Arlene V; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A; Mullins, Robert F

    2015-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common and devastating disease that can result in severe visual dysfunction. Over the last decade, great progress has been made in identifying genetic variants that contribute to AMD, many of which lie in genes involved in the complement cascade. In this review we discuss the significance of complement activation in AMD, particularly with respect to the formation of the membrane attack complex in the aging choriocapillaris. We review the clinical, histological and biochemical data that indicate that vascular loss in the choroid occurs very early in the pathogenesis of AMD, and discuss the potential impact of vascular dropout on the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane and the photoreceptor cells. Finally, we present a hypothesis for the pathogenesis of early AMD and consider the implications of this model on the development of new therapies.

  16. Complement activation and choriocapillaris loss in early AMD: Implications for pathophysiology and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, S.Scott; Sohn, Elliott H.; Chirco, Kathleen R.; Drack, Arlene V.; Stone, Edwin M.; Tucker, Budd A.; Mullins, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common and devastating disease that can result in severe visual dysfunction. Over the last decade, great progress has been made in identifying genetic variants that contribute to AMD, many of which lie in genes involved in the complement cascade. In this review we discuss the significance of complement activation in AMD, particularly with respect to the formation of the membrane attack complex in the aging choriocapillaris. We review the clinical, histological and biochemical data that indicate that vascular loss in the choroid occurs very early in the pathogenesis of AMD, and discuss the potential impact of vascular dropout on the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane and the photoreceptor cells. Finally, we present a hypothesis for the pathogenesis of early AMD and consider the implications of this model on the development of new therapies. PMID:25486088

  17. Effects of two types of cobra venom factor on porcine complement activation and pulmonary artery pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, A K; Parker, C J; Wilcox, L

    1989-01-01

    Autologous porcine plasma that has been incubated with cuprophan haemodialysis membranes causes pulmonary hypertension and peripheral leucopenia following reinfusion into swine. These effects appear to be mediated by biologically active fragments of C3 and C5 that are generated as a consequence of ex vivo activation of complement. Putatively, C5a induces the leucopenia; however, the specific contributions of products of C3 and C5 activation to the pulmonary vasoconstriction have not been elucidated. In the present study, the effects of in vivo infusion of two different types of cobra venom factor (CVF) on peripheral leucocyte count and pulmonary artery pressure in the swine are reported. The CVF from Naja n. naja (CVF(TN)) was shown to activate both porcine C3 and C5, whereas the CVF from Naja h. haje (CVF(NH)) activated only C3. Both types of CVF produced pulmonary hypertension. Significant peripheral leucopenia, however, was observed only with CVF(TN). These results suggest that activation products of C3 contribute to the pulmonary hypertension but not to the peripheral leucopenia observed during haemodialysis using dialysis membranes that activate complement. PMID:12412765

  18. Complement factor I from flatfish half-smooth tongue (Cynoglossus semilaevis) exhibited anti-microbial activities.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jinsong; Li, Xihong; Chen, Yadong; Lu, Yang; Yu, Mengjun; Chen, Xuejie; Zhang, Wenting; Zeng, Yan; Sun, Luming; Chen, Songlin; Sha, Zhenxia

    2015-11-01

    Complement factor I (Cfi) is a soluble serine protease which plays a crucial role in the modulation of complement cascades. In the presence of substrate modulating cofactors (such as complement factor H, C4bp, CR1, etc), Cfi cleaves and inactivates C3b and C4b, thereby controlling the complement-mediated processes. In this study, we sequenced and characterized Cfi gene from Cynoglossus Semilaevis (designated as CsCfi) for the first time. The full-length cDNA of CsCfi was 2230 bp in length, including a 98 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 164 bp 3'-UTR and a 1968 bp open reading frame (ORF). It encoded a polypeptide of 656 amino acids, with a molecular mass of 72.28 kDa and an isoelectric point of 7.71. A signal peptide was defined at N-terminus, resulting in a 626-residue mature protein. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that Cfi proteins were well conserved with the typical modular architecture and identical active sites throughout the vertebrates, which suggested the conserved function of Cfi. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CsCfi and the homologous Cfi sequences from teleosts clustered into a clade, separating from another clade from the cartilaginous fish and other vertebrates. Tissue expression profile analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that CsCfi mRNA constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, with the predominant expression in liver and the lowest in stomach. Temporal expression levels of CsCfi after challenging with Vibrio anguillarum showed different expression patterns in intestine, spleen, skin, blood, head kidney and liver. The recombinant CsCfi (rCsCfi) protein showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shewanella putrefaciens. The research revealed that CsCfi plays an important role in C. Semilaevis immunity.

  19. Oligomerization of Mannan-binding Lectin Dictates Binding Properties and Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, T R; Jensen, L; Hansen, A; Dani, R; Jensenius, J C; Dobó, J; Gál, P; Thiel, S

    2016-07-01

    The complement system is a part of the innate immune system and is involved in recognition and clearance of pathogens and altered-self structures. The lectin pathway of the complement system is initiated when soluble pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) with collagen-like regions bind to foreign or altered self-surfaces. Associated with the collagen-like stems of these PRMs are three mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and two MBL-associated proteins (MAps). The most studied of the PRMs, MBL, is present in serum mainly as trimeric and tetrameric oligomers of the structural subunit. We hypothesized that oligomerization of MBL may influence both the potential to bind to micro organisms and the interaction with the MASPs and MAps, thus influencing the ability to initiate complement activation. When testing binding at 37 °C, we found higher binding of tetrameric MBL to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) than trimeric and dimeric MBL. In serum, we found that tetrameric MBL was the main oligomeric form present in complexes with the MASPs and MAp44. Such preference was confirmed using purified forms of recombinant MBL (rMBL) oligomers, where tetrameric rMBL interacted stronger with all of the MASPs and MAp44, compared to trimeric MBL. As a direct consequence of the weaker interaction with the MASPs, we found that trimeric rMBL was inferior to tetrameric rMBL in activating the complement system. Our data suggest that the oligomeric state of MBL is crucial both for the binding properties and the effector function of MBL.

  20. Influence of the hinge region on complement activation, C1q binding, and segmental flexibility in chimeric human immunoglobulins.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, L K; Shopes, R J; Oi, V T; Morrison, S L

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized a series of genetically engineered chimeric human IgG3 and IgG4 anti-dansyl (DNS) antibodies with identical antibody-combining sites but different hinge region amino acid compositions to determine how the hinge region influences Fab fragment segmental flexibility, C1q binding, and complement activation. Our data support the correlation between "upper hinge" length and Fab segmental flexibility; moreover, we confirm that a hinge region is essential for C1q binding and complement activation. However, the hinge length by itself is not sufficient for complement activity in IgG molecules. We have demonstrated that the IgG4 hinge, which imparts restricted segmental flexibility, reduces the ability of IgG3 molecules to activate complement. We also find that the IgG3 hinge region, which imparts greater segmental motion, is not sufficient to create complement activation activity in IgG4 anti-DNS antibodies. Finally, we conclude that (i) segmental motion is correlated with "upper hinge" length, (ii) hinge length and segmental flexibility is not enough to alter complement binding and activation, and (iii) segmental flexibility does not correlate with proficiency to activate the complement cascade. PMID:2296577

  1. Regulation of complement activation by C-reactive protein: targeting of the inhibitory activity of C4b-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Andreas P; Trouw, Leendert A; McGrath, Fabian D G; Hack, C Erik; Blom, Anna M

    2006-06-15

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is the major acute phase protein in humans. It has been shown that CRP interacts with factor H, an inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement, and now we demonstrate binding of CRP to the fluid-phase inhibitor of the classical pathway, C4b-binding protein (C4BP). C4BP bound to directly immobilized recombinant CRP as well as CRP attached to phosphorylcholine. The binding was sensitive to ionic strength and was enhanced in the presence of calcium. C4BP lacking beta-chain and protein S, which is a form of C4BP increasing upon inflammation, bound CRP with higher affinity than the C4BP-protein S complex. The binding could not be blocked with mAbs directed against peripheral parts of the alpha-chains of C4BP while the isolated central core of C4BP obtained by partial proteolytic digestion bound CRP, indicating that the binding site for CRP is localized in the central core of the C4BP molecule. Furthermore, we found complexes in serum from a patient with an elevated CRP level and trace amounts of CRP were also identified in a plasma-derived C4BP preparation. We were also able to detect C4BP-CRP complexes in solution and established that C4BP retains full complement regulatory activity in the presence of CRP. In addition, we found that C4BP can compete with C1q for binding to immobilized CRP and that it inhibits complement activation locally. We hypothesize that CRP limits excessive complement activation on targets via its interactions with both factor H and C4BP.

  2. The Serum Complement System: A Simplified Laboratory Exercise to Measure the Activity of an Important Component of the Immune System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Jordan E.; Radziwon, Kimberly A.; Maniero, Gregory D.

    2008-01-01

    The immune system is a vital physiological component that affords animals protection from disease and is composed of innate and adaptive mechanisms that rely on cellular and dissolved components. The serum complement system is a series of dissolved proteins that protect against a variety of pathogens. The activity of complement in serum can be…

  3. Complement sensitivity of Entamoeba histolytica and various nonpathogenic amoeba species.

    PubMed

    Förster, B; Ebert, F; Horstmann, R D

    1994-12-01

    Culture forms of the potentially pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica were compared to those of the nonpathogenic species of E. dispar, E. hartmanni, E. coli, Endolimax nana, and E. moshkovskii regarding the sensitivity to lysis by human complement activated through the alternative pathway. E. dispar was found unique in its complement resistance; all other nonpathogenic isolates resembled E. histolytica in that they were complement sensitive. Thus, a state of complement sensitivity is not a particular property of potentially pathogenic amoebae. PMID:7716404

  4. Structural analysis of effector functions related motifs, complement activation and hemagglutinating activities in Lama glama heavy chain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Saccodossi, Natalia; De Simone, Emilio A; Leoni, Juliana

    2012-01-15

    Heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs), devoid of the light chains and the CH(1) domain, are present in the serum of camelids. IgG(2) and IgG(3) are HCAbs; whereas IgG(1) has the conventional structure. In order to study the immunological properties of llama HCAbs, from which to date little is known, llamas (Lama glama) HCAbs cDNA were cloned, sequenced and compared with other mammalian Igs. The sequence analysis showed that llama HCAbs cDNA organization is similar to other mammalian Igs and the presence of conserved binding motifs to Protein A, Protein G, FcγRI, FcγRIII and C1q in HCAbs were observed. In a previous work, different IgG isotypes purified by Protein A and Protein G chromatography, were assayed for their ability to fix complement. Both IgG(1) and the total serum were able to fix complement, whereas IgG(2) and IgG(3) fixed complement even in the absence of antigen (anti-complementary activity). Therefore, in this work we performed the complement activating activity of the different IgG isotypes purified under physiological conditions using Sephadex G-150 and their ability to induce hemagglutination. Llamas were immunized with sheep red blood cells (RBC) stroma and the different isotypes were purified from sera. Whole serum and IgG(1) could activate complement; however, HCAbs (IgG(2)+IgG(3)) could not, despite the presence of the C1q binding motif in their primary sequence. Unlike IgG(1), the fraction corresponding to IgG(2)+IgG(3) did not display hemagglutinating activity. Our findings suggest that HCAbs cannot crosslink efficiently with different antigens and that the C1q binding site might be hindered by the proximity of the variable domains. PMID:22197565

  5. Direct binding of C1q to apoptotic cells and cell blebs induces complement activation.

    PubMed

    Nauta, Alma J; Trouw, Leendert A; Daha, Mohamed R; Tijsma, Odette; Nieuwland, Rienk; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Gingras, Alexandre R; Mantovani, Alberto; Hack, Erik C; Roos, Anja

    2002-06-01

    Deficiency of early components of the classical pathway of complement, particularly C1q, predisposes to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. Several studies have suggested an association between the classical complement pathway and the clearance of apoptotic cells. Mice with a targeted deletion of the C1q gene develop a lupus-like renal disease, which is associated with the presence of multiple apoptotic bodies in the kidney. In the present study we demonstrate that highly purified C1q binds to apoptotic cells and isolated blebs derived from these apoptotic cells. Binding of C1q to apoptotic cells occurs via the globular heads of C1q and induces activation of the classical complement pathway, as shown by the deposition of C4 and C3 on the surface of these cells and on cell-derived blebs. In addition, for the first time, we demonstrate that surface-bound C1q is present on a subpopulation of microparticles isolated from human plasma. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that C1q binds directly to apoptotic cells and blebs derived therefrom and support a role for C1q, possibly in concert with C4 and C3, in the clearance of apoptotic cells and blebs by the phagocytic system.

  6. Activation of the complement, coagulation, fibrinolytic and kallikrein-kinin systems during attacks of hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, E W; Johansen, H T; Høgåsen, K; Wuillemin, W; Hack, C E; Mollnes, T E

    1996-08-01

    Five patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) were studied during attacks and remission as were healthy controls. The high levels of C1/C1-INH complexes, low C4 and high ratio C4 activation products (C4bc)/C4 also differed significantly during remission compared to controls. During attacks C4bc/C4 increased (922-2007; P = 0.022, remission versus attacks, median values throughout), C2 and CH50 dropped (111-31%; P = 0.043 and 110-36%; P = 0.016, respectively), TCC (C5b-9) increased (0.88-1.23 AU/ml; P = 0.028). Cleavage of HK increased to be almost complete during attacks (20-90%; P = 0.009). While factor XIa/serpin-complexes did not increase, a more than twofold rise in thrombin/antithrombin-complexes (0.20-0.50 microgram/l; P = 0.009) and in plasmin/alpha-2-antiplasmin-complexes (7.3-17 nmol/l; P = 0.028) was observed. For the first time cascade activation in HAE was studied simultaneously, and corroborates that attacks lead to activation of the kallikrein-kinin system, fibrinolysis and early part of the classical complement pathway. In addition, the authors present novel data of terminal complement and coagulation activation, the latter apparently not via FXIa.

  7. Complement Activation in Arterial and Venous Thrombosis is Mediated by Plasmin

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Jonathan H.; Walton, Bethany L.; Aleman, Maria M.; O'Byrne, Alice M.; Lei, Victor; Harrasser, Micaela; Foley, Kimberley A.; Wolberg, Alisa S.; Conway, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus formation leading to vaso-occlusive events is a major cause of death, and involves complex interactions between coagulation, fibrinolytic and innate immune systems. Leukocyte recruitment is a key step, mediated partly by chemotactic complement activation factors C3a and C5a. However, mechanisms mediating C3a/C5a generation during thrombosis have not been studied. In a murine venous thrombosis model, levels of thrombin–antithrombin complexes poorly correlated with C3a and C5a, excluding a central role for thrombin in C3a/C5a production. However, clot weight strongly correlated with C5a, suggesting processes triggered during thrombosis promote C5a generation. Since thrombosis elicits fibrinolysis, we hypothesized that plasmin activates C5 during thrombosis. In vitro, the catalytic efficiency of plasmin-mediated C5a generation greatly exceeded that of thrombin or factor Xa, but was similar to the recognized complement C5 convertases. Plasmin-activated C5 yielded a functional membrane attack complex (MAC). In an arterial thrombosis model, plasminogen activator administration increased C5a levels. Overall, these findings suggest plasmin bridges thrombosis and the immune response by liberating C5a and inducing MAC assembly. These new insights may lead to the development of strategies to limit thrombus formation and/or enhance resolution. PMID:27077125

  8. The alternative complement component factor B regulates UV-induced oedema, systemic suppression of contact and delayed hypersensitivity, and mast cell infiltration into the skin.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Scott N; Hammond, Kirsten J L; Chan, Carling Y-Y; Rogers, Linda J; Beaugie, Clare; Rana, Sabita; Marsh-Wakefield, Felix; Thurman, Joshua M; Halliday, Gary M

    2015-04-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths in sunlight are the prime cause of skin cancer in humans with both the UVA and UVB wavebands making a contribution to photocarcinogenesis. UV has many different biological effects on the skin that contribute to carcinogenesis, including suppression of adaptive immunity, sunburn and altering the migration of mast cells into and away from irradiated skin. Many molecular mechanisms have been identified as contributing to skin responses to UV. Recently, using gene set enrichment analysis of microarray data, we identified the alternative complement pathway with a central role for factor B (fB) in UVA-induced immunosuppression. In the current study we used mice genetically deficient in fB (fB-/- mice) to study the functional role of the alternative complement pathway in skin responses to UV. We found that fB is required for not only UVA but also UVB-induced immunosuppression and solar-simulated UV induction of the oedemal component of sunburn. Factor B-/- mice had a larger number of resident skin mast cells than control mice, but unlike the controls did not respond to UV by increasing mast cell infiltration into the skin. This study provides evidence for a function role for fB in skin responses to UV radiation. Factor B regulates UVA and UVB induced immunosuppression, UV induced oedema and mast cell infiltration into the skin. The alternative complement pathway is therefore an important regulator of skin responses to UV.

  9. Classical complement activation as a footprint for murine and human antiphospholipid antibody-induced fetal loss.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Danielle; Buurma, Aletta; Goemaere, Natascha N; Girardi, Guillermina; le Cessie, Saskia; Scherjon, Sicco; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; de Heer, Emile; Bruijn, Jan A; Bajema, Ingeborg M

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent miscarriage, fetal growth restriction and intrauterine fetal death are frequently occurring complications of pregnancy in patients with systemic lupus erythaematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Murine models show that complement activation plays a pivotal role in antiphospholipid antibody-mediated pregnancy morbidity, but the exact pathways of complement activation and their potential role in human pregnancy are insufficiently understood. We hypothesized that the classical pathway would play a major role in inducing fetal loss. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice and mice deficient in C1q and factor D were injected with antiphospholipid antibodies or normal human IgG. Mouse placentas were subsequently stained with an anti-C4 antibody and anti-normal human IgG to determine the presence of classical complement activation and IgG binding. Findings in mice were validated in 88 human placentae from 83 women (SLE and APS cases versus controls), which were immunohistochemically stained for C4d, C1q, properdin and MBL. Staining patterns were compared to pregnancy outcome. In murine placentae of mice pretreated with antiphospholipid antibodies, increased C4 deposition was observed, which was associated with adverse fetal outcome but not with IgG binding. In humans, diffuse C4d staining at the feto-maternal interface was present almost exclusively in patients with SLE and/or APS (p < 0.001) and was related to intrauterine fetal death (p = 0.03). Our data show that presence of C4d in murine and human placentae is strongly related to adverse fetal outcome in the setting of SLE and APS. The excessive deposition of C4d supports the concept of severe autoantibody-mediated injury at the fetal-maternal interface. We suggest C4d as a potential biomarker of autoantibody-mediated fetal loss in SLE and APS.

  10. Zonulin as prehaptoglobin2 regulates lung permeability and activates the complement system.

    PubMed

    Rittirsch, Daniel; Flierl, Michael A; Nadeau, Brian A; Day, Danielle E; Huber-Lang, Markus S; Grailer, Jamison J; Zetoune, Firas S; Andjelkovic, Anuska V; Fasano, Alessio; Ward, Peter A

    2013-06-15

    Zonulin is a protein involved in the regulation of tight junctions (TJ) in epithelial or endothelial cells. Zonulin is known to affect TJ in gut epithelial cells, but little is known about its influences in other organs. Prehaptoglobin2 has been identified as zonulin and is related to serine proteases (MASPs, C1qrs) that activate the complement system. The current study focused on the role of zonulin in development of acute lung injury (ALI) in C57BL/6 male mice following intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes. A zonulin antagonist (AT-1001) and a related peptide with permeability agonist activities (AT-1002) were employed and given intratracheally or intravenously. Also, zonulin was blocked in lung with a neutralizing antibody. In a dose-dependent manner, AT-1001 or zonulin neutralizing antibody attenuated the intensity of ALI (as quantitated by albumin leak, neutrophil accumulation, and proinflammatory cytokines). A similar pattern was found using the bacterial lipopolysaccharide model of ALI. Using confocal microscopy on sections of injured lungs, staining patterns for TJ proteins were discontinuous, reduced, and fragmented. As expected, the leak of blood products into the alveolar space confirmed the passage of 3 and 20 kDa dextran, and albumin. In contrast to AT-1001, application of the zonulin agonist AT-1002 intensified ALI. Zonulin both in vitro and in vivo induced generation of complement C3a and C5a. Collectively, these data suggest that zonulin facilitates development of ALI both by enhancing albumin leak and complement activation as well as increased buildup of neutrophils and cytokines during development of ALI.

  11. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components: protein adsorption, coagulation, activation of the complement system and hemolysis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaguera, Cristina; Calderó, Gabriela; Mitjans, Montserrat; Vinardell, Maria Pilar; Solans, Conxita; Vauthier, Christine

    2015-03-01

    The intravenous administration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles has been widely reported as a promising alternative for delivery of drugs to specific cells. However, studies on their interaction with diverse blood components using different techniques are still lacking. Therefore, in the present work, the interaction of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components was described using different complementary techniques. The influence of different encapsulated compounds/functionalizing agents on these interactions was also reported. It is worth noting that all these techniques can be simply performed, without the need for highly sophisticated apparatus or skills. Moreover, their transference to industries and application of quality control could be easily performed. Serum albumin was adsorbed onto all types of tested nanoparticles. The saturation concentration was dependent on the nanoparticle size. In contrast, fibrinogen aggregation was dependent on nanoparticle surface charge. The complement activation was also influenced by the nanoparticle functionalization; the presence of a functionalizing agent increased complement activation, while the addition of an encapsulated compound only caused a slight increase. None of the nanoparticles influenced the coagulation cascade at low concentrations. However, at high concentrations, cationized nanoparticles did activate the coagulation cascade. Interactions of nanoparticles with erythrocytes did not reveal any hemolysis. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood proteins depended both on the nanoparticle properties and the protein studied. Independent of their loading/surface functionalization, PLGA nanoparticles did not influence the coagulation cascade and did not induce hemolysis of erythrocytes; they could be defined as safe concerning induction of embolization and cell lysis.The intravenous administration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles has been widely reported as a promising

  12. Potent complement C3a receptor agonists derived from oxazole amino acids: Structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranee; Reed, Anthony N; Chu, Peifei; Scully, Conor C G; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Suen, Jacky Y; Durek, Thomas; Reid, Robert C; Fairlie, David P

    2015-12-01

    Potent ligands for the human complement C3a receptor (C3aR) were developed from the almost inactive tripeptide Leu-Ala-Arg corresponding to the three C-terminal residues of the endogenous peptide agonist C3a. The analogous Leu-Ser-Arg was modified by condensing the serine side chain with the leucine carbonyl with elimination of water to form leucine-oxazole-arginine. Subsequent elaboration with a variety of N-terminal amide capping groups produced agonists as potent as human C3a itself in stimulating Ca(2+) release from human macrophages. Structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  13. Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

    1991-07-01

    The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies.

  14. Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

    1991-01-01

    The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies. PMID

  15. Immune competence of the Ciona intestinalis pharynx: complement system-mediated activity.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Stefano; Melillo, Daniela; Lambris, John D; Pinto, Maria Rosaria

    2012-10-01

    In the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, the ciliated pharynx, which connects the external environment to a highly developed and compartmentalized gastrointestinal system, represents the natural portal of entry for a vast and diverse, potentially pathogenic microbial community. To address the role of the pharynx in immune surveillance in Ciona, we asked whether C3, the key component of the complement system, was expressed in this organ and whether the encoded protein was functionally active. We found by real-time PCR that C3, constitutively expressed in the pharynx, is up-regulated by LPS injection. Using two specific anti-CiC3 and anti-CiC3a polyclonal antibodies in immunohistochemical staining of pharynx sections, we found that the gene product was localized to hemocytes of the pharyngeal bars (identified as granular amoebocytes) and in stigmata ciliated cells. Use of the same antibodies in Western blot analysis indicated that CiC3 and its activation products CiC3b and CiC3a are present in pharynx homogenates. Our observation that the amount of the bioactive fragment CiC3a increased in the pharynx of LPS-treated animals provides the first molecular and functional evidence for complement-mediated immunological activity in the tunicate pharynx.

  16. Design and development of TT30, a novel C3d-targeted C3/C5 convertase inhibitor for treatment of human complement alternative pathway-mediated diseases.

    PubMed

    Fridkis-Hareli, Masha; Storek, Michael; Mazsaroff, Istvan; Risitano, Antonio M; Lundberg, Ante S; Horvath, Christopher J; Holers, V Michael

    2011-10-27

    To selectively modulate human complement alternative pathway (CAP) activity implicated in a wide range of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and to provide local cell surface and tissue-based inhibition of complement-induced damage, we developed TT30, a novel therapeutic fusion protein linking the human complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) C3 fragment (C3frag = iC3b, C3dg, C3d)-binding domain with the CAP inhibitory domain of human factor H (fH). TT30 efficiently blocks ex vivo CAP-dependent C3frag accumulation on activated surfaces, membrane attack complex (MAC) formation and hemolysis of RBCs in a CR2-dependent manner, and with a ∼ 150-fold potency gain over fH, without interference of C3 activation or MAC formation through the classic and lectin pathways. TT30 protects RBCs from hemolysis and remains bound and detectable for at least 24 hours. TT30 selectively inhibits CAP in cynomolgus monkeys and is bioavailable after subcutaneous injection. Using a unique combination of targeting and effector domains, TT30 controls cell surface CAP activation and has substantial potential utility for the treatment of human CAP-mediated diseases.

  17. Design and development of TT30, a novel C3d-targeted C3/C5 convertase inhibitor for treatment of human complement alternative pathway-mediated diseases.

    PubMed

    Fridkis-Hareli, Masha; Storek, Michael; Mazsaroff, Istvan; Risitano, Antonio M; Lundberg, Ante S; Horvath, Christopher J; Holers, V Michael

    2011-10-27

    To selectively modulate human complement alternative pathway (CAP) activity implicated in a wide range of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and to provide local cell surface and tissue-based inhibition of complement-induced damage, we developed TT30, a novel therapeutic fusion protein linking the human complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) C3 fragment (C3frag = iC3b, C3dg, C3d)-binding domain with the CAP inhibitory domain of human factor H (fH). TT30 efficiently blocks ex vivo CAP-dependent C3frag accumulation on activated surfaces, membrane attack complex (MAC) formation and hemolysis of RBCs in a CR2-dependent manner, and with a ∼ 150-fold potency gain over fH, without interference of C3 activation or MAC formation through the classic and lectin pathways. TT30 protects RBCs from hemolysis and remains bound and detectable for at least 24 hours. TT30 selectively inhibits CAP in cynomolgus monkeys and is bioavailable after subcutaneous injection. Using a unique combination of targeting and effector domains, TT30 controls cell surface CAP activation and has substantial potential utility for the treatment of human CAP-mediated diseases. PMID:21860027

  18. TFPI inhibits lectin pathway of complement activation by direct interaction with MASP-2.

    PubMed

    Keizer, Mischa P; Pouw, Richard B; Kamp, Angela M; Patiwael, Sanne; Marsman, Gerben; Hart, Margreet H; Zeerleder, Sacha; Kuijpers, Taco W; Wouters, Diana

    2015-02-01

    The lectin pathway (LP) of complement has a protective function against invading pathogens. Recent studies have also shown that the LP plays an important role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-2 appears to be crucial in this process. The serpin C1-inhibitor is the major inhibitor of MASP-2. In addition, aprotinin, a Kunitz-type inhibitor, was shown to inhibit MASP-2 activity in vitro. In this study we investigated whether the Kunitz-type inhibitor tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is also able to inhibit MASP-2. Ex vivo LP was induced and detected by C4-deposition on mannan-coated plates. The MASP-2 activity was measured in a fluid-phase chromogenic assay. rTFPI in the absence or presence of specific monoclonal antibodies was used to investigate which TFPI-domains contribute to MASP-2 inhibition. Here, we identify TFPI as a novel selective inhibitor of MASP-2, without affecting MASP-1 or the classical pathway proteases C1s and C1r. Kunitz-2 domain of TFPI is required for the inhibition of MASP-2. Considering the role of MASP-2 in complement-mediated I/R-injury, the inhibition of this protease by TFPI could be an interesting therapeutic approach to limit the tissue damage in conditions such as cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction or solid organ transplantation.

  19. Early Components of the Complement Classical Activation Pathway in Human Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lintner, Katherine E.; Wu, Yee Ling; Yang, Yan; Spencer, Charles H.; Hauptmann, Georges; Hebert, Lee A.; Atkinson, John P.; Yu, C. Yung

    2016-01-01

    The complement system consists of effector proteins, regulators, and receptors that participate in host defense against pathogens. Activation of the complement system, via the classical pathway (CP), has long been recognized in immune complex-mediated tissue injury, most notably systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Paradoxically, a complete deficiency of an early component of the CP, as evidenced by homozygous genetic deficiencies reported in human, are strongly associated with the risk of developing SLE or a lupus-like disease. Similarly, isotype deficiency attributable to a gene copy-number (GCN) variation and/or the presence of autoantibodies directed against a CP component or a regulatory protein that result in an acquired deficiency are relatively common in SLE patients. Applying accurate assay methodologies with rigorous data validations, low GCNs of total C4, and heterozygous and homozygous deficiencies of C4A have been shown as medium to large effect size risk factors, while high copy numbers of total C4 or C4A as prevalent protective factors, of European and East-Asian SLE. Here, we summarize the current knowledge related to genetic deficiency and insufficiency, and acquired protein deficiencies for C1q, C1r, C1s, C4A/C4B, and C2 in disease pathogenesis and prognosis of SLE, and, briefly, for other systemic autoimmune diseases. As the complement system is increasingly found to be associated with autoimmune diseases and immune-mediated diseases, it has become an attractive therapeutic target. We highlight the recent developments and offer a balanced perspective concerning future investigations and therapeutic applications with a focus on early components of the CP in human systemic autoimmune diseases. PMID:26913032

  20. The activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and the complement system during immunotherapy with recombinant interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Baars, J W; Hack, C E; Wagstaff, J; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Wolbink, G J; Thijs, L G; Strack van Schijndel, R J; van der Vall, H L; Pinedo, H M

    1992-01-01

    The toxicity due to interleukin-2 (IL-2) strongly resembles the clinical picture seen during septic shock. In septic shock activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and the complement system contribute significantly to the pathophysiology of the condition. We therefore investigated whether similar events contributed to the toxicity observed with IL-2. Four patients received seven cycles of escalating dose IL-2 (18.0 to 72.0 X 10(6) IU m-2 day-1) and 16 were treated with 20 cycles of fixed dose IL-2 (12.0 or 18.0 X 10(6) IU m-2 day-1). Toxicity, as judged by hypotension (P = less than 0.005) and capillary leakage (fall in serum albumin 18.2 vs 4.0 gm l-1; P = less than 0.0005 and weight gain 4.0 vs 1.2 kg; P = less than 0.025) were worse with the esc. dose protocol. PMN became activated following IL-2 with mean peak elastase/alpha 1-antitrypsin (E alpha 1 A) and lactoferrin values of 212 (SEM = 37) and 534 (SEM = 92) ng ml-1 respectively occurring 6 h after the IL-2. Peak values for the esc. dose IL-2 group being generally higher than 500 ng ml-1. Activation of the complement cascade was evidenced by a dose dependent elevation of peak C3a values (fixed dose 9.1 (SEM = 0.6); esc. dose 25.7 (SEM = 6.33); P = less than 0.005) on day 5 of IL-2. There was a significant correlation between C3a levels and the degree of hypotention during the first 24 h after IL-2 (r = 0.91) and parameters of capillary leakage such as weight gain and fall in serum albumin (r = 0.71). These data suggest that activation of PMN initiates endothelial cell damage which subsequently leads to activation of the complement cascade. This latter system then contributes to the haemodynamic changes and capillary leakage seen in IL-2 treated patients.

  1. Sundanese Complementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurniawan, Eri

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the description and analysis of clausal complementation in Sundanese, an Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia. The thesis examined a range of clausal complement types in Sundanese, which consists of (i) "yen/(wi)rehna" "that" complements, (ii) "pikeun" "for" complements,…

  2. VARIATIONS IN THE COMPLEMENT ACTIVITY AND FIXABILITY OF GUINEA PIG SERUM.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1911-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from the foregoing series of experiments. The complementary activity varies within a definite limit in different specimens of guinea pig serum. With sera which stood in contact with the clot for twenty hours, the strongest and weakest were in the ratio of 0.015 cubic centimeter to 0.04 cubic centimeter. The former was 2.66 times stronger than the latter. The variation observed with the same series of sera after forty-six hours was still more striking. The strongest was 0.013 cubic centimeter, and the weakest, 0.06 cubic centimeter, that is, the former was 4.6 times stronger than the latter. These findings agree with those made by Massol and Grysez. The variations were not so marked with the majority of sera. It is noteworthy that a large number of the sera gained in the complementary activity when remaining in contact with the clot for forty-six hours, while some sera became weakened during the same length of time. The amount of serum fixed by given constant quantities of syphilitic serum and antigen varies much more markedly than the variations in their complementary activity. One serum failed altogether to be fixed. On the other hand, one sample of serum was so easily fixable that 0.24 cubic centimeter (corresponding to 9.6 complement units of this specimen) disappeared, while the average quantity fixed was only 0.098 cubic centimeter (corresponding to 4.64 complement units). The normal standard of fixability was shown in about 50 per cent. of the specimens examined. If the zone of normal fixability is enlarged in both directions by one unit, the percentage of normal fixability would become 65.8. There is no definite relationship between the complementary activity and the fixability of a given specimen of guinea pig serum. The facts derived from our present experiments, especially in regard to the exceptions in the fixative quality of this serum, demand the utmost precaution from those intending to employ it for diagnostic

  3. C1q, the recognition subcomponent of the classical pathway of complement, drives microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Färber, Katrin; Cheung, Giselle; Mitchell, Daniel; Wallis, Russell; Weihe, Eberhard; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2009-02-15

    Microglia, central nervous system (CNS) resident phagocytic cells, persistently police the integrity of CNS tissue and respond to any kind of damage or pathophysiological changes. These cells sense and rapidly respond to danger and inflammatory signals by changing their cell morphology; by release of cytokines, chemokines, or nitric oxide; and by changing their MHC expression profile. We have shown previously that microglial biosynthesis of the complement subcomponent C1q may serve as a reliable marker of microglial activation ranging from undetectable levels of C1q biosynthesis in resting microglia to abundant C1q expression in activated, nonramified microglia. In this study, we demonstrate that cultured microglial cells respond to extrinsic C1q with a marked intracellular Ca(2+) increase. A shift toward proinflammatory microglial activation is indicated by the release of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and nitric oxide and the oxidative burst in rat primary microglial cells, an activation and differentiation process similar to the proinflammatory response of microglia to exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Our findings indicate 1) that extrinsic plasma C1q is involved in the initiation of microglial activation in the course of CNS diseases with blood-brain barrier impairment and 2) that C1q synthesized and released by activated microglia is likely to contribute in an autocrine/paracrine way to maintain and balance microglial activation in the diseased CNS tissue. PMID:18831010

  4. Contribution of the complement Membrane Attack Complex to the bactericidal activity of human serum.

    PubMed

    Berends, Evelien T M; Mohan, Sarbani; Miellet, Willem R; Ruyken, Maartje; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M

    2015-06-01

    Direct killing of Gram-negative bacteria by serum is usually attributed to the Membrane Attack Complex (MAC) that is assembled upon activation of the complement system. In serum bactericidal assays, the activity of the MAC is usually blocked by a relatively unspecific method in which certain heat-labile complement components are inactivated at 56°C. The goal of this study was to re-evaluate MAC-driven lysis towards various Gram-negative bacteria. Instead of using heat-treatment, we included the highly specific C5 cleavage inhibitor OmCI to specifically block the formation of the MAC. Using a C5 conversion analysis tool, we monitored the efficacy of the inhibitor during the incubations. Our findings indicate that 'serum-sensitive' bacteria are not necessarily killed by the MAC. Other heat-labile serum factors can contribute to serum bactericidal activity. These unidentified factors are most potent at serum concentrations of 10% and higher. Furthermore, we also find that some bacteria can be killed by the MAC at a slower rate. Our data demonstrate the requirement for the use of specific inhibitors in serum bactericidal assays and revealed that the classification of serum-sensitive and resistant strains needs re-evaluation. Moreover, it is important to determine bacterial viability at multiple time intervals to differentiate serum susceptibility between bacterial species. In conclusion, these data provide new insights into bacterial killing by the humoral immune system and may guide future vaccine development studies for the treatment of pathogenic serum-resistant bacteria.

  5. Increased Autoreactivity of the Complement-Activating Molecule Mannan-Binding Lectin in a Type 1 Diabetes Model

    PubMed Central

    Østergaard, Jakob Appel; Ruseva, Marieta Milkova; Malik, Talat Habib; Hoffmann-Petersen, Ingeborg Torp; Pickering, Matthew Caleb; Thiel, Steffen; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure despite intensive treatment of modifiable risk factors. Identification of new drug targets is therefore of paramount importance. The complement system is emerging as a potential new target. The lectin pathway of the complement system, initiated by the carbohydrate-recognition molecule mannan-binding lectin (MBL), is linked to poor kidney prognosis in diabetes. We hypothesized that MBL activates complement upon binding within the diabetic glomerulus. Methods. We investigated this by comparing complement deposition and activation in kidneys from streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and healthy control mice. Results. After 20 weeks of diabetes, glomerular deposition of MBL was significantly increased. Diabetic animals had 2.0-fold higher (95% CI 1.6–2.5) immunofluorescence intensity from anti-MBL antibodies compared with controls (P < 0.001). Diabetes and control groups did not differ in glomerular immunofluorescence intensity obtained by antibodies against complement factors C4, C3, and C9. However, the circulating complement activation product C3a was increased in diabetes as compared to control mice (P = 0.04). Conclusion. 20 weeks of diabetes increased MBL autoreactivity in the kidney and circulating C3a concentration. Together with previous findings, these results indicate direct effects of MBL within the kidney in diabetes. PMID:26977416

  6. Anti-C1q autoantibodies from systemic lupus erythematosus patients activate the complement system via both the classical and lectin pathways.

    PubMed

    Thanei, Sophia; Vanhecke, Dominique; Trendelenburg, Marten

    2015-10-01

    Autoantibodies against complement C1q (anti-C1q) strongly correlate with the occurrence of lupus nephritis and hypocomplementemia in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although a direct pathogenic role of anti-C1q has been suggested, the assumed complement-activating capacity remains to be elucidated. Using an ELISA-based assay, we found that anti-C1q activate the classical (CP) and lectin pathways (LP) depending on the anti-C1q immunoglobulin-class repertoire present in the patient's serum. IgG anti-C1q resulted in the activation of the CP as reflected by C4b deposition in the presence of purified C1 and C4 in a dose-dependent manner. The extent of C4b deposition correlated with anti-C1q levels in SLE patients but not in healthy controls. Our data indicate that SLE patient-derived anti-C1q can activate the CP and the LP but not the alternative pathway of complement. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the role of anti-C1q in SLE suggesting a direct link to hypocomplementemia.

  7. Studies on the phenylethanoid glycosides with anti-complement activity from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood.

    PubMed

    Si, Chuan-Ling; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Zhong; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Four epimeric phenylethanoid glycosides, including a new one, R,S-beta-ethoxy-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-(6-O-E-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside named isoilicifolioside A (1), and three known compounds, ilicifolioside A (2), campneoside II (3), and isocampneoside II (4), were isolated from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood. The structures of the four compounds were elucidated by the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectra. This is the first report of the chemical profile of this tree. Compounds 1-4 exhibited excellent anti-complement activity with IC(50) values less than 74 microM, compared with tiliroside (IC(50) = 104 microM) and rosmarinic acid (IC(50) = 182 microM) that were used as positive controls. PMID:19031237

  8. Complement Activation-Related Pseudoallergy Caused by Nanomedicines and its Testing In Vitro and In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szebeni, Janos; Urbanics, Rudolf

    Nanotechnology has has been giving birth to a variety of therapeutic and diagnostic products, referred to as nanomedicines (NM), whose successes are based on improved efficacy and/or diminished toxicity. However, these benefits are not without a price. The introduction into the clinics of many NM revealed the presence of an acute immune response to the particles, manifested in hypersensitivity reactions (HSR). The phenomenon is often due to the structural similarity of reactogenic NM to viruses, which may trigger the nonspecific arm of humoral immunity, the complement (C) system to an immediate eliminatory response. The clinical manifestations of this reaction, called C activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA), include cardiopulmonary distress, which is a safety risk for NM, particularly in the case of cardiac patients with atopic constitution. Thus, understanding CARPA and ways of its prediction and prevention represents an important challenge in NM R&D.

  9. Studies on the phenylethanoid glycosides with anti-complement activity from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood.

    PubMed

    Si, Chuan-Ling; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Zhong; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Four epimeric phenylethanoid glycosides, including a new one, R,S-beta-ethoxy-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-(6-O-E-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside named isoilicifolioside A (1), and three known compounds, ilicifolioside A (2), campneoside II (3), and isocampneoside II (4), were isolated from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood. The structures of the four compounds were elucidated by the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectra. This is the first report of the chemical profile of this tree. Compounds 1-4 exhibited excellent anti-complement activity with IC(50) values less than 74 microM, compared with tiliroside (IC(50) = 104 microM) and rosmarinic acid (IC(50) = 182 microM) that were used as positive controls.

  10. C5-derived activity is required for complement neutrophil-mediated lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Morganroth, M.L.; Till, G.O.; Ward, P.A.

    1986-03-05

    Cobra venom factor (CVF) derived from the cobra species Naja naja (NN) is a complement activator (cleaves C3, C5 and terminal components) which causes neutrophil dependent acute lung injury and pulmonary hypertension in rats. CVF, derived from the cobra species Naja haje (NH), differs from NN-CVF in that only C3 is cleaved. The authors investigated in isolated blood perfused rat lungs if NH-CVF (n=5), a complement activator which does not generate C5 derived peptides, causes pulmonary hypertension and acute lung injury. NN-CVF (n=5) caused a transient increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (PA) which returned toward baseline by 30 min (Peak ..delta.. PA = 17 +/- 6 mmHg). Lung injury occurred and was quantitated by the leak of /sup 125/I bovine serum albumin (/sup 125/I-BSA added 30 min post CVF) into lung parenchyma (lung/perfusate /sup 125/I-BSA counts: control = .09 +/- .01, NN-CVF = .48 +/- .11, p < .05). NH-CVF, in an amount which caused equipotent in vitro hemolysis of nonsensitized rabbit erythrocytes, did not cause a PA pressor response (3.5 +/- 1.1 mm Hg, p=NS) or acute lung injury (lung/perfusate /sup 125/I-BSA counts .11 +/- .01, p=NS). Similarly, NH-CVF did not appear to cause lung injury in intact rats (lung perfusate /sup 125/I-BSA counts: control .20 +/- .01, n=3; NH-CVF .25 +/- .05, n=3; NN-CVF .83 +/- .27, n=2). Thus, C3 cleavage alone without the generation of C5 derived peptides is an inadequate stimulus to elicit neutrophil-mediated acute lung injury.

  11. Parallel activities and interactions between antimicrobial peptides and complement in host defense at the airway epithelial surface.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Pieter S

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides and complement components contribute to host defense as well as inflammation and tissue injury in the respiratory tract. The airway epithelial surface is the main site of action of these immune effectors, and airway epithelial cells contribute markedly to their local production. Whereas both antimicrobial peptides and complement display overlapping functions, it is increasingly clear that both effector mechanisms also interact. Furthermore, excessive or uncontrolled release of antimicrobial peptides as well as complement activation may contribute to inflammatory lung diseases. Therefore, further knowledge of interactions between these systems may provide more insight into the pathogenesis of a range of lung diseases. In this review, recent findings on the functions, collaborations and other interactions between antimicrobial peptides and complement are discussed with a specific focus on the airway epithelium.

  12. Complement-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: lymphoblastoid lines that activate complement component 3 (C3) and express C3 receptors have increased sensitivity to lymphocyte-mediated lysis in the presence of fresh human serum.

    PubMed

    Ramos, O F; Sármay, G; Klein, E; Yefenof, E; Gergely, J

    1985-08-01

    Lymphocyte-mediated lysis of cells of the Raji, Daudi, Jijoye, and Bjab lines was elevated when fresh human serum was added to the assay. A higher proportion of effector-target conjugates was observed in the presence of human serum. In similar experiments lysis of 1301, Rael, and P3HR-1 cells was unaltered. All cell lines activated the alternative pathway of complement but they varied in the expression of receptors for complement component 3 (C3) and in the ability to fix the C3 cleavage products on their membrane. The enhancement of lysis in the presence of human serum occurred only with those cells that bound C3. This characteristic was correlated to the expression of C3 receptors. Analysis of the nature of the deposited C3 was performed with Raji cells. Raji cells exposed to human serum bound C3b as indicated by the immunoadherence test. The C3b was further processed to C3bi, because the immunoadherence declined with time and conjugate formation increased with Daudi cells, which carry the C3 receptors CR2 and CR3. This suggests that in the lytic assay lymphocytes with C3bi receptors are recruited in the presence of human serum. We assume that the bridge of C3 molecules between targets and effectors increases the avidity of their interaction. PMID:3895232

  13. The role of the complement system and the activation fragment C5a in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Trent M; Ager, Rahasson R; Tenner, Andrea J; Noakes, Peter G; Taylor, Stephen M

    2010-06-01

    The complement system is a pivotal component of the innate immune system which protects the host from infection and injury. Complement proteins can be induced in all cell types within the central nervous system (CNS), where the pathway seems to play similar roles in host defense. Complement activation produces the C5 cleavage fragment C5a, a potent inflammatory mediator, which recruits and activates immune cells. The primary cellular receptor for C5a, the C5a receptor (CD88), has been reported to be on all CNS cells, including neurons and glia, suggesting a functional role for C5a in the CNS. A second receptor for C5a, the C5a-like receptor 2 (C5L2), is also expressed on these cells; however, little is currently known about its potential role in the CNS. The potent immune and inflammatory actions of complement activation are necessary for host defense. However, if over-activated, or left unchecked it promotes tissue injury and contributes to brain disease pathology. Thus, complement activation, and subsequent C5a generation, is thought to play a significant role in the progression of CNS disease. Paradoxically, complement may also exert a neuroprotective role in these diseases by aiding in the elimination of aggregated and toxic proteins and debris which are a principal hallmark of many of these diseases. This review will discuss the expression and known roles for complement in the CNS, with a particular focus on the pro-inflammatory end-product, C5a. The possible overarching role for C5a in diseases of the CNS is reviewed, and the therapeutic potential of blocking C5a/CD88 interaction is evaluated.

  14. Human complement activation by lipopolysaccharides from bacteroides oralis, fusobacterium nucleatum, and veillonella parvula.

    PubMed Central

    Nygren, H; Dahlén, G; Nilsson, L A

    1979-01-01

    The properties of different lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations to induce C3 conversion in human serum was studied by means of crossed immunoelectrophoresis. C3 conversion by the alternative pathway was evaluated after calcium depletion, and lipid A-dependent activation was measured by means of inhibition with polymyxin B sulfate. LPS from Bacteroides oralis converted Co mainly via the alternative pathway, whereas LPS from Fusobacterium nucleatum and Veillonella parvula const pronounced lipid A-dependent conversion. The results are discussed in relation to the chemical composition of the LPS preparations. Images PMID:121108

  15. Complement Component C3 and Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Are Associated with Neurodegeneration and Clinical Disability in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Al Nimer, Faiez; Vijayaraghavan, Swetha; Sandholm, Kerstin; Khademi, Mohsen; Olsson, Tomas; Nilsson, Bo; Ekdahl, Kristina Nilsson; Darreh-Shori, Taher; Piehl, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the complement system is evident in many CNS diseases but mechanisms regulating complement activation in the CNS remain unclear. In a recent large rat genome-wide expression profiling and linkage analysis we found co-regulation of complement C3 immediately downstream of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), an enzyme hydrolyzing acetylcholine (ACh), a classical neurotransmitter with immunoregulatory effects. We here determined levels of neurofilament-light (NFL), a marker for ongoing nerve injury, C3 and activity of the two main ACh hydrolyzing enzymes, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BuChE, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with MS (n = 48) and non-inflammatory controls (n = 18). C3 levels were elevated in MS patients compared to controls and correlated both to disability and NFL. C3 levels were not induced by relapses, but were increased in patients with ≥9 cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging and in patients with progressive disease. BuChE activity did not differ at the group level, but was correlated to both C3 and NFL levels in individual samples. In conclusion, we show that CSF C3 correlates both to a marker for ongoing nerve injury and degree of disease disability. Moreover, our results also suggest a potential link between intrathecal cholinergic activity and complement activation. These results motivate further efforts directed at elucidating the regulation and effector functions of the complement system in MS, and its relation to cholinergic tone. PMID:25835709

  16. Targeted complement inhibition and microvasculature in transplants: a therapeutic perspective.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Hsu, J L; Assiri, A M; Broering, D C

    2016-02-01

    Active complement mediators play a key role in graft-versus-host diseases, but little attention has been given to the angiogenic balance and complement modulation during allograft acceptance. The complement cascade releases the powerful proinflammatory mediators C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins, C3b, C5b opsonins and terminal membrane attack complex into tissues, which are deleterious if unchecked. Blocking complement mediators has been considered to be a promising approach in the modern drug discovery plan, and a significant number of therapeutic alternatives have been developed to dampen complement activation and protect host cells. Numerous immune cells, especially macrophages, develop both anaphylatoxin and opsonin receptors on their cell surface and their binding affects the macrophage phenotype and their angiogenic properties. This review discusses the mechanism that complement contributes to angiogenic injury, and the development of future therapeutic targets by antagonizing activated complement mediators to preserve microvasculature in rejecting the transplanted organ.

  17. Complement modulatory activity of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Isopyrum thalictroides--II. Influence on C3-9 reactions in vitro and antiinflammatory effect in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, N; Hristova, M; Philipov, S

    1999-05-01

    The main alkaloids isopyruthaline (It1), fangchinoline (It2) and isothalictrine (It3), isolated from Isopyrum thalictroides (L.) were investigated in complement-mediated reactions. The alkaloids influenced the alternative pathway (AP) activity in normal human serum (NHS). They enhanced the inhibitory action of complement activators--carrageenan (Car), zymosan (Zy), hydrogen peroxide (HP) and high temperature via classical pathway (CP) in NHS. Substances strongly potentiated the action of zymosan and cobra venom (CV) in guinea pig serum (GPS). It was established that they could provoke C3 conversion in NHS and mouse sera (MS). The antiinflammatory properties of the alkaloids were evaluated in mouse paw oedema induced by CV, Zy and histamine (His). Isopyruthaline and isothalictrine suppressed paw swelling in CV- and Zy-oedema. They were applied in Zy-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in mice. The alkaloids inhibited the increase of the serum complement activity provoked by the injection of zymosan. Itl lowered the mortality rate of mice with MODS if its application proceeded Zy. An increase of the number of mice without tissue injury was established after treatment with It1 and It3. PMID:10408630

  18. The outer membrane protease PgtE of Salmonella enterica interferes with the alternative complement pathway by cleaving factors B and H

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Rauna; Korhonen, Timo K.; Meri, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    The virulence factor PgtE is an outer membrane protease (omptin) of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella enterica that causes diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to severe enteric fever. It is surface exposed in bacteria that have a short-chain, i.e., rough LPS, as observed e.g., in bacteria residing inside macrophages or just emerging from them. We investigated whether PgtE cleaves the complement factors B (B) and H (H), key proteins controlling formation and inactivation of the complement protein C3b and thereby the activity of the complement system. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or omptin-expressing recombinant E. coli bacteria were incubated with purified human complement proteins or recombinant H fragments. PgtE cleaved both B and H, whereas its close homolog Pla of Yersinia pestis cleaved only H. H was cleaved at both N- and C-termini, while the central region resisted proteolysis. Because of multiple effects of PgtE on complement components (cleavage of C3, C3b, B, and H) we assessed its effect on the opsonophagocytosis of Salmonella. In human serum, C3 cleavage was dependent on proteolytically active PgtE. Human neutrophils interacted less with serum-opsonized FITC-stained S. enterica 14028R than with the isogenic ΔpgtE strain, as analyzed by flow cytometry. In conclusion, cleavage of B and H by PgtE, together with C3 cleavage, affects the C3-mediated recognition of S. enterica by human neutrophils, thus thwarting the immune protection against Salmonella. PMID:25705210

  19. Contribution of Chondroitin Sulfate A to the Binding of Complement Proteins to Activated Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Lasaosa, Maria; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D.; Nilsson, Bo; Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure of chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A) on the surface of activated platelets is well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate to what extent CS-A contributes to the binding of the complement recognition molecule C1q and the complement regulators C1 inhibitor (C1INH), C4b-binding protein (C4BP), and factor H to platelets. Principal Findings Human blood serum was passed over Sepharose conjugated with CS-A, and CS-A-specific binding proteins were identified by Western blotting and mass spectrometric analysis. C1q was shown to be the main protein that specifically bound to CS-A, but C4BP and factor H were also shown to interact. Binding of C1INH was dependent of the presence of C1q and then not bound to CS-A from C1q-depleted serum. The specific interactions observed of these proteins with CS-A were subsequently confirmed by surface plasmon resonance analysis using purified proteins. Importantly, C1q, C4BP, and factor H were also shown to bind to activated platelets and this interaction was inhibited by a CS-A-specific monoclonal antibody, thereby linking the binding of C1q, C4BP, and factor H to exposure of CS-A on activated platelets. CS-A-bound C1q was also shown to amplify the binding of model immune complexes to both microtiter plate-bound CS-A and to activated platelets. Conclusions This study supports the concept that CS-A contributes to the binding of C1q, C4BP, and factor H to platelets, thereby adding CS-A to the previously reported binding sites for these proteins on the platelet surface. CS-A-bound C1q also seems to amplify the binding of immune complexes to activated platelets, suggesting a role for this molecule in immune complex diseases. PMID:20886107

  20. Molecules Great and Small: The Complement System

    PubMed Central

    Mathern, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    The complement cascade, traditionally considered an effector arm of innate immunity required for host defense against pathogens, is now recognized as a crucial pathogenic mediator of various kidney diseases. Complement components produced by the liver and circulating in the plasma undergo activation through the classical and/or mannose-binding lectin pathways to mediate anti-HLA antibody-initiated kidney transplant rejection and autoantibody-initiated GN, the latter including membranous glomerulopathy, antiglomerular basement membrane disease, and lupus nephritis. Inherited and/or acquired abnormalities of complement regulators, which requisitely limit restraint on alternative pathway complement activation, contribute to the pathogenesis of the C3 nephropathies and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Increasing evidence links complement produced by endothelial cells and/or tubular cells to the pathogenesis of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury and progressive kidney fibrosis. Data emerging since the mid-2000s additionally show that immune cells, including T cells and antigen-presenting cells, produce alternative pathway complement components during cognate interactions. The subsequent local complement activation yields production of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, which bind to their respective receptors (C3aR and C5aR) on both partners to augment effector T-cell proliferation and survival, while simultaneously inhibiting regulatory T-cell induction and function. This immune cell–derived complement enhances pathogenic alloreactive T-cell immunity that results in transplant rejection and likely contributes to the pathogenesis of other T cell–mediated kidney diseases. C5a/C5aR ligations on neutrophils have additionally been shown to contribute to vascular inflammation in models of ANCA-mediated renal vasculitis. New translational immunology efforts along with the development of pharmacologic agents that block human complement components and receptors now permit

  1. Molecules Great and Small: The Complement System.

    PubMed

    Mathern, Douglas R; Heeger, Peter S

    2015-09-01

    The complement cascade, traditionally considered an effector arm of innate immunity required for host defense against pathogens, is now recognized as a crucial pathogenic mediator of various kidney diseases. Complement components produced by the liver and circulating in the plasma undergo activation through the classical and/or mannose-binding lectin pathways to mediate anti-HLA antibody-initiated kidney transplant rejection and autoantibody-initiated GN, the latter including membranous glomerulopathy, antiglomerular basement membrane disease, and lupus nephritis. Inherited and/or acquired abnormalities of complement regulators, which requisitely limit restraint on alternative pathway complement activation, contribute to the pathogenesis of the C3 nephropathies and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Increasing evidence links complement produced by endothelial cells and/or tubular cells to the pathogenesis of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury and progressive kidney fibrosis. Data emerging since the mid-2000s additionally show that immune cells, including T cells and antigen-presenting cells, produce alternative pathway complement components during cognate interactions. The subsequent local complement activation yields production of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, which bind to their respective receptors (C3aR and C5aR) on both partners to augment effector T-cell proliferation and survival, while simultaneously inhibiting regulatory T-cell induction and function. This immune cell-derived complement enhances pathogenic alloreactive T-cell immunity that results in transplant rejection and likely contributes to the pathogenesis of other T cell-mediated kidney diseases. C5a/C5aR ligations on neutrophils have additionally been shown to contribute to vascular inflammation in models of ANCA-mediated renal vasculitis. New translational immunology efforts along with the development of pharmacologic agents that block human complement components and receptors now permit

  2. Uncoupling complement C1s activation from C1q binding in apoptotic cell phagocytosis and immunosuppressive capacity.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Lucrezia; Parry, Graham C; Panicker, Sandip; Elkon, Keith B

    2016-02-01

    Complement activation contributes to inflammation in many diseases, yet it also supports physiologic apoptotic cells (AC) clearance and its downstream immunosuppressive effects. The roles of individual complement components in AC phagocytosis have been difficult to dissect with artificially depleted sera. Using human in vitro systems and the novel antibody complement C1s inhibitor TNT003, we uncoupled the role of the enzymatic activation of the classical pathway from the opsonizing role of C1q in mediating a) the phagocytosis of early and late AC, and b) the immunosuppressive capacity of early AC. We found that C1s inhibition had a small impact on the physiologic clearance of early AC, leaving their immunosuppressive properties entirely unaffected, while mainly inhibiting the phagocytosis of late apoptotic/secondary necrotic cells. Our data suggest that C1s inhibition may represent a valuable therapeutic strategy to control classical pathway activation without causing significant AC accumulation in diseases without defects in AC phagocytosis.

  3. Complement activation by apoptotic cells occurs predominantly via IgM and is limited to late apoptotic (secondary necrotic) cells.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Bas; Ciurana, Caroline; Rensink, Irma; Manoe, Rishi; Hack, C Erik; Aarden, Lucien A

    2004-03-01

    Apoptotic cells activate complement via various molecular mechanisms. It is not known which of these mechanisms predominate in a physiological environment. Using Jurkat cells as a model, we investigated complement deposition on vital, early and late apoptotic (secondary necrotic) cells in a physiological medium, human plasma, and established the main molecular mechanism involved in this activation. Upon incubation with recalcified plasma, binding of C3 and C4 to early apoptotic cells was similar to background binding on vital cells. In contrast, late apoptotic (secondary necrotic) cells consistently displayed substantial binding of C4 and C3 and low, but detectable, binding of C1q. Binding of C3 and C4 to the apoptotic cells was abolished by EDTA or Mg-EGTA, and also by C1-inhibitor or a monoclonal antibody that inhibits C1q binding, indicating that complement fixation by the apoptotic cells was mainly dependent on the classical pathway. Late apoptotic cells also consistently bound IgM, in which binding significantly correlated with that of C4 and C3. Depletion of plasma for IgM abolished most of the complement fixation by apoptotic cells, which was restored by supplementation with purified IgM. We conclude that complement binding by apoptotic cells in normal human plasma occurs mainly to late apoptotic, secondary necrotic cells, and that the dominant mechanism involves classical pathway activation by IgM.

  4. Effect of ochratoxin and aflatoxin on serum proteins, complement activity, and antibody production to Brucella abortus in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Richard, J L; Thurston, J R; Deyoe, B L; Booth, G D

    1975-01-01

    The effect of ochratoxin alone and in combination with aflatoxin and Brucella abortus antigen on complement activity, serum proteins, and antibody response in guinea pigs was investigated. Ochratoxin did not affect complement activity or antibody response and there was no interaction between ochratoxin and aflatoxin on any of the responses tested. Ochratoxin significantly lowered the level of beta-globulin in serum of guinea pigs. There was no significant interaction between aflatoxin and antigen on lowering of the serum albumin levels of guinea pigs. PMID:45955

  5. Insights into the Effects of Complement Factor H on the Assembly and Decay of the Alternative Pathway C3 Proconvertase and C3 Convertase.

    PubMed

    Bettoni, Serena; Bresin, Elena; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Noris, Marina; Donadelli, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    The activated fragment of C3 (C3b) and factor B form the C3 proconvertase (C3bB), which is cleaved by factor D to C3 convertase (C3bBb). Older studies (Conrad, D. H., Carlo, J. R., and Ruddy, S. (1978)J. Exp. Med.147, 1792-1805; Pangburn, M. K., and Müller-Eberhard, H. J. (1978)Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.75, 2416-2420; Kazatchkine, M. D., Fearon, D. T., and Austen, K. F. (1979)J. Immunol.122, 75-81) indicated that the complement alternative pathway regulator factor H (FH) competes with factor B for C3b binding; however, the capability of FH to prevent C3bB assembly has not been formally investigated. Moreover, in the few published studies FH did not favor C3bB dissociation. Whether FH may affect C3bBb formation from C3bB is unknown. We set up user-friendly assays based on combined microplate/Western blotting techniques that specifically detect either C3bB or C3bBb, with the aim of investigating the effect of FH on C3bB assembly and decay and C3bBb formation and decay. We document that FH does not affect C3bB assembly, indicating that FH does not efficiently compete with factor B for C3b binding. We also found that FH does not dissociate C3bB. FH showed a strong C3bBb decay-accelerating activity, as reported previously, and also exerted an apparent inhibitory effect on C3bBb formation. The latter effect was not fully attributable to a rapid FH-mediated dissociation of C3bBb complexes, because blocking decay with properdin and C3 nephritic factor did not restore C3bBb formation. FH almost completely prevented release of the smaller cleavage subunit of FB (Ba), without modifying the amount of C3bB complexes, suggesting that FH inhibits the conversion of C3bB to C3bBb. Thus, the inhibitory effect of FH on C3bBb formation is likely the sum of inhibition of C3bB conversion to C3bBb and of C3bBb decay acceleration. Further studies are required to confirm these findings in physiological cell-based settings.

  6. Computer Generated Ability Complements as an Alternative to Continuous Hierarchy Positions: A Cybernetic Model of School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Ron Roy

    The design of an alternative administrative structure related to the cybernetic era and its organizational characteristics are discussed. In View of the role of electronic information systems today, it would be valuable to synthesize the six perspectives of administration--leader, manager, change agent, theorist, planner, and futurist--to provide…

  7. Heat production in different populations of human blood cells exposed to immune complexes in vitro: the importance of the Fc parts of immunoglobulins and the influence of active complement.

    PubMed Central

    Fäldt, R; Ankerst, J; Monti, M; Wadsö, I

    1982-01-01

    By use of a batch microcalorimeter of the thermopile type, heat production was measured in isolated populations of human peripheral blood cells exposed to defined immune complexes formed in vitro. It was found that most of the heat production recorded in whole blood after admixture of immune complexes occurs in the granulocytes. Under these conditions small but constantly higher activation values were found in the absence of active complement. It was shown that complexes consisting of antigen and F(ab)2 fragments prepared from the specific antibodies were able to initiate heat production in the cells only in the presence of active complement. These experiments indicate that immune complexes are able to induce increased heat production in the cells either by binding to Fc receptors or by activation of complement through the alternative pathway and subsequent binding of the generated C3b to C3b receptors on the heat-producing cells. PMID:7076279

  8. Complement-dependent NADPH oxidase enzyme activation in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Simone, S; Rascio, F; Castellano, G; Divella, C; Chieti, A; Ditonno, P; Battaglia, M; Crovace, A; Staffieri, F; Oortwijn, B; Stallone, G; Gesualdo, L; Pertosa, G; Grandaliano, G

    2014-09-01

    NADPH oxidase plays a central role in mediating oxidative stress during heart, liver, and lung ischemia/reperfusion injury, but limited information is available about NADPH oxidase in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our aim was to investigate the activation of NADPH oxidase in a swine model of renal ischemia/reperfusion damage. We induced renal ischemia/reperfusion in 10 pigs, treating 5 of them with human recombinant C1 inhibitor, and we collected kidney biopsies before ischemia and 15, 30, and 60 min after reperfusion. Ischemia/reperfusion induced a significant increase in NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4) expression at the tubular level, an upregulation of NOX-2 expression in infiltrating monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine synthesis along with a marked upregulation of NADPH-dependent superoxide generation. This burden of oxidative stress was associated with an increase in tubular and interstitial expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Interestingly, NOX-4 and NOX-2 expression and the overall NADPH oxidase activity as well as α-SMA expression and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine synthesis were strongly reduced in C1-inhibitor-treated animals. In vitro, when we incubated tubular cells with the anaphylotoxin C3a, we observed an enhanced NADPH oxidase activity and α-SMA protein expression, which were both abolished by NOX-4 silencing. In conclusion, our findings suggest that NADPH oxidase is activated during ischemia/reperfusion in a complement-dependent manner and may play a potential role in the pathogenesis of progressive renal damage in this setting.

  9. Complement-dependent NADPH oxidase enzyme activation in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Simone, S; Rascio, F; Castellano, G; Divella, C; Chieti, A; Ditonno, P; Battaglia, M; Crovace, A; Staffieri, F; Oortwijn, B; Stallone, G; Gesualdo, L; Pertosa, G; Grandaliano, G

    2014-09-01

    NADPH oxidase plays a central role in mediating oxidative stress during heart, liver, and lung ischemia/reperfusion injury, but limited information is available about NADPH oxidase in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our aim was to investigate the activation of NADPH oxidase in a swine model of renal ischemia/reperfusion damage. We induced renal ischemia/reperfusion in 10 pigs, treating 5 of them with human recombinant C1 inhibitor, and we collected kidney biopsies before ischemia and 15, 30, and 60 min after reperfusion. Ischemia/reperfusion induced a significant increase in NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4) expression at the tubular level, an upregulation of NOX-2 expression in infiltrating monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine synthesis along with a marked upregulation of NADPH-dependent superoxide generation. This burden of oxidative stress was associated with an increase in tubular and interstitial expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Interestingly, NOX-4 and NOX-2 expression and the overall NADPH oxidase activity as well as α-SMA expression and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine synthesis were strongly reduced in C1-inhibitor-treated animals. In vitro, when we incubated tubular cells with the anaphylotoxin C3a, we observed an enhanced NADPH oxidase activity and α-SMA protein expression, which were both abolished by NOX-4 silencing. In conclusion, our findings suggest that NADPH oxidase is activated during ischemia/reperfusion in a complement-dependent manner and may play a potential role in the pathogenesis of progressive renal damage in this setting. PMID:25017967

  10. [Complement system regulation and C3 glomerulopathy].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hui-jie; He, Rui-juan

    2013-04-18

    Complement system is a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis. Excessive activation of complement system,especially the activation of alternative pathway may play a very important role in the pathogenesis of primary and secondary glomerulonephritis. C3 glomerulopathy is a newly named disease characterized by evident C3 deposition in the glomeruli with little or no immunoglobulin under immunofluorescence (IF). Its clinical and pathological manifestations vary a lot. The decreased plasma C3 and Factor H(FH)suggest that abnormal regulation of complement system plays an importment role in its pathogenesis. C3 glomerulopathy varies a lot as to its clinical manifestation, treatment and prognosis. The inhibition of excessive complement activation might be the key to treating C3 glomerulopathy.

  11. Complement and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ballanti, Eleonora; Perricone, Carlo; Greco, Elisabetta; Ballanti, Marta; Di Muzio, Gioia; Chimenti, Maria Sole; Perricone, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    The complement system is a component of the innate immune system. Its main function was initially believed to be limited to the recognition and elimination of pathogens through direct killing or stimulation of phagocytosis. However, in recent years, the immunoregulatory functions of the complement system were demonstrated and it was determined that the complement proteins play an important role in modulating adaptive immunity and in bridging innate and adaptive responses. When the delicate mechanisms that regulate this sophisticated enzymatic system are unbalanced, the complement system may cause damage, mediating tissue inflammation. Dysregulation of the complement system has been involved in the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitides, Sjögren's syndrome, antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Complement deficiencies have been associated with an increased risk to develop autoimmune disorders. Because of its functions, the complement system is an attractive therapeutic target for a wide range of diseases. Up to date, several compounds interfering with the complement cascade have been studied in experimental models for autoimmune diseases. The main therapeutic strategies are inhibition of complement activation components, inhibition of complement receptors, and inhibition of membrane attack complex. At present, none of the available agents was proven to be both safe and effective for treatment of autoimmune diseases in humans. Nonetheless, data from preclinical studies and initial clinical trials suggest that the modulation of the complement system could constitute a viable strategy for the treatment of autoimmune conditions in the decades to come.

  12. Targeted inhibition of complement using complement receptor 2-conjugated inhibitors attenuates EAE.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianzhen; Tomlinson, Stephen; Barnum, Scott R

    2012-11-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune demyelinating disease, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. In the last two decades, many therapeutic options for the treatment of MS have become available, however they are limited in terms of effectiveness and some remain plagued by safety issues. The currently available treatment options target relapsing remitting forms of MS and are not effective against the more progressive forms of the disease. These limitations highlight a significant unmet treatment need for MS. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) studies from our laboratory, we have previously shown, using a number of complement mutant and transgenic mice, that inhibition of the alternative complement pathway and the C3 convertase confers significant protection from disease. We report here that targeted inhibition of complement activation using complement receptor 2 (CR2)-conjugated inhibitors significantly attenuates EAE. Administration of CR2-Crry (blocks all complement pathways at C3 activation) and CR2-fH (specifically blocks the alternative pathway) just prior to and during the onset of EAE blocks progression of both acute and chronic disease. These data indicate that inhibition of complement may offer an effective therapeutic approach to treating both acute and chronic forms of demyelinating disease through blocking the alternative pathway or complement convertases. PMID:23079547

  13. Human seminal plasma inhibition of complement.

    PubMed

    Petersen, B H; Lammel, C J; Stites, D P; Brooks, G F

    1980-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that human seminal plasma contains chemically and biologically distinct factors which inhibit lymphocyte functions and the serum bactericidal and opsonic activities associated with the killing of gram-negative organisms. Because of the direct association between complement action and serum bactericidal and opsonic activities, inhibition of complement may be one of the possible mechanisms of action of seminal plasma immunoinhibitory factors. Complement hemolytic activity was measured for C3 and C4 in serum Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Escherichia coli bactericidal reaction mixtures with and without addition of seminal plasma. In the presence of seminal plasma, where there was no bactericidal action, C3 and titers were reduced to approximately 50% of the titers in the reactions with complement donor serum. The C3 titers were lower than in the reaction mixtures with immune serum and complement donor serum, where N. gonorrhoeae bactericidal activity occurred. Individual human seminal plasma specimens depressed CH50 activity of pooled normal human sera up to 50% of normal levels. There were no differences in inhibition by seminal plasma specimens from normal or vasectomized men. Treatment with seminal plasma depressed the functional activity of complement components C1 and C3 by more than 50%. Seminal plasma also inhibited alternate pathway activity. Cleavage of factor B was demonstrated. The seminal plasma factor which inhibited complement was of low molecular weight. DPF blocked the seminal plasma complement-inhibitory factor. However, amidolytic activity for serine protease substrates could not be demonstrated. It is likely that the seminal plasma complement inhibitor is a protease inhibitor acting singly or in combination.

  14. Activity Recognition Using Community Data to Complement Small Amounts of Labeled Instances †

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ceja, Enrique; Brena, Ramon F.

    2016-01-01

    Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is an important part of ambient intelligence systems since it can provide user-context information, thus allowing a greater personalization of services. One of the problems with HAR systems is that the labeling process for the training data is costly, which has hindered its practical application. A common approach is to train a general model with the aggregated data from all users. The problem is that for a new target user, this model can perform poorly because it is biased towards the majority type of users and does not take into account the particular characteristics of the target user. To overcome this limitation, a user-dependent model can be trained with data only from the target user that will be optimal for this particular user; however, this requires a considerable amount of labeled data, which is cumbersome to obtain. In this work, we propose a method to build a personalized model for a given target user that does not require large amounts of labeled data. Our method uses data already labeled by a community of users to complement the scarce labeled data of the target user. Our results showed that the personalized model outperformed the general and the user-dependent models when labeled data is scarce. PMID:27314355

  15. Oral vaccination with heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis activates the complement system to protect against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; de la Fuente, José; Garrido, Joseba M; Aranaz, Alicia; Sevilla, Iker; Villar, Margarita; Boadella, Mariana; Galindo, Ruth C; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Alberdi, Pilar; Santos, Gracia; Ballesteros, Cristina; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Gortazar, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV). Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar.

  16. Oral Vaccination with Heat Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis Activates the Complement System to Protect against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Joseba M.; Aranaz, Alicia; Sevilla, Iker; Villar, Margarita; Boadella, Mariana; Galindo, Ruth C.; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Moreno-Cid, Juan A.; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; Alberdi, Pilar; Santos, Gracia; Ballesteros, Cristina; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Gortazar, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV). Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar. PMID:24842853

  17. The effect of substrate molecular mobility on surface induced immune complement activation and blood plasma coagulation.

    PubMed

    Berglin, Mattias; Andersson, Marcus; Sellborn, Anders; Elwing, Hans

    2004-08-01

    Changing the length of the alkyl ester side chain in poly(alkyl methacrylates) provides a unique opportunity to systematically vary the mobility of the polymer chains, or in other words vary the glass transition temperature (T(g)), without greatly affect the solid surface energy (gamma(s)) of the polymer. A series of poly(alkyl methacrylate) coatings was therefore analysed with regard to the human immune complement (IC) activation and the surface associated blood plasma coagulation cascade (CC) properties. For the IC and CC measurements we used a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) where we modified the chemistry of the sensor surface by applying 10-30 nm thick poly(alkyl methacrylate) coatings. The surface energy was calculated from water contact angles and small differences between the coatings were observed. The surface chemistry of the coatings, as determined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), showed no deviation from expected compositions. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) measurements revealed that all coatings displayed similar morphology and the roughness was in the range of 0.7-0.9 nm. Increased polymer mobility correlated with a decrease in IC activation, measured as a decreased C3c deposition at the surface. The surface induced CC, measured as fibrin clot formation at the surface, was different between the different coatings but no correlation with molecular mobility was observed. Thus, the molecular mobility of the polymer chains had a major effect on both the IC and the CC and it seems that different aspects of the chemistry of the solid surface regulate activation of the IC and the CC.

  18. A potential alternative/complement to the traditional thermal neutron based counting in Nuclear Safeguards and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernikova, Dina; Naeem, Syed F.; Axell, Kåre; Trnjanin, Nermin; Nordlund, Anders

    2016-02-01

    A new concept for thermal neutron based correlation and multiplicity measurements is proposed in this paper. The main idea of the concept consists of using 2.223 MeV gammas (or 1.201 MeV, DE) originating in the 1 H (n , γ) 2 D-reaction instead of using traditional thermal neutron counting. Results of investigations presented in this paper indicate that gammas from thermal neutron capture reactions preserve the information about the correlation characteristics of thermal (fast) neutrons in the same time scale. Therefore, instead of thermal neutron detectors (or as a complement) one may use traditional and inexpensive gamma detectors, such as NaI, BGO, CdZnTe or any other gamma detector. In this work we used D8×8 cm2 NaI scintillator to test the concept. Thus, the new approach helps to address the problem of replacement of 3He-counters and problems related to the specific measurements of spent nuclear fuel directly in the spent fuel pool. It has a particular importance for Nuclear Safeguards and Security. Overall, this work represents the proof of concept study and reports on the experimental and numerical evidence that thermal neutron capture gammas may be used in the context of correlation and multiplicity measurements. Investigations were performed using a 252Cf-correlated neutron source and an 241Am-Be-random neutron source. The related idea of the Gamma Differential Die-Away approach is investigated numerically in this paper as well, and will be tested experimentally in future work.

  19. The Local Complement Activation on Vascular Bed of Patients with Systemic Sclerosis: A Hypothesis-Generating Study

    PubMed Central

    Scambi, Cinzia; Ugolini, Sara; Jokiranta, T. Sakari; De Franceschi, Lucia; Bortolami, Oscar; La Verde, Valentina; Guarini, Patrizia; Caramaschi, Paola; Ravagnani, Viviana; Martignoni, Guido; Colato, Chiara; Pedron, Serena; Benedetti, Fabio; Sorio, Marco; Poli, Fabio; Biasi, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Objective The role of complement system in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) has been debated during the last decade but an evident implication in this disease has never been found. We carried out an explorative study on SSc patients to evaluate the expression of soluble and local C5b-9 complement complex and its relation with a complement regulator, the Membrane Cofactor Protein (MCP, CD46) on skin vascular bed as target distinctive of SSc disease. We also analyzed two polymorphic variants in the complement activation gene cluster involving the MCP region. Methods C5b-9 plasma levels of SSc patients and healthy subjects were analyzed by ELISA assay. Archival skin biopsies of SSc patients and controls were subjected to immunofluorescence analysis to detect C5b-9 and MCP on vascular endothelial cells. The expression of MCP was validated by immunoblot analysis with specific antibody. Polymorphic variants in the MCP gene promoter were tested by a quantitative PCR technique-based allelic discrimination method. Results Even though circulating levels of C5b-9 did not differ between SSc and controls, C5b-9 deposition was detected in skin biopsies of SSc patients but not in healthy subjects. MCP was significantly lower in skin vessels of SSc patients than in healthy controls and was associated with the over-expression of two polymorphic variants in the MCP gene promoter, which has been related to more aggressive phenotypes in other immune-mediated diseases. Conclusions Our results firsty document the local complement activation with an abnormal expression of MCP in skin vessels of SSc patients, suggesting that a subset of SSc patients might be exposed to more severe organ complications and clinical evolution due to abnormal local complement activation. PMID:25658605

  20. Complement component 3 (C3)

    MedlinePlus

    C3 and C4 are the most commonly measured complement components. A complement test may be used to monitor people with an ... normal levels of the complement proteins C3 and C4 . Complement activity varies throughout the body. For example, ...

  1. Complement Activation by Giardia duodenalis Parasites through the Lectin Pathway Contributes to Mast Cell Responses and Parasite Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Erqiu; Tako, Ernest A; Singer, Steven M

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease in the world. While numerous studies have identified important contributions of adaptive immune responses to parasite control, much less work has examined innate immunity and its connections to the adaptive response during this infection. We explored the role of complement in immunity to Giardia using mice deficient in mannose-binding lectin (Mbl2) or complement factor 3a receptor (C3aR). Both strains exhibited delayed clearance of parasites and a reduced ability to recruit mast cells in the intestinal submucosa. C3aR-deficient mice had normal production of antiparasite IgA, butex vivo T cell recall responses were impaired. These data suggest that complement is a key factor in the innate recognition of Giardia and that recruitment of mast cells and activation of T cell immunity through C3a are important for parasite control.

  2. Preparation of Low Molecular Weight Chondroitin Sulfates, Screening of a High Anti-Complement Capacity of Low Molecular Weight Chondroitin Sulfate and Its Biological Activity Studies in Attenuating Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lian; Li, Yan; Feng, Danyang; Xu, Linghua; Yin, Fengxin; Zang, Hengchang; Liu, Chunhui; Wang, Fengshan

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) plays important roles in the complement system. However, the CS structure is complicated due to different sources and the number and positions of sulfate groups. The objective of this study was to prepare different low molecular weight chondroitin sulfates (LMWCSs) and to investigate the biological activity in anti-complement capacity. A series of LMWCSs was prepared from different sources and characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Hemolytic, anti-complement 3 deposition capacity and cell viability assays were carried out to investigate the biological activities in vitro. The results showed that LMWCS prepared from shark cartilage with the oxidative degradation method (LMWCS-S-O) had the best anti-complement capacity. LMWCS-S-O could inhibit the alternative pathway of the complement system and protect chondrocytes from cell death. The attenuating effect of LMWCS-S-O on Osteoarthritis (OA) was investigated by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) model in vivo. Functional wind-up, histological and C5b-9 analyses were used to evaluate the treatment effect on the OA model. In vivo results showed that LMWCS-S-O could attenuate OA. LMWCS-S-O with a high content of ΔDi-2,6diS and ΔDi-6S could be used for attenuating OA through regulating the complement system. PMID:27727159

  3. The mechanisms of complement activation in normal bovine serum and normal horse serum against Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 strains with different outer membrane proteins content.

    PubMed

    Miętka, K; Brzostek, K; Guz-Regner, K; Bugla-Płoskońska, G

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a common zoonotic pathogen and facultative intracellular bacterium which can survive within blood cells. Cattle and horses are considered a reservoir of Y. enterocolitica which often causes several serious syndromes associated with yersiniosis such as abortions, premature births or infertility. The aim of our investigation was to determine the vitality of Y. enterocolitica O:9 strains (Ye9) in bovine and horse sera (NBS and NHrS) and explain the role of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in serum resistance of these bacteria. Our previous studies demonstrated moderate human serum (NHS) resistance of the wild type Ye9 strain, whereas mutants lacking YadA, Ail or OmpC remained sensitive to the bactericidal activity of NHS. The present study showed that the wild type of Ye9 strain was resistant to the bactericidal activity of both NHrS and NBS, while Ye9 mutants lacking the YadA, Ail and OmpC proteins were sensitive to NHrS and NBS as well as to NHS. The mechanisms of complement activation against Ye9 strains lacking Ail and YadA were distinguished, i.e. activation of the classical/lectin pathways decisive in the bactericidal mechanism of complement activation of NBS, parallel activation of the classical/lectin and alternative pathways of NHrS. In this research the mechanism of independent activation of the classical/lectin or the alternative pathway of NBS and NHrS against Ye9 lacking OmpC porin was also established. The results indicate that serum resistance of Ye9 is multifactorial, in which extracellular structures, i.e. outer membrane proteins (OMPs) such as Ail, OmpC or YadA, play the main role. PMID:27096793

  4. The mechanisms of complement activation in normal bovine serum and normal horse serum against Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 strains with different outer membrane proteins content.

    PubMed

    Miętka, K; Brzostek, K; Guz-Regner, K; Bugla-Płoskońska, G

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a common zoonotic pathogen and facultative intracellular bacterium which can survive within blood cells. Cattle and horses are considered a reservoir of Y. enterocolitica which often causes several serious syndromes associated with yersiniosis such as abortions, premature births or infertility. The aim of our investigation was to determine the vitality of Y. enterocolitica O:9 strains (Ye9) in bovine and horse sera (NBS and NHrS) and explain the role of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in serum resistance of these bacteria. Our previous studies demonstrated moderate human serum (NHS) resistance of the wild type Ye9 strain, whereas mutants lacking YadA, Ail or OmpC remained sensitive to the bactericidal activity of NHS. The present study showed that the wild type of Ye9 strain was resistant to the bactericidal activity of both NHrS and NBS, while Ye9 mutants lacking the YadA, Ail and OmpC proteins were sensitive to NHrS and NBS as well as to NHS. The mechanisms of complement activation against Ye9 strains lacking Ail and YadA were distinguished, i.e. activation of the classical/lectin pathways decisive in the bactericidal mechanism of complement activation of NBS, parallel activation of the classical/lectin and alternative pathways of NHrS. In this research the mechanism of independent activation of the classical/lectin or the alternative pathway of NBS and NHrS against Ye9 lacking OmpC porin was also established. The results indicate that serum resistance of Ye9 is multifactorial, in which extracellular structures, i.e. outer membrane proteins (OMPs) such as Ail, OmpC or YadA, play the main role.

  5. Integrated electric alternators/active filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towliat Abolhassani, Mehdi

    In response to energy crisis and power quality concerns, three different methodologies to integrate the concept of active filtering into the alternators are proposed. Wind energy, due to its free availability and its clean and renewable character, ranks as the most promising renewable energy resource that could play a key role in solving the worldwide energy crisis. An Integrated Doubly-fed Electric Alternator/Active filter (IDEA) for wind energy conversion systems is proposed. The proposed IDEA is capable of simultaneously capturing maximum power of wind energy and improving power quality, which are achieved by canceling the most significant and troublesome harmonics of the utility grid and power factor correction and reactive power compensation in the grid. The back-to-back current regulated power converters are employed to excite the rotor of IDEA. The control strategy of rotor-side power converter is based on position sensorless field oriented control method with higher power density. Analysis and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed IDEA. In the next step, an integrated synchronous machine/active filter is discussed. The proposed technology is essentially a rotating synchronous machine with suitable modification to its field excitation circuit to allow dc and ac excitations. It is shown that by controlling the ac excitation, the 5 th and 7th harmonics currents of the utility are compensated. The proposed method is cost effective because it can be applied to existing standby generators in commercial and industrial plants with minimal modification to the excitation circuits. To boost the gain of harmonic compensatory, an advanced electric machine is proposed. An Asymmetric Airgap Concentrated Winding Synchronous Machine (AACWSM) with ac and dc excitation was designed and employed. It is shown that the AACWSM with its unique design, in addition to power generation capability, could be used to compensate the most

  6. Laboratory tests for disorders of complement and complement regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Shih, Angela R; Murali, Mandakolathur R

    2015-12-01

    The complement pathway is a cascade of proteases that is involved in immune surveillance and innate immunity, as well as adaptive immunity. Dysfunction of the complement cascade may be mediated by aberrations in the pathways of activation, complement regulatory proteins, or complement deficiencies, and has been linked to a number of hematologic disorders, including paroxysmal noctural hemoglobinuria (PNH), hereditary angioedema (HAE), and atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS). Here, current laboratory tests for disorders of the complement pathway are reviewed, and their utility and limitations in hematologic disorders and systemic diseases are discussed. Current therapeutic advances targeting the complement pathway in treatment of complement-mediated hematologic disorders are also reviewed.

  7. Alternating Current Influences Anaerobic Electroactive Biofilm Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Lean; Lu, Lu; Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Li, Nan; Wang, Heming; Park, Jaedo; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-09-01

    Alternating current (AC) is known to inactivate microbial growth in suspension, but how AC influences anaerobic biofilm activities has not been systematically investigated. Using a Geobacter dominated anaerobic biofilm growing on the electrodes of microbial electrochemical reactors, we found that high frequency AC ranging from 1 MHz to 1 kHz (amplitude of 5 V, 30 min) showed only temporary inhibition to the biofilm activity. However, lower frequency (100 Hz, 1.2 or 5 V) treatment led to 47 ± 19% permanent decrease in limiting current on the same biofilm, which is attributed to the action of electrohydrodynamic force that caused biofilm damage and loss of intercellular electron transfer network. Confocal microscopy images show such inactivation mainly occurred at the interface between the biofilm and the electrode. Reducing the frequency further to 1 Hz led to water electrolysis, which generated gas bubbles that flushed all attached cells out of the electrode. These findings provide new references on understanding and regulating biofilm growth, which has broader implications in biofouling control, anaerobic waste treatment, energy and product recovery, and general understanding of microbial ecology and physiology. PMID:27485403

  8. Impaired jun-NH2-terminal kinase activation by ultraviolet irradiation in fibroblasts of patients with Cockayne syndrome complementation group B.

    PubMed

    Dhar, V; Adler, V; Lehmann, A; Ronai, Z

    1996-06-01

    c-jun-NH2 kinases (JNK) are among the UV-activated protein kinases that play an important role in cellular stress response via the phosphorylation of c-jun, ATF2, and p53. Activation of JNK by UV irradiation requires cooperation between membrane and nuclear components, including DNA lesions per se. The role of DNA lesions in JNK activation led us to explore the inducibility of these kinases in cells of repair-deficient patients. Analyses of primary fibroblast cell lines from patients with Cockayne Syndrome of complementation group B (CS-B) revealed poor JNK activation after UV irradiation in four of five cases when compared with three repair-proficient, normal human fibroblast cell lines. Impaired ability to activate JNK persisted at various time points and with different doses of UV irradiation and coincided with failure of in vitro damaged DNA to activate these kinases. In contrast to UV irradiation, other forms of stress, such as H2O2 or heat shock were capable of inducing JNK activation in CS-B cells. Interestingly, when UV irradiation was administered after osmotic shock, it led to JNK activation in CS-B cells, indicating that alternate signal transduction pathways that are activated in response to other forms of stress can potentiate JNK activation by UV irradiation. Unlike CS-B cells, those of other repair-deficient cells, including xeroderma pigmentosum of different complementation groups, revealed proper activation of JNK by UV irradiation. Together, our findings point to deficiency of JNK activation by UV irradiation in CS-B cells, a phenomenon which may be associated with impaired CS-B, the mutant repair gene in these patients. PMID:8780897

  9. Heparin-protamine complexes and C-reactive protein induce activation of the classical complement pathway: studies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bruins, P; te Velthuis, H; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Yazdanbakhsh, A P; de Beaumont, E M; Eijsman, L; Trouwborst, A; Hack, C E

    2000-08-01

    The administration of protamine to patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to neutralize heparin and to reduce the risk of bleeding, induces activation of the classical complement pathway mainly by heparin-protamine complexes. We investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) contributes to protamine-induced complement activation. In 24 patients during myocardial revascularization, we measured complement, CRP, and complement-CRP complexes, reflecting CRP-mediated complement activation in vivo. We also incubated plasma from healthy volunteers and patients with heparin and protamine in vitro to study CRP-mediated complement activation. During CPB, CRP levels remained unchanged while C3 activation products increased. C4 activation occurred after protamine administration. CRP-complement complexes increased at the end of CPB and upon protamine administration. Incubation of plasma with heparin and protamine in vitro generated complement-CRP complexes, which was blocked by phosphorylcholine and stimulated by exogenous CRP. C4d-CRP complex formation after protamine administration correlated clinically with the incidence of postoperative arrhythmia. Protamine administration during cardiac surgery induces complement activation which in part is CRP-dependent, and correlates with postoperative arrhythmia.

  10. Provirus activation plus CD59 blockage triggers antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis of latently HIV-1-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jie; Yang, Kai; Byrd, Daniel; Hu, Ningjie; Amet, Tohti; Shepherd, Nicole; Desai, Mona; Gao, Jimin; Gupta, Samir; Sun, Yongtao; Yu, Qigui

    2014-10-01

    Latently HIV-1-infected cells are recognized as the last barrier toward viral eradication and cure. To purge these cells, we combined a provirus stimulant with a blocker of human CD59, a key member of the regulators of complement activation, to trigger Ab-dependent complement-mediated lysis. Provirus stimulants including prostratin and histone deacetylase inhibitors such as romidepsin and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid activated proviruses in the latently HIV-1-infected T cell line ACH-2 as virion production and viral protein expression on the cell surface were induced. Romidepsin was the most attractive provirus stimulant as it effectively activated proviruses at nanomolar concentrations that can be achieved clinically. Antiretroviral drugs including two protease inhibitors (atazanavir and darunavir) and an RT inhibitor (emtricitabine) did not affect the activity of provirus stimulants in the activation of proviruses. However, saquinavir (a protease inhibitor) markedly suppressed virus production, although it did not affect the percentage of cells expressing viral Env on the cell surface. Provirus-activated ACH-2 cells expressed HIV-1 Env that colocalized with CD59 in lipid rafts on the cell surface, facilitating direct interaction between them. Blockage of CD59 rendered provirus-activated ACH-2 cells and primary human CD4(+) T cells that were latently infected with HIV-1 sensitive to Ab-dependent complement-mediated lysis by anti-HIV-1 polyclonal Abs or plasma from HIV-1-infected patients. Therefore, a combination of provirus stimulants with regulators of complement activation blockers represents a novel approach to eliminate HIV-1.

  11. The complement system in systemic autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Daha, Mohamed R; Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2010-05-01

    Complement is part of the innate immune system. Its major function is recognition and elimination of pathogens via direct killing and/or stimulation of phagocytosis. Activation of the complement system is, however, also involved in the pathogenesis of the systemic autoimmune diseases. Activation via the classical pathway has long been recognized in immune complex-mediated diseases such as cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In SLE, the role of complement is somewhat paradoxical. It is involved in autoantibody-initiated tissue damage on the one hand, but, on the other hand, it appears to have protective features as hereditary deficiencies of classical pathway components are associated with an increased risk for SLE. There is increasing evidence that the alternative pathway of complement, even more than the classical pathway, is involved in many systemic autoimmune diseases. This is true for IgA-dominant Henoch Schönlein Purpura, in which additional activation of the lectin pathway contributes to more severe disease. In anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis the complement system was considered not to be involved since immunoglobulin deposition is generally absent in the lesions. However, recent studies, both in human and animal models, demonstrated complement activation via the alternative pathway as a major pathogenic mechanism. Insight into the role of the various pathways of complement in the systemic autoimmune diseases including the vasculitides opens up new ways of treatment by blocking effector pathways of complement. This has been demonstrated for monoclonal antibodies to C5 or C5a in experimental anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome and ANCA-associated vasculitis.

  12. A plant proton-pumping inorganic pyrophosphatase functionally complements the vacuolar ATPase transport activity and confers bafilomycin resistance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castiñeira, José R; Hernández, Agustín; Drake, Rocío; Serrano, Aurelio

    2011-07-15

    V-ATPases (vacuolar H+-ATPases) are a specific class of multi-subunit pumps that play an essential role in the generation of proton gradients across eukaryotic endomembranes. Another simpler proton pump that co-localizes with the V-ATPase occurs in plants and many protists: the single-subunit H+-PPase [H+-translocating PPase (inorganic pyrophosphatase)]. Little is known about the relative contribution of these two proteins to the acidification of intracellular compartments. In the present study, we show that the expression of a chimaeric derivative of the Arabidopsis thaliana H+-PPase AVP1, which is preferentially targeted to internal membranes of yeast, alleviates the phenotypes associated with V-ATPase deficiency. Phenotypic complementation was achieved both with a yeast strain with its V-ATPase specifically inhibited by bafilomycin A1 and with a vma1-null mutant lacking a catalytic V-ATPase subunit. Cell staining with vital fluorescent dyes showed that AVP1 recovered vacuole acidification and normalized the endocytic pathway of the vma mutant. Biochemical and immunochemical studies further demonstrated that a significant fraction of heterologous H+-PPase is located at the vacuolar membrane. These results raise the question of the occurrence of distinct proton pumps in certain single-membrane organelles, such as plant vacuoles, by proving yeast V-ATPase activity dispensability and the capability of H+-PPase to generate, by itself, physiologically suitable internal pH gradients. Also, they suggest new ways of engineering macrolide drug tolerance and outline an experimental system for testing alternative roles for fungal and animal V-ATPases, other than the mere acidification of subcellular organelles.

  13. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone.

  14. MMP-10 Regulates Collagenolytic Activity of Alternatively Activated Resident Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Rohani, Maryam G.; McMahan, Ryan S.; Razumova, Maria V.; Hertz, Angie L.; Cieslewicz, Maryelise; Pun, Suzie H.; Regnier, Michael; Wang, Ying; Birkland, Timothy P.; Parks, William C.

    2015-01-01

    MMP-10 is expressed by macrophages and epithelium in response to injury, but its functions in wound repair are unknown. We observed increased collagen deposition and skin stiffness in Mmp10−/− wounds with no difference in collagen expression or re-epithelialization. Increased collagen deposition in Mmp10−/− wounds was accompanied by less collagenolytic activity and reduced expression of specific metallocollagenases, particularly MMP-8 and MMP-13, where MMP-13 was the key collagenase. Ablation and adoptive transfer approaches and cell-based models demonstrated that the MMP-10-dependent collagenolytic activity was a product of alternatively activated (M2) resident macrophages. These data demonstrate a critical role for macrophage MMP-10 in controlling the tissue remodeling activity of macrophages and moderating scar formation during wound repair. PMID:25927164

  15. Inhibition of the alternative pathway of nonhuman infant complement by porin B2 contributes to virulence of Neisseria meningitidis in the infant rat model.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lisa A; Vu, David M; Granoff, Dan M; Ram, Sanjay

    2014-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis utilizes capsular polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) sialic acid, factor H binding protein (fHbp), and neisserial surface protein A (NspA) to regulate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Using meningococcal mutants that lacked all four of the above-mentioned molecules (quadruple mutants), we recently identified a role for PorB2 in attenuating the human AP; inhibition was mediated by human fH, a key downregulatory protein of the AP. Previous studies showed that fH downregulation of the AP via fHbp or NspA is specific for human fH. Here, we report that PorB2-expressing quadruple mutants also regulate the AP of baby rabbit and infant rat complement. Blocking a human fH binding region on PorB2 of the quadruple mutant of strain 4243 with a chimeric protein that comprised human fH domains 6 and 7 fused to murine IgG Fc enhanced AP-mediated baby rabbit C3 deposition, which provided evidence for an fH-dependent mechanism of nonhuman AP regulation by PorB2. Using isogenic mutants of strain H44/76 that differed only in their PorB molecules, we confirmed a role for PorB2 in resistance to killing by infant rat serum. The PorB2-expressing strain also caused higher levels of bacteremia in infant rats than its isogenic PorB3-expressing counterpart, thus providing a molecular basis for increased survival of PorB2 isolates in this model. These studies link PorB2 expression with infection of infant rats, which could inform the choice of meningococcal strains for use in animal models, and reveals, for the first time, that PorB2-expressing strains of N. meningitidis regulate the AP of baby rabbits and rats.

  16. Humoral pattern recognition and the complement system.

    PubMed

    Degn, S E; Thiel, S

    2013-08-01

    In the context of immunity, pattern recognition is the art of discriminating friend from foe and innocuous from noxious. The basis of discrimination is the existence of evolutionarily conserved patterns on microorganisms, which are intrinsic to these microorganisms and necessary for their function and existence. Such immutable or slowly evolving patterns are ideal handles for recognition and have been targeted by early cellular immune defence mechanisms such as Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and by humoral defence mechanisms such as the complement system. Complement is a proteolytic cascade system comprising around 35 different soluble and membrane-bound proteins. It constitutes a central part of the innate immune system, mediating several major innate effector functions and modulating adaptive immune responses. The complement cascade proceeds via controlled, limited proteolysis and conformational changes of constituent proteins through three activation pathways: the classical pathway, the alternative pathway and the lectin pathway, which converge in common effector functions. Here, we review the nature of the pattern recognition molecules involved in complement activation, as well as their close relatives with no or unknown capacity for activating complement. We proceed to examine the composition of the pattern recognition complexes involved in complement activation, focusing on those of the lectin pathway, and arrive at a new model for their mechanism of operation, supported by recently emerging evidence.

  17. Synthesis and classical pathway Complement inhibitory activity of C7-functionalized filifolinol derivatives, inspired in K-76 COOH.

    PubMed

    Larghi, Enrique L; Operto, María A; Torres, Rene; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2012-09-01

    A series of carboxylic acids carrying various functionalization on C-7 of their common 3H-spiro[benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexane] skeleton were synthesized from filifolinol, as analogs of the natural Complement inhibitor K-76 COOH. In order to probe the relevance of the C-7 functionalization on their bioactivity, the ability of the analogs to inhibit Complement activation through the classical pathway was determined. The observed results suggest that functionalization of C-7 can modulate the inhibitory activity of the tested compounds. The 7-trifluoromethyl derivative was the compound with the lowest IC(50) value among the tested analogs (IC(50) = 100 μM), being more potent than K-76 COOH (IC(50) = 570 μM).

  18. Exploring the potential benefits of vaccinia virus complement control protein in controlling complement activation in pathogenesis of the central nervous system diseases.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Girish J; Fernando, Nilisha; Zhou, Jianhua; Valter, Krisztina

    2014-10-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for the development of diseases related to the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both cases, linkage studies and genome-wide association studies found strong links with complement regulatory genes and disease risk. In AD, both CLU and CR1 genes were implicated in the late-onset form of the disease. In AMD, polymorphisms in CFH, CFB and C2 were similarly implicated. The cost of caring for patients with AD or AMD is approaching billions of dollars, and with the baby boomers reaching their 60's, this amount is likely to increase further. Intervention using complement inhibitors for individuals in their early 50s who are at a higher risk of disease development, (testing positive for genetic risk factors), could slow the progression of AD or AMD and possibly prevent the severity of late stage symptoms. Although we have used the vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) to elucidate the role of complement in CNS diseases, it has merely been an investigational tool but not the only possible potential therapeutic agent.

  19. Activation of the complement system in baboons challenged with live Escherichia coli: correlation with mortality and evidence for a biphasic activation pattern.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J P; Creasey, A A; Chang, A; Roem, D; Eerenberg, A J; Hack, C E; Taylor, F B

    1993-10-01

    Activation of the complement system was studied in baboons that were challenged with live Escherichia coli. In the group challenged with a lethal dose (n = 4), the complement activation parameters C3b/c, C4b/c, and C5b-9 increased 13, 5, and 12 times the baseline value, respectively, during the first 6 h after the E. coli infusion, whereas in the group challenged with a sublethal dose (n = 10), they increased only moderately, by 2 to 3 times the baseline value. However, in this latter group, a more pronounced activation occurred at 24 h. Subsequent experiments showed that this second phase in complement activation started at 6 h after the challenge, at which time infused microorganisms had been cleared from the circulation. The simultaneous increase in C-reactive protein with this second phase suggested an endogenous activation mechanism involving this acute-phase protein. Levels of inactivated (modified) C1 inhibitor also increased in both groups, with peak levels of 2.5 times the baseline value at 24 h in the sublethal group and of 4 times at 6 h after the challenge in the lethal group. Thus, activation of complement in this animal model for sepsis occurs in a biphasic pattern, the initial phase mediated by the bacteria and the later phase mediated by an endogenous mechanism possibly involving C-reactive protein. The differences in complement activation between animals with lethal or sublethal sepsis support the hypothesis that complement activation contributes to the lethal complications of sepsis.

  20. Activated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 signaling induces CD46 expression and protects human cancer cells from complement-dependent cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Buettner, Ralf; Huang, Mei; Gritsko, Tanya; Karras, Jim; Enkemann, Steve; Mesa, Tania; Nam, Sangkil; Yu, Hua; Jove, Richard

    2007-08-01

    CD46 is one of the complement-regulatory proteins expressed on the surface of normal and tumor cells for protection against complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Cancer cells need to access the blood circulation for continued growth and metastasis, thus exposing themselves to destruction by complement system components. Previous studies have established that the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor is persistently activated in a wide variety of human cancer cells and primary tumor tissues compared with their normal counterparts. Using microarray gene expression profiling, we identified the CD46 gene as a target for activated STAT3 signaling in human breast and prostate cancer cells. The CD46 promoter contains two binding sites for activated STAT3 and mutations introduced into the major site abolished STAT3 binding. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirms binding of STAT3 to the CD46 promoter. CD46 promoter activity is induced by activation of STAT3 and blocked by a dominant-negative form of STAT3 in luciferase reporter assays. CD46 mRNA expression is induced by interleukin-6 and by transient transfection of normal human epithelial cells with a persistently active mutant construct of STAT3, STAT3C. Furthermore, we show that inhibition of STAT3-mediated CD46 cell surface expression sensitizes DU145 prostate cancer cells to cytotoxicity in an in vitro complement lysis assay using rabbit anti-DU145 antiserum and rabbit complement. These results show that activated STAT3 signaling induces the CD46 promoter and protects human cancer cells from complement-dependent cytotoxicity, suggesting a potential mechanism whereby oncogenic signaling contributes to tumor cell evasion of antibody-mediated immunity.

  1. Critical Role and Therapeutic Control of the Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation in an Abortion-Prone Mouse Mating.

    PubMed

    Petitbarat, Marie; Durigutto, Paolo; Macor, Paolo; Bulla, Roberta; Palmioli, Alessandro; Bernardi, Anna; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia; Ledee, Nathalie; Chaouat, Gerard; Tedesco, Francesco

    2015-12-15

    The abortion-prone mating combination CBA/J × DBA/2 has been recognized as a model of preeclampsia, and complement activation has been implicated in the high rate of pregnancy loss observed in CBA/J mice. We have analyzed the implantation sites collected from DBA/2-mated CBA/J mice for the deposition of the complement recognition molecules using CBA/J mated with BALB/c mice as a control group. MBL-A was observed in the implantation sites of CBA/J × DBA/2 combination in the absence of MBL-C and was undetectable in BALB/c-mated CBA/J mice. Conversely, C1q was present in both mating combinations. Searching for other complement components localized at the implantation sites of CBA/J × DBA/2, we found C4 and C3, but we failed to reveal C1r. These data suggest that complement is activated through the lectin pathway and proceeds to completion of the activation sequence as revealed by C9 deposition. MBL-A was detected as early as 3.5 d of pregnancy, and MBL-A deficiency prevented pregnancy loss in the abortion-prone mating combination. The contribution of the terminal complex to miscarriage was supported by the finding that pregnancy failure was largely inhibited by the administration of neutralizing Ab to C5. Treatment of DBA/2-mated CBA/J mice with Polyman2 that binds to MBL-A with high affinity proved to be highly effective in controlling the activation of the lectin pathway and in preventing fetal loss. PMID:26561549

  2. A complement C3 inhibitor specifically targeted to sites of complement activation effectively ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongbin; Qiao, Fei; Atkinson, Carl; Holers, V Michael; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) represents an animal model of autoimmune polyarthritis with similarities to human rheumatoid arthritis, and therapy with various systemic complement-inhibitory proteins has been investigated in this model with varying results. We investigated the use of complement receptor 2 (CR2)-Crry, a complement inhibitor with the ability to target C3 breakdown products deposited in a rheumatic joint. Following induction of CIA in DBA/1J mice, animals were treated with either PBS or CR2-Crry (every other day, every 4 days, or with a single injection). The severity of clinical disease was significantly reduced in all CR2-Crry-treated groups compared with controls. Joints from mice receiving multiple doses of CR2-Crry showed significantly decreased inflammatory cell infiltrate, cartilage damage, pannus formation, and bone damage. CR2-Crry treatment also significantly decreased production of anti-collagen IgG and the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. IL-10 and IL-1Ra levels were increased in CR2-Crry-treated mice. CR2-Crry localized preferentially in the joints of mice with CIA. Analysis of IgG and C3 deposition in the joints of treated animals indicated that both complement regulation and the modulation of anti-collagen Ab production contributed to the protective effects of CR2-Crry. Of interest, a previous study reported that Crry-Ig, an untargeted counterpart of CR2-Crry, had minimal effect on disease, even when administered at a sufficiently high dose to maintain chronic complement inhibition. PMID:18025232

  3. Complement activity, serum protein, and hepatic changes in guinea pigs given sterigmatocystin or aflatoxin, alone or in combination.

    PubMed

    Richard, J L; Thurston, J R; Lillehoj, E B; Cysewski, S J; Booth, G D

    1978-01-01

    Effects of either sterigmatocystin or aflatoxin, alone or in combination, given orally to guinea pigs were studied. Sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B1 given alone and in combination at 4.2 mg/day and 0.01 mg/day, respectively, markedly reduced body weight. Although changes in total serum protein were not marked in any of the guinea pigs in this study, sterigmatocystin given alone and aflatoxin given alone significantly ( less than 0.05) decreased alpha2-globulin. The combination of toxins significantly (P less than 0.01) increased albumin and significantly (P less than 0.01) decreased both alpha2- and beta-globulins. Sterigmatocystin depressed complement activity, although not significantly. However, the combination of sterimatocystin with 0.01 mg of aflatoxin B1/day (an amount that does not affect complement activity alone) significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced complement activity. Increased severity of lesions was not found in guinea pigs given aflatoxin at 0.01 mg of B1 equivalents/day in addition to the sterigmatocystin. PMID:629440

  4. Circulating immune complexes, complement activation kinetics and serum sickness following treatment with heterologous anti-snake venom globulin.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H; Sørensen, H; Faber, V; Svehag, S E

    1978-01-01

    Consecutive serum and plasma samples, from a patient receiving 100 ml polyvalent horse anti-venom globulin after a rattlesnake bite, were analysed for circulating immune complexes (IC) and activation of complement factors. IC were determined by two independent methods, a complement consumption assay and a Clq-binding assay. Rapidly rising levels of complement-fixing circulating IC were detected as early as 4--5 days after the serum treatment and distinct IC-activity was recorded in both assays on day 8 when clinical symptoms of serum sickness were observed. The IC remained in circulation for at least 5 weeks. Signs of intravascular C-activation in the form of low C3, C4 and C5 values was noted on day 1 after treatment. Factor B was demonstrable 3--4 days after the snake bite and this factor and C3c attained a peak around day 8, just before maximal suppression of native C3 and C4. 14 days after the globulin treatment C3c and B were declining rapidly while C3 and C4 approached normal values first 36 days after treatment. An increase in heterophilic antibodies to sheep erythrocytes was observed after treatment with anti-venom globulin. PMID:635471

  5. Therapeutic complement inhibition in complement-mediated hemolytic anemias: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Risitano, Antonio M; Marotta, Serena

    2016-06-01

    The introduction in the clinic of anti-complement agents represented a major achievement which gave to physicians a novel etiologic treatment for different human diseases. Indeed, the first anti-complement agent eculizumab has changed the treatment paradigm of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), dramatically impacting its severe clinical course. In addition, eculizumab is the first agent approved for atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS), a life-threatening inherited thrombotic microangiopathy. Nevertheless, such remarkable milestone in medicine has brought to the fore additional challenges for the scientific community. Indeed, the list of complement-mediated anemias is not limited to PNH and aHUS, and other human diseases can be considered for anti-complement treatment. They include other thrombotic microangiopathies, as well as some antibody-mediated hemolytic anemias. Furthermore, more than ten years of experience with eculizumab led to a better understanding of the individual steps of the complement cascade involved in the pathophysiology of different human diseases. Based on this, new unmet clinical needs are emerging; a number of different strategies are currently under development to improve current anti-complement treatment, trying to address these specific clinical needs. They include: (i) alternative anti-C5 agents, which may improve the heaviness of eculizumab treatment; (ii) broad-spectrum anti-C3 agents, which may improve the efficacy of anti-C5 treatment by intercepting the complement cascade upstream (i.e., preventing C3-mediated extravascular hemolysis in PNH); (iii) targeted inhibitors of selective complement activating pathways, which may prevent early pathogenic events of specific human diseases (e.g., anti-classical pathway for antibody-mediated anemias, or anti-alternative pathway for PNH and aHUS). Here we briefly summarize the status of art of current and future complement inhibition for different complement-mediated anemias

  6. Structural characterization of a homogalacturonan from Capparis spinosa L. fruits and anti-complement activity of its sulfated derivative.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijun; Wang, Hongwei; Shi, Songshan; Duan, Jinyou; Wang, Shunchun

    2012-08-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide CSPS-2B-2 with a molecular mass of 8.8 kDa, was obtained from the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. Chemical and NMR spectral analysis verified CSPS-2B-2 was a linear poly-(1-4)-α-D-galactopyranosyluronic acid in which 12.9±0.4% of carboxyl groups existed as methyl ester and 2.6±0.1% of D-GalpA residues were acetylated. A sulfated derivative Sul-2B-2 with a sulfation degree of 0.88±0.02 was prepared via the substitution of C-2 and/or C-3 of GalpA residues in CSPS-2B-2. Bioassay on the complement and coagulation system demonstrated that Sul-2B-2 (CH(50): 3.5±0.2 μg/mL) had a stronger inhibitory effect on the activation of complement system through the classic pathway than that of heparin (CH(50): 8.9±0.3 μg/mL). Interestingly, Sul-2B-2 at low dose even middle dose (for example 52 μg/mL) had no effect on coagulation system, which was totally different from heparin. Thus, our observation indicated that Sul-2B-2 was more efficient than heparin in inhibiting the activation of the complement system through classical pathway and exhibiting a relatively less anti-coagulant activity. These results suggested that the sulfated derivative Sul-2B-2 prepared from the homogalacturonan in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L, might be a promising drug candidate in case of necessary therapeutic complement inhibition.

  7. Complement regulators in human disease: lessons from modern genetics.

    PubMed

    K Liszewski, M; Atkinson, J P

    2015-03-01

    First identified in human serum in the late 19th century as a 'complement' to antibodies in mediating bacterial lysis, the complement system emerged more than a billion years ago probably as the first humoral immune system. The contemporary complement system consists of nearly 60 proteins in three activation pathways (classical, alternative and lectin) and a terminal cytolytic pathway common to all. Modern molecular biology and genetics have not only led to further elucidation of the structure of complement system components, but have also revealed function-altering rare variants and common polymorphisms, particularly in regulators of the alternative pathway, that predispose to human disease by creating 'hyperinflammatory complement phenotypes'. To treat these 'complementopathies', a monoclonal antibody against the initiator of the membrane attack complex, C5, has received approval for use. Additional therapeutic reagents are on the horizon.

  8. The activation of the C3b feedback cycle with human complement components. I. Through the classical pathway.

    PubMed

    Mak, L W; Lachmann, P J; Majewski, J

    1977-11-01

    Reaction between the fourth, the oxidized second and the activated first components of human complement generated the stable enzyme C4oxy2 capable of cleaving the third component and depleting total complement in human serum. This enzyme was shown further to activate the C3b feedback cycle as shown by its ability to consume factor B in serum and the reduction in the extent of complement consumption in the presence of EDTA. OxyC2 on its own gave rise to C3 cleavage in normal human serum by a pathway needing classical pathway components. This unexpected finding suggests that there may be a 'C-1 tickover' in serum analogous to the 'C3b tickover'; the presence of oxyC2 allowing the 'capture' of the trivial amounts of C42 normally formed. In preliminary experiments in the rat, C4oxy2 was successfully formed in vivo, where it gave rise to cleavage of C3, consumption of C5, depletion of cobra venom factor cofactors and a biphasic change in the neutrophil count.

  9. A novel peptide can mimic extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein to block the activation of complement system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ya-ping; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yu; Lu, Qiang; Feng, Jian-nan; Tan, Xiao-rong; Yang, Guang

    2013-07-01

    Extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bi-functional protein, which can specifically bind fibrinogen with its N terminus and inhibit deposition of C3b on the surface of S. aureus with its C terminus. Here, we screened the epitopes of Efb using phage display. Four peptides with consensus motif were screened. This consensus motif was identical to C terminus (161-164) of Efb. In the further investigation, it was found the synthesized peptide EC1 (154-165aa of Efb) could specifically bind C3/C3b and subsequently to block the activation of complement. Meanwhile, EC1 could inhibit the interaction between Efb and C3/C3b. Moreover, the interaction between the mutant protein of EmC1 (Efb without EC1) and C3 was decreased. And, the effect on the complement system of the mutant protein was dramatically declined compared with Efb. Our finding suggested that the peptide EC1 could mimic Efb to block complement system activation via binding C3.

  10. Regulation of Complement and Contact System Activation via C1 Inhibitor Potentiation and Factor XIIa Activity Modulation by Sulfated Glycans – Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Lahrsen, Eric; Alban, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The serpin C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) is the only regulator of classical complement activation as well as the major regulator of the contact system. Its importance is demonstrated by hereditary angioedema (HAE), a severe disease with potentially life-threatening attacks due to deficiency or dysfunction of C1-INH. C1-INH replacement is the therapy of choice in HAE. In addition, C1-INH showed to have beneficial effects in other diseases characterized by inappropriate complement and contact system activation. Due to some limitations of its clinical application, there is a need for improving the efficacy of therapeutically applied C1-INH or to enhance the activity of endogenous C1-INH. Given the known potentiating effect of heparin on C1-INH, sulfated glycans (SG) may be such candidates. The aim of this study was to characterize suitable SG by evaluating structure-activity relationships. For this, more than 40 structurally distinct SG were examined for their effects on C1-INH, C1s and FXIIa. The SG turned out to potentiate the C1s inhibition by C1-INH without any direct influence on C1s. Their potentiating activity proved to depend on their degree of sulfation, molecular mass as well as glycan structure. In contrast, the SG had no effect on the FXIIa inhibition by C1-INH, but structure-dependently modulated the activity of FXIIa. Among the tested SG, β-1,3-glucan sulfates with a Mr ≤ 10 000 were identified as most promising lead candidates for the development of a glycan-based C1-INH amplifier. In conclusion, the obtained information on structural characteristics of SG favoring C1-INH potentiation represent an useful elementary basis for the development of compounds improving the potency of C1-INH in diseases and clinical situations characterized by inappropriate activation of complement and contact system. PMID:27783665

  11. Structural features and complement-fixing activity of pectin from three Brassica oleracea varieties: white cabbage, kale, and red kale.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Westereng, Bjørge; Yousif, Osman; Holtekjølen, Ann Katrin; Michaelsen, Terje E; Knutsen, Svein H

    2007-02-01

    Leaves of different cabbage species are used both as food and as wound healing remedies in traditional medicine. This supposed wound healing activity might be connected to presence of immunomodulating water soluble polysaccharides. To study this, three different cabbage varieties, white cabbage (W), kale (K), and red kale (RK), were pretreated with 80% ethanol and then extracted with water at 50 degrees C and 100 degrees C for isolation of polysaccharide-containing fractions. The fractions were analyzed for monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, Mw distribution, protein content, and phenolic compounds and then tested for complement-fixing activity. All fractions contained pectin type polysaccharides with linkages corresponding to homogalacturonan and hairy regions. Those extracted at 50 degrees C contained higher amounts of neutral side chains and were more active in the complement-fixation test than those extracted at 100 degrees C. The fractions can be ranged by decreasing activity: K-50 > RK-50 > W-50 approximately = K-100 > RK100 approximately = W-100. Studies on structure-activity relationships (SAR) employing multivariate statistical analysis strongly suggest that the magnitude of the measured activity is influenced by the content of certain side chains in the polymers. High activity correlates to large neutral side chains with high amounts of (1-->6)- and (1-->3,6)-linked Gal and low amounts of (1-->4)-linked GalA but not on molecular weight distribution of the polymers.

  12. Crosstalk between complement and Toll-like receptor activation in relation to donor brain death and renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Damman, Jeffrey; Daha, Mohamed R; van Son, Willem J; Leuvenink, Henri G; Ploeg, Rutger J; Seelen, Marc A

    2011-04-01

    Two central pathways of innate immunity, complement and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), play an important role in the pathogenesis of renal injury inherent to kidney transplantation. Recent findings indicate close crosstalk between complement and TLR signaling pathways. It is suggested that mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) might be the key molecules linking both the complement and TLR pathways together. Complement and TLRs are important mediators of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Besides IRI, complement C3 can also be upregulated and activated in the kidney before transplantation as a direct result of brain death (BD) in the donor. This local upregulation and activation of complement in the donor kidney has been proven to be detrimental for renal allograft outcome. Also TLR4 and several of its major ligands are upregulated by donor BD compared to living donors. Important and in line with the observations above, kidney transplant recipients have a benefit when receiving a kidney from a TLR4 Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile genotypic donor. The role of complement and TLRs and crosstalk between these two innate immune systems in relation to renal injury during donor BD and ischemia-reperfusion are focus of this review. Future strategies to target complement and TLR activation in kidney transplantation are considered.

  13. Complement analysis 2016: Clinical indications, laboratory diagnostics and quality control.

    PubMed

    Prohászka, Zoltán; Nilsson, Bo; Frazer-Abel, Ashley; Kirschfink, Michael

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, complement analysis of body fluids and biopsies, going far beyond C3 and C4, has significantly enhanced our understanding of the disease process. Such expanded complement analysis allows for a more precise differential diagnosis and for critical monitoring of complement-targeted therapy. These changes are a result of the growing understanding of the involvement of complement in a diverse set of disorders. To appreciate the importance of proper complement analysis, it is important to understand the role it plays in disease. Historically, it was the absence of complement as manifested in severe infection that was noted. Since then complement has been connected to a variety of inflammatory disorders, such as autoimmune diseases and hereditary angioedema. While the role of complement in the rejection of renal grafts has been known longer, the significant impact of complement. In certain nephropathies has now led to the reclassification of some rare kidney diseases and an increased role for complement analysis in diagnosis. Even more unexpected is that complement has also been implicated in neural, ophtalmological and dermatological disorders. With this level of involvement in some varied and impactful health issues proper complement testing is clearly important; however, analysis of the complement system varies widely among laboratories. Except for a few proteins, such as C3 and C4, there are neither well-characterized standard preparations nor calibrated assays available. This is especially true for the inter-laboratory variation of tests which assess classical, alternative, or lectin pathway function. In addition, there is a need for the standardization of the measurement of complement activation products that are so critical in determining whether clinically relevant complement activation has occurred in vivo. Finally, autoantibodies to complement proteins (e.g. anti-C1q), C3 and C4 convertases (C3 and C4 nephritic factor) or to regulatory proteins

  14. Complement analysis 2016: Clinical indications, laboratory diagnostics and quality control.

    PubMed

    Prohászka, Zoltán; Nilsson, Bo; Frazer-Abel, Ashley; Kirschfink, Michael

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, complement analysis of body fluids and biopsies, going far beyond C3 and C4, has significantly enhanced our understanding of the disease process. Such expanded complement analysis allows for a more precise differential diagnosis and for critical monitoring of complement-targeted therapy. These changes are a result of the growing understanding of the involvement of complement in a diverse set of disorders. To appreciate the importance of proper complement analysis, it is important to understand the role it plays in disease. Historically, it was the absence of complement as manifested in severe infection that was noted. Since then complement has been connected to a variety of inflammatory disorders, such as autoimmune diseases and hereditary angioedema. While the role of complement in the rejection of renal grafts has been known longer, the significant impact of complement. In certain nephropathies has now led to the reclassification of some rare kidney diseases and an increased role for complement analysis in diagnosis. Even more unexpected is that complement has also been implicated in neural, ophtalmological and dermatological disorders. With this level of involvement in some varied and impactful health issues proper complement testing is clearly important; however, analysis of the complement system varies widely among laboratories. Except for a few proteins, such as C3 and C4, there are neither well-characterized standard preparations nor calibrated assays available. This is especially true for the inter-laboratory variation of tests which assess classical, alternative, or lectin pathway function. In addition, there is a need for the standardization of the measurement of complement activation products that are so critical in determining whether clinically relevant complement activation has occurred in vivo. Finally, autoantibodies to complement proteins (e.g. anti-C1q), C3 and C4 convertases (C3 and C4 nephritic factor) or to regulatory proteins

  15. Complement activation by necrotic cells in normal plasma environment compares to that by late apoptotic cells and involves predominantly IgM.

    PubMed

    Ciurana, Caroline L F; Zwart, Bas; van Mierlo, Gerard; Hack, C Erik

    2004-09-01

    Necrotic cells are generally considered to stimulate inflammation, whereas apoptotic cells should not. However, apoptotic cells have pro-inflammatory properties since they can activate complement. To what extent this activation compares to that by necrotic cells is not known. We compared complement activation by necrotic cells and apoptotic cells in plasma. Jurkat cells were made apoptotic or necrotic by incubation with etoposide or by heat shock, respectively. Cells incubated in recalcified plasma were tested for C3 and C4 fixation and fluid phase generation of complement activation products. Fixation of C3 and C4 to necrotic cells occurred mainly via the classical pathway, independent from the method of necrosis induction and the cell type. Depletion of IgM from plasma almost completely abrogated complement fixation by necrotic cells, which was restored by supplementation with purified IgM. Complement activation by late apoptotic cells was comparable to that by necrotic cells regarding the extent and dependence on IgM. Moreover, incubation of plasma with necrotic or late apoptotic cells led to the generation of comparable amounts of complement activation products. These results indicate that late apoptotic and necrotic cells employ similar complement activation mechanisms in the plasma environment.

  16. The C-terminal tail of polycystin-1 regulates complement factor B expression by signal transducer and activator of transcription 1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Chen, Meihan; Jing, Ying; Gu, Junhui; Mei, Shuqin; Yao, Qing; Zhou, Jie; Yang, Ming; Sun, Lijun; Wang, Wutao; Hu, Huimin; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Mei, Changlin

    2016-06-01

    Inhibition of the overactivated alternative complement pathway in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) retards disease progression in animal models; however, it remains unknown how complement factor B (CFB) is upregulated in ADPKD. Here, we showed that the overexpression of CFB in cystic kidneys is associated with increased JAK2/STAT1 activity and enhanced expression of the polycystin-1 C-terminal tail (PC1-CTT). Overexpression or blockage of STAT1 increased or decreased CFB expression and CFB promoter activity. Moreover, overexpression of PC1-CTT induced JAK2/STAT1 activation and CFB upregulation in renal tubular epithelial cells. Furthermore, PC1-CTT overexpression increased human CFB promoter activity, whereas dominant negative STAT1 plasmids or mutation of putative STAT1 responsive elements decreased PC1-CTT-induced CFB promoter activity. The effect of CFB on macrophage differentiation was tested on a mouse macrophage cell line. Bioactive CFB dose dependently promoted macrophage M2 phenotype conversion. In addition, conditioned media from renal epithelial cells promoted macrophage M2 phenotype conversion which was blocked by STAT1 inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Conditioned media from PC1-CTT-transfected renal epithelial cells further promoted macrophage M2 phenotype conversion, which was suppressed by fludarabine or a CFB antibody. In addition, we show that NF-κB acts downstream of PC1-CTT and may partly mediate PC1-CTT-induced CFB expression. In conclusion, our study reveals possible mechanisms of CFB upregulation in ADPKD and a novel role of PC1-CTT in ADPKD-associated inflammation. Furthermore, our study suggests that targeting STAT1 may be a new strategy to prevent inflammation in the kidney of patients with ADPKD. PMID:26984954

  17. Complement activation on platelets correlates with a decrease in circulating immature platelets in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Peerschke, Ellinor I B; Andemariam, Biree; Yin, Wei; Bussel, James B

    2010-02-01

    The role of the complement system in immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is not well defined. We examined plasma from 79 patients with ITP, 50 healthy volunteers, and 25 patients with non-immune mediated thrombocytopenia, to investigate their complement activation/fixation capacity (CAC) on immobilized heterologous platelets. Enhanced CAC was found in 46 plasma samples (59%) from patients with ITP, but no samples from patients with non-immune mediated thrombocytopenia. Plasma from healthy volunteers was used for comparison. In patients with ITP, an enhanced plasma CAC was associated with a decreased circulating absolute immature platelet fraction (A-IPF) (<15 x 10(9)/l) (P = 0.027) and thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 x 10(9)/l) (P = 0.024). The positive predictive value of an enhanced CAC for a low A-IPF was 93%, with a specificity of 77%. The specificity and positive predictive values increased to 100% when plasma CAC was defined strictly by enhanced C1q and/or C4d deposition on test platelets. Although no statistically significant correlation emerged between CAC and response to different pharmacological therapies, an enhanced response to splenectomy was noted (P < 0.063). Thus, complement fixation may contribute to the thrombocytopenia of ITP by enhancing clearance of opsonized platelets from the circulation, and/or directly damaging platelets and megakaryocytes. PMID:19925495

  18. Systems-level analysis of proteolytic events in increased vascular permeability and complement activation in skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Prudova, Anna; Eckhard, Ulrich; Fingleton, Barbara; Overall, Christopher M

    2013-01-15

    During inflammation, vascular permeability is increased by various proteolytic events, such as the generation of bradykinin, that augment local tissue responses by enabling tissue penetration of serum proteins, including complement and acute-phase proteins. Proteases also govern inflammatory responses by processing extracellular matrix proteins and soluble bioactive mediators. We quantified changes in the proteome and the nature of protein amino termini (the N-terminome) and the altered abundance of murine proteases and inhibitors during skin inflammation. Through analysis of the N-terminome by iTRAQ-TAILS, we identified cotranslational and posttranslational αN-acetylation motifs, quantitative increases in protein abundance, and qualitative changes in the proteolytic signature during inflammation. Of the proteins identified in normal skin, about half were cleaved, and phorbol ester-induced inflammation increased the proportion of cleaved proteins, including chemokines and complement proteins, that were processed at previously uncharacterized sites. In response to phorbol ester-induced inflammation, mice deficient in matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) showed reduced accumulation of serum proteins in the skin and exhibited different proteolytic networks from those of wild-type mice. We found that the complement 1 (C1) inhibitor attenuated the increase in serum protein accumulation in inflamed skin. Cleavage and inactivation of the C1 inhibitor by MMP2 increased complement activation and bradykinin generation in wild-type mice, leading to increased vessel permeability during inflammation, which was diminished in Mmp2(-/-) mice. Thus, our systems-level analysis of proteolysis dissected cleavage events associated with skin inflammation and demonstrated that loss of a single protease could perturb the proteolytic signaling network and enhance inflammation.

  19. Activation of the Complement Classical Pathway (C1q Binding) by Mesophilic Aeromonas hydrophila Outer Membrane Protein

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Nogueras, Maria Mercedes; Aguilar, Alicia; Rubires, Xavier; Albertí, Sebastian; Benedí, Vicente Javier; Tomás, Juan M.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of killing of Aeromonas hydrophila serum-sensitive strains in nonimmune serum by the complement classical pathway has been studied. The bacterial cell surface component that binds C1q more efficiently was identified as a major outer membrane protein of 39 kDa, presumably the porin II described by D. Jeanteur, N. Gletsu, F. Pattus, and J. T. Buckley (Mol. Microbiol. 6:3355–3363, 1992), of these microorganisms. We have demonstrated that the purified form of porin II binds C1q and activates the classical pathway in an antibody-independent manner, with the subsequent consumption of C4 and reduction of the serum total hemolytic activity. Activation of the classical pathway has been observed in human nonimmune serum and agammaglobulinemic serum (both depleted of factor D). Binding of C1q to other components of the bacterial outer membrane, in particular to rough lipopolysaccharide, could not be demonstrated. Activation of the classical pathway by this lipopolysaccharide was also much less efficient than activation by the outer membrane protein. The strains possessing O-antigen lipopolysaccharide bind less C1q than the serum-sensitive strains, because the outer membrane protein is less accessible, and are resistant to complement-mediated killing. Finally, a similar or identical outer membrane protein (presumably porin II) that binds C1q was shown to be present in strains from the most common mesophilic Aeromonas O serogroups. PMID:9673268

  20. Complement and membrane-bound complement regulatory proteins as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for autoimmune inflammatory disorders, RA and SLE.

    PubMed

    Das, Nibhriti

    2015-11-01

    Complement system is a major effecter system of the innate immunity that bridges with adaptive immunity. The system consists of about 40 humoral and cell surface proteins that include zymogens, receptors and regulators. The zymogens get activated in a cascade fashion by antigen-antibody complex, antigen alone or by polymannans, respectively, by the classical, alternative and mannose binding lectin (MBL) pathways. The ongoing research on complement regulators and complement receptors suggest key role of these proteins in the initiation, regulation and effecter mechanisms of the innate and adaptive immunity. Although, the complement system provides the first line of defence against the invading pathogens, its aberrant uncontrolled activation causes extensive self tissue injury. A large number of humoral and cell surface complement regulatory protein keep the system well-regulated in healthy individuals. Complement profiling had brought important information on the pathophysiology of several infectious and chronic inflammatory disorders. In view of the diversity of the clinical disorders involving abnormal complement activity or regulation, which include both acute and chronic diseases that affect a wide range of organs, diverse yet specifically tailored therapeutic approaches may be needed to shift complement back into balance. This brief review discusses on the complement system, its functions and its importance as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases with focus on SLE and RA.

  1. Antiganglioside GM1 antibodies and their complement activating capacity in central and peripheral nervous system disorders and in controls.

    PubMed

    Uetz-von Allmen, E; Sturzenegger, M; Rieben, R; Rihs, F; Frauenfelder, A; Nydegger, U E

    1998-01-01

    So far, the pathogenic significance and use for diagnosis of antiganglioside GM1 antibodies (anti-GM1) are unclear. We therefore compared serum IgM and IgG antimonosialo ganglioside GM1 levels of 33 patients with presumed immune-mediated neuropathies, 100 patients with various other central or peripheral neurological disorders, and 110 controls by ELISA. We also measured the complement-activating capacity of anti-GM1 by C5b-9-GM1-ELISA to evaluate its value to distinguish between pathogenic and nonpathogenic autoantibodies. Low levels of anti-GM1 were observed in all disease categories and in controls (healthy blood donors). Twenty-four of the controls including the 10 with the highest serum IgM or IgG anti-GM1 were examined for neurological disorders in a double-blind checkup study. In the patients, elevated IgM anti-GM1 levels were predominantly found in those with neuropathies (NP), but barely in patients with central nervous system disease (CNSD). We found elevated IgG anti-GM1 levels predominantly in patients with NP of inflammatory origin (multifocal motor neuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy or Guillain-Barré syndrome), rarely in patients with NP of noninflammatory origin or CNSD, but not in the control disease group myasthenia gravis (MG). Median levels of IgM-, IgG-, (IgM+IgG)-, and C5b-9-binding anti-GM1 were significantly higher in patients with inflammatory NP as compared to the controls (p < 0.025). In addition, median levels of IgG- and (IgM+IgG)-anti-GM1 were significantly higher in inflammatory NP versus CNSD. Elevated complement-binding activity was associated with low or elevated IgM and/or IgG anti-GM1. Nevertheless, there was a significant correlation between anti-GM1 level (IgM+IgG) and the respective complement-activating capacity (r = 0.758; n = 243). Estimation of anti-GM1 and their respective complement-activating capacity may be helpful in the diagnosis of inflammatory neuropathies. However, neither an elevated

  2. Novel Evasion Mechanisms of the Classical Complement Pathway.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Brandon L; Zwarthoff, Seline A; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2016-09-15

    Complement is a network of soluble and cell surface-associated proteins that gives rise to a self-amplifying, yet tightly regulated system with fundamental roles in immune surveillance and clearance. Complement becomes activated on the surface of nonself cells by one of three initiating mechanisms known as the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways. Evasion of complement function is a hallmark of invasive pathogens and hematophagous organisms. Although many complement-inhibition strategies hinge on hijacking activities of endogenous complement regulatory proteins, an increasing number of uniquely evolved evasion molecules have been discovered over the past decade. In this review, we focus on several recent investigations that revealed mechanistically distinct inhibitors of the classical pathway. Because the classical pathway is an important and specific mediator of various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, in-depth knowledge of novel evasion mechanisms could direct future development of therapeutic anti-inflammatory molecules. PMID:27591336

  3. Novel Evasion Mechanisms of the Classical Complement Pathway.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Brandon L; Zwarthoff, Seline A; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2016-09-15

    Complement is a network of soluble and cell surface-associated proteins that gives rise to a self-amplifying, yet tightly regulated system with fundamental roles in immune surveillance and clearance. Complement becomes activated on the surface of nonself cells by one of three initiating mechanisms known as the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways. Evasion of complement function is a hallmark of invasive pathogens and hematophagous organisms. Although many complement-inhibition strategies hinge on hijacking activities of endogenous complement regulatory proteins, an increasing number of uniquely evolved evasion molecules have been discovered over the past decade. In this review, we focus on several recent investigations that revealed mechanistically distinct inhibitors of the classical pathway. Because the classical pathway is an important and specific mediator of various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, in-depth knowledge of novel evasion mechanisms could direct future development of therapeutic anti-inflammatory molecules.

  4. Activity Therapy: An Alternative Therapy for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Terry T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of activity therapy for preteens and adolescents, where the client is engaged in nonverbal modes of relationship--games, free play, movement, drama, music, art or other activities, as the chief therapeutic media in which conflicts are resolved and intellectual and emotional energies freed. Reviews the literature, describes…

  5. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. VI. In vitro and in vivo complement activation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, W.P.; Savary, J.R.; Troup, C.M.; Dodd, D.E.; Tamerius, J.D.

    1987-06-01

    The ability of MIC to induce complement activation in vitro and in vivo was investigated. For the in vitro studies, both human and guinea pig serum or EDTA-plasma samples were exposed to 1167 to 1260 ppm MIC vapor for 15 min at room temperature. The human serum samples exposed to MIC showed significant reduction in Factor B, C2, C4, C3, C5, and total hemolytic complement CH/sub 50/ activity levels. The C3, C5, and CH/sub 50/ functional activities in guinea pig serum were more sensitive to MIC-mediated reduction than the corresponding activity reductions observed in the human serum samples. The human and single guinea pig EDTA-plasma samples exposed to MIC vapor showed no evidence of C3 consumption but did show significant reductions in CH/sub 50/ levels. Thus, MIC vapor was able to active, and thereby reduce serum complement C3 activity in vitro by a complement-dependent process. For the in vivo studies, five pairs of guinea pigs were exposed to 644 to 702 ppm MIC vapor until one of the pair died (11-15 min). MIC exposure was then discontinued, the surviving guinea pig was sacrificed, and EDTA-plasma was obtained from both animals and analyzed for complement consumption. Clear evidence was obtained to indicate that complement activation had occurred in these animals exposed to MIC for 11 to 15 min. In addition, the complement activation profile observed in these guinea pigs was qualitatively similar to that seen in the guinea pig serum samples exposed to MIC vapor in vitro. The total protein concentration present in plasma samples obtained from guinea pigs that had died from MIC exposure was elevated significantly. The possible contribution of complement activation to the fatal reaction(s) observed in these MIC-treated animals is discussed.

  6. Response gene to complement 32 protein promotes macrophage phagocytosis via activation of protein kinase C pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Gui; Chen, Shi-You

    2014-08-15

    Macrophage phagocytosis plays an important role in host defense. The molecular mechanism, especially factors regulating the phagocytosis, however, is not completely understood. In the present study, we found that response gene to complement 32 (RGC-32) is an important regulator of phagocytosis. Although RGC-32 is induced and abundantly expressed in macrophage during monocyte-macrophage differentiation, RGC-32 appears not to be important for this process because RGC-32-deficient bone marrow progenitor can normally differentiate to macrophage. However, both peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages with RGC-32 deficiency exhibit significant defects in phagocytosis, whereas RGC-32-overexpressed macrophages show increased phagocytosis. Mechanistically, RGC-32 is recruited to macrophage membrane where it promotes F-actin assembly and the formation of phagocytic cups. RGC-32 knock-out impairs F-actin assembly. RGC-32 appears to interact with PKC to regulate PKC-induced phosphorylation of F-actin cross-linking protein myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that RGC-32 is a novel membrane regulator for macrophage phagocytosis.

  7. Analysis of Risk Alleles and Complement Activation Levels in Familial and Non-Familial Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saksens, Nicole T. M.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; Verbakel, Sanne K.; Groenewoud, Joannes M. M.; Daha, Mohamed R.; Schick, Tina; Fauser, Sascha; Boon, Camiel J. F.; Hoyng, Carel B.; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease, in which complement-mediated inflammation plays a pivotal role. A positive family history is an important risk factor for developing AMD. Certain lifestyle factors are shown to be significantly associated with AMD in non-familial cases, but not in familial cases. This study aimed to investigate whether the contribution of common genetic variants and complement activation levels differs between familial and sporadic cases with AMD. Methods and Results 1216 AMD patients (281 familial and 935 sporadic) and 1043 controls (143 unaffected members with a family history of AMD and 900 unrelated controls without a family history of AMD) were included in this study. Ophthalmic examinations were performed, and lifestyle and family history were documented with a questionnaire. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with AMD were genotyped, and serum concentrations of complement components C3 and C3d were measured. Associations were assessed in familial and sporadic individuals. The association with risk alleles of the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) gene was significantly stronger in sporadic AMD patients compared to familial cases (p = 0.017 for all AMD stages and p = 0.003 for advanced AMD, respectively). ARMS2 risk alleles had the largest effect in sporadic cases but were not significantly associated with AMD in densely affected families. The C3d/C3 ratio was a significant risk factor for AMD in sporadic cases and may also be associated with familial cases. In patients with a densely affected family this effect was particularly strong with ORs of 5.37 and 4.99 for all AMD and advanced AMD respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that in familial AMD patients, the common genetic risk variant in ARMS2 is less important compared to sporadic AMD. In contrast, factors leading to increased complement activation appear to play a larger role in patients with a

  8. Glycoproteins, antigens, and regulation of complement activation on the surface of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma lewisi: implications for immune evasion

    SciTech Connect

    Sturtevant, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The surface antigens and glycoproteins of the rat parasitic protozoan, Trypanosoma lewisi were characterized. Radioiodination with /sup 125/I identified 10 out of more 40 polypeptides separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All of these components were identified as glycoproteins by peroxidase-conjugated Conconavalin A (HR-Con A) lectin affinoblotting. This analysis detected that quantitative but not qualitative changes occurred during infection. Localization of most of the reactive determinants was indicated by immunoblotting extracts of radioiodinated T. lewisi. Changes in the antigenicity as related to survival in the host are discussed. The presence of IgG and IgM on the surface of T. lewisi isolated from intact and ..gamma..-irradiated rats (irr.) and that determinants bind Ig from uninfected rat sera (NRS) was indicated by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoblotting identified the major NRS IgG binding component as the 74 kd surface glycoprotein. Complement component C3 deposition during infection was indicated by flow cytometric analysis and immunoblotting. Incubation of intact T. lewisi with normal human sera indicated that C3, C5, and factor B deposition was Mg/sup 2 +/ dependent, Ca/sup 2 +/ independent and deposited C3 was rapidly processed to hemolytically inactive fragments. Radioiodination of intact and protease T. lewisi after cultivation identified three components which correlate with resistance to lysis. This suggests that surface moieties on intact T. lewisi modulate host complement activity by restricting C3/C5 convertase activity.

  9. Neutrophils from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: relationship between impairment of granular contents, complement receptors, functional activities and disease status.

    PubMed

    Moretti, S; Lanza, F; Spisani, S; Latorraca, A; Rigolin, G M; Giuliani, A L; Castoldi, G L; Traniello, S

    1994-05-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are stem cell disorders of clonal origin in which infections and leukemic transformation are quite frequent. Neutrophils from 28 patients with MDS were analysed by flow cytometry for the expression of the two complement receptors CR1 and CR3, the antigenic reactivity of some granule constituents--myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, elastase, lactoferrin--and functional activities, such as locomotion, respiratory burst and cytotoxicity. The results were correlated with the FAB disease subtypes, grouped as low risk (RA) and high risk patients (RAEB, RAEB-t, CMML) and with 30 healthy subjects. A significant reduction in the percentage of neutrophil CR1, CR3 positivity and chemotaxis induced by endotoxin-activated serum was detected in the high risk group when compared with the low risk group and healthy controls. Furthermore, the high risk group also showed a low amount of myeloperoxidase, elastase, lysozyme and superoxide anion, but both low and high risk groups displayed reduced cellular cytotoxicity in comparison with the control. This work indicates that MDS patients belonging to the more advanced FAB categories frequently show multiple abnormalities in the expression of neutrophil complement receptors, and granular components (> 3), as well as in cell functions, suggesting the possibility of using these phenotypic abnormalities in the monitoring of disease progression. PMID:8069192

  10. Plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor does not prevent mechanical ventilation-induced pulmonary complement activation in a rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    de Beer, F M; Aslami, H; Hoeksma, J; van Mierlo, G; Wouters, D; Zeerleder, S; Roelofs, J J T H; Juffermans, N P; Schultz, M J; Lagrand, W K

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical ventilation has the potential to cause lung injury, and the role of complement activation herein is uncertain. We hypothesized that inhibition of the complement cascade by administration of plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) prevents ventilation-induced pulmonary complement activation, and as such attenuates lung inflammation and lung injury in a rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Forty hours after intratracheal challenge with S. pneumoniae causing pneumonia rats were subjected to ventilation with lower tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or high tidal volumes without PEEP, after an intravenous bolus of C1-INH (200 U/kg) or placebo (saline). After 4 h of ventilation blood, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were collected. Non-ventilated rats with S. pneumoniae pneumonia served as controls. While ventilation with lower tidal volumes and PEEP slightly amplified pneumonia-induced complement activation in the lungs, ventilation with higher tidal volumes without PEEP augmented local complement activation more strongly. Systemic pre-treatment with C1-INH, however, failed to alter ventilation-induced complement activation with both ventilation strategies. In accordance, lung inflammation and lung injury were not affected by pre-treatment with C1-INH, neither in rats ventilated with lower tidal volumes and PEEP, nor rats ventilated with high tidal volumes without PEEP. Ventilation augments pulmonary complement activation in a rat model of S. pneumoniae pneumonia. Systemic administration of C1-INH, however, does not attenuate ventilation-induced complement activation, lung inflammation, and lung injury. PMID:24760631

  11. Complement receptor 2, natural antibodies and innate immunity: Inter-relationships in B cell selection and activation.

    PubMed

    Holers, V Michael; Kulik, Liudmila

    2007-01-01

    Complement receptor type 2 (CR2) is a receptor that serves as an important interface between the complement system and adaptive immunity. Recent studies have shown that CR2 is also centrally involved in innate immunity, and one key area is the development of potentially pathogenic natural antibodies that target neo-epitopes revealed in ischemic tissue undergoing reperfusion. Mice lacking either total immunoglobulins or CR2 alone are protected from the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and this effect can be reversed by introducing CR2-sufficient B-1 cells or by transferring polyclonal natural IgM antibody from wild type mice as well as monoclonal antibodies that recognize phospholipids, DNA or non-muscle myosin. We will report at the XXI ICW an additional membrane-associated protein to which pathogenic IgM antibodies are directed. Whether B cells producing these natural antibodies are differentially selected in CR2-deficient mice is as yet not well understood, and the complement-related mechanism(s) whereby this differential repertoire selection process could occur have yet to be explored in any detail. In addition to this important role in innate immunity, CR2 can also act as a receptor for other components or activators of innate immunity. One such component is interferon-alpha, an anti-viral cytokine that binds CR2 and induces a component of its mRNA signature in B cells through this receptor. Other potential CR2 ligands are DNA and DNA-containing complexes such as chromatin. The biologic role of these CR2 interactions with interferon-alpha and DNA-containing complexes is not well understood, but may be important in the development of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus that is characterized by enhanced interferon-alpha levels and loss of self tolerance to DNA-containing self antigens. PMID:16876864

  12. The Many Alternative Faces of Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hume, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages provide the first line of defense against pathogens. They also initiate acquired immunity by processing and presenting antigens and provide the downstream effector functions. Analysis of large gene expression datasets from multiple cells and tissues reveals sets of genes that are co-regulated with the transcription factors that regulate them. In macrophages, the gene clusters include lineage-specific genes, interferon-responsive genes, early inflammatory genes, and genes required for endocytosis and lysosome function. Macrophages enter tissues and alter their function to deal with a wide range of challenges related to development and organogenesis, tissue injury, malignancy, sterile, or pathogenic inflammatory stimuli. These stimuli alter the gene expression to produce “activated macrophages” that are better equipped to eliminate the cause of their influx and to restore homeostasis. Activation or polarization states of macrophages have been classified as “classical” and “alternative” or M1 and M2. These proposed states of cells are not supported by large-scale transcriptomic data, including macrophage-associated signatures from large cancer tissue datasets, where the supposed markers do not correlate with other. Individual macrophage cells differ markedly from each other, and change their functions in response to doses and combinations of agonists and time. The most studied macrophage activation response is the transcriptional cascade initiated by the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. This response is reviewed herein. The network topology is conserved across species, but genes within the transcriptional network evolve rapidly and differ between mouse and human. There is also considerable divergence in the sets of target genes between mouse strains, between individuals, and in other species such as pigs. The deluge of complex information related to macrophage activation can be accessed with new analytical tools and new databases

  13. Tsetse GmmSRPN10 Has Anti-complement Activity and Is Important for Successful Establishment of Trypanosome Infections in the Fly Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Cher-Pheng; Haines, Lee R.; Southern, Daniel M.; Lehane, Michael J.; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The complement cascade in mammalian blood can damage the alimentary tract of haematophagous arthropods. As such, these animals have evolved their own repertoire of complement-inactivating factors, which are inadvertently exploited by blood-borne pathogens to escape complement lysis. Unlike the bloodstream stages, the procyclic (insect) stage of Trypanosoma brucei is highly susceptible to complement killing, which is puzzling considering that a tsetse takes a bloodmeal every 2–4 days. In this study, we identified four tsetse (Glossina morsitans morsitans) serine protease inhibitors (serpins) from a midgut expressed sequence tag (EST) library (GmmSRPN3, GmmSRPN5, GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10) and investigated their role in modulating the establishment of a T. brucei infection in the midgut. Although not having evolved in a common blood-feeding ancestor, all four serpins have an active site sharing remarkable homology with the human complement C1-inhibitor serpin, SerpinG1. RNAi knockdown of individual GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10 genes resulted in a significant decreased rate of infection by procyclic form T. brucei. Furthermore, recombinant GmmSRPN10 was both able to inhibit the activity of human complement-cascade serine proteases, C1s and Factor D, and to protect the in vitro killing of procyclic trypanosomes when incubated with complement-activated human serum. Thus, the secretion of serpins, which may be part of a bloodmeal complement inactivation system in tsetse, is used by procyclic trypanosomes to evade an influx of fresh trypanolytic complement with each bloodmeal. This highlights another facet of the complicated relationship between T. brucei and its tsetse vector, where the parasite takes advantage of tsetse physiology to further its chances of propagation and transmission. PMID:25569180

  14. Tsetse GmmSRPN10 has anti-complement activity and is important for successful establishment of trypanosome infections in the fly midgut.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Cher-Pheng; Haines, Lee R; Southern, Daniel M; Lehane, Michael J; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The complement cascade in mammalian blood can damage the alimentary tract of haematophagous arthropods. As such, these animals have evolved their own repertoire of complement-inactivating factors, which are inadvertently exploited by blood-borne pathogens to escape complement lysis. Unlike the bloodstream stages, the procyclic (insect) stage of Trypanosoma brucei is highly susceptible to complement killing, which is puzzling considering that a tsetse takes a bloodmeal every 2-4 days. In this study, we identified four tsetse (Glossina morsitans morsitans) serine protease inhibitors (serpins) from a midgut expressed sequence tag (EST) library (GmmSRPN3, GmmSRPN5, GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10) and investigated their role in modulating the establishment of a T. brucei infection in the midgut. Although not having evolved in a common blood-feeding ancestor, all four serpins have an active site sharing remarkable homology with the human complement C1-inhibitor serpin, SerpinG1. RNAi knockdown of individual GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10 genes resulted in a significant decreased rate of infection by procyclic form T. brucei. Furthermore, recombinant GmmSRPN10 was both able to inhibit the activity of human complement-cascade serine proteases, C1s and Factor D, and to protect the in vitro killing of procyclic trypanosomes when incubated with complement-activated human serum. Thus, the secretion of serpins, which may be part of a bloodmeal complement inactivation system in tsetse, is used by procyclic trypanosomes to evade an influx of fresh trypanolytic complement with each bloodmeal. This highlights another facet of the complicated relationship between T. brucei and its tsetse vector, where the parasite takes advantage of tsetse physiology to further its chances of propagation and transmission. PMID:25569180

  15. The ancestral complement system in sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Smith, L C; Clow, L A; Terwilliger, D P

    2001-04-01

    The origin of adaptive immunity in the vertebrates can be traced to the appearance of the ancestral RAG genes in the ancestral jawed vertebrate; however, the innate immune system is more ancient. A central subsystem within innate immunity is the complement system, which has been identified throughout and seems to be restricted to the deuterostomes. The evolutionary history of complement can be traced from the sea urchins (members of the echinoderm phylum), which have a simplified system homologous to the alternative pathway, through the agnathans (hagfish and lamprey) and the elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) to the teleosts (bony fish) and tetrapods, with increases in the numbers of complement components and duplications in complement pathways. Increasing complexity in the complement system parallels increasing complexity in the deuterostome animals. This review focuses on the simplest of the complement systems that is present in the sea urchin. Two components have been identified that show significant homology to vertebrate C3 and factor B (Bf), called SpC3 and SpBf, respectively. Sequence analysis from both molecules reveals their ancestral characteristics. Immune challenge of sea urchins indicates that SpC3 is inducible and is present in coelomic fluid (the body fluids) in relatively high concentrations, while SpBf expression is constitutive and is present in much lower concentrations. Opsonization of foreign cells and particles followed by augmented uptake by phagocytic coelomocytes appears to be a central function for this simpler complement system and important for host defense in the sea urchin. These activities are similar to some of the functions of the homologous proteins in the vertebrate complement system. The selective advantage for the ancestral deuterostome may have been the amplification feedback loop that is still of central importance in the alternative pathway of complement in higher vertebrates. Feedback loop functions would quickly coat

  16. Effect of honey on 50% complement hemolytic activity in infants with protein energy malnutrition: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abdulrhman, Mamdouh Abdulmaksoud; Nassar, May Fouad; Mostafa, Hisham Waheed; El-Khayat, Zakaria Abdulhalim; Abu El Naga, Marwa Wageh

    2011-05-01

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is associated with a significant impairment of cell-mediated immunity and complement system, which may be responsible for the high incidence of infections among these patients. This study was designed to examine the effect of honey, as a natural substance, on the 50% complement hemolytic activity (CH50) in patients with PEM. Thirty patients with PEM and 20 healthy infants serving as controls participated in this study. The patients were randomized to receive either honey (group 1) or placebo (group 2), in addition to conventional nutritional rehabilitation therapy. Measurements of weight, midarm circumference, skin fold thickness, serum albumin, and CH50 were done for all patients before and after 2 weeks of rehabilitation. Before nutritional rehabilitation, the CH50 was significantly lower in the PEM groups compared with the control. However, after rehabilitation, the CH50 increased significantly in both PEM groups, compared with the pre-interventional state and with the controls. Moreover, the rise of CH50 was significantly more in the honey group compared with the placebo. On the other hand, the improvement in the anthropometric measures and serum albumin did not differ significantly between the honey and placebo groups after rehabilitation. Thus honey supplementation in patients with PEM increased the level of CH50. Whether this would have an effect on the frequency and severity of infections in patients with PEM needs further studies.

  17. The Role of Complement System in Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Charchaflieh, Jean; Wei, Jiandong; Labaze, Georges; Hou, Yunfang Joan; Babarsh, Benjamin; Stutz, Helen; Lee, Haekyung; Worah, Samrat; Zhang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Septic shock is a critical clinical condition with a high mortality rate. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is important to develop effective therapies. Basic and clinical studies suggest that activation of complements in the common cascade, for example, complement component 3 (C3) and C5, is involved in the development of septic shock. The involvement of three upstream complement pathways in septic shock is more complicated. Both the classical and alternative pathways appear to be activated in septic shock, but the alternative pathway may be activated earlier than the classical pathway. Activation of these two pathways is essential to clear endotoxin. Recent investigations have shed light on the role of lectin complement pathway in septic shock. Published reports suggest a protective role of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) against sepsis. Our preliminary study of MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) in septic shock patients indicated that acute decrease of MASP-2 in the early phase of septic shock might correlate with in-hospital mortality. It is unknown whether excessive activation of these three upstream complement pathways may contribute to the detrimental effects in septic shock. This paper also discusses additional complement-related pathogenic mechanisms and intervention strategies for septic shock. PMID:23049598

  18. Tumour exosomes display differential mechanical and complement activation properties dependent on malignant state: implications in endothelial leakiness

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Bradley; Wu, LinPing; Hvam, Michael Lykke; Aslan, Husnu; Dong, Mingdong; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Howard, Kenneth Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background Exosomes have been implicated in tumour progression and metastatic spread. Little is known of the effect of mechanical and innate immune interactions of malignant cell-derived exosomes on endothelial integrity, which may relate to increased extravasation of circulating tumour cells and, therefore, increased metastatic spread. Methods Exosomes isolated from non-malignant immortalized HCV-29 and isogenic malignant non-metastatic T24 and malignant metastatic FL3 bladder cells were characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis and quantitative nanomechanical mapping atomic force microscopy (QNM AFM) to determine size and nanomechanical properties. Effect of HCV-29, T24 and FL3 exosomes on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer integrity was determined by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements and transport was determined by flow cytometry. Complement activation studies in human serum of malignant and non-malignant cell-derived exosomes were performed. Results FL3, T24 and HCV-29 cells produced exosomes at similar concentration per cell (6.64, 6.61 and 6.46×104 exosomes per cell for FL3, T24 and HCV-29 cells, respectively) and of similar size (120.2 nm for FL3, 127.6 nm for T24 and 117.9 nm for HCV-29, respectively). T24 and FL3 cell-derived exosomes exhibited a markedly reduced stiffness, 95 MPa and 280 MPa, respectively, compared with 1,527 MPa with non-malignant HCV-29 cell-derived exosomes determined by QNM AFM. FL3 and T24 exosomes induced endothelial disruption as measured by a decrease in TEER in HUVEC monolayers, whereas no effect was observed for HCV-29 derived exosomes. FL3 and T24 exosomes traffic more readily (11.6 and 21.4% of applied exosomes, respectively) across HUVEC monolayers than HCV-29 derived exosomes (7.2% of applied exosomes). Malignant cell-derived exosomes activated complement through calcium-sensitive pathways in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions Malignant (metastatic and non

  19. Specific Alterations in Complement Protein Activity of Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus) Hibernating in White-Nose Syndrome Affected Sites

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Marianne S.; Reichard, Jonathan D.; Murtha, Timothy D.; Zahedi, Bita; Fallier, Renee M.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is the most devastating condition ever reported for hibernating bats, causing widespread mortality in the northeastern United States. The syndrome is characterized by cutaneous lesions caused by a recently identified psychrophilic and keratinophylic fungus (Geomyces destructans), depleted fat reserves, atypical behavior, and damage to wings; however, the proximate cause of mortality is still uncertain. To assess relative levels of immunocompetence in bats hibernating in WNS-affected sites compared with levels in unaffected bats, we describe blood plasma complement protein activity in hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) based on microbicidal competence assays using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Blood plasma from bats collected during mid-hibernation at WNS-affected sites had higher bactericidal ability against E. coli and S. aureus, but lower fungicidal ability against C. albicans when compared with blood plasma from bats collected at unaffected sites. Within affected sites during mid-hibernation, we observed no difference in microbicidal ability between bats displaying obvious fungal infections compared to those without. Bactericidal ability against E. coli decreased significantly as hibernation progressed in bats collected from an affected site. Bactericidal ability against E. coli and fungicidal ability against C. albicans were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) during late hibernation. We also compared complement activity against the three microbes within individuals and found that the ability of blood plasma from hibernating M. lucifugus to lyse microbial cells differed as follows: E. coli>S. aureus>C. albicans. Overall, bats affected by WNS experience both relatively elevated and reduced innate immune responses depending on the microbe tested, although the cause of observed immunological changes remains unknown. Additionally, considerable trade-offs may exist between energy

  20. Activation of the complement system during immunotherapy with recombinant IL-2. Relation to the development of side effects.

    PubMed

    Thijs, L G; Hack, C E; Strack van Schijndel, R J; Nuijens, J H; Wolbink, G J; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Van der Vall, H; Wagstaff, J

    1990-03-15

    Therapy with high doses of rIL-2 is complicated by the occurrence of hypotensive reactions and the development of a vascular leakage syndrome (VLS). In four patients, who together received seven cycles of high doses of IL-2 (up to 12 x 10(6) U per m2 per day), and who developed these side effects, we observed an unexpected increase in plasma levels of C3a, indicating activation of the complement system. C3a levels markedly increased during IL-2 therapy from 4 nmol/liter (mean level) before therapy to 23 nmol/liter at the end of the cycle. Activation of C3 occurred via the classical pathway inasmuch as C4a levels also increased during therapy. Mean daily C3a levels correlated with signs of the VLS, such as daily weight gain (p less than 0.001) and albumin levels (inverse correlation, p less than 0.001). In five additional patients, who together received seven cycles of lower doses of IL-2 (2 x 10(6) U per m2 per day) and who did not develop a VLS, only moderate increases in C3a levels (up to 13 nmol/liter) were observed. The highest levels at the first day of the regimen (mean: 7 nmol/liter) occurred 8 h after the IL-2 infusion. Thus, administration of IL-2 induces a dose-dependent activation of the complement system in vivo, which appeared to be related to the development of side effects of this therapy, such as the VLS.

  1. Specific alterations in complement protein activity of little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) hibernating in white-nose syndrome affected sites.

    PubMed

    Moore, Marianne S; Reichard, Jonathan D; Murtha, Timothy D; Zahedi, Bita; Fallier, Renee M; Kunz, Thomas H

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is the most devastating condition ever reported for hibernating bats, causing widespread mortality in the northeastern United States. The syndrome is characterized by cutaneous lesions caused by a recently identified psychrophilic and keratinophylic fungus (Geomyces destructans), depleted fat reserves, atypical behavior, and damage to wings; however, the proximate cause of mortality is still uncertain. To assess relative levels of immunocompetence in bats hibernating in WNS-affected sites compared with levels in unaffected bats, we describe blood plasma complement protein activity in hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) based on microbicidal competence assays using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Blood plasma from bats collected during mid-hibernation at WNS-affected sites had higher bactericidal ability against E. coli and S. aureus, but lower fungicidal ability against C. albicans when compared with blood plasma from bats collected at unaffected sites. Within affected sites during mid-hibernation, we observed no difference in microbicidal ability between bats displaying obvious fungal infections compared to those without. Bactericidal ability against E. coli decreased significantly as hibernation progressed in bats collected from an affected site. Bactericidal ability against E. coli and fungicidal ability against C. albicans were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) during late hibernation. We also compared complement activity against the three microbes within individuals and found that the ability of blood plasma from hibernating M. lucifugus to lyse microbial cells differed as follows: E. coli>S. aureus>C. albicans. Overall, bats affected by WNS experience both relatively elevated and reduced innate immune responses depending on the microbe tested, although the cause of observed immunological changes remains unknown. Additionally, considerable trade-offs may exist between energy

  2. Complement modulatory activity of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Isopyrum thalictroides--I. Influence on classical pathway in human serum.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, N; Nikolova, P; Hristova, M; Philipov, S; Istatkova, R

    1999-05-01

    Eleven bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BBI) were isolated from the plant Isopyrum thalictroides (L.). Treatment of normal human serum (NHS) with BBI resulted in a diminution of the haemolytic activity of the classical pathway (CP). The mode of action of the main alkaloids isopyruthaline (It1), fangchinoline (It2) and isotalictrine (It3) on CP activation was investigated in vitro. The inhibition was time- and temperature-related and for Itl and It3 depended on the concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions. It was established that the substances reduced C1 haemolytic activity. It2 and It3 enhanced the complement consumption caused by heat aggregated human IgG (HAGG). The BBI prevented the formation of C3 convertase of the classical pathway. The loss of haemolytic activity was partially restored by the addition of C142 reagent (zymosan-treated guinea pig serum) to alkaloids-treated NHS. The addition of the late components C3-9 (EDTA-treated rat sera) recovered to some extent the haemolytic activity of It1-treated NHS, but not of It2- and It3-treated NHS. PMID:10408629

  3. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang; Li, Jinan; Chiu, Isaac; Barrington, Robert A.; Liu, Dongxu . E-mail: dxliu001@yahoo.com

    2007-07-13

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-{kappa}B activation and nuclear translocation in an I{kappa}B{alpha}-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor I{kappa}B kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor I{kappa}B. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations.

  4. Characterization of complement 1q binding protein of tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its C1q binding activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lishi; Liu, Xianjun; Liu, Wenjing; Li, Xiaolan; Qiu, Lihua; Huang, Jianhua; Jiang, Shigui

    2013-01-01

    The receptor for the globular heads of C1q, C1qBP/gC1qR/p33, is a multicompartmental, multifunctional cellular protein with an important role in infection and in inflammation. In the present study, we identified and characterized the complement component 1q subcomponent binding protein (C1qBP) from the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (designated as PmC1qBP). The open reading frame of PmC1qBP encodes 262 amino acid residues with a conserved MAM33 domain, an arginine-glycine-aspartate cell adhesion motif, and a mitochondrial targeting sequence in the first 53 amino acids. PmC1qBP shares 32%-81% similarity with known C1qBPs and clusters with lobster gC1qR under phylogenetic analysis. The temporal PmC1qBP mRNA expression in the hepatopancreas was significantly enhanced at 9 h after Vibrio vulnificus challenge. The native PmC1qBP was expressed in the gills, hepatopancreas, ovaries, and intestines as a precursor (38 kDa) and the active peptide (35 kDa). The recombinant PmC1qBP protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, and was purified using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose. A complement 1q binding assay indicated that the rC1qBP protein competitively binds to C1q in mouse serum. The data reveal that PmC1qBP is not only involved in shrimp immune responses to pathogenic infections, but also cross-binding to the mouse C1q.

  5. Quartz crystal microbalance-with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) for real time measurements of blood coagulation density and immune complement activation on artificial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Marcus; Andersson, Jonas; Sellborn, Anders; Berglin, Mattias; Nilsson, Bo; Elwing, Hans

    2005-07-15

    A recently developed variant of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) called QCM-with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) allows simultaneous and simple measurements of changes in adsorbed mass as well as the viscoelastic property (D-factor) of deposited protein layers on the sensor surface. We have taken the QCM-D technology a step further and demonstrated its advantages in the study of protein assembly as a consequence of surface induced immune complement activation, or contact activated blood coagulation. In the present study we have continued our QCM-D investigations of surface assembly of fibrin clot formation and complement activation and incubated differently modified quartz sensor surfaces in blood plasma and sera. Polymer surfaces used were spin-coated polyethylene, poly(ethylene terephtalate), poly(methylmetacrylate) and poly(dimethylsiloxane). Also used were sputtered titanium and heparin grafted surfaces. In this investigation we found that we could describe the surface induced coagulation with four independent parameters: (1) Time of onset of coagulation, (2) fibrin deposition rate, (3) total frequency shift at stable plateau, and (4) fibrin clot density. The most important finding was that the blood plasma clot density can be assessed with the use of D determinations and that the clot density varied significantly with the chemical composition of the surface. However, the D-factor did not give any new analytical information about the possible complement activation mechanisms. Nevertheless, the QCM-D was found to be a reliable tool for the analysis of surface induced complement activation. We also compared the QCM-D technique with traditional enzyme immuno assay (EIA) measurements of soluble products from the surface activation of the complement and coagulation systems. We found that the results from EIA and QCM-D measurements corresponded well for the complement activation but not for the coagulation, probably due to the biological complexity of the coagulation

  6. Application of a monoclonal antibody against a neoepitope on activated C4 in an ELISA for the quantification of complement activation via the classical pathway.

    PubMed

    Wolbink, G J; Bollen, J; Baars, J W; ten Berge, R J; Swaak, A J; Paardekooper, J; Hack, C E

    1993-07-01

    In order to study the activation of the complement system via the classical pathway we have attempted to raise antibodies specific for C4 activation products. Of 20 mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) obtained, one appeared to react with an activation dependent epitope exposed on the activation products C4b, C4bi, C4c (C4b/c) as well as on iC4, but not on native C4. Using this antibody as a capture antibody and polyclonal biotinylated antibodies against C4 as detecting antibodies we developed an ELISA for the quantification of C4b/c in biological fluids. The lower limit of detection was approximately 0.025 nmol C4b/c per litre. Mean C4b/c levels in plasma samples collected from healthy volunteers in tubes containing 10 mM EDTA and 0.05% (w/v) polybrene, final concentrations, appeared to be 30 nmol/l. The potential of the ELISA procedure for evaluating complement activation in clinical samples was demonstrated.

  7. [In vitro and clinical study of complement activation during cardiopulmonary bypass with reference to types of oxygenator, primed autologous blood and patient's factor].

    PubMed

    Oda, K

    1991-09-01

    Complement activation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was studied in vitro and in vivo with regard to types of oxygenator, primed autologous blood and patient's factor. In vitro study was performed using human blood in a simple circuit involving an oxygenator, roller pump and connector tubing. In vivo study was carried out in 118 patients and divided into bubble (BO) and membrane oxygenator (MO) groups. The influence of primed homologous to circulating autologous blood volume (H/A) ratio was also examined. In vitro study, C3a and C4a increased steeply in the BO group. On the other hand, in the MO group, C3a and C4a increased up to minute of 60, and afterwards gradually decreased. In clinical study, complement was more activated in the BO group than in the MO group. These results supported that in the BO group, immunoglobulin denatured by blood-gas interface played an important role in complement activation. In membrane oxygenator, blood-material interface was a major cause of complement activation. In order to reduce these complement activation, we introduced fresh concentrated red cells, which was almost free of immunoglobulin, as a primed blood. Application of this method in clinical study, complement activation was reduced and postoperative lung function was improved significantly. These changes were more significant in the BO group. In the high H/A group, differences of anaphylatoxin level between BO and MO group had a tendency to increase. This method is useful to the CPB case of neonate and infant, which was subjected to be primed with a large amount of blood.

  8. Current Understanding of the Role of Complement in IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Maillard, Nicolas; Wyatt, Robert J.; Julian, Bruce A.; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Gharavi, Ali; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    Complement activation has a role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy, an autoimmune disease mediated by pathogenic immune complexes consisting of galactose-deficient IgA1 bound by antiglycan antibodies. Of three complement-activation pathways, the alternative and lectin pathways are involved in IgA nephropathy. IgA1 can activate both pathways in vitro, and pathway components are present in the mesangial immunodeposits, including properdin and factor H in the alternative pathway and mannan-binding lectin, mannan–binding lectin–associated serine proteases 1 and 2, and C4d in the lectin pathway. Genome–wide association studies identified deletion of complement factor H–related genes 1 and 3 as protective against the disease. Because the corresponding gene products compete with factor H in the regulation of the alternative pathway, it has been hypothesized that the absence of these genes could lead to more potent inhibition of complement by factor H. Complement activation can take place directly on IgA1–containing immune complexes in circulation and/or after their deposition in the mesangium. Notably, complement factors and their fragments may serve as biomarkers of IgA nephropathy in serum, urine, or renal tissue. A better understanding of the role of complement in IgA nephropathy may provide potential targets and rationale for development of complement-targeting therapy of the disease. PMID:25694468

  9. Current Understanding of the Role of Complement in IgA Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Nicolas; Wyatt, Robert J; Julian, Bruce A; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Gharavi, Ali; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Novak, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Complement activation has a role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy, an autoimmune disease mediated by pathogenic immune complexes consisting of galactose-deficient IgA1 bound by antiglycan antibodies. Of three complement-activation pathways, the alternative and lectin pathways are involved in IgA nephropathy. IgA1 can activate both pathways in vitro, and pathway components are present in the mesangial immunodeposits, including properdin and factor H in the alternative pathway and mannan-binding lectin, mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases 1 and 2, and C4d in the lectin pathway. Genome-wide association studies identified deletion of complement factor H-related genes 1 and 3 as protective against the disease. Because the corresponding gene products compete with factor H in the regulation of the alternative pathway, it has been hypothesized that the absence of these genes could lead to more potent inhibition of complement by factor H. Complement activation can take place directly on IgA1-containing immune complexes in circulation and/or after their deposition in the mesangium. Notably, complement factors and their fragments may serve as biomarkers of IgA nephropathy in serum, urine, or renal tissue. A better understanding of the role of complement in IgA nephropathy may provide potential targets and rationale for development of complement-targeting therapy of the disease.

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine and physical activity for menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Taya L; Mark, Saralyn

    2004-01-01

    Forty percent of all menopausal women seek medical attention to alleviate symptoms of menopause, a natural physiologic process. Severe symptoms and an overall decrease in quality of life have prompted many women to demand additional information and treatment. Although menopausal hormone therapy has been the standard, increasing evidence suggests that women are looking to complementary and alternative therapies for management and treatment of menopausal symptoms. Modalities such as physical activity, diet supplements, body work, and mind-body techniques are often used without evaluation or treatment by conventional health care providers. Many of these treatments may present varying risks and contraindications. Consequently, there is a great need for ongoing education and research to ensure alternative therapy use is not only effective, but also safe. This paper provides a systematic review of current complementary and alternative modalities and of physical activity used in the management and treatment of menopausal symptoms.

  11. Isolation and analysis of complement activating aggregates from synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis using monoclonal anti-C3d antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Bedwell, A E; Elson, C J; Carter, S D; Dieppe, P A; Hutton, C W; Czudek, R

    1987-01-01

    The complement activating aggregates in synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been isolated using monoclonal IgM anti-C3d antibodies attached to solid phases, and the content of the material bound has been analysed. High levels of aggregated IgG bearing C3d were found in RA synovial fluids, and IgG was the major immunoglobulin bound from such synovial fluids by anti-C3d Sepharose. A strong correlation was shown between levels of aggregated IgG bearing C3d and complement activation, as judged by C3d levels. Significant (but less strong) relationships were also observed between C3d levels and both complement consuming and C1q binding activity. C3d levels and levels of aggregated IgG bearing C3d were both significantly associated with the numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) found in RA synovial fluids. From these results it is concluded that the aggregated immunoglobulins bearing C3d (particularly IgG) isolated from RA synovial fluids are responsible for activating complement and attracting PMNs into the joint space. Radioimmunoassay showed no correlation, however, between levels of aggregated IgG (or IgM) bearing C3d and rheumatoid factor (RF) activity bound by anti-C3d. In addition, the material bound by anti-C3d Sepharose from most synovial fluid polyethylene glycol precipitates did not contain either IgM or IgG RF. Thus both techniques show that the majority of complexes bearing C3d do not contain RF. As the complement fixing aggregates apparently contain only immunoglobulin and complement components the results raise the problem of how the aggregates are formed. It is suggested that RA IgG may remain aggregated after either antigen or antibody (RF) has dissociated from the complex. Images PMID:3492971

  12. Alternatively activated macrophages produce catecholamines to sustain adaptive thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Khoa D.; Qiu, Yifu; Cui, Xiaojin; Goh, Y.P. Sharon; Mwangi, Julia; David, Tovo; Mukundan, Lata; Brombacher, Frank; Locksley, Richard M.; Chawla, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    All homeotherms utilize thermogenesis to maintain core body temperature, ensuring that cellular functions and physiologic processes can ensue in cold environments1-3. In the prevailing model, when the hypothalamus senses cold temperatures, it triggers sympathetic discharge, resulting in the release of noradrenaline in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT)4,5. Acting via the β3-adrenergic receptors, noradrenaline induces lipolysis in white adipocytes6, whereas it stimulates the expression of thermogenic genes, such as PPARγ coactivator 1a (Ppargc1a), uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (Acsl1), in brown adipocytes7-9. However, the precise nature of all the cell types involved in this efferent loop is not well established. Here we report an unexpected requirement for the interleukin 4 (IL4)-stimulated program of alternative macrophage activation in adaptive thermogenesis. Cold exposure rapidly promoted alternative activation of adipose tissue macrophages, which secrete catecholamines to induce thermogenic gene expression in BAT and lipolysis in WAT. Absence of alternatively activated macrophages impaired metabolic adaptations to cold, whereas administration of IL4 increased thermogenic gene expression, fatty acid mobilization, and energy expenditure, all in a macrophage-dependent manner. We have thus discovered a surprising role for alternatively activated macrophages in the orchestration of an important mammalian stress response, the response to cold. PMID:22101429

  13. Complement component C3 mediates Th1/Th17 polarization in human T cell activation and cutaneous Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qing; Li, Dan; Carreño, Roberto; Patenia, Rebecca; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Xydes-Smith, Marika; Alousi, Amin M.; Champlin, Richard E.; Sale, George E.; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    The complement system has been shown to regulate T cell activation and alloimmune responses in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Mice deficient in the central component of complement system C3 have significantly lower GVHD-related mortality/morbidity and C3 modulates Th1/Th17 polarization in mouse GVHD. To investigate whether anti-complement therapy has any impact on human T cell activation, a drug candidate Compstatin was used to inhibit C3 activation in this study. We found the frequency of IFN-γ (Th1), IL-4 (Th2), IL-17 (Th17), IL-2 and TNF-α producing cells were significantly reduced among activated CD4+ cells in the presence of Compstatin. Compstatin treatment decreased the proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells upon TCR stimulation. However, Compstatin does not affect the production of IL-2 and TNF-α in activated CD8+ T cells, and the differentiation of CD8+ T cells into distinct memory and effector subsets remained intact. Furthermore, we examined complement deposition in the skin and lip biopsy samples of patients diagnosed with cutaneous GVHD. C3 deposition was detected in the squamous epithelium and dermis, blood vessels and damaged sweat glands, and associated with gland damage and regeneration. We conclude that C3 mediates Th1/Th17 polarization in human T cell activation and skin GVHD in patients. PMID:24777193

  14. Growth, serum biochemistry, complement activity, and liver gene expression responses of Pekin ducklings to graded levels of cultured aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Horn, N; Cotter, P F; Applegate, T J

    2014-08-01

    A 14-d study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cultured aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on performance, serum biochemistry, serum natural antibody and complement activity, and hepatic gene expression parameters in Pekin ducklings. A total of 144 male Pekin ducklings were weighed, tagged, and randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments containing 4 concentrations of AFB1 (0, 0.11, 0.14, and 0.21 mg/kg) from 0 to 14 d of age (6 cages per diet; 6 ducklings per cage). Compared with the control group, there was a 10.9, 31.7, and 47.4% (P < 0.05) decrease in cumulative BW gain with 0.11, 0.14, and 0.21 mg of AFB1/kg of diet, respectively, but feed efficiency was not affected. Increasing concentrations of AFB1 reduced cumulative BW gain and feed intake both linearly and quadratically, and regression equations were developed with r(2) ≥0.73. Feeding 0.11 to 0.21 mg of AFB1/kg reduced serum glucose, creatinine, albumin, total protein, globulin, Ca, P, and creatine phosphokinase linearly, whereas serum urea N, Cl, alkaline phosphatase, and aspartate amino transferase concentrations increased linearly with increasing AFB1 (P < 0.05). Additionally, 0.11 to 0.21 mg of AFB1/kg diets impaired classical and alternative complement pathways in the duckling serum when tested by lysis of rabbit, human type O, and horse erythrocytes, and decreased rabbit and horse agglutinins (P < 0.05). Liver peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expression was linearly downregulated by AFB1 (P < 0.01). Results from this study indicate that for every 0.10 mg/kg increase in dietary AFB1, cumulative feed intake and BW gain decrease approximately 230 and 169 g per duckling from hatch to 14 d; and that AFB1 at very low concentrations can significantly impair liver function and gene expression, and innate immune dynamics in Pekin ducklings.

  15. Gain-of-function mutations in complement factor B are associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Jorge, Elena Goicoechea; Harris, Claire L.; Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Carreras, Luis; Arranz, Elena Aller; Garrido, Cynthia Abarrategui; López-Trascasa, Margarita; Sánchez-Corral, Pilar; Morgan, B. Paul; de Córdoba, Santiago Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is an important cause of acute renal failure in children. Mutations in one or more genes encoding complement-regulatory proteins have been reported in approximately one-third of nondiarrheal, atypical HUS (aHUS) patients, suggesting a defect in the protection of cell surfaces against complement activation in susceptible individuals. Here, we identified a subgroup of aHUS patients showing persistent activation of the complement alternative pathway and found within this subgroup two families with mutations in the gene encoding factor B (BF), a zymogen that carries the catalytic site of the complement alternative pathway convertase (C3bBb). Functional analyses demonstrated that F286L and K323E aHUS-associated BF mutations are gain-of-function mutations that result in enhanced formation of the C3bBb convertase or increased resistance to inactivation by complement regulators. These data expand our understanding of the genetic factors conferring predisposition to aHUS, demonstrate the critical role of the alternative complement pathway in the pathogenesis of aHUS, and provide support for the use of complement-inhibition therapies to prevent or reduce tissue damage caused by dysregulated complement activation. PMID:17182750

  16. Accelerated Tumor Growth Mediated by Sub-lytic Levels of Antibody-Induced Complement Activation is Associated with Activation of the PI3K/AKT Survival Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaohong; Ragupathi, Govind; Panageas, Katherine; Hong, Feng; Livingston, Philip O.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We addressed the possibility that low levels of tumor cell bound antibodies targeting gangliosides might accelerate tumor growth. Experimental Design To test this hypothesis, we treated mice with a range of mAb doses against GM2, GD2, GD3 and CD20 after challenge with tumors expressing these antigens and tested the activity of the same mAbs in-vitro. We also explored the mechanisms behind the complement-mediated tumor growth acceleration that we observed and an approach to overcome it. Results Serologically detectable levels of IgM-mAb against GM2 are able to delay or prevent tumor growth of high GM2-expressing cell lines both in-vitro and in a SCID mouse model, while very low levels of this mAb resulted in slight but consistent acceleration of tumor growth in both settings. Surprisingly, this is not restricted to IgM antibodies targeting GM2 but consistent against IgG-mAb targeting GD3 as well. These findings were mirrored by in-vitro studies with antibodies against these antigens as well as GD2 and CD20 (with Rituxan), and shown to be complement-dependent in all cases. Complement-mediated accelerated growth of cultured tumor cell lines initiated by low mAb levels was associated with activation of the PI3K/AKT survival pathway and significantly elevated levels of both p-AKT and p-PRAS40. This complement-mediated PI3K-activation and accelerated tumor growth in-vitro and in-vivo are eliminated by PI3K-inhibitors NVP-BEZ235 and Wortmannin. These PI3K-inhibitors also significantly increased efficacy of high doses of these 4 mAbs. Conclusion Our findings suggest that manipulation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and its signaling network can significantly increase the potency of passively administered mAbs and vaccine-induced-antibodies targeting a variety of tumor-cell-surface-antigens. PMID:23833306

  17. Partial rescue of insulin receptor-deficient mice by transgenic complementation with an activated insulin receptor in the liver.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Anne; Jackerott, Malene; Lamothe, Betty; Kozyrev, Sergey V; Leroux, Loïc; Durel, Béatrice; Saint-Just, Susan; Joshi, Rajiv L

    2002-10-16

    Insulin receptor (IR)-deficient mice develop severe diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and liver steatosis and die within 1 week after birth. We examined in this work whether the metabolic phenotype of IR(-/-) mutants could be improved by transgenic complementation with IR selectively in the liver. We first generated transgenic mice expressing a human DNA complementary to RNA encoding a truncated constitutively activated form of IR (IRdelta) under the control of liver-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene promoter. These mice presented more pronounced fasting hypoglycemia and showed slightly improved glucose tolerance as compared to controls. The transgenic mice were crossed with IR(+/-) mutants to generate IR(-/-) mice carrying the PAH-IRDelta transgene. Although such mutants developed glycosuria, DKA was delayed by more than 1 week and survival was prolonged to 8-20 days in approximately 10% of mice. In these partially rescued pups, serum glucose and triglyceride levels were lowered, hepatic glycogen stores were reconstituted and liver steatosis was absent as compared with pups which developed strong DKA and died earlier. Thus, lack of insulin action in the liver is responsible in large part for the metabolic disorders seen in IR(+/-) mice. This study should stimulate interest in therapeutic strategies aimed at improving hepatic function in diabetes.

  18. Effects of experimentally increased in ovo lysozyme on egg hatchability, chicks complement activity, and phenotype in a precocial bird.

    PubMed

    Javůrková, Veronika; Krkavcová, Eva; Kreisinger, Jakub; Hyršl, Pavel; Hyánková, Ludmila

    2015-10-01

    In birds, spectrum of egg white proteins deposited into the egg during its formation are thought to be essential maternal effects. Particularly, egg white lysozyme (LSM), exhibiting great between and within species variability, is considered to be essential for developing avian embryos due to its physiological, antimicrobial, and innate immune defense functions. However, there have been few studies investigating effects of LSM on early post-hatching phenotype, despite its broad physiological and protective role during embryogenesis. Here, we test how experimentally increased concentrations of egg white LSM affect hatchability in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and chick phenotype immediately after hatching (particularly body weight, tarsus length, plasma LSM concentration, and plasma complement activity). Chicks from eggs with increased LSM concentration displayed reduced tarsus length compared to chicks from control eggs while hatchability, body weight and plasma LSM concentration were unaffected. It is worth noting that no effect of increased in ovo lysozyme on eggs hatchability could be related to pathogen-free environment during artificial incubation of experimental eggs causing minimal pressure on embryo viability. While tangible in vivo mechanisms during avian embryogenesis remain to be tested, our study is the first to document experimentally that egg white LSM appears to have growth-regulation role during embryo development, with possible underlying phenotypic consequences in the early post-hatching period in precocial birds.

  19. Motor cortex activity predicts response alternation during sensorimotor decisions

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Anna-Antonia; Siegel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Our actions are constantly guided by decisions based on sensory information. The motor cortex is traditionally viewed as the final output stage in this process, merely executing motor responses based on these decisions. However, it is not clear if, beyond this role, the motor cortex itself impacts response selection. Here, we report activity fluctuations over motor cortex measured using MEG, which are unrelated to choice content and predict responses to a visuomotor task seconds before decisions are made. These fluctuations are strongly influenced by the previous trial's response and predict a tendency to switch between response alternatives for consecutive decisions. This alternation behaviour depends on the size of neural signals still present from the previous response. Our results uncover a response-alternation bias in sensorimotor decision making. Furthermore, they suggest that motor cortex is more than an output stage and instead shapes response selection during sensorimotor decision making. PMID:27713396

  20. Recruitment of Factor H as a Novel Complement Evasion Strategy for Blood-Stage Plasmodium falciparum Infection.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alexander T; Schmidt, Christoph Q; Thompson, Jennifer K; Weiss, Greta E; Taechalertpaisarn, Tana; Gilson, Paul R; Barlow, Paul N; Crabb, Brendan S; Cowman, Alan F; Tham, Wai-Hong

    2016-02-01

    The human complement system is the frontline defense mechanism against invading pathogens. The coexistence of humans and microbes throughout evolution has produced ingenious molecular mechanisms by which microorganisms escape complement attack. A common evasion strategy used by diverse pathogens is the hijacking of soluble human complement regulators to their surfaces to afford protection from complement activation. One such host regulator is factor H (FH), which acts as a negative regulator of complement to protect host tissues from aberrant complement activation. In this report, we show that Plasmodium falciparum merozoites, the invasive form of the malaria parasites, actively recruit FH and its alternative spliced form FH-like protein 1 when exposed to human serum. We have mapped the binding site in FH that recognizes merozoites and identified Pf92, a member of the six-cysteine family of Plasmodium surface proteins, as its direct interaction partner. When bound to merozoites, FH retains cofactor activity, a key function that allows it to downregulate the alternative pathway of complement. In P. falciparum parasites that lack Pf92, we observed changes in the pattern of C3b cleavage that are consistent with decreased regulation of complement activation. These results also show that recruitment of FH affords P. falciparum merozoites protection from complement-mediated lysis. Our study provides new insights on mechanisms of immune evasion of malaria parasites and highlights the important function of surface coat proteins in the interplay between complement regulation and successful infection of the host.

  1. SALO, a novel classical pathway complement inhibitor from saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Viviana P; Fazito Vale, Vladimir; Pangburn, Michael K; Abdeladhim, Maha; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Rasouli, Manoochehr; Brandt, Elizabeth A; Meneses, Claudio; Lima, Kolyvan Ferreira; Nascimento Araújo, Ricardo; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Gontijo, Nelder F; Collin, Nicolas; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2016-01-01

    Blood-feeding insects inject potent salivary components including complement inhibitors into their host's skin to acquire a blood meal. Sand fly saliva was shown to inhibit the classical pathway of complement; however, the molecular identity of the inhibitor remains unknown. Here, we identified SALO as the classical pathway complement inhibitor. SALO, an 11 kDa protein, has no homology to proteins of any other organism apart from New World sand flies. rSALO anti-complement activity has the same chromatographic properties as the Lu. longipalpis salivary gland homogenate (SGH)counterparts and anti-rSALO antibodies blocked the classical pathway complement activity of rSALO and SGH. Both rSALO and SGH inhibited C4b deposition and cleavage of C4. rSALO, however, did not inhibit the protease activity of C1s nor the enzymatic activity of factor Xa, uPA, thrombin, kallikrein, trypsin and plasmin. Importantly, rSALO did not inhibit the alternative or the lectin pathway of complement. In conclusion our data shows that SALO is a specific classical pathway complement inhibitor present in the saliva of Lu. longipalpis. Importantly, due to its small size and specificity, SALO may offer a therapeutic alternative for complement classical pathway-mediated pathogenic effects in human diseases. PMID:26758086

  2. SALO, a novel classical pathway complement inhibitor from saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Viviana P.; Fazito Vale, Vladimir; Pangburn, Michael K.; Abdeladhim, Maha; Ferreira Mendes-Sousa, Antonio; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Rasouli, Manoochehr; Brandt, Elizabeth A.; Meneses, Claudio; Lima, Kolyvan Ferreira; Nascimento Araújo, Ricardo; Horácio Pereira, Marcos; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gontijo, Nelder F.; Collin, Nicolas; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2016-01-01

    Blood-feeding insects inject potent salivary components including complement inhibitors into their host’s skin to acquire a blood meal. Sand fly saliva was shown to inhibit the classical pathway of complement; however, the molecular identity of the inhibitor remains unknown. Here, we identified SALO as the classical pathway complement inhibitor. SALO, an 11 kDa protein, has no homology to proteins of any other organism apart from New World sand flies. rSALO anti-complement activity has the same chromatographic properties as the Lu. longipalpis salivary gland homogenate (SGH)counterparts and anti-rSALO antibodies blocked the classical pathway complement activity of rSALO and SGH. Both rSALO and SGH inhibited C4b deposition and cleavage of C4. rSALO, however, did not inhibit the protease activity of C1s nor the enzymatic activity of factor Xa, uPA, thrombin, kallikrein, trypsin and plasmin. Importantly, rSALO did not inhibit the alternative or the lectin pathway of complement. In conclusion our data shows that SALO is a specific classical pathway complement inhibitor present in the saliva of Lu. longipalpis. Importantly, due to its small size and specificity, SALO may offer a therapeutic alternative for complement classical pathway-mediated pathogenic effects in human diseases. PMID:26758086

  3. Complement fixation by rheumatoid factor.

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, K; Cooper, N R; Johnson, J S; Vaughan, J H

    1975-01-01

    The capacity for fixation and activation of hemolytic complement by polyclonal IgM rheumatoid factors (RF) isolated from sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and monoclonal IgM-RF isolated from the cryoprecipitates of patients with IgM-IgG mixed cryoglobulinemia was examined. RF mixed with aggregated, reduced, and alkylated human IgG (Agg-R/A-IgG) in the fluid phase failed to significantly reduce the level of total hemolytic complement, CH50, or of individual complement components, C1, C2, C3, and C5. However, sheep erythrocytes (SRC) coated with Agg-R/A-IgG or with reduced and alkylated rabbit IgG anti-SRC antibody were hemolyzed by complement in the presence of polyclonal IgM-RF. Human and guinea pig complement worked equally well. The degree of hemolysis was in direct proportion to the hemagglutination titer of the RF against the same coated cells. Monoclonal IgM-RF, normal human IgM, and purified Waldenström macroglobulins without antiglobulin activity were all inert. Hemolysis of coated SRC by RF and complement was inhibited by prior treatment of the complement source with chelating agents, hydrazine, cobra venom factor, specific antisera to C1q, CR, C5, C6, or C8, or by heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min. Purified radiolabeled C4, C3, and C8 included in the complement source were bound to hemolysed SRC in direct proportion to the degree of hemolysis. These data indicate that polyclonal IgM-RF fix and activate complement via the classic pathway. The system described for assessing complement fixation by isolated RF is readily adaptable to use with whole human serum. PMID:1078825

  4. Alternative activation modifies macrophage resistance to Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Velázquez, Uziel; Aranday-Cortés, Elihú; Gutiérrez-Pabello, José A

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of macrophage alternative activation in the intracellular pathogen natural disease resistance phenotype of the host. Macrophage monolayers from resistant (R) (3) or susceptible (S) (3) cattle donors were treated with 10 ng/ml of bovine recombinant IL-4 (rbIL-4), and infected with virulent and avirulent Mycobacterium bovis (MOI 10:1). Bactericidal assays were performed to assess the bacterial phagocytic index and intracellular survival. Total RNA was reverse transcribed and used to analyze the relative changes in gene expression of IL-10, IL-12, IL-18 IL-1β, TNF-α, MCP-1, MCP-2, IL-6, MIP-1, MIP-3, iNOS, ARGII and SLAM by real time PCR. Cell supernatants were collected and nitric oxide and arginase production was assessed. Apoptosis induction was measured by TUNEL. IL-4 treatment increased the phagocytic index in both R and S macrophages; however intracellular survival was augmented mainly in S macrophages. Alternative activation decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide production and DNA fragmentation mainly in R macrophages. On the other hand, arginase production was not different between R and S macrophages. Alternative activation modifies the macrophage response against M. bovis. IL-4 treatment minimized the functional differences that exist between R and S macrophages.

  5. Systemic lupus erythematosus and primary fibromyalgia can be distinguished by testing for cell-bound complement activation products

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Daniel J; Silverman, Stuart L; Conklin, John; Barken, Derren; Dervieux, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Objective We sought to establish the performance of cell-bound complement activation products (CB-CAPs) as a diagnostic tool to distinguish primary fibromyalgia (FM) from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods A total of 75 SLE and 75 primary FM adult subjects who fulfilled appropriate classification criteria were enrolled prospectively. CB-CAPs (erythrocyte-C4d (EC4d) and B-lymphocyte-C4d (BC4d)) were determined by flow cytometry. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) were determined using indirect immunofluorescence while other autoantibodies were determined by solid-phase assays. The CB-CAPs in a multi-analyte assay with algorithm (MAAA) relied on two consecutive tiers of analysis that was reported as an overall positive or negative assessment. Test performance was assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR). Results ANAs yielded 80% positives for SLE and 33% positives for FM. High CB-CAP expression (EC4d >14 units or BC4d >60 units) was 43% sensitive and 96% specific for SLE. The CB-CAPs in MAAA assessment was evaluable in 138 of the 150 subjects enrolled (92%) and yielded 60% sensitivity (CI 95% 48% to 72%) for SLE with no FM patient testing positive (100% specificity). A positive test result was associated with a strong positive LR for SLE (>24, CI 95%; 6 to 102), while a negative test result was associated with a moderate negative LR (0.40; CI 95% 0.30 to 0.54). Conclusion Our data indicate that CB-CAPs in MAAA can distinguish FM from SLE. PMID:26870391

  6. The Complement System and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Regal, Jean F.; Gilbert, Jeffrey S.; Burwick, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the feta allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:25802092

  7. The complement system and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Regal, Jean F; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Burwick, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the fetal allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child.

  8. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  9. Interaction between human complement and a pectin type polysaccharide fraction, PMII, from the leaves of Plantago major L.

    PubMed

    Michaelsen, T E; Gilje, A; Samuelsen, A B; Høgåsen, K; Paulsen, B S

    2000-11-01

    The interaction between a pectin type polysaccharide fraction, PMII, isolated from the leaves of Plantago major, and human complement was tested in two different hemolytic complement-fixation tests and in addition by two ELISA methods detecting complement-activation products. Sera were used as a complement source of 10 arbitrary human volunteers, individually and as a pool. The complement-fixation tests were designed to measure the concentration of the pectin necessary to inhibit 50% of the hemolysis (ICH(50)). The ELISA tests for complement-activation products were measured in AU/mg using a fully activated serum as a standard. We observed a more than 200-fold difference in ICH(50) activity of the PMII pectin in one of the hemolytic tests by varying the individual sera used as complement-source. On the other hand, the ELISA complement-activation tests showed no significant variation in activity of the PMII depending on the complement-serum used. The level of antibodies against PMII detected in the complement-sera did not correlate with the ICH(50) activity of PMII. The results show that PMII is a potent complement activator with an activity of the same order of magnitude on a weight basis as that of aggregated human immunoglobulin (Ig)G. This activation leads to a complement consumption probably explaining the PMII's effect in the complement-fixation tests. PMII seems to be an activator both on the classical and the alternative pathway of activation. The results might be related to the reported wound-healing effect of the leaves of Plantago major.

  10. Role of complement in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Daha, Mohamed R; van Kooten, Cees

    2016-02-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by the deposition of IgA in the mesangium of glomeruli. This mesangial IgA has been found to consist mainly of polymeric IgA1 which drives the activation of the mesangial cells and results in excessive production of several inflammatory mediators. The activation of mesangial cells is amplified by the ability of IgA to activate the complement system, originally thought to occur mainly via the alternative pathway of complement. However more recent studies indicate that lectin pathway involvement has a strong association with progression of renal disease. In this review we summarize the contribution of complement to the IgA- mediated inflammatory process.

  11. An Alternative Measure of Solar Activity from Detailed Sunspot Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraközy, J.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2016-05-01

    The sunspot number is analyzed by using detailed sunspot data, including aspects of observability, sunspot sizes, and proper identification of sunspot groups as discrete entities of solar activity. The tests show that in addition to the subjective factors there are also objective causes of the ambiguities in the series of sunspot numbers. To introduce an alternative solar-activity measure, the physical meaning of the sunspot number has to be reconsidered. It contains two components whose numbers are governed by different physical mechanisms and this is one source of the ambiguity. This article suggests an activity index, which is the amount of emerged magnetic flux. The only long-term proxy measure is the detailed sunspot-area dataset with proper calibration to the magnetic flux. The Debrecen sunspot databases provide an appropriate source for the establishment of the suggested activity index.

  12. Von Willebrand factor regulates complement on endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Noone, Damien G; Riedl, Magdalena; Pluthero, Fred G; Bowman, Mackenzie L; Liszewski, M Kathryn; Lu, Lily; Quan, Yi; Balgobin, Steve; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Schneppenheim, Sonja; Budde, Ulrich; James, Paula; Atkinson, John P; Palaniyar, Nades; Kahr, Walter H A; Licht, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura have traditionally been considered separate entities. Defects in the regulation of the complement alternative pathway occur in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and defects in the cleavage of von Willebrand factor (VWF)-multimers arise in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. However, recent studies suggest that both entities are related as defects in the disease-causing pathways overlap or show functional interactions. Here we investigate the possible functional link of VWF-multimers and the complement system on endothelial cells. Blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) were obtained from 3 healthy individuals and 2 patients with Type 3 von Willebrand disease lacking VWF. Cells were exposed to a standardized complement challenge via the combination of classical and alternative pathway activation and 50% normal human serum resulting in complement fixation to the endothelial surface. Under these conditions we found the expected release of VWF-multimers causing platelet adhesion onto BOECs from healthy individuals. Importantly, in BOECs derived from patients with von Willebrand disease complement C3c deposition and cytotoxicity were more pronounced than on BOECs derived from normal individuals. This is of particular importance as primary glomerular endothelial cells display a heterogeneous expression pattern of VWF with overall reduced VWF abundance. Thus, our results support a mechanistic link between VWF-multimers and the complement system. However, our findings also identify VWF as a new complement regulator on vascular endothelial cells and suggest that VWF has a protective effect on endothelial cells and complement-mediated injury. PMID:27236750

  13. Intravenous and standard immune serum globulin preparations interfere with uptake of /sup 125/I-C3 onto sensitized erythrocytes and inhibit hemolytic complement activity

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, M.; Rosenkranz, P.; Brown, C.Y.

    1985-02-01

    Antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes were used as a model to determine the effects of therapeutic immune serum globulin (ISG) preparations on the ability of this particulate activator to fix C3 and initiate hemolysis. Both standard and intravenous forms of ISG inhibit uptake of /sup 125/I-C3, presumably by competing for the deposition of ''nascent'' C3b molecules onto the erythrocytes. Both forms of ISG also inhibit hemolytic activity of whole serum or purified complement components. The inhibition appears to be a specific property of IgG itself, since similar inhibition was not caused by equivalent concentrations of human serum albumin, and was not affected by the buffer in which the ISG was dissolved. Interference with C3 uptake onto antibody-sensitized platelets and/or inhibition of hemolytic complement activity could contribute to the efficacy of high dose intravenous ISG in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

  14. Meningococcal disease and the complement system

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lisa A; Ram, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of meningococcal disease, this infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The role of the complement system in innate immune defenses against invasive meningococcal disease is well established. Individuals deficient in components of the alternative and terminal complement pathways are highly predisposed to invasive, often recurrent meningococcal infections. Genome-wide analysis studies also point to a central role for complement in disease pathogenesis. Here we review the pathophysiologic events pertinent to the complement system that accompany meningococcal sepsis in humans. Meningococci use several often redundant mechanisms to evade killing by human complement. Capsular polysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide glycan composition play critical roles in complement evasion. Some of the newly described protein vaccine antigens interact with complement components and have sparked considerable research interest. PMID:24104403

  15. Herbal complement inhibitors in the treatment of neuroinflammation: future strategy for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Amod P; Kellaway, Laurie A; Kotwal, Girish J

    2005-11-01

    The upregulated complement system plays a damaging role in disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). The classical and alternate pathways are two major pathways activated in neuroinflammatory disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, HIV-associated dementia, Parkinson's disease, and mad cow disease. Failure of currently available anti-inflammatory agents, especially cyclooxygenase inhibitors, in offering significant neuroprotection in large epidemiologic clinical trials of CNS disorders suggests an urgent need for the development of new neuroprotective agents. The positive preclinical outcomes in treating CNS disorders by complement regulatory molecules, such as vaccinia virus complement control protein, suggest the possibility of using complement-inhibitory molecules as neuroprotective agents. Several active ingredients of herbal origin are found to have complement-inhibitory activity. These herbal ingredients along with other anti-inflammatory roles might be useful in treating neuroinflammation associated with CNS disorders. Active ingredients of herbal origin with complement inhibitory ingredients are summarized and classified according to their chemical nature and specificity towards the major pathways activating the complement system. The structure activity relationship of some specific examples is also discussed in this report. This information might be helpful in formulating a natural panacea against complement-mediated neuroinflammation. PMID:16387706

  16. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch.

    PubMed

    Peña, Jeremy Ryan; Fitzpatrick, Donna; Saidman, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    The complement-dependent cytotoxic crossmatch is an informative test that detects alloantibodies in pre- and post-transplant patients, which may dictate clinical management of transplant patients. While challenging to perform, the cytotoxic crossmatch represents the only assay that provides direct evidence for the presence of potentially pathologic (i.e., cytotoxic) alloantibodies. The cytotoxic crossmatch combines patient (recipient) serum and donor cells. If donor-reactive alloantibodies are present in patient serum, these antibodies can bind donor cells. Antibody-antigen complexes, in turn, can activate the complement cascade, leading to complement-mediated cytotoxicity. Two commonly performed cytotoxic crossmatches, using donor lymphocytes as target cells, are described.

  17. Complement Propriety and Conspiracy in Nanomedicine: Perspective and a Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein

    2016-04-01

    The complement system is the first line of body's defense against intruders and it acts as a functional bridge between innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. This commentary examines the key roles of complement activation in response to nanomedicine administration, including nucleic acid complexes. These comprise beneficial (eg, adjuvanticity) as well as adverse effects (eg, infusion-related reactions). Pigs (and sheep) are often used as predictive models of nanomedicine-mediated infusion-related reactions in humans. The validity of these models in relation to human responses is questioned, and an alternative hypothesis is presented. PMID:26720796

  18. Alternative interpretation for the active zones of Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Mario Octavio Cotilla

    2014-11-01

    An alternative explanation to the seismoactivity of Cuban faults is presented. The model is a consequence of the interaction between Caribbean and North American plates. It is made with 12 geodynamic cells form by a set of 13 active faults and their 14 areas of intersection. These cells are recognized morpho-structural blocks. The area between Eastern Matanzas and Western Cauto-Nipe is excluded because of the low level of seismic information. Cuba has two types of seismogenetic structures: faults and intersection of faults.

  19. Anti-complement sesquiterpenes from Viola yedoensis.

    PubMed

    Du, Dongsheng; Cheng, Zhihong; Chen, Daofeng

    2015-03-01

    Two new germacrane sesquiterpenes, yedoensins A (1) and B (2), together with 8 known ones (3-10) were isolated from the herb of Viola yedoensis. The structures of the new compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic means including 1D ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D NMR experiments (HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) as well as HR-ESI-MS analysis. The absolute configurations of the known sesquiterpenes versicolactone B (3) and madolin W (6) were determined by a modified Mosher's method for the first time. The sesquiterpenes 1-3, and 5-9 exhibited anti-complement activity against the classical pathway (CP) and the alternative pathway (AP) with the CH50 and AP50 values ranging from 0.14 to 0.37mg/mL and 0.32 to 0.54mg/mL, respectively. Preliminary mechanism study using complement-depleted sera showed that yedoensin A (1) and versicolactone B (3) acted on C1q, C3 and C9, while madolin W (6), aristoyunnolin E (7) and madolin Y (9) interacted with C1q, C3, C5 and C9 components in the complement activation cascade.

  20. Complement-Mediated Death of Ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis Caused by Human Blood Serum.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, P A; Faktor, M I; Karpova, N S; Cheremnykh, E G; Brusov, O S

    2016-04-01

    Toxicity of human blood serum for ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis is determined by the complement system. When ciliate are dying after being exposed to blood serum, cell membrane permeability for low-molecular-weight compounds significantly increases, probably due to pore formation. Serine protease inhibitors or exposure to physical factors inducing complement inactivation (e.g., heating up to 56°C) completely prevented ciliate death under the effect of human serum. Activation of serum complement upon interaction with Tetrahymena cells occurred by the classical or lectin pathway, while the contribution of the alternative activation pathway was negligible.

  1. Elevated levels of the complement activation product C4d in bronchial fluids for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ajona, Daniel; Razquin, Cristina; Pastor, Maria Dolores; Pajares, Maria Jose; Garcia, Javier; Cardenal, Felipe; Fleischhacker, Michael; Lozano, Maria Dolores; Zulueta, Javier J; Schmidt, Bernd; Nadal, Ernest; Paz-Ares, Luis; Montuenga, Luis M; Pio, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers in bronchial fluids may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. We previously observed a significant increase of C4d-containing complement degradation fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) supernatants from lung cancer patients in a cohort of 50 cases and 22 controls (CUN cohort). The present study was designed to determine the diagnostic performance of these complement fragments (hereinafter jointly referred as C4d) in bronchial fluids. C4d levels were determined in BAL supernatants from two independent cohorts: the CU cohort (25 cases and 26 controls) and the HUVR cohort (60 cases and 98 controls). A series of spontaneous sputum samples from 68 patients with lung cancer and 10 controls was also used (LCCCIO cohort). Total protein content, complement C4, complement C5a, and CYFRA 21-1 were also measured in all cohorts. C4d levels were significantly increased in BAL samples from lung cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.71-0.94) and 0.67 (95%CI = 0.58-0.76) for the CU and HUVR cohorts, respectively. In addition, unlike the other markers, C4d levels in BAL samples were highly consistent across the CUN, CU and HUVR cohorts. Interestingly, C4d test markedly increased the sensitivity of bronchoscopy in the two cohorts in which cytological data were available (CUN and HUVR cohorts). Finally, in the LCCCIO cohort, C4d levels were higher in sputum supernatants from patients with lung cancer (area under the ROC curve: 0.7; 95%CI = 0.56-0.83). In conclusion, C4d is consistently elevated in bronchial fluids from lung cancer patients and may be used to improve the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:25799154

  2. Solid-phase classical complement activation by C-reactive protein (CRP) is inhibited by fluid-phase CRP-C1q interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoewall, Christopher; Askendal, Agneta; Almroth, Gunnel

    2007-01-05

    C-reactive protein (CRP) interacts with phosphorylcholine (PC), Fc{gamma} receptors, complement factor C1q and cell nuclear constituents, yet its biological roles are insufficiently understood. The aim was to characterize CRP-induced complement activation by ellipsometry. PC conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (PC-KLH) was immobilized to cross-linked fibrinogen. A low-CRP serum with different amounts of added CRP was exposed to the PC-surfaces. The total serum protein deposition was quantified and deposition of IgG, C1q, C3c, C4, factor H, and CRP detected with polyclonal antibodies. The binding of serum CRP to PC-KLH dose-dependently triggered activation of the classical pathway. Unexpectedly, the activation was efficiently down-regulated at CRP levels >150 mg/L. Using radial immunodiffusion, CRP-C1q interaction was observed in serum samples with high CRP concentrations. We propose that the underlying mechanism depends on fluid-phase interaction between C1q and CRP. This might constitute another level of complement regulation, which has implications for systemic lupus erythematosus where CRP is often low despite flare-ups.

  3. Leucocyte complement receptor 1 (CR1/CD35) transcript and its correlation with the clinical disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Anand, D; Kumar, U; Kanjilal, M; Kaur, S; Das, N

    2014-01-01

    In view of the exaggerated complement activation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and significance of complement receptor 1 (CR1/CD35) as a complement regulatory protein (CRP), we aimed to determine the leucocyte-complement receptor 1 (L-CR1) transcript levels and the relationship of this protein with the clinical disease activity of RA patients. Sixty-six controls and 45 RA patients were enrolled. L-CR1 transcript levels were correlated with the levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC), C3, C4 and C3d in controls and patients and with disease activity score 28 (DAS28) in patients only. CIC levels were determined by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, C3 and C4 levels by nephlometry and C3d levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Eleven patients were recruited for follow-up of L-CR1 and DAS28 levels at weeks 0, 12 and 24. Appropriate statistical methods were used for the data analysis. L-CR1 (P < 0·01) transcript levels were decreased in patients compared to controls. L-CR1 levels correlated negatively with DAS28, CIC and C3d. DAS28 correlated positively with levels of CIC, C3 and C3d. Levels of CIC correlated positively with C3 and C3d. Levels of C3 correlated positively with C3d in patients and with C4 in both controls and patients. Levels of L-CR1 increased with decline in DAS28 scores in follow-up patients. Observations were statistically significant. Lower levels of L-CR1 transcript in patients compared to controls, their correlations with the levels of CIC, C3d and DAS28 at different time-points in RA patients suggest CR1 as a potential disease marker for RA. PMID:24433281

  4. Viral complement regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Rosengard, A M; Ahearn, J M

    1999-05-01

    The inactivation of complement provides cells and tissues critical protection from complement-mediated attack and decreases the associated recruitment of other inflammatory mediators. In an attempt to evade the host immune response, viruses have evolved two mechanisms to acquire complement regulatory proteins. They can directly seize the host cell complement regulators onto their outer envelope and/or they can produce their own proteins which are either secreted into the neighboring intercellular space or expressed as membrane-bound proteins on the infected host cell. The following review will concentrate on the viral homologues of the mammalian complement regulatory proteins, specifically those containing complement control protein (CCP) repeats. PMID:10408371

  5. Complement in the Homeostatic and Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Alawieh, Ali; Elvington, Andrew; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The complement system is a component of the immune system involved in both recognition and response to pathogens, and it is implicated in an increasing number of homeostatic and disease processes. It is well documented that reperfusion of ischemic tissue results in complement activation and an inflammatory response that causes post-reperfusion injury. This occurs following cerebral ischemia and reperfusion and triggers secondary damage that extends beyond the initial infarcted area, an outcome that has rationalized the use of complement inhibitors as candidate therapeutics after stroke. In the central nervous system, however, recent studies have revealed that complement also has essential roles in synaptic pruning, neurogenesis, and neuronal migration. In the context of recovery after stroke, these apparent divergent functions of complement may account for findings that the protective effect of complement inhibition in the acute phase after stroke is not always maintained in the subacute and chronic phases. The development of effective stroke therapies based on modulation of the complement system will require a detailed understanding of complement-dependent processes in both early neurodegenerative events and delayed neuro-reparatory processes. Here, we review the role of complement in normal brain physiology, the events initiating complement activation after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and the contribution of complement to both injury and recovery. We also discuss how the design of future experiments may better characterize the dual role of complement in recovery after ischemic stroke. PMID:26322048

  6. Human IgG is produced in a pro-form that requires clipping of C-terminal lysines for maximal complement activation

    PubMed Central

    van den Bremer, Ewald TJ; Beurskens, Frank J; Voorhorst, Marleen; Engelberts, Patrick J; de Jong, Rob N; van der Boom, Burt G; Cook, Erika M; Lindorfer, Margaret A; Taylor, Ronald P; van Berkel, Patrick HC; Parren, Paul WHI

    2015-01-01

    Human IgG is produced with C-terminal lysines that are cleaved off in circulation. The function of this modification was unknown and generally thought not to affect antibody function. We recently reported that efficient C1q binding and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) requires IgG hexamerization at the cell surface. Here we demonstrate that C-terminal lysines may interfere with this process, leading to suboptimal C1q binding and CDC of cells opsonized with C-terminal lysine-containing IgG. After we removed these lysines with a carboxypeptidase, maximal complement activation was observed. Interestingly, IgG1 mutants containing either a negative C-terminal charge or multiple positive charges lost CDC almost completely; however, CDC was fully restored by mixing C-terminal mutants of opposite charge. Our data indicate a novel post-translational control mechanism of human IgG: human IgG molecules are produced in a pro-form in which charged C-termini interfere with IgG hexamer formation, C1q binding and CDC. To allow maximal complement activation, C-terminal lysine processing is required to release the antibody's full cytotoxic potential. PMID:26037225

  7. Role of the complement system in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis: relationship with anti-TNF inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ballanti, Eleonora; Perricone, Carlo; di Muzio, Gioia; Kroegler, Barbara; Chimenti, Maria Sole; Graceffa, Dario; Perricone, Roberto

    2011-08-01

    The complement system is an essential component of innate immunity and also plays an important role in modulating adaptive immunity. It comprises more than 30 plasma and membrane-bound proteins and can be activated through three pathways: the classical, the alternative and the lectin pathways. Its activation contributes to the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. The evidence of complement activation in synovial fluid of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients is abundant, while few data exist in Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) patients. Levels of complement proteins are generally depressed in the synovial fluid of patients with RA, reflecting consumption of complement. On the other hand, elevated levels of several complement cleavage products have been observed in synovial fluid. Involvement of complement in the pathogenesis of RA was also confirmed in animal models of arthritis: mice deficient for complement proteins are protected against the development of collagen-induced arthritis and administration of the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody prevents the onset of this arthritis. In the last decade anti-tumor necrosis factor agents have shown to be effective for the treatment of both RA and PsA and some studies suggest that the interaction between TNFα and complement system may contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. Reduction of the complement activation could be one of the mechanism by which TNFα-inhibitors exert their effectiveness in inflammatory arthritides. Because of these findings, complement could be an attractive therapeutic target both in RA and in PsA.

  8. The role of complement in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The complement system is a major component of innate immunity and has been commonly identified as a central element in host defense, clearance of immune complexes, and tissue homeostasis. After ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), the complement system is activated by endogenous ligands that trigger proteolytic cleavage of complement components via the classical, lectin and/or alternative pathway. The result is the formation of terminal complement components C3a, C5a, and the membrane attack complex (C5b-9 or MAC), all of which play pivotal roles in the amplification of the inflammatory response, chemotaxis, neutrophil/monocyte recruitment and activation, and direct tubular cell injury. However, recent evidence suggests that complement activity transcends innate host defense and there is increasing data suggesting complement as a regulator in processes such as allo-immunity, stem cell differentiation, tissue repair, and progression to fibrosis. In this review, we discuss recent advances addressing the role of complement as a regulator of IRI and renal fibrosis after organ donation for transplantation. We will also briefly discuss currently approved therapies that target complement activity in kidney ischemia-reperfusion and transplantation. PMID:25383094

  9. Mesophilic Aeromonas sp. serogroup O:11 resistance to complement-mediated killing.

    PubMed Central

    Merino, S; Rubires, X; Aguilar, A; Albertí, S; Hernandez-Allés, S; Benedí, V J; Tomas, J M

    1996-01-01

    The complement activation by and resistance to complement-mediated killing of Aeromonas sp. strains from serogroup O:11 were investigated by using different wild-type strains (with an S-layer characteristic of this serogroup) and their isogenic mutants characterized for their surface components (S-layer and lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). All of the Aeromonas sp. serogroup O:11 wild-type strains are unable to activate complement, which suggested that the S-layer completely covered the LPS molecules. We found that the classical complement pathway is involved in serum killing of susceptible Aeromonas sp. mutant strains of serogroup O11, while the alternative complement pathway seems not to be involved, and that the complement activation seems to be independent of antibody. The smooth mutant strains devoid of the S-layer (S-layer isogenic mutants) or isogenic LPS mutant strains with a complete or rather complete LPS core (also without the S-layer) are able to activate complement but are resistant to complement-mediated killing. The reasons for this resistance are that C3b is rapidly degraded, and therefore the lytic membrane attack complex (C5b-9) is not formed. Isogenic LPS rough mutants with an incomplete LPS core are serum sensitive because they bind more C3b than the resistant strains, the C3b is not completely degraded, and therefore the lytic complex (C5b-9) is formed. PMID:8945581

  10. Complement system in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shicui; Cui, Pengfei

    2014-09-01

    Zebrafish is recently emerging as a model species for the study of immunology and human diseases. Complement system is the humoral backbone of the innate immune defense, and our knowledge as such in zebrafish has dramatically increased in the recent years. This review summarizes the current research progress of zebrafish complement system. The global searching for complement components in genome database, together with published data, has unveiled the existence of all the orthologues of mammalian complement components identified thus far, including the complement regulatory proteins and complement receptors, in zebrafish. Interestingly, zebrafish complement components also display some distinctive features, such as prominent levels of extrahepatic expression and isotypic diversity of the complement components. Future studies should focus on the following issues that would be of special importance for understanding the physiological role of complement components in zebrafish: conclusive identification of complement genes, especially those with isotypic diversity; analysis and elucidation of function and mechanism of complement components; modulation of innate and adaptive immune response by complement system; and unconventional roles of complement-triggered pathways.

  11. Flow Cytometric Investigation of Classical and Alternative Platelet Activation Markers

    PubMed Central

    Debreceni, Ildikó Beke; Kappelmayer, János

    2013-01-01

    Platelets show a substantial role in the maintenance of vascular integrity when these cells after a rapid activation adhere to the vessel wall lesion, aggregate with other platelets and leukocytes resulting in an arterial thrombosis. Analysis of in vivo platelet activation at an early time point is crucial in the detection of developing thrombotic events. In addition, the forecast of future complications as well as the evaluation of the efficacy of anti- platelet medication are also essential in a large group of patients. Changes in the levels of platelet receptors or alteration in other surface properties due to intra- and extracellular responses to a stimulus can be measurable primarily by flow cytometry with specific antibodies via the assessment of classical and alternative platelet activation markers. Some of these biomarkers have been already used in routine laboratory settings in many cases, while others still stand in the phase of research applications. Deficiency in platelet receptors is also accessible with this technique for the diagnosis of certain bleeding disorders. We here describe the most important types of platelet activation markers, and give an overview how the levels of these markers are altered in different diseases.

  12. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin exerts its beneficial effect in patients with dermatomyositis by blocking endomysial deposition of activated complement fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Basta, M; Dalakas, M C

    1994-01-01

    In patients with dermatomyositis (DM) the earliest lesion is microvasculopathy mediated by deposition of C5b-C9 membranolytic attack complex (MAC) on intramuscular capillaries. This leads sequentially to muscle ischemia, necrosis of muscle fibers, and muscle weakness. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), which can modulate complement-dependent tissue damage in animal models, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of patients with DM. We used an in vitro C3 uptake assay to examine 55 coded sera from 13 patients with DM and 5 patients with other non-complement-mediated neuromuscular diseases, before and after treatment with IVIG or placebo. Patients with active DM had a significantly higher baseline C3 uptake compared with the others (geometric mean 12,190 vs 3,090 cpm). Post-IVIG but not post-placebo sera inhibited the C3 uptake, without depleting the complement components, by 70.6-93.4%. The maximum inhibition of C3 uptake occurred within hours after IVIG infusion, started to rebound 2 d later, and reached pretreatment levels after 30 d. The serum levels of SC5b-9 complex production were high at baseline but normalized after IVIG therapy. Repeat biopsies from muscles of improved patients showed disappearance of C3b NEO and MAC deposits from the endomysial capillaries and restoration of the capillary network. We conclude that IVIG exerts its beneficial clinical effect by intercepting the assembly and deposition of MAC on the endomysial capillaries through the formation of complexes between the infused immunoglobulins and C3b, thereby preventing the incorporation of activated C3 molecules into C5 convertase. These findings provide the first serological and in situ evidence that IVIG modulates complement attack in a human disease. Images PMID:7962520

  13. Complement in Lupus Nephritis: New Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Lihua; Cunningham, Patrick N.; Quigg, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder caused by loss of tolerance to self-antigens, the production of autoantibodies and deposition of complement-fixing immune complexes (ICs) in injured tissues. SLE is characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations and targeted organs, with lupus nephritis being one of the most serious complications. The complement system consists of three pathways and is tightly controlled by a set of regulatory proteins to prevent injudicious complement activation on host tissue. The involvement of the complement system in the pathogenesis of SLE is well accepted; yet, its exact role is still not clear. Summary Complement plays dual roles in the pathogenesis of SLE. On the one hand, the complement system appears to have protective features in that hereditary homozygous deficiencies of classical pathway components, such as C1q and C4, are associated with an increased risk for SLE. On the other hand, IC-mediated activation of complement in affected tissues is clearly evident in both experimental and human SLE along with pathological features that are logical consequences of complement activation. Studies in genetically altered mice have shown that lack of complement inhibitors, such as complement factor H (CFH) or decay-accelerating factor (DAF) accelerates the development of experimental lupus nephritis, while treatment with recombinant protein inhibitors, such as Crry-Ig, CR2-Crry, CR2-DAF and CR2-CFH, ameliorates the disease development. Complement-targeted drugs, including soluble complement receptor 1 (TP10), C1 esterase inhibitor and a monoclonal anti-C5 antibody (eculizumab), have been shown to inhibit complement safely, and are now being investigated in a variety of clinical conditions. Key Messages SLE is an autoimmune disorder which targets multiple systems. Complement is centrally involved and plays dual roles in the pathogenesis of SLE. Studies from experimental lupus models and clinical

  14. The relationship between the variants of the bovine MBL2 gene and milk production traits, mastitis, serum MBL-C levels and complement activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinju; Ju, Zhihua; Huang, Jinming; Hou, Minghai; Zhou, Lei; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Qing; Pan, Qing; Li, Guorong; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

    2012-08-15

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a calcium-dependent collagenous lectin, plays an important role in the host immune defence against a wide range of pathogens. There are MBL1 and MBL2 genes which encode the MBL-A and MBL-C proteins, respectively. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between the variants of the bovine MBL2 gene and milk production traits, mastitis, serum MBL-C levels and hemolytic complement activity in both classical pathway (CH50) and alternative pathway (ACH50) in Chinese Holstein cattle. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exon 1 of the MBL2 gene in Chinese Holstein cattle and Luxi yellow cattle were identified by the direct sequencing method. The SNP g.201 G>A was identified as a non-synonymous mutation (codon 31, Arg>Gln) at the N-terminus cysteine-rich domain and the SNPs g.234 C>A and g.235 G>A (codon 42) made Pro to Gln at the 1st Gly-X-Y repeat of the collagen-like domain, while the SNP g.244 T>C (codon 45) was identified as a synonymous mutation (Asn>Asn) at the 2 th Gly-X-Y repeat of the collagen-like domain. The SNP markers (g.201 G>A, and g.234 C>A) were significantly correlated with somatic cell score (SCS) (P<0.05). The concentration of MBL-C protein in serum ranges from 0.8 to 7.4 μg/mL by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Six combinations of different haplotypes from the four SNPs were identified in Chinese Holstein cattle. Statistical analysis revealed that cows with the haplotype combination H4H5 exhibited the lowest SCS. The CH50 value of H4H5 and H5H5 cow are significantly higher than H2H5 haplotype combination (P<0.05). The association analysis results showed that the haplotype combination H4H5 may be used as a tolerance haplotype combination for the bovine mastitis.

  15. Complement the hemostatic system: an intimate relationship.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Ilene Ceil

    2014-05-01

    The complement system is important part of our innate immune system and interacts directly with the hemostatic system. Disorders of complement activation or dysregulation resulting in excess complement generation, such as Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH), atypical Hemolytic uremic Syndrome (aHUS) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) have been associated with significant thrombophilia. Terminal Complement (C5b-9) deposition on endothelial and tumor cell membranes has also been reported in a variety of cancer. Recent developments in complement inhibition have given us new insights into the mechanism of thrombosis in these disorders.

  16. Complement receptor type 1 (CR1/CD35) expressed on activated human CD4+ T cells contributes to generation of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Török, Katalin; Dezső, Balázs; Bencsik, András; Uzonyi, Barbara; Erdei, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The role of complement in the regulation of T cell immunity has been highlighted recently by several groups. We were prompted to reinvestigate the role of complement receptor type 1 (CR1, CD35) [corrected] in human T cells based on our earlier data showing that activated human T cells produce C3 (Torok et al. (2012) [48]) and also by results demonstrating that engagement of Membrane Cofactor Protein (MCP, CD46) induces a switch of anti-CD35-activated [corrected] helper T cells into regulatory T cells (Kemper et al. (2003) [17]). We demonstrate here that co-ligation of CD46 and CD35, [corrected] the two C3b-binding structures present on activated CD4+ human T cells significantly enhances CD25 expression, elevates granzyme B production and synergistically augments cell proliferation. The role of CR1 in the development of the Treg phenotype was further confirmed by demonstrating that its engagement enhances IL-10 production and reduces IFNγ release by the activated CD4+ T cells in the presence of excess IL-2. The functional in vivo relevance of our findings was highlighted by the immunohistochemical staining of tonsils, revealing the presence of CD4/CD35 [corrected] double positive lymphocytes mainly in the inter-follicular regions where direct contact between CD4+ T cells and B lymphocytes occurs. Regarding the in vivo relevance of the complement-dependent generation of regulatory T cells in secondary lymphoid organs we propose a scenario shown in the figure. The depicted process involves the sequential binding of locally produced C3 fragments to CD46 and CD35 [corrected] expressed on activated T cells, which - in the presence of excess IL-2 - leads to the development of Treg cells.

  17. A Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Rad52 Allele Expressing a C-Terminal Truncation Protein: Activities and Intragenic Complementation of Missense Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Boundy-Mills, K. L.; Livingston, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    A nonsense allele of the yeast RAD52 gene, rad52-327, which expresses the N-terminal 65% of the protein was compared to two missense alleles, rad52-1 and rad52-2, and to a deletion allele. While the rad52-1 and the deletion mutants have severe defects in DNA repair, recombination and sporulation, the rad52-327 and rad52-2 mutants retain either partial or complete capabilities in repair and recombination. These two mutants behave similarly in most tests of repair and recombination during mitotic growth. One difference between these two alleles is that a homozygous rad52-2 diploid fails to sporulate, whereas the homozygous rad52-327 diploid sporulates weakly. The low level of sporulation by the rad52-327 diploid is accompanied by a low percentage of spore viability. Among these viable spores the frequency of crossing over for markers along chromosome VII is the same as that found in wild-type spores. rad52-327 complements rad52-2 for repair and sporulation. Weaker intragenic complementation occurs between rad52-327 and rad52-1. PMID:8417987

  18. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital. PMID:25941756

  19. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.

  20. In vitro and in vivo changes in human complement caused by silage.

    PubMed Central

    Olenchock, S A; May, J J; Pratt, D S; Lewis, D M; Mull, J C; Stallones, L

    1986-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of silage samples from four farms in up-state New York were reacted in vitro with normal human serum. Hemolytic levels of complement component C3 were consumed in a dose-dependent fashion, and the four extracts differed in their relative activity rankings. Studies with chelated serum indicate that the alternative complement pathway is involved in the activation, and the active fragment C3b was demonstrated. Serum levels of hemolytic C3 and C4 in vivo were quantified before and after farmers performed their normal silo unloading operations. Although the study groups were small, suggestive evidence of in vivo complement consumption was found. IgE-related allergy did not appear to be of significance to the study groups. Complement activation may be an initiator of or contributor to adverse reactions in farmers who are exposed to airborne silage dusts. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. PMID:3709488

  1. Recombinant form of human wild type mannan-binding lectin (MBL/A) but not its structural variant (MBL/C) promotes phagocytosis of zymosan by activating complement.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Rema; Nyaundi, Takazvida; Salvi, Veena P; Rawal, Nenoo

    2010-09-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) mediates innate immune responses, such as activation of the complement lectin pathway and phagocytosis, to help fight infections. In the present study, employing recombinant forms of human MBL (rMBL), the role of wild type MBL (rMBL/A) and its structural variant rMBL/C in mediating THP-1 phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled zymosan was examined and compared to MBL purified from human plasma (pMBL/A). Flow cytometric analyses revealed that opsonization of zymosan with rMBL/A and pMBL/A (0.5-30microg/ml) resulted in a 1.9- and 2.7-fold enhancement in its uptake by THP-1 cells in the presence of serum that was depleted of both MBL and the classical pathway component, C1q (MBL/C1q Dpl serum). In contrast, no enhancement in phagocytosis was observed when zymosan was opsonized with rMBL/C. Addition of MBL monoclonal antibody, EDTA, or mannan to the opsonization reaction mixture inhibited THP-1 phagocytosis of pMBL/A opsonized zymosan. Heat inactivation of MBL/C1q Dpl serum abolished the 2-fold increase in phagocytosis and in the absence of serum the direct opsonic activity of MBL did not contribute significantly to the uptake of zymosan into THP-1 cells. Activation products of complement components C3 and C4 were deposited on zymosan opsonized with pMBL/A and rMBL/A but not rMBL/C indicating that MBL-mediated phagocytosis of zymosan requires activation of the complement lectin pathway. The findings imply that impaired MBL-mediated phagocytosis may put individuals homozygous for the mutant allele MBL/C but not wild type MBL/A at increased risk to infections such as yeast. PMID:20579738

  2. 30 CFR 585.1010 - How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alternate Use RUE? 585.1010 Section 585.1010 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Facilities Alternate Use Rue Administration § 585.1010 How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE? (a) We will establish on a case-by-case basis, and set forth in the Alternate Use RUE,...

  3. 30 CFR 585.1010 - How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alternate Use RUE? 585.1010 Section 585.1010 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Facilities Alternate Use Rue Administration § 585.1010 How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE? (a) We will establish on a case-by-case basis, and set forth in the Alternate Use RUE,...

  4. 30 CFR 585.1010 - How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alternate Use RUE? 585.1010 Section 585.1010 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Facilities Alternate Use Rue Administration § 585.1010 How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE? (a) We will establish on a case-by-case basis, and set forth in the Alternate Use RUE,...

  5. 30 CFR 285.1010 - How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alternate Use RUE? 285.1010 Section 285.1010 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Alternate Use Rue Administration § 285.1010 How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE? (a) We will establish on a case-by-case basis, and set forth in the Alternate Use RUE, the length of...

  6. Update on the role of alternatively activated macrophages in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhilong; Zhu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Lung macrophages link innate and adaptive immune responses during allergic airway inflammatory responses. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) and interstitial macrophages are two different phenotypes that differentially exert immunological function under physiological and pathological conditions. Exposure to pathogen induces polarization of AM cells into classically activated macrophages (M1 cells) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2 cells). M1 cells dominantly express proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1 β and induce lung inflammation and tissue damage. M2 cells are further divided into M2a and M2c subsets. M2a cells dominantly produce allergic cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, but M2c cells dominantly produce anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. M2a and M2c cells are differently involved in initiation, inflammation resolution, and tissue remodeling in the different stages of asthma. Microenvironment dynamically influences polarization of AM cells. Cytokines, chemokines, and immune-regulatory cells interplay and affect the balance between the polarization of M1 and M2 cells, subsequently influencing disease progression. Thus, modulation of AM phenotypes through molecular intervention has therapeutic potential in the treatment of asthma and other allergic inflammatory diseases. This review updated recent advances in polarization and functional specialization of these macrophage subtypes with emphasis on modulation of polarization of M2 cells in asthma of human subjects and animal models. PMID:27350756

  7. Protein engineering to target complement evasion in cancer.

    PubMed

    Carter, Darrick; Lieber, André

    2014-01-21

    The complement system is composed of soluble factors in plasma that enhance or "complement" immune-mediated killing through innate and adaptive mechanisms. Activation of complement causes recruitment of immune cells; opsonization of coated cells; and direct killing of affected cells through a membrane attack complex (MAC). Tumor cells up-regulate complement inhibitory factors - one of several strategies to evade the immune system. In many cases as the tumor progresses, dramatic increases in complement inhibitory factors are found on these cells. This review focuses on the classic complement pathway and the role of major complement inhibitory factors in cancer immune evasion as well as on how current protein engineering efforts are being employed to increase complement fixing or to reverse complement resistance leading to better therapeutic outcomes in oncology. Strategies discussed include engineering of antibodies to enhance complement fixation, antibodies that neutralize complement inhibitory proteins as well as engineered constructs that specifically target inhibition of the complement system.

  8. Complement: an overview for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Varela, Juan Carlos; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    The complement system is an essential component of the immune system. It is a highly integrative system and has a number of functions, including host defense, removal of injured cells and debris, modulation of metabolic and regenerative processes, and regulation of adaptive immunity. Complement is activated via different pathways and it is regulated tightly by several mechanisms to prevent host injury. Imbalance between complement activation and regulation can manifest in disease and injury to self. This article provides an outline of complement activation pathways, regulatory mechanisms, and normal physiologic functions of the system.

  9. The complement system in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, Umang; Otley, Anthony R; Van Limbergen, Johan; Stadnyk, Andrew W

    2014-09-01

    Complement is well appreciated to be a potent innate immune defense against microbes and is important in the housekeeping act of removal of apoptotic and effete cells. It is also understood that hyperactivation of complement, or the lack of regulators, may underlie chronic inflammatory diseases. A pipeline of products to intervene in complement activation, some already in clinical use, is being studied in various chronic inflammatory diseases. To date, the role of complement in inflammatory bowel disease has not received a lot of research interest. Novel genetically modified laboratory animals and experiments using antagonists to complement effector molecules have kindled important research observations implicating the complement system in inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. We review the evidence base for the role and potential therapeutic manipulation of the complement cascade in inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Hepatitis B virus X protein up-regulates C4b-binding protein α through activating transcription factor Sp1 in protection of hepatoma cells from complement attack

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guoxing; Li, Jiong; Zheng, Minying; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Yunxia; Zhang, Shuqin; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Weiying; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays crucial roles in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously showed that HBx protected hepatoma cells from complement attack by activation of CD59. Moreover, in this study we found that HBx protected hepatoma cells from complement attack by activation of C4b-binding protein α (C4BPα), a potent inhibitor of complement system. We observed that HBx were positively correlated with those of C4BPα in clinical HCC tissues. Mechanistically, HBx activated the promoter core region of C4BPα, located at −1199/−803nt, through binding to transcription factor Sp1. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that HBx was able to bind to the promoter of C4BPα, which could be blocked by Sp1 silencing. Functionally, knockdown of C4BPα obviously increased the deposition of C5b-9, a complex of complement membrane attack, and remarkably abolished the HBx-induced resistance of hepatoma cells from complement attack in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we conclude that HBx up-regulates C4BPα through activating transcription factor Sp1 in protection of liver cancer cells from complement attack. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which HBx enhances protection of hepatoma cells from complement attack. PMID:27050367

  11. 30 CFR 285.1010 - How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alternate Use RUE? 285.1010 Section 285.1010 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... Activities Using Existing OCS Facilities Alternate Use Rue Administration § 285.1010 How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE? (a) We will establish on a case-by-case basis, and set forth in...

  12. Inhibition of factor XII in septic baboons attenuates the activation of complement and fibrinolytic systems and reduces the release of interleukin-6 and neutrophil elastase.

    PubMed

    Jansen, P M; Pixley, R A; Brouwer, M; de Jong, I W; Chang, A C; Hack, C E; Taylor, F B; Colman, R W

    1996-03-15

    In previous studies, we have shown that administration of monoclonal antibody (MoAb) C6B7 against human factor XII to baboons challenged with a lethal dose of Escherichia coli abrogates activation of the contact system and modulates secondary hypotension. To evaluate the contribution of activated contact proteases to the appearance of other inflammatory mediators in this experimental model of sepsis, we studied the effect of administration of MoAb C6B7 on activation of complement and fibrinolytic cascades, stimulation of neutrophil degranulation, and release of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Activation of the complement system, as reflected by circulating C3b/c and C4b/c levels, was significantly reduced in five animals that had received MoAb C6B7 before a lethal dose of E coli as compared with five control animals that had been given a lethal challenge only. Inhibition of contact activation also modulated the fibrinolytic response, since the release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and the appearance of plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin (PAP) complexes into the circulation was significantly attenuated upon pretreatment with anti-factor XII MoAb. In contrast, plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were modestly enhanced in the treatment group. Degranulation of neutrophils, as assessed by circulating elastase-alpha1-protease inhibitor complexes, and release of IL-6 but not of TNF-alpha was decreased in anti-factor XII-treated animals. Observed differences in the inflammatory response between treatment and control groups were not likely due to different challenges, since the number of E coli that had been infused, as well as circulating levels of endotoxin after the challenge, were similar for both groups. These data suggest that activation of the contact system modulates directly or indirectly various mediator systems involved in the inflammatory response during severe sepsis in

  13. Intratracheally instilled titanium dioxide nanoparticles translocate to heart and liver and activate complement cascade in the heart of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Husain, Mainul; Wu, Dongmei; Saber, Anne T; Decan, Nathalie; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L; Wallin, Hakan; Vogel, Ulla; Halappanavar, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 1% or less of nanoparticles (NPs) deposited in the lungs translocate to systemic circulation and enter other organs; however, this estimation may not be accurate given the low sensitivity of existing in vivo NP detection methods. Moreover, the biological effects of such low levels of translocation are unclear. We employed a nano-scale hyperspectral microscope to spatially observe and spectrally profile NPs in tissues and blood following pulmonary deposition in mice. In addition, we characterized effects occurring in blood, liver and heart at the mRNA and protein level following translocation from the lungs. Adult female C57BL/6 mice were exposed via intratracheal instillation to 18 or 162 µg of industrially relevant titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) alongside vehicle controls. Using the nano-scale hyperspectral microscope, translocation to heart and liver was confirmed at both doses, and to blood at the highest dose, in mice analyzed 24 h post-exposure. Global gene expression profiling and ELISA analysis revealed activation of complement cascade and inflammatory processes in heart and specific activation of complement factor 3 in blood, suggesting activation of an early innate immune response essential for particle opsonisation and clearance. The liver showed a subtle response with changes in the expression of genes associated with acute phase response. This study characterizes the subtle systemic effects that occur in liver and heart tissues following pulmonary exposure and low levels of translocation of nano-TiO2 from lungs. PMID:25993494

  14. Complement contributes to the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karpman, Diana; Tati, Ramesh

    2016-10-01

    Complement is activated during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS). There is evidence of complement activation via the alternative pathway in STEC-HUS patients as well as from in vivo and in vitro models. Ozaki et al. demonstrate activation of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) pathway in Shiga toxin-treated mice expressing human MBL2, but lacking murine Mbls. Treatment with anti-human MBL2 antibody was protective, suggesting that MBL pathway activation also contributes to Shiga toxin-mediated renal injury. PMID:27633864

  15. Prenyltransferases regulate CD20 protein levels and influence anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody-mediated activation of complement-dependent cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Winiarska, Magdalena; Nowis, Dominika; Bil, Jacek; Glodkowska-Mrowka, Eliza; Muchowicz, Angelika; Wanczyk, Malgorzata; Bojarczuk, Kamil; Dwojak, Michal; Firczuk, Malgorzata; Wilczek, Ewa; Wachowska, Malgorzata; Roszczenko, Katarzyna; Miaczynska, Marta; Chlebowska, Justyna; Basak, Grzegorz Wladyslaw; Golab, Jakub

    2012-09-14

    Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are successfully used in the management of non-Hodgkin lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We have reported previously that statins induce conformational changes in CD20 molecules and impair rituximab-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Here we investigated in more detail the influence of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) on CD20 expression and antitumor activity of anti-CD20 mAbs. Among all FTIs studied, L-744,832 had the most significant influence on CD20 levels. It significantly increased rituximab-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity against primary tumor cells isolated from patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas or chronic lymphocytic leukemia and increased CD20 expression in the majority of primary lymphoma/leukemia cells. Incubation of Raji cells with L-744,832 led to up-regulation of CD20 at mRNA and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that inhibition of farnesyltransferase activity was associated with increased binding of PU.1 and Oct-2 to the CD20 promoter sequences. These studies indicate that CD20 expression can be modulated by FTIs. The combination of FTIs with anti-CD20 mAbs is a promising therapeutic approach, and its efficacy should be examined in patients with B-cell tumors.

  16. Complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily reduces murine lupus nephritis and cutaneous disease.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Linda A; Mizui, Masayuki; Nalbandian, Angèle; Bossé, Robin; Crispín, José C; Tsokos, George C

    2015-10-01

    Complement activation takes place in autoimmune diseases and accounts for tissue inflammation. Previously, complement inhibition has been considered for the treatment of SLE. Complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg) is a selective inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement and a soluble form reverses established inflammation and bone destruction in experimental autoimmune arthritis. We asked whether specific inhibition of the alternative pathway could inhibit autoimmunity and/or organ damage in lupus-prone mice. Accordingly, we treated lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice with a soluble form of CRIg (CRIg-Fc) and we found that it significantly diminished skin lesions, proteinuria and pyuria, and kidney pathology. Interestingly, serum levels of anti-DNA antibodies were not affected despite the fact that serum complement 3 (C3) levels increased significantly. Immunofluorescent staining of kidney tissues revealed a reduction in staining intensity for C3, IgG, and the macrophage marker Mac-2. Thus our data show that inhibition of the alternative pathway of complement controls skin and kidney inflammation even in the absence of an effect on the production of autoantibodies. We propose that CRIg should be considered for clinical trials in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

  17. Alternative chromophores for use in light-activated surgical adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Brian D.; Heintzelman, Douglas L.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.

    2003-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using alternative chromophores in light-activated surgical adhesives. Two commonly used chromophores, indocyanine green (ICG), and methylene blue (MB) were investigated, as well as three different food colorings: red #40, blue #1, and green food coloring consisting of yellow #5 and blue #1. The study consisted of three components. First, the absorption profiles of the five chromophores, both diluted in deionized water and bound to protein, were recorded with a UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. Second, the effect of accumulated thermal dosages on the stability of the absorption profiles was investigated. Third, the stability of the absorption profiles of the chromophore solutions when exposed to ambient light for an extended period of time was investigated. The peak absorption wavelengths of ICG, MB, red #40, and blue #1, were found to be 780 nm, 665 nm, 500 nm, and 630 nm respectively. The green food coloring had two absorption peaks at 417 nm and 630 nm, corresponding to the two dye components comprising this color. The peak absorption wavelength of the ICG shifted to 805 nm when bound to protein. ICG and MB showed a significant decrease in absorbance units with increased time and temperature when heated to temperatures up to 100 degrees C. Negligible change in absorption with accumulated thermal dose was observed for any of the three food colorings investigated. Photobleaching was observed in both ICG and MB solutions with exposure to a white light source. An 88% decrease in absorption was seen in ICG deionized water solution after 7 days of exposure with a corresponding 33% decrease in absorption seen in the MB deionized water solution. A negligible drop in absorption was observed from exposure to ambient light for a 12-week period with the three food colorings investigated.

  18. Levels of expression of complement regulatory proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 on resting and activated human peripheral blood leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, Stephen E; de la Mata Espinosa, Claudia T; Halliday, Deborah; Buxton, Cheryl A; Cummerson, Joanne A; Johnson, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    The cell surface complement regulatory (CReg) proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 are widely expressed on human lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells. This study aimed to compare systematically levels of CReg expression by different leucocyte subsets and to determine whether levels were increased following activation in vitro. Levels of each CReg protein were similar on freshly isolated monocytes and all major lymphocyte subsets, except that CD4+ cells expressed significantly less CD46 than CD8+ cells (P < 0·05) while the reverse was observed for CD55 (P < 0·02). CD56+ cells, predominantly natural killer cells, expressed significantly lower levels of CD59 than T cells (P < 0·02). CD45RO+ cells had higher levels of surface CD46 and CD59, but lower levels of CD55, than CD45RO– cells (P < 0·02); CD25+ cells also expressed significantly less CD55 than CD25− cells (P < 0·002). Neutrophils expressed higher levels of CD59, but lower levels of CD55, than monocytes. Following activation with phytohaemagglutinin, CD46 was up-regulated on all leucocyte subsets with the exception of CD56+ cells. Both CD55 and CD59 were also markedly up-regulated on monocytes, and CD55 expression was greater on CD8+ than CD4+ cells following activation (P < 0·02). Lipopolysaccharide treatment did not significantly alter B-cell expression of CReg proteins whereas CD55 and CD59, but not CD46, were significantly up-regulated on monocytes (P < 0·02). These observations that CReg proteins are up-regulated on certain activated leucocyte subsets indicate that levels would be increased following immune responses in vivo. This could enhance both protection against local complement activation at inflammatory sites and also the immunoregulatory properties of these leucocytes. PMID:16999828

  19. Levels of expression of complement regulatory proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 on resting and activated human peripheral blood leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Stephen E; de la Mata Espinosa, Claudia T; Halliday, Deborah; Buxton, Cheryl A; Cummerson, Joanne A; Johnson, Peter M

    2006-12-01

    The cell surface complement regulatory (CReg) proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 are widely expressed on human lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells. This study aimed to compare systematically levels of CReg expression by different leucocyte subsets and to determine whether levels were increased following activation in vitro. Levels of each CReg protein were similar on freshly isolated monocytes and all major lymphocyte subsets, except that CD4(+) cells expressed significantly less CD46 than CD8(+) cells (P < 0.05) while the reverse was observed for CD55 (P < 0.02). CD56(+) cells, predominantly natural killer cells, expressed significantly lower levels of CD59 than T cells (P < 0.02). CD45RO(+) cells had higher levels of surface CD46 and CD59, but lower levels of CD55, than CD45RO(-) cells (P < 0.02); CD25(+) cells also expressed significantly less CD55 than CD25(-) cells (P < 0.002). Neutrophils expressed higher levels of CD59, but lower levels of CD55, than monocytes. Following activation with phytohaemagglutinin, CD46 was up-regulated on all leucocyte subsets with the exception of CD56(+) cells. Both CD55 and CD59 were also markedly up-regulated on monocytes, and CD55 expression was greater on CD8(+) than CD4(+) cells following activation (P < 0.02). Lipopolysaccharide treatment did not significantly alter B-cell expression of CReg proteins whereas CD55 and CD59, but not CD46, were significantly up-regulated on monocytes (P < 0.02). These observations that CReg proteins are up-regulated on certain activated leucocyte subsets indicate that levels would be increased following immune responses in vivo. This could enhance both protection against local complement activation at inflammatory sites and also the immunoregulatory properties of these leucocytes.

  20. Complement membrane attack complexes activate noncanonical NF-κB by forming an Akt+NIK+ signalosome on Rab5+ endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Jane-wit, Dan; Surovtseva, Yulia V.; Qin, Lingfeng; Li, Guangxin; Liu, Rebecca; Clark, Pamela; Manes, Thomas D.; Wang, Chen; Kashgarian, Michael; Kirkiles-Smith, Nancy C.; Tellides, George; Pober, Jordan S.

    2015-01-01

    Complement membrane attack complexes (MACs) promote inflammatory functions in endothelial cells (ECs) by stabilizing NF-κB–inducing kinase (NIK) and activating noncanonical NF-κB signaling. Here we report a novel endosome-based signaling complex induced by MACs to stabilize NIK. We found that, in contrast to cytokine-mediated activation, NIK stabilization by MACs did not involve cIAP2 or TRAF3. Informed by a genome-wide siRNA screen, instead this response required internalization of MACs in a clathrin-, AP2-, and dynamin-dependent manner into Rab5+endosomes, which recruited activated Akt, stabilized NIK, and led to phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK)-α. Active Rab5 was required for recruitment of activated Akt to MAC+ endosomes, but not for MAC internalization or for Akt activation. Consistent with these in vitro observations, MAC internalization occurred in human coronary ECs in vivo and was similarly required for NIK stabilization and EC activation. We conclude that MACs activate noncanonical NF-κB by forming a novel Akt+NIK+ signalosome on Rab5+ endosomes. PMID:26195760

  1. A light-dependent complementation system for analysis of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase: Identification and mutagenesis of two conserved residues that are essential for enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilks, H.M.; Timko, M.P.

    1995-01-31

    Protochlorophyllide reductase (NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase; EC 1.6.99.1) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, a key regulatory step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. We have developed an expression system in which the protochlorophyllide reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.) is used to complement protochlorophyllide reduction mutants in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, allowing analysis of wild-type and mutant forms of the enzyme. By protein sequence comparisons, we have identified the plant protochlorophyllide reductases as belonging to the family of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. Based on our protein sequence alignments, we have identified and mutated two conserved residues (Tyr-275 and Lys-279) within the proposed active site of the enzyme and shown that they are critical for activity. A model of the enzyme reaction mechanism for light-dependent protochlorophyllide reduction is proposed. 33 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Structural Basis for the Function of Complement Component C4 within the Classical and Lectin Pathways of Complement.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Sofia; Kidmose, Rune T; Petersen, Steen V; Szilágyi, Ágnes; Prohászka, Zoltan; Andersen, Gregers R

    2015-06-01

    Complement component C4 is a central protein in the classical and lectin pathways within the complement system. During activation of complement, its major fragment C4b becomes covalently attached to the surface of pathogens and altered self-tissue, where it acts as an opsonin marking the surface for removal. Moreover, C4b provides a platform for assembly of the proteolytically active convertases that mediate downstream complement activation by cleavage of