Science.gov

Sample records for alternative design comparison

  1. Comparison of the FRM-II HEU design with an alternative LEU design

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, S.C.; Hanan, N.A.; Matos, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    The FRM-II reactor design of the Technical University of Munich has a compact core that utilizes fuel plates containing highly-enriched uranium (HEU, 93%). This paper presents an alternative core design utilizing low-enriched uranium (LEU, <20%) silicide fuel with 4.8 g/cm{sup 3} that provides nearly the same neutron flux for experiments as the HEU design, but has a less favorable fuel cycle economy. If an LEU fuel with a uranium density of 6.0 - 6.5 g/cm{sup 3} were developed, the alternative design would provide the same neutron flux and use the same number of cores per year as the HEU design. The results of this study show that there are attractive possibilities for using LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II. Further optimization of the LEU design and near-term availability of LEU fuel with a uranium density greater than 4.8 g/cm{sup 3} would enhance the performance of the LEU core. The RERTR Program is ready to exchange information with the Technical University of Munich to resolve any differences that may exist and to identify design modifications that would optimize reactor performance utilizing LEU fuel.

  2. A Comparison of Several k Sample Tests for Ordered Alternatives in Completely Randomized Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenson, Mark L.

    1982-01-01

    The statistical power of nine k-sample tests against ordered location alternatives under completely randomized designs are investigated. The results are intended to aid researchers in selecting appropriate statistical procedures. (Author/JKS)

  3. Comparison of a fully mapped plot design to three alternative designs for volume and area estimates using Maine inventory data

    Treesearch

    Stanford L. Arner

    1998-01-01

    A fully mapped plot design is compared to three alternative designs using data collected for the recent inventory of Maine's forest resources. Like the fully mapped design, one alternative eliminates the bias of previous procedures, and should be less costly and more consistent. There was little difference in volume and area estimates or in sampling errors among...

  4. Thermal and Electrical Analysis of MARS Rover RTG, and Performance Comparison of Alternative Design Options.

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Skrabek, Emanuel A

    1989-09-29

    The paper describes the thermal, thermoelectric and electrical analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for powering the MARS Rover vehicle, which is a critical element of the unmanned Mars Rover and Sample Return mission (MRSR). The work described was part of an RTG design study conducted by Fairchild Space Company for the U.S. Department of Energy, in support of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's MRSR Project.; A companion paper presented at this conference described a reference mission scenario, al illustrative Rover design and activity pattern on Mars, its power system requirements and environmental constraints, a design approach enabling RTG operation in the Martian atmosphere, and the design and the structural and mass analysis of a conservative baseline RTG employing safety-qualified heat source modules and reliability-proven thermoelectric converter elements.; The present paper presents a detailed description of the baseline RTG's thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analysis. It examines the effect of different operating conditions (beginning versus end of mission, water-cooled versus radiation-cooled, summer day versus winter night) on the RTG's performance. Finally, the paper describes and analyzes a number of alternative RTG designs, to determine the effect of different power levels (250W versus 125W), different thermoelectric element designs (standard versus short unicouples versus multicouples) and different thermoelectric figures of merit (0.00058K(superscript -1) to 0.000140K (superscript -1) on the RTG's specific power.; The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments. It provides a basis for selecting the optimum strategy for meeting the Mars Rover design goals with minimal programmatic risk and cost.; There is a duplicate copy and also a duplicate copy in the ESD files.

  5. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  6. Evaluation and comparison of alternative designs for water/solid-waste processing systems for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurlock, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Promising candidate designs currently being considered for the management of spacecraft solid waste and waste-water materials were assessed. The candidate processes were: (1) the radioisotope thermal energy evaporation/incinerator process; (2) the dry incineration process; and (3) the wet oxidation process. The types of spacecraft waste materials that were included in the base-line computational input to the candidate systems were feces, urine residues, trash and waste-water concentrates. The performance characteristics and system requirements for each candidate process to handle this input and produce the specified acceptable output (i.e., potable water, a storable dry ash, and vapor phase products that can be handled by a spacecraft atmosphere control system) were estimated and compared. Recommendations are presented.

  7. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  8. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  9. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  10. Additional comparisons of randomization-test procedures for single-case multiple-baseline designs: Alternative effect types.

    PubMed

    Levin, Joel R; Ferron, John M; Gafurov, Boris S

    2017-08-01

    A number of randomization statistical procedures have been developed to analyze the results from single-case multiple-baseline intervention investigations. In a previous simulation study, comparisons of the various procedures revealed distinct differences among them in their ability to detect immediate abrupt intervention effects of moderate size, with some procedures (typically those with randomized intervention start points) exhibiting power that was both respectable and superior to other procedures (typically those with single fixed intervention start points). In Investigation 1 of the present follow-up simulation study, we found that when the same randomization-test procedures were applied to either delayed abrupt or immediate gradual intervention effects: (1) the powers of all of the procedures were severely diminished; and (2) in contrast to the previous study's results, the single fixed intervention start-point procedures generally outperformed those with randomized intervention start points. In Investigation 2 we additionally demonstrated that if researchers are able to successfully anticipate the specific alternative effect types, it is possible for them to formulate adjusted versions of the original randomization-test procedures that can recapture substantial proportions of the lost powers. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost comparisons of alternative landfill final covers

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1997-02-01

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle ``D`` Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle ``C`` Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed of uniform size, side-by-side. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  12. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  13. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  14. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  15. An alternative approach to multiple genome comparison.

    PubMed

    Mancheron, Alban; Uricaru, Raluca; Rivals, Eric

    2011-08-01

    Genome comparison is now a crucial step for genome annotation and identification of regulatory motifs. Genome comparison aims for instance at finding genomic regions either specific to or in one-to-one correspondence between individuals/strains/species. It serves e.g. to pre-annotate a new genome by automatically transferring annotations from a known one. However, efficiency, flexibility and objectives of current methods do not suit the whole spectrum of applications, genome sizes and organizations. Innovative approaches are still needed. Hence, we propose an alternative way of comparing multiple genomes based on segmentation by similarity. In this framework, rather than being formulated as a complex optimization problem, genome comparison is seen as a segmentation question for which a single optimal solution can be found in almost linear time. We apply our method to analyse three strains of a virulent pathogenic bacteria, Ehrlichia ruminantium, and identify 92 new genes. We also find out that a substantial number of genes thought to be strain specific have potential orthologs in the other strains. Our solution is implemented in an efficient program, qod, equipped with a user-friendly interface, and enables the automatic transfer of annotations between compared genomes or contigs (Video in Supplementary Data). Because it somehow disregards the relative order of genomic blocks, qod can handle unfinished genomes, which due to the difficulty of sequencing completion may become an interesting characteristic for the future. Availabilty: http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/qod.

  16. Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts Tripropellant Comparison Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted under MSFC contract NAS8-39210 to compare tripropellant and bipropellant engine configurations for the SSTO mission. The objective was to produce an 'apples-to-apples' comparison to isolate the effects of design implementation, designing company, year of design, or technologies included from the basic tripropellant/bipropellant comparison. Consequently, identical technologies were included (e.g., jet pumps) and the same design groundrules and practices were used. Engine power cycles were examined as were turbomachinery/preburner arrangements for each cycle. The bipropellant approach and two tripropellant approaches were separately optimized in terms of operating parameters: exit pressures, mixture ratios, thrust splits, etc. This briefing presents the results of the study including engine weights for both tripropellant and bipropellant engines; dry vehicle weight performance for a range of engine chamber pressures; discusses the basis for the results; examines vehicle performance due to engine cycles and the margin characteristics of various cycles; and identifies technologies with significant payoffs for this application.

  17. Analysis of Alternative Ring Resonator Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    the ring strip of the antenna as in the case of the original design. Both the alternative dielectric laminate and the increased thickness laminate...adjustments to the geometry parameters. 2. Ring Resonator Antenna Design The ring resonator is a two port antenna consisting of a ring strip and two...differing thicknesses for resonator antennas of the same design suggests that the RF fields penetrate slightly more or that the resonator can “see” a

  18. Design alternatives report for the cesium removal demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.

    1995-09-01

    The Cesium Removal Demonstration (CRD) project will use liquid low-level waste (LLLW) stored in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Melton Valley Storage Tanks to demonstrate cesium removal from sodium nitrate-based supernates. This report presents the results of a conceptual design study to scope the alternatives for conducting the demonstration at ORNL. Factors considered included (1) sorbent alternatives, (2) facility alternatives, (3) process alternatives, (4) process disposal alternatives, and (5) relative cost comparisons. Recommendations included (1) that design of the CRD system move forward based on information obtained to date from tests with Savannah River Resin, (2) that the CRD system be designed so it could use crystalline silicotitanates (CST) if an engineered form of CST becomes available prior to the CRD, (3) that the system be designed without the capability for resin regeneration, (4) that the LLLW solidification facility be used for the demonstration (5) that vitrification of the loaded resins from the CRD be demonstrated at the Savannah River Site, and (6) that permanent disposal of the loaded and/or vitrified resin at the Nevada Test Site be pursued.

  19. Alternative design concept for the second Glass Waste Storage Building

    SciTech Connect

    Rainisch, R.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents an alternative design concept for storing canisters filled with vitrified waste produced at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) has the capacity to store 2,262 canisters and is projected to be completely filled by the year 2000. Current plans for glass waste storage are based on constructing a second Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB2) once the existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) is filled to capacity. The GWSB2 project (Project S-2045) is to provide additional storage capacity for 2,262 canisters. This project was initiated with the issue of a basic data report on March 6, 1989. In response to the basic data report Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) prepared a draft conceptual design report (CDR) for the GWSB2 project in April 1991. In May 1991 WSRC Systems Engineering issued a revised Functional Design Criteria (FDC), the Rev. I document has not yet been approved by DOE. This document proposes an alternative design for the conceptual design (CDR) completed in April 1991. In June 1992 Project Management Department authorized Systems Engineering to further develop the proposed alternative design. The proposed facility will have a storage capacity for 2,268 canisters and will meet DWPF interim storage requirements for a five-year period. This document contains: a description of the proposed facility; a cost estimate of the proposed design; a cost comparison between the proposed facility and the design outlined in the FDC/CDR; and an overall assessment of the alternative design as compared with the reference FDC/CDR design.

  20. Optimization methods for alternative energy system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Michael Henry

    An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study

  1. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, T.J.; Bissert, P.T.; Homce, G.T.; Yonkey, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H2O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, an instrumented benchtop test fixture was developed using an off-the-shelf centrifugal blower and ductwork. Relief pressures and flow characteristics were measured for three units: (1) a modified polyvinyl chloride check valve, (2) an off-the-shelf brass/cast-iron butterfly check valve and (3) a commercially available valve that was designed specifically for one manufacturer’s steel prefabricated RAs and had been adapted for use in one mine operator’s built-in-place RA. PRVs used in tent-style RAs were not investigated. The units were tested with different modifications and configurations in order to check compliance with Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, or 30 CFR, regulations. The commercially available relief valve did not meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification but may meet the manufacturer’s specification. Alternative valve designs were modified to meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification, but all valve designs will need further design research to examine survivability in the event of a 103 kPa (15.0 psi) impulse overpressure during a disaster. PMID:28018003

  2. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design.

    PubMed

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H2O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, an instrumented benchtop test fixture was developed using an off-the-shelf centrifugal blower and ductwork. Relief pressures and flow characteristics were measured for three units: (1) a modified polyvinyl chloride check valve, (2) an off-the-shelf brass/cast-iron butterfly check valve and (3) a commercially available valve that was designed specifically for one manufacturer's steel prefabricated RAs and had been adapted for use in one mine operator's built-in-place RA. PRVs used in tent-style RAs were not investigated. The units were tested with different modifications and configurations in order to check compliance with Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, or 30 CFR, regulations. The commercially available relief valve did not meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification but may meet the manufacturer's specification. Alternative valve designs were modified to meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification, but all valve designs will need further design research to examine survivability in the event of a 103 kPa (15.0 psi) impulse overpressure during a disaster.

  3. Empirical Comparison of Alternative Instructional TV Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Henry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study conducted by the U.S. Navy that compared training effectiveness and user acceptance of live instruction and six different alternative instructional television (ITV) technologies that had differing levels of audio and video communication. The ITV laboratory configuration is explained, and instructor preferences and skills are…

  4. A comparison of alternative energy storage systems for automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The performance potentials of primary batteries, fuel cells, and flywheel-transmission systems in comparison with secondary batteries as alternates to conventional internal combustion engine automobile power systems are discussed. A number of areas of research that are recommended for attention as part of a well-rounded investigation of alternatives are outlined.

  5. Optimizing Monitoring Designs under Alternative Objectives

    DOE PAGES

    Gastelum, Jason A.; USA, Richland Washington; Porter, Ellen A.; ...

    2014-12-31

    This paper describes an approach to identify monitoring designs that optimize detection of CO2 leakage from a carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) reservoir and compares the results generated under two alternative objective functions. The first objective function minimizes the expected time to first detection of CO2 leakage, the second more conservative objective function minimizes the maximum time to leakage detection across the set of realizations. The approach applies a simulated annealing algorithm that searches the solution space by iteratively mutating the incumbent monitoring design. The approach takes into account uncertainty by evaluating the performance of potential monitoring designs across amore » set of simulated leakage realizations. The approach relies on a flexible two-tiered signature to infer that CO2 leakage has occurred. This research is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project tasked with conducting risk and uncertainty analysis in the areas of reservoir performance, natural leakage pathways, wellbore integrity, groundwater protection, monitoring, and systems level modeling.« less

  6. Optimizing Monitoring Designs under Alternative Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Gastelum, Jason A.; USA, Richland Washington; Porter, Ellen A.; USA, Richland Washington

    2014-12-31

    This paper describes an approach to identify monitoring designs that optimize detection of CO2 leakage from a carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) reservoir and compares the results generated under two alternative objective functions. The first objective function minimizes the expected time to first detection of CO2 leakage, the second more conservative objective function minimizes the maximum time to leakage detection across the set of realizations. The approach applies a simulated annealing algorithm that searches the solution space by iteratively mutating the incumbent monitoring design. The approach takes into account uncertainty by evaluating the performance of potential monitoring designs across a set of simulated leakage realizations. The approach relies on a flexible two-tiered signature to infer that CO2 leakage has occurred. This research is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project tasked with conducting risk and uncertainty analysis in the areas of reservoir performance, natural leakage pathways, wellbore integrity, groundwater protection, monitoring, and systems level modeling.

  7. An alternate end design for SSC dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C.; Caspi, S.; Taylor, C.

    1989-02-01

    Experience in the SSC dipole program has shown that fabrication of cylindrical coil ends is difficult. Cable stiffness requires large forces to maintain the proper position of the conductors in the end during winding. After winding, the coil ends remain distorted nd significant motion of the need conductors is required to force the coil end into the molding cavity. Local mechanical stresses are high during this process and extra pieces of insulation are required to prevent turn-to-turn shorts from developing during the winding and molding steps. Prior to assembly the coil end is compressed in a mold cavity and injected with a filler material to correct surface irregularities and fill voids in the end. LBL has developed an alternate design which permits the conductors to be wound over the end using minimal force and technician coerosion. The conductors are placed on a conical surface where the largest diameter over the outer layer conductors is 10 cm. No coil end spaces or insulation pieces between turns are required. The conductor geometry was analytically optimized to meet SSC multipole requirements for the ends. The first 1-m dipole utilizing this end geometry has been constructed and successfully tested. Design and construction data are presented. Also model test results, including training and multipole measurements of the end are given. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Behavioral headache research: methodologic considerations and research design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hursey, Karl G; Rains, Jeanetta C; Penzien, Donald B; Nash, Justin M; Nicholson, Robert A

    2005-05-01

    Behavioral headache treatments have garnered solid empirical support in recent years, but there is substantial opportunity to strengthen the next generation of studies with improved methods and consistency across studies. Recently, Guidelines for Trials of Behavioral Treatments for Recurrent Headache were published to facilitate the production of high-quality research. The present article compliments the guidelines with a discussion of methodologic and research design considerations. Since there is no research design that is applicable in every situation, selecting an appropriate research design is fundamental to producing meaningful results. Investigators in behavioral headache and other areas of research consider the developmental phase of the research, the principle objectives of the project, and the sources of error or alternative interpretations in selecting a design. Phases of clinical trials typically include pilot studies, efficacy studies, and effectiveness studies. These trials may be categorized as primarily pragmatic or explanatory. The most appropriate research designs for these different phases and different objectives vary on such characteristics as sample size and assignment to condition, types of control conditions, periods or frequency of measurement, and the dimensions along which comparisons are made. A research design also must fit within constraints on available resources. There are a large number of potential research designs that can be used and considering these characteristics allows selection of appropriate research designs.

  9. Designing an Alternate Mission Operations Control Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Patty; Reeves, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) is a multi-project facility that is responsible for 24x7 real-time International Space Station (ISS) payload operations management, integration, and control and has the capability to support small satellite projects and will provide real-time support for SLS launches. The HOSC is a service-oriented/ highly available operations center for ISS payloads-directly supporting science teams across the world responsible for the payloads. The HOSC is required to endure an annual 2-day power outage event for facility preventive maintenance and safety inspection of the core electro-mechanical systems. While complete system shut-downs are against the grain of a highly available sub-system, the entire facility must be powered down for a weekend for environmental and safety purposes. The consequence of this ground system outage is far reaching: any science performed on ISS during this outage weekend is lost. Engineering efforts were focused to maximize the ISS investment by engineering a suitable solution capable of continuing HOSC services while supporting safety requirements. The HOSC Power Outage Contingency (HPOC) System is a physically diversified compliment of systems capable of providing identified real-time services for the duration of a planned power outage condition from an alternate control room. HPOC was designed to maintain ISS payload operations for approximately three continuous days during planned HOSC power outages and support a local Payload Operations Team, International Partners, as well as remote users from the alternate control room located in another building.

  10. Erosion resistance comparison of alternative surface treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Česánek, Z.; Schubert, J.; Houdková, Š.

    2017-05-01

    Erosion is a process characterized by the particle separation and the damage of component functional surfaces. Thermal spraying technology HP/HVOF (High Pressure / High Velocity Oxygen Fuel) is commonly used for protection of component surfaces against erosive wear. Alloy as well as cermet based coatings meet the requirements for high erosion resistance. Wear resistance is in many cases the determining property of required component functioning. The application suitability of coating materials is particularly influenced by different hardness. This paper therefore presents an erosion resistance comparison of alloy and cermet based coatings. The coatings were applied on steel substrates and were subjected to the erosive test using the device for evaluation of material erosion resistance working on the principle of centrifugal erodent flow. Abrasive sand Al2O3 with grain size 212-250 μm was selected as an erosive material. For this purpose, the specimens were prepared by thermal spraying technology HP/HVOF using commercially available powders Stellite 6, NiCrBSi, Cr3C2-25%NiCr, Cr3C2-25%CoNiCrAlY, Hastelloy C-276 and experimental coating TiMoCN-29% Ni. Erosion resistance of evaluated coatings was compared with erosive resistance of 1.4923 high alloyed steel without nitridation and in nitrided state and further with surface treatment using technology PVD. According to the evaluation, the resulting erosive resistance depends not only on the selected erodent and surface protection, but also on the erodent impact angle.

  11. Model‐Based Assessment of Alternative Study Designs in Pediatric Trials. Part I: Frequentist Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Smania, G; Baiardi, P; Ceci, A; Magni, P

    2016-01-01

    Alternative designs can increase the feasibility of pediatric trials when compared to classical parallel designs (PaD). In this work we present a model‐based approach based on clinical trial simulations for the comparison of PaD with the alternative sequential, crossover, and randomized withdrawal (RWD) designs. Study designs were evaluated in terms of: type I and II errors, sample size per arm (SS), trial duration (TD), treatment exposures, and parameter estimate precision (EP). The crossover requires the lowest SS and TD, although it implies higher placebo and no treatment exposures. RWD maximizes exposure to active treatment while minimizing that to placebo, but requires the largest SS. SS of sequential designs can sometimes be smaller than the crossover one, although with poorer EP. This pharmacometric framework allows a multiscale comparison of alternative study designs that can be used for design selection in future pediatric trials. PMID:27300083

  12. 46 CFR 177.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 177.340 Section 177.340... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.340 Alternate design considerations. When the structure of vessel is of novel design, unusual form, or special materials, which cannot be reviewed or...

  13. 46 CFR 116.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 116.340 Section 116.340... ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 116.340 Alternate design considerations. The Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center, may approve the structure of a vessel of novel design, unusual form, or special materials, which...

  14. 46 CFR 177.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 177.340 Section 177.340... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.340 Alternate design considerations. When the structure of vessel is of novel design, unusual form, or special materials, which cannot be reviewed or...

  15. 46 CFR 177.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 177.340 Section 177.340... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.340 Alternate design considerations. When the structure of vessel is of novel design, unusual form, or special materials, which cannot be reviewed or...

  16. 46 CFR 116.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 116.340 Section 116.340... ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 116.340 Alternate design considerations. The Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center, may approve the structure of a vessel of novel design, unusual form, or special materials, which...

  17. 46 CFR 116.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 116.340 Section 116.340... ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 116.340 Alternate design considerations. The Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center, may approve the structure of a vessel of novel design, unusual form, or special materials, which...

  18. 46 CFR 177.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 177.340 Section 177.340... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.340 Alternate design considerations. When the structure of vessel is of novel design, unusual form, or special materials, which cannot be reviewed or...

  19. 77 FR 30047 - Petition for Alternative Locomotive Crashworthiness Design

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Alternative Locomotive Crashworthiness Design In accordance... design for an electric locomotive, Model ACS-64, built by Siemens Industry, Inc. This request is made in...-0036. The alternative design incorporates crash energy management features, detailed in the...

  20. Postmining land use: economic comparison of forestry and pastureland alternatives

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Wolf

    1980-01-01

    The influence of soil properties, legal requirements, and economics on postmining land use is described, and enterprise budgets are prepared to demonstrate procedures for evaluating forest and pastureland alternatives. A comparison of cow-calf operations with hybrid poplar and black walnut plantations suggests that a combination of pastureland and black walnut...

  1. 40 CFR 72.22 - Alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the term “designated representative” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall be construed...), whenever the term “alternate designated representative” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall... used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall be construed to include either of the alternate...

  2. 40 CFR 72.22 - Alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the term “designated representative” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall be construed...), whenever the term “alternate designated representative” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall...” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall be construed to include either of the alternate...

  3. 40 CFR 72.22 - Alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the term “designated representative” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall be construed...), whenever the term “alternate designated representative” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall...” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall be construed to include either of the alternate...

  4. 40 CFR 72.22 - Alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the term “designated representative” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall be construed...), whenever the term “alternate designated representative” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall...” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall be construed to include either of the alternate...

  5. 40 CFR 72.22 - Alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the term “designated representative” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall be construed...), whenever the term “alternate designated representative” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall...” is used under the Acid Rain Program, the term shall be construed to include either of the alternate...

  6. Dynamic Learning Communities: An Alternative to Designed Instructional Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Brent; Ryder, Martin

    Dynamic Learning Communities (DLCs) offer an alternative approach to the traditional Instructional Design (ID) format for learning. This paper outlines the concept of a dynamic learning community as an alternative to teacher-controlled or pre-designed instructional systems. DLCs are groups of people, who form a learning community generally…

  7. Alternative methods for the design of jet engine control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Leake, R. J.; Basso, R.; Gejji, R.; Maloney, A.; Seshadri, V.

    1976-01-01

    Various alternatives to linear quadratic design methods for jet engine control systems are discussed. The main alternatives are classified into two broad categories: nonlinear global mathematical programming methods and linear local multivariable frequency domain methods. Specific studies within these categories include model reduction, the eigenvalue locus method, the inverse Nyquist method, polynomial design, dynamic programming, and conjugate gradient approaches.

  8. Alternative methods for the design of jet engine control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Leake, R. J.; Basso, R.; Gejji, R.; Maloney, A.; Seshadri, V.

    1976-01-01

    Various alternatives to linear quadratic design methods for jet engine control systems are discussed. The main alternatives are classified into two broad categories: nonlinear global mathematical programming methods and linear local multivariable frequency domain methods. Specific studies within these categories include model reduction, the eigenvalue locus method, the inverse Nyquist method, polynomial design, dynamic programming, and conjugate gradient approaches.

  9. Case studies in alternative landfill design

    SciTech Connect

    Barbagallo, J.C.; Druback, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, landfills or {open_quotes}dumps{close_quotes} were not highly regulated and typically did not require a detailed engineering design. However, landfills are no longer just holes in the ground, and landfill closures entail more than just spreading some dirt on top of piles of garbage. Today landfill design is a highly regulated, complex design effort that integrates soils and geosynthetics into systems aimed at providing long-term protection for the environment and surrounding communities. Integrating these complex design systems into the available landscape and exising landfill configuration often requires the designer go beyond the {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} landfill and landfill closure design to satisfy regulations and provide cost-effective solutions.

  10. Designing alternative splicing RNA-seq studies. Beyond generic guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Stephan-Otto Attolini, Camille; Peña, Victor; Rossell, David

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Designing an RNA-seq study depends critically on its specific goals, technology and underlying biology, which renders general guidelines inadequate. We propose a Bayesian framework to customize experiments so that goals can be attained and resources are not wasted, with a focus on alternative splicing. Results: We studied how read length, sequencing depth, library preparation and the number of replicates affects cost-effectiveness of single-sample and group comparison studies. Optimal settings varied strongly according to the target organism or tissue (potential 50–500% cost cuts) and, interestingly, short reads outperformed long reads for standard analyses. Our framework learns key characteristics for study design from the data, and predicts if and how to continue experimentation. These predictions matched several follow-up experimental datasets that were used for validation. We provide default pipelines, but the framework can be combined with other data analysis methods and can help assess their relative merits. Availability and implementation: casper package at www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/casper.html, Supplementary Manual by typing casperDesign() at the R prompt. Contact: rosselldavid@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26220961

  11. Digital Hardware Design Teaching: An Alternative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benkrid, Khaled; Clayton, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware design teaching in the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven teaching, deep learning, affordability, and flexibility. This has identified…

  12. Digital Hardware Design Teaching: An Alternative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benkrid, Khaled; Clayton, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware design teaching in the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven teaching, deep learning, affordability, and flexibility. This has identified…

  13. Designing oligo libraries taking alternative splicing into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoshan, Avi; Grebinskiy, Vladimir; Magen, Avner; Scolnicov, Ariel; Fink, Eyal; Lehavi, David; Wasserman, Alon

    2001-06-01

    We have designed sequences for DNA microarrays and oligo libraries, taking alternative splicing into account. Alternative splicing is a common phenomenon, occurring in more than 25% of the human genes. In many cases, different splice variants have different functions, are expressed in different tissues or may indicate different stages of disease. When designing sequences for DNA microarrays or oligo libraries, it is very important to take into account the sequence information of all the mRNA transcripts. Therefore, when a gene has more than one transcript (as a result of alternative splicing, alternative promoter sites or alternative poly-adenylation sites), it is very important to take all of them into account in the design. We have used the LEADS transcriptome prediction system to cluster and assemble the human sequences in GenBank and design optimal oligonucleotides for all the human genes with a known mRNA sequence based on the LEADS predictions.

  14. Design Alternative Evaluation No. 3: Post-Closure Ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-06-22

    The objective of this study is to provide input to the Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDA) for License Application Design Selection (LADS). Its purpose is to develop and evaluate conceptual designs for post-closure ventilation alternatives that enhance repository performance. Post-closure ventilation is expected to enhance repository performance by limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages. Limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages will reduce corrosion.

  15. Alternative clinical trial design in neurocritical care.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Christos; Maas, Andrew I R; Souter, Michael J; Martin, Renee H; Chesnut, Randal M; DeSantis, Stacia M; Sung, Gene; Leroux, Peter D; Suarez, Jose I

    2015-06-01

    Neurocritical care involves the care of highly complex patients with combinations of physiologic derangements in the brain and in extracranial organs. The level of evidence underpinning treatment recommendations remains low due to a multitude of reasons including an incomplete understanding of the involved physiology; lack of good quality, prospective, standardized data; and the limited success of conventional randomized controlled trials. Comparative effectiveness research can provide alternative perspectives and methods to enhance knowledge and evidence within the field of neurocritical care; these include large international collaborations for generation and maintenance of high quality data, statistical methods that incorporate heterogeneity and individualize outcome prediction, and finally advanced bioinformatics that integrate large amounts of variable-source data into patient-specific phenotypes and trajectories.

  16. 40 CFR 96.111 - Alternate CAIR designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Sources § 96.111 Alternate CAIR...

  17. 40 CFR 96.111 - Alternate CAIR designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Sources § 96.111 Alternate CAIR...

  18. 36. DETAIL, ALTERNATE DESIGN USING THROUGH ARCH SPANS Pencil drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAIL, ALTERNATE DESIGN USING THROUGH ARCH SPANS Pencil drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, ca. 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. 49 CFR 229.209 - Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative locomotive crashworthiness designs. 229.209 Section 229.209 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY...

  20. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  1. Field test of an alternative longwall gate road design

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, R.M.; Vandergrift, T.L.; McDonnell, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines (USBM) MULSIM/ML modeling technique has been used to analyze anticipated stress distributions for a proposed alternative longwall gate road design for a western Colorado coal mine. The model analyses indicated that the alternative gate road design would reduce stresses in the headgate entry. To test the validity of the alternative gate road design under actual mining conditions, a test section of the alternative system was incorporated into a subsequent set of gate roads developed at the mine. The alternative gate road test section was instrumented with borehole pressure cells, as part of an ongoing USBM research project to monitor ground pressure changes as longwall mining progressed. During the excavation of the adjacent longwall panels, the behavior of the alternative gate road system was monitored continuously using the USBM computer-assisted Ground Control Management System. During these field tests, the alternative gate road system was first monitored and evaluated as a headgate, and later monitored and evaluated as a tailgate. The results of the field tests confirmed the validity of using the MULSIM/NL modeling technique to evaluate mine designs.

  2. 31 CFR 0.104 - Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the... Responsibilities § 0.104 Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official....

  3. 31 CFR 0.104 - Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the... Responsibilities § 0.104 Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. The...

  4. 31 CFR 0.104 - Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the... Responsibilities § 0.104 Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. The...

  5. 31 CFR 0.104 - Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the... Responsibilities § 0.104 Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. The...

  6. 31 CFR 0.104 - Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the... Responsibilities § 0.104 Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official....

  7. Brayton heat exchanger unit development program (alternate design)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, J. D.; Gibson, J. C.; Graves, R. F.; Morse, C. J.; Richard, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    A Brayton Heat Exchanger Unit Alternate Design (BHXU-Alternate) consisting of a recuperator, a heat sink heat exchanger, and a gas ducting system, was designed and fabricated. The design was formulated to provide a high performance unit suitable for use in a long-life Brayton-cycle powerplant. Emphasis was on double containment against external leakage and leakage of the organic coolant into the gas stream. A parametric analysis and design study was performed to establish the optimum component configurations to achieve low weight and size and high reliability, while meeting the requirements of high effectiveness and low pressure drop. Layout studies and detailed mechanical and structural design were performed to obtain a flight-type packaging arrangement, including the close-coupled integration of the BHXU-Alternate with the Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU).

  8. Using Corrosion Design Models to Accelerate the Transition of Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion Design Models • All moving to incorporate light metals, composites and other aviation materials • Maturation includes effect of...Using Corrosion Design Models to Accelerate the Transition of Alternatives Craig Matzdorf Materials Engineering Division Naval Air...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Air Warfare Center, Materials Engineering Division,22347

  9. Design of a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trbojevic, D.; Courant, E. D.; Blaskiewicz, M.

    2005-05-01

    We present a design of nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerators (FFAG) minimizing the dispersion action function H. The design is considered both analytically and via computer modeling. We present the basic principles of a nonscaling FFAG lattice and discuss optimization strategies so that one can accelerate over a broad range of momentum with reasonable apertures. Acceleration schemes for muons are discussed.

  10. Nonrandom Assignment in ANCOVA: The Alternate Ranks Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Starrett; Overall, John E.

    1977-01-01

    A specific form of nonrandom assignment to treatment groups, the "alternate ranks" design, was investigated. This design eliminates the possibility of a correlation between the covariate and the treatment, and rules out experimenter bias in assignment of subjects to groups. (Editor)

  11. 46 CFR 116.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... does not meet the requirements of § 116.300, if it is shown by systematic analysis based on engineering principles that the vessel structure provides adequate safety and strength. An owner seeking approval of an alternate design shall submit detailed plans, material component specifications, and design...

  12. 46 CFR 116.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... does not meet the requirements of § 116.300, if it is shown by systematic analysis based on engineering principles that the vessel structure provides adequate safety and strength. An owner seeking approval of an alternate design shall submit detailed plans, material component specifications, and design...

  13. Nonrandom Assignment in ANCOVA: The Alternate Ranks Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Starrett; Overall, John E.

    1977-01-01

    A specific form of nonrandom assignment to treatment groups, the "alternate ranks" design, was investigated. This design eliminates the possibility of a correlation between the covariate and the treatment, and rules out experimenter bias in assignment of subjects to groups. (Editor)

  14. Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.J.; Stewart, W.E.; Alexander, R.G.; Cantrell, K.J.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1994-02-01

    Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described.

  15. Some alternative dynamic design configurations for large horizontal axis WECS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenemser, K. H.

    1978-01-01

    The present U.S. development effort toward large horizontal axis WECS concentrates on the configuration with two rigid blades with collective pitch variation and a yaw gear drive. Alternative configurations without yaw gear drive were considered where the rotor is either selfcentering or where the yaw angle is controlled by blade cyclic pitch inputs. A preliminary evaluation of the dynamic characteristics for these alternative design configurations is presented.

  16. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  17. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint an...

  18. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint an...

  19. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint an...

  20. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  1. 34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH DEEPENED TRUSS ON LIFT SPAN. Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. 35. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING THROUGH ARCH SPANS, WITH ARCH REPEATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING THROUGH ARCH SPANS, WITH ARCH REPEATED BETWEEN TOWER LEGS, AND ASHLAR MASONRY WALLS AND PYLONS Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. 37. ALTERNATE DESIGN, SIMILAR TO THAT ULTIMATELY SELECTED, BUT USING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. ALTERNATE DESIGN, SIMILAR TO THAT ULTIMATELY SELECTED, BUT USING STEPPED TOWERS, AND WITH PYLONS CAPPED BY LANTERNS Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, ca. 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  4. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  5. Expert System Approach For Generating And Evaluating Engine Design Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Stewart N. T.; Chew, Meng-Sang; Issa, Ghassan F.

    1989-03-01

    Artificial intelligence is becoming an increasingly important subject of study for computer scientists, engineering designers, as well as professionals in other fields. Even though AI technology is a relatively new discipline, many of its concepts have already found practical applications. Expert systems, in particular, have made significant contributions to technologies in such fields as business, medicine, engineering design, chemistry, and particle physics. This paper describes an expert system developed to aid the mechanical designer with the preliminary design of variable-stroke internal-combustion engines. The expert system accomplished its task by generating and evaluating a large number of design alternatives represented in the form of graphs. Through the application of structural and design rules directly to the graphs, optimal and near optimal preliminary design configurations of engines are deduced.

  6. Dairy cow preference and usage of an alternative freestall design.

    PubMed

    Abade, C C; Fregonesi, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2015-02-01

    Freestall housing for dairy cows was created to reduce the amount of bedding and labor needed to keep stalls clean. However, some aspects of stall design may restrict stall usage by cows. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cow preference and usage of a conventional stall (with a neck rail and metal stall dividers) and an alternative stall design with no neck rail or stall dividers other than a wooden board protruding slightly (8cm) above the lying surface. In the no-choice phase of the study, 48 cows were randomly assigned to 8 groups (of 6 cows each); groups were alternately allocated to the 2 treatments. Each group was observed for 7 d on one treatment and then switched to the alternate treatment for 7 d. For the choice phase (also 7 d), groups in adjacent pens were merged (to form 4 groups, each with 12 cows) and cows had free access to both treatments within the merged pen. In the no-choice phase, cows spent more time standing with 4 hooves in the alternative versus conventional freestall (0.60±0.06 vs. 0.05±0.06h/d), but stall designs had no effect on time spent lying down (13.2±0.4 vs. 12.9±0.4h/d). In the choice phase, cows spent more time lying down in the conventional freestall (9.4±0.8 vs. 4.1±0.8h/d) and more time standing with all 4 hooves in the alternative stall (0.24±0.03 vs. 0.02±0.03h/d). These results illustrate how different stall design features can affect different types of stall use; the more open design facilitated standing fully in the stall, but the protruding partitions likely made the stall less suitable for lying.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON METRICS FOR LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metrics (potentials, potency factors, equivalency factors or characterization factors) are available to support the environmental comparison of alternatives in application domains like proces design and product life-cycle assessment (LCA). These metrics typically provide relative...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON METRICS FOR LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metrics (potentials, potency factors, equivalency factors or characterization factors) are available to support the environmental comparison of alternatives in application domains like proces design and product life-cycle assessment (LCA). These metrics typically provide relative...

  9. Alternate Design of ITER Cryostat Skirt Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Manish Kumar; Jha, Saroj Kumar; Gupta, Girish Kumar; Bhattacharya, Avik; Jogi, Gaurav; Bhardwaj, Anil Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The skirt support of ITER cryostat is a support system which takes all the load of cryostat cylinder and dome during normal and operational condition. The present design of skirt support has full penetration weld joints at the bottom (shell to horizontal plate joint). To fulfil the requirements of tolerances and control the welding distortions, we have proposed to change the full penetration weld into fillet weld. A detail calculation is done to check the feasibility and structural impact due to proposed design. The calculations provide the size requirements of fillet weld. To verify the structural integrity during most severe load case, finite element analysis (FEA) has been done in line with ASME section VIII division 2 [1]. By FEA ‘Plastic Collapse’ and ‘Local Failure’ modes has been assessed. 5° sector of skirt clamp has been modelled in CATIA V5 R21 and used in FEA. Fillet weld at shell to horizontal plate joint has been modelled and symmetry boundary condition at ± 2.5° applied. ‘Elastic Plastic Analysis’ has been performed for the most severe loading case i.e. Category IV loading. The alternate design of Cryostat Skirt support system has been found safe by analysis against Plastic collapse and Local Failure Modes with load proportionality factor 2.3. Alternate design of Cryostat skirt support system has been done and validated by FEA. As per alternate design, the proposal of fillet weld has been implemented in manufacturing.

  10. FEEDBACK DESIGN METHOD REVIEW AND COMPARISON.

    SciTech Connect

    ONILLON,E.

    1999-03-29

    Different methods for feedback designs are compared. These includes classical Proportional Integral Derivative (P. I. D.), state variable based methods like pole placement, Linear Quadratic Regulator (L. Q. R.), H-infinity and p-analysis. These methods are then applied for the design and analysis of the RHIC phase and radial loop, yielding a performance, stability and robustness comparison.

  11. An alternative LEU design for the FRM-II

    SciTech Connect

    Hanan, N.A.; Mo, S.C.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    1997-02-01

    The Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm[sup 3] and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime (50 days) and the same neutron flux performance (8 x 10[sup 14] n/cm[sup 2]/s in the reflector). LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm[sup 3] has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. Computer models for the HEU and LEU designs have been exchanged between TUM and ANL and discrepancies have been resolved. The following issues are addressed: qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, stability of the fuel plates, gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, a hypothetical accident involving the configuration of the reflector, a loss of primary coolant flow transient due to an interrupted power supply, the radiological consequences of larger fission product and plutonium inventories in the LEU core, and cost and schedule. Calculations were also done to address the possibility that new high density LEU fuels could be developed that would allow conversion of the TUM HEU design to LEU fuel. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in these analyses, the RERTR Program concludes that all of the major technical issues regarding use of LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II have been successfully resolved and that it is definitely feasible to use LEU fuel in the FRM-II without compromising the safety or performance of the facility.

  12. Electromagnetic interference reduction design of alternating integrator for EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. M.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Shen, B.; Gong, X. Z.; He, Y. G.

    2016-11-01

    An alternating integrator has been designed for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak that is intended for long pulse operation of up to 1000 s. The electromagnetic operating environment for the device is so complex that it could affect the performance of the integrator. The new integrator system is carefully designed and actualized based on specific reduced electromagnetic interference requirements, which were formulated based on consideration of processing of the input signals, the isolation properties, and the circuit board layout and grounding. The developed integrator shows excellent electromagnetic compatibility and low-drift properties.

  13. An alternative LEU design for the FRM-II

    SciTech Connect

    Hanan, N.A.; Mo, S.C.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-12-01

    The Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm{sup 3} and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime (50 days) and the same neutron flux performance. LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm{sup 3} has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. The following issues raised by TUM were addressed in Ref. 1: qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, radiological consequences of larger fission product and plutonium inventories in the LEU core, and cost and schedule. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. This paper addresses three additional safety issues that were raised by TUM in Ref. 2: stability of the involute fuel plates, a hypothetical accident involving the configuration of the reflector, and a loss of primary coolant flow transient due to an interrupted power supply. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in these analyses, the RERTR Program concludes that all of the major technical issues regarding use of LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II have been successfully resolved and that it is definitely feasible to use LEU fuel in the FRM-II without compromising the safety or performance of the facility.

  14. Molecular signatures of mammalian hibernation: comparisons with alternative phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yichi; Shao, Chunxuan; Fedorov, Vadim B; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Barnes, Brian M; Yan, Jun

    2013-08-20

    Mammalian hibernators display phenotypes similar to physiological responses to calorie restriction and fasting, sleep, cold exposure, and ischemia-reperfusion in non-hibernating species. Whether biochemical changes evident during hibernation have parallels in non-hibernating systems on molecular and genetic levels is unclear. We identified the molecular signatures of torpor and arousal episodes during hibernation using a custom-designed microarray for the Arctic ground squirrel (Urocitellus parryii) and compared them with molecular signatures of selected mouse phenotypes. Our results indicate that differential gene expression related to metabolism during hibernation is associated with that during calorie restriction and that the nuclear receptor protein PPARα is potentially crucial for metabolic remodeling in torpor. Sleep-wake cycle-related and temperature response genes follow the same expression changes as during the torpor-arousal cycle. Increased fatty acid metabolism occurs during hibernation but not during ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice and, thus, might contribute to protection against ischemia-reperfusion during hibernation. In this study, we systematically compared hibernation with alternative phenotypes to reveal novel mechanisms that might be used therapeutically in human pathological conditions.

  15. Molecular signatures of mammalian hibernation: comparisons with alternative phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammalian hibernators display phenotypes similar to physiological responses to calorie restriction and fasting, sleep, cold exposure, and ischemia-reperfusion in non-hibernating species. Whether biochemical changes evident during hibernation have parallels in non-hibernating systems on molecular and genetic levels is unclear. Results We identified the molecular signatures of torpor and arousal episodes during hibernation using a custom-designed microarray for the Arctic ground squirrel (Urocitellus parryii) and compared them with molecular signatures of selected mouse phenotypes. Our results indicate that differential gene expression related to metabolism during hibernation is associated with that during calorie restriction and that the nuclear receptor protein PPARα is potentially crucial for metabolic remodeling in torpor. Sleep-wake cycle-related and temperature response genes follow the same expression changes as during the torpor-arousal cycle. Increased fatty acid metabolism occurs during hibernation but not during ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice and, thus, might contribute to protection against ischemia-reperfusion during hibernation. Conclusions In this study, we systematically compared hibernation with alternative phenotypes to reveal novel mechanisms that might be used therapeutically in human pathological conditions. PMID:23957789

  16. Design and application of an alternative groundwater sparging technology

    SciTech Connect

    Schrauf, T.W.; Pennington, L.H.

    1995-12-31

    Density-driven convection, an alternative method of in situ groundwater sparging, is being used to remediate 27 underground storage tank releases involving a wide distillation range of petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline to waste oil) in a variety of site soils (silty clay to sandy gravel). The described method overcomes many of the inherent disadvantages of air sparging methods currently in use (such as pressurized injection) without additional complexity in design, installation, or operation. The principles of operation and design for density-driven convection are discussed in detail and supported by field and laboratory studies. Primary factors affecting the hydraulic driving force, groundwater circulation patterns around the sparging well, and air stripping performance are identified and related to system design. The effectiveness of the system is demonstrated with results from full-scale system installations.

  17. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  18. Interview Design for Ratio Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alatorre, Silvia; Figueras, Olimpia

    2003-01-01

    In this article, which is part of an ongoing research, a classification is proposed for ratio comparison problems, according to their context, their quantity type, and their numerical structure. Deriving from this classification, an interview protocol was designed, and guidelines for the interpretation of answers into strategies were decided. A…

  19. Numerical simulation in alternating current field measurement inducer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhixiong; Zheng, Wenpei

    2017-02-01

    The present work develops a numerical simulation model to evaluate the magnetic field perturbation of a twin coil alternating current field measurement (ACFM) inducer passing above a surface-breaking crack for the purpose of enhanced crack detection. Model predictions show good agreement with experimental data, verifying the accuracy of the model. The model includes the influence of various parameters, such as core dimensions and core positions on the perturbed magnetic field above a crack. Optimized design parameters for a twin coil inducer are given according to the analysis results, which provide for a greatly improved detection effect.

  20. An Evaluation of Alternative Designs for a Grid Information Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Waheed, Abdul; Meyers, David; Yan, Jerry; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Globus information service wasn't working well. There were many updates of data from Globus daemons which saturated the single server and users couldn't retrieve information. We created a second server for NASA and Alliance. Things were great on that server, but a bit slow on the other server. We needed to know exactly how the information service was being used. What were the best servers and configurations? This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the evaluation of alternative designs for a Grid Information Service. Details are given on the workload characterization, methodology used, and the performance evaluation.

  1. A Comparison of Alienation among Alternatively and Traditionally Certified Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoho, Alan R.; Martin, Nancy K.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of alienation among alternatively and traditionally certified teachers. A total of 228 teachers in grades K-12 from a public university offering both traditional certification (TC) and cooperative alternative certification (AC) graduate programs were assessed using the School Alienation…

  2. A Comparison of State Alternative Education Accountability Policies and Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlessman, Amy; Hurtado, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this policy study was to report descriptive research on state-level policy and frameworks for accountability systems of alternative education in the United States. The six states; California, Colorado, Texas, Florida, Oklahoma, and North Carolina; identified in the 2010 Jobs for the Futures policy analysis of alternative education…

  3. Economic evaluation and comparison of alternative limestone-scrubbing options

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, T.A.; Torstrick, R.L.; Sudhoff, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The preliminary-grade economics (accuracy: -15%, +30%) of various alternative limestone scrubbing options (absorber type, with and without forced oxidation, and with and without adipic acid enhancement) are examined using the current design and economic premises established for the continuing series of economic evaluations performed by TVA for EPA. The economics are projected using the Shawnee lime/limestone computer model, which is based on long-term operating data from the EPA Alkali Scrubbing Test Facility at the TVA Shawnee Steam Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. The capital investment for the base-case limestone scrubbing process (500 MW, 3.5% sulfur coal, 1979 NSPS, spray tower, forced oxidation, landfill) is $206/kW. The first-year and levelized annual revenue requirements are 10.59 and 15.09 mills/kWh respectively. Costs for the equivalent limestone scrubbing process using a Turbulent Contact Absorber (TCA) are lower while those for the venturi - spray tower absorber are higher. The forced-oxidation landfill disposal option has a lower capital investment than the unoxidized pond disposal option for all cases studied; however, the first-year and levelized annual revenue requirements are slightly higher for the forced-oxidation landfill process for most coal applications. For the spray tower limestone process to achieve a specified SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency, it is more economical to increase the limestone stoichiometry and minimize the absorber L/G. The use of adipic acid or possibly dibasic acid (DBA) as an additive to enhance SO/sub 2/ removal in the limestone scrubbing process is an economically attractive option. The use of adipic acid remains economically attractive even if both a high unit cost and a high degradation factor for adpic acid are assumbed.

  4. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  5. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  6. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  7. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  8. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  9. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    SciTech Connect

    P.D. Mattie

    1999-06-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to document total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) Feature IV. Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations for EDA IV are based on the TSPA-VA Base Case which has been modified with a quartz sand invert, quartz sand backfill, line loading and 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields that are placed over a 30 cm thick carbon steel (A5 16) waste package with an integral filler material (CRWMS M&O 1999a & 1999b). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M&O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA IV. The performance measure for this evaluation is the expected value dose-rate history at 20 km from the repository boundary.

  10. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative V

    SciTech Connect

    N. Erb; S. Miller; V. Vallikat

    1999-07-08

    This calculation documents the total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Analysis (EDA) V. EDA V is based on the TSPA-VA base design which has been modified with higher thermal loading, a quartz sand invert, and line loading with 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistance material (CRM) drip shields placed over dual-layer waste packages composed of 'inside out' VA reference material (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M and O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA V. The performance measure for this evaluation is expected value dose-rate history. Time histories of dose rate are presented for EDA V and a Defense in Depth (DID) analysis base on EDA V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative II are provided in the 'LADS 3-12 Requests' interoffice correspondence (CRWMS M and O 1999a).

  11. Comparison of translation loads for standard and alternative genetic codes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The (almost) universality of the genetic code is one of the most intriguing properties of cellular life. Nevertheless, several variants of the standard genetic code have been observed, which differ in one or several of 64 codon assignments and occur mainly in mitochondrial genomes and in nuclear genomes of some bacterial and eukaryotic parasites. These variants are usually considered to be the result of non-adaptive evolution. It has been shown that the standard genetic code is preferential to randomly assembled codes for its ability to reduce the effects of errors in protein translation. Results Using a genotype-to-phenotype mapping based on a quantitative model of protein folding, we compare the standard genetic code to seven of its naturally occurring variants with respect to the fitness loss associated to mistranslation and mutation. These fitness losses are computed through computer simulations of protein evolution with mutations that are either neutral or lethal, and different mutation biases, which influence the balance between unfolding and misfolding stability. We show that the alternative codes may produce significantly different mutation and translation loads, particularly for genomes evolving with a rather large mutation bias. Most of the alternative genetic codes are found to be disadvantageous to the standard code, in agreement with the view that the change of genetic code is a mutationally driven event. Nevertheless, one of the studied alternative genetic codes is predicted to be preferable to the standard code for a broad range of mutation biases. Conclusions Our results show that, with one exception, the standard genetic code is generally better able to reduce the translation load than the naturally occurring variants studied here. Besides this exception, some of the other alternative genetic codes are predicted to be better adapted for extreme mutation biases. Hence, the fixation of alternative genetic codes might be a neutral or nearly

  12. A Comparison of Alternative Media for Teaching Beginning Typists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showel, Morris

    1974-01-01

    The results of a comparison of eight different typing programs involving a variety of media indicate that the most effective programs tended to be those that devoted relatively little time to detailed instruction during keyboard learning and emphasized speed by forced-pace typing during skill building. (Author/JA)

  13. Comparison of Alternative Gravity Models in Dwarf Galaxy Rotation Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Justin; Saintable, Taylor; O'Brien, James

    2017-01-01

    Galactic rotation curves have proven to be the testing ground for dark matter bounds in spiral galaxies of all morphologies. Dwarf Galaxies serve as an increasingly interesting testing ground of rotation curve dynamics due to their increased stellar formation and typically rising rotation curve. These galaxies usually are not dominated by typical stellar structure and mostly terminate at small radial distances. This, coupled with the fact that Cold Dark Matter theories such as NFW (∧ CDM) struggle with the universality of galactic rotation curves, allow for exclusive features of alternative gravitational models to be analyzed. Here, we present a thorough application of alternative gravitational models (conformal gravity and MOND) to a 2010 dwarf galaxy sample from Swaters et al. An analysis and discussion of the results of the fitting procedure of the two alternative gravitational models are explored. We posit here that both the Conformal Gravity and MOND can provide an accurate description of the galactic dynamics without the need for copious dark matter.

  14. Alternative comparison, analysis, and evaluation of solid waste and materials system alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, A.J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the impact of solid waste technical options on values and objectives that are important to the public. It is written in support of the Solid Waste and Materials Systems Alternatives Study (WHC, 1995). Described are the values that were identified, the major programmatic risks, how the impacts were measured, the performance of alternatives, the methodology used for the analysis, and the implications of the results. Decision analysis was used to guide the collection and analysis of data and the logic of the evaluation. Decision analysis is a structured process for the analysis and evaluation of alternatives. It is theoretically grounded in a set of axioms that capture the basic principles of decision making (von Neuman and Morgenstern 1947). Decision analysis objectively specifies what factors are to be considered, how they are to be measured and evaluated, and heir relative importance. The result is an analysis in which the underlying rationale or logic upon which the decision is based is made explicit. This makes possible open discussion of the decision basis in which facts and values are clearly distinguished, resulting in a well- documented decision that can be clearly explained and justified. The strategy of decision analysis is to analyze the various components relevant to the decision separately and then integrate the individual judgments to arrive at an overall decision. This assures that all the relevant factors are identified and their relative importance is considered. The procedure for obtaining the individual judgments, and the decision rules, for combining them and evaluating alternatives, have both theoretical and empirical foundation in mathematics, economics, and psychology.

  15. NASA Alternative Orion Small Cell Battery Design Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Chuck

    2016-01-01

    and analysis were completed and reviewed for endorsement by NASA Engineering and Safety Center team members. All Key Test Objectives were met and the small cell design alternative was demonstrated and selected to be a feasible drop in replacement for the MPCV Orion CM Battery for EM2 mission.

  16. Comparison of alternative parameters to dual polarimetric SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Mitsunobu; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the potential of deriving information comparable to quad-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from dual-polarization data. Multi-polarization data have shown the potential to increase further the ability of extracting physical quantities of observation targets. Above all, quad-polarization data have more information than others, but they are relatively few in number compared with single or dual-polarization data. Although there are many SAR systems capable of quad-polarization observation, most of them are operated mainly on single or dual-polarization mode because of limited data transfer rate, area of coverage, required resolution, other system restriction, and so on. Thus, there is a certain trade- off between data availability and multi polarization. Therefore, we focused on dual-polarization as a good compromise between single and quad-polarization data. In this study, we investigated possible alternative parameters that can be derived from HH-VV dual-polarization data and can serve as substitutes for cross-polarization component in quad-polarization data. Experiments are performed using the Advanced Land Observation Satellite-Phased Array L-band SAR (ALOS-PALSAR) quad-polarization data. The cross polarization component in the data is used as benchmark for the alternative parameters.

  17. Alternative designs for petroleum product storage tanks for groundwater protection.

    PubMed

    Oke Adeleke, Samson

    In developing countries, there are numerous occurrences of petroleum product spillage in groundwater. The current practice of burying storage tanks beneath the surface without adequate safety devices facilitates this phenomenon. Underground tanks rust and leak, and spilled petroleum products migrate downward. The movement of the oil in the soil depends on its viscosity and quantity, the permeability of the soil/rock, and the presence of fractures within the rock. The oil spreads laterally in the form of a thin pancake due to its lower specific gravity, and soluble components dissolve in water. The pollution plume of petroleum products and dissolved phases moves in the direction of groundwater flow in the aquifer within the pores of soil and sediments or along fractures in basement complex areas. Most communities reply heavily on groundwater for potable and industrial supplies. However, the sustainability of this resource is under threat in areas where there are filling stations as a result of significant groundwater contamination from petroleum product spillage. Drinking water becomes unpalatable when it contains petroleum products in low concentrations, and small quantities may contaminate large volumes of water. Considering the losses incurred from spillage, the cost of cleaning the aquifer, and the fact that total cleansing and attenuation is impossible, the need to prevent spillage and if it happens to prevent it from getting into the groundwater system is of paramount importance. This paper proposes alternative design procedures with a view to achieving these objectives.

  18. Evaluation of an alternative longwall gate road design

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, J.P.; Conover, D.P.; Cox, R.M.

    1995-09-01

    This US Bureau of Mines report describes the results from an in-mine investigation of an alternative longwall gate road design. The coal mine operator modified the pillar layout (reversed the location of the big and small pillars) in a portion of a three-entry longwall gate road area. The modified pillar layout was an attempt to reduce stress and, subsequently, stress-related ground control problems (cutter roof and dynamic floor heave events) in the tailgate region during second-panel mining. The results from borehole pressure cells installed in the modified gate road area showed that the ground pressures in the panel edge and adjacent small pillar were significantly reduced during second-panel mining compared with ground pressures experienced in the typical pillar layout gate road areas. The reduced stress levels around the tailgate entry adjacent to the second panel, as compared with the tailgate stress levels with the typical pillar arrangement, contributed to improved tailgate ground conditions in the test pillar zone.

  19. A Cost Comparison of Alternative Approaches to Distance Education in Developing Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventre, Gerard G.; Kalu, Alex

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a cost comparison of three approaches to two-way interactive distance learning systems for developing countries. Included are costs for distance learning hardware, terrestrial and satellite communication links, and designing instruction for two-way interactive courses. As part of this project, FSEC is developing a 30-hour course in photovoltaic system design that will be used in a variety of experiments using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). A primary goal of the project is to develop an instructional design and delivery model that can be used for other education and training programs. Over two-thirds of the world photovoltaics market is in developing countries. One of the objectives of this NASA-sponsored project was to develop new and better energy education programs that take advantage of advances in telecommunications and computer technology. The combination of desktop video systems and the sharing of computer applications software is of special interest. Research is being performed to evaluate the effectiveness of some of these technologies as part of this project. The design of the distance learning origination and receive sites discussed in this paper were influenced by the educational community's growing interest in distance education. The following approach was used to develop comparative costs for delivering interactive distance education to developing countries: (1) Representative target locations for receive sites were chosen. The originating site was assumed to be Cocoa, Florida, where FSEC is located; (2) A range of course development costs were determined; (3) The cost of equipment for three alternative two-way interactive distance learning system configurations was determined or estimated. The types of system configurations ranged from a PC-based system that allows instructors to originate instruction from their office using desktop video and shared application software, to a high cost system that uses a

  20. A Cost Comparison of Alternative Approaches to Distance Education in Developing Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventre, Gerard G.; Kalu, Alex

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a cost comparison of three approaches to two-way interactive distance learning systems for developing countries. Included are costs for distance learning hardware, terrestrial and satellite communication links, and designing instruction for two-way interactive courses. As part of this project, FSEC is developing a 30-hour course in photovoltaic system design that will be used in a variety of experiments using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). A primary goal of the project is to develop an instructional design and delivery model that can be used for other education and training programs. Over two-thirds of the world photovoltaics market is in developing countries. One of the objectives of this NASA-sponsored project was to develop new and better energy education programs that take advantage of advances in telecommunications and computer technology. The combination of desktop video systems and the sharing of computer applications software is of special interest. Research is being performed to evaluate the effectiveness of some of these technologies as part of this project. The design of the distance learning origination and receive sites discussed in this paper were influenced by the educational community's growing interest in distance education. The following approach was used to develop comparative costs for delivering interactive distance education to developing countries: (1) Representative target locations for receive sites were chosen. The originating site was assumed to be Cocoa, Florida, where FSEC is located; (2) A range of course development costs were determined; (3) The cost of equipment for three alternative two-way interactive distance learning system configurations was determined or estimated. The types of system configurations ranged from a PC-based system that allows instructors to originate instruction from their office using desktop video and shared application software, to a high cost system that uses a

  1. A Life-Cycle Comparison of Alternative Automobile Fuels.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B; Lankey, Rebecca; Joshi, Satish

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  2. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    PubMed

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  3. Comparison of alternative concepts for lunar surface transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Uwe

    The lunar surface transportation system is a key element in lunar development. The decision which means of conveyance should be preferred depends on a lot of influencing factors such as transportation requirements, physical boundary conditions and economics. Starting with a systematic approach to define and structure the problem, a model to compare alternative transportation systems has been built. From the pool of possible means of conveyance, chemical rockets, electric cars, maglev-trains and mass-drivers have been chosen as candidates for investigation. With these candidates five different surface transportation systems were defined. For a reference lunar development scenario the systems were compared on the basis of a cost-to-benefit ratio. Preliminary results indicate that under the assumption that LH2 could be produced on lunar surface, LOX/LH2 propulsed "Hoppers" seem very attractive up to medium transportation demands. For large amounts of bulk cargo, mass driver transportation seems to have advantages, and electric cars should be used for all transportation tasks if the transportation demand is high. Maglev-trains seem to be competitive only for very large transportation demand and long life cycles.

  4. Comparison of alternate personality models in psychopathology assessment.

    PubMed

    Floros, Georgios D; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios D

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the results from the parallel application of two alternate personality models, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman trait model and Bond's Defense Styles, in a sample of 268 Greek medical students (172 women, M age = 22.0 yr., SD = 1.1; 95 men, M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 1.2) in relation to psychopathological symptoms, so as to clarify whether this practice yielded accurate results while avoiding shared variance. Data from both models are cross-checked with canonical correlation analysis to validate whether there was significant conceptual overlap between them that would mean that their parallel use is an ineffective research practice. Following this analysis, factors from both models are utilized to predict variance in sample psychopathology, so as to compare their relative usefulness. Results indicated that the two models did not share a significant amount of variance, while a combination of personality aspects from both models, including Impulsive Sensation-Seeking, Neuroticism-Anxiety, Aggression-Hostility, and Sociability traits and Maladaptive Action, Image Distorting, and Adaptive Action defense styles, predicted high variance in psychopathology symptoms.

  5. Supports and Enhancements Designed for Alternative School Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menendez, Anthony L.

    2007-01-01

    In this informational survey, the author briefly explores the needs of professional staff and administrators who serve students in alternative educational settings and special education and provides a listing of helpful Internet resources. Initially, the author provides general information concerning the current state of alternative education…

  6. Quality assurance of anatomic pathology diagnoses: Comparison of alternate approaches.

    PubMed

    Layfield, Lester J; Frazier, Shellaine R

    2017-02-01

    Traditionally, a 10% review has been the basis for quality assurance programs in anatomic pathology. The effectiveness of such reviews has been questioned and alternative methodologies suggested. The study investigates the error detection rates for four quality assurance protocols. The detection rate for diagnostic errors in surgical pathology was calculated over a one year period using four different review procedures comprising: random 10% review, correlation of internal and external diagnoses following solicited external expert opinion, correlation of internal diagnoses with outside diagnoses in cases sent for review at a second institution treating the patient along with a focused review of dermatopathology cases over a 3 month period. Error rate was expressed as percentage of reviewed cases where the initial diagnosis differed from the review diagnosis. Error rates detected by each method were compared among the methods RESULTS: The 10% random review detected seventeen errors in 2147 cases (0.8%). Solicited case consultations requested by clinicians or internal pathologists detected five diagnostic errors in seventy cases (7.1%). Unsolicited reviews by outside institutions in the course of patient care detected three diagnostic errors in 190 cases (1.6%). Review of the dermatopathology material disclosed 5 diagnostic errors in 59 cases (8.5%). Focused reviews initiated by diagnostic concerns of a clinician or pathologist, unsolicited reviews because of treatment at another institution and sub-specialty based reviews appear to be more effective in detecting diagnostic errors than the 10% random review. Quality assurance programs should include focused reviews in addition to 10% random review to maximize error detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparison of High-End Video Teleconference Alternatives for the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-24

    AD-A280 776 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC ELECTE JUN 3 019941 S F DTC QUALMIT £NSPECTED A COMPARISON OF HIGH-END VIDEO...TELECONFERENCE ALTERNATIVES FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE by Michael P. Nerino March 1994 Thesis Co-Advisors: Myung W. Sub Shu S . Liao Approved for’ public r...TELECONFERENCE ALTERNATIVES FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 6. AUTHOR Michael P. Nerino 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING

  8. Cost comparison of the satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsko, T.; Samsa, M.

    1981-04-01

    A framework is described for comparing the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability. Each of the following energy sources is briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification/combined cycle, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS. The analysis consists of comparison of characterizations, side-by-side analysis, and alternative futures analysis. (LEW)

  9. Statistical Validation of Mutual Information Calculations: Comparisons of Alternative Numerical Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    MUTUAL INFORMATION CALCULATIONS: COMPARISONS OF ALTERNATIVE NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS C.J. Cellucci A.M. Albano P.E. Rapp Bureau of Medicine and Surgery...COMPARISONS OF ALTERNATIVE NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS C.J. Cellucci A.M. Albano P.E. Rapp Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Department of the Navy Washington...numerical algorithms 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 601135N 6. AUTHORS 5d. PROJECT NUMBER C.J. Cellucci , A.M. Albano, and P.E. Rapp 4508

  10. Valley Fill Design and Construction Alternatives to Improve Ecological Performance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation discusses; current challenges, comprehensive approaches, BMPs, the Middlefork Development, the Guy Cove project, and a path forward when looking at construction alternatives to improve the ecological performance of valley fills.

  11. Code comparison for accelerator design and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1988-01-01

    We present a comparison between results obtained from standard accelerator physics codes used for the design and analysis of synchrotrons and storage rings, with programs SYNCH, MAD, HARMON, PATRICIA, PATPET, BETA, DIMAD, MARYLIE and RACE-TRACK. In our analysis we have considered 5 (various size) lattices with large and small angles including AGS Booster (10/degree/ bend), RHIC (2.24/degree/), SXLS, XLS (XUV ring with 45/degree/ bend) and X-RAY rings. The differences in the integration methods used and the treatment of the fringe fields in these codes could lead to different results. The inclusion of nonlinear (e.g., dipole) terms may be necessary in these calculations specially for a small ring. 12 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Need for alternative trial designs and evaluation strategies for therapeutic studies of invasive mycoses.

    PubMed

    Rex, J H; Walsh, T J; Nettleman, M; Anaissie, E J; Bennett, J E; Bow, E J; Carillo-Munoz, A J; Chavanet, P; Cloud, G A; Denning, D W; de Pauw, B E; Edwards Jr, J E; Hiemenz, J W; Kauffman, C A; Lopez-Berestein, G; Martino, P; Sobel, J D; Stevens, D A; Sylvester, R; Tollemar, J; Viscoli, C; Viviani, M A; Wu, T

    2001-07-01

    Studies of invasive fungal infections have been and remain difficult to implement. Randomized clinical trials of fungal infections are especially slow and expensive to perform because it is difficult to identify eligible patients in a timely fashion, to prove the presence of the fungal infection in an unequivocal fashion, and to evaluate outcome in a convincing fashion. Because of these challenges, licensing decisions for antifungal agents have to date depended heavily on historical control comparisons and secondary advantages of the new agent. Although the availability of newer and potentially more effective agents makes these approaches less desirable, the fundamental difficulties of trials of invasive fungal infections have not changed. Therefore, there is a need for alternative trial designs and evaluation strategies for therapeutic studies of invasive mycoses, and this article summarizes the possible strategies in this area.

  13. Modular Design/Phased Construction Alternative Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartztrauber, K.

    1999-05-28

    Modular design concepts are being considered for the license application during the surface facility design phase of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The Viability Assessment (VA) design is used as the reference design for the report. The primary objectives are to spread construction of the WHB and the subsurface repository over time to reduce annual project costs, and to provide a cost-effective design for the surface facilities that supports waste emplacement starting in the year 2010.

  14. Designing and Implementing Effective In-School Alternatives to Suspension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizell, M. Hayes

    Because of widespread disillusion with suspension as a discipline procedure, school officials are developing inschool alternative programs. Institution of such a program must begin with reflection about how current disciplinary programs are succeeding or failing. The primary purposes of the program must include helping the child and identifying…

  15. Designs for Emerging Order in Qualitative Research: An Alternative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Daiyo; Pothier, Yvonne

    As an alternative to traditional methodology in education research, an approach transcending the distinction between quantitative and qualitative perspectives is suggested. Emerging insights in qualitative research can be enhanced by beginning with the phenomenon of emerging order. The theory of Dissipative Structures suggests that research…

  16. Alternative positron-target design for electron-positron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, R.J. ); Nelson, W.R. )

    1991-04-01

    Current electron-positron linear colliders are limited in luminosity by the number of positrons which can be generated from targets presently used. This paper examines the possibility of using an alternate wire-target geometry for the production of positrons via an electron-induced electromagnetic cascade shower. 39 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. The Design and Implementation of an Alternative High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kritek, William J.

    The analysis of the planning for an implementation of an alternative high school in a large urban school system is the focus of this study. Interview data are used. This investigation draws on, and compliments, the previous literature on implementation. While most of the earlier studies look at failures, this one is based on an instance of…

  18. Waveform Design for MIMO Radar Using an Alternating Projection Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-23

    multiple - input multiple - output ( MIMO ) radar waveform design problem which optimizes both minimum mean-square error estimation (MMSE) and...Report Title ABSTRACT Revisiting an earlier examined multiple - input multiple - output ( MIMO ) radar waveform design problem which optimizes both minimum...mtu.edu Abstract— Revisiting an earlier examined multiple - input multiple - output ( MIMO ) radar waveform design problem which

  19. 46 CFR 160.027-7 - Pre-approval tests for alternate platform designs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-approval tests for alternate platform designs. 160... § 160.027-7 Pre-approval tests for alternate platform designs. (a) The tests in this section are for life float platforms that do not meet the requirements of either § 160.027-3(b) (1) or (2). (b) The...

  20. 46 CFR 160.027-7 - Pre-approval tests for alternate platform designs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-approval tests for alternate platform designs. 160... § 160.027-7 Pre-approval tests for alternate platform designs. (a) The tests in this section are for life float platforms that do not meet the requirements of either § 160.027-3(b) (1) or (2). (b) The...

  1. Alternate space shuttle concepts study: Design requirements and phased programs evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A study to determine program and technical alternatives to the design of the space shuttle orbiter is described. The alternatives include a phased approach, involving orbiter development and operation with an expendable booster for an interim period, as well as design variations to the basic vehicle. The space shuttle orbiter configurations and predicted performance parameters are presented.

  2. Design Alternatives for a Free Electron Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, K; Bosch, R A; Eisert, D; Fisher, M V; Green, M A; Keil, R G; Kleman, K J; Kulpin, J G; Rogers, G C; Wehlitz, R; Chiang, T; Miller, T J; Lawler, J E; Yavuz, D; Legg, R A; York, R C

    2012-07-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison is continuing design efforts for a vacuum ultraviolet/X-ray Free Electron Laser facility. The design incorporates seeding the FEL to provide fully coherent photon output at energies up to {approx}1 keV. The focus of the present work is to minimize the cost of the facility while preserving its performance. To achieve this we are exploring variations in the electron beam driver for the FEL, in undulator design, and in the seeding mechanism. Design optimizations and trade-offs between the various technologies and how they affect the FEL scientific program will be presented.

  3. Alternating phase-shifted mask for logic gate levels, design, and mask manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebmann, Lars W.; Graur, Ioana C.; Leipold, William C.; Oberschmidt, James M.; O'Grady, David S.; Regaill, Denis

    1999-07-01

    While the benefits of alternating phase shifted masks in improving lithographic process windows at increased resolution are well known throughout the lithography community, broad implementation of this potentially powerful technique has been slow due to the inherent complexity of the layout design and mask manufacturing process. This paper will review a project undertaken at IBM's Semiconductor Research and Development Center and Mask Manufacturing and Development facility to understand the technical and logistical issues associated with the application of alternating phase shifted mask technology to the gate level of a full microprocessor chip. The work presented here depicts an important milestone toward integration of alternating phase shifted masks into the manufacturing process by demonstrating an automated design solution and yielding a functional alternating phase shifted mask. The design conversion of the microprocessor gate level to a conjugate twin shifter alternating phase shift layout was accomplished with IBM's internal design system that automatically scaled the design, added required phase regions, and resolved phase conflicts. The subsequent fabrication of a nearly defect free phase shifted mask, as verified by SEM based die to die inspection, highlights the maturity of the alternating phase shifted mask manufacturing process in IBM's internal mask facility. Well defined and recognized challenges in mask inspection and repair remain and the layout of alternating phase shifted masks present a design and data preparation overhead, but the data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of designing and building manufacturing quality alternating phase shifted masks for the gate level of a microprocessor.

  4. Environmental and economic comparisons of the satellite power system and six alternative energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, R.G.; Habegger, L.J.; Levine, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.

    1981-04-01

    The objective of the comparative assessment is to provide an initial, traceable and consistent comparison of the SPS and selected current, near-term, and advanced energy technologies. Terrestrial alternatives were selected, and their cost, performance, and environmental and societal attributes were specified for use in the comparison with the SPS in the post-2000 era. The framework for comparisons was established. The SPS was compared with alternative systems in terms of key issues such as life-cycle cost and environmental impacts. The results of the assessments were assembled and integrated into a consistent comparative assessment. Environmental and economic effects are evaluated, which were subdivided into the following issue areas: human health and safety, environmental welfare, resources (land, materials, energy, water, labor), macroeconomics, socioeconomics, and institutional. These evaluations were based on technology characterization data and alternative futures scenarios, which were developed as part of CDEP by supporting studies. The technologies and the scenarios are described. An additional major issue area concerned the cost and performance of the SPS and the alternative technologies: results in this area provided part of the basis of the macroeconomic analyses. 159 references.

  5. EDIN design study alternate space shuttle booster replacement concepts. Volume 2: Design simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demakes, P. T.; Hirsch, G. N.; Stewart, W. A.; Glatt, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Historical weight estimating relationships were developed for the liquid rocket booster (LRB) using Saturn technology, and modified as required to support the EDIN05 study. Mission performance was computed using February 1975 shuttle configuration groundrules to allow reasonable comparison of the existing shuttle with the EDIN05 designs. The launch trajectory was constrained to pass through both the RTLS/AOA and main engine cut-off points. Performance analysis was based on a point design trajectory model which optimized initial tilt rate and exo-atmospheric pitch profile. A gravity turn was employed during the boost phase in place of the shuttle angle-of-attack profile. Engine throttling add/or shutdown was used to constrain dynamic pressure and/or longitudinal acceleration where necessary.

  6. RIP Input Tables from WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II-3

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Monib

    1999-08-24

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M&O 1998b. ''Software Routine Report for WAPDEG'' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields (that are placed over waste packages composed of a 2-cm thick Alloy 22 corrosion resistant material (CRM) as the outer barrier and an unspecified material to provide structural support as the inner barrier) as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages themselves, and (2) post-processing of these results into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II-3. The aging period in the EDA II design (CRWMS M&O 1999f. ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'', Item 1 Row 9 Column 3) was replaced in the case of EDA II-3 with 25 years preclosure ventilation, leading to a total of 50 years preclosure ventilation. The waste packages are line loaded in the repository and no backfill is used.

  7. Alternative sampling designs and estimators for annual surveys

    Treesearch

    Paul C. Van Deusen

    2000-01-01

    Annual forest inventory systems in the United States have generally converged on sampling designs that: (1) measure equal proportions of the total number of plots each year; and (2) call for the plots to be systematically dispersed. However, there will inevitably be a need to deviate from the basic design to respond to special requests, natural disasters, and budgetary...

  8. NPS alternate techsat satellite, design project for AE-4871

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This project was completed as part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The intent of the course is to provide experience in the design of all the major components in a spacecraft system. Team members were given responsibility for the design of one of the six primary subsystems: power, structures, propulsion, attitude control, telemetry, tracking and control (TT&C), and thermal control. In addition, a single member worked on configuration control, launch vehicle integration, and a spacecraft test plan. Given an eleven week time constraint, a preliminary design of each subsystem was completed. Where possible, possible component selections were also made. Assistance for this project came principally from the Naval Research Laboratory's Spacecraft Technology Branch. Specific information on components was solicited from representatives in industry. The design project centers on a general purpose satellite bus that is currently being sought by the Strategic Defense Initiative.

  9. An alternative design for a sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    A new design for a Sparse Distributed Memory, called the selected-coordinate design, is described. As in the original design, there are a large number of memory locations, each of which may be activated by many different addresses (binary vectors) in a very large address space. Each memory location is defined by specifying ten selected coordinates (bit positions in the address vectors) and a set of corresponding assigned values, consisting of one bit for each selected coordinate. A memory location is activated by an address if, for all ten of the locations's selected coordinates, the corresponding bits in the address vector match the respective assigned value bits, regardless of the other bits in the address vector. Some comparative memory capacity and signal-to-noise ratio estimates for the both the new and original designs are given. A few possible hardware embodiments of the new design are described.

  10. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  11. Drift Eliminating Designs for Non-Simultaneous Comparison Calibrations.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Ted

    1993-01-01

    The effects of drift on calibrations carried out by comparison have been studied at the National Institute of Standards and Technology for many years, and a number of strategies have been introduced to combat these effects. One strategy, the use of comparison designs which are inherently immune to linear drift, was developed specifically for mass comparison measurements. These techniques, developed for simultaneous comparisons, are extended to the case of non-simultaneous comparisons, such as gage block calibrations, where each artifact is measured separately, and the comparison is made mathematically from the individual measurements.

  12. Drift Eliminating Designs for Non-Simultaneous Comparison Calibrations

    PubMed Central

    Doiron, Ted

    1993-01-01

    The effects of drift on calibrations carried out by comparison have been studied at the National Institute of Standards and Technology for many years, and a number of strategies have been introduced to combat these effects. One strategy, the use of comparison designs which are inherently immune to linear drift, was developed specifically for mass comparison measurements. These techniques, developed for simultaneous comparisons, are extended to the case of non-simultaneous comparisons, such as gage block calibrations, where each artifact is measured separately, and the comparison is made mathematically from the individual measurements. PMID:28053468

  13. Alternate bearing design fabrication and test program, exhibit B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A 50 ft-lb-sec (FPS) reaction wheel was modified with an ironless armature brushless dc motor and a magnetic bearing suspension. The purpose was to demonstrate the performance of an alternate bearing concept, i.e., a magnetic bearing suspension, which could be used in Skylab type CMG's to meet the attitude control requirements of long term space stations. A magnetic suspension was built, installed and tested in the 50 FPS reaction wheel. A secondary effort included the build and test of a compatible reaction wheel motor. Performance characteristics of both are presented and discussed.

  14. An alternative to gamma histograms for ROI-based quantitative dose comparisons.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, P

    2009-06-21

    An alternative to gamma (gamma) histograms for ROI-based quantitative comparisons of dose distributions using the gamma concept is proposed. The method provides minimum values of dose difference and distance-to-agreement such that a pre-set fraction of the region of interest passes the gamma test. Compared to standard gamma histograms, the method provides more information in terms of pass rate per gamma calculation. This is achieved at negligible additional calculation cost and without loss of accuracy. The presented method is proposed as a useful and complementary alternative to standard gamma histograms, increasing both the quantity and quality of information for use in acceptance or rejection decisions.

  15. Comparison of oil removal in surfactant alternating gas with water alternating gas, water flooding and gas flooding in secondary oil recovery process.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Mehdi Mohammad; Safarzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Sahraei, Eghbal; Nejad, Seyyed Alireza Tabatabaei

    2014-08-01

    Growing oil prices coupled with large amounts of residual oil after operating common enhanced oil recovery methods has made using methods with higher operational cost economically feasible. Nitrogen is one of the gases used in both miscible and immiscible gas injection process in oil reservoir. In heterogeneous formations gas tends to breakthrough early in production wells due to overriding, fingering and channeling. Surfactant alternating gas (SAG) injection is one of the methods commonly used to decrease this problem. Foam which is formed on the contact of nitrogen and surfactant increases viscosity of injected gas. This increases the oil-gas contact and sweep efficiency, although adsorption of surfactant on rock surface can causes difficulties and increases costs of process. Many parameters must be considered in design of SAG process. One of the most important parameters is SAG ratio that should be in optimum value to improve the flooding efficiency. In this study, initially the concentration of surfactant was optimized due to minimization of adsorption on rock surface which results in lower cost of surfactant. So, different sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentrations of 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 ppm were used to obtain the optimum concentration at 70 °C and 144.74×10(5) Pa. A simple, clean and relatively fast spectrophotometric method was used for determination of surfactant which is based on the formation of an ion-pair. Then the effect of surfactant to gas volume ratio on oil recovery in secondary oil recovery process during execution of immiscible surfactant alternating gas injection was examined experimentally. The experiments were performed with sand pack under certain temperature, pressure and constant rate. Experiments were performed with surfactant to gas ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 and 1.2 pore volume injected. Then, comparisons were made between obtained results (SAG) with water flooding, gas flooding and water alternating gas

  16. Comparison of oil removal in surfactant alternating gas with water alternating gas, water flooding and gas flooding in secondary oil recovery process

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mehdi Mohammad; Safarzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Sahraei, Eghbal; Nejad, Seyyed Alireza Tabatabaei

    2014-01-01

    Growing oil prices coupled with large amounts of residual oil after operating common enhanced oil recovery methods has made using methods with higher operational cost economically feasible. Nitrogen is one of the gases used in both miscible and immiscible gas injection process in oil reservoir. In heterogeneous formations gas tends to breakthrough early in production wells due to overriding, fingering and channeling. Surfactant alternating gas (SAG) injection is one of the methods commonly used to decrease this problem. Foam which is formed on the contact of nitrogen and surfactant increases viscosity of injected gas. This increases the oil–gas contact and sweep efficiency, although adsorption of surfactant on rock surface can causes difficulties and increases costs of process. Many parameters must be considered in design of SAG process. One of the most important parameters is SAG ratio that should be in optimum value to improve the flooding efficiency. In this study, initially the concentration of surfactant was optimized due to minimization of adsorption on rock surface which results in lower cost of surfactant. So, different sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentrations of 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 ppm were used to obtain the optimum concentration at 70 °C and 144.74×105 Pa. A simple, clean and relatively fast spectrophotometric method was used for determination of surfactant which is based on the formation of an ion-pair. Then the effect of surfactant to gas volume ratio on oil recovery in secondary oil recovery process during execution of immiscible surfactant alternating gas injection was examined experimentally. The experiments were performed with sand pack under certain temperature, pressure and constant rate. Experiments were performed with surfactant to gas ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 and 1.2 pore volume injected. Then, comparisons were made between obtained results (SAG) with water flooding, gas flooding and water alternating gas

  17. The Effect of Alternative Approaches to Design Instruction (Structural or Functional) on Students' Mental Models of Technological Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mioduser, David; Dagan, Osnat

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the relationship between alternative approaches towards problem solving/design teaching (structural or functional), students' mental modeling of the design process, and the quality of their solutions to design tasks. The "structural" approach emphasizes the need for an ordered and systematic learning of the design…

  18. Alternative Spring Break at the Savannah College of Art and Design: Engaging Art and Design Students in Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoey, J. Joseph; Feld-Gore, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the impact of an alternative spring break program on students at the Savannah College of Art and Design over a set of years as well as its effectiveness as a service-learning tool.

  19. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  20. Design element alternatives for stress-management intervention websites.

    PubMed

    Williams, Reg A; Gatien, Gary; Hagerty, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Typical public and military-sponsored websites on stress and depression tend to be prescriptive. Some require users to complete lengthy questionnaires. Others reproduce printed flyers, papers, or educational materials not adapted for online use. Some websites require users to follow a prescribed path through the material. Stress Gym was developed as a first-level, evidence-based, website intervention to help U.S. military members learn how to manage mild to moderate stress and depressive symptoms using a self-help intervention with progress tracking and 24/7 availablility. It was designed using web-based, health-management intervention design elements that have been proven effective and users reported they prefer. These included interactivity, self-pacing, and pleasing aesthetics. Users learned how to manage stress by accessing modules they choose, and by practicing proven stress management strategies interactively immediately after login. Test results of Stress Gym with Navy members demonstrated that it was effective, with significant decreases in reported perceived stress levels from baseline to follow-up assessment. Stress Gym used design elements that may serve as a model for future websites to emulate and improve upon, and as a template against which to compare and contrast the design and functionality of future online, health-intervention websites.

  1. Design and Implementation Considerations for Alternative Teacher Compensation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Andrew; DeCesare, Dale; Kramer-Wine, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, educators and policymakers have used a variety of approaches to designing and implementing teacher compensation programs. These approaches include federal incentive funds, state-level programs, and district initiatives. This article reviews 6 such programs in order to identify themes and draw conclusions relevant to…

  2. 46 CFR 177.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center, when it can be shown by systematic analysis based on engineering principles that the structure provides adequate safety and strength. The owner shall submit detailed plans, material component specifications, and design criteria, including the expected operating...

  3. Erythropoietin: new approaches to improved molecular designs and therapeutic alternatives.

    PubMed

    Debeljak, N; Sytkowski, A J

    2008-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is a glycoprotein hormone that is the prime regulator of erythropoiesis. Recombinant Epo is a highly effective pharmaceutical used to correct anemias associated with renal insufficiency, cancer and other diseases. Efforts to increase its efficacy in vivo by manipulating the protein's structure have met with some success, and novel Epo-like agents are in development. Additionally, efforts to create Epo mimetic agents are underway, as is the design of agents to increase endogenous production. Because Epo has tissue protective actions outside of erythropoiesis, other designs have focused on producing erythropoietically inactive molecules that still retain extra-hematopoietic activity. The demonstration that Epo can trigger signaling in some cancer cells with, potentially, adverse effects on patient health has raised warning signs in the medical community and has gained the attention of regulatory authorities.

  4. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time-Series Design: Three Within-Study Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Travis; Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the conditions under which short, comparative interrupted time-series (CITS) designs represent valid alternatives to randomized experiments in educational evaluations. To do so, we conduct three within-study comparisons, each of which uses a unique data set to test the validity of the CITS design by comparing its causal estimates to…

  5. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time-Series Design: Three Within-Study Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Travis; Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the conditions under which short, comparative interrupted time-series (CITS) designs represent valid alternatives to randomized experiments in educational evaluations. To do so, we conduct three within-study comparisons, each of which uses a unique data set to test the validity of the CITS design by comparing its causal estimates to…

  6. RIP Input Tables From Wapdeg For La Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative Iiib

    SciTech Connect

    K.G. Mon; K.G. Mast; J.H. Lee

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M&O 1998b. 'Software Routine Report for WAPDEG' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages over which they are placed. The waste packages are composed of two corrosion resistant materials (CRM) barriers. The outer barrier is composed of 2 cm of Alloy 22 and the inner barrier is composed of 1.5 cm of titanium grade 7. The WAPDEG simulation results are post-processed into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative IIIb.

  7. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  8. An Alternative View of Some FIA Sample Design and Analysis Issues

    Treesearch

    Paul C. Van Deusen

    2005-01-01

    Sample design and analysis decisions are the result of compromises and inputs from many sources. The end result would likely change if different individuals or groups were involved in the planning process. Discussed here are some alternatives to the procedures that are currently being used for the annual inventory. The purpose is to indicate that alternatives exist and...

  9. License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative V: Very High Thermal Loading

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. Linden

    1999-06-22

    The major goals of Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) V are to keep the temperature of the cladding on the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) within the waste package below 350 C (Section 4.2.3), the temperature of the emplacement drift walls below 225 C (Section 4.2.3), and to keep the emplacement drifts dry for several thousand years. In addition, the design would produce relatively consistent heat output from waste package to waste package and ensure that waste package thermal outputs are spread more evenly across the repository. The design would also provide defense in depth (Section 5.3). The goals of this design would be achieved by the combination of design features described below. This EDA would have an areal mass loading (AML) of 150 metric tons of uranium equivalent (MTU) per acre (Section 4.1.16) as opposed to the 85 MTU/acre in the Viability Assessment (VA) reference design. To achieve this loading and the elements necessary to the EDA's overall goals, the design would require approximately 420 acres of emplacement area, within the lower repository block (Appendix A, Section A.2). A conceptual layout was developed for EDA V (Section 5.4.3). The layout, as shown in Figure 2, contains openings that are sized and arranged in a similar configuration as the VA reference design. A total of 54 emplacement drifts will be required for emplacement of the 70,000 MTU of spent nuclear fuel and high level waste packages. A total of four ventilation shafts, one intake and three exhausts are anticipated for the layout in order to provide sufficient air quantities to the emplacement drifts. Two exhaust mains will be located below the level of the emplacement drifts to provide exhaust from the emplacement drifts. In addition, the evaluation has confirmed that the decision to close the repository is possible 50 years after start of emplacement (Section 5.7.5). The licensing and preclosure period encompassed by the Mined Geologic Repository (MGR) extends from the year 2002 through

  10. An Alternating Treatment Comparison of Minimal and Maximal Opposition Sound Selection in Turkish Phonological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topbas, Seyhun; Unal, Ozlem

    2010-01-01

    A single-subject alternating treatment design in combination with a staggered multiple baseline model across subjects was implemented with two 6:0 year-old girls, monozygotic twins, who were referred to a university clinic for evaluation and treatment. The treatment programme was structured according to variants of "minimal pair contrast…

  11. An alternative design of holographic polarization-selective elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang; Liu, Jung-Ping; Lin, Jiun-You; Wu, Nung-Yu

    2008-09-01

    The feasibility of conventional polarization-selective substrate-mode holograms is usually limited by the finite refractive index modulation strength. Therefore, in this study, a novel design of polarization selective element with a large diffraction angle is proposed based on the coupled-wave theory. The polarization selective element for 632.8nm is fabricated with VRP-M silver-halide recording material. The diffraction efficiencies of s- and p- components are 83% and 5%, and the calculated extinction ratios are 5.58 and 275, respectively. Polarization selective elements fabricated by the proposed method have all the merits of conventional substrate-mode hologram but not limited by the finite refractive index modulation of common recording materials.

  12. Iodine concentration of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK in comparison with cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Hill, Sarah; Goenaga Infante, Heidi; Elghul, Sarah; Nezianya, Carolina J; Rayman, Margaret P

    2017-09-26

    Iodine deficiency is present in certain groups of the UK population, notably in pregnant women; this is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development. UK milk is rich in iodine and is the principal dietary iodine source. UK sales of milk-alternative drinks are increasing but data are lacking on their iodine content. As consumers may replace iodine-rich milk with milk-alternative drinks, we aimed to measure the iodine concentration of those available in the UK. Using inductively coupled plasma-MS, we determined the iodine concentration of seven types of milk-alternative drink (soya, almond, coconut, oat, rice, hazelnut and hemp) by analysing forty-seven products purchased in November/December 2015. For comparison, winter samples of conventional (n 5) and organic (n 5) cows' milk were included. The median iodine concentration of all of the unfortified milk-alternative drinks (n 44) was low, at 7·3 μg/kg, just 1·7 % of our value for winter conventional cows' milk (median 438 μg/kg). One brand (not the market leader), fortified its soya, oat and rice drinks with iodine and those drinks had a higher iodine concentration than unfortified drinks, at 280, 287 and 266 μg/kg, respectively. The iodine concentration of organic milk (median 324 μg/kg) was lower than that of conventional milk. Although many milk-alternative drinks are fortified with Ca, at the time of this study, just three of forty-seven drinks were fortified with iodine. Individuals who consume milk-alternative drinks that are not fortified with iodine in place of cows' milk may be at risk of iodine deficiency unless they consume alternative dietary iodine sources.

  13. Comparison of US Blast Design Guidance Documents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    shear reinforcing steel so that the sum of the concrete and steel shear strengths is equal to the equivalent reaction...rev. 1, SBEDS “calculates the required area of shear reinforcing steel so that the sum of the concrete and steel shear strengths is equal to the...greater than 2-degrees typically have fixed supports. 5 In comparison, SBEDS calculates the direct shear capacity of reinforced concrete

  14. Structural optimization of an alternate design for the space shuttle solid rocket booster field joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, J.-F. M.; Chang, K. J.; Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A structural optimization procedure is used to determine the shape of an alternate design for the shuttle solid rocket booster field joint. In contrast to the tang and clevis design of the existing joint, this alternate design consists of two flanges bolted together. Configurations with 150 studs of 1 1/8 in. diameter and 135 studs of 1 3/16 in. diameter are considered. Using a nonlinear programming procedure, the joint weight is minimized under constraints on either von Mises or maximum normal stresses, joint opening and geometry. The procedure solves the design problem by replacing it by a sequence of approximate (convex) subproblems; the pattern of contact between the joint halves is determined every few cycles by a nonliner displacement analysis. The minimum weight design has 135 studs of 1 3/16 in. diameter and is designed under constraints on normal stresses. It weighs 1144 lb per joint more than the current tang and clevis design.

  15. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, L.D.; Both, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    After reviewing basic information, three design examples have been presented to demonstrate a process of supplemental lighting design. The sequences of each example suggest careful thought and analysis are required to obtain supplemental lighting designs that provide both high levels of PAR and suitable uniformity. The end results should suggest how an analysis can evolve to achieve desired results, and the types of tools and adjustments required. It appears possible to design research greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve a {+-}10% PAR uniformity using HIPS luminaires. Further, HPS luminaires (and, by extension, NEHD, etc.) are required to achieve high PAR levels and have the decided advantage of providing the possibility of aiming, which reduces the region of the {open_quotes}edge effect{close_quotes}. Further, for designing plant lighting systems, a modification of the standard IES luminaire data file structure is potentially useful. Luminaire installation is an important factor to obtain PAR uniformity. Spacing and mounting height are critically important. Additionally, the mounting angle of each luminaire must be carefully adjusted to conform with design assumptions. This is true for both plant growth chambers and greenhouses. Surface reflectances are particularly important when designing for small lighted regions such as plant growth chambers and research greenhouses. It is not obvious, just from looking at a surface, what its reflectance is. It is suggested that an effort be mounted to develop valid surface reflectance data to be used by designers. The importance of the surfaces (particularly the walls) in achieving PAR uniformity suggests the importance of periodic cleaning/maintenance to retain initial reflectance values.

  16. Detailed design, fabrication and testing of an engineering prototype compensated pulsed alternator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, W.L. Jr.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-03-01

    The design, fabrication, and test results of a prototype compensated pulsed alternator are discussed. The prototype compulsator is a vertical shaft single phase alternator with a rotating armature and salient pole stator. The machine is designed for low rep rate pulsed duty and is sized to drive a modified 10 cm Beta amplifier. The load consists of sixteen 15 mm x 20 mm x 112 cm long xenon flashlamps connected in parallel. The prototype compulsator generates an open circuit voltage of 6 kV, 180 Hz, at a maximum design speed of 5400 rpm. At maximum speed, the inertial energy stored in the compulsator rotor is 3.4 megajoules.

  17. How Can Comparison Groups Strengthen Regression Discontinuity Designs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Coady; Cook, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine some of the ways that different types of non-equivalent comparison groups can be used to strengthen causal inferences based on regression discontinuity design (RDD). First, they consider a design that incorporates pre-test data on assignment scores and outcomes that were collected either before the treatment…

  18. Traditional and alternative research designs and methods in clinical pediatric psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Fava, M

    1996-10-01

    To review both traditional and alternative research designs and methods in pediatric psychopharmacology. Study designs used in clinical trials in psychiatry were selected for review with the special considerations of pediatric psychopharmacological trials in mind. Where possible, a reference to a specific published trial in pediatric psychopharmacology was provided for each design. It appears that pediatric psychopharmacology trials require a relatively greater flexibility in design to avoid significant study biases. Alternative research designs may be preferable to the traditional approaches, particularly when the use of the latter may raise important issues of feasibility. Evolution of a clinical research hypothesis to a study protocol in pediatric psychopharmacology is a manageable task if one keeps in mind essential elements such as selection of study design, population, sample size, treatment duration, and efficacy assessments.

  19. Total System Performance Assessment- License Appication Design Selection (LADS) Phase 1 Analysis for Post-Closure Ventilation (Design Alternative 3)

    SciTech Connect

    N. Erb

    1999-06-21

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the effect of potential changes to the TSPA-VA base case design on long-term repository performance. The design changes that are evaluated in this report include two configurations for post-closure ventilation. bow tie and open loop (Design Alternative 3 or D3). The following paragraphs briefly describe the motivation for evaluating post-closure ventilation. The bow tie configuration for post closure ventilation has been identified as a design alternative to the TSPA-VA base case model (CRWMS M&O, 1998a) that may provide improved performance by reducing the temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. The bow tie configuration for post-closure ventilation is a closed-loop design. In this design. cross drifts are placed in pairs with each drift angling up on opposite sides of the repository. From the side, the cross drifts and side drifts form the shape of a bow tie. Movement of air through the system is driven by convective heating from the waste packages in the cross drifts. The open loop configuration is also being considered for its potential to improve post-closure performance of the repository. As with the bow tie configuration, the open loop is designed to decrease temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. For the open loop configuration, air is drawn into the drifts from outside the mountain. The configuration for the repository with open-loop ventilation is similar to the base case repository design with a few added shafts to increase air flow through the drifts. This report documents the modeling assumptions and calculations conducted to evaluate the long-term performance of Design Alternative 3. The performance measure for this evaluation is dose rate. Results are presented that compare the dose-rate time histories with the new design alternatives to that for the TSPA-VA base case calculation (CRWMS M&O, 1998a).

  20. Preliminary design of a mini-Brayton Compressor-Alternator-Turbine (CAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary design of a mini-Brayton compressor-alternator-turbine system is discussed. The program design goals are listed. The optimum system characteristics over the entire range of power output were determined by performing a wide-range parametric study. The ability to develop the required components to the degree necessary within the limitations of present technology is evaluated. The sensitivity of the system to various individual design parameters was analyzed.

  1. A Comparison of Alternative Distributed Dynamic Cluster Formation Techniques for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Mohammad; Brennan, Robert W

    2016-01-06

    In this paper, we investigate alternative distributed clustering techniques for wireless sensor node tracking in an industrial environment. The research builds on extant work on wireless sensor node clustering by reporting on: (1) the development of a novel distributed management approach for tracking mobile nodes in an industrial wireless sensor network; and (2) an objective comparison of alternative cluster management approaches for wireless sensor networks. To perform this comparison, we focus on two main clustering approaches proposed in the literature: pre-defined clusters and ad hoc clusters. These approaches are compared in the context of their reconfigurability: more specifically, we investigate the trade-off between the cost and the effectiveness of competing strategies aimed at adapting to changes in the sensing environment. To support this work, we introduce three new metrics: a cost/efficiency measure, a performance measure, and a resource consumption measure. The results of our experiments show that ad hoc clusters adapt more readily to changes in the sensing environment, but this higher level of adaptability is at the cost of overall efficiency.

  2. Comparison of LIDAR system performance for alternative single-mode receiver architectures: modeling and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toliver, Paul; Ozdur, Ibrahim; Agarwal, Anjali; Woodward, T. K.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a detailed performance comparison of alternative single-pixel, single-mode LIDAR architectures including (i) linear-mode APD-based direct-detection, (ii) optically-preamplified PIN receiver, (iii) PINbased coherent-detection, and (iv) Geiger-mode single-photon-APD counting. Such a comparison is useful when considering next-generation LIDAR on a chip, which would allow one to leverage extensive waveguide-based structures and processing elements developed for telecom and apply them to small form-factor sensing applications. Models of four LIDAR transmit and receive systems are described in detail, which include not only the dominant sources of receiver noise commonly assumed in each of the four detection limits, but also additional noise terms present in realistic implementations. These receiver models are validated through the analysis of detection statistics collected from an experimental LIDAR testbed. The receiver is reconfigurable into four modes of operation, while transmit waveforms and channel characteristics are held constant. The use of a diffuse hard target highlights the importance of including speckle noise terms in the overall system analysis. All measurements are done at 1550 nm, which offers multiple system advantages including less stringent eye safety requirements and compatibility with available telecom components, optical amplification, and photonic integration. Ultimately, the experimentally-validated detection statistics can be used as part of an end-to-end system model for projecting rate, range, and resolution performance limits and tradeoffs of alternative integrated LIDAR architectures.

  3. A Comparison of Alternative Distributed Dynamic Cluster Formation Techniques for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Mohammad; Brennan, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate alternative distributed clustering techniques for wireless sensor node tracking in an industrial environment. The research builds on extant work on wireless sensor node clustering by reporting on: (1) the development of a novel distributed management approach for tracking mobile nodes in an industrial wireless sensor network; and (2) an objective comparison of alternative cluster management approaches for wireless sensor networks. To perform this comparison, we focus on two main clustering approaches proposed in the literature: pre-defined clusters and ad hoc clusters. These approaches are compared in the context of their reconfigurability: more specifically, we investigate the trade-off between the cost and the effectiveness of competing strategies aimed at adapting to changes in the sensing environment. To support this work, we introduce three new metrics: a cost/efficiency measure, a performance measure, and a resource consumption measure. The results of our experiments show that ad hoc clusters adapt more readily to changes in the sensing environment, but this higher level of adaptability is at the cost of overall efficiency. PMID:26751447

  4. MAASE: An alternative splicing database designed for supporting splicing microarray applications

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, CHRISTINA L.; KWON, YOUNG-SOO; LI, HAI-RI; ZHANG, KUI; COUTINHO-MANSFIELD, GABRIELA; YANG, CANZHU; NAIR, T. MURLIDHARAN; GRIBSKOV, MICHAEL; FU, XIANG-DONG

    2005-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a prominent feature of higher eukaryotes. Understanding of the function of mRNA isoforms and the regulation of alternative splicing is a major challenge in the post-genomic era. The development of mRNA isoform sensitive microarrays, which requires precise splice-junction sequence information, is a promising approach. Despite the availability of a large number of mRNAs and ESTs in various databases and the efforts made to align transcript sequences to genomic sequences, existing alternative splicing databases do not offer adequate information in an appropriate format to aid in splicing array design. Here we describe our effort in constructing the Manually Annotated Alternatively Spliced Events (MAASE) database system, which is specifically designed to support splicing microarray applications. MAASE comprises two components: (1) a manual/computational annotation tool for the efficient extraction of critical sequence and functional information for alternative splicing events and (2) a user-friendly database of annotated events that allows convenient export of information to aid in microarray design and data analysis. We provide a detailed introduction and a step-by-step user guide to the MAASE database system to facilitate future large-scale annotation efforts, integration with other alternative splicing databases, and splicing array fabrication. PMID:16251387

  5. Intervention Research and Program Evaluation in the School Setting: Issues and Alternative Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Anda, Diane

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the difficulties in conducting intervention research or evaluating intervention programs in a school setting. In particular, the problems associated with randomization and obtaining control groups are examined. The use of quasi-experimental designs, specifically a paired comparison design using the individual as his or her…

  6. Alternative splicing in teleost fish genomes: same-species and cross-species analysis and comparisons.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Qing; Abernathy, Jason; Wang, Shaolin; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-06-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a mechanism by which the coding diversity of the genome can be greatly increased. Rates of AS are known to vary according to the complexity of eukaryotic species potentially explaining the tremendous phenotypic diversity among species with similar numbers of coding genes. Little is known, however, about the nature or rate of AS in teleost fish. Here, we report the characteristics of AS in teleost fish and classification and frequency of five canonical AS types. We conducted both same-species and cross-species analysis utilizing the Genome Mapping and Alignment Program (GMAP) and an AS pipeline (ASpipe) to study AS in four genome-enabled species (Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and Takifugu rubripes) and one species lacking a complete genome sequence, Ictalurus punctatus. AS frequency was lowest in the highly duplicated genome of zebrafish (17% of mapped genes). The compact genome of the pufferfish showed the highest occurrence of AS (approximately 43% of mapped genes). An inverse correlation between AS frequency and genome size was consistent across all analyzed species. Cross-species comparisons utilizing zebrafish as the reference genome allowed the identification of additional putative AS genes not revealed by zebrafish transcripts. Approximately, 50% of AS genes identified by same-species comparisons were shared among two or more species. A searchable website, the Teleost Alternative Splicing Database, was created to allow easy identification and visualization of AS transcripts in the studied teleost genomes. Our results and associated database should further our understanding of alternative splicing as an important functional and evolutionary mechanism in the genomes of teleost fish.

  7. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

    1994-03-01

    Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a

  8. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a

  9. Digital-computer program for design analysis of salient, wound pole alternators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repas, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    A digital computer program for analyzing the electromagnetic design of salient, wound pole alternators is presented. The program, which is written in FORTRAN 4, calculates the open-circuit saturation curve, the field-current requirements at rated voltage for various loads and losses, efficiency, reactances, time constants, and weights. The methods used to calculate some of these items are presented or appropriate references are cited. Instructions for using the program and typical program input and output for an alternator design are given, and an alphabetical list of most FORTRAN symbols and the complete program listing with flow charts are included.

  10. Comparison of four nonstationary hydrologic design methods for changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Xiong, Lihua; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Xia, Jun; Du, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The hydrologic design of nonstationary flood extremes is an emerging field that is essential for water resources management and hydrologic engineering design to cope with changing environment. This paper aims to investigate and compare the capability of four nonstationary hydrologic design strategies, including the expected number of exceedances (ENE), design life level (DLL), equivalent reliability (ER), and average design life level (ADLL), with the last three methods taking into consideration the design life of the project. The confidence intervals of the calculated design floods were also estimated using the nonstationary bootstrap approach. A comparison of these four methods was performed using the annual maximum flood series (AMFS) of the Weihe River basin, Jinghe River basin, and Assunpink Creek basin. The results indicated that ENE, ER and ADLL yielded the same or very similar design values and confidence intervals for both increasing and decreasing trends of AMFS considered. DLL also yields similar design values if the relationship between DLL and ER/ADLL return periods is considered. Both ER and ADLL are recommended for practical use as they have associated design floods with the design life period of projects and yield reasonable design quantiles and confidence intervals. Furthermore, by assuming that the design results using either a stationary or nonstationary hydrologic design strategy should have the same reliability, the ER method enables us to solve the nonstationary hydrologic design problems by adopting the stationary design reliability, thus bridging the gap between stationary and nonstationary design criteria.

  11. Alternative trial design in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis saves time and patients.

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, Geert Jan; Graf, Michael; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; van den Berg, Leonard H; Ludolph, Albert C

    2007-10-01

    A sequential trial design is an alternative for the classical trial design with a fixed sample size, that permits stopping a trial as soon as enough evidence for a treatment effect, or a lack thereof, is obtained. This study aimed to determine the difference in efficiency of time and patient number between a classical trial design and a sequential trial design. In this study we re-analysed a previously published classically designed clinical trial according to a sequential trial design. We subsequently determined the difference in total running time and patient number. We found that the sequential analysis offered a gain in time of 38%. We conclude that the sequential trial design may in certain situations be superior to the classical design.

  12. EDECT: An Energy Design, Evaluation, and Comparison Tool.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    medium offices and retail stores , and private clinics are envelope dosinant examples. Conversely, system dominant buildings’ major energy loads come from...AD-A17l 261 EDECT: AN ENERGY DESIGN EVALUATION AND COMPARISON TOOL 1/2 (U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH &RIGHT-PATTERSON AFS OH Wi D ALLEY 1986 RFIT/CI/NR...TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EDECT: An Energy Design, Evaluation, and TlESIS/I~$ /r/t N Comparison Tool 6. PERFORMING ORG

  13. Cell and stack design alternatives. Final report, August 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, Jr., D. Q.; King, Robert B.

    1980-02-01

    The work described comprised the first phase of a planned six phase program to develop commercially viable phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) driven on-site integrated energy systems (OS/IES). The Phase I effort was organized as three major technical tasks; (1) study of system design alternatives; (2) fuel cell design alternatives; and (3) methane conditioner study. It was decided that comprehensive modeling of one application would most effectively utilize the resources available for the study of systems design alternatives. A 48 unit apartment complex located in Albany, New York and built to HUD minimum standards was selected as being typical of the applications that will be served by the systems. The time varying space conditioning (HVAC) and electrical requirements including the effects of varying weather conditions, living habits and occupancy patterns were modeled. These requirements formed the basis for comparing the performance and cost of the alternative configurations with each other and with a conventional system. Five basic alternative OS/IES configurations plus four variations were selected from a preliminary list of 13 basic configurations for detailed performance nd cost evaluations. Study procedures and results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  14. Alternate design concept for the SSC dipole magnet cryogenic support post

    SciTech Connect

    Lipski, A.; Nicol, T.H.; Richardson, R.

    1991-03-01

    New materials and developments in the field of advanced composites have created the opportunity to take a fresh look into the design of the cryogenic supports for SSC collider dipole cryostats. Although the present reentrant post design meets the structural and thermal requirements, its assembly requires precision and proficiency. The objective of the proposed alternate concept is to reduce the overall cost of the support post by means of simplifying and optimizing its component design and assembly process. The present shrink fitted tube assembly may potentially be replaced by injection molded parts. New resin systems with lower thermal conductivity and high strength properties enable the utilization of automated production techniques such as injection molding and filament winding. This paper will provide analysis and design information for the alternate support post concept and compare its test performance and cost to the present support post. 3 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  16. Alternate Lattice Design for Advanced Photon Source Multi-Bend Achromat Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yipeng; Borland, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A 67-pm hybrid-seven-bend achromat (H7BA) lattice is proposed for a futureAdvanced Photon Source (APS)multibend- achromat (MBA) upgrade. This lattice requires use of a swap-out (on-axis) injection scheme. Alternate lattice design work has also been performed to achieve better beam dynamics performance than the nominal APS MBA lattice, in order to allow beam accumulation. One of such alternate H7BA lattice designs, which still targets a very low emittance of 76 pm, is discussed in this paper. With these lattices, existing APS injector complex can be employed without the requirement of a very high charge operation. Studies show that an emittance below 76 pm can be achieved with the employment of reverse bends in an alternate lattice. We discuss the predicted performance and requirements for these lattices and compare them to the nominal lattice.

  17. SUSTAINABLE ALLOY DESIGN: SEARCHING FOR RARE EARTH ELEMENT ALTERNATIVES THROUGH CRYSTAL ENGINEERING

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-26

    necessary if the abstract is to be limited. Standard Form 298 Back (Rev. 8/98) SUSTAINABLE ALLOY DESIGN : SEARCHING FOR RARE EARTH ELEMENT ALTERNATIVES...approach to predict Co and Ti site preference for a quaternary alloy Ni3Al(Co,Ti). 4. Developed new charge optimized many-body (COMB) potentials...Probe correlative microscopy. II. RE free solute design for Ni based superalloys Optimal pathways, which are not captured in the periodic

  18. Fast Reactor Alternative Studies: Effects of Transuranic Groupings on Metal and Oxide Sodium Fast Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect

    R. Ferrer; M. Asgari; S. Bays; B. Forget

    2007-09-01

    A 1000 MWth commercial-scale Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) design with a conversion ratio (CR) of 0.50 was selected in this study to perform perturbations on the external feed coming from Light Water Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (LWR SNF) and separation groupings in the reprocessing scheme. A secondary SFR design with a higher conversion ratio (CR=0.75) was also analyzed as a possible alternative, although no perturbations were applied to this model.

  19. Radiant coolers - Theory, flight histories, design comparisons and future applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, M. J.; Sherman, A.; Hickman, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiant coolers have been developed for application to the cooling of infrared detectors aboard NASA earth observation systems and as part of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. The prime design constraints for these coolers are the location of the cooler aboard the satellite and the satellite orbit. Flight data from several coolers indicates that, in general, design temperatures are achieved. However, potential problems relative to the contamination of cold surfaces are also revealed by the data. A comparison among the various cooler designs and flight performances indicates design improvements that can minimize the contamination problem in the future.

  20. Single-Case Research Design: An Alternative Strategy for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Drue; Hawkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The trend of utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is now requiring clinicians, researchers, educators, and students to be equipped to both engage in and make judgments about research evidence. Single-case design (SCD) research may provide an alternative approach to develop such skills and inform clinical and…

  1. Single-Case Research Design: An Alternative Strategy for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Drue; Hawkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The trend of utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is now requiring clinicians, researchers, educators, and students to be equipped to both engage in and make judgments about research evidence. Single-case design (SCD) research may provide an alternative approach to develop such skills and inform clinical and…

  2. Designing Innovative Alternatives to Traditional High Schools: What Leaders Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Chester Roy

    2013-01-01

    The need for new and innovative alternatives to traditional high schools has never been greater. Never designed to graduate all students on time, traditional high schools and their high dropout rates have remained unchanged for the last 30 years. Improving secondary schooling for all young people is a worthwhile social and educational objective.…

  3. Alternative Instructional Design Paradigms: What's Worth Discussing and What Isn't.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jerry

    1998-01-01

    Examines the paradigm debate over established (behavioral and cognitive) and alternative (constructivist) models of instructional design (ID). Discusses instructional strategies and principles, new terms versus new meaning, "straw man" and personalized arguments, expert-determined goals, research-based versus "brand-X" models,…

  4. Comparison of JSFR design with EDF requirements for future SFR

    SciTech Connect

    Uematsu, M. M.; Prele, G.; Mariteau, P.; Sauvage, J. F.; Hayafune, H.; Chikazawa, Y.

    2012-07-01

    A comparison of Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) design with future French SFR concept has been done based on the requirement of EDF, the investor-operator of future French SFR, and the French safety baseline, under the framework of EDF-JAEA bilateral agreement of research and development cooperation on future SFR. (authors)

  5. 40 CFR 96.115 - Delegation by CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR Designated Representative for CAIR...

  6. 40 CFR 97.315 - Delegation by CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designated representative may delegate, to one or more natural persons, his or her authority to make an... designated representative may delegate, to one or more natural persons, his or her authority to make an electronic submission to the Administrator provided for or required under this part. (c) In order to delegate...

  7. Field test of an alternative longwall gate road design. Report of investigations/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, R.M.; Vandergrift, T.L.; McDonnell, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The field test has confirmed the validity of the new alternative gate road system under actual mining conditions. Field observations indicated that the alternative gate road design significantly improved tailgate roadway stability under existing ground conditions. Field measurements support the results of the model analyses that suggested that reversing the gate road pillar arrangement would shift the higher abutment loads toward the gob of the previous panel and away from the tailgate of the current panel, thus reducing ground pressures and improving tailgate ground conditions.

  8. Comparison of Alternatives to the 2004 Vacuum Vessel Heat Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Carbajo, Juan J; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-12-01

    A study comparing different alternatives for the Vacuum Vessel Primary Heat Transfer System has been completed. Three alternatives were proposed in a Project Change Request (PCR-190) by relocating the heat exchangers (HXs) from the roof of the Tokamak building to inside the Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPSS) tank. The study evaluated the three alternatives and recommended modifications to one of them to arrive at a preferred configuration that included relocating the HXs inside the Tokamak building but outside the VVPSS tank as well as including a small safety-rated pump and HX in parallel to the main circulation pump and HX. The Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) removes heat generated in the VV during normal operation (10 MW, pulsed power) as well as the decay heat from the VV itself and from the structures/components attached to the VV (first wall, blanket, and divertor {approx}0.48 MW peak). Therefore, the VV PHTS has two safety functions: (1) contain contaminated cooling water (similar to the other PHTSs) and (2) provide passive cooling during an accident event. The 2004 design of the VV PHTS consists of two independent loops, each loop cooling half of the 18 VV segments with a nominal flow of 475 kg/s of water at about 1.1 MPa and 100 C. The total flow for both loops is 950 kg/s. Both loops are required to remove the heat load during normal plasma operation. During accident conditions, only one loop is needed to remove by natural convection (no pump needed) the decay heat of the complete VV and attached components. The heat is transferred to heat exchanger (HXs) located on top of the roof, outside the Tokamak building. These HXs are air-to-water (A/W) HXs. Three alternatives have been proposed for this cooling system. For a detailed discussion of these alternatives, please refer to Project Change Request, PCR-190 (Ref. 1). A brief introduction is given here. Alternative 1 includes only one main forced circulation loop with a

  9. Comparison of Sequential Designs of Computer Experiments in High Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kupresanin, A. M.; Johannesson, G.

    2011-07-21

    We continue a long line of research in applying the design and analysis of computer experiments to the study of real world systems. The problem we consider is that of fitting a Gaussian process model for a computer model in applications where the simulation output is a function of a high dimensional input vector. Our computer experiments are designed sequentially as we learn about the model. We perform an empirical comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of several statistical criteria that have been used in sequential experimental designs. The specific application that motivates this work comes from climatology.

  10. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  11. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  12. Performance of R-410A Alternative Refrigerants in a Reciprocating Compressor Designed for Air Conditioning Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Som S; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Mumpower, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. After successfully completing the first phase of the program in December 2013, AHRI launched a second phase of the Low-GWP AREP in 2014 to continue research in areas that were not previously addressed, including refrigerants in high ambient conditions, refrigerants in applications not tested in the first phase, and new refrigerants identified since testing for the program began. Although the Ozone Depletion Potential of R-410A is zero, this refrigerant is under scrutiny due to its high GWP. Several candidate alternative refrigerants have already demonstrated low global warming potential. Performance of these low-GWP alternative refrigerants is being evaluated for Air conditioning and heat pump applications to ensure acceptable system capacity and efficiency. This paper reports the results of a series of compressor calorimeter tests conducted for the second phase of the AREP to evaluate the performance of R-410A alternative refrigerants in a reciprocating compressor designed for air conditioning systems. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants ARM-71A, L41-1, DR-5A, D2Y-60, and R-32 to that of R-410A over a wide range of operating conditions. The tests showed that, in general, cooling capacities were slightly lower (except for the R-32), but energy efficiency ratios (EER) of the alternative refrigerants were comparable to that of R-410A.

  13. Mirror fusion propulsion system - A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveny, M.; Carpenter, S.; O'Connell, T.; Schulze, N.

    1993-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  14. Mirror fusion propulsion system: A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Carpenter, Scott A.; Deveny, Marc E.; Oconnell, T.

    1993-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  15. Mirror fusion propulsion system - A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveny, M.; Carpenter, S.; O'Connell, T.; Schulze, N.

    1993-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  16. 40 CFR 96.215 - Delegation by CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) In order to delegate authority to make an electronic submission to the Administrator in accordance.... (a) A CAIR designated representative may delegate, to one or more natural persons, his or her authority to make an electronic submission to the Administrator provided for or required under this part. (b...

  17. 40 CFR 96.315 - Delegation by CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) In order to delegate authority to make an electronic submission to the Administrator in accordance... representative. (a) A CAIR designated representative may delegate, to one or more natural persons, his or her authority to make an electronic submission to the Administrator provided for or required under this part. (b...

  18. 40 CFR 96.115 - Delegation by CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) In order to delegate authority to make an electronic submission to the Administrator in accordance.... (a) A CAIR designated representative may delegate, to one or more natural persons, his or her authority to make an electronic submission to the Administrator provided for or required under this part. (b...

  19. 40 CFR 72.26 - Delegation by designated representative and alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designated representative may delegate, to one or more natural persons, his or her authority to make an... representative may delegate, to one or more natural persons, his or her authority to make an electronic... this part and parts 73 through 77 of this chapter. (c) In order to delegate authority to make an...

  20. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a state routing agency'', defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the lessons learned'' by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations.

  1. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a ``state routing agency``, defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the ``lessons learned`` by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations.

  2. Three-dimensional comparison of alternative screw positions versus actual fixation of scaphoid fractures.

    PubMed

    Volk, Ido; Gal, Jonathan; Peleg, Eran; Almog, Gil; Luria, Shai

    2017-06-01

    The recommended technique for the fixation of a scaphoid waist fracture involves a headless compression screw placed in the proximal fragment center. This is usually accomplished by placing a longitudinal axis screw as visualized by fluoroscopy. The screw length has been shown to have a biomechanical advantage. An alternative to these options, which has been debated in the literature, is a screw placed perpendicular to the fracture plane and in its center. The perpendicular screw may have a biomechanical advantage despite the fact that it may be shorter. This study examined the differences in location and length in actual patients between a screw in the center of the proximal fragment with a longitudinal axis screw, and the actual fixating screw. These were then compared to a perpendicular axis screw. Pre- and post-operative CT scans of 10 patients with scaphoid waist fractures were evaluated using a 3D computer model. Comparisons were made between the length, location and angle of actual and virtual screw alternatives; namely, a screw along the central third of the proximal fragment (central screw axis) where the scaphoid longitudinal axis was calculated mathematically (longitudinal screw axis) and a screw placed at 90° to the fracture plane and in its center (perpendicular screw axis). The longitudinal axis screw was found to be significantly longer than the other axes (28.3mm). There was a significant difference between the perpendicular axis screw and the location and angle of the other screw axis, but it was only shorter than the longitudinal screw (23.6mm versus 25.5mm for the actual screw; ns.). A computed longitudinal axis screw is longer than a central or actual screw placed longitudinally by visual inspection by the surgeon. Although it needs to be placed using computer assisted (CAS) techniques, it may have the biomechanical advantages of a longer screw in a similar trajectory. The perpendicular screw was found to be significantly different in position

  3. Continued Educational Services to Expelled Students in Texas: A Comparison of Voluntary and Mandated Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Marion D.

    In 1995, the Texas Legislature mandated the formation of Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Programs (JJAEPs) to serve adjudicated youth in counties with a population of 125,000 or more. Some less-populated counties formed their own JJAEPs. This paper presents a comparison of these voluntary programs to the mandated programs. Of the 22…

  4. Predicting the effectiveness of road safety campaigns through alternative research designs.

    PubMed

    Adamos, Giannis; Nathanail, Eftihia

    2016-12-01

    A large number of road safety communication campaigns have been designed and implemented in the recent years; however their explicit impact on driving behavior and road accident rates has been estimated in a rather low proportion. Based on the findings of the evaluation of three road safety communication campaigns addressing the issues of drinking and driving, seat belt usage, and driving fatigue, this paper applies different types of research designs (i.e., experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental designs), when estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, implements a cross-design assessment, and conducts a cross-campaign evaluation. An integrated evaluation plan was developed, taking into account the structure of evaluation questions, the definition of measurable variables, the separation of the target audience into intervention (exposed to the campaign) and control (not exposed to the campaign) groups, the selection of alternative research designs, and the appropriate data collection methods and techniques. Evaluating the implementation of different research designs in estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, results showed that the separate pre-post samples design demonstrated better predictability than other designs, especially in data obtained from the intervention group after the realization of the campaign. The more constructs that were added to the independent variables, the higher the values of the predictability were. The construct that most affects behavior is intention, whereas the rest of the constructs have a lower impact on behavior. This is particularly significant in the Health Belief Model (HBM). On the other hand, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and descriptive norms, are significant parameters for predicting intention according to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The theoretical and applied implications of alternative research designs and their applicability in the evaluation of road safety

  5. Crossbar H-mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, M.; Futatsukawa, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Kitamura, R.; Kondo, Y.; Kurennoy, S.

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a Crossbar H-mode (CH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The CH-DTL accelerates muons from β = v/c = 0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The design and results are described in this paper.

  6. Mixed land use and obesity: an empirical comparison of alternative land use measures and geographic scales

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Ikuho; Brown, Barbara B.; Smith, Ken R.; Zick, Cathleen D.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Fan, Jessie X.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Walkable neighborhoods, characterized as having the 3Ds of walkability (population Density, land use Diversity, and pedestrian-friendly Design), have been identified as a potentially promising factor to prevent obesity for their residents. Past studies examining the relationship between obesity and walkability vary in geographic scales of neighborhood definitions and methods of measuring the 3Ds. To better understand potential influences of these sometimes arbitrary choices, we test how four types of alternative measures of land use diversity measured at three geographic scales relate to body mass index for 4960 Salt Lake County adults. Generalized estimation equation models demonstrate that optimal diversity measures differed by gender and geographic scale and that integrating walkability measures at different scales improved the overall performance of models. PMID:22665941

  7. Dual angiotensin receptor and neprilysin inhibition as an alternative to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in patients with chronic systolic heart failure: rationale for and design of the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF)

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, John J. V.; Packer, Milton; Desai, Akshay S.; Gong, Jim; Lefkowitz, Martin P.; Rizkala, Adel R.; Rouleau, Jean; Shi, Victor C.; Solomon, Scott D.; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Although the focus of therapeutic intervention has been on neurohormonal pathways thought to be harmful in heart failure (HF), such as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), potentially beneficial counter-regulatory systems are also active in HF. These promote vasodilatation and natriuresis, inhibit abnormal growth, suppress the RAAS and sympathetic nervous system, and augment parasympathetic activity. The best understood of these mediators are the natriuretic peptides which are metabolized by the enzyme neprilysin. LCZ696 belongs to a new class of drugs, the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNIs), which both block the RAAS and augment natriuretic peptides. Methods Patients with chronic HF, NYHA class II–IV symptoms, an elevated plasma BNP or NT-proBNP level, and an LVEF of ≤40% were enrolled in the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortailty and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF). Patients entered a single-blind enalapril run-in period (titrated to 10 mg b.i.d.), followed by an LCZ696 run-in period (100 mg titrated to 200 mg b.i.d.). A total of 8436 patients tolerating both periods were randomized 1:1 to either enalapril 10 mg b.i.d. or LCZ696 200 mg b.i.d. The primary outcome is the composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization, although the trial is powered to detect a 15% relative risk reduction in cardiovascular death. Perspectives PARADIGM-HF will determine the place of the ARNI LCZ696 as an alternative to enalapril in patients with systolic HF. PARADIGM-HF may change our approach to neurohormonal modulation in HF. Trial registration NCT01035255 PMID:23563576

  8. Dual angiotensin receptor and neprilysin inhibition as an alternative to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in patients with chronic systolic heart failure: rationale for and design of the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF).

    PubMed

    McMurray, John J V; Packer, Milton; Desai, Akshay S; Gong, Jim; Lefkowitz, Martin P; Rizkala, Adel R; Rouleau, Jean; Shi, Victor C; Solomon, Scott D; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R

    2013-09-01

    Although the focus of therapeutic intervention has been on neurohormonal pathways thought to be harmful in heart failure (HF), such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), potentially beneficial counter-regulatory systems are also active in HF. These promote vasodilatation and natriuresis, inhibit abnormal growth, suppress the RAAS and sympathetic nervous system, and augment parasympathetic activity. The best understood of these mediators are the natriuretic peptides which are metabolized by the enzyme neprilysin. LCZ696 belongs to a new class of drugs, the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNIs), which both block the RAAS and augment natriuretic peptides. Patients with chronic HF, NYHA class II-IV symptoms, an elevated plasma BNP or NT-proBNP level, and an LVEF of ≤40% were enrolled in the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortailty and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF). Patients entered a single-blind enalapril run-in period (titrated to 10 mg b.i.d.), followed by an LCZ696 run-in period (100 mg titrated to 200 mg b.i.d.). A total of 8436 patients tolerating both periods were randomized 1:1 to either enalapril 10 mg b.i.d. or LCZ696 200 mg b.i.d. The primary outcome is the composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization, although the trial is powered to detect a 15% relative risk reduction in cardiovascular death. PARADIGM-HF will determine the place of the ARNI LCZ696 as an alternative to enalapril in patients with systolic HF. PARADIGM-HF may change our approach to neurohormonal modulation in HF. NCT01035255.

  9. DOE/ORNL heat pump design model, overview and application to R-22 alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.K.

    1997-12-01

    This computer program is a public-domain system design tool for application to air-to-air heat pumps. The main aspects of the program are reviewed with emphasis on the newest features of the current fifth-generation version (Mark V) and an upcoming more fully HFC-capable release (Mark VI). Current model predictions are compared to test data for a leading HFC alternative to HCFC-22 in heat pumps. Examples are shown of some user interfaces that have been recently developed for the program. To demonstrate the design capabilities of the model for R-22 alternatives, a refrigerant-side optimization was conducted to find the best balance of heat transfer versus pressure drop for HCFC R-22, HFCs R-134a and R-410A, and the natural refrigerant propane. COP was maximized while refrigerant charge and tube size were minimized. Independent design parameters were fraction of total area in the outdoor coil, tube diameter and number of circuits for each heat exchanger, and condenser subcooling. Heat exchanger design tradeoffs are discussed for a heat pump relative to air conditioners and heating-only units. A design optimized for heating-only operation is presented.

  10. Alternate optical designs for head-mounted displays with a wide field of view.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Herkommer, Alois M

    2017-02-01

    The most widely applied design form for mixed reality head-mounted display (HMD) systems is generally a prism with one surface in total internal reflection (TIR). This, however, limits the angle of the incident rays, and thus decreases the design freedom and affects the performance. To obtain better performance of the HMD optics, in this paper two seldom used design forms of HMD systems are presented and compared to the standard TIR HMD optics. One of them is a catadioptric HMD system, consisting of one lens and two mirrors; the other is a prism HMD with a different folding geometry. The designs are compared for a field of view of 40°×30°; however, they are also investigated for an increased field of view of 50°×30°. The evaluation indicates good performance of our systems. In particular, the prism with an alternate folding geometry has advantages in both performance and size.

  11. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    PubMed

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. An alternative to Rasch analysis using triadic comparisons and multi-dimensional scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, C.; Massof, R. W.

    2016-11-01

    Rasch analysis is a principled approach for estimating the magnitude of some shared property of a set of items when a group of people assign ordinal ratings to them. In the general case, Rasch analysis not only estimates person and item measures on the same invariant scale, but also estimates the average thresholds used by the population to define rating categories. However, Rasch analysis fails when there is insufficient variance in the observed responses because it assumes a probabilistic relationship between person measures, item measures and the rating assigned by a person to an item. When only a single person is rating all items, there may be cases where the person assigns the same rating to many items no matter how many times he rates them. We introduce an alternative to Rasch analysis for precisely these situations. Our approach leverages multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and requires only rank orderings of items and rank orderings of pairs of distances between items to work. Simulations show one variant of this approach - triadic comparisons with non-metric MDS - provides highly accurate estimates of item measures in realistic situations.

  13. Safety and environmental comparisons of stainless steel with alternative structural materials for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzig, A.P.; Holdren, J.P.; Hibbard, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    Using the FuseDose II computer code, we calculated and compared several indices of safety and environmental (S&E) hazards for conceptual magnetic-fusion reactor designs based on a variety of structural materials-stainless steel, ferritic steel, vanadium-chromium-titanium alloy, and silicon-carbide-and, for comparison, the fuel of a liquid-metal fast breeder fission reactor. FuseDose II is a second-generation code derived from the Fuse-Dose code used in the U.S. Department of Energy`s Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (ESECOM) study in the late 1980s. The comparisons update and extend those of the ESECOM study by adding the stainless-steel case, some new indices, graphical representation of the results, and other refinements. The results of our analysis support earlier conclusions concerning the S&E liabilities of stainless steel: The use of stainless steel would significantly reduce the S&E advantages of fusion over fission that are implied by the indices we consider, compared with the advantages portrayed in the ESECOM results for lower-activation fusion materials. The dose potentials represented by the radioactive materials that conceivably could be mobilized in severe accidents are substantially higher for the stainless steel case than for the lower activation fusion designs analyzed by ESECOM, and the waste disposal burden imposed by a stainless steel fusion reactor, though significantly smaller than that associated with a fission reactor of the same output, is high enough to rule out the chance of qualification for shallow burial under current regulations (in contrast to some of the lower activation fusion cases). This work underscores the conclusion that research to demonstrate the viability of the low-activation materials is essential if fusion is to achieve its potential for large and easily demonstrated S&E advantages over fission. 37 refs., 17 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R&D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350{degrees}C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS{copyright} for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc.

  15. Alternative design of inductive pointing device for oral interface for computers and wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Lontis, Eugen R; Andreasen Struijk, Lotte N S

    2012-01-01

    An inductive pointing device was designed and implemented successfully in a tongue controlled oral interface. Sensors were manufactured as an assembly of multilayer coils in the printed circuit board technology on two pads. The sensor pads were encapsulated together with electronics and battery in a mouthpiece, placed in the upper palate of the oral cavity. The PCB technology allowed surface activation of one or more sensors by gliding over the surface of the coils assembly of a small cylindrical unit attached to the tongue. The model consisted of 8 sensors and allowed real time proportional control of both speed and direction similar to a joystick. However, the size of the oral cavity, the number and geometry of the coil loops and characteristics of the activation unit impose limits in designing the sensors and call for an alternative layout design. Two alternative sensor designs are proposed in this paper, aiming to reduce the size of the sensor pad by one third, extending the target group, including children, and increasing the easiness of wear of the oral interface.

  16. Alternative communication network designs for an operational Plato 4 CAI system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, R. E., Jr.; Eastwood, L. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The cost of alternative communications networks for the dissemination of PLATO IV computer-aided instruction (CAI) was studied. Four communication techniques are compared: leased telephone lines, satellite communication, UHF TV, and low-power microwave radio. For each network design, costs per student contact hour are computed. These costs are derived as functions of student population density, a parameter which can be calculated from census data for one potential market for CAI, the public primary and secondary schools. Calculating costs in this way allows one to determine which of the four communications alternatives can serve this market least expensively for any given area in the U.S. The analysis indicates that radio distribution techniques are cost optimum over a wide range of conditions.

  17. Cost-comparison of DDT and alternative insecticides for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Walker, K

    2000-12-01

    In anti-malaria operations the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying has declined substantially over the past 30years, but this insecticide is still considered valuable for malaria control, mainly because of its low cost relative to alternative insecticides. Despite the development of resistance to DDT in some populations of malaria vector Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), DDT remains generally effective when used for house-spraying against most species of Anopheles, due to excitorepellency as well as insecticidal effects. A 1990 cost comparison by the World Health Organization (WHO) found DDT to be considerably less expensive than other insecticides, which cost 2 to 23 times more on the basis of cost per house per 6 months of control. To determine whether such a cost advantage still prevails for DDT, this paper compares recent price quotes from manufacturers and WHO suppliers for DDT and appropriate formulations of nine other insecticides (two carbamates, two organophosphates and five pyrethroids) commonly used for residual house-spraying in malaria control programmes. Based on these 'global' price quotes, detailed calculations show that DDT is still the least expensive insecticide on a cost per house basis, although the price appears to be rising as DDT production declines. At the same time, the prices of pyrethroids are declining, making some only slightly more expensive than DDT at low application dosages. Other costs, including operations (labour), transportation and human safety may also increase the price advantages of DDT and some pyrethroids vs. organophosphates and carbamates, although possible environmental impacts from DDT remain a concern. However, a global cost comparison may not realistically reflect local costs or effective application dosages at the country level. Recent data on insecticide prices paid by the health ministries of individual countries showed that prices of particular insecticides can vary substantially in the open market

  18. Exploration of Alternate Catalytic Mechanisms and Optimization Strategies for Retroaldolase Design

    PubMed Central

    Bjelic, Sinisa; Kipnis, Yakov; Wang, Ling; Pianowski, Zbigniew; Vorobiev, Sergey; Su, Min; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Xiao, Rong; Kornhaber, Gregory; Hunt, John F.; Tong, Liang; Hilvert, Donald; Baker, David

    2014-01-01

    Designed retroaldolases have utilized a nucleophilic lysine to promote carbon–carbon bond cleavage of β-hydroxy-ketones via a covalent Schiff base intermediate. Previous computational designs have incorporated a water molecule to facilitate formation and breakdown of the carbinolamine intermediate to give the Schiff base and to function as a general acid/base. Here we investigate an alternative active-site design in which the catalytic water molecule was replaced by the side chain of a glutamic acid. Five out of seven designs expressed solubly and exhibited catalytic efficiencies similar to previously designed retroaldolases for the conversion of 4-hydro-xy-4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-2-butanone to 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde and acetone. After one round of site-directed saturation mutagenesis, improved variants of the two best designs, RA114 and RA117, exhibited among the highest kcat (>10−3 s−1) and kcat/KM (11–25 M−1 s−1) values observed for retroaldolase designs prior to comprehensive directed evolution. In both cases, the >105-fold rate accelerations that were achieved are within 1–3 orders of magnitude of the rate enhancements reported for the best catalysts for related reactions, including catalytic antibodies (kcat/kuncat = 106 to 108) and an extensively evolved computational design (kcat/kuncat > 107). The catalytic sites, revealed by X-ray structures of optimized versions of the two active designs, are in close agreement with the design models except for the catalytic lysine in RA114. We further improved the variants by computational remodeling of the loops and yeast display selection for reactivity of the catalytic lysine with a diketone probe, obtaining an additional order of magnitude enhancement in activity with both approaches. PMID:24161950

  19. Surveillance of Aedes aegypti: Comparison of House Index with Four Alternative Traps

    PubMed Central

    Codeço, Claudia T.; Lima, Arthur W. S.; Araújo, Simone C.; Lima, José Bento P.; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Honório, Nildimar A.; Galardo, Allan K. R.; Braga, Ima A.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Valle, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses, is an important target of vector control programs in tropical countries. Most mosquito surveillance programs are still based on the traditional household larval surveys, despite the availability of new trapping devices. We report the results of a multicentric entomological survey using four types of traps, besides the larval survey, to compare the entomological indices generated by these different surveillance tools in terms of their sensitivity to detect mosquito density variation. Methods The study was conducted in five mid-sized cities, representing variations of tropical climate regimens. Surveillance schemes using traps for adults (BG-Sentinel, Adultrap and MosquiTRAP) or eggs (ovitraps) were applied monthly to three 1 km2 areas per city. Simultaneously, larval surveys were performed. Trap positivity and density indices in each area were calculated and regressed against meteorological variables to characterize the seasonal pattern of mosquito infestation in all cities, as measured by each of the four traps. Results The House Index was consistently low in most cities, with median always 0. Traps rarely produced null indices, pointing to their greater sensitivity in detecting the presence of Ae. aegypti in comparison to the larval survey. Trap positivity indices tend to plateau at high mosquito densities. Despite this, both indices, positivity and density, agreed on the seasonality of mosquito abundance in all cities. Mosquito seasonality associated preferentially with temperature than with precipitation even in areas where temperature variation is small. Conclusions All investigated traps performed better than the House Index in measuring the seasonal variation in mosquito abundance and should be considered as complements or alternatives to larval surveys. Choice between traps should further consider differences of cost and ease-of-use. PMID:25668559

  20. Surveillance of Aedes aegypti: comparison of house index with four alternative traps.

    PubMed

    Codeço, Claudia T; Lima, Arthur W S; Araújo, Simone C; Lima, José Bento P; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Honório, Nildimar A; Galardo, Allan K R; Braga, Ima A; Coelho, Giovanini E; Valle, Denise

    2015-02-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses, is an important target of vector control programs in tropical countries. Most mosquito surveillance programs are still based on the traditional household larval surveys, despite the availability of new trapping devices. We report the results of a multicentric entomological survey using four types of traps, besides the larval survey, to compare the entomological indices generated by these different surveillance tools in terms of their sensitivity to detect mosquito density variation. The study was conducted in five mid-sized cities, representing variations of tropical climate regimens. Surveillance schemes using traps for adults (BG-Sentinel, Adultrap and MosquiTRAP) or eggs (ovitraps) were applied monthly to three 1 km(2) areas per city. Simultaneously, larval surveys were performed. Trap positivity and density indices in each area were calculated and regressed against meteorological variables to characterize the seasonal pattern of mosquito infestation in all cities, as measured by each of the four traps. The House Index was consistently low in most cities, with median always 0. Traps rarely produced null indices, pointing to their greater sensitivity in detecting the presence of Ae. aegypti in comparison to the larval survey. Trap positivity indices tend to plateau at high mosquito densities. Despite this, both indices, positivity and density, agreed on the seasonality of mosquito abundance in all cities. Mosquito seasonality associated preferentially with temperature than with precipitation even in areas where temperature variation is small. All investigated traps performed better than the House Index in measuring the seasonal variation in mosquito abundance and should be considered as complements or alternatives to larval surveys. Choice between traps should further consider differences of cost and ease-of-use.

  1. Flexible backbone sampling methods to model and design protein alternative conformations.

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Noah; Smith, Colin A; Fraser, James S; Kortemme, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Sampling alternative conformations is key to understanding how proteins work and engineering them for new functions. However, accurately characterizing and modeling protein conformational ensembles remain experimentally and computationally challenging. These challenges must be met before protein conformational heterogeneity can be exploited in protein engineering and design. Here, as a stepping stone, we describe methods to detect alternative conformations in proteins and strategies to model these near-native conformational changes based on backrub-type Monte Carlo moves in Rosetta. We illustrate how Rosetta simulations that apply backrub moves improve modeling of point mutant side-chain conformations, native side-chain conformational heterogeneity, functional conformational changes, tolerated sequence space, protein interaction specificity, and amino acid covariation across protein-protein interfaces. We include relevant Rosetta command lines and RosettaScripts to encourage the application of these types of simulations to other systems. Our work highlights that critical scoring and sampling improvements will be necessary to approximate conformational landscapes. Challenges for the future development of these methods include modeling conformational changes that propagate away from designed mutation sites and modulating backbone flexibility to predictively design functionally important conformational heterogeneity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Methods in Enzymology: “Flexible backbone sampling methods to model and design protein alternative conformations”

    PubMed Central

    Ollikainen, Noah; Smith, Colin A.; Fraser, James S.; Kortemme, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Sampling alternative conformations is key to understanding how proteins work and engineering them for new functions. However, accurately characterizing and modeling protein conformational ensembles remains experimentally and computationally challenging. These challenges must be met before protein conformational heterogeneity can be exploited in protein engineering and design. Here, as a stepping stone, we describe methods to detect alternative conformations in proteins and strategies to model these near-native conformational changes based on backrub-type Monte Carlo moves in Rosetta. We illustrate how Rosetta simulations that apply backrub moves improve modeling of point mutant side chain conformations, native side chain conformational heterogeneity, functional conformational changes, tolerated sequence space, protein interaction specificity, and amino acid co-variation across protein-protein interfaces. We include relevant Rosetta command lines and RosettaScripts to encourage the application of these types of simulations to other systems. Our work highlights that critical scoring and sampling improvements will be necessary to approximate conformational landscapes. Challenges for the future development of these methods include modeling conformational changes that propagate away from designed mutation sites and modulating backbone flexibility to predictively design functionally important conformational heterogeneity. PMID:23422426

  3. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design

    PubMed Central

    Bissinger, Alexa; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Gebreyesus, Alegnta; Geremew, Haimanot; Wendell, Sarah; Azaza, Aklilu; Salumu, Maurice; Benfield, Nerys

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice. PMID:26252003

  4. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Margaret; Salmon, Christian; Bissinger, Alexa; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Gebreyesus, Alegnta; Geremew, Haimanot; Wendel, Sarah K; Wendell, Sarah; Azaza, Aklilu; Salumu, Maurice; Benfield, Nerys

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  5. Comparison of three annual inventory designs, a periodic design, and a midcycle design

    Treesearch

    Stanford L. Arner

    2000-01-01

    Three annual inventory designs, a periodic design, and a periodic measurement with midcycle update design are compared using a population created from 14,754 remeasured Forest Inventory and Analysis plots. Two of the annual designs and the midcycle update design allow updating of plots using sampling with partial replacement procedures. Individual year and moving...

  6. Formulating appropriate statistical hypotheses for treatment comparison in clinical trial design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Ou, Ai-hua; Piantadosi, Steven; Tan, Ming

    2014-11-01

    We discuss the problem of properly defining treatment superiority through the specification of hypotheses in clinical trials. The need to precisely define the notion of superiority in a one-sided hypothesis test problem has been well recognized by many authors. Ideally designed null and alternative hypotheses should correspond to a partition of all possible scenarios of underlying true probability models P={P(ω):ω∈Ω} such that the alternative hypothesis Ha={P(ω):ω∈Ωa} can be inferred upon the rejection of null hypothesis Ho={P(ω):ω∈Ω(o)} However, in many cases, tests are carried out and recommendations are made without a precise definition of superiority or a specification of alternative hypothesis. Moreover, in some applications, the union of probability models specified by the chosen null and alternative hypothesis does not constitute a completed model collection P (i.e., H(o)∪H(a) is smaller than P). This not only imposes a strong non-validated assumption of the underlying true models, but also leads to different superiority claims depending on which test is used instead of scientific plausibility. Different ways to partition P fro testing treatment superiority often have different implications on sample size, power, and significance in both efficacy and comparative effectiveness trial design. Such differences are often overlooked. We provide a theoretical framework for evaluating the statistical properties of different specification of superiority in typical hypothesis testing. This can help investigators to select proper hypotheses for treatment comparison inclinical trial design.

  7. Investigating an alternative ring design of transducer arrays for tumor treating fields (TTFields).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Mario; Wenger, Cornelia; Salvador, Ricardo; Fernandes, Sofia R; Miranda, Pedro C

    2016-08-01

    Tumor treating fields (TTFields) is a therapy that inhibits cell proliferation and has been approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme. This anti-mitotic technique works non-invasively and regionally, and is associated with less toxicity and a better quality of life. Currently a device called Optune™ is clinically used which works with two perpendicular and alternating array pairs each consisting of 3×3 transducers. The aim of this study is to investigate a theoretical alternative array design which consists of two rings of 16 transducers and thus permits various field directions. A realistic human head model with isotropic tissues was used to simulate the electric field distribution induced by the two types of array layouts. One virtual tumour was modelled as a sphere in the white matter close to one lateral ventricle. Four alternative ring design directions were evaluated by activating arrays of 2×2 transducers on opposite sides of the head. The same amount of current was passed through active transducer arrays of the Optune system and the ring design. The electric field distribution in the brain differs for the various array configurations, with higher fields between activated transducer pairs and lower values in distant areas. Nonetheless, the average electric field strength values in the tumour are comparable for the various configurations. Values between 1.00 and 1.91 V/cm were recorded, which are above the threshold for effective treatment. Increasing the amount of field directions could possibly also increase treatment efficacy, because TTFields' effect on cancer cells is highest when the randomly distributed cell division axis is aligned with the field. The results further predict that slightly changing transducer positions only has a minor effect on the electric field. Thus patients might have some freedom to adjust array positions without major concern for treatment efficacy.

  8. Interdigital H -mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, M.; Mibe, T.; Yoshida, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hayashizaki, N.; Iwashita, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Kitamura, R.; Saito, N.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The IH-DTL accelerates muons from β =v /c =0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The output beam emittances are calculated as 0.315 π and 0.195 π mm mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, which satisfies the experimental requirement.

  9. Comparison of Response Surface and Kriging Models in the Multidisciplinary Design of an Aerospike Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Timothy W.

    1998-01-01

    The use of response surface models and kriging models are compared for approximating non-random, deterministic computer analyses. After discussing the traditional response surface approach for constructing polynomial models for approximation, kriging is presented as an alternative statistical-based approximation method for the design and analysis of computer experiments. Both approximation methods are applied to the multidisciplinary design and analysis of an aerospike nozzle which consists of a computational fluid dynamics model and a finite element analysis model. Error analysis of the response surface and kriging models is performed along with a graphical comparison of the approximations. Four optimization problems are formulated and solved using both approximation models. While neither approximation technique consistently outperforms the other in this example, the kriging models using only a constant for the underlying global model and a Gaussian correlation function perform as well as the second order polynomial response surface models.

  10. Comparison of Response Surface and Kriging Models for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Timothy W.; Korte, John J.; Mauery, Timothy M.; Mistree, Farrokh

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we compare and contrast the use of second-order response surface models and kriging models for approximating non-random, deterministic computer analyses. After reviewing the response surface method for constructing polynomial approximations, kriging is presented as an alternative approximation method for the design and analysis of computer experiments. Both methods are applied to the multidisciplinary design of an aerospike nozzle which consists of a computational fluid dynamics model and a finite-element model. Error analysis of the response surface and kriging models is performed along with a graphical comparison of the approximations, and four optimization problems m formulated and solved using both sets of approximation models. The second-order response surface models and kriging models-using a constant underlying global model and a Gaussian correlation function-yield comparable results.

  11. Comparison of a designed virtual counter with a real counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tektas, G.; Celiktas, C.

    2017-02-01

    A counter is a device which counts the incident pulses within a fixed time. In this work, a virtual counter was designed by developing a code by LabVIEW software. Generator signals were sent to the virtual counter via a National Instruments multifunction data acquisition device. Analog and PFI (Programmable Function Interface) inputs of the device was used for the process. A real counter was also used for comparison. Counts acquired from both counters in different time intervals were compared with each other. It was concluded from the obtained results that the developed virtual counter could be used as a real counter.

  12. Clearfell controversies and alternative timber harvest designs: how acceptability perceptions vary between Tasmania and the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Ribe, Robert G; Ford, Rebecca M; Williams, Kathryn J H

    2013-01-15

    Perceptions of the acceptability of alternative "variable retention" timber harvests, that keep trees standing in harvested areas, were compared between regions beset by major forestry conflicts. Data from similar studies of similar harvest systems were compared between Oregon and Tasmania. These comparisons were related to attitudes and to differences in ecosystems, silvicultural prescriptions, forestry outcomes, aesthetics, and social-political context. Findings showed that perceptions measured in one region cannot be assumed valid in another. Substantial regional differences arose not from general sociological differences but from differences in local forestry outcomes. These largely arose from different regeneration requirements of commercial tree species and consequent differences in the design of otherwise analogous harvests. Comparisons of perceptions by people with similar attitudes yielded substantial regional differences. Those prioritizing ecological conservation were mainly influenced by habitat outcomes, and consequently preferred harvests with aggregated tree retention patterns in Tasmania but not in Oregon. People sympathetic to timber industry interests in both regions showed little association between forestry outcomes and acceptability and favoured more intensive harvests. Tasmanian harvest advocates perceived harvests that keep more standing trees as less acceptable than those in Oregon. This may be due to sampling differences or to greater risk perceptions towards new harvest designs in Tasmania. Tasmanians generally disliked clearfelling more than Oregonians, likely due to different political narratives framing these perceptions or to higher aesthetic impacts in Tasmania due to burning. Dispersed retention was perceived as more acceptable in Oregon than in Tasmania, likely because Oregon had much higher post-harvest tree densities. Regional differences in wildfire-risk and logger-safety were not strongly associated with different acceptability

  13. The optimal design of stepped wedge trials with equal allocation to sequences and a comparison to other trial designs.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jennifer A; Fielding, Katherine; Hargreaves, James; Copas, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Background/Aims We sought to optimise the design of stepped wedge trials with an equal allocation of clusters to sequences and explored sample size comparisons with alternative trial designs. Methods We developed a new expression for the design effect for a stepped wedge trial, assuming that observations are equally correlated within clusters and an equal number of observations in each period between sequences switching to the intervention. We minimised the design effect with respect to (1) the fraction of observations before the first and after the final sequence switches (the periods with all clusters in the control or intervention condition, respectively) and (2) the number of sequences. We compared the design effect of this optimised stepped wedge trial to the design effects of a parallel cluster-randomised trial, a cluster-randomised trial with baseline observations, and a hybrid trial design (a mixture of cluster-randomised trial and stepped wedge trial) with the same total cluster size for all designs. Results We found that a stepped wedge trial with an equal allocation to sequences is optimised by obtaining all observations after the first sequence switches and before the final sequence switches to the intervention; this means that the first sequence remains in the control condition and the last sequence remains in the intervention condition for the duration of the trial. With this design, the optimal number of sequences is [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the cluster-mean correlation, [Formula: see text] is the intracluster correlation coefficient, and m is the total cluster size. The optimal number of sequences is small when the intracluster correlation coefficient and cluster size are small and large when the intracluster correlation coefficient or cluster size is large. A cluster-randomised trial remains more efficient than the optimised stepped wedge trial when the intracluster correlation coefficient or cluster size is small. A

  14. An alternative approach to the optimal design of an LD50 bioassay.

    PubMed

    Markus, R A; Frank, J; Groshen, S; Azen, S P

    1995-04-30

    In this paper we propose an alternative approach to the optimal design of an LD50 bioassay. We adopt a Bayesian approach to make use of prior information about the location and scale parameters of the tolerance distribution function to select the design parameters (number of doses, total number of animals, centre of doses, space between doses), and we adopt a frequentist approach using the Spearman-Karber statistic to estimate the LD50. We define the optimal design as the one that produces the minimum expected mean squared error E(MSE) with respect to the joint prior distribution of the parameters of the tolerance distribution. For the design parameters investigated, we found: (i) the shape of the E(MSE) is relatively smooth and continuous, the magnitude of which is influenced by the underlying tolerance distribution; (ii) the amount of prior information about the location and scale parameters independently and jointly affect the optimal design; and (iii) as the amount of prior information decreases, one requires more doses and/or animals. Finally, we show the proposed method is robust for an incorrectly assumed tolerance distribution function.

  15. A better alternative to stratified permuted block design for subject randomization in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenle

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Stratified permuted block randomization has been the dominant covariate-adaptive randomization procedure in clinical trials for several decades. Its high probability of deterministic assignment and low capacity of covariate balancing have been well recognized. The popularity of this sub-optimal method is largely due to its simplicity in implementation and the lack of better alternatives. Proposed in this paper is a two-stage covariate-adaptive randomization procedure that uses the block urn design or the big stick design in stage one to restrict the treatment imbalance within each covariate stratum, and uses the biased-coin minimization method in stage two to control imbalances in the distribution of additional covariates that are not included in the stratification algorithm. Analytical and simulation results show that the new randomization procedure significantly reduces the probability of deterministic assignments, and improves the covariate balancing capacity when compared to the traditional stratified permuted block randomization. PMID:25043719

  16. A better alternative to stratified permuted block design for subject randomization in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenle

    2014-12-30

    Stratified permuted block randomization has been the dominant covariate-adaptive randomization procedure in clinical trials for several decades. Its high probability of deterministic assignment and low capacity of covariate balancing have been well recognized. The popularity of this sub-optimal method is largely due to its simplicity in implementation and the lack of better alternatives. Proposed in this paper is a two-stage covariate-adaptive randomization procedure that uses the block urn design or the big stick design in stage one to restrict the treatment imbalance within each covariate stratum, and uses the biased-coin minimization method in stage two to control imbalances in the distribution of additional covariates that are not included in the stratification algorithm. Analytical and simulation results show that the new randomization procedure significantly reduces the probability of deterministic assignments, and improve the covariate balancing capacity when compared to the traditional stratified permuted block randomization. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Alternatives for Jet Engine Control. Volume 1: Modelling and Control Design with Jet Engine Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    This document compiles a comprehensive list of publications supported by, or related to, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant NSG-3048, entitled "Alternatives for Jet Engine Control". Dr. Kurt Seldner was the original Technical Officer for the grant, at Lewis Research Center. Dr. Bruce Lehtinen was the final Technical Officer. At the University of Notre Dame, Drs. Michael K. Sain and R. Jeffrey Leake were the original Project Directors, with Dr. Sain becoming the final Project Director. Publications cover work over a ten-year period. The Final Report is divided into two parts. Volume i, "Modelling and Control Design with Jet Engine Data", follows in this report. Volume 2, "Modelling and Control Design with Tensors", has been bound separately.

  18. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  19. Comparison of methods for inverse design of radiant enclosures.

    SciTech Connect

    Fran­ca, Francis; Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Howell, John R.; Daun, Kyle; Leduc, Guillaume

    2005-03-01

    A particular inverse design problem is proposed as a benchmark for comparison of five solution techniques used in design of enclosures with radiating sources. The enclosure is three-dimensional and includes some surfaces that are diffuse and others that are specular diffuse. Two aspect ratios are treated. The problem is completely described, and solutions are presented as obtained by the Tikhonov method, truncated singular value decomposition, conjugate gradient regularization, quasi-Newton minimization, and simulated annealing. All of the solutions use a common set of exchange factors computed by Monte Carlo, and smoothed by a constrained maximum likelihood estimation technique that imposes conservation, reciprocity, and non-negativity. Solutions obtained by the various methods are presented and compared, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these methods are summarized.

  20. Using micro-simulation to investigate the safety impacts of transit design alternatives at signalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Persaud, Bhagwant; Shalaby, Amer

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the use of crash prediction models and micro-simulation to develop an effective surrogate safety assessment measure at the intersection level. With the use of these tools, hypothetical scenarios can be developed and explored to evaluate the safety impacts of design alternatives in a controlled environment, in which factors not directly associated with the design alternatives can be fixed. Micro-simulation models are developed, calibrated, and validated. Traffic conflicts in the micro-simulation models are estimated and linked with observed crash frequency, which greatly alleviates the lengthy time needed to collect sufficient crash data for evaluating alternatives, due to the rare and infrequent nature of crash events. A set of generalized linear models with negative binomial error structure is developed to correlate the simulated conflicts with the observed crash frequency in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Crash prediction models are also developed for crashes of different impact types and for transit-involved crashes. The resulting statistical significance and the goodness-of-fit of the models suggest adequate predictive ability. Based on the established correlation between simulated conflicts and observed crashes, scenarios are developed in the micro-simulation models to investigate the safety effects of individual transit line elements by making hypothetical modifications to such elements and estimating changes in crash frequency from the resulting changes in conflicts. The findings imply that the existing transit signal priority schemes can have a negative effect on safety performance, and that the existing near-side stop positioning and streetcar transit type can be safer at their current state than if they were to be replaced by their respective counterparts.

  1. Beyond Fullerenes: Designing Alternative Molecular Electron Acceptors for Solution-Processable Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Geneviève; Fernando, Roshan

    2015-09-17

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are promising candidates for providing a low cost, widespread energy source by converting sunlight into electricity. Solution-processable active layers have predominantly consisted of a conjugated polymer donor blended with a fullerene derivative as the acceptor. Although fullerene derivatives have been the acceptor of choice, they have drawbacks such as weak visible light absorption and poor energy tuning that limit overall efficiencies. This has recently fueled new research to explore alternative acceptors that would overcome those limitations. During this exploration, one question arises: what are the important design principles for developing nonfullerene acceptors? It is generally accepted that acceptors should have high electron affinity, electron mobility, and absorption coefficient in the visible and near-IR region of the spectra. In this Perspective, we argue that alternative molecular acceptors, when blended with a conjugated polymer donor, should also have large nonplanar structures to promote nanoscale phase separation, charge separation and charge transport in blend films. Additionally, new material design should address the low dielectric constant of organic semiconductors that have so far limited their widespread application.

  2. A demonstration of motion base design alternatives for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, Michael E.; Sharkey, Thomas J.; Sinacori, John B.; Laforce, Soren; Miller, James C.; Cook, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    A demonstration of the capability of NASA's Vertical Motion Simulator to simulate two alternative motion base designs for the National Advanced Driving simulator (NADS) is reported. The VMS is located at ARC. The motion base conditions used in this demonstration were as follows: (1) a large translational motion base; and (2) a motion base design with limited translational capability. The latter had translational capability representative of a typical synergistic motion platform. These alternatives were selected to test the prediction that large amplitude translational motion would result in a lower incidence or severity of simulator induced sickness (SIS) than would a limited translational motion base. A total of 10 drivers performed two tasks, slaloms and quick-stops, using each of the motion bases. Physiological, objective, and subjective measures were collected. No reliable differences in SIS between the motion base conditions was found in this demonstration. However, in light of the cost considerations and engineering challenges associated with implementing a large translation motion base, performance of a formal study is recommended.

  3. A Visual Analytics Based Decision Support Methodology For Evaluating Low Energy Building Design Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Ranojoy

    The ability to design high performance buildings has acquired great importance in recent years due to numerous federal, societal and environmental initiatives. However, this endeavor is much more demanding in terms of designer expertise and time. It requires a whole new level of synergy between automated performance prediction with the human capabilities to perceive, evaluate and ultimately select a suitable solution. While performance prediction can be highly automated through the use of computers, performance evaluation cannot, unless it is with respect to a single criterion. The need to address multi-criteria requirements makes it more valuable for a designer to know the "latitude" or "degrees of freedom" he has in changing certain design variables while achieving preset criteria such as energy performance, life cycle cost, environmental impacts etc. This requirement can be met by a decision support framework based on near-optimal "satisficing" as opposed to purely optimal decision making techniques. Currently, such a comprehensive design framework is lacking, which is the basis for undertaking this research. The primary objective of this research is to facilitate a complementary relationship between designers and computers for Multi-Criterion Decision Making (MCDM) during high performance building design. It is based on the application of Monte Carlo approaches to create a database of solutions using deterministic whole building energy simulations, along with data mining methods to rank variable importance and reduce the multi-dimensionality of the problem. A novel interactive visualization approach is then proposed which uses regression based models to create dynamic interplays of how varying these important variables affect the multiple criteria, while providing a visual range or band of variation of the different design parameters. The MCDM process has been incorporated into an alternative methodology for high performance building design referred to as

  4. Comparison of alternative approaches for analysing multi-level RNA-seq data

    PubMed Central

    Mohorianu, Irina; Bretman, Amanda; Smith, Damian T.; Fowler, Emily K.; Dalmay, Tamas

    2017-01-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is widely used for RNA quantification in the environmental, biological and medical sciences. It enables the description of genome-wide patterns of expression and the identification of regulatory interactions and networks. The aim of RNA-seq data analyses is to achieve rigorous quantification of genes/transcripts to allow a reliable prediction of differential expression (DE), despite variation in levels of noise and inherent biases in sequencing data. This can be especially challenging for datasets in which gene expression differences are subtle, as in the behavioural transcriptomics test dataset from D. melanogaster that we used here. We investigated the power of existing approaches for quality checking mRNA-seq data and explored additional, quantitative quality checks. To accommodate nested, multi-level experimental designs, we incorporated sample layout into our analyses. We employed a subsampling without replacement-based normalization and an identification of DE that accounted for the hierarchy and amplitude of effect sizes within samples, then evaluated the resulting differential expression call in comparison to existing approaches. In a final step to test for broader applicability, we applied our approaches to a published set of H. sapiens mRNA-seq samples, The dataset-tailored methods improved sample comparability and delivered a robust prediction of subtle gene expression changes. The proposed approaches have the potential to improve key steps in the analysis of RNA-seq data by incorporating the structure and characteristics of biological experiments. PMID:28792517

  5. Characterizing cryogenic propellant flow behavior through a cavitating venturi in comparison to alternative flow control mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Marjorie Adele

    The work detailed is an investigation of the use of a cavitating venturi as both a flow control and metering device. This was achieved through the combination of actual experimentation and numerical modeling of the fluid behavior of both liquid water and liquid methane as it passes through the test article designed, developed, and validated here within this study. The discharge coefficient of the cavitating venturi was determined through weigh flow calibration testing to determine an average mass flow rate. Turbine flow meter flow rate readings were used as a point of comparison and the discharge coefficient was computed. The discharge coefficient was then implemented into the Bernoulli Equation along with experimental pressure and temperature data to again calculate mass flow rate through the cavitating venturi. The agreement of the venturi flow rate data to that of the turbine flow meter effectively established its applicability as a passive flow control and metering feature. A preliminary CFD cavitation model was developed and validated for cavitating water flow regimes using ANSYS FLUENT. Agreement between mass flow rates obtained from the model to experimental data for cavitating water flow indicates that deviations in results for liquid methane analysis from experimental results could simply be the result of insufficiently defined fluid characteristics in the ANSYS FLUENT materials database. SEM surface roughness analysis of a secondary test article indicated that the default average surface roughness for steel in ANSYS FLUENT was reasonable. In addition, the methodology could be further applied to future duty life studies for the cavitating venturi flow meter.

  6. DESIGN NOTE: Reduction of uncertainties in temperature calibrations by comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drnovsek, Janko; Pusnik, Igor; Bojkovski, Jovan

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this design note is to discuss and define the total uncertainty in temperature calibrations by comparison, by analysing most of the likely error sources. As a result of the proposed and developed uncertainty analysis, further reductions of uncertainties could be realized if/when better equipment becomes available. The analysis is performed as a case study using state-of-the-art calibration equipment described in the design note. This equipment is located in the authors' own secondary temperature calibration laboratory. Accreditation for this laboratory has been granted through The Dutch Council of Accreditation (RVA) for calibrations in the temperature range -55 to 0957-0233/9/11/017/img1C. In temperature calibrations by comparison the four main groups of uncertainties are the reproducibility, uncertainty of a reference thermometer, uncertainty of a calibration bath or a furnace and uncertainty of a measuring device. Special care is taken, using a thorough evaluation procedure, to ensure that the uncertainty contribution of the calibration bath or furnace is as low as possible. This is necessary because the total uncertainty assigned to an instrument under calibration is larger than the largest individual uncertainty contribution. In temperature calibrations the largest uncertainty is most likely to be the uncertainty of the calibration bath or a furnace. Therefore this uncertainty typically represents the lowest limit for further reduction of the total uncertainty of the calibration process. The analysis performed allows optimal use of temperature calibration equipment for calibration of thermometers by comparison. In this way most practical calibration needs are satisfied in a more economical way than by using substantially more expensive fixed point calibrations.

  7. Conceptual design of a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator for protons and carbon ions for charged particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, K. J.; Aslaninejad, M.; Barlow, R. J.; Beard, C. D.; Bliss, N.; Cobb, J. H.; Easton, M. J.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fenning, R.; Gardner, I. S. K.; Hill, M. A.; Owen, H. L.; Johnstone, C. J.; Jones, B.; Jones, T.; Kelliher, D. J.; Khan, A.; Machida, S.; McIntosh, P. A.; Pattalwar, S.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Prior, C. R.; Rochford, J.; Rogers, C. T.; Seviour, R.; Sheehy, S. L.; Smith, S. L.; Strachan, J.; Tygier, S.; Vojnovic, B.; Wilson, P.; Witte, H.; Yokoi, T.

    2013-03-01

    The conceptual design for a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator suitable for charged particle therapy (the use of protons and other light ions to treat some forms of cancer) is described.

  8. Alternative Certification: A Comparison of Factors Affecting the Motivations of General and Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Kathleen Ann

    2010-01-01

    This study was developed to examine the motivations of individuals who chose alternative routes to teacher certification and what they believe were the strengths and weaknesses of their alternative certification preparation (ACP). Data accrued from this study were based on a 55-item online survey and participant information from an online focus…

  9. Comparison of Explicit Forgiveness Interventions with an Alternative Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nathaniel G.; Worthington, Everett L.; Haake, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Forgiveness interventions can help people forgive past offenses. However, few studies have compared forgiveness interventions with genuine alternative treatments. The authors compared forgiveness interventions with a therapeutic alternative treatment. Participants reduced unforgiveness and increased forgiveness regardless of treatment condition.…

  10. Two-stage k-sample designs for the ordered alternative problem.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guogen; Hutson, Alan D; Wilding, Gregory E

    2012-01-01

    In preclinical studies and clinical dose-ranging trials, the Jonckheere-Terpstra test is widely used in the assessment of dose-response relationships. Hewett and Spurrier (1979) presented a two-stage analog of the test in the context of large sample sizes. In this paper, we propose an exact test based on Simon's minimax and optimal design criteria originally used in one-arm phase II designs based on binary endpoints. The convergence rate of the joint distribution of the first and second stage test statistics to the limiting distribution is studied, and design parameters are provided for a variety of assumed alternatives. The behavior of the test is also examined in the presence of ties, and the proposed designs are illustrated through application in the planning of a hypercholesterolemia clinical trial. The minimax and optimal two-stage procedures are shown to be preferable as compared with the one-stage procedure because of the associated reduction in expected sample size for given error constraints.

  11. Lithography alternatives meet design style reality: How do they "line" up?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayling, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Optical lithography resolution scaling has stalled, giving innovative alternatives a window of opportunity. One important factor that impacts these lithographic approaches is the transition in design style from 2D to 1D for advanced CMOS logic. Just as the transition from 3D circuits to 2D fabrication 50 years ago created an opportunity for a new breed of electronics companies, the transition today presents exciting and challenging time for lithographers. Today, we are looking at a range of non-optical lithography processes. Those considered here can be broadly categorized: self-aligned lithography, self-assembled lithography, deposition lithography, nano-imprint lithography, pixelated e-beam lithography, shot-based e-beam lithography .Do any of these alternatives benefit from or take advantage of 1D layout? Yes, for example SAPD + CL (Self Aligned Pitch Division combined with Complementary Lithography). This is a widely adopted process for CMOS nodes at 22nm and below. Can there be additional design / process co-optimization? In spite of the simple-looking nature of 1D layout, the placement of "cut" in the lines and "holes" for interlayer connections can be tuned for a given process capability. Examples of such optimization have been presented at this conference, typically showing a reduction of at least one in the number of cut or hole patterns needed.[1,2] Can any of the alternatives complement each other or optical lithography? Yes.[3] For example, DSA (Directed Self Assembly) combines optical lithography with self-assembly. CEBL (Complementary e-Beam Lithography) combines optical lithography with SAPD for lines with shot-based e-beam lithography for cuts and holes. Does one (shrinking) size fit all? No, that's why we have many alternatives. For example NIL (Nano-imprint Lithography) has been introduced for NAND Flash patterning where the (trending lower) defectivity is acceptable for the product. Deposition lithography has been introduced in 3D NAND Flash to

  12. A Comparison of Candidate Seal Designs for Future Docking Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick, H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce, M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, and other destinations. A key component of this system is the seal at the main docking interface which inhibits the loss of cabin air once docking is complete. Depending on the mission, the seal must be able to dock in either a seal-on-flange or seal-on-seal configuration. Seal-on-flange mating would occur when a docking system equipped with a seal docks to a system with a flat metal flange. This would occur when a vehicle docks to a node on the International Space Station. Seal-on-seal mating would occur when two docking systems equipped with seals dock to each other. Two types of seal designs were identified for this application: Gask-O-seals and multi-piece seals. Both types of seals had a pair of seal bulbs to satisfy the redundancy requirement. A series of performance assessments and comparisons were made between the candidate seal designs indicating that they meet the requirements for leak rate and compression and adhesion loads under a range of operating conditions. Other design factors such as part count, integration into the docking system tunnel, seal-on-seal mating, and cost were also considered leading to the selection of the multi-piece seal design for the new docking system. The results of this study can be used by designers of future docking systems and other habitable volumes to select the seal design best-suited for their particular application.

  13. Randomized controlled trials and neuro-oncology: should alternative designs be considered?

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Alireza; Shin, Samuel; Cooper, Benjamin; Srivastava, Archita; Bhandari, Mohit; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2015-09-01

    quality of design/reporting of RCTs in neuro-oncology persist. Quality improvement is necessary. Consideration of alternative strategies should be considered.

  14. Two Alternate High Gradient Quadrupoles; An Upgraded Tevatron IR and A"Pipe" Design

    SciTech Connect

    McInturff, A.D.; Oort, J.M. van; Scanlan, R.M.

    1995-04-01

    With the U.S. cancellation of the SSC project, the only large approved hadron accelerator project is CERN's LHC. One of the more critical elements in the performance of a collider is the quadrupole lens at the beam collision points. These quadrupoles, usually referred to as the 'insertion quads' normally form a set of triplets around the interaction region. Their focal power directly affects the luminosity available at the crossing point In order to achieve as high a gradient as possible, the CERN design team has proposed a very efficient high gradient quadrupole which is based on a graded four-layer winding structure. At Fermilab's Tevatron, an upgraded two layer winding quadrupole has been in operation since 1989, and has provided a 50% higher gradient than its predecessor. The quadrupole was basically state of the art when it was designed in 1985. Since then however, improvements have been made in cabling, conductor perfonnance, etc. Naturally, operation of a modernized version of this .design can provide higher capabilities. This improved two layer design can serve as an alternative to the more intricate graded four layer design now envisioned for the LHC, provided it can obtain the proposed gradient. A high gradient quadrupole with a 'pipe' layout can be considered as a possible candidate for future large collider insertion regions. It is possible to fine-tune the design to obtain a good field-quality, the conductor is well cooled in case of a large radiation heat load, and the overall structure is smaller than a conventional quadrupole with a comparable field gradient.

  15. RIP Input From WAPDEG for LA Desgin Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II

    SciTech Connect

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-07-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis is being prepared to document an investigation of design concepts, current available technology, technology trends, and technical issues associated with data acquisition during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Plan'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) to help define the scope for the PC data acquisition system. The focus of this analysis is primarily on the PC period for a minimum of 30 years after emplacement of the last waste package. The design of the data acquisition system shall allow for a closure deferral up to 300 years from initiation of waste emplacement. (CRWMS M&O 2000h, page 5-1). This analysis is a revision to and supercedes analysis, ''Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System'', DI No. BCAI00000-017 17-0200-00002 Rev 00 (CRWMS M&O 1997), and incorporates the latest repository design changes following the M&O & DOE evaluation of a series of Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDAs), as described in the ''Enhanced Design Alternatives II Report'' (CRWMS M&O 1999d). Significant design changes include: thermal line loading of the emplacement drifts, closer spacing of the waste packages (WPs), wider spacing and fewer emplacement drifts, continuous ventilation of all active emplacement drifts, thinner walled WP designs which will increase external radiation levels, a 50-year repository closure option, inclusion of a drip-shield, exclusion of backfill, and new conceptual designs for the waste emplacement vehicles and equipment (Stroupe 2000). The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria

  16. Environmental and economic comparisons of the satellite power system and six alternative energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, R. G.; Habegger, L. J.; Levine, E. P.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system (SPS) was compared with alternative systems on life cycle cost and environmental impacts. Environmental and economic effects are evaluated and subdivided into the following issue areas: human health and safety, environmental welfare, resources (land, materials, energy, water, labor), macroeconomics, socioeconomics, and institutional. These evaluations are based on technology characterization data and alternative futures scenarios, developed as part of CDEP. The technologies and the scenarios are described. The cost and performance of the SPS and the alternative technologies provide the basis of the macroeconomic analyses.

  17. Randomized controlled trials in schizophrenia: opportunities, limitations, and trial design alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Christoph U.; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Kane, John M.

    2011-01-01

    State-of-the art clinical trial design and methodology are enormously important for the advancement of the field. In contrast, the critical relevance of trial conduct and implementation have only more recently been the focus of discussion and research. Although randomized controlled trials are generally considered the gold standard for the assessment of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions in medicine, trials are vulnerable to complications and influences that can seriously compromise their success, Like interventions, trial design and conduct are also contextual. They need to be individualized and adapted to a number of relevant variables, such as setting, population, illness phase, interventions, patient and rater expectations and biases, and the overall aims of the investigation. While this means that there is no unified approach possible, certain general principles and guidelines require careful consideration. Knowledge of basic solutions and alternatives, and the recognition of the complex challenges that need to be addressed proactively can help to minimize unwanted outcomes, including trial failure and uninformative or falsely negative outcomes. Moreover, novel design alternatives need to be explored that target sample enrichment according to the study question and enhancement of precision in the measurement of relevant outcomes. We propose two novel design strategies that take advantage of the recently validated early antipsychotic response paradigm (that has also been observed with antidepressants and mood stabilizers). In the “early responder randomized discontinuation design” all patients are assigned to the active drug, and only those who had at least a minimal response at 2 weeks are enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled discontinuation trial, enriching the placebo controlled trial portion with true drug responders. In the mirror image “early nonresponder randomized dose increase or augmentation design,” early nonresponders

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, David; Chandler, David; Cook, David; Ilas, Germina; Jain, Prashant; Valentine, Jennifer

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, David G; Chandler, David; Cook, David Howard; Ilas, Germina; Jain, Prashant K; Valentine, Jennifer R

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  20. Multilevel modeling was a convenient alternative to common regression designs in longitudinal suicide research.

    PubMed

    Antretter, Elfi; Dunkel, Dirk; Osvath, Peter; Voros, Viktor; Fekete, Sandor; Haring, Christian

    2006-06-01

    The prospective investigation of repetitive nonfatal suicidal behavior is associated with two methodological problems. Due to the commonly used definitions of nonfatal suicidal behavior, clinical samples usually consist of patients with a considerable between-person variability. Second, repeated nonfatal suicidal episodes of the same subjects are likely to be correlated. We examined three regression techniques to comparatively evaluate their efficiency in addressing the given methodological problems. Repeated episodes of nonfatal suicidal behavior were assessed in two independent patient samples during a 2-year follow-up period. The first regression design modeled repetitive nonfatal suicidal behavior as a summary measure. The second regression model treated repeated episodes of the same subject as independent events. The third regression model represented a hierarchical linear model. The estimated mean effects of the first model were likely to be nonrepresentative for a considerable part of the study subjects. The second regression design overemphasized the impact of the predictor variables. The hierarchical linear model most appropriately accounted for the heterogeneity of the samples and the correlated data structure. The nonhierarchical regression designs did not provide appropriate statistical models for the prospective investigation of repetitive nonfatal suicidal behavior. Multilevel modeling provides a convenient alternative.

  1. Composting on Mars or the Moon: I. Comparative evaluation of process design alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finstein, M. S.; Strom, P. F.; Hogan, J. A.; Cowan, R. M.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    As a candidate technology for treating solid wastes and recovering resources in bioregenerative Advanced Life Support, composting potentially offers such advantages as compactness, low mass, near ambient reactor temperatures and pressures, reliability, flexibility, simplicity, and forgiveness of operational error or neglect. Importantly, the interactions among the physical, chemical, and biological factors that govern composting system behavior are well understood. This article comparatively evaluates five Generic Systems that describe the basic alternatives to composting facility design and control. These are: 1) passive aeration; 2) passive aeration abetted by mechanical agitation; 3) forced aeration--O2 feedback control; 4) forced aeration--temperature feedback control; 5) forced aeration--integrated O2 and temperature feedback control. Each of the five has a distinctive pattern of behavior and process performance characteristics. Only Systems 4 and 5 are judged to be viable candidates for ALS on alien worlds, though which is better suited in this application is yet to be determined.

  2. Composting on Mars or the Moon: I. Comparative evaluation of process design alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finstein, M. S.; Strom, P. F.; Hogan, J. A.; Cowan, R. M.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    As a candidate technology for treating solid wastes and recovering resources in bioregenerative Advanced Life Support, composting potentially offers such advantages as compactness, low mass, near ambient reactor temperatures and pressures, reliability, flexibility, simplicity, and forgiveness of operational error or neglect. Importantly, the interactions among the physical, chemical, and biological factors that govern composting system behavior are well understood. This article comparatively evaluates five Generic Systems that describe the basic alternatives to composting facility design and control. These are: 1) passive aeration; 2) passive aeration abetted by mechanical agitation; 3) forced aeration--O2 feedback control; 4) forced aeration--temperature feedback control; 5) forced aeration--integrated O2 and temperature feedback control. Each of the five has a distinctive pattern of behavior and process performance characteristics. Only Systems 4 and 5 are judged to be viable candidates for ALS on alien worlds, though which is better suited in this application is yet to be determined.

  3. The Alternating Surface Segmented Lap Joint: a Design for Thin Highly Loaded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, V. E., Jr.; Firth, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    The combination of thin airfoil sections and high aerodynamic loads on many wind tunnel models presents a major problem for attachment of flap elements. Conventional methods of attaching fixed control elements such as lap and tongue-in-groove joints are not rigid enough to provide surface continuity required in high Reynolds number research. For the extreme cases, the solution has been to fabricate separate wings for each flap setting with the flap element being and integral part of the wing. Here an attractive solution to this problem, the alternating surface segmented lap joint, is discussed. This joint provides increased rigidity and lower stress levels than conventional joints. Additionally, attachment fastener loading is low and the joint can be designed to accommodate high shear levels due to bending without the use of dowel pins.

  4. Composting on Mars or the Moon: I. Comparative evaluation of process design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Finstein, M S; Strom, P F; Hogan, J A; Cowan, R M

    1999-01-01

    As a candidate technology for treating solid wastes and recovering resources in bioregenerative Advanced Life Support, composting potentially offers such advantages as compactness, low mass, near ambient reactor temperatures and pressures, reliability, flexibility, simplicity, and forgiveness of operational error or neglect. Importantly, the interactions among the physical, chemical, and biological factors that govern composting system behavior are well understood. This article comparatively evaluates five Generic Systems that describe the basic alternatives to composting facility design and control. These are: 1) passive aeration; 2) passive aeration abetted by mechanical agitation; 3) forced aeration--O2 feedback control; 4) forced aeration--temperature feedback control; 5) forced aeration--integrated O2 and temperature feedback control. Each of the five has a distinctive pattern of behavior and process performance characteristics. Only Systems 4 and 5 are judged to be viable candidates for ALS on alien worlds, though which is better suited in this application is yet to be determined.

  5. An alternative experimental case-control design for genetic association studies on bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Biffani, S; Del Corvo, M; Capoferri, R; Pedretti, A; Luini, M; Williams, J L; Pagnacco, G; Minvielle, F; Minozzi, G

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of using genetic control strategies to increase disease resistance to infectious diseases relies on the identification of markers to include in the breeding plans. Possible incomplete exposure of mastitis-free (control) animals, however, is a major issue to find relevant markers in genetic association studies for infectious diseases. Usually, designs based on elite dairy sires are used in association studies, but an epidemiological case-control strategy, based on cows repeatedly field-tested could be an alternative for disease traits. To test this hypothesis, genetic association results obtained in the present work from a cohort of Italian Holstein cows tested for mastitis over time were compared with those from a previous genome-wide scan on Italian Holstein sires genotyped with 50k single nucleotide polymorphisms for de-regressed estimated breeding values for somatic cell counts (SCCs) on Bos taurus autosome (BTA6) and BTA14. A total of 1121 cows were selected for the case-control approach (cases=550, controls=571), on a combination of herd level of SCC incidence and of within herd individual level of SCC. The association study was conducted on nine previously identified markers, six on BTA6 and four on BTA14, using the R statistical environment with the 'qtscore' function of the GenABEL package, on high/low adjusted linear score as a binomial trait. The results obtained in the cow cohort selected on epidemiological information were in agreement with those obtained from the previous sire genome-wide association study (GWAS). Six out of the nine markers showed significant association, four on BTA14 (rs109146371, rs109234250, rs109421300, rs109162116) and two on BTA6 (rs110527224 and rs42766480). Most importantly, using mastitis as a case study, the current work further validated the alternative use of historical field disease data in case-control designs for genetic analysis of infectious diseases in livestock.

  6. Contemporary comparison of aortofemoral bypass to alternative inflow procedures in the Veteran population.

    PubMed

    McPhee, James T; Madenci, Arin; Raffetto, Joseph; Martin, Michelle; Gupta, Naren

    2016-12-01

    Multiple vascular inflow reconstruction options exist for claudication, including aortofemoral bypass (AFB) and alternative inflow procedures (AIPs) such as femoral reconstruction with iliac stents, and femoral-femoral, iliofemoral, and axillofemoral bypass. Contemporary multi-institution comparison of these techniques is lacking. The Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Project (VASQIP) national database (2005-2013) was used to compare AFB vs AIP in a propensity-matched analysis. Primary outcome was mortality at 30 and 90 days. Secondary outcomes included rates of postoperative complications. Multivariable regression assessed the adjusted effect of inflow procedure type on mortality. A matched cohort of 748 claudicant patients (373 AFB, 375 AIP) was identified. The AFB and AIP groups had similar mean age (59.9 vs 60.8 years; P = .30), gender (P = .51), race (P = .52), recent smoking (79.1% vs 76.5%; P = .43), history of coronary artery disease (14.8% vs 14.7%; P > .99), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (18.8% vs 18.4%; P = .92), renal insufficiency (5.9% vs 6.1%; P > .99), and diabetes (22% vs 20%; P = .53), and American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification (P = .41). The AFB group had longer mean operative time (4.9 vs 3.5 hours; P < .0001), more senior resident assistants (72.4% vs 61.1%; P < .0001), and greater mean red blood cell transfusion (1.1 vs 0.12 units; P < .0001). AFB and AIP had similar rates of outflow bypass (1.9% vs 1.3%; P = .58) and outflow endovascular interventions (0.54% vs 1.6%; P = .29). AFB trended toward a higher rate of mortality at 30 days postoperatively (2.7% vs 0.8%; P = .06), but by 90 days, the crude mortality rates were similar for the two (2.9% vs 2.1%; P = .5). AFB had higher rates of pneumonia (5.9% vs 0.8%; P < .001), deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (1.3% vs 0%; P = .03), postoperative transfusion (2.7% vs 0.53%; P = .02), and urinary tract infection (3.5% vs

  7. Comparison of design and torque measurements of various manual wrenches.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Jörg; Petermöller, Simone; Scheer, Martin; Happe, Arndt; Faber, Franz-Josef; Zoeller, Joachim E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate torque application and determination of the applied torque during surgical and prosthetic treatment is important to reduce complications. A study was performed to determine and compare the accuracy of manual wrenches, which are available in different designs with a large range of preset torques. Thirteen different wrench systems with a variety of preset torques ranging from 10 to 75 Ncm were evaluated. Three different designs were available, with a spring-in-coil or toggle design as an active mechanism or a beam as a passive mechanism, to select the preset torque. To provide a clinically relevant analysis, a total of 1,170 torque measurements in the range of 10 to 45 Ncm were made in vitro using an electronic torque measurement device. The absolute deviations in Ncm and percent deviations across all wrenches were small, with a mean of -0.24 ± 2.15 Ncm and -0.84% ± 11.72% as a shortfall relative to the preset value. The greatest overage was 8.2 Ncm (82.5%), and the greatest shortfall was 8.47 Ncm (46%). However, extreme values were rare, with 95th-percentile values of -1.5% (lower value) and -0.16% (upper value). A comparison with respect to wrench design revealed significantly higher deviations for coil and toggle-style wrenches than for beam wrenches. Beam wrenches were associated with a lower risk of rare extreme values thanks to their passive mechanism of achieving the selected preset torque, which minimizes the risk of harming screw connections.

  8. Management of radioactive waste gases from the nuclear fuel cycle. Volume I. Comparison of alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.G.; Prout, W.E.; Buckner, J.T.; Buckner, M.R.

    1980-12-01

    Alternatives were compared for collection and fixation of radioactive waste gases released during normal operation of the nuclear fuel cycle, and for transportation and storage/disposal of the resulting waste forms. The study used a numerical rating scheme to evaluate and compare the alternatives for krypton-85, iodine-129, and carbon-14; whereas a subjective evaluation, based on published reports and engineering judgement, was made for transportation and storage/disposal options. Based on these evaluations, certain alternatives are recommended for an integrated scheme for waste management of each of the subject waste gases. Phase II of this project, which is concerned with the development of performance criteria for the waste forms associated with the subject gases, will be completed by the end of 1980. This work will be documented as Volume II of this report.

  9. Comparison of cancers detected at only a sextant or alternative location.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Atsushi; Troncoso, Patricia; Babaian, Richard J

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of the tumour-positive biopsy site at extended biopsy on tumour volume and potential biological significance of prostate cancer. We retrospectively evaluated radical prostatectomy specimens from 247 consecutive men diagnosed with prostate cancer by extended biopsy. Men who had both a positive sextant and alternative site were excluded, resulting in 132 evaluable men. We assessed age, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume, pathological stage, Gleason score, total tumour volume, and location (sextant or alternative site) of the positive biopsy. Patients were grouped by location of the positive biopsy, i.e. sextant site only or alternative site only, including anterior horn, midline region and transition zone. A biopsy from a sextant-only or an alternative site only was positive in 42% (56/132) and 58% (76/132) of men, respectively. There was no significant difference in PSA level, number of positive cores, pathological stage, Gleason score, total tumour volume or the incidence of low-volume/low-grade cancer (volume <0.5 mL and a Gleason score of alternative site only were comparable to those of cancers detected at a sextant site only. Alternative site biopsy did not increase the incidence of low-volume/low-grade cancers detected.

  10. Screening and comparison of remedial alternatives for the South Field and flyash piles at the Fernald site

    SciTech Connect

    Bumb, A.C.; Jones, G.N.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-05-01

    The South Field, the Inactive Flyash Pile, and the Active Flyash Pile are in close proximity to each other and are part of Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The baseline risk assessment indicated that the exposure pathways which pose the most significant risk are external radiation from radionuclides in surface soils and use of uranium contaminated groundwater. This paper presents screening and comparison of various remedial alternatives considered to mitigate risks from the groundwater pathway. Eight remedial alternatives were developed which consisted of consolidation and capping, excavation and off-site disposal with or without treatment, excavation and on-site disposal with or without treatment and combinations of these. Risk-based source (soil) preliminary remediation levels (PRLs) and waste acceptance criteria (WACs) were developed for consolidation and capping, excavation, and on-site disposal cell. The PRLs and WACs were developed using an integrated modeling tool consisting of an infiltration model, a surface water model, a vadose zone model, and a three-dimensional contaminant migration model in saturated media. The PRLs and WACs were then used to determine need for soil treatment, determine excavation volumes, and screen remedial alternatives. The selected remedial alternative consisted of excavation and on-site disposal with off-site disposal of the fraction exceeding the WAC.

  11. Thermal Alternating Polymer Nanocomposite (TAPNC) Coating Designed to Prevent Aerodynamic Insect Fouling.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ilker S; Krishnan, K Ghokulla; Robison, Robert; Loth, Eric; Berry, Douglas H; Farrell, Thomas E; Crouch, Jeffrey D

    2016-12-07

    Insect residue adhesion to moving surfaces such as turbine blades and aircraft not only causes surface contamination problems but also increases drag on these surfaces. Insect fouling during takeoff, climb and landing can result in increased drag and fuel consumption for aircraft with laminar-flow surfaces. Hence, certain topographical and chemical features of non-wettable surfaces need to be designed properly for preventing insect residue accumulation on surfaces. In this work, we developed a superhydrophobic coating that is able to maintain negligible levels of insect residue after 100 high speed (50 m/s) insect impact events produced in a wind tunnel. The coating comprises alternating layers of a hydrophobic, perfluorinated acrylic copolymer and hydrophobic surface functional silicon dioxide nanoparticles that are infused into one another by successive thermal treatments. The design of this coating was achieved as a result of various experiments conducted in the wind tunnel by using a series of superhydrophobic surfaces made by the combination of the same polymer and nanoparticles in the form of nanocomposites with varying surface texture and self-cleaning hydrophobicity properties. Moreover, the coating demonstrated acceptable levels of wear abrasion and substrate adhesion resistance against pencil hardness, dry/wet scribed tape peel adhesion and 17.5 kPa Taber linear abraser tests.

  12. Clinical trials of drugs used off-label in neonates: ethical issues and alternative study designs.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sanjiv B; McDermott, Michael P; Shamoo, Adil E

    2008-01-01

    The use of drugs for indications unapproved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), often called "off label use, "is widespread in children, including neonates. The widespread off-label use of drugs in neonates presents ethical and safety challenges. Since the passage of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) in 2002, both the FDA and National Institutes of Health (NIH) have taken initiatives to facilitate and encourage research to achieve the necessary labeling for drugs routinely used in infants and children. Federal regulations provide broad rules and guidance for the protection of human subjects in research. However, there are ethical issues that a physician may face when designing clinical trials of drugs in neonates that are routinely used off-label and widely believed to be beneficial. We attempt to describe these ethical challenges and provide recommendations, including alternative study designs, to resolve them in an ethical framework that takes into account the Belmont Report, the statement of the World Medical Association (WMA), and federal regulations.

  13. Hadron cancer therapy complex using nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator and gantry design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, E.; Sessler, A. M.; Trbojevic, D.

    2007-05-01

    Nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) rings for cancer hadron therapy offer reduced physical aperture and large dynamic aperture as compared to scaling FFAGs. The variation of tune with energy implies the crossing of resonances during acceleration. Our design avoids intrinsic resonances, although imperfection resonances must be crossed. We consider a system of three nonscaling FFAG rings for cancer therapy with 250 MeV protons and 400MeV/u carbon ions. Hadrons are accelerated in a common radio frequency quadrupole and linear accelerator, and injected into the FFAG rings at v/c=0.1294. H+/C6+ ions are accelerated in the two smaller/larger rings to 31 and 250MeV/68.8 and 400MeV/u kinetic energy, respectively. The lattices consist of doublet cells with a straight section for rf cavities. The gantry with triplet cells accepts the whole required momentum range at fixed field. This unique design uses either high-temperature superconductors or superconducting magnets reducing gantry magnet size and weight. Elements with a variable field at the beginning and at the end set the extracted beam at the correct position for a range of energies.

  14. LCA to choose among alternative design solutions: the case study of a new Italian incineration line.

    PubMed

    Scipioni, A; Mazzi, A; Niero, M; Boatto, T

    2009-09-01

    At international level LCA is being increasingly used to objectively evaluate the performances of different Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management solutions. One of the more important waste management options concerns MSW incineration. LCA is usually applied to existing incineration plants. In this study LCA methodology was applied to a new Italian incineration line, to facilitate the prediction, during the design phase, of its potential environmental impacts in terms of damage to human health, ecosystem quality and consumption of resources. The aim of the study was to analyse three different design alternatives: an incineration system with dry flue gas cleaning (without- and with-energy recovery) and one with wet flue gas cleaning. The last two technological solutions both incorporating facilities for energy recovery were compared. From the results of the study, the system with energy recovery and dry flue gas cleaning revealed lower environmental impacts in relation to the ecosystem quality. As LCA results are greatly affected by uncertainties of different types, the second part of the work provides for an uncertainty analysis aimed at detecting the extent output data from life cycle analysis are influenced by uncertainty of input data, and employs both qualitative (pedigree matrix) and quantitative methods (Monte Carlo analysis).

  15. LCA to choose among alternative design solutions: The case study of a new Italian incineration line

    SciTech Connect

    Scipioni, A. Mazzi, A.; Niero, M.; Boatto, T.

    2009-09-15

    At international level LCA is being increasingly used to objectively evaluate the performances of different Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management solutions. One of the more important waste management options concerns MSW incineration. LCA is usually applied to existing incineration plants. In this study LCA methodology was applied to a new Italian incineration line, to facilitate the prediction, during the design phase, of its potential environmental impacts in terms of damage to human health, ecosystem quality and consumption of resources. The aim of the study was to analyse three different design alternatives: an incineration system with dry flue gas cleaning (without- and with-energy recovery) and one with wet flue gas cleaning. The last two technological solutions both incorporating facilities for energy recovery were compared. From the results of the study, the system with energy recovery and dry flue gas cleaning revealed lower environmental impacts in relation to the ecosystem quality. As LCA results are greatly affected by uncertainties of different types, the second part of the work provides for an uncertainty analysis aimed at detecting the extent output data from life cycle analysis are influenced by uncertainty of input data, and employs both qualitative (pedigree matrix) and quantitative methods (Monte Carlo analysis)

  16. Thermal Alternating Polymer Nanocomposite (TAPNC) Coating Designed to Prevent Aerodynamic Insect Fouling

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Krishnan, K. Ghokulla; Robison, Robert; Loth, Eric; Berry, Douglas H.; Farrell, Thomas E.; Crouch, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Insect residue adhesion to moving surfaces such as turbine blades and aircraft not only causes surface contamination problems but also increases drag on these surfaces. Insect fouling during takeoff, climb and landing can result in increased drag and fuel consumption for aircraft with laminar-flow surfaces. Hence, certain topographical and chemical features of non-wettable surfaces need to be designed properly for preventing insect residue accumulation on surfaces. In this work, we developed a superhydrophobic coating that is able to maintain negligible levels of insect residue after 100 high speed (50 m/s) insect impact events produced in a wind tunnel. The coating comprises alternating layers of a hydrophobic, perfluorinated acrylic copolymer and hydrophobic surface functional silicon dioxide nanoparticles that are infused into one another by successive thermal treatments. The design of this coating was achieved as a result of various experiments conducted in the wind tunnel by using a series of superhydrophobic surfaces made by the combination of the same polymer and nanoparticles in the form of nanocomposites with varying surface texture and self-cleaning hydrophobicity properties. Moreover, the coating demonstrated acceptable levels of wear abrasion and substrate adhesion resistance against pencil hardness, dry/wet scribed tape peel adhesion and 17.5 kPa Taber linear abraser tests. PMID:27924913

  17. Thermal Alternating Polymer Nanocomposite (TAPNC) Coating Designed to Prevent Aerodynamic Insect Fouling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Krishnan, K. Ghokulla; Robison, Robert; Loth, Eric; Berry, Douglas H.; Farrell, Thomas E.; Crouch, Jeffrey D.

    2016-12-01

    Insect residue adhesion to moving surfaces such as turbine blades and aircraft not only causes surface contamination problems but also increases drag on these surfaces. Insect fouling during takeoff, climb and landing can result in increased drag and fuel consumption for aircraft with laminar-flow surfaces. Hence, certain topographical and chemical features of non-wettable surfaces need to be designed properly for preventing insect residue accumulation on surfaces. In this work, we developed a superhydrophobic coating that is able to maintain negligible levels of insect residue after 100 high speed (50 m/s) insect impact events produced in a wind tunnel. The coating comprises alternating layers of a hydrophobic, perfluorinated acrylic copolymer and hydrophobic surface functional silicon dioxide nanoparticles that are infused into one another by successive thermal treatments. The design of this coating was achieved as a result of various experiments conducted in the wind tunnel by using a series of superhydrophobic surfaces made by the combination of the same polymer and nanoparticles in the form of nanocomposites with varying surface texture and self-cleaning hydrophobicity properties. Moreover, the coating demonstrated acceptable levels of wear abrasion and substrate adhesion resistance against pencil hardness, dry/wet scribed tape peel adhesion and 17.5 kPa Taber linear abraser tests.

  18. Comparison of coil designs for peripheral magnetic muscle stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, S. M.; Herzog, H.-G.; Gattinger, N.; Gleich, B.

    2011-10-01

    The recent application of magnetic stimulation in rehabilitation is often said to solve key drawbacks of the established electrical method. Magnetic fields cause less pain, allow principally a better penetration of inhomogeneous biologic tissue and do not require skin contact. However, in most studies the evoked muscle force has been disappointing. In this paper, a comparison of a classical round circular geometry, a commercial muscle-stimulation coil and a novel design is presented, with special emphasis on the physical field properties. These systems show markedly different force responses for the same magnetic energy and highlight the enormous potential of different coil geometries. The new design resulted in a slope of the force recruiting curve being more than two and a half times higher than the other coils. The data were analyzed with respect to the underlying physical causes and field conditions. After a parameter-extraction approach, the results for the three coils span a two-dimensional space with clearly distinguishable degrees of freedom, which can be manipulated nearly separately and reflect the two main features of a field; the peak amplitude and its decay with the distance.

  19. Intramolecular catalytic asymmetric carbon-hydrogen insertion reactions. Synthetic advantages in total synthesis in comparison with alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Michael P; Ratnikov, Maxim; Liu, Yu

    2011-06-07

    The synthetic potential of highly directional formal insertion of a carbene between carbon and hydrogen of a carbon-hydrogen bond has recently been developed for intramolecular reactions that lead to compounds of biological and medicinal interest. Stereoselective and regiocontrolled intramolecular processes from diazoacetate reactants, catalyzed by dirhodium(II) compounds with chiral carboxamidate ligands, provide efficient and selective access to compounds as diverse as enterolactone, baclofen, imperanene, xylolactone, and rolipram. A comparison of the C-H insertion methodology with alternative approaches is presented.

  20. Overview On Alternate Asbestos Control Method Research And NESHAP Comparison - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  1. A Comparison of Technology Experiences Included in Alternative and Traditional Teacher Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strycker, Jesse D.

    2011-01-01

    Though an educational technology experience is required as part of a traditional teacher education program student's educational preparation, research has been limited into the experiences had by alternative teacher education program students. Similarly, little research has been done comparing technology experiences between both types of teacher…

  2. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft. [liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene were assessed as alternate fuels for aircraft in terms of cost, capital requirements, and energy resource utilization. Fuel transmission and airport storage and distribution facilities are considered. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed and detailed descriptions of various fuel production and liquefaction processes are given. Technological deficiencies are identified.

  3. Overview On Alternate Asbestos Control Method Research And NESHAP Comparison - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  4. A Comparison of Dense-to-Lean and Fixed Lean Schedules of Alternative Reinforcement and Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Toole, Lisa M.; Long, Ethan S.; Bowman, Lynn G.; Lieving, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    Behavior-reduction interventions typically employ dense schedules of alternative reinforcement in conjunction with operant extinction for problem behavior. After problem behavior is reduced in the initial treatment stages, schedule thinning is routinely conducted to make the intervention more practical in natural environments. In the current…

  5. Comparison of Traditional and Alternative Fitness Teaching Formats on Heart Rate Intensity and Perceived Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Amy Sau-ching; Heung-Sang Wong, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Compared a traditional and an alternative (skill-fitness- music) fitness teaching format to determine whether there would be differences on Hong Kong middle school students' heart rate intensity and perceived enjoyment. Data from heart rate monitors and student surveys indicated that the two formats did not produce differences in heart rates.…

  6. Comparison of Health-Risk Behaviors among Students Attending Alternative and Traditional High Schools in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen E.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Kubik, Martha Y.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research, over a decade old, suggests students attending alternative high schools (AHS) engage in high levels of health-risk behaviors. Data from the 2007 Minnesota Student Survey for students attending AHS ("n" = 2,847) and traditional high schools (THS; "n" = 87,468) were used for this cross-sectional analysis to…

  7. Total Program Efficacy: A Comparison of Traditionally and Alternatively Certified Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Dennis W.; Ricketts, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine agriculture teachers' perceived levels of efficacy as they relate to managing the total program of agricultural education, both for traditionally and alternatively certified teachers. The constructs used in this study were technical content, FFA/leadership development/SAE, teaching and learning, and…

  8. A Comparison of the Alternative and Traditional Licensure Programs at Metropolitan State College of Denver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Ernest L.

    This study evaluated Metropolitan State College of Denver's Teacher-in-Residence (TiR) alternative licensure program. To participate, teacher candidates must possess a baccalaureate degree, have a teaching contract in a participating local school district, enroll in the TiR program, and pass a state content test. This study examined what Metro…

  9. A Comparison of the Professional Concerns of Traditionally Prepared and Alternatively Licensed New Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayman, Jeffrey C.; Foster, Ann M.; Mantle-Bromley, Corinne; Wilson, Carol Ann

    2003-01-01

    In large urban school districts across the country, shortages of teachers who are qualified for and interested in working in critical content areas are reality. Alternative licensing routes, broadly defined as licensure programs not requiring traditional university teacher preparation work, are increasing in number and a variety of structures.…

  10. Teaching Efficacy: A Comparison of Traditionally and Alternatively Certified CTE Teachers in Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Dennis W.; Cannon, John; Kitchel, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Idaho career and technical education (CTE) teachers' perceived levels of efficacy as related to the domain of teaching and learning, both for traditionally and alternatively certified teachers with 10 or less years of teaching experience. Efficacy was examined for early to mid-career CTE teachers across two…

  11. Teaching Efficacy: A Comparison of Traditionally and Alternatively Certified CTE Teachers in Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Dennis W.; Cannon, John; Kitchel, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Idaho career and technical education (CTE) teachers' perceived levels of efficacy as related to the domain of teaching and learning, both for traditionally and alternatively certified teachers with 10 or less years of teaching experience. Efficacy was examined for early to mid-career CTE teachers across two…

  12. Certification Requirements and Teacher Quality: A Comparison of Alternative Routes to Teaching. Working Paper 64

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Tim R.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, states have required individuals complete a program of study in a university-based teacher preparation program in order to be licensed to teach. In recent years, however, various "alternative certification" programs have been developed and the number of teachers obtaining teaching certificates through routes other than…

  13. Femtosecond laser assisted design of sutureless intrastromal graft as an alternative to partial thickness keratoplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Durkee, Heather; Pini, Roberto; Canovetti, Annalisa; Malandrini, Alex; Lenzetti, Ivo; Rubino, Pierangela; Leaci, Rosachiara; Neri, Alberto; Scaroni, Patrizia; Menabuoni, Luca; Macaluso, Claudio

    2014-02-01

    Minimally invasive laser assisted surgery in ophthalmology is continuously developing in order to find new surgical approaches, preserve patient tissue and improve surgical results in terms of cut precision, restoration of visual acuity, and invasiveness. In order to achieve these goals, the current approach in corneal transplant is lamellar keratoplasty, where only the anterior or posterior part of the patient's cornea is substituted depending on the lesion or pathology. In this work, we present a novel alternative approach: a case study of intrastromal sutureless transplant, where a portion of the anterior stroma of a donor cornea was inserted into the stroma of the recipient cornea, aiming to restore the correct thickness of the patient's cornea. The patient cornea was paracentrally thin, as the result of a trophic ulcer due to ocular pemphigoid. A discoid corneal graft from the anterior stroma of a donor eye was prepared: a femtosecond laser cut with a trapezoidal profile (thickness was 300 μm, minor and major basis were 3.00 and 3.50 mm, respectively). In the recipient eye, an intrastromal cut was also performed with the femtosecond laser using a specifically designed mask; the cut position was 275 μm in depth. The graft was loaded into an injector and inserted as an intrastromal presbyopic implant. The postoperative analysis evidenced a clear and stable graft that selectively restored corneal thickness in the thinned area. Intrastromal corneal transplant surgery is a minimally invasive alternative to anterior or posterior lamellar keratoplasty in select cases. We believe that Sutureless Intrastromal Laser Keratoplasty (SILK) could open up new avenues in the field of corneal transplantation by fully utilizing the potential and precision of existing lasers.

  14. A comparative study of Soviet versus Western helicopters. Part 1: General comparison of designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.

    1983-01-01

    This document provides a general comparison of the state of the art of Soviet helicopter design vs. that of the West (U.S. in particular). It includes both commonalities and differences in conceptual design philosophies by addressing design parameters and design effectiveness according to accepted criteria. The baseline for comparison is by design gross weight which is presented in four categories: under 12,000 lb, 30-100,000 lb, and greater than 100,000 lb.

  15. Analytical design of a parasitic-loading digital speed controller for a 400-hertz turbine driven alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingle, B. D.; Ryan, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A design for a solid-state parasitic speed controller using digital logic was analyzed. Parasitic speed controllers are used in space power electrical generating systems to control the speed of turbine-driven alternators within specified limits. The analysis included the performance characteristics of the speed controller and the generation of timing functions. The speed controller using digital logic applies step loads to the alternator. The step loads conduct for a full half wave starting at either zero or 180 electrical degrees.

  16. EDIN design study alternate space shuttle booster replacement concepts. Volume 1: Engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demakes, P. T.; Hirsch, G. N.; Stewart, W. A.; Glatt, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of a recoverable liquid rocket booster (LRB) system to replace the existing solid rocket booster (SRB) system for the shuttle was studied. Historical weight estimating relationships were developed for the LRB using Saturn technology and modified as required. Mission performance was computed using February 1975 shuttle configuration groundrules to allow reasonable comparison of the existing shuttle with the study designs. The launch trajectory was constrained to pass through both the RTLS/AOA and main engine cut off points of the shuttle reference mission 1. Performance analysis is based on a point design trajectory model which optimizes initial tilt rate and exoatmospheric pitch profile. A gravity turn was employed during the boost phase in place of the shuttle angle of attack profile. Engine throttling add/or shutdown was used to constrain dynamic pressure and/or longitudinal acceleration where necessary. Four basic configurations were investigated: a parallel burn vehicle with an F-1 engine powered LRB; a parallel burn vehicle with a high pressure engine powered LRB; a series burn vehicle with a high pressure engine powered LRB. The relative sizes of the LRB and the ET are optimized to minimize GLOW in most cases.

  17. STATUS REPORT ON THE EVALUATION OF THE ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD – A COMPARISON TO THE NESHAP METHOD OF DEMOLITION OF ASBESTOS CONTAINING BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Status Report on the Evaluation of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method – A Comparison to the NESHAP Method of Demolition of Asbestos Containing Buildings. This abstract and presentation are based, at least in part, on preliminary data and conclusions. The Alternative Asbestos...

  18. STATUS REPORT ON THE EVALUATION OF THE ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD – A COMPARISON TO THE NESHAP METHOD OF DEMOLITION OF ASBESTOS CONTAINING BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Status Report on the Evaluation of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method – A Comparison to the NESHAP Method of Demolition of Asbestos Containing Buildings. This abstract and presentation are based, at least in part, on preliminary data and conclusions. The Alternative Asbestos...

  19. Design features of alternative computer keyboards: a review of experimental data.

    PubMed

    Marklin, Richard W; Simoneau, Guy G

    2004-10-01

    Design of computer keyboards no longer is limited to the flat keyboards that are typically shipped with personal computers. Keyboards now exist that are split into halves and these halves can be slanted away from each other (creating a triangle between the halves), sloped downward toward the visual display terminal, tilted upward like a tent, or simply separated. These design features are intended to alleviate discomfort and possible musculoskeletal disorders that have been suggested to be associated with the extensive use of conventional computer keyboards. The geometry of conventional keyboards requires the wrists to be in 10 degrees to 15 degrees of ulnar deviation and 20 degrees of extension and the forearms to be nearly fully pronated while typing. A review of the available experimental data collected on 10-digit touch typists indicates that (1) keyboards with a slant angle (half of the opening angle) of 10 degrees to 12.5 degrees or keyboards with halves separated to approximately shoulder width are both effective in placing the wrist in near neutral (0 degree) ulnar/radial deviation when typing, (2) wrist extension can be reduced to near neutral (0 degrees) when a keyboard with a negative slope of 7.5 degrees is used, contingent on the wrist rest also sloping with the keyboard, and (3) tilting the keyboard halves 20 degrees to 30 degrees is effective in reducing forearm pronation to approximately 45 degrees. These studies also indicate that experienced 10-digit touch typists readily adapt (within 10 minutes) to these individual alternative keyboard features, and can type with approximately the same speed and accuracy as with the conventional keyboard. While placing the wrist and forearm in a more neutral position could, in theory, reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders, randomized controlled trials are necessary before strong recommendations can be made on the effectiveness of alternative keyboards for the prevention and/or treatment of

  20. Postoperative radiochemotherapy in rectal cancer comparison of two combination schemes: alternating versus concomitant.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Javier; Escó, Ricardo; Polo, Sofía; Bascón, Natividad; Escudero, Pilar; Alonso, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    To compare the results on disease control and toxicity of two different schedules of adjuvant combined treatment in advanced rectal cancer. From January 1995 to September 1998, 127 patients with stage B2-C rectal cancer were treated with postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy with two different schemes: three cycles of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin followed by pelvic radiotherapy and three weeks after radiation therapy was completed, another three cycles of chemotherapy were administered (alternating arm), or two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin followed by concurrent radiochemotherapy and three weeks after ending another two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin were administered (concomitant arm). Grade 3 acute toxicity was more frequent in the concomitant schedule group (33% vs 13%, P = 0.014). In the alternating schedule group, the acute adverse effects were observed after an average radiation dose of 28.4 Gy and in the concomitant schedule group after an average dose of 22.7 Gy (P = 0.012). In the arm of concomitant treatment, 37.8% of patients had to interrupt the irradiation for severe toxicity compared to 10.4% in the arm of alternating treatment (P = 0.001). There was no difference in the rate of late toxicity. The actuarial overall survival rates at 3 and 5 years were, respectively, 68.8% and 56.6% in the alternating arm and 75.5% and 61.8% in the concomitant arm (P = 0.4599). There were no differences between the two arms in the 5-year actuarial rates of overall recurrence (47% vs 51.3%, P = 0.722), local recurrence (34.6% vs 35.7%, P = 0.935) or distant recurrence (32.7% vs 31.8%, P = 0.983). For patients with B2-C rectal cancer, postoperative treatment with an alternating scheme of chemoradiotherapy is as effective as a concomitant scheme in control of the disease. The concomitant scheme had a higher incidence, earlier appearance and higher severity of intestinal acute toxicity than the alternating scheme, with a lower completion rate of

  1. Comparison of Alternative Methods for Obtaining Severity Scores of the Speech of People Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Soukup-Ascencao, Tajana; Davis, Stephen; Rusbridge, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Riley's Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI) is widely used. The manuals allow SSI assessments to be made in different ways (e.g. from digital recordings or whilst listening to speech live). Digital recordings allow segments to be selected and listened to, whereas the entire recording has to be judged when listened to live. Comparison was made…

  2. Bayesian Comparison of Alternative Graded Response Models for Performance Assessment Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xiaowen; Stone, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relative effectiveness of Bayesian model comparison methods in selecting an appropriate graded response (GR) model for performance assessment applications. Three popular methods were considered: deviance information criterion (DIC), conditional predictive ordinate (CPO), and posterior predictive model checking (PPMC). Using…

  3. Comparison of Alternative Methods for Obtaining Severity Scores of the Speech of People Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Soukup-Ascencao, Tajana; Davis, Stephen; Rusbridge, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Riley's Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI) is widely used. The manuals allow SSI assessments to be made in different ways (e.g. from digital recordings or whilst listening to speech live). Digital recordings allow segments to be selected and listened to, whereas the entire recording has to be judged when listened to live. Comparison was made…

  4. A comparison of dense-to-lean and fixed lean schedules of alternative reinforcement and extinction.

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Louis P; Toole, Lisa M; Long, Ethan S; Bowman, Lynn G; Lieving, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    Behavior-reduction interventions typically employ dense schedules of alternative reinforcement in conjunction with operant extinction for problem behavior. After problem behavior is reduced in the initial treatment stages, schedule thinning is routinely conducted to make the intervention more practical in natural environments. In the current investigation, two methods for thinning alternative reinforcement schedules were compared for 3 clients who exhibited severe problem behavior. In the dense-to-lean (DTL) condition, reinforcement was delivered on relatively dense schedules (using noncontingent reinforcement for 1 participant and functional communication training for 2 participants), followed by systematic schedule thinning to progressively leaner schedules. During the fixed lean (FL) condition, reinforcement was delivered on lean schedules (equivalent to the terminal schedule of the DTL condition). The FL condition produced a quicker attainment of individual treatment goals for 2 of the 3 participants. The results are discussed in terms of the potential utility of using relatively lean schedules at treatment outset. PMID:15529889

  5. A comparison of dense-to-lean and fixed lean schedules of alternative reinforcement and extinction.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, Louis P; Toole, Lisa M; Long, Ethan S; Bowman, Lynn G; Lieving, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    Behavior-reduction interventions typically employ dense schedules of alternative reinforcement in conjunction with operant extinction for problem behavior. After problem behavior is reduced in the initial treatment stages, schedule thinning is routinely conducted to make the intervention more practical in natural environments. In the current investigation, two methods for thinning alternative reinforcement schedules were compared for 3 clients who exhibited severe problem behavior. In the dense-to-lean (DTL) condition, reinforcement was delivered on relatively dense schedules (using noncontingent reinforcement for 1 participant and functional communication training for 2 participants), followed by systematic schedule thinning to progressively leaner schedules. During the fixed lean (FL) condition, reinforcement was delivered on lean schedules (equivalent to the terminal schedule of the DTL condition). The FL condition produced a quicker attainment of individual treatment goals for 2 of the 3 participants. The results are discussed in terms of the potential utility of using relatively lean schedules at treatment outset.

  6. Comparison: on-design and off-design flow through a high speed turbo pump inducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cluff, Ryan; Lundgreen, Ryan; Gorrell, Steve; Maynes, Daniel; Oliphant, Kerry

    2012-11-01

    A computational fluid dynamic comparison was performed between on-design and off-design flow rates through a four-bladed axial turbopump inducer. Using CD Adapco's Star-CCM as the CFD package an analysis of the two flow-rate cases was made. The simulations were run time-resolved and with two phases (water and water vapor). Turbulence employed the realizable k-epsilon model and cavitation was predicted using the Rayleigh-Plasset model. The solution discretization is second order accurate in space and first order accurate in time. The results show classical breakdown curves for both flow-rate cases. Breakdown is the condition where the entire flow path in the inducer becomes filled with vapor and the head rise over the inducer is decreased dramatically. Both cases experience breakdown at about the same cavitation number; however, because the off-design case generally has a larger head rise, its breakdown occurs at higher back pressures than the on-design case. Additionally, the off-design case experiences larger amounts of incidence that result in regions of reversed flow along the shroud and an increase of instabilities throughout the machine. Performance maps will be discussed comparing the two cases on head rise and efficiency.

  7. Comparison of Man-Portable Power Generation Alternatives Based on Fuel-Cell Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    drocarbons, as well as fuel processing for hydrogen or syngas generation and subsequent oxidation of these intermediates in a fuel cell. Micro power...high temper- atures, under water operation. 4 ALTERNATIVES CONSIDERED As possible fuel/chemicals we consider hydrocar- bons, methanol, ammonia and...production from ammonia decomposition on ruthenium. In- dustrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 43, 2986–2999. [Douglas(1988)] Douglas, J. M., 1988

  8. On the significance of an alternate pathway of melatonin synthesis via 5-methoxytryptamine: comparisons across species.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Back, Kyoungwhan; Manchester, Lucien C; Alatorre-Jimenez, Moises A; Reiter, Russel J

    2016-08-01

    Melatonin is a phylogenetically ancient molecule. It is ubiquitously present in almost all organisms from primitive photosynthetic bacteria to humans. Its original primary function is presumable to be that of an antioxidant with other functions of this molecule having been acquired during evolution. The synthetic pathway of melatonin in vertebrates has been extensively studied. It is common knowledge that serotonin is acetylated to form N-acetylserotonin by arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) or arylamine N-acetyltransferase (SNAT or NAT) and N-acetylserotonin is, subsequently, methylated to melatonin by N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT; also known as hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase, HIOMT). This is referred to as a classic melatonin synthetic pathway. Based on new evidence, we feel that this classic melatonin pathway is not generally the prevailing route of melatonin production. An alternate pathway is known to exist, in which serotonin is first O-methylated to 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) and, thereafter, 5-MT is N-acetylated to melatonin. Here, we hypothesize that the alternate melatonin synthetic pathway may be more important in certain organisms and under certain conditions. Evidence strongly supports that this alternate pathway prevails in some plants, bacteria, and, perhaps, yeast and may also occur in animals.

  9. Using pilot test data to refine an alternative cover design in northern California.

    PubMed

    Smesrud, Jason K; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Richards, James H; Wright, Shannon; Israel, Tim; Goodrich, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Two instrumented test sections were constructed in summer 1999 at the Kiefer Landfill near Sacramento, California to test the hydraulic performance of two proposed alternative final covers. Both test sections simulated monolithic evapotranspiration (ET) designs that differed primarily in thickness. Both were seeded with a mix of two perennial and one annual grass species. Oleander seedlings were also planted in the thicker test section. Detailed hydrologic performance monitoring of the covers was conducted from 1999 through 2005, The thicker test section met the performance criterion (average percolation of <3 mm/y). The thinner test section transmitted considerably more percolation (average of 55 mm/y). Both test sections were decommissioned in summer 2005 to investigate changes in soil hydraulic properties, geomorphology, and vegetation and to collect data to support a revised design. Field data from hydrologic monitoring and the decommissioning study were subsequently included in a hydrologic modeling study to estimate the performance of an optimized cover system for full-scale application. The decommissioning study showed that properties of the soils changed over the monitoring period (saturated hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity increased, density decreased) and that the perennial grasses and shrubs intended for the cover were out-competed by annual species with shallower roots and lesser capacity for water uptake. Of these changes, reduced ET from the shallow-rooted annual vegetation is believed to be the primary cause for the high percolation rate from the thinner test section. Hydrologic modeling suggests that the target hydraulic performance can be achieved using an ET cover with similar thickness to the thin test section if perennial vegetation species observed in surrounding grasslands can be established. This finding underscores the importance of establishing and maintaining the appropriate vegetation on ET covers in this climate.

  10. Properties of alternative microbial hosts used in synthetic biology: towards the design of a modular chassis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juhyun; Salvador, Manuel; Saunders, Elizabeth; González, Jaime; Avignone-Rossa, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The chassis is the cellular host used as a recipient of engineered biological systems in synthetic biology. They are required to propagate the genetic information and to express the genes encoded in it. Despite being an essential element for the appropriate function of genetic circuits, the chassis is rarely considered in their design phase. Consequently, the circuits are transferred to model organisms commonly used in the laboratory, such as Escherichia coli, that may be suboptimal for a required function. In this review, we discuss some of the properties desirable in a versatile chassis and summarize some examples of alternative hosts for synthetic biology amenable for engineering. These properties include a suitable life style, a robust cell wall, good knowledge of its regulatory network as well as of the interplay of the host components with the exogenous circuits, and the possibility of developing whole-cell models and tuneable metabolic fluxes that could allow a better distribution of cellular resources (metabolites, ATP, nucleotides, amino acids, transcriptional and translational machinery). We highlight Pseudomonas putida, widely used in many different biotechnological applications as a prominent organism for synthetic biology due to its metabolic diversity, robustness and ease of manipulation. PMID:27903818

  11. Alternating iterative regression method for dead time estimation from experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Pous-Torres, S; Torres-Lapasió, J R; Baeza-Baeza, J J; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2009-05-01

    An indirect method for dead time (t (0)) estimation in reversed-phase liquid chromatography, based on a relationship between retention time and organic solvent content, is proposed. The method processes the retention data obtained in experimental designs. In order to get more general validity and enhance the accuracy, the information from several compounds is used altogether in an alternating regression fashion. The method was applied to nitrosamines, alkylbenzenes, phenols, benzene derivatives, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and beta-blockers, among other compounds, chromatographed in a cyano and several C18 columns. A comprehensive validation was carried out by comparing the results with those provided by the injection of markers, the observation of the solvent front and the homologous series method. It was also found that different groups of compounds yielded the same t (0) value with the same column, which was verified in different solvent composition windows. The method allows improved models useful for optimisation or for other purposes, since t (0) can be estimated with the retention data of the target solutes.

  12. A Dominant Social Comparison Heuristic Unites Alternative Mechanisms for the Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Roger M; Colombo, Gualtiero B; Allen, Stuart M; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-08-12

    Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve. Social comparison is well established as an inherent human disposition through which humans navigate the social world by self-referential evaluation of others. Donating to those that are at least as reputable as oneself emerges as a dominant heuristic, which represents aspirational homophily. This heuristic is found to be implicitly present in the current knowledge of conditions that favour indirect reciprocity. The effective social norms for updating reputation are also observed to support this heuristic. We hypothesise that the cognitive challenge associated with social comparison has contributed to cerebral expansion and the disproportionate human brain size, consistent with the social complexity hypothesis. The findings have relevance for the evolution of autonomous systems that are characterised by one-shot interactions.

  13. A Dominant Social Comparison Heuristic Unites Alternative Mechanisms for the Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Roger M.; Colombo, Gualtiero B.; Allen, Stuart M.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2016-08-01

    Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve. Social comparison is well established as an inherent human disposition through which humans navigate the social world by self-referential evaluation of others. Donating to those that are at least as reputable as oneself emerges as a dominant heuristic, which represents aspirational homophily. This heuristic is found to be implicitly present in the current knowledge of conditions that favour indirect reciprocity. The effective social norms for updating reputation are also observed to support this heuristic. We hypothesise that the cognitive challenge associated with social comparison has contributed to cerebral expansion and the disproportionate human brain size, consistent with the social complexity hypothesis. The findings have relevance for the evolution of autonomous systems that are characterised by one-shot interactions.

  14. A Dominant Social Comparison Heuristic Unites Alternative Mechanisms for the Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Roger M.; Colombo, Gualtiero B.; Allen, Stuart M.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve. Social comparison is well established as an inherent human disposition through which humans navigate the social world by self-referential evaluation of others. Donating to those that are at least as reputable as oneself emerges as a dominant heuristic, which represents aspirational homophily. This heuristic is found to be implicitly present in the current knowledge of conditions that favour indirect reciprocity. The effective social norms for updating reputation are also observed to support this heuristic. We hypothesise that the cognitive challenge associated with social comparison has contributed to cerebral expansion and the disproportionate human brain size, consistent with the social complexity hypothesis. The findings have relevance for the evolution of autonomous systems that are characterised by one-shot interactions. PMID:27515119

  15. A compatibility-based procedure designed to generate potential sanitation system alternatives.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Max; Bufardi, Ahmed; Tilley, Elizabeth; Zurbrügg, Christian; Truffer, Bernhard

    2012-08-15

    Regarding multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), the problem of generating alternatives has not received the attention it deserves. Most research is currently devoted to the problem of alternative selection, where it is assumed that a set of appropriate alternatives is already given. This paper addresses the generation of potential alternatives in the domain of sanitation systems planning and decision-making. A compatibility assessment procedure is proposed to determine the set of technically feasible or potential sanitation system alternatives. This is based on a clear definition of such an alternative containing sub-processes that include a user interface, storage, conveyance treatment and reuse/disposal. A newly developed compatibility matrix is applied to identify incompatibilities between the options of the sub-processes. A potential sanitation system alternative is therefore defined by the absence of two-by-two incompatibility between all its options. The compatibility assessment acts as a first filter on the set of sanitation system alternatives to eliminate those that are inoperable before the feasibility assessment. The objective of both steps is to obtain a set of alternatives that are of reasonable and manageable size from which the final solution may be selected.

  16. Comparison between alternating and pulsed current electrical muscle stimulation for muscle and systemic acute responses.

    PubMed

    Aldayel, Abdulaziz; Jubeau, Marc; McGuigan, Michael; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2010-09-01

    This study compared alternating current and pulsed current electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) for torque output, skin temperature (Tsk), blood lactate and hormonal responses, and skeletal muscle damage markers. Twelve healthy men (23-48 yr) received alternating current EMS (2.5 kHz delivered at 75 Hz, 400 micros) for the knee extensors of one leg and pulsed current (75 Hz, 400 micros) for the other leg to induce 40 isometric contractions (on-off ratio 5-15 s) at the knee joint angle of 100 degrees (0 degrees: full extension). The use of the legs for each condition was counterbalanced among subjects, and the two EMS bouts were separated by 2 wk. The current amplitude was consistently increased to maximally tolerable level, and the torque and perceived intensity were recorded over 40 isometric contractions. Tsk of the stimulated and contralateral knee extensors were measured before, during, and for 30 min after EMS. Blood lactate, growth hormone, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, testosterone, and cortisol were measured before, during, and for 45 min following EMS. Muscle damage markers included maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, muscle soreness with a 100-mm visual analog scale, and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, which were measured before and 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after EMS. No significant differences in the torque induced during stimulation (approximately 30% maximal voluntary isometric contraction) and perceived intensity were found, and changes in Tsk, blood lactate, and hormones were not significantly different between conditions. However, all of the measures showed significant (P<0.05) changes from baseline values. Skeletal muscle damage was evidenced by prolonged strength loss, development of muscle soreness, and increases in plasma CK activity; however, the changes in the variables were not significantly different between conditions. It is concluded that acute effects of alternating and pulsed current EMS on the stimulated

  17. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Bachelli, Mara Lígia Biazotto; Amaral, Rívia Darla Álvares; Benedetti, Benedito Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L(-1)/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L(-1)/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L(-1)/1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L(-1) free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 °C with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 μm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  18. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Bachelli, Mara Lígia Biazotto; Amaral, Rívia Darla Álvares; Benedetti, Benedito Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L−1/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L−1/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L−1 /1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L−1 free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 °C with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 μm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days. PMID:24516433

  19. System comparison of hydrogen with other alternative fuels in terms of EPACT requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Barbir, F.; Oezay, K.; Veziroglu, T.N.

    1996-10-01

    The feasibility of several alternative fuels, namely natural gas, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen and electricity, to replace 10% of gasoline by the year 2000 has been investigated. The analysis was divided in two parts: (i) analysis of vehicle technologies, and (ii) analysis of fuel production storage and distribution, from the primary energy sources to the refueling station. Only technologies that are developed to at least demonstration level were considered. The amount and type of the primary energy sources have been determined for each of the fuels being analyzed. A need for a common denominator for different types of energy has been identified.

  20. Reducing motion sickness - A comparison of autogenic-feedback training and an alternative cognitive task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen men were randomly assigned to three groups matched for susceptibility to Coriolis motion sickness. All subjects were given six Coriolis Sickness Susceptibility Index (CSSI) tests separated by 5-d intervals. Treatment Group I subjects were taught to control their own autonomic responses before the third, fourth, and fifth CSSI tests (6 h total training). Group II subjects were given 'sham' training in an alternative cognitive task under conditions otherwise identical to those of Group I. Group III subjects received no treatment. Results showed that Group I subjects could withstand the stress of Coriolis acceleration significantly longer after training. Neither of the other two groups changed significantly.

  1. Evolution of polarization of an electromagnetic wave propagating in magnetized plasma: Comparison between two alternative formalisms

    SciTech Connect

    Segre, S. E.; Zanza, V.

    2011-09-15

    Two alternative formalisms for the analysis of the evolution of electromagnetic wave polarization in a magnetized plasma are considered: the coupled wave formalism and the Stokes vector formalism. The first formalism is developed and extended to more general magnetic field configurations than considered hitherto, thus obtaining a new polarization evolution equation. The two formalisms are compared and their relative merits and limitations are described. In particular, it is shown that the equations for polarization evolution are valid for arbitrarily strong anisotropy induced by the magnetic field and that these equations treat implicitly the effect of coupling between the characteristic waves.

  2. Reducing motion sickness - A comparison of autogenic-feedback training and an alternative cognitive task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen men were randomly assigned to three groups matched for susceptibility to Coriolis motion sickness. All subjects were given six Coriolis Sickness Susceptibility Index (CSSI) tests separated by 5-d intervals. Treatment Group I subjects were taught to control their own autonomic responses before the third, fourth, and fifth CSSI tests (6 h total training). Group II subjects were given 'sham' training in an alternative cognitive task under conditions otherwise identical to those of Group I. Group III subjects received no treatment. Results showed that Group I subjects could withstand the stress of Coriolis acceleration significantly longer after training. Neither of the other two groups changed significantly.

  3. Life cycle comparison of waste-to-energy alternatives for municipal waste treatment in Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Bezama, Alberto; Douglas, Carla; Méndez, Jacqueline; Szarka, Nóra; Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo; Schock, Steffen; Konrad, Odorico; Ulloa, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The energy system in the Region of Aysén, Chile, is characterized by a strong dependence on fossil fuels, which account for up to 51% of the installed capacity. Although the implementation of waste-to-energy concepts in municipal waste management systems could support the establishment of a more fossil-independent energy system for the region, previous studies have concluded that energy recovery systems are not suitable from an economic perspective in Chile. Therefore, this work intends to evaluate these technical options from an environmental perspective, using life cycle assessment as a tool for a comparative analysis, considering Coyhaique city as a case study. Three technical alternatives were evaluated: (i) landfill gas recovery and flaring without energy recovery; (ii) landfill gas recovery and energy use; and (iii) the implementation of an anaerobic digestion system for the organic waste fraction coupled with energy recovery from the biogas produced. Mass and energy balances of the three analyzed alternatives have been modeled. The comparative LCA considered global warming potential, abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion as impact categories, as well as required raw energy and produced energy as comparative regional-specific indicators. According to the results, the use of the recovered landfill gas as an energy source can be identified as the most environmentally appropriate solution for Coyhaique, especially when taking into consideration the global impact categories.

  4. [Ultrafast MR sialography: comparison of two coil systems including an alternative surface coil].

    PubMed

    Weber, T F; Cramer, M C; Aldefeld, D; Weiss, F; Petersen, K U; Reitmeier, F; Jaehne, M; Adam, G; Habermann, C R

    2008-11-01

    To compare the visualization of salivary ducts by ultrafast magnetic resonance sialography (MR sialography) using an alternative surface coil and a conventional head-neck coil. In 11 healthy volunteers, ultrafast MR sialography (single shot turbo spin echo; acquisition time, 2.8 s) was performed before and after oral application of a sialogogue. Each subject received examinations with both a bilateral surface coil (SC) and a conventional head-neck coil (HNC). The depiction of parotideal and submandibular duct systems was graded from 1 to 5 (5 = poor) by four independent radiologists. ANOVA served for statistical analysis of duct rankings, and interobserver variability was determined by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). With an excellent ICC of 0.96, both coil systems offered symmetric visualization of salivary ducts, and the image quality increased after oral application of sialogogue (p < 0.001). In total, the overall rating was worse for SC than for HNC (2.13 +/- 1.24 vs. 1.45 +/- 0.65, p < 0.001). SC was especially inferior in depiction of submandibular and extraglandular duct components compared to HNC (p < 0.001). Most notably due to the reduced visualization of extraglandular and submandibular ducts, the specific surface coil used in this study was inferior in image quality and does not constitute a reasonable alternative to conventional coil systems.

  5. Embodied Energy Assessment and Comparisons for a Residential Building Using Conventional and Alternative Materials in Indian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen Kishore, K.; Chouhan, J. S.

    2014-06-01

    Building sector is responsible for 40 % of the primary energy use and 24 % of carbon dioxide emissions in India. The main source of green house gas emissions from buildings is due to energy consumption. This paper aims to assess the embodied energy index and environmental impact of a two storied residential building. The study proposes various alternative materials which can be used in day to day construction in order to mitigate the environmental impact and climate change due to construction activity in India. Two types of construction techniques have been considered for the study, namely load bearing and reinforced concrete framed construction. Embodied energy and carbon dioxide emissions of walling and roofing components using conventional and alternative materials has also been analyzed and compared. The comparison is done based on two parameters namely, embodied energy/m2 and CO2 emissions per unit of floor area. The study shows that bricks, cement and steel are the three major contributors to the energy cost of constructing a building by conventional methods. A conventional two storied load bearing structure is 22 % more energy efficient when compared to a reinforced concrete structure. It has also been observed from the study that use of alternative material in the building envelope gives embodied energy savings between 50 and 60 % for a two storey load bearing structure and 30-42 % for a two storey reinforced concrete structure. Hence a load bearing construction is certainly a better alternative to RC framed construction for up to two storied structures in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts.

  6. Passive Samplers for Investigations of Air Quality: Method Description, Implementation, and Comparison to Alternative Sampling Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Paper covers the basics of passive sampler design, compares passive samplers to conventional methods of air sampling, and discusses considerations when implementing a passive sampling program. The Paper also discusses field sampling and sample analysis considerations to ensu...

  7. Passive Samplers for Investigations of Air Quality: Method Description, Implementation, and Comparison to Alternative Sampling Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Paper covers the basics of passive sampler design, compares passive samplers to conventional methods of air sampling, and discusses considerations when implementing a passive sampling program. The Paper also discusses field sampling and sample analysis considerations to ensu...

  8. From the Tightrope: Designing, Developing, and Delivering an Alternative Teacher Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, Patty

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 2003 a number of factors came together to create a fertile environment for developing an alternative, pre-service teacher education model. The overarching goal of the model is to diversify a rural university's credential program(s) by developing and offering alternative paths toward teacher certification within the constraints of a…

  9. A comparison of methods for estimating climate change impact on design rainfall using a high-resolution RCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingwan; Evans, Jason; Johnson, Fiona; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-04-01

    Design rainfall is used to analyse and size water infrastructure and is generally derived from historical rainfall records. Given the expected changes in extreme rainfall due to anthropogenic climate change, future hydrologic design based on historical data may not be appropriate. While a number of studies have assessed the impact of climate change on design rainfall using different methods, to date there has been no comprehensive comparison or examination of the implications of alternative methods on future design rainfall estimates. This study compares the nine methods for estimating the design rainfall for the current climate and the potential changes in the future for the Greater Sydney region. A Monte Carlo cross-validation procedure was employed to evaluate the skill of each method in estimating the design rainfall for the current climate. It was found that bias correcting the annual maximum rainfall based on the empirical distribution combined with regional frequency analysis produces the design rainfall closest to the observations. While regional frequency analysis was found to have limited impact on the design rainfall estimation for the current climate, it provides much more spatially coherent patterns of future change and it is recommended that regionalisation be used in all design rainfall impact assessments. Despite the variations between different methods, a 20-35% increase in design rainfall over the coastal region is consistently projected. This will pose significant challenges for existing infrastructure in that area.

  10. [Proteolytic enzymes as an alternative in comparison with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in the treatment of degenerative and inflammatory rheumatic disease: systematic review].

    PubMed

    Heyll, Uwe; Münnich, Uwe; Senger, Volker

    2003-11-15

    The comparably high number of severe side effects due to treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) calls for better tolerated substances. One possible alternative is seen in the systemic treatment with proteolytic enzyme preparations for oral administration. The aim of this study was to determine whether the results from controlled randomized trials on enzyme therapy prove equal anti-inflammatory effectiveness compared to NSAID in the treatment of degenerative or inflammatory rheumatic disease. All drug preparations registered in Germany as having anti-inflammatory properties were listed. Among these preparations, a systematic search was carried out for randomized clinical therapeutic trials giving evidence for the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of enzyme preparations or their components. The anti-inflammatory effectiveness of three out of eight registered enzyme preparations was investigated in randomized trials. In total, seven trials were judged to be sufficiently documented and to allow valuation. All studies show severe methodical deficits, and the standard trial design (clinical trials during inpatient rehabilitation in combination with extensive accompanying treatment) does not allow clear-cut conclusions. According to the present state of knowledge, oral proteolytic enzyme treatment does not offer a justified alternative in comparison with NSAID in the anti-inflammatory treatment of rheumatic disease.

  11. Is sheep lumbar spine a suitable alternative model for human spinal researches? Morphometrical comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Dagmar; Jülke, Henriette; Hohaus, Christian; Brehm, Walter; Gerlach, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Sheep are commonly used as a model for human spinal orthopaedic research due to their similarity in morphological and biomechanical features. This study aimed to document the volumes of vertebral bodies and compare the generated results as well as morphometry of the sheep lumbar spine to human published data. For this purpose, computed tomography scans were carried out on five adult Merino sheep under general anaesthesia. Transverse 5 mm thick images were acquired from L1 to L6 using a multi-detector-row helical CT scanner. Volume measurements were performed with dedicated software. Four spinal indices and Pavlov's ratio were calculated. Thereafter, the generated data were compared to published literature on humans. The mean vertebral body volume showed an increase towards the caudal vertebrae, but there were no significant differences between the vertebral levels (P>0.05). Compared to humans, sheep vertebral body volumes were 48.6% smaller. The comparison of absolute values between both species revealed that sheep had smaller, longer and narrower vertebral bodies, thinner intervertebral discs, narrower spinal canal, longer transverse processes, shorter dorsal spinous processes and narrower, higher pedicles with more lateral angulations. The comparison of the spinal indices showed a good similarity to human in terms of the vertebral endplates and spinal canal. The results of this study may be helpful for using the sheep as a model for human orthopaedic spinal research if anatomical differences are taken into account. PMID:24396382

  12. Estimation of magnitude and frequency of floods in Pima County, Arizona, with comparisons of alternative methods

    SciTech Connect

    Eychaner, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    In Pima County, Arizona, a semiarid region of large relief, new regression equations estimate 5- to 100-year flood discharges with standard errors of 42 to 49%. Standard errors for 2- and 500-year discharges are about 60%. Predictor variables are drainage area (0.013 to 4471 square miles), channel slope (0.3 to 13%), and shape factor. Second-order regression models represent the logarithmically nonlinear relations found across the wide range of basin characteristics. Flood estimates are reduced if channel conditions cause large attenuation of peaks. Estimates for gaged sites are a variance-weighted average of estimates from regressions and from gage data. Estimates for the Tucson urban area are based on equations developed in a nationwide study. Research on nonlinear logarithmic regressions and variables that index channel conditions might be useful. Two methods for estimating flood discharges from gage records, two sets of new regressions, and two previously published regional methods are compared. Distribution-free tests against maximum observed floods show differences in accuracy between the methods, and comparisons with base methods show differences in variability. The tests and comparisons indicate that the new equations are more accurate and less variable than methods previously published. 29 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Alternative Model-Based and Design-Based Frameworks for Inference from Samples to Populations: From Polarization to Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya K.

    2009-01-01

    A model-based framework, due originally to R. A. Fisher, and a design-based framework, due originally to J. Neyman, offer alternative mechanisms for inference from samples to populations. We show how these frameworks can utilize different types of samples (nonrandom or random vs. only random) and allow different kinds of inference (descriptive vs.…

  14. Treating Youths with Selective Mutism with an Alternating Design of Exposure-Based Practice and Contingency Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchio, Jennifer; Kearney, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Selective mutism is a severe childhood disorder involving failure to speak in public situations in which speaking is expected. The present study examined 9 youths with selective mutism treated with child-focused, exposure-based practices and parent-focused contingency management via an alternating treatments design. Broadband measures of…

  15. 20 CFR 645.400 - Under what conditions may the Governor request a waiver to designate an alternate local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions may the Governor request a waiver to designate an alternate local administering agency? 645.400 Section 645.400 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING...

  16. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  17. Alternative Model-Based and Design-Based Frameworks for Inference from Samples to Populations: From Polarization to Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya K.

    2009-01-01

    A model-based framework, due originally to R. A. Fisher, and a design-based framework, due originally to J. Neyman, offer alternative mechanisms for inference from samples to populations. We show how these frameworks can utilize different types of samples (nonrandom or random vs. only random) and allow different kinds of inference (descriptive vs.…

  18. A study of alternative designs for a system to concentrate carbon dioxide in a hydrogen-depolarized cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on alternative designs for a hydrogen depolarized cell to concentrate CO2 in spacecraft atmospheric control systems. Data cover technical problems, methods for solving these problems, and the suitability of such a cell for CO2 removal and control of atmospheric humidity during the flight mode.

  19. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  20. Alternative Solutions for ANOVA Using 2-Way and 3-Way Completely Randomized Factorial Designs with Disproportional Cell Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Richard C.; And Others

    Three alternative solutions available for analysis of variance (ANOVA) using two-way and three-way completely randomized factorial designs with disproportional cell sizes across all two-way and three-way summary tables with no empty cells are discussed. These solutions are categorized as unique, sequential, and experimental. The procedures used,…

  1. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 6, Alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for material and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment 111-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VI - Alternatives Study, presents a study of the different storage/containment options considered for NMSF.

  2. Comparison of coating alternatives for US Coast Guard aircraft. Final report for April 1993-August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, D.J.; Spadafora, S.J.

    1994-12-12

    Current coatings used on U.S. Coast Guard aircraft contain high volatile organic compound (VOC) contents. Federal, state, and local environmental agencies restrict the amount of VOCs from the use of these materials through legislation such as the Clean Air Act and local Air Quality Management District Rules. At the request of the Coast Guard, the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division Warminster investigated several low VOC candidate replacements to the current paint scheme. The physical performance properties of these materials (i.e. corrosion resistance, adhesion, etc.) were characterized using standard coatings tests. The results of this program show that there are several acceptable alternatives. Replacement of current coating systems would reduce the total amount of hazardous materials emitted from Coast Guard painting operations and eliminate the need for expensive control equipment which will be required by the Clean Air Act (resulting in substantial future cost savings).

  3. Comparison of two alternative dominant selectable markers for wine yeast transformation.

    PubMed

    Cebollero, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2004-12-01

    Genetic improvement of industrial yeast strains is restricted by the availability of selectable transformation markers. Antibiotic resistance markers have to be avoided for public health reasons, while auxotrophy markers are generally not useful for wine yeast strain transformation because most industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are prototrophic. For this work, we performed a comparative study of the usefulness of two alternative dominant selectable markers in both episomic and centromeric plasmids. Even though the selection for sulfite resistance conferred by FZF1-4 resulted in a larger number of transformants for a laboratory strain, the p-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine resistance conferred by ARO4-OFP resulted in a more suitable selection marker for all industrial strains tested. Both episomic and centromeric constructions carrying this marker resulted in transformation frequencies close to or above 10(3) transformants per microg of DNA for the three wine yeast strains tested.

  4. Comparison of Two Alternative Dominant Selectable Markers for Wine Yeast Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Cebollero, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Genetic improvement of industrial yeast strains is restricted by the availability of selectable transformation markers. Antibiotic resistance markers have to be avoided for public health reasons, while auxotrophy markers are generally not useful for wine yeast strain transformation because most industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are prototrophic. For this work, we performed a comparative study of the usefulness of two alternative dominant selectable markers in both episomic and centromeric plasmids. Even though the selection for sulfite resistance conferred by FZF1-4 resulted in a larger number of transformants for a laboratory strain, the p-fluoro-dl-phenylalanine resistance conferred by ARO4-OFP resulted in a more suitable selection marker for all industrial strains tested. Both episomic and centromeric constructions carrying this marker resulted in transformation frequencies close to or above 103 transformants per μg of DNA for the three wine yeast strains tested. PMID:15574895

  5. Alternative Therapies for Diabetes: A Comparison of Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Approaches.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Eric; Luo, Luguang

    2017-05-18

    Across the world, the economic and health costs of diabetes are rising at an alarming rate. Each year in the United States, billions of dollars are spent on T2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatments, but such treatments are not always effective and can lead to adverse events. Many pharmacological treatments exist to control the primary and secondary symptoms of T2DM, but these medications are not always efficacious, do little to treat secondary T2DM symptoms, and often carry adverse side effects. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a form of alternative medicine that is becoming appealing to western healthcare systems because of its comprehensive, holistic approach to managing T2DM patients. Works across TCM printed texts, clinical trial databases, medical association practice guidelines, and the existing literature on TCM and western diabetes treatments (in print and online) are reviewed. Conventional pharmaceutical therapies for T2DM are not efficacious enough to maintain satisfactory blood glucose levels for all patients, and even patients who maintain stable blood glucose levels may still suffer from secondary T2DM symptoms as well as from the side effects of their medications. TCM therapies have demonstrated promising results in T2DM clinical studies without causing the types of side effects associated with standard pharmaceutical treatments. In addition, the economic burden of TCM diabetes treatments on patients and payers is oftentimes less than that of pharmaceutical regimens. TCM approaches can be a viable alternative approach to treatment in the modern U.S. healthcare landscape, but a number of obstacles impede its assimilation into western health systems. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Comparison of alternate and simultaneous tensioning of wires in a single-ring fixator construct.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stewart; Ehrhart, Nicole; Zuehlsdorff, Kelly; James, Susan

    2009-01-01

    To measure and compare the strain of wires tensioned with alternate (ALT) and simultaneous (SIM) tensioning in a single-ring fixator construct and compare the stiffness of these constructs under axial loading. Experimental mechanical study. Twenty-four, 84 mm diameter, single-ring constructs. Twenty-four, 84 mm diameter, single-ring constructs were assembled using 2 1.6 mm wires placed at a 60 degrees angle tensioned with either ALT or SIM technique to 90 kg tension. Voltage data from a strain gauge were recorded during the wire-tensioning process, cyclic axial loading, and load-to-failure testing. Wire strains were calculated for each wire and compared within constructs and between ALT and SIM groups. Construct stiffness was compared between groups. There was no difference between the tensioning methods in final wire strains after initial tensioning for both the wire below the ring (W1; P=.698) and the wire above the ring (W2; P=.233). There was also no difference in final wire strains within each tensioning method group (ALT, P=.289; SIM, P=.583). Loss of wire strain (3.5-5%) occurred after cyclic loading for both wires in both groups. There was no difference in construct stiffness between the ALT and SIM groups (P=.126). Mode of failure was by wire breakage in all constructs and occurred most frequently in W1. ALT tensioning of wires produced similar wire strains within a single-ring construct after initial tensioning to SIM tensioned wires. There was no difference in construct stiffness under axial loading between AIM and SIM tensioned constructs. ALT tensioning of wires in a single-ring fixator construct can be used as an alternative to SIM tensioning, as similar initial wire tensions are achieved.

  7. Environmental comparison of alternative treatments for sewage sludge: An Italian case study.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Lidia; Nocita, Cristina; Bettazzi, Elena; Fibbi, Donatella; Carnevale, Ennio

    2017-08-30

    A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to compare different alternatives for sewage sludge treatment: such as land spreading, composting, incineration, landfill and wet oxidation. The LCA system boundaries include mechanical dewatering, the alternative treatment, transport, and final disposal/recovery of residues. Cases of recovered materials produced as outputs from the systems, were resolved by expanding the system boundaries to include avoided primary productions. The impact assessment was calculated using the CML-IA baseline method. Results showed that the incineration of sewage sludge with electricity production and solid residues recovery collects the lowest impact indicator values in the categories human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication, while it has the highest values for the categories global warming and ozone layer depletion. Land spreading has the lowest values for the categories abiotic depletion, fossil fuel depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion and photochemical oxidation, while it collects the highest values for terrestrial ecotoxicity and eutrophication. Wet oxidation has just one of the best indicators (terrestrial ecotoxicity) and three of the worst ones (abiotic depletion, human toxicity and fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity). Composting process shows intermediate results. Landfill has the worst performances in global warming, photochemical oxidation and acidification. Results indicate that if the aim is to reduce the effect of the common practice of sludge land spreading on human and ecosystem toxicity, on acidification and on eutrophication, incineration with energy recovery would clearly improve the environmental performance of those indicators, but an increase in resource depletion and global warming is unavoidable. However, these conclusions are strictly linked to the effective recovery of solid residues from incineration, as the results are shown to be very sensitive with respect to

  8. Update and Improve Subsection NH –– Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Tai Asayama

    2009-10-26

    This report described the results of investigation on Task 10 of DOE/ASME Materials NGNP/Generation IV Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 10 is to Update and Improve Subsection NH -- Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods. Five newly proposed promising creep-fatigue evaluation methods were investigated. Those are (1) modified ductility exhaustion method, (2) strain range separation method, (3) approach for pressure vessel application, (4) hybrid method of time fraction and ductility exhaustion, and (5) simplified model test approach. The outlines of those methods are presented first, and predictability of experimental results of these methods is demonstrated using the creep-fatigue data collected in previous Tasks 3 and 5. All the methods (except the simplified model test approach which is not ready for application) predicted experimental results fairly accurately. On the other hand, predicted creep-fatigue life in long-term regions showed considerable differences among the methodologies. These differences come from the concepts each method is based on. All the new methods investigated in this report have advantages over the currently employed time fraction rule and offer technical insights that should be thought much of in the improvement of creep-fatigue evaluation procedures. The main points of the modified ductility exhaustion method, the strain range separation method, the approach for pressure vessel application and the hybrid method can be reflected in the improvement of the current time fraction rule. The simplified mode test approach would offer a whole new advantage including robustness and simplicity which are definitely attractive but this approach is yet to be validated for implementation at this point. Therefore, this report recommends the following two steps as a course of improvement of NH based on newly proposed creep-fatigue evaluation

  9. Consideration of alternative designs for a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy feeding tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerrabolu, Santosh Rohit

    The inability of some people to chew or swallow foods (but can digest foods) due to problems associated with various diseases and complications leads them to insufficient nutritional intake and loss of quality of life. These individuals are generally provided with nutritional support by means of injecting or infusing food directly into their stomachs or small intestines via feeding tubes. Gastrostomy feeding tubes (G-tubes) are used when such nutritional support is required for over 3-6 weeks. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are one of the most widely used G- Tubes and devices which are inserted via an incision through the abdominal wall either through a pull or push method. This investigation proposes conceptual alternative Percutaneous Endoscopy Gastrostomy (PEG) feeding tube designs with optimized materials selection to be used for their construction. The candidate materials were chosen from 18 commercial catheters, 2 reference grade polymers and a commercial polymer; using tissue-catheter-friction testing and surface chemistry characterization (Infrared spectroscopy and Critical Surface Tension approximation). The main objectives considered were to minimize slipping/dislodgement of gastrostomy tube/seal, to reduce peristomal leakage, and to attain size variability of PEG tubes while maintaining a low profile. Scanning Electron Microscope- Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy was employed to further determine the filler materials used in the samples. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Barium sulphate was determined as the optimum material for the construction of the tube part of the feeding tubes to reduce slipping/dislodgment of gastrostomy tube/seal and to minimize peristomal leakage. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Silica is the suggested as a candidate material for construction of the bumper/mushroom sections of the feeding tubes to avoid the Buried Bumper Syndrome. Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective Laser Sintering

  10. A laboratory fuel efficiency and emissions comparison between Tanzanian traditional and improved biomass cooking stoves and alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B. R.; Maggio, J. C.; Paterson, K.

    2010-12-01

    Large amounts of aerosols are emitted from domestic biomass burning globally every day. Nearly three billion people cook in their homes using traditional fires and stoves. Biomass is the primary fuel source which results in detrimental levels of indoor air pollution as well as having a strong impact on climate change. Variations in emissions occur depending on the combustion process and stove design as well as the condition and type of fuel used. The three most commonly used fuels for domestic biomass burning are wood, charcoal, and crop residue. In addition to these commonly used fuels and because of the increased difficulty of obtaining charcoal and wood due to a combination of deforestation and new governmental restrictions, alternative fuels are becoming more prevalent. In the Republic of Tanzania a field campaign was executed to test previously adopted and available traditional and improved cooking stoves with various traditional and alternative fuels. The tests were conducted over a two month period and included four styles of improved stoves, two styles of traditional cooking methods, and eight fuel types. The stoves tested include a sawdust stove, ceramic and brick insulated metal stoves, and a mud stove. A traditional three-stone fire was also tested as a benchmark by which to compare the other stoves. Fuel types tested include firewood, charcoal (Acacia), sawdust, pressed briquettes, charcoal dust briquettes, and carbonized crop residue. Water boiling tests were conducted on each stove with associated fuel types during which boiling time, water temperature, CO, CO2, and PM2.5μm emissions were recorded. All tests were conducted on-site in Arusha, Tanzania enabling the use of local materials and fuels under local conditions. It was found that both stove design and fuel type play a critical role in the amount of emissions produced. The most influential design aspect affecting emissions was the size of the combustion chamber in combination with air intake

  11. A Comparison of Central Composite Design and Taguchi Method for Optimizing Fenton Process

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a comparison of central composite design (CCD) and Taguchi method was established for Fenton oxidation. [Dye]ini, Dye : Fe+2, H2O2 : Fe+2, and pH were identified control variables while COD and decolorization efficiency were selected responses. L 9 orthogonal array and face-centered CCD were used for the experimental design. Maximum 99% decolorization and 80% COD removal efficiency were obtained under optimum conditions. R squared values of 0.97 and 0.95 for CCD and Taguchi method, respectively, indicate that both models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. Furthermore, Prob > F less than 0.0500 and ANOVA results indicate the good fitting of selected model with experimental results. Nevertheless, possibility of ranking of input variables in terms of percent contribution to the response value has made Taguchi method a suitable approach for scrutinizing the operating parameters. For present case, pH with percent contribution of 87.62% and 66.2% was ranked as the most contributing and significant factor. This finding of Taguchi method was also verified by 3D contour plots of CCD. Therefore, from this comparative study, it is concluded that Taguchi method with 9 experimental runs and simple interaction plots is a suitable alternative to CCD for several chemical engineering applications. PMID:25258741

  12. A comparison of central composite design and Taguchi method for optimizing Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a comparison of central composite design (CCD) and Taguchi method was established for Fenton oxidation. [Dye]ini, Dye:Fe(+2), H2O2:Fe(+2), and pH were identified control variables while COD and decolorization efficiency were selected responses. L 9 orthogonal array and face-centered CCD were used for the experimental design. Maximum 99% decolorization and 80% COD removal efficiency were obtained under optimum conditions. R squared values of 0.97 and 0.95 for CCD and Taguchi method, respectively, indicate that both models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. Furthermore, Prob > F less than 0.0500 and ANOVA results indicate the good fitting of selected model with experimental results. Nevertheless, possibility of ranking of input variables in terms of percent contribution to the response value has made Taguchi method a suitable approach for scrutinizing the operating parameters. For present case, pH with percent contribution of 87.62% and 66.2% was ranked as the most contributing and significant factor. This finding of Taguchi method was also verified by 3D contour plots of CCD. Therefore, from this comparative study, it is concluded that Taguchi method with 9 experimental runs and simple interaction plots is a suitable alternative to CCD for several chemical engineering applications.

  13. Experimental investigation on the accuracy of alternative devices to measure DNI in comparison to tracking pyrheliometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rommel, Matthias; Larcher, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Solar process heat holds a large potential for the application of solar collectors. In the process temperature range above 120°C concentrating collectors such as parabolic trough and liner concentrating Fresnel collectors are used. In order to support the further development of process heat systems with concentrating collectors it is necessary to install, operate and monitor more field systems in which these collectors are operated under real conditions in the industry. A cost-efficient but sufficiently exact measurement of the direct solar irradiation is necessary for the energetic evaluation of system performance and a technical assessment of the collectors. In this paper we report on a comparison of three different possibilities for the measurement of the direct solar irradiation.

  14. Synthesis of Single-Case Experimental Data: A Comparison of Alternative Multilevel Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferron, John; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Beretvas, Tasha; Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Petit-Bois, Merlande; Baek, Eun Kyeng

    2013-01-01

    Single-case or single-subject experimental designs (SSED) are used to evaluate the effect of one or more treatments on a single case. Although SSED studies are growing in popularity, the results are in theory case-specific. One systematic and statistical approach for combining single-case data within and across studies is multilevel modeling. The…

  15. A Comparison of Alternating Current and Direct Current Electrospray Ionization for Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarver, Scott A.; Chetwani, Nishant; Dovichi, Norman J.; Go, David B.; Gartner, Carlos A.

    2014-04-01

    A series of studies comparing the performance of alternating current electrospray ionization (AC ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) and direct current electrospray ionization (DC ESI) MS have been conducted, exploring the absolute signal intensity and signal-to-background ratios produced by both methods using caffeine and a model peptide as targets. Because the high-voltage AC signal was more susceptible to generating gas discharges, the operating voltage range of AC ESI was significantly smaller than that for DC ESI, such that the absolute signal intensities produced by DC ESI at peak voltages were one to two orders of magnitude greater than those for AC ESI. Using an electronegative nebulizing gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), instead of nitrogen (N2) increased the operating range of AC ESI by ~50 %, but did not appreciably improve signal intensities. While DC ESI generated far greater signal intensities, both ionization methods produced comparable signal-to-background noise, with AC ESI spectra appearing qualitatively cleaner. A quantitative calibration analysis was performed for two analytes, caffeine and the peptide MRFA. AC ESI utilizing SF6 outperforms all other techniques for the detection of MRFA, producing chromatographic limits of detection nearly one order of magnitude lower than that of DC ESI utilizing N2, and one-half that of DC ESI utilizing SF6. However, DC ESI outperforms AC ESI for the analysis of caffeine, indicating that improvements in spectral quality may benefit certain compounds or classes of compounds, on an individual basis.

  16. Head Start’s Impact is Contingent on Alternative Type of Care in Comparison Group

    PubMed Central

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data (n = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this paper examined the impact of Head Start on children’s cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral outcomes through first grade contingent on the child care arrangements used by children who were randomly assigned to the control group (i.e., parental care, relative/non-relative care, another Head Start program, or other center-based care). A principal score matching approach was adopted to identify children assigned to Head Start who were similar to children in the control group with a specific care arrangement. Overall, the results showed that the effects of Head Start varied substantially contingent on the alternative child care arrangements. Compared to children in parental care and relative/non-relative care, Head Start participants generally had better cognitive and parent-reported behavioral development, with some benefits of Head Start persisting through first grade; in contrast, few differences were found between Head Start and other center-based care. The results have implications regarding the children for whom Head Start is most beneficial as well as how well Head Start compares to other center-based programs. PMID:25329552

  17. Numerical simulation of mud erosion rate in sand-mud alternate layer and comparison with experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Oyama, H.; Sato, T.

    2015-12-01

    For gas production from methane hydrates in sand-mud alternate layers, depressurization method is expected as feasible. After methane hydrate is dissociated, gas and water flow in pore space. There is a concern about the erosion of mud surface and it may result in flow blockage that disturbs the gas production. As a part of a Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI), we developed a numerical simulation of water-induced mud erosion in pore-scale sand-mud domains to model such mud erosion. The size of which is of the order of 100 micro meter. Water flow is simulated using a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and mud surface is treated as solid boundary with arbitrary shape, which changes with time. Periodic boundary condition is adopted at the domain boundaries, except for the surface of mud layers and the upper side. Shear stress acting on the mud surface is calculated using a momentum-exchange method. Mud layer is eroded when the shear stress exceeds a threshold coined a critical shear stress. In this study, we compared the simulated mud erosion rate with experimental data acquired from an experiment using artificial sand-mud core. As a result, the simulated erosion rate agrees well with that of the experiment.

  18. Comparison of recreation use values among alternative reservoir water level management scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordell, H. Ken; Bergstrom, John C.

    1993-02-01

    Throughout the United States, reservoirs are managed for multiple uses, including hydropower, stream flow regulation, flood control, and recreation. Water level drawdowns for hydropower, stream flow regulation, and flood control often reduce the suitability of reservoirs for water-based recreation. The gain in aggregate economic use value of outdoor recreation under three alternative water level management scenarios was measured for four reservoirs in western North Carolina as part of an interagency policy analysis. Use values were estimated using a contingent valuation survey and expert panel data. The basic question addressed by this study was whether the value recreational users place on higher water levels held longer into the summer and fall is significantly greater than the value of using these reservoirs as they were managed at the time of this study. Maintaining high water levels for longer periods during the summer and fall was found to result in considerable gains in estimated recreational benefits. While not a primary objective of this study, having these estimates provided us an opportunity to compare increased recreational benefits with the value the Tennessee Valley Authority estimated for the reduced production of electricity that would result if the lakes were managed to hold reservoir levels higher, longer into the year.

  19. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenkl, Michael; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek, Michal

    2016-03-01

    The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  20. Comparison of health-risk behaviors among students attending alternative and traditional high schools in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karen E; McMorris, Barbara J; Kubik, Martha Y

    2013-10-01

    Previous research, over a decade old, suggests students attending alternative high schools (AHS) engage in high levels of health-risk behaviors. Data from the 2007 Minnesota Student Survey for students attending AHS (n = 2,847) and traditional high schools (THS; n = 87,468) were used for this cross-sectional analysis to compare prevalence estimates, adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and free and reduced lunch, for 28 health-risk behaviors. Students attending AHS were significantly more likely than students attending THS to report engaging in all behaviors related to unintentional injury and violence, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, and sexual activity, and were significantly less likely to report participating in physical activity, including sports teams. Students attending AHS continue to engage in high levels of health-risk behaviors as compared to their peers in THS. Updated national prevalence data were needed, as well as studies examining the role of protective factors in the lives of students attending AHS.

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance as an alternate method for serial evaluation of proximal aorta: comparison with echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Puneet; Nielsen, James C

    2013-07-01

    Thoracic aortic disease is a known cause of aortic dilatation and poses significant risk of aortic dissection and rupture. Serial assessment of aortic root dimensions is traditionally performed using echocardiography, which is limited with older age and following surgery, due to poor acoustic windows. Although diastolic measurements are utilized as standard practice in decision making of adult aortopathy, systolic diameters are utilized in pediatric practice. Three-dimensional steady-state free precision (3D-SSFP) has shown promise as an alternate method for providing accurate and reproducible aortic measurements. The agreement between proximal aorta measurements by diastolic 3D-SSFP and echocardiography (both systole and diastole) was examined in 40 subjects. The maximum inner diameters at aortic annulus, root and sinotubular junction demonstrated excellent agreement between 3D-SSFP and echocardiography for all the 3 levels. The best agreement was observed for diastolic root dimensions with a mean difference of +0.01 cm, limits of agreement being -0.26 to +0.28 cm. Three D-SSFP can be used interchangeably with echocardiography in the serial assessment of the aortic root size. Careful attention to obtain an imaging plane utilizing 3D multiplanar reformatting is critical to maximize the agreement between the two imaging modalities. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of Longitudinal Phenotypes Based on Alternate Heavy Drinking Cut Scores

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to empirically determine the effect of employing different cut scores for frequency of heavy episodic drinking (HED; an often-used indicator of problematic alcohol involvement) within a longitudinal framework. Using data from a large prospective (9-wave) college student sample, the authors used latent class growth analyses to characterize developmental trajectories of HED based on alternate cut scores that varied in frequency of HED (defined by 5+ drinks per occasion), as well as to measure very heavy episodic drinking (12+ drinks per occasion). As cut score severity increased and base rates for HED correspondingly decreased, individuals were increasingly categorized into less severe classes. Concordance between trajectories ranged from small to moderate, with concordance using highly discrepant definitions of frequent HED being particularly low. HED trajectories based upon different cut scores were validated against a range of etiological and consequential correlates. No single cut score was superior to others in explaining variance in external validity indicators, suggesting that the choice of cut score should be based upon theoretical and clinical considerations. This study further extends the authors’ prior work examining the effects of methodological factors that are critical to characterizing the developmental course of alcohol involvement. PMID:18540717

  3. Comparison of direct current and 50 Hz alternating current microscopic corona characteristics on conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Bo; He, Jinliang

    2014-06-01

    Corona discharge is one of the major design factors for extra-high voltage and ultra-high voltage DC/AC transmission lines. Under different voltages, corona discharge reveals different characteristics. This paper aims at investigating DC and AC coronas on the microscopic scale. To obtain the specific characteristics of DC and AC coronas, a new measurement approach that utilizes a coaxial wire-cylinder corona cage is designed in this paper, and wires of different diameters are used in the experiment. Based on the measurements, the respective microscopic characteristics of DC and AC coronas are analyzed and compared. With differences in characteristics between DC and AC coronas proposed, this study provides useful insights into DC/AC corona discharges on transmission line applications.

  4. Comparison of direct current and 50 Hz alternating current microscopic corona characteristics on conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang

    2014-06-15

    Corona discharge is one of the major design factors for extra-high voltage and ultra-high voltage DC/AC transmission lines. Under different voltages, corona discharge reveals different characteristics. This paper aims at investigating DC and AC coronas on the microscopic scale. To obtain the specific characteristics of DC and AC coronas, a new measurement approach that utilizes a coaxial wire-cylinder corona cage is designed in this paper, and wires of different diameters are used in the experiment. Based on the measurements, the respective microscopic characteristics of DC and AC coronas are analyzed and compared. With differences in characteristics between DC and AC coronas proposed, this study provides useful insights into DC/AC corona discharges on transmission line applications.

  5. Quantitative comparison of alternative methods for coarse-graining biological networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Gregory R.; Meng, Luming; Huang, Xuhui

    2013-09-01

    Markov models and master equations are a powerful means of modeling dynamic processes like protein conformational changes. However, these models are often difficult to understand because of the enormous number of components and connections between them. Therefore, a variety of methods have been developed to facilitate understanding by coarse-graining these complex models. Here, we employ Bayesian model comparison to determine which of these coarse-graining methods provides the models that are most faithful to the original set of states. We find that the Bayesian agglomerative clustering engine and the hierarchical Nyström expansion graph (HNEG) typically provide the best performance. Surprisingly, the original Perron cluster cluster analysis (PCCA) method often provides the next best results, outperforming the newer PCCA+ method and the most probable paths algorithm. We also show that the differences between the models are qualitatively significant, rather than being minor shifts in the boundaries between states. The performance of the methods correlates well with the entropy of the resulting coarse-grainings, suggesting that finding states with more similar populations (i.e., avoiding low population states that may just be noise) gives better results.

  6. Methodology for comparison of hydraulic and thermal performance of alternative heat transfer fluids in complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ghajar, A.J.; Tang, W.C.; Beam, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    A general method for the comparison of hydraulic and thermal performance of different liquid coolants in complex systems is offered. As a case study, the performance of polyalphaolefin (PAO) and a silicate ester-based fluid (Coolanol 25R) used as liquid coolants in avionic systems is presented. Thermophysical property expressions for the variation of density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, and kinematic viscosity with temperature for PAO and Coolanol 25R were developed. The range of temperature for this study was from {minus}54 to 135 C. Based on the results, the hydraulic performance of Coolanol 25R is much better than that of PAO at low temperatures (below 0 C) and in the laminar flow regime. In the turbulent region, PAO outperforms Coolanol 25R hydraulically over the entire temperature range. The thermal performance of PAO at temperatures below 61 C and in the laminar flow region is slightly better than that of Coolanol 25R. In the low-temperature turbulent region, Coolanol 25R outperforms PAO thermally. At other temperatures, the performance of the two liquid coolants is reasonably close and fairly independent of the flow regime.

  7. Comparison between an alternative and the classic definition of chronic bronchitis in COPDGene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Victor; Crapo, James; Zhao, Huaqing; Jones, Paul W; Silverman, Edwin K; Comellas, Alejandro; Make, Barry J; Criner, Gerard J

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies on chronic bronchitis (CB) have used varying definitions. We sought to compare an alternative CB definition, using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), a commonly used assessment tool, with the classic definition and to investigate if it had independent or additive value. We analyzed data from 4,513 subjects from Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease groups 1 to 4 in the COPDGene cohort. We compared the classic definition of CB with the SGRQ definition, defined by their answers to the questions about both cough and phlegm. We compared the Classic CB+ versus CB- groups, and the SGRQ CB+ and CB- groups. We also analyzed the cohort split into four groups: Classic CB+/SGRQ CB+, Classic CB+/SGRQ CB-, Classic CB-/SGRQ CB+, Classic CB-/SGRQ CB-. A total of 26.1% subjects were Classic CB+, whereas 39.9% were SGRQ CB+. When the SGRQ definition was compared with the Classic CB definition, using this as the gold standard, the SGRQ CB definition had a sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.77, respectively. The SGRQ CB+ and Classic CB+ groups were strikingly similar, with more respiratory symptoms and exacerbations, worse lung function, and greater airway wall thickness. In addition, the Classic CB+/SGRQ CB+, Classic CB+/SGRQ CB-, and Classic CB-/SGRQ CB+ groups shared similar characteristics as well. The SGRQ CB definition identifies more subjects with chronic cough and sputum who share a similar phenotype identified by the Classic CB definition. The addition of the SGRQ CB definition to the classic one can be used to identify more patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at risk for poor outcomes.

  8. Comparison of costs for three hypothetical alternative kitchen waste management systems.

    PubMed

    Schiettecatte, Wim; Tize, Ronald; De Wever, Heleen

    2014-11-01

    Urban water and waste management continues to be a major challenge, with the Earth's population projected to rise to 9 billion by 2050, with 70% of this population expected to live in cities. A combined treatment of wastewater and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste offers opportunities for improved environmental protection and energy recovery, but the collection and transport of organic wastes must be cost effective. This study compares three alternative kitchen waste collection and transportation systems for a virtual modern urban area with 300,000 residents and a population density of 10,000 persons per square kilometre. Door-to-door collection, being the standard practice in modern urban centres, remains the most economically advantageous at a cost of 263 euros per tonne of kitchen waste. Important drawbacks are the difficult logistics, increased city traffic, air and noise pollution. The quieter, cleaner and more hygienic vacuum transport of kitchen waste comes with a higher cost of 367 euros per tonne, mainly resulting from a higher initial investment cost for the system installation. The third option includes the well-known use of under-sink food waste disposers (often called garbage grinders) that are connected to the kitchen's wastewater piping system, with a total yearly cost of 392 euros per tonne. Important advantages with this system are the clean operation and the current availability of a city-wide sewage conveyance pipeline system. Further research is recommended, for instance the application of a life cycle assessment approach, to more fully compare the advantages and disadvantages of each option.

  9. Comparison of Marine Spatial Planning Methods in Madagascar Demonstrates Value of Alternative Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Allnutt, Thomas F.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Andréfouët, Serge; Baker, Merrill; Lagabrielle, Erwann; McClennen, Caleb; Rakotomanjaka, Andry J. M.; Tianarisoa, Tantely F.; Watson, Reg; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value). The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the “strict protection” class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative approaches during

  10. Searching for Controlled Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Comparison of 15 Databases

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Elise; Sampson, Margaret; Ajiferuke, Isola; Manheimer, Eric; Campbell, Kaitryn; Daniel, Raymond; Moher, David

    2011-01-01

    This project aims to assess the utility of bibliographic databases beyond the three major ones (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL) for finding controlled trials of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Fifteen databases were searched to identify controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of CAM not also indexed in MEDLINE. Searches were conducted in May 2006 using the revised Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy (HSSS) and the PubMed CAM Subset. Yield of CAM trials per 100 records was determined, and databases were compared over a standardized period (2005). The Acudoc2 RCT, Acubriefs, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL) and Hom-Inform databases had the highest concentrations of non-MEDLINE records, with more than 100 non-MEDLINE records per 500. Other productive databases had ratios between 500 and 1500 records to 100 non-MEDLINE records—these were AMED, MANTIS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health and Alt HealthWatch. Five databases were found to be unproductive: AGRICOLA, CAIRSS, Datadiwan, Herb Research Foundation and IBIDS. Acudoc2 RCT yielded 100 CAM trials in the most recent 100 records screened. Acubriefs, AMED, Hom-Inform, MANTIS, PsycINFO and CINAHL had more than 25 CAM trials per 100 records screened. Global Health, ICL and Alt HealthWatch were below 25 in yield. There were 255 non-MEDLINE trials from eight databases in 2005, with only 10% indexed in more than one database. Yield varied greatly between databases; the most productive databases from both sampling methods were Acubriefs, Acudoc2 RCT, AMED and CINAHL. Low overlap between databases indicates comprehensive CAM literature searches will require multiple databases. PMID:19468052

  11. Quadriceps tendon allografts as an alternative to Achilles tendon allografts: a biomechanical comparison.

    PubMed

    Mabe, Isaac; Hunter, Shawn

    2014-12-01

    Quadriceps tendon with a patellar bone block may be a viable alternative to Achilles tendon for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) if it is, at a minimum, a biomechanically equivalent graft. The objective of this study was to directly compare the biomechanical properties of quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon allografts. Quadriceps and Achilles tendon pairs from nine research-consented donors were tested. All specimens were processed to reduce bioburden and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. Specimens were subjected to a three phase uniaxial tension test performed in a custom environmental chamber to maintain the specimens at a physiologic temperature (37 ± 2 °C) and misted with a 0.9 % NaCl solution. There were no statistical differences in seven of eight structural and mechanical between the two tendon types. Quadriceps tendons exhibited a significantly higher displacement at maximum load and significantly lower stiffness than Achilles tendons. The results of this study indicated a biomechanical equivalence of aseptically processed, terminally sterilized quadriceps tendon grafts with bone block to Achilles tendon grafts with bone block. The significantly higher displacement at maximum load, and lower stiffness observed for quadriceps tendons may be related to the failure mode. Achilles tendons had a higher bone avulsion rate than quadriceps tendons (86 % compared to 12 %, respectively). This was likely due to observed differences in bone block density between the two tendon types. This research supports the use of quadriceps tendon allografts in lieu of Achilles tendon allografts for ACL-R.

  12. Comparison between an Alternative and the Classic Definition of Chronic Bronchitis in COPDGene

    PubMed Central

    Crapo, James; Zhao, Huaqing; Jones, Paul W.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Comellas, Alejandro; Make, Barry J.; Criner, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Previous studies on chronic bronchitis (CB) have used varying definitions. Objectives: We sought to compare an alternative CB definition, using the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), a commonly used assessment tool, with the classic definition and to investigate if it had independent or additive value. Methods: We analyzed data from 4,513 subjects from Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease groups 1 to 4 in the COPDGene cohort. We compared the classic definition of CB with the SGRQ definition, defined by their answers to the questions about both cough and phlegm. We compared the Classic CB+ versus CB− groups, and the SGRQ CB+ and CB− groups. We also analyzed the cohort split into four groups: Classic CB+/SGRQ CB+, Classic CB+/SGRQ CB−, Classic CB−/SGRQ CB+, Classic CB−/SGRQ CB−. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 26.1% subjects were Classic CB+, whereas 39.9% were SGRQ CB+. When the SGRQ definition was compared with the Classic CB definition, using this as the gold standard, the SGRQ CB definition had a sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.77, respectively. The SGRQ CB+ and Classic CB+ groups were strikingly similar, with more respiratory symptoms and exacerbations, worse lung function, and greater airway wall thickness. In addition, the Classic CB+/SGRQ CB+, Classic CB+/SGRQ CB−, and Classic CB−/SGRQ CB+ groups shared similar characteristics as well. Conclusions: The SGRQ CB definition identifies more subjects with chronic cough and sputum who share a similar phenotype identified by the Classic CB definition. The addition of the SGRQ CB definition to the classic one can be used to identify more patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at risk for poor outcomes. PMID:25575351

  13. Comparison of direct and alternating current vacuum ultraviolet lamps in atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    PubMed

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Haapala, Markus; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten; Kostiainen, Risto; Kauppila, Tiina J

    2012-02-07

    A direct current induced vacuum ultraviolet (dc-VUV) krypton discharge lamp and an alternating current, radio frequency (rf) induced VUV lamp that are essentially similar to lamps in commercial atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) ion sources were compared. The emission distributions along the diameter of the lamp exit window were measured, and they showed that the beam of the rf lamp is much wider than that of the dc lamp. Thus, the rf lamp has larger efficient ionization area, and it also emits more photons than the dc lamp. The ionization efficiencies of the lamps were compared using identical spray geometries with both lamps in microchip APPI mass spectrometry (μAPPI-MS) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS). A comprehensive view on the ionization was gained by studying six different μAPPI solvent compositions, five DAPPI spray solvents, and completely solvent-free DAPPI. The observed reactant ions for each solvent composition were very similar with both lamps except for toluene, which showed a higher amount of solvent originating oxidation products with the rf lamp than with the dc lamp in μAPPI. Moreover, the same analyte ions were detected with both lamps, and thus, the ionization mechanisms with both lamps are similar. The rf lamp showed a higher ionization efficiency than the dc lamp in all experiments. The difference between the lamp ionization efficiencies was greatest when high ionization energy (IE) solvent compositions (IEs above 10 eV), i.e., hexane, methanol, and methanol/water, (1:1 v:v) were used. The higher ionization efficiency of the rf lamp is likely due to the larger area of high intensity light emission, and the resulting larger efficient ionization area and higher amount of photons emitted. These result in higher solvent reactant ion production, which in turn enables more efficient analyte ion production. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  14. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, Thomas F; McClanahan, Timothy R; Andréfouët, Serge; Baker, Merrill; Lagabrielle, Erwann; McClennen, Caleb; Rakotomanjaka, Andry J M; Tianarisoa, Tantely F; Watson, Reg; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value). The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative approaches during

  15. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  16. Cellulosic fuel ethanol: alternative fermentation process designs with wild-type and recombinant Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Lawford, Hugh G; Rousseau, Joyce D

    2003-01-01

    Iogen (Canada) is a major manufacturer of industrial cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes for the textile, pulp and paper, and poultry feed industries. Iogen has recently constructed a 40 t/d biomass-to-ethanol demonstration plant adjacent to its enzyme production facility. The integration of enzyme and ethanol plants results in significant reduction in production costs and offers an alternative use for the sugars generated during biomass conversion. Iogen has partnered with the University of Toronto to test the fermentation performance characteristics of metabolically engineered Zymomonas mobilis created at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This study focused on strain AX101, a xylose- and arabinose-fermenting stable genomic integrant that lacks the selection marker gene for antibiotic resistance. The "Iogen Process" for biomass depolymerization consists of a dilute-sulpfuric acid-catalyzed steam explosion, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. This work examined two process design options for fermentation, first, continuous cofermentation of C5 and C6 sugars by Zm AX101, and second, separate continuous fermentations of prehydrolysate by Zm AX101 and cellulose hydrolysate by either wildtype Z. mobilis ZM4 or an industrial yeast commonly used in the production of fuel ethanol from corn. Iogen uses a proprietary process for conditioning the prehydrolysate to reduce the level of inhibitory acetic acid to at least 2.5 g/L. The pH was controlled at 5.5 and 5.0 for Zymomonas and yeast fermentations, respectively. Neither 2.5 g/L of acetic acid nor the presence of pentose sugars (C6:C5 = 2:1) appreciably affected the high-performance glucose fermentation of wild-type Z. mobilis ZM4. By contrast, 2.5 g/L of acetic acid significantly reduced the rate of pentose fermentation by strain AX101. For single-stage continuous fermentation of pure sugar synthetic cellulose hydrolysate (60 g/L of glucose), wild-type Zymomonas exhibited a four-fold higher volumetric productivity

  17. Alternative waste package designs and storage concepts for disposal of high level wastes at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Piyush

    This dissertation presents and analyzes alternative waste package (WP) designs and operating concept for the Yucca Mountain repository. A 2 nd generation WP design as well as an operating concept are introduced to reduce the risk of corrosion and to lower the repository costs. The concept permits major reductions in repository costs by increasing the WP thermal loading, by eliminating the need for titanium drip shields and by fabricating the outer container from corrosion resistant low alloy carbon steel. The 2 nd generation concept utilizes the benefits of hot dry storage to minimize the potential for corrosion of the WP by liquid electrolytes. On similar lines to the second generation WP design and operating concept, four different WP designs are introduced for the PWR and BWR WPs that support the perspective of a generally drier emplacement drift due to increase in heat load and resulting higher temperatures. The designs are modifications of current US Department of Energy WPs. Nuclear waste was configured in the Cartesian as well as the radial manner with and without increase in the overall size of the WPs. The alternative designs would help cutting down nuclear waste disposal cost without sacrificing the containment standards. WP internal thermal analysis was performed for all the configurations types to demonstrate safety of the designs in terms of maximum attainable temperatures. The thermal analysis addresses heat transfer issues inside the waste packages.

  18. Measurement, comparison, and transformation of dynamic magnetization in pulse field and high-frequency alternating field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, K.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic magnetizations of selected natural samples (sediments and volcanic rocks) were measured in time domain as well as in frequency domain. The time domain measurements were performed in pulse fields with variable lengths (10 μs to 10 ms) and amplitudes (0.5 mT to 0.7 T). To measure hysteresis parameters for small loops, one cycle of positive and negative pulses with different rate of field variation were generated. In the frequency domain, low-field magnetic susceptibility was measured over the frequency rage (1 kHz to 500 kHz) corresponding to the pulse lengths in the time domain measurements. Results in the time domain were characterized by the transient magnetization-field curves that were broadly comparable to the corresponding portions of the hysteresis loops measured by a quasi-static method using a VSM. The dynamic coercivity that is defined as the intersect with the abscissa in the negative regime increased as the pulse length reduced and the pulse peak increased. In strong pulse fields (> 0.5 T), irrespective of the kinds of samples, the magnetization remained at the end of a pulse and decayed exponentially within a few ms, suggesting rapid magnetic relaxations. In weak pulse fields, no such relaxation was observed except for the sediments rich in superparamagnetic (SP) particles. These field dependencies suggest that the relaxations in the strong fields could be due to the dynamics of the domain walls in the MD particles, while those of the sediments in weak fields may be ascribed to the relaxation of the SP particles. Results in the frequency domain were obtained in terms of the frequency spectrum of the real and imaginary components of complex susceptibility. Comparisons and interpretations of the data in these different domains were made in terms of the distribution of relaxation times. Discussions on the numerical conversion and transformation of these data as well as their rock magnetic applications will be provided.

  19. A comparison of marine protected areas and alternative approaches to coral-reef management.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, Timothy R; Marnane, Michael J; Cinner, Joshua E; Kiene, William E

    2006-07-25

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely adopted as the leading tool for coral-reef conservation, but resource users seldom accept them , and many have failed to produce tangible conservation benefits [3]. Few studies have objectively and simultaneously examined the types of MPAs that are most effective in conserving reef resources and the socioeconomic factors responsible for effective conservation [4-6]. We simultaneously explored measures of reef and socioeconomic conservation success at four national parks, four comanaged reserves, and three traditionally managed areas in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Underwater visual censuses of key ecological indicators [7, 8] revealed that the average size and biomass of fishes were higher in all areas under traditional management and at one comanaged reserve when compared to nearby unmanaged areas. Socioeconomic assessments [6, 9, 10] revealed that this "effective conservation" was positively related to compliance, visibility of the reserve, and length of time the management had been in place but negatively related to market integration, wealth, and village population size. We suggest that in cases where the resources for enforcement are lacking, management regimes that are designed to meet community goals can achieve greater compliance and subsequent conservation success than regimes designed primarily for biodiversity conservation.

  20. Critical appraisal of arguments for the delayed-start design proposed as alternative to the parallel-group randomized clinical trial design in the field of rare disease.

    PubMed

    Spineli, Loukia M; Jenz, Eva; Großhennig, Anika; Koch, Armin

    2017-08-17

    A number of papers have proposed or evaluated the delayed-start design as an alternative to the standard two-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial (RCT) design in the field of rare disease. However the discussion is felt to lack a sufficient degree of consideration devoted to the true virtues of the delayed start design and the implications either in terms of required sample-size, overall information, or interpretation of the estimate in the context of small populations. To evaluate whether there are real advantages of the delayed-start design particularly in terms of overall efficacy and sample size requirements as a proposed alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease. We used a real-life example to compare the delayed-start design with the standard RCT in terms of sample size requirements. Then, based on three scenarios regarding the development of the treatment effect over time, the advantages, limitations and potential costs of the delayed-start design are discussed. We clarify that delayed-start design is not suitable for drugs that establish an immediate treatment effect, but for drugs with effects developing over time, instead. In addition, the sample size will always increase as an implication for a reduced time on placebo resulting in a decreased treatment effect. A number of papers have repeated well-known arguments to justify the delayed-start design as appropriate alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease and do not discuss the specific needs of research methodology in this field. The main point is that a limited time on placebo will result in an underestimated treatment effect and, in consequence, in larger sample size requirements compared to those expected under a standard parallel-group design. This also impacts on benefit-risk assessment.

  1. Comparison of complementary and alternative medicine use: reasons and motivations between two tertiary children's hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Cincotta, D R; Crawford, N W; Lim, A; Cranswick, N E; Skull, S; South, M; Powell, C V E

    2006-01-01

    Aims To compare prevalence, reasons, motivations, initiation, perceived helpfulness, and communication of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use between two tertiary children's hospitals. Methodology A study, using a face‐to‐face questionnaire, of 500 children attending the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK was compared to an identical study of 503 children attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Results One year CAM use in Cardiff was lower than Melbourne (41% v 51%; OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.52–0.85), reflected in non‐medicinal use (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.29–0.58) and general paediatric outpatients (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.21–0.67). Compared to Melbourne, factors associated with lower CAM use in Cardiff included families born locally (father: OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.44–0.77) or non‐tertiary educated parents (mother: OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.38–0.77). Cardiff participants used less vitamin C (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.18–0.51) and herbs (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.34–0.71), attended less chiropractors (OR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.06–0.37) and naturopaths (OR = 0.08, 95% CI 0.02–0.33), but saw more reflexologists (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.08–10.29). In Cardiff, CAM was more popular for relaxation (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.03–3.57) but less for colds/coughs (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.27–0.73). Most CAM was self‐initiated (by parent) in Cardiff and Melbourne (74% v 70%), but Cardiff CAM users perceived it less helpful (OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.31–0.68). Non‐disclosure of CAM use was high in Cardiff and Melbourne (66% v 63%); likewise few doctors/nurses documented recent medicinal CAM use in inpatient notes (0/21 v 2/22). Conclusions The differences in CAM use may reflect variation in sociocultural factors influencing reasons, motivations, attitudes, and availability. The regional variation in use and poor communication highlights the importance of local policy development. PMID:16166178

  2. Turbo-alternator-compressor design for supercritical high density working fluids

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2013-03-19

    Techniques for generating power are provided. Such techniques involve a thermodynamic system including a housing, a turbine positioned in a turbine cavity of the housing, a compressor positioned in a compressor cavity of the housing, and an alternator positioned in a rotor cavity between the turbine and compressor cavities. The compressor has a high-pressure face facing an inlet of the compressor cavity and a low-pressure face on an opposite side thereof. The alternator has a rotor shaft operatively connected to the turbine and compressor, and is supported in the housing by bearings. Ridges extending from the low-pressure face of the compressor may be provided for balancing thrust across the compressor. Seals may be positioned about the alternator for selectively leaking fluid into the rotor cavity to reduce the temperature therein.

  3. Statistical validation of mutual information calculations: comparison of alternative numerical algorithms.

    PubMed

    Cellucci, C J; Albano, A M; Rapp, P E

    2005-06-01

    Given two time series X and Y , their mutual information, I (X,Y) = I (Y,X) , is the average number of bits of X that can be predicted by measuring Y and vice versa. In the analysis of observational data, calculation of mutual information occurs in three contexts: identification of nonlinear correlation, determination of an optimal sampling interval, particularly when embedding data, and in the investigation of causal relationships with directed mutual information. In this contribution a minimum description length argument is used to determine the optimal number of elements to use when characterizing the distributions of X and Y . However, even when using partitions of the X and Y axis indicated by minimum description length, mutual information calculations performed with a uniform partition of the XY plane can give misleading results. This motivated the construction of an algorithm for calculating mutual information that uses an adaptive partition. This algorithm also incorporates an explicit test of the statistical independence of X and Y in a calculation that returns an assessment of the corresponding null hypothesis. The previously published Fraser-Swinney algorithm for calculating mutual information includes a sophisticated procedure for local adaptive control of the partitioning process. When the Fraser and Swinney algorithm and the algorithm constructed here are compared, they give very similar numerical results (less than 4% difference in a typical application). Detailed comparisons are possible when X and Y are correlated jointly Gaussian distributed because an analytic expression for I (X,Y) can be derived for that case. Based on these tests, three conclusions can be drawn. First, the algorithm constructed here has an advantage over the Fraser-Swinney algorithm in providing an explicit calculation of the probability of the null hypothesis that X and Y are independent. Second, the Fraser-Swinney algorithm is marginally the more accurate of the two

  4. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Power and Energy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-22

    energy impacts of analysis of site-specific impacts for each M-X deployment alternative. Each analysis identifies the cause-and- effect relationships for...Power 70 3.9 Alternative 8 - Coyote Spring Valley; Clovis 70 4.0 Effects on Energy Systevr.s 73 4.1 Energy Supply - Nevada/Utah 73 4.1.1 Fuel Supply...73 4.1.2 Electric Power 73 4.2 Energy Supply - Texas/New Mexico 73 4.2.1 Fuel Supply 73 4.2.2 Electric Power 73 4.3 Effect on Energy Systems near

  5. Alternating current dielectrophoresis of core-shell nanoparticles: Experiments and comparison with theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chungja

    Nanoparticles are fascinating where physical and optical properties are related to size. Highly controllable synthesis methods and nanoparticle assembly are essential for highly innovative technological applications. Well-defined shaped and sized nanoparticles enable comparisons between experiments, theory and subsequent new models to explain experimentally observed phenomena. Among nanoparticles, nonhomogeneous core-shell nanoparticles (CSnp) have new properties that arise when varying the relative dimensions of the core and the shell. This CSnp structure enables various optical resonances, and engineered energy barriers, in addition to the high charge to surface ratio. Assembly of homogeneous nanoparticles into functional structures has become ubiquitous in biosensors (i.e. optical labeling), nanocoatings, and electrical circuits. Limited nonhomogenous nanoparticle assembly has only been explored. Many conventional nanoparticle assembly methods exist, but this work explores dielectrophoresis (DEP) as a new method. DEP is particle polarization via non-uniform electric fields while suspended in conductive fluids. Most prior DEP efforts involve microscale particles. Prior work on core-shell nanoparticle assemblies and separately, nanoparticle characterizations with dielectrophoresis and electrorotation, did not systematically explore particle size, dielectric properties (permittivity and electrical conductivity), shell thickness, particle concentration, medium conductivity, and frequency. This work is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to systematically examine these dielectrophoretic properties for core-shell nanoparticles. Further, we conduct a parametric fitting to traditional core-shell models. These biocompatible core-shell nanoparticles were studied to fill a knowledge gap in the DEP field. Experimental results (chapter 5) first examine medium conductivity, size and shell material dependencies of dielectrophoretic behaviors of spherical CSnp into 2D and

  6. A comparison of digital flight control design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Parsons, E.; Tashker, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Many variations in design methods for aircraft digital flight control have been proposed in the literature. In general, the methods fall into two categories: those where the design is done in the continuous domain (or s-plane), and those where the design is done in the discrete domain (or z-plane). This paper evaluates several variations of each category and compares them for various flight control modes of the Langley TCV Boeing 737 aircraft. Design method fidelity is evaluated by examining closed loop root movement and the frequency response of the discretely controlled continuous aircraft. It was found that all methods provided acceptable performance for sample rates greater than 10 cps except the 'uncompensated s-plane design' method which was acceptable above 20 cps. A design procedure based on optimal control methods was proposed that provided the best fidelity at very slow sample rates and required no design iterations for changing sample rates.

  7. Comparison of Alternative Equivalent Circuits of Induction Motor with Real Machine Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradna, J.; Bauer, J.; Fligl, S.; Hlinovsky, V.

    The algorithms based on separated control of the motor flux and torque is used in order to gain the maximum performance from the induction machine. To push the efficiency and dynamics limits of the IM to its limits mostly FOC or DTC control strategies are used. Both are based on the knowledge of the hardly measurable variable-machine flux. To obtain the information about inner machine flux models based on the machine equivalent circuit are mostly used. Therefore the accuracy of the equivalent circuits has direct influence on the accuracy of the machine control. To reduce the complexity of the mathematical model the resistances and inductances are concentrated to one component and three phase winding is assumed to be symmetrical. In order to design control strategy for the induction motor, system equations and equivalent circuit must be established at first. This paper examines and compares some of the issues of adequate machine modeling and attempts to provide a firmer basis for selection of an appropriate model and to confirm or disprove the equivalence of different approaches. The results of the IM model run up are then compared to the results obtained from the measurements on the real machine and the equivalency is discussed.

  8. MODELING AND DESIGN STUDY USING HFC-236EA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT IN A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of the operation of a centrifugal compressor--part of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 chiller installation--with the new refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea, a proposed alternative to CFC-114. A large set of CFC-236ea operating da...

  9. ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF ALTERNATIVE LANDSCAPE DESIGNS ON AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual-based, spatially explicit population model was used to predict the onsequences of future land-use alternatives for populations of four amphibian species in two agricultural watersheds in central Iowa. The model included both breeding and upland habitat and incorp...

  10. Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

    2009-01-01

    As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…

  11. Examining Our Career Switching Teachers' First Year of Teaching: Implications for Alternative Teacher Education Program Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Samaras, Anastasia P.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the impact of an alternative teacher preparation program development from the "inside out" or through the voices of second career teachers, known as "Career Switchers," at a mid-size state university. The major objective of this study was to probe into their perceptions to inform program development with reporting framed in…

  12. MODELING AND DESIGN STUDY USING HFC-236EA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT IN A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of the operation of a centrifugal compressor--part of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 chiller installation--with the new refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea, a proposed alternative to CFC-114. A large set of CFC-236ea operating da...

  13. Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

    2009-01-01

    As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…

  14. An evaluation of the impact of an example of thermal bridging in buildings and a design alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinfeld, Jack M.

    2012-06-01

    Thermal Bridges act as short circuits for energy flow between conditioned interior space and the outside environment. They readily show up in infrared imaging under appropriate conditions. An example of a thermal bridge in a standard building detail and an alternate design are analyzed to predict the energy impact of the bridge and of removing it. The analysis also provides guidance on whether infrared imaging can detect the thermal bridge.

  15. Electrically Elicited Muscle Torque: Comparison Between 2500-Hz Burst-Modulated Alternating Current and Monophasic Pulsed Current.

    PubMed

    Scott, Wayne; Adams, Cheryl; Cyr, Shantelle; Hanscom, Brianna; Hill, Kevin; Lawson, Jeffrey; Ziegenbein, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Single-blind, block-randomization crossover design. To compare the knee extensor muscle torque production elicited with 2500-Hz burst-modulated alternating current (BMAC) and with a monophasic pulsed current (MPC) at the maximum tolerated stimulation intensity. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is often used for strengthening the quadriceps following knee surgery. Strength gains are dependent on muscle torque production, which is primarily limited by discomfort. Burst-modulated alternating current stimulation is a clinically popular waveform for NMES. Prior research has established that MPC with a relatively long pulse duration is effective for high muscle torque production. Participants in this study were 20 adults with no history of knee injury. A crossover design was used to randomize the order in which each participant's dominant or nondominant lower extremity received NMES and the waveform (MPC or BMAC) this limb received. Stimulation intensity was incrementally increased until participants reached their maximum tolerance. The torque produced was converted to a percentage of each participant's maximum volitional isometric contraction of the respective limb. A general linear model for a 2-treatment, 2-period crossover design was utilized to analyze the results. The mean ± SD electrically induced percent maximum volitional isometric contraction at maximal participant tolerance was 49.5% ± 19.6% for MPC and 29.8% ± 12.4% for BMAC. This difference was statistically significant (P = .002) after accounting for treatment order and limb, which had no effect on torque production. Neuromuscular stimulation using MPC may be more efficacious than using BMAC to achieve a high torque output in patients with quadriceps weakness.

  16. Comparison of Optimal Design Methods in Inverse Problems

    PubMed Central

    Banks, H. T.; Holm, Kathleen; Kappel, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Typical optimal design methods for inverse or parameter estimation problems are designed to choose optimal sampling distributions through minimization of a specific cost function related to the resulting error in parameter estimates. It is hoped that the inverse problem will produce parameter estimates with increased accuracy using data collected according to the optimal sampling distribution. Here we formulate the classical optimal design problem in the context of general optimization problems over distributions of sampling times. We present a new Prohorov metric based theoretical framework that permits one to treat succinctly and rigorously any optimal design criteria based on the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM). A fundamental approximation theory is also included in this framework. A new optimal design, SE-optimal design (standard error optimal design), is then introduced in the context of this framework. We compare this new design criteria with the more traditional D-optimal and E-optimal designs. The optimal sampling distributions from each design are used to compute and compare standard errors; the standard errors for parameters are computed using asymptotic theory or bootstrapping and the optimal mesh. We use three examples to illustrate ideas: the Verhulst-Pearl logistic population model [13], the standard harmonic oscillator model [13] and a popular glucose regulation model [16, 19, 29]. PMID:21857762

  17. Comparison of Optimal Design Methods in Inverse Problems.

    PubMed

    Banks, H T; Holm, Kathleen; Kappel, Franz

    2011-07-01

    Typical optimal design methods for inverse or parameter estimation problems are designed to choose optimal sampling distributions through minimization of a specific cost function related to the resulting error in parameter estimates. It is hoped that the inverse problem will produce parameter estimates with increased accuracy using data collected according to the optimal sampling distribution. Here we formulate the classical optimal design problem in the context of general optimization problems over distributions of sampling times. We present a new Prohorov metric based theoretical framework that permits one to treat succinctly and rigorously any optimal design criteria based on the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM). A fundamental approximation theory is also included in this framework. A new optimal design, SE-optimal design (standard error optimal design), is then introduced in the context of this framework. We compare this new design criteria with the more traditional D-optimal and E-optimal designs. The optimal sampling distributions from each design are used to compute and compare standard errors; the standard errors for parameters are computed using asymptotic theory or bootstrapping and the optimal mesh. We use three examples to illustrate ideas: the Verhulst-Pearl logistic population model [13], the standard harmonic oscillator model [13] and a popular glucose regulation model [16, 19, 29].

  18. An Alternative View of the Instructional Design Process: A Response to Smith and Boling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Yanchar, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    A recent literature review by Smith and Boling (2009) critically examines the received view of instructional design in educational technology. Smith and Boling conclude that the foundational literature characterizes design in a way that leads to a constrained understanding of design, especially by novices. They suggest that as a field we move…

  19. Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

  20. Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

  1. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management program at all mills involved in producing steel, plate, coil, skelp, and/or rolling pipe to be... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe...

  2. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management program at all mills involved in producing steel, plate, coil, skelp, and/or rolling pipe to be... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe...

  3. An Alternative View of the Instructional Design Process: A Response to Smith and Boling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Yanchar, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    A recent literature review by Smith and Boling (2009) critically examines the received view of instructional design in educational technology. Smith and Boling conclude that the foundational literature characterizes design in a way that leads to a constrained understanding of design, especially by novices. They suggest that as a field we move…

  4. SSME Alternate Turbopump Development Program: Design verification specification for high-pressure fuel turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The design and verification requirements are defined which are appropriate to hardware at the detail, subassembly, component, and engine levels and to correlate these requirements to the development demonstrations which provides verification that design objectives are achieved. The high pressure fuel turbopump requirements verification matrix provides correlation between design requirements and the tests required to verify that the requirement have been met.

  5. Development and Comparison of TACAMO Icon Design Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    of icons, alphanumeric formats, and labels. While Steiner and Camacho (1989, p. 14) argue that, for large amounts of information, users perform better...superiority of icons over alphanumerics for many applications ( Steiner and Camacho, 1989), an iconic interface is strongly endorsed as an alternative...produce faster search and selection times (Camacho, Steiner , and Berson, 1990) and in some cases they are even preferred by experienced operators

  6. Tolerance of the archaeal Sac7d scaffold protein to alternative library designs: characterization of anti-immunoglobulin G Affitins.

    PubMed

    Béhar, Ghislaine; Bellinzoni, Marco; Maillasson, Mike; Paillard-Laurance, Lauranne; Alzari, Pedro M; He, Xuemei; Mouratou, Barbara; Pecorari, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Engineered protein scaffolds have received considerable attention as alternatives to antibodies in both basic and applied research, as they can offer superior biophysical properties often associated with a simpler molecular organization. Sac7d has been demonstrated as an effective scaffold for molecular recognition. Here, we used the initial L1 'flat surface' library constructed by randomization of 14 residues, to identify ligands specific for human immunoglobulin G. To challenge the plasticity of the Sac7d protein scaffold, we designed the alternative L2 'flat surface & loops' library whereof only 10 residues are randomized. Representative binders (Affitins) of the two libraries exhibited affinities in the low nanomolar range and were able to recognize different epitopes within human immunoglobulin G. These Affitins were stable up to pH 12 while largely conserving other favorable properties of Sac7d protein, such as high expression yields in Escherichia coli, solubility, thermal stability up to 80.7°C, and acidic stability (pH 0). In agreement with our library designs, mutagenesis study revealed two distinct binding areas, one including loops. Together, our results indicate that the Sac7d scaffold tolerates alternative library designs, which further expands the diversity of Affitins and may provide a general way to create tailored affinity tools for demanding applications.

  7. The Civic-Minded Instructional Designers Framework: An Alternative Approach to Contemporary Instructional Designers' Education in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Correia, Ana-Paula

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that an emphasis on training-for-the-job approaches has distracted designers from thinking about the meaning of their profession and the grand purpose of practising instructional design. Drawing from literature in the fields of sociology and educational technology, this paper synthesises discourses on civic professionalism in…

  8. Radiation Belt Modeling for Spacecraft Design: Model Comparisons for Common Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, J.-M.; Barth, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    We present the current status of radiation belt modeling, providing model details and comparisons with AP-8 and AE-8 for commonly used orbits. Improved modeling of the particle environment enables smarter space system design.

  9. Comparison of usual and alternative methods to measure height in mechanically ventilated patients: potential impact on protective ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bojmehrani, Azadeh; Bergeron-Duchesne, Maude; Bouchard, Carmelle; Simard, Serge; Bouchard, Pierre-Alexandre; Vanderschuren, Abel; L'Her, Erwan; Lellouche, François

    2014-07-01

    Protective ventilation implementation requires the calculation of predicted body weight (PBW), determined by a formula based on gender and height. Consequently, height inaccuracy may be a limiting factor to correctly set tidal volumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different methods in measuring heights in mechanically ventilated patients. Before cardiac surgery, actual height was measured with a height gauge while subjects were standing upright (reference method); the height was also estimated by alternative methods based on lower leg and forearm measurements. After cardiac surgery, upon ICU admission, a subject's height was visually estimated by a clinician and then measured with a tape measure while the subject was supine and undergoing mechanical ventilation. One hundred subjects (75 men, 25 women) were prospectively included. Mean PBW was 61.0 ± 9.7 kg, and mean actual weight was 30.3% higher. In comparison with the reference method, estimating the height visually and using the tape measure were less accurate than both lower leg and forearm measurements. Errors above 10% in calculating the PBW were present in 25 and 40 subjects when the tape measure or visual estimation of height was used in the formula, respectively. With lower leg and forearm measurements, 15 subjects had errors above 10% (P < .001). Our results demonstrate that significant variability exists between the different methods used to measure height in bedridden patients on mechanical ventilation. Alternative methods based on lower leg and forearm measurements are potentially interesting solutions to facilitate the accurate application of protective ventilation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Can sequential parallel comparison design and two-way enriched design be useful in medical device clinical trials?

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Zhang, Zhiwei; Thompson, Laura; Yang, Ying; Kotz, Richard M; Fang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Sequential parallel comparison design (SPCD) was proposed for trials with high placebo response. In the first stage of SPCD subjects are randomized between placebo and active treatment. In the second stage placebo nonresponders are re-randomized between placebo and active treatment. Data from the population of "all comers" and the subpopulations of placebo nonresponders then combined to yield a single p-value for treatment comparison. Two-way enriched design (TED) is an extension of SPCD where active treatment responders are also re-randomized between placebo and active treatment in Stage 2. This article investigates the potential uses of SPCD and TED in medical device trials.

  11. An International Comparison of Final-Year Design Project Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentish, Sandra E.; Shallcross, David C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews design teaching at a total of 15 chemical engineering departments across Australia, Singapore, and the United Kingdom. The emphasis is on the capstone Design Project, which can be viewed as a major transition subject for students as they move into the workplace. The study shows that this subject has evolved to act as an…

  12. A comparison of methods for DPLL loop filter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguirre, S.; Hurd, W. J.; Kumar, R.; Statman, J.

    1986-01-01

    Four design methodologies for loop filters for a class of digital phase-locked loops (DPLLs) are presented. The first design maps an optimum analog filter into the digital domain; the second approach designs a filter that minimizes in discrete time weighted combination of the variance of the phase error due to noise and the sum square of the deterministic phase error component; the third method uses Kalman filter estimation theory to design a filter composed of a least squares fading memory estimator and a predictor. The last design relies on classical theory, including rules for the design of compensators. Linear analysis is used throughout the article to compare different designs, and includes stability, steady state performance and transient behavior of the loops. Design methodology is not critical when the loop update rate can be made high relative to loop bandwidth, as the performance approaches that of continuous time. For low update rates, however, the miminization method is significantly superior to the other methods.

  13. A comparison of methods for DPLL loop filter design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, S.; Hurd, W. J.; Kumar, R.; Statman, J.

    1986-11-01

    Four design methodologies for loop filters for a class of digital phase-locked loops (DPLLs) are presented. The first design maps an optimum analog filter into the digital domain; the second approach designs a filter that minimizes in discrete time weighted combination of the variance of the phase error due to noise and the sum square of the deterministic phase error component; the third method uses Kalman filter estimation theory to design a filter composed of a least squares fading memory estimator and a predictor. The last design relies on classical theory, including rules for the design of compensators. Linear analysis is used throughout the article to compare different designs, and includes stability, steady state performance and transient behavior of the loops. Design methodology is not critical when the loop update rate can be made high relative to loop bandwidth, as the performance approaches that of continuous time. For low update rates, however, the miminization method is significantly superior to the other methods.

  14. The Design of Time-Series Comparisons under Resource Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemain, Thomas R.; Hartunian, Nelson S.

    1982-01-01

    Two methods for dividing an interrupted time-series study between baseline and experimental phases when study resources are limited are compared. In fixed designs, the baseline duration is predetermined. In flexible designs the baseline duration is contingent on remaining resources and the match of results to prior expectations of the evaluator.…

  15. An International Comparison of Final-Year Design Project Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentish, Sandra E.; Shallcross, David C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews design teaching at a total of 15 chemical engineering departments across Australia, Singapore, and the United Kingdom. The emphasis is on the capstone Design Project, which can be viewed as a major transition subject for students as they move into the workplace. The study shows that this subject has evolved to act as an…

  16. Concept design and alternate arrangements of orbiter mid-deck habitability features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, R. A.; Ciciora, J. A.; Porter, K. L.; Stevenson, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    The evaluations and recommendations for habitability features in the space shuttle orbiter mid-deck are summarized. The orbiter mission plans, the mid-deck dimensions and baseline arrangements along with crew compliments and typical activities were defined. Female and male anthropometric data based on zero-g operations were also defined. Evaluations of baseline and alternate feasible concepts provided several recommendations which are discussed.

  17. Flight simulator requirements for airline transport pilot training - An evaluation of motion system design alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. T.; Bussolari, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of motion platform systems on pilot behavior is considered with emphasis placed on civil aviation applications. A dynamic model for human spatial orientation based on the physiological structure and function of the human vestibular system is presented. Motion platform alternatives were evaluated on the basis of the following motion platform conditions: motion with six degrees-of-freedom required for Phase II simulators and two limited motion conditions. Consideration was given to engine flameout, airwork, and approach and landing scenarios.

  18. A comparison of methods currently used in inclusive design.

    PubMed

    Goodman-Deane, Joy; Ward, James; Hosking, Ian; Clarkson, P John

    2014-07-01

    Inclusive design has unique challenges because it aims to improve usability for a wide range of users. This typically includes people with lower levels of ability, as well as mainstream users. This paper examines the effectiveness of two methods that are used in inclusive design: user trials and exclusion calculations (an inclusive design inspection method). A study examined three autoinjectors using both methods (n=30 for the user trials). The usability issues identified by each method are compared and the effectiveness of the methods is discussed. The study found that each method identified different kinds of issues, all of which are important for inclusive design. We therefore conclude that a combination of methods should be used in inclusive design rather than relying on a single method. Recommendations are also given for how the individual methods can be used more effectively in this context.

  19. Comparison of optimal design methods in inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, H. T.; Holm, K.; Kappel, F.

    2011-07-01

    Typical optimal design methods for inverse or parameter estimation problems are designed to choose optimal sampling distributions through minimization of a specific cost function related to the resulting error in parameter estimates. It is hoped that the inverse problem will produce parameter estimates with increased accuracy using data collected according to the optimal sampling distribution. Here we formulate the classical optimal design problem in the context of general optimization problems over distributions of sampling times. We present a new Prohorov metric-based theoretical framework that permits one to treat succinctly and rigorously any optimal design criteria based on the Fisher information matrix. A fundamental approximation theory is also included in this framework. A new optimal design, SE-optimal design (standard error optimal design), is then introduced in the context of this framework. We compare this new design criterion with the more traditional D-optimal and E-optimal designs. The optimal sampling distributions from each design are used to compute and compare standard errors; the standard errors for parameters are computed using asymptotic theory or bootstrapping and the optimal mesh. We use three examples to illustrate ideas: the Verhulst-Pearl logistic population model (Banks H T and Tran H T 2009 Mathematical and Experimental Modeling of Physical and Biological Processes (Boca Raton, FL: Chapman and Hall/CRC)), the standard harmonic oscillator model (Banks H T and Tran H T 2009) and a popular glucose regulation model (Bergman R N, Ider Y Z, Bowden C R and Cobelli C 1979 Am. J. Physiol. 236 E667-77 De Gaetano A and Arino O 2000 J. Math. Biol. 40 136-68 Toffolo G, Bergman R N, Finegood D T, Bowden C R and Cobelli C 1980 Diabetes 29 979-90).

  20. An exploration of alternative intersection designs in the context of Safe System.

    PubMed

    Candappa, Nimmi; Logan, David; Van Nes, Nicole; Corben, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Fatal and serious injury crashes persist at intersections despite current efforts to address this. Little research specifically investigates the role played by existing intersection design in perpetuating serious intersection crash outcomes despite an increasing move to incorporate Safe System design on to roads. This paper identifies design principles deemed important to align intersection design with Safe System approaches, including exploring the impact of speed and angle on overall kinetic energy of a crash. Existing as well as new intersection designs are presented that are believed to incorporate the identified principles. An assessment is made of the alignment of the new and existing designs with the identified principles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermal/mechanical simulation and laboratory fatigue testing of an alternative yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal core-veneer all-ceramic layered crown design.

    PubMed

    Bonfante, Estevam A; Rafferty, Brian; Zavanelli, Ricardo A; Silva, Nelson R F A; Rekow, Elizabeth D; Thompson, Van P; Coelho, Paulo G

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the stress levels at the core layer and the veneer layer of zirconia crowns (comprising an alternative core design vs. a standard core design) under mechanical/thermal simulation, and subjected simulated models to laboratory mouth-motion fatigue. The dimensions of a mandibular first molar were imported into computer-aided design (CAD) software and a tooth preparation was modeled. A crown was designed using the space between the original tooth and the prepared tooth. The alternative core presented an additional lingual shoulder that lowered the veneer bulk of the cusps. Finite element analyses evaluated the residual maximum principal stresses fields at the core and veneer of both designs under loading and when cooled from 900 degrees C to 25 degrees C. Crowns were fabricated and mouth-motion fatigued, generating master Weibull curves and reliability data. Thermal modeling showed low residual stress fields throughout the bulk of the cusps for both groups. Mechanical simulation depicted a shift in stress levels to the core of the alternative design compared with the standard design. Significantly higher reliability was found for the alternative core. Regardless of the alternative configuration, thermal and mechanical computer simulations showed stress in the alternative core design comparable and higher to that of the standard configuration, respectively. Such a mechanical scenario probably led to the higher reliability of the alternative design under fatigue.

  2. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

  3. Chamber and eddy covariance comparisons of alternate wetting and drying and continuous flood irrigation in mid-South rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reba, M. L.; Fong, B.; Adviento-Borbe, A.; Runkle, B.

    2016-12-01

    The subtropical humid mid-south region produces nearly 75% of US rice. Rice cultivation contributes higher amounts of GHG emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) due to flooded field conditions. Accurate measurements of gas fluxes are important to regional and global climate models. A comparison between eddy covariance and static vented flux chamber measurement techniques is presented. These measurements were collected in two NE Arkansas commercial rice fields in 2015 and 2016 production seasons under two irrigation treatments: Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) and continuous flood (CF) irrigation. AWD can reduce GHG emissions and water use compared to CF by introducing aerobic conditions that reduce methanogen activity and drained conditions decrease water loss due to seepage or evapotranspiration. N2O was measured only with vented chambers, while CO2 and CH4 were measured with both techniques. In the vented flux chamber technique, headspace gas sampling occurred at least once a week every 20 minutes for one hour of chamber closure. Gas Chromatograph equipped with ECD and FID were used to analyze gas concentrations. Eddy covariance used high frequency measurements wind and concentration measurements to determine fluxes. Chamber measurements were found to be more sensitive during seedling and early vegetative growth while eddy covariance was more sensitive after canopy closure during mid-vegetative to reproductive growth. Unlike eddy covariance which measured net CO2 exchange, flux chamber method measured only CO2 ecosystem respiration because flux measurements occurred using an opaque chamber material.

  4. Alternative Policy Designs and the Socio-political Construction of Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Elizabeth; Tarrant, Kate; Neuman, Michelle J.

    2007-01-01

    Policy makers and advocates have a variety of tools from which to choose when designing childcare policy. Policy design choices, such as whether to provide childcare assistance through a new government program or via a voucher for use in the private market, are in fact social, political, moral, and value-laden choices that shape the nature of…

  5. CFD analysis of the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve and design of an alternative device.

    PubMed

    Kara, E; Kutlar, A I

    2010-12-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling based on a commercial package, FLUENT, has been used in the present study. The primary aim of this study is to develop a novel implant by employing CFD techniques. Firstly, CFD analyses on the best design commercially available, which is the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV®), are accomplished. In the light of the results, the new design focus is selected as the valve. The new design is analysed using GAMBIT and FLUENT software. CFD analyses of the new design and the AGV® are compared and the strengths of the new design are revealed. The results are also compared with the experimental studies AGV® in the literature. It is deduced that the proposed model shows a nonlinear pressure drop response, which is quite similar to that of AGV®. The optimum combination would be a flow rate of 2.5 μl/min and a pressure drop of 1054.58 Pa for the proposed model.

  6. Comparison of a new flap design with the routinely used triangular flap design in third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Yolcu, Ü; Acar, A H

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce a new flap design in the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars - a lingually based triangular flap - and to compare this flap design with the routinely used triangular flap. This randomized, prospective, split-mouth study involved 22 patients with impacted bilateral mandibular third molars that were symmetrically positioned, mesially angulated, and retained in bone. The impacted teeth were removed in two sessions, using two different flap designs: the new alternative flap and the traditional triangular flap. Postoperative complications (pain, swelling, trismus, alveolar osteitis, and wound dehiscence) were recorded on days 2, 7, 14, and 21. The data obtained were analysed using the χ(2) test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, and Pearson's correlation. In terms of the severity of postoperative facial swelling and trismus, there were no statistically significant differences between the flap designs (P>0.05). The alternative flap exhibited higher pain scores at 12h post-surgery (P<0.05). In addition, the alternative flap group exhibited less wound dehiscence, although this was not statistically significant. Moreover, all wound dehiscence in this group occurred on sound bone. In conclusion, these results show that this new flap design is preferable to the routinely used flap for impacted third molar surgery.

  7. Alternative fuel developments and overseas design influences on North American bus operations

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The continuing demands of transit agencies for solutions to reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and improve services are driving developments in the transit bus industry. This publication addresses these demands and is the first of its kind focused exclusively on bus issues. Tentative/Partial contents include: Development of a New Line of Axles for Low Floor Buses; Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for a Low Floor Bus; A Review of Natural Gas Engine Development for the Fleet Operator; High Purity LNG for Alternately-Fueled Vehicles; and A Review of Remanufactured Engine Technology for the Fleet Operator.

  8. Investigation of Alternative Return Strategies for Orion Trans-earth Injection Design Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchand, Belinda G.; Scarritt, Sara K.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Weeks, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate alternative return strategies for the Orion trans-Earth injection (TEI) phase. A dynamical systems analysis approach considers the structure of the stable and unstable Sun perturbed Earth-Moon manifolds near the Earth-Moon interface region. A hybrid approach, then, combines the results from this analysis with classical two-body methods in a targeting process that seeks to expand the window of return opportunities in a precision entry scenario. The resulting startup arcs can be used, for instance, to enhance the block set of solutions available onboard during an autonomous targeting process.

  9. Water balance relationships in four alternative cover designs for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Trujillo, G.

    1994-08-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a field study to evaluate the relative hydrologic performance of various landfill capping technologies installed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Four cover designs (two Los Alamos capillary barrier designs, one modified EPA RCRA design, and one conventional design) were installed in large lysimeters instrumented to monitor the fate of natural precipitation between 01 January 1990 and 20 September 1993. After 45 months of study, results showed that the cover designs containing barrier layers were effective in reducing deep percolation as compared to a simple soil cap design. The RCRA cover, incorporating a clay hydraulic barrier, was the most effective of all cover designs in controlling percolation but was not 100% effective. Over 90% of all percolation and barrier lateral flow occurred during the months of February through May of each year, primarily as a result of snow melt, early spring rains and low evapotranspiration. Gravel mulch surface treatments (70--80% coverage) were effective in reducing runoff and erosion. The two plots receiving gravel mulch treatments exhibited equal but enhanced amounts of evapotranspiration despite the fact that one plot was planted with additional shrubs.

  10. Financing Alternatives Comparison Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    FACT is a financial analysis tool that helps identify the most cost-effective method to fund a wastewater or drinking water management project. It produces a comprehensive analysis that compares various financing options.

  11. Variance Analysis and Comparison in Computer-Aided Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, T.; Schiffer, T.; Schinko, C.; Fellner, D. W.

    2011-09-01

    The need to analyze and visualize differences of very similar objects arises in many research areas: mesh compression, scan alignment, nominal/actual value comparison, quality management, and surface reconstruction to name a few. In computer graphics, for example, differences of surfaces are used for analyzing mesh processing algorithms such as mesh compression. They are also used to validate reconstruction and fitting results of laser scanned surfaces. As laser scanning has become very important for the acquisition and preservation of artifacts, scanned representations are used for documentation as well as analysis of ancient objects. Detailed mesh comparisons can reveal smallest changes and damages. These analysis and documentation tasks are needed not only in the context of cultural heritage but also in engineering and manufacturing. Differences of surfaces are analyzed to check the quality of productions. Our contribution to this problem is a workflow, which compares a reference / nominal surface with an actual, laser-scanned data set. The reference surface is a procedural model whose accuracy and systematics describe the semantic properties of an object; whereas the laser-scanned object is a real-world data set without any additional semantic information.

  12. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Davidson, Carolyn; McLaren, Joyce; Miller, John

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  13. Designing Alternatives: Design Thinking as a Mediating Learning Strategy to Bridge Science and the Humanities for Leadership Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegorne, Nicholas A.; Mastrogiovanni, Jason M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the work of educational anti-consumerists such as David F. Noble (2002) as well as design theory (Cross, 2006; Dorst, 2011; Farrell & Hooker, 2013) and adaptive leadership (Heifetz, Grashow, & Linsky, 2009), these authors frame the complex interactions involving teaching and learning along a spectrum bracketed by training on one…

  14. An alternative design for small-scale school health experiments: does daily walking produce benefits in physical performance of school children?

    PubMed

    Mønness, E; Sjølie, A N

    2009-11-01

    The mainstream randomized clinical trial is not always feasible in a school setting. There might be practical and ethical issues that make dividing school classes into an intervention and a control group impossible or undesirable, and there is a need to explore the validity of alternative designs and analyses. An alternative to a randomized clinical trial in a physical performance experiment at a school is introduced and evaluated. The before-intervention data are utilized as control data for the intervention data in addition to adjust for pre-intervention differences. The strict class year structure of school data makes this possible. In a rural school in inland Norway, all school children joined the project of walking in a rugged terrain outside school for 20 min every school day during one school year. Measurements of low back static endurance, hamstrings flexibility, standing balance and cardiovascular fitness were made before and after the intervention. As intervention and 'aging' were confounded, the special use of the pre-intervention data, 'age-adjusted', is proposed to solve this issue. A comparison with having an independent control group is performed. The alternative analysing method is judged to yield valid results without having an independent control group. The age-adjusted analyses showed 11% increase in low back static endurance, 8% increase in hamstrings flexibility, 69% increase in balance and 6-13% increase in cardiovascular fitness. The effects were largest among those children who had the lowest performances before the intervention. The introduced statistical methods display that, in a school population, evaluations from an experiment can be made without an independent control group. A 20-min walk during school time for 1 year seemed to improve physical performance.

  15. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  16. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  17. Design and performance comparison of fuzzy logic based tracking controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    Several camera tracking controllers based on fuzzy logic principles have been designed and tested in software simulation in the software technology branch at the Johnson Space Center. The fuzzy logic based controllers utilize range measurement and pixel positions from the image as input parameters and provide pan and tilt gimble rate commands as output. Two designs of the rulebase and tuning process applied to the membership functions are discussed in light of optimizing performance. Seven test cases have been designed to test the performance of the controllers for proximity operations where approaches like v-bar, fly-around and station keeping are performed. The controllers are compared in terms of responsiveness, and ability to maintain the object in the field-of-view of the camera. Advantages of the fuzzy logic approach with respect to the conventional approach have been discussed in terms of simplicity and robustness.

  18. Sample size determination for alternate periods of use study designs with binary responses.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jorge G; Neerchal, Nagaraj K

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider several study designs that arise in practice, which are variations of standard crossover designs. Often, they may result from modifications made to a standard crossover design due to practical considerations. Characteristic features of the studies we are concerned with are (a) treatments consist of external use of products with little or no possibility of carry over effects, and (b) the periods of use are dictated by the subjects or by some specific event, such as diaper leakage or menstrual flow. We consider a number of such study designs for estimating the difference in the efficacy of two treatments or test products. We provide brief descriptions of studies to motivate the study design, the underlying data structure, and computations of the variances of the usual unbiased estimators of the difference in efficacy, and the sample size formulas. The situations considered here cover a number of popular crossover designs. The objective of our work is to provide guidance to members of a wide audience on how to answer the sample size question for their own nonstandard situations. We conclude the article with a brief report on a simulation study we conducted to investigate the impact of estimation on the sample size determination and consequently on the actual power realized in an effort to promote the "best practice" of checking whether the recommended sample sizes indeed achieve the desired level of power.

  19. Some comparisons of US and USSR aircraft design developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of the design and development of some U.S. and U.S.S.R. aircraft. The emphasis is on the historical development of large aircraft - civil and military transports and bombers. Design trends are somewhat similar for the two countries and indications are that some fundamental characteristics are dictated more by ideological differences rather than technological differences. A brief description is given in a more or less chronological order of the major bomber aircraft, major civil and military transport aircraft, and the development of the air transport systems.

  20. Some comparisons of US and USSR aircraft design developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of the design and development of some US and USSR aircraft. The emphasis is on the historical development of large aircraft-civil and military transports and bombers. Design trends are somewhat similar for the two countries and indications are that some fundamental characteristics are dictated more by ideological differences rather than technological differences. A brief description is given in a more or less chronological order of the major bomber aircraft, major civil and military transport aircraft, and the development of the air transport systems.

  1. Some comparisons of US and USSR aircraft design developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of the design and development of some U.S. and U.S.S.R. aircraft. The emphasis is on the historical development of large aircraft - civil and military transports and bombers. Design trends are somewhat similar for the two countries and indications are that some fundamental characteristics are dictated more by ideological differences rather than technological differences. A brief description is given in a more or less chronological order of the major bomber aircraft, major civil and military transport aircraft, and the development of the air transport systems.

  2. Comparison between Kemp, Smith & Ragan, Dick & Carey's Instructional Design Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birgili, Bengi

    2013-01-01

    Instructional design (ID) is systematic way of suggesting a structure and giving meaning to an instructional problem by helping to visualize the problem and breaking into discrete and manageable units. In addition, ID is a systematic reflective process of applying instructional principles into plans by material, activity, resources and evaluation…

  3. Comparison of Two Independent Lidar-Based Pitch Control Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, F.; Schlipf, D.; Pao, L. Y.; Wright, A. D.; Jonkman, B.; Kelley, N.; Simley, E.

    2012-01-01

    Two different lidar-based feedforward controllers have previously been designed for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine model under separate studies. One uses a finite-impulse-response design, with 5 seconds of preview, and three rotating lidar measurements. The other uses a static-gain design, with the preview time defined by the pitch actuator dynamics, a simulation of a real nacelle-based scanning lidar system, and a lowpass filter defined by the lidar configuration. These controllers are now directly compared under the same lidar configuration, in terms of fatigue load reduction, rotor speed regulation, and power capture. The various differences in design choices are discussed and compared. We also compare frequency plots of individual pitch feedforward and collective pitch feedforward load reductions, and we see that individual pitch feedforward is effective mainly at the once-per-revolution and twice-per-revolution frequencies. We also explain how to determine the required preview time by breaking it down into separate parts, and we then compare it to the expected preview time available.

  4. Comparison of Two Independent LIDAR-Based Pitch Control Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, F.; Schlipf, D.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-08-01

    Two different lidar-based feedforward controllers have previously been designed for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine model under separate studies. Feedforward controller A uses a finite-impulse-response design, with 5 seconds of preview, and three rotating lidar measurements. Feedforward controller B uses a static-gain design, with the preview time defined by the pitch actuator dynamics, a simulation of a real nacelle-based scanning lidar system, and a lowpass filter defined by the lidar configuration. These controllers are now directly compared under the same lidar configuration, in terms of fatigue load reduction, rotor speed regulation, and power capture. The various differences in design choices are discussed and compared. We also compare frequency plots of individual pitch feedforward and collective pitch feedforward load reductions, and we see that individual pitch feedforward is effective mainly at the once-per-revolution and twice-per-revolution frequencies. We also explain how to determine the required preview time by breaking it down into separate parts, and we then compare it to the expected preview time available.

  5. Comparison of two approaches to linear collider design

    SciTech Connect

    Schnell, W.

    1987-11-01

    This paper reviews linear collider parameters. It aims at analyzing two specific design approachs - the ones for CLIC at CERN and for a TeV linear collider at SLAC - which appear to lead into remarkably different directions although they start from the same premises and try to respect the same boundary conditions. 19 refs.

  6. Comparison Sensitivity Design of Output Feedback Systems Using State Observers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    of sensitivity reduction in feedback systems which use state observers for dynamic compensation is considered leading to a design procedure which...results developed using state observers in the compensator dynamics. All systems discussed are assumed to be linear time invariant (LTI) systems which are state controllable and state observable. (Author)

  7. Design Approaches and Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to promote the use of modern technologies such as multimedia packages to engineering students. The aim is to help them to learning in their learning, visualization, problem solving and understanding engineering concepts such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: TAPS packages are developed to help…

  8. Design Approaches and Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to promote the use of modern technologies such as multimedia packages to engineering students. The aim is to help them to learning in their learning, visualization, problem solving and understanding engineering concepts such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: TAPS packages are developed to help…

  9. Sıkışma: An Alternative Information Design Project for Ihlamur Pavilions Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Özmen, Melike

    2016-01-01

    Sıkışma is a transmedia information design project, which focuses on Ihlamur Pavilions and Ihlamur area. Ihlamur hosts Ihlamur Pavilions since 19th Century. It is located within Beşiktaş district in Istanbul. Nowadays the buildings belong to TBMM (The Grand National Assembly of Turkey) National Palaces and used as a Museum- Café. There is a conventional wayfinding & signage system for outdoor areas of the Pavilions. The system also includes two separate boards focusing on the history of Ihlamur and Ihlamur Pavilions. However, the information provided on these boards seems inadequate and the boards are physically damaged. According Universal Design approach it is possible to achieve good and functional design and solve the inadequacy problem by physically fixing information boards and re-setting the environment around the information boards according to Universal Design principles. Although, these principles provide solutions for important issues such as mobility, stability and accessibility, it doesn't provide sufficient proof of user engagement in terms of the creation of the content. The project Sıkışma offers an approach, which is concerned with content as with form and suggests that it is possible to infer a universal form from the content created through personal experience of the designer as a user. It is also intended to represent the past and the present through the project and to create an understanding of plausible scenarios of the unknown future in the viewers' mind.

  10. Study of alternate optical and fine guidance sensor designs for the space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissinger, A.; Steir, M.; Mcfarlane, M.; Fuschetto, A.

    1984-01-01

    A unique optical design was developed that compensates for the coma degraded images caused by field chopping in SIRTF. The conic constants of a Cassegrain telescope were altered to compensate for the coma induced by the secondary mirror tilt. The modulation transfer function is essentially independent of secondary mirror tilt, and diffraction limited image quality is maintained over a several arcminute field during chopping. With an untilted secondary mirror, the coma compensated (CC) design has a smaller field than the unchopped Ritchey-Chretien design; but use of relay optics, such as the inverted Cassegrain design developed for the fine guidance sensor (FGS), can increase the CC telescope's field size. A reactionless secondary mirror chopper mechanism that uses superconducting magnets was studied. The heart producing elements are confined to a reaction plate that is not directly viewed by the IR focal plane. A design was also developed for a low moment of inertia, reticulated HIP beryllium secondary mirror consistent with blank fabrication technology and optical finishing requirements.

  11. Progress toward the design of 3w mirrors: multilayer alternating stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sermon, Paul A.; Vong, Mariana S. W.; Badheka, Rita; Grosso, David; Andrew, James E.

    1997-12-01

    At the first ICF conference some of the present authors described advances towards low-index silica AR coatings and high-index zirconia HR coatings on fused silica for use at 1.06 micrometers , where silica and zirconia coatings showed good laser-induced damage thresholds. Here progress towards full 3(omega) mirrors at 351 nm using well defined sol-gels to produce the necessary SiO2-ZrO2 stacks is described in detail. Results suggest that these SiO2-ZrO2 stacks have higher laser damage resistance than previous ones and that MgF2 and Sc2O3 alternatives may improve the mirrors still further. The nature of damage caused to these coatings by Nd-YAG laser at 355 nm operating with pulses of 11 ns duration and a beam 1 mm in diameter is also reported.

  12. Comparison of Soil Respiration in Typical Conventional and New Alternative Cereal Cropping Systems on the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bing; Ju, Xiaotang; Su, Fang; Gao, Fengbin; Cao, Qingsen; Oenema, Oene; Christie, Peter; Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-01-01

    We monitored soil respiration (Rs), soil temperature (T) and volumetric water content (VWC%) over four years in one typical conventional and four alternative cropping systems to understand Rs in different cropping systems with their respective management practices and environmental conditions. The control was conventional double-cropping system (winter wheat and summer maize in one year - Con.W/M). Four alternative cropping systems were designed with optimum water and N management, i.e. optimized winter wheat and summer maize (Opt.W/M), three harvests every two years (first year, winter wheat and summer maize or soybean; second year, fallow then spring maize - W/M-M and W/S-M), and single spring maize per year (M). Our results show that Rs responded mainly to the seasonal variation in T but was also greatly affected by straw return, root growth and soil moisture changes under different cropping systems. The mean seasonal CO2 emissions in Con.W/M were 16.8 and 15.1 Mg CO2 ha−1 for summer maize and winter wheat, respectively, without straw return. They increased significantly by 26 and 35% in Opt.W/M, respectively, with straw return. Under the new alternative cropping systems with straw return, W/M-M showed similar Rs to Opt.W/M, but total CO2 emissions of W/S-M decreased sharply relative to Opt.W/M when soybean was planted to replace summer maize. Total CO2 emissions expressed as the complete rotation cycles of W/S-M, Con.W/M and M treatments were not significantly different. Seasonal CO2 emissions were significantly correlated with the sum of carbon inputs of straw return from the previous season and the aboveground biomass in the current season, which explained 60% of seasonal CO2 emissions. T and VWC% explained up to 65% of Rs using the exponential-power and double exponential models, and the impacts of tillage and straw return must therefore be considered for accurate modeling of Rs in this geographical region. PMID:24278340

  13. Comparison of soil respiration in typical conventional and new alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China plain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bing; Ju, Xiaotang; Su, Fang; Gao, Fengbin; Cao, Qingsen; Oenema, Oene; Christie, Peter; Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-01-01

    We monitored soil respiration (Rs), soil temperature (T) and volumetric water content (VWC%) over four years in one typical conventional and four alternative cropping systems to understand Rs in different cropping systems with their respective management practices and environmental conditions. The control was conventional double-cropping system (winter wheat and summer maize in one year--Con.W/M). Four alternative cropping systems were designed with optimum water and N management, i.e. optimized winter wheat and summer maize (Opt.W/M), three harvests every two years (first year, winter wheat and summer maize or soybean; second year, fallow then spring maize--W/M-M and W/S-M), and single spring maize per year (M). Our results show that Rs responded mainly to the seasonal variation in T but was also greatly affected by straw return, root growth and soil moisture changes under different cropping systems. The mean seasonal CO2 emissions in Con.W/M were 16.8 and 15.1 Mg CO2 ha(-1) for summer maize and winter wheat, respectively, without straw return. They increased significantly by 26 and 35% in Opt.W/M, respectively, with straw return. Under the new alternative cropping systems with straw return, W/M-M showed similar Rs to Opt.W/M, but total CO2 emissions of W/S-M decreased sharply relative to Opt.W/M when soybean was planted to replace summer maize. Total CO2 emissions expressed as the complete rotation cycles of W/S-M, Con.W/M and M treatments were not significantly different. Seasonal CO2 emissions were significantly correlated with the sum of carbon inputs of straw return from the previous season and the aboveground biomass in the current season, which explained 60% of seasonal CO2 emissions. T and VWC% explained up to 65% of Rs using the exponential-power and double exponential models, and the impacts of tillage and straw return must therefore be considered for accurate modeling of Rs in this geographical region.

  14. Design of air-gapped magnetic-core inductors for superimposed direct and alternating currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohri, A. K.; Wilson, T. G.; Owen, H. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Using data on standard magnetic-material properties and standard core sizes for air-gap-type cores, an algorithm designed for a computer solution is developed which optimally determines the air-gap length and locates the quiescent point on the normal magnetization curve so as to yield an inductor design with the minimum number of turns for a given ac voltage and frequency and with a given dc bias current superimposed in the same winding. Magnetic-material data used in the design are the normal magnetization curve and a family of incremental permeability curves. A second procedure, which requires a simpler set of calculations, starts from an assigned quiescent point on the normal magnetization curve and first screens candidate core sizes for suitability, then determines the required turns and air-gap length.

  15. A framework to support decision making in the selection of sustainable drainage system design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingming; Sweetapple, Chris; Fu, Guangtao; Farmani, Raziyeh; Butler, David

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a new framework for decision making in sustainable drainage system (SuDS) scheme design. It integrates resilience, hydraulic performance, pollution control, rainwater usage, energy analysis, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and costs, and has 12 indicators. The multi-criteria analysis methods of entropy weight and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) were selected to support SuDS scheme selection. The effectiveness of the framework is demonstrated with a SuDS case in China. Indicators used include flood volume, flood duration, a hydraulic performance indicator, cost and resilience. Resilience is an important design consideration, and it supports scheme selection in the case study. The proposed framework will help a decision maker to choose an appropriate design scheme for implementation without subjectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design

    PubMed Central

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry. PMID:24860803

  17. Evaluation of secondary coolant control design alternatives and their effects on heat removal performance

    SciTech Connect

    Khayat, M.I.; Anderson, J.; Battle, R.; March-Leuba, J.

    1994-03-01

    This report documents a series of calculations that evaluate the performance of the core-inlet temperature controller under different transient conditions and design options. The present analyses show that the core-inlet temperature can be controlled at {approx}45{degrees}C under all transient conditions analyzed using the controller design described in the conceptual design report, which includes variable-speed secondary coolant pumps and variable-speed cooling tower fans. This study also shows that a constant-speed secondary pump would be sufficient to maintain core-inlet temperature <45{degrees}C if this temperature is allowed to drop below the set point during some demanding transients, such as normal startup. The use of secondary loop hot coolant to warm the reactor building was also evaluated; however, optimization of the secondary hot-leg temperature can only be achieved by trading off control of the primary side core-inlet temperature.

  18. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-05-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry.

  19. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design.

    PubMed

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry.

  20. Numerical investigation & comparison of a tandem-bladed turbocharger centrifugal compressor stage with conventional design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danish, Syed Noman; Qureshi, Shafiq Rehman; EL-Leathy, Abdelrahman; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Umer, Usama; Ma, Chaochen

    2014-12-01

    Extensive numerical investigations of the performance and flow structure in an unshrouded tandem-bladed centrifugal compressor are presented in comparison to a conventional compressor. Stage characteristics are explored for various tip clearance levels, axial spacings and circumferential clockings. Conventional impeller was modified to tandem-bladed design with no modifications in backsweep angle, meridional gas passage and camber distributions in order to have a true comparison with conventional design. Performance degradation is observed for both the conventional and tandem designs with increase in tip clearance. Linear-equation models for correlating stage characteristics with tip clearance are proposed. Comparing two designs, it is clearly evident that the conventional design shows better performance at moderate flow rates. However; near choke flow, tandem design gives better results primarily because of the increase in throat area. Surge point flow rate also seems to drop for tandem compressor resulting in increased range of operation.

  1. Weighing Evidence: The Design and Comparison of Probability Thought Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    a belief-function design for the problem. Weighing Evidence 12 The Hominids of East Turkana In the August 1078 issue of Scientific American, Alan...Walker and Richara E. T. Leakey discuss the hominid fossils that have recently been discovered in the region east of Lake Turkana in Kenya. These fossils...the effect that distinct hominid species cannot co-exist after one of them has acquired culture. (ii) Hypotheses I and 4 are doubtful because they

  2. Comparison of Designer's Design Thinking Modes in Digital and Traditional Sketches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jun-Chieh; Chen, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Hsin-Chia

    2012-01-01

    The internal design thinking behaviour of designers in the concept development has been an important issue of cognitive psychology. In this study, the design thinking process designers have in applying digital media and traditional paper in the early concept development stage was explored. Special focus was made on the structure and procedure of…

  3. Discriminating effects of heterogeneity and matrix diffusion by alternative tracer designs

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Y.Y.W.

    1995-03-01

    Flow and transport calculations are carried out by numerical simulation for different tracer designs: single-well radially diverging/converging (huff-puff), single well radially converging, and two-well injection-withdrawal (doublet) in a 2D fracture zone. The fractured rocks are conceptualized as a dual-continuum: the well-connected fractures forming a heterogeneous continuum for advective transport, and the less permeable matrix forming a second continuum for tracer diffusion. Results show that the huff-puff design can be a good diagnostic test for matrix diffusion. The two-well doublet design averages over a large volume and corrects for the extreme sensitivity to spatial heterogeneities of the single well converging test, but requires prior knowledge of presence or absence of matrix diffusion to give reliable estimate of transport parameters. Results of this study demonstrate that using a suite of different tracer designs is important to reduce the uncertainty in association with solving the inverse problem of tracer test interpretation to characterize transport in fractured rocks.

  4. Comparison of deterministic and Monte Carlo methods in shielding design.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A D; Oliveira, C

    2005-01-01

    In shielding calculation, deterministic methods have some advantages and also some disadvantages relative to other kind of codes, such as Monte Carlo. The main advantage is the short computer time needed to find solutions while the disadvantages are related to the often-used build-up factor that is extrapolated from high to low energies or with unknown geometrical conditions, which can lead to significant errors in shielding results. The aim of this work is to investigate how good are some deterministic methods to calculating low-energy shielding, using attenuation coefficients and build-up factor corrections. Commercial software MicroShield 5.05 has been used as the deterministic code while MCNP has been used as the Monte Carlo code. Point and cylindrical sources with slab shield have been defined allowing comparison between the capability of both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods in a day-by-day shielding calculation using sensitivity analysis of significant parameters, such as energy and geometrical conditions.

  5. Incremental Testing Design on Slide Board for Speed Skaters: Comparison Between Two Different Protocols.

    PubMed

    Piucco, Tatiane; OʼConnell, Jessica; Stefanyshyn, Darren; de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas

    2016-11-01

    Piucco, T, O'Connell, J, Stefanyshyn, D, and de Lucas, RD. Incremental testing design on slide board for speed skaters: comparison between two different protocols. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3116-3121, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stage duration (Long-stage-LS: 3-minute, Short-stage-SS: 1-minute) on maximal and submaximal aerobic physiological variables during a simulated skating test performed on a slide board. Ten well-trained male speed skaters performed 2 maximal incremental tests on slide board until voluntary exhaustion. The second ventilatory threshold (VT2) was determined by the ventilatory equivalent method. All participants reached the criteria for maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) attainment in both protocols. Maximal cadence (CADmax), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at VT2 and cadence at VT2 (CADVT2) were significantly higher during SS protocol, but maximal heart rate was significantly lower for the SS protocol. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was significantly correlated with CADmax for the SS (r = 0.62) and LS protocols (r = 0.61). Strong correlations were found between CADmax and CADVT2 during the SS (r = 0.83) and LS protocols (r = 0.76). The results of the present study suggest that either SS or LS slide board incremental protocol can be used to evaluate skaters, since they elicited maximal physiological responses. Additionally, slide board incremental skating tests may be considered as a more specific and practical alternative than laboratory-based tests, especially when a large number of athletes need to be assessed.

  6. Comparison of matching layers for automotive radome design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.; Biebl, E. M.

    2010-09-01

    Hidden integration of 79 GHz sensors behind plastic and painted fascia represents a challenging task since both electromagnetic and car body design constraints have to be met. This paper compares different possibilities for low-cost integration of radar sensors. Based on a model for stratified media, a study of the most important parameters such as bandwidth, angle and tolerances is shown. Our results suggest that for plastic fascia, the requirements of future radar sensors can be met with low-cost matching. Even with metallic paints, the requirements imposed by modern 79 GHz radar sensors can be met under certain conditions.

  7. Comparison of Optimal Design Methods in Inverse Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-11

    corresponding FIM can be estimated by F̂ (τ) = F̂ (τ, θ̂OLS) = (Σ̂ N (θ̂OLS)) −1. (13) The asymptotic standard errors are given by SEk (θ0) = √ (ΣN0 )kk, k...1, . . . , p. (14) These standard errors are estimated in practice (when θ0 and σ0 are not known) by SEk (θ̂OLS) = √ (Σ̂N (θ̂OLS))kk, k = 1... SEk (θ̂boot) = √ Cov(θ̂boot)kk. We will compare the optimal design methods using the standard errors resulting from the op- timal time points each

  8. Alternative cDEP Design to Facilitate Cell Isolation for Identification by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Cynthia; Vargis, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) uses non-uniform electric fields to cause motion in particles due to the particles’ intrinsic properties. As such, DEP is a well-suited label-free means for cell sorting. Of the various methods of implementing DEP, contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) is advantageous as it avoids common problems associated with DEP, such as electrode fouling and electrolysis. Unfortunately, cDEP devices can be difficult to fabricate, replicate, and reuse. In addition, the operating parameters are limited by the dielectric breakdown of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This study presents an alternative way to fabricate a cDEP device allowing for higher operating voltages, improved replication, and the opportunity for analysis using Raman spectroscopy. In this device, channels were formed in fused silica rather than PDMS. The device successfully trapped 3.3 μm polystyrene spheres for analysis by Raman spectroscopy. The successful implementation indicates the potential to use cDEP to isolate and identify biological samples on a single device. PMID:28208767

  9. An assessment of alternative fuel cell designs for residential and commercial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A comparative assessment of three fuel cell systems for application in different buildings and geographic locations is presented. The study was performed at the NASA Lewis Center and comprised the fuel cell design, performance in different conditions, and the economic parameters. Applications in multifamily housing, stores and hospitals were considered, with a load of 10kW-1 MW. Designs were traced through system sizing, simulation/evaluation, and reliability analysis, and a computer simulation based on a fourth-order representation of a generalized system was performed. The cells were all phosphoric acid type cells, and were found to be incompatible with gas/electric systems and more favorable economically than the gas/electric systems in hospital uses. The methodology used provided an optimized energy-use pattern and minimized back-up system turn-on.

  10. An assessment of alternative fuel cell designs for residential and commercial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A comparative assessment of three fuel cell systems for application in different buildings and geographic locations is presented. The study was performed at the NASA Lewis Center and comprised the fuel cell design, performance in different conditions, and the economic parameters. Applications in multifamily housing, stores and hospitals were considered, with a load of 10kW-1 MW. Designs were traced through system sizing, simulation/evaluation, and reliability analysis, and a computer simulation based on a fourth-order representation of a generalized system was performed. The cells were all phosphoric acid type cells, and were found to be incompatible with gas/electric systems and more favorable economically than the gas/electric systems in hospital uses. The methodology used provided an optimized energy-use pattern and minimized back-up system turn-on.

  11. The design and simulation investigation of a linear alternator dynamometer coupled to a free-piston Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, L. F.; Lee, K. P.

    1985-12-01

    The design of a linear alternator dynamometer and its control system intended for testing free-piston Stirling engines is described. The characteristics and performance of the dynamometer are demonstrated by a computer simulation in which the dynamometer is coupled to a Sunpower RE1000 free-piston engine. The simulation embodies algorithms which combine the gas dynamics of the engine working spaces with the dynamic behavior of the displacer and the piston/armature assembly. Over a variety of different loading conditions including inertial, gravitational and thermodynamic loads as well as linear, quadratic and Coulombic damping, the dynamometer exhibited a force error of 0.5 percent or 0.006 N at worst. The simulation investigation demonstrates that the dynamometer and its control system possess the necessary characteristics for it to be a practically useful loading device for testing and designing free-piston Stirling engines.

  12. Alternative Model-Based and Design-Based Frameworks for Inference From Samples to Populations: From Polarization to Integration

    PubMed Central

    Sterba, Sonya K.

    2010-01-01

    A model-based framework, due originally to R. A. Fisher, and a design-based framework, due originally to J. Neyman, offer alternative mechanisms for inference from samples to populations. We show how these frameworks can utilize different types of samples (nonrandom or random vs. only random) and allow different kinds of inference (descriptive vs. analytic) to different kinds of populations (finite vs. infinite). We describe the extent of each framework's implementation in observational psychology research. After clarifying some important limitations of each framework, we describe how these limitations are overcome by a newer hybrid model/design-based inferential framework. This hybrid framework allows both kinds of inference to both kinds of populations, given a random sample. We illustrate implementation of the hybrid framework using the High School and Beyond data set. PMID:20411042

  13. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  14. Alternate metal framework designs for the metal ceramic prosthesis to enhance the esthetics

    PubMed Central

    Vernekar, Naina Vilas; Jagadish, Prithviraj Kallahalla; Diwakar, Srinivasan; Nadgir, Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of five different metal framework designs on the fracture resistance of the metal-ceramic restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS For the purpose of this study, the central incisor tooth was prepared, and the metal analogue of it and a master die were fabricated. The counter die with the 0.5 mm clearance was used for fabricating the wax patterns for the metal copings. The metal copings with five different metal framework designs were designed from Group 1 to 5. Group 1 with the metal collar, Group 2, 3, 4 and 5 with 0 mm, 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 1.5 mm cervical metal reduction respectively were fabricated. Total of fifty metal ceramic crown samples were fabricated. The fracture resistance was evaluated with the Universal Testing Machine (Instron model No 1011, UK). The basic data was subjected to statistical analysis by ANOVA and Student's t-test. RESULTS Results revealed that the fracture resistance ranged from 651.2 to 993.6 N/m2. Group 1 showed the maximum and Group 5 showed the least value. CONCLUSION The maximum load required to fracture the test specimens even in the groups without the metal collar was found to be exceeding the occlusal forces. Therefore, the metal frameworks with 0.5 mm and 1 mm short of the finish line are recommended for anterior metal ceramic restoration having adequate fracture resistance. PMID:22053240

  15. The Pipe-Quadrupole, an Alternative for High Gradient Interaction Region Quadrupole Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Oort, J.M. van; Scanlan, R.M.

    1996-12-12

    In the design of interaction region (IR) quadrupoles for high luminosity colliders such as the LHC or a possible upgrade of the Tevatron, the radiation heating of the coil windings is an important issue. Two obvious solutions to this problem can be chosen. The first is to reduce the heat load by added shielding, increased cooling with fins or using Nb{sub 3}Sn to increase the temperature margin. The second solution eliminates the conductor from the areas with the highest radiation intensity, which are located on the symmetry-axes of the midplanes of the coils. A novel quadrupole design is presented, in which the conductor is wound on four half-moon shaped supports, forming elongated toroid sections. The assembly of the four shapes yields a quadrupole field with an active flux return path, and a void in the high radiation area. This void can be occupied by a liquid helium cooling pipe to lower the temperature of the windings from the inside. The coil layout, harmonic optimization and mechanical design are shown, together with the calculated temperature rise for the radiation load of the LHC interaction region quadrupoles.

  16. Comparison of visibility measurement techniques for forklift truck design factors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chin-Bong; Park, Peom; Kim, Young-Ho; Susan Hallbeck, M; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2009-03-01

    This study applied the light bulb shadow test, a manikin vision assessment test, and an individual test to a forklift truck to identify forklift truck design factors influencing visibility. The light bulb shadow test followed the standard of ISO/DIS 13564-1 for traveling and maneuvering tests with four test paths (Test Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 6). Digital human and forklift truck models were developed for the manikin vision assessment test with CATIA V5R13 human modeling solutions. Six participants performed the individual tests. Both employed similar parameters to the light bulb shadow test. The individual test had better visibility with fewer numbers and a greater distribution of the shadowed grids than the other two tests due to eye movement and anthropometric differences. The design factors of load backrest extension, lift chain, hose, dashboard, and steering wheel should be the first factors considered to improve visibility, especially when a forklift truck mainly performs a forward traveling task in an open area.

  17. Comparison of Coil Designs for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Priyam; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive treatment for neurological disorders using time varying magnetic field. The electric field generated by the time varying magnetic field is used to depolarize the brain neurons which can lead to measurable effects. TMS provides a surgical free method for the treatment of neurological brain disorders like depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury and Parkinson's disease. Before using TMS on human subjects, it is appropriate that its effects are verified on animals such as mice. The magnetic field intensity and stimulated region of the brain can be controlled by the shape, position and current in the coils. There are few reports on the designs of the coils for mice. In this paper, different types of coils are developed and compared using an anatomically realistic mouse model derived from MRI images. Parameters such as focality, depth of the stimulation, electric field strength on the scalp and in the deep brain regions, are taken into account. These parameters will help researchers to determine the most suitable coil design according to their need. This should result in improvements in treatment of specific disorders. Carver Charitable Trust.

  18. Comparison of Traditional Design Nonlinear Programming Optimization and Stochastic Methods for Structural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Pai, Shantaram S.; Coroneos, Rula M.

    2010-01-01

    Structural design generated by traditional method, optimization method and the stochastic design concept are compared. In the traditional method, the constraints are manipulated to obtain the design and weight is back calculated. In design optimization, the weight of a structure becomes the merit function with constraints imposed on failure modes and an optimization algorithm is used to generate the solution. Stochastic design concept accounts for uncertainties in loads, material properties, and other parameters and solution is obtained by solving a design optimization problem for a specified reliability. Acceptable solutions were produced by all the three methods. The variation in the weight calculated by the methods was modest. Some variation was noticed in designs calculated by the methods. The variation may be attributed to structural indeterminacy. It is prudent to develop design by all three methods prior to its fabrication. The traditional design method can be improved when the simplified sensitivities of the behavior constraint is used. Such sensitivity can reduce design calculations and may have a potential to unify the traditional and optimization methods. Weight versus reliabilitytraced out an inverted-S-shaped graph. The center of the graph corresponded to mean valued design. A heavy design with weight approaching infinity could be produced for a near-zero rate of failure. Weight can be reduced to a small value for a most failure-prone design. Probabilistic modeling of load and material properties remained a challenge.

  19. Life cycle assessment of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant and the impacts of key design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, John J; Heath, Garvin A; Turchi, Craig S

    2011-03-15

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, CA, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrates salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its LC, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g of CO(2eq) per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJ(eq)/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce LC water consumption by 77% but increase LC GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase LC GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces LC GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.