Science.gov

Sample records for alternative energy branch

  1. Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-01-01

    The activities of the Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch are highlighted, including the Technology Base Research and the Exploratory Technology Development and Testing projects within the Electrochemical Energy Storage Program for the 1984 fiscal year. General Headquarters activities are presented first; and then, a summary of the Director Controlled Milestones, followed by other major accomplishments. A listing of the workshops and seminars held during the year is also included.

  2. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  3. [Ontario Transportation Technology and Energy Branch]. Publications catalogue

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The Ontario Transportation Technology and Energy Branch was established as the provincial government`s focus for research and development in transportation technology and energy areas that will lead to new and improved products and services. This catalogue lists reports published by the Branch up to February 1993, excluding reports that are extremely outdated, reports superseded by later ones, and reports intended for internal use only. Videos produced by the Branch are also included. Information provided for each report includes title, report number, authors, summary of contents, participating agencies in the research, and publisher. Entries are arranged under such headings as alternative fuels, automotive technology/emissions, commercial vehicles, ride sharing, municipal energy, rail technology, traffic and decisions systems, transportation control technology, and transportation energy management.

  4. Alternatives in solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  5. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  6. FDTD modeling of solar energy absorption in silicon branched nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Christin; Lopez, Rene; Redwing, Joan; Melde, Kathleen

    2013-05-01

    Thin film nanostructured photovoltaic cells are increasing in efficiency and decreasing the cost of solar energy. FDTD modeling of branched nanowire 'forests' are shown to have improved optical absorption in the visible and near-IR spectra over nanowire arrays alone, with a factor of 5 enhancement available at 1000 nm. Alternate BNW tree configurations are presented, achieving a maximum absorption of over 95% at 500 nm.

  7. The energy cane alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the conceptual and theoretical background of Saccharum botany, which underlies the growing of cane as a total growth commodity. Management details are provided for energy cane planting, cultivation, harvest, and postharvest operations. Chapters on energy cane utilization stress new developments in lignocellulose conversion plus alternative options for fermentable solids usage. Chapters are also included for the management of alternative grasses to supplement energy cane, and the breeding of new hybrid canes with high biomass attributes at the intergeneric and interspecific levels.

  8. PEAT: an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Schora, F. C.; Punwani, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    Even though peat is a low-heating value and low-bulk density fossil fuel which in its natural state contains over 80 percent moisture, it can be an economical alternative to coal, and fuel oil, as is the case in Iceland and Finland for direct combustion applications. This is because of the relative ease with which peat can be harvested, and the generally low sulfur and ash content of peat. Recent studies show that peat also has very favorable characteristics for conversion to synthetic fuels. Tests show that on the basis of chemistry and kinetics, peat is a better raw material than coal for production of synthetic fuels. Recent estimates also show that conversion of peat to high-Btu gas (>950 Btu/scf) is competitive with other alternatives of synthetic high-Btu gas. Therefore, peat can be an economical energy alternative depending upon location of peat deposits, region of energy need, scale of operation and cost of other energy alternatives.

  9. Alternative oxidase in the branched mitochondrial respiratory network: an overview on structure, function, regulation, and role.

    PubMed

    Sluse, F E; Jarmuszkiewicz, W

    1998-06-01

    Plants and some other organisms including protists possess a complex branched respiratory network in their mitochondria. Some pathways of this network are not energy-conserving and allow sites of energy conservation to be bypassed, leading to a decrease of the energy yield in the cells. It is a challenge to understand the regulation of the partitioning of electrons between the various energy-dissipating and -conserving pathways. This review is focused on the oxidase side of the respiratory chain that presents a cyanide-resistant energy-dissipating alternative oxidase (AOX) besides the cytochrome pathway. The known structural properties of AOX are described including transmembrane topology, dimerization, and active sites. Regulation of the alternative oxidase activity is presented in detail because of its complexity. The alternative oxidase activity is dependent on substrate availability: total ubiquinone concentration and its redox state in the membrane and O2 concentration in the cell. The alternative oxidase activity can be long-term regulated (gene expression) or short-term (post-translational modification, allosteric activation) regulated. Electron distribution (partitioning) between the alternative and cytochrome pathways during steady-state respiration is a crucial measurement to quantitatively analyze the effects of the various levels of regulation of the alternative oxidase. Three approaches are described with their specific domain of application and limitations: kinetic approach, oxygen isotope differential discrimination, and ADP/O method (thermokinetic approach). Lastly, the role of the alternative oxidase in non-thermogenic tissues is discussed in relation to the energy metabolism balance of the cell (supply in reducing equivalents/demand in energy and carbon) and with harmful reactive oxygen species formation.

  10. Alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, R. W.

    1982-04-01

    Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

  11. Optimizing energy transfer efficiency in highly branched nanoplasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronine, Dmitri; Traverso, Andrew; Wang, Kai; Yi, Zhenhuan; Sokolov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Energy transfer in highly branched nanoplasmonic particle waveguides is simulated and optimized by varying the waveguide branching geometry and composition. The periodically branched nanostructures provide a new route towards efficient nanoscale light concentration and local field enhancement. On the one hand, they mimick the analogous randomly branched plasmonic nanostructures which have been previously used for surface-enhanced optical spectroscopy such as SERS. On the other hand, the design is inspired by branched molecular aggregates used for energy funneling. The proposed nanostructures may find applications in sensing, light harvesting and nanophotonics.

  12. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-09-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

  13. TERZAN 5: AN ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATION FOR THE SPLIT HORIZONTAL BRANCH

    SciTech Connect

    D'Antona, F.; Ventura, P.; Carini, R.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Caloi, V.; D'Ercole, A.; Vesperini, E.

    2010-06-01

    We consider the horizontal branch (HB) of the globular cluster Terzan 5, recently shown to be split into two parts, the fainter one ({delta}M{sub K} {approx} 0.3 mag) having a lower metallicity than the more luminous. Both features show that it contains at least two stellar populations. The separation in magnitude has been ascribed to an age difference of {approx}6 Gyr and interpreted as the result of an atypical evolutionary history for this cluster. We show that the observed HB morphology is also consistent with a model in which the bright HB is composed of second generation stars that are metal enriched and with a helium mass fraction larger (by {delta}Y {approx} 0.07) than that of first generation stars populating the fainter part of the HB. Terzan 5 would therefore be anomalous, compared to most 'normal' clusters hosting multiple populations, only because its second generation is strongly contaminated by supernova ejecta; the previously proposed prolonged period of star formation, however, is not required. The iron enrichment of the bright HB can be ascribed either to contamination from Type Ia supernova ejecta of the low-iron, helium-rich, ejecta of the massive asymptotic giant branch stars of the cluster, or to its mixing with gas, accreting on the cluster from the environment, that has been subject to fast metal enrichment due to its proximity with the galactic bulge. The model proposed here requires only a small age difference of {approx}100 Myr.

  14. Peat as an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Punwani, D.V.

    1980-07-01

    The importance of developing alternative energy sources to augment supplies of fossil fuels is growing all over the world. Coal, oil shale, tar sands, biomass, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power have received considerable attention as alternative energy sources. One large energy resource, however, has received little attention until recently. That resource is peat. Although peat is used as an energy source in some countries such as Russia, Ireland, and Finland, it is virtually unexploited in many countries including the United States. This paper provides an understanding of peat: its varieties, abundance, and distribution; its value as an energy alternative; its current and future role as an energy alternative; and the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of large-scale peat utilization.

  15. Alternative Energy Busing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  16. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  17. Polypyrimidine tract sequences direct selection of alternative branch sites and influence protein binding.

    PubMed Central

    Norton, P A

    1994-01-01

    IVS1, an intron derived from the rat fibronectin gene, is spliced inefficiently in vitro, involving the use of three alternative branch sites. Mutation of one branch point site, BP3, so as to increase complementarity to U2 snRNA resulted in exclusive use of that site and improved splicing efficiency, indicating that the wild type BP3 site is one determinant of poor IVS1 splicing. Deletions within the polypyrimidine tract had a variable effect on splicing efficiency and altered the pattern of branch site usage. Selection of each branch site was influenced negatively by purine substitutions ca. 20 nucleotides downstream. It is proposed that all three IVS1 branch sites are pyrimidine tract-dependent. Pyrimidine tract deletions also influenced the crosslinking of PTB (the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein), hnRNP C, and splicing factor U2AF65. All three proteins bound preferentially to distinct regions within the polypyrimidine tract and thus are candidates for mediating pyrimidine tract-dependent branch site selection. The findings indicate the complexity of the IVS1 polypyrimidine tract and suggest a crucial role for this region in modulating branch site selection and IVS1 splicing. Images PMID:7937104

  18. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  19. Effect of alternative pathway therapy on branched chain amino acid metabolism in urea cycle disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Fernando; Carter, Susan; O'Brien, William E; Lee, Brendan

    2004-04-01

    Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are a group of inborn errors of hepatic metabolism caused by the loss of enzymatic activities that mediate the transfer of nitrogen from ammonia to urea. These disorders often result in life-threatening hyperammonemia and hyperglutaminemia. A combination of sodium phenylbutyrate and sodium phenylacetate/benzoate is used in the clinical management of children with urea cycle defects as a glutamine trap, diverting nitrogen from urea synthesis to alternatives routes of excretion. We have observed that patients treated with these compounds have selective branched chain amino acid (BCAA) deficiency despite adequate dietary protein intake. However, the direct effect of alternative therapy on the steady state levels of plasma branched chain amino acids has not been well characterized. We have measured steady state plasma branched chain and other essential non-branched chain amino acids in control subjects, untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females and treated null activity urea cycle disorder patients in the fed steady state during the course of stable isotope studies. Steady-state leucine levels were noted to be significantly lower in treated urea cycle disorder patients when compared to either untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females or control subjects (P<0.0001). This effect was reproduced in control subjects who had depressed leucine levels when treated with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate (P<0.0001). Our studies suggest that this therapeutic modality has a substantial impact on the metabolism of branched chain amino acids in urea cycle disorder patients. These findings suggest that better titration of protein restriction could be achieved with branched chain amino acid supplementation in patients with UCDs who are on alternative route therapy.

  20. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  1. Approximate likelihood-ratio test for branches: A fast, accurate, and powerful alternative.

    PubMed

    Anisimova, Maria; Gascuel, Olivier

    2006-08-01

    We revisit statistical tests for branches of evolutionary trees reconstructed upon molecular data. A new, fast, approximate likelihood-ratio test (aLRT) for branches is presented here as a competitive alternative to nonparametric bootstrap and Bayesian estimation of branch support. The aLRT is based on the idea of the conventional LRT, with the null hypothesis corresponding to the assumption that the inferred branch has length 0. We show that the LRT statistic is asymptotically distributed as a maximum of three random variables drawn from the chi(0)2 + chi(1)2 distribution. The new aLRT of interior branch uses this distribution for significance testing, but the test statistic is approximated in a slightly conservative but practical way as 2(l1- l2), i.e., double the difference between the maximum log-likelihood values corresponding to the best tree and the second best topological arrangement around the branch of interest. Such a test is fast because the log-likelihood value l2 is computed by optimizing only over the branch of interest and the four adjacent branches, whereas other parameters are fixed at their optimal values corresponding to the best ML tree. The performance of the new test was studied on simulated 4-, 12-, and 100-taxon data sets with sequences of different lengths. The aLRT is shown to be accurate, powerful, and robust to certain violations of model assumptions. The aLRT is implemented within the algorithm used by the recent fast maximum likelihood tree estimation program PHYML (Guindon and Gascuel, 2003).

  2. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  3. State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State

    DOE Data Explorer

    This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

  4. Ambitious Philippine alternative energy plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-07

    The Philippines is to spend $5.4 billion over the next ten years for the development of alternative sources of energy. These would include the development of fuel woods and other biomass, and the commercialization of a coconut/diesel-oil fuel. It is hoped that the Philippines' dependence on imported oil will be reduced from about 80% today to around 50% by the end of the decade.

  5. Alternate Energy for National Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Bhakta

    2010-02-01

    Recent price fluctuations at the gas pump have brought our attention to the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. It is now evident that we have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Several projections indicate that total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60 per cent between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was equivalent to 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the US, nearly 40 per cent of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. The US Department of Defense (DOD) is the single largest buyer of fuel, amounting to, on the average, 13 million gallons per day. Additionally, these fuels have to meet different requirements that prevent use of ethanol additives and biodiesel. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. The presentation will review national and DOD perspectives on the exploration of alternate energy with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean. )

  6. Energy dependence of normal branch oscillations in Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Chang, H.-K.; Liu, C.-Y.

    2012-11-01

    We report the energy dependence of normal branch oscillations (NBOs) in Scorpius X-1, a low-mass X-ray binary Z-source. Three characteristic quantities (centroid frequency, quality factor, and fractional root-mean-squared (rms) amplitude) of a quasi-periodic oscillation signal as functions of photon energy are investigated. We found that, although it is not yet statistically well established, there is a signature indicating that the NBO centroid frequency decreases with increasing photon energy when it is below 6-8 keV, which turns out to be positively correlated with the photon energy at the higher energy side. In addition, the rms amplitude increases significantly with the photon energy below 13 keV and then decreases in the energy band of 13-20 keV. There is no clear dependence on photon energy for the quality factor. Based on these results, we suggest that the NBO originates mainly in the transition layer.

  7. Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pytlinski, J.T. )

    1992-01-01

    All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

  8. Energy accounting of alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, F.

    1980-02-01

    An energy accounting study was performed in the United Kingdom of five alternative energy resource systems - solar, geothermal, wind, wave and tidal power. The paper gives the data sources, the assumptions, an outline of the procedure, results and some general comments for each case. A detailed comparison with regard to likely energy ratios is not possible; however, a value of about 10:1 is seen as reasonable for the future. Based on such an energy ratio the likely factor saving for wind, wave and tidal energy systems is around 33:1. In the case of solar and geothermal energy it could vary from 6:1 through 23:1, depending upon system design, local conditions, etc. Energy pay-back times are short for all the systems, the longest being about four-and-a-half years. Finally, it is noted that our primary non-renewable fuels could be considerably conserved by using them to operate renewable energy resources even if economic analysis shows that at the present time such a policy is hardly justified.

  9. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  10. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance. PMID:16073407

  11. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  12. Alternative Energy for Higher Education

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cherney, PhD

    2012-02-22

    This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time dashboard and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

  13. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  14. Supplementing Conservation Practices with Alternative Energy Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraetsch, Gayla A.

    1981-01-01

    Universities and colleges have two major roles: to reduce their own energy consumption and costs, and to develop and test new energy options. Alternative energy sources considered include solar energy, wind power, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal heat, coal, and nuclear energy. (MLW)

  15. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  16. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  17. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  18. Alternative Sources of Energy: A Course in Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Gian

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course designed to familiarize students with alternative sources of energy, with emphasis on problem-solving strategies. Includes list of major topics/subtopics addressed and list of textbooks and recommended readings on alternative energy sources. (JN)

  19. Some Alternative Views of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, D. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Discusses seven energy frameworks (such as human-centered energy, energy as an ingredient, energy as a product, and energy as an obvious activity), illustrated by extracts taken from transcripts of students interviewed by the interview-about-instances approach. Considers difficulty in effecting as well as methods for creating conceptual change.…

  20. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Alternative Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for alternative energy courses is part of a series of curriculum guides for use in the industrial arts curriculum in Connecticut. The guide contains two parts. Part 1 provides the following overview: (1) objectives of alternative energy education, including suggestions for course levels, class sizes, teaching methods, and…

  1. Energy and Education: Teaching Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posthuma, Fredrick E., Ed.

    This publication is a collection of energy education articles for the classroom teacher. Most of these articles suggest energy education activities and projects that may be used as is or modified to fit classroom conditions. Two energy mini-units are included as well as a collection of energy lesson plans. Contents include: (1) Teaching About the…

  2. Training courses on ''alternative energy technologies'' for middle level workers

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesh, A.

    1983-12-01

    The Government of India has given priority to energy in the Sixth Plan. The Department of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy under Government of India and State Units connected with Alternative Energy Sources are taking all possible steps to promote the cause and use of Alternative Energy Sources like Solar, Wind, Biogas etc.. Besides several private Engineering concerns like Central Electronics Ltd., Shahibabad; Solaren Technologz Pvt. Ltd., Bombay; Avanti Fastners Ltd., New Delhi; Jyoti Ltd., Baroda; Voltas Ltd., Bombay; Institute of Engineering and Rural Technology, Allahabad; ORP Ltd., Gazipur etc. are either manufacturing or marketing alternative energy sources products like Solar Cookers, Solar heating systems, Windmills, Windturbines etc.. Kahdi and Village Industries Commission is already involved in a big way in installing Biogas Plants throughout the Country. As the use of Alternative Energy Sources is on the increase, the needfor qualified technical personnel to undertake maintenance and repairs is necessary. There are hundreds of Polytechnic offering Diploma Courses in traditional disciplines like Electrical, Mechanical, Civil etc.. Also Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) offer Certificate Courses in branches like Fitter, Welder, Draftsman etc..

  3. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  4. Magma energy: a feasible alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Colp, J.L.

    1980-03-01

    A short review of the work performed by Sandia Laboratories in connection with its Magma Energy Research Project is provided. Results to date suggest that boreholes will remain stable down to magma depths and engineering materials can survive the downhole environments. Energy extraction rates are encouraging. Geophysical sensing systems and interpretation methods require improvement, however, to clearly define a buried magma source.

  5. Alternative energy: Plenty of wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk-Davidoff, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    By exerting a drag on the atmosphere, wind turbines convert a fraction of the atmosphere's kinetic energy to electrical energy. To find the point of diminishing returns, a new study adds so much drag to a simulated atmosphere that the winds slow to a crawl.

  6. Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

  7. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    ECAS compared various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for baseload electric power generation. It was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of parametric studies. From these results, 11 concepts were selected for further study in Phase 2. For each of the Phase 2 systems and a common set of ground rules, performance, cost, environmental intrusion, and natural resource requirements were estimated. In addition, the contractors defined the state of the associated technology, identified the advances required, prepared preliminary research and development plans, and assessed other factors that would affect the implementation of each type of powerplant. The systems studied in Phase 2 include steam systems with atmospheric- and pressurized-fluidized-bed boilers; combined cycle gas turbine/steam systems with integrated gasifiers or fired by a semiclean, coal derived fuel; a potassium/steam system with a pressurized-fluidized-bed boiler; a closed-cycle gas turbine/organic system with a high-temperature, atmospheric-fluidized-bed furnace; a direct-coal-fired, open- cycle magnetohydrodynamic/steam system; and a molten-carbonate fuel cell/steam system with an integrated gasifier. The sensitivity of the results to changes in the ground rules and the impact of uncertainties in capital cost estimates were also examined.

  8. A search for space energy alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbreath, W. P.; Billman, K. W.

    1978-01-01

    This paper takes a look at a number of schemes for converting radiant energy in space to useful energy for man. These schemes are possible alternatives to the currently most studied solar power satellite concept. Possible primary collection and conversion devices discussed include the space particle flux devices, solar windmills, photovoltaic devices, photochemical cells, photoemissive converters, heat engines, dielectric energy conversion, electrostatic generators, plasma solar collectors, and thermionic schemes. Transmission devices reviewed include lasers and masers.

  9. Community Energy: A Social Architecture for an Alternative Energy Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Steven M.; High-Pippert, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Community energy based on a mix of distributed technologies offers a serious alternative to the current energy system. The nature of community energy and the role that such initiatives might play in the general fabric of civic life is not, however, well understood. Community energy initiatives might involve only those citizens who prefer to be…

  10. Proceedings of the Alternate Energy Systems Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Alternative Energy Systems Seminar was held on March 30, 1978, and was sponsored jointly be the Southwest District Office of the U.S. Department of Energy and JPL. The seminar was an experiment in information exchange with the aim of presenting, in a single day, status and prospects for a number of advanced energy systems to a diverse, largely nontechnical audience, and to solicit post-seminar responses from that audience as to the seminar's usefulness. The major systems presented are: (1) Solar Photovoltaic; (2) Geothermal; (3) Cogeneration Power; (4) Solar Thermal; (5) Solar Heating and Cooling; (6) Wind Energy; and (7) Systems Considerations.

  11. Alternative energy resources; A Kenyan perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Othieno, H. )

    1992-10-01

    Kenya's heavy dependence on petroleum has had an adverse effect on its economy, making it difficult to achieve its development goals. Furthermore, the use of fossil fuels is accompanied by emissions of large quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere - a process that is enhancing the greenhouse effect and subsequent global warming and climate change. This article gives an analysis of the Kenya's current energy scene and discusses its alternative energy resources. Although renewable energies are at present not viable substitutes for oil, the development and exploitation of these energy resources will not only reinforce conservation measures but also promote new trends in technology development.

  12. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  13. The influence of alternative pathways of respiration that utilize branched-chain amino acids following water shortage in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Marcel V; Pereira Júnior, Adilson A; Medeiros, David B; Daloso, Danilo M; Pham, Phuong Anh; Barros, Kallyne A; Engqvist, Martin K M; Florian, Alexandra; Krahnert, Ina; Maurino, Veronica G; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-06-01

    During dark-induced senescence isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) act as alternate electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via the electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) pathway. However, the role of this pathway in response to other stresses still remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that this alternative pathway is associated with tolerance to drought in Arabidopsis. In comparison with wild type (WT) and lines overexpressing D-2GHDH, loss-of-function etfqo-1, d2hgdh-2 and ivdh-1 mutants displayed compromised respiration rates and were more sensitive to drought. Our results demonstrated that an operational ETF/ETFQO pathway is associated with plants' ability to withstand drought and to recover growth once water becomes replete. Drought-induced metabolic reprogramming resulted in an increase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and total amino acid levels, as well as decreases in protein, starch and nitrate contents. The enhanced levels of the branched-chain amino acids in loss-of-function mutants appear to be related to their increased utilization as substrates for the TCA cycle under water stress. Our results thus show that mitochondrial metabolism is highly active during drought stress responses and provide support for a role of alternative respiratory pathways within this response.

  14. The influence of alternative pathways of respiration that utilize branched-chain amino acids following water shortage in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Marcel V; Pereira Júnior, Adilson A; Medeiros, David B; Daloso, Danilo M; Pham, Phuong Anh; Barros, Kallyne A; Engqvist, Martin K M; Florian, Alexandra; Krahnert, Ina; Maurino, Veronica G; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-06-01

    During dark-induced senescence isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) act as alternate electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via the electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) pathway. However, the role of this pathway in response to other stresses still remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that this alternative pathway is associated with tolerance to drought in Arabidopsis. In comparison with wild type (WT) and lines overexpressing D-2GHDH, loss-of-function etfqo-1, d2hgdh-2 and ivdh-1 mutants displayed compromised respiration rates and were more sensitive to drought. Our results demonstrated that an operational ETF/ETFQO pathway is associated with plants' ability to withstand drought and to recover growth once water becomes replete. Drought-induced metabolic reprogramming resulted in an increase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and total amino acid levels, as well as decreases in protein, starch and nitrate contents. The enhanced levels of the branched-chain amino acids in loss-of-function mutants appear to be related to their increased utilization as substrates for the TCA cycle under water stress. Our results thus show that mitochondrial metabolism is highly active during drought stress responses and provide support for a role of alternative respiratory pathways within this response. PMID:26616144

  15. Central airport energy systems using alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop the concept of a central airport energy system designed to supply energy for aircraft ground support and terminal complex utility systems using municipal waste as a fuel. The major task was to estimate the potential for reducing aircraft and terminal fuel consumption by the use of alternate renewable energy sources. Additional efforts included an assessment of indirect benefits of reducing airport atmospheric and noise pollution.

  16. Impact of alternative energy forms on public utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, F. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of alternative energy sources by the electric utility industry is discussed. Research projects are reviewed in each of the following areas; solar energy, wind energy conversion, photosynthesis of biomass, ocean thermal energy conversion, geothermal energy, fusion, and the environmental impact of alternative energy sources.

  17. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  18. PNC Financial Services - Net-Zero Energy Bank Branch

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-01

    PNC has opened a zero-energy building that is 57% more efficient than ASHRAE 90.1-2004. Exterior features include shading to control glare from sunlight and photovoltaic solar panels to produce as much electricity as the building consumes annually.

  19. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Janice; Ervin, Frank

    2012-05-15

    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  20. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Parts 429, 430, and 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating Methods: Public Meeting AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed modifications to the regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining...

  1. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  2. Optimization methods for alternative energy system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Michael Henry

    An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study

  3. Energy branching in the Io plasma torus - The failure of neutral cloud theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemansky, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Model calculations are used to explore the energy source characteristics of the energy branching of the hot Io plasma torus. It is assumed that the energy is derived from the kinetic energy acquired by ions created in the rotating planetary magnetic field, and that Coulomb collisions with the electron gas control the flow of energy to the ionizing and radiative processes. The results show that neutral cloud theory is qualitatively inadequate. It is shown that neutral cloud theory can only support a dominantly singly ionized system (at the measured electron densities in the plasma torus) and that it fails to predict observed plasma properties relative to variations in number density.

  4. The Final Report: 1975 Energy Resource Alternatives Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radtke, Mark L.; And Others

    This publication describes the projects entered in the Energy Resource Alternatives competition in 1975. Teams of engineering students were given a year to develop non-conventional or alternative energy systems that produced useful energy outputs. Besides an overview of energy sources and uses and discussions of the competitions development, the…

  5. Energy Teaching Centers--One Good Way to Explore Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenick, Lois E.

    1976-01-01

    Proposes the development of community centers in which school children, parents, and homeowners can be educated in areas of energy conservation and alternative fuel sources. Provides brief passages on some of the most promising alternative fuels. (CP)

  6. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... alternative method for determining energy efficiency or energy use (AEDM) to the basic model, in...

  7. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... alternative method for determining energy efficiency or energy use (AEDM) to the basic model, in...

  8. Metal oxide electrocatalysts for alternative energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacquette, Adele Lawren

    This dissertation focuses on the development of metal oxide electrocatalysts with varying applications for alternative energy technologies. Interest in utilizing clean, renewable and sustainable sources of energy for powering the planet in the future has received much attention. This will address the growing concern of the need to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. The facile synthesis of metal oxides from earth abundant metals was explored in this work. The electrocatalysts can be incorporated into photoelectrochemical devices, fuel cells, and other energy storage devices. The first section addresses the utilization of semiconductors that can harness solar energy for water splitting to generate hydrogen. An oxysulfide was studied in order to combine the advantageous properties of the stability of metal oxides and the visible light absorbance of metal chalcogenides. Bi 2O2S was synthesized under facile hydrothermal conditions. The band gap of Bi2O2S was smaller than that of its oxide counterpart, Bi2O3. Light absorption by Bi 2O2S was extended to the visible region (>600 nm) in comparison to Bi2O3. The formation of a composite with In 2O3 was formed in order to create a UV irradiation protective coating of the Bi2O2S. The Bi2O2S/In 2O3 composite coupled with a dye CrTPP(Cl) and cocatalysts Pt and Co3O4 was utilized for water splitting under light irradiation to generate hydrogen and oxygen. The second section focuses on improving the stability and light absorption of semiconductors by changing the shapes and morphologies. One of the limitations of semiconductor materials is that recombination of electron-hole pairs occur within the bulk of the materials instead of migration to the surface. Three-dimensional shapes, such as nanorods, can prevent this recombination in comparison to spherical particles. Hierarchical structures, such as dendrites, cubes, and multipods, were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, in order to reduce recombination and improve

  9. Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding to complete the Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study project. The main goal of the project was to complete an alternative energy feasibility study. This study was completed to evaluate “the potential for development of a variety of renewable energy projects and to conduct an alternative energy feasibility study that determines which alternative energy resources have the greatest economic opportunity for the Tribe, while respecting cultural and environmental values” (Baker-Tilly, 2014). The study concluded that distributed generation solar projects are the best option for renewable energy development and asset ownership for the Washoe Tribe. Concentrating solar projects, utility scale wind projects, geothermal, and biomass resource projects were also evaluated during the study and it was determined that these alternatives would not be feasible at this time.

  10. Alternative Energy Curriculum for Trade and Industry Exploratory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Central Arkansas, Conway.

    This study was a descriptive curriculum research project covering the development of learning packets on alternative energy. The purpose of the project was to improve instruction in trades and industry exploratory programs by providing alternative energy materials. It was anticipated that the use of a prepared learning package would facilitate the…

  11. Alternative Energy: A Bay Area Reference Center Workshop. Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are proceedings and related documents of a workshop on alternative energy resources which was held in April, 1980. This information is intended to bring reference librarians up to date on alternative energy technologies and available reference materials to which library patrons may be directed. Among the speeches included are those…

  12. Synthesis and application of functional branched macromolecules: From site isolation and energy harvesting to catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Stefan

    The symbiosis of our understanding of structure property relationships in many biological macromolecules and our increased ability to prepare large synthetic macromolecules with exquisite structural precision has generated a new area of research where chemistry and materials science join with biology. For example, numerous biological systems utilize the concept of site isolation whereby an active center or catalytic site is encapsulated, frequently within a protein, to afford properties that would not be encountered in the bulk state. The ability of a dendritic shell to encapsulate functional core moieties and to create specific site-isolated nanoenvironments, thereby affecting molecular properties, not only mimics natural systems but affords novel materials with unique characteristics. Furthermore, introduction of donor chromophores at periphery of dendrimers having a central acceptor dye enables spatial and spectral energy concentration at the core. Continuing the effort towards designing bio-inspired macromolecules, this dissertation describes the use of different polymer architectures to encapsulate active sites that have either photophysical, photochemical, or catalytic functions and the evaluation of site isolation using a variety of different techniques. While the first part is mainly concerned with different synthetic approaches towards site isolation of porphyrin moieties, the second part describes the design of light-driven catalytic systems incorporating both light harvesting and energy conversion. The fundamental knowledge that can be gleaned from such investigations has implications that range from the preliminary design of artificial enzymes to the construction of molecular-scale devices. After an overview of dendritically encapsulated functions (Chapter 1) and a brief account of a novel synthetic approach to benzene core dendrimers (Chapter 2), site isolation of porphyrin moieties within dendrimers, their linear structural isomers, and branched star

  13. Energy for Survival: The Alternative to Extinction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Wilson

    The author initially describes the basic physical principles associated with energy and the rise of energy usage in the United States. Also discussed are the ways energy limits growth and its use in various sectors of society. It is suggested that the decentralization of America's electrical system will save a great deal of energy. A variety of…

  14. Branched ZnO nanostructures as building blocks of photoelectrodes for efficient solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Qiu, Yongcai; Yang, Shihe

    2012-08-21

    ZnO nanotetrapods are distinguished by their unique nanocrystalline geometric form with four tetrahedrally directed arms, which endows them the ability to handily assemble three-dimensional network structures. Such network structures, coupled with the intrinsically excellent electronic properties of the semiconducting ZnO, have proved advantageous for building photoelectrodes in energy conversion devices since they allow fast vectorial electron transport. In this review article, we summarize recent efforts, with partial emphasis on our own, in the development of ZnO nanotetrapod-based devices for solar energy conversion, including dye-sensitized solar cells and photoelectrochemical cells for water splitting. A pure ZnO nanotetrapod network was firstly demonstrated to have excellent charge collection properties even with just physical contacts. Composition design of ZnO nanotetrapods/SnO(2) nanoparticles yielded a high efficiency of 4.91% in flexible DSSCs. More significantly, by secondary branching and nitrogen doping, a record performance for water splitting has been achieved. A perspective on future research directions in ZnO nanotetrapod-based solar energy conversion devices is also discussed together with possible strategies of pursuit. It is hoped that the results obtained so far with the ZnO nanotetrapods could inspire and catalyze future developments of solar energy conversion systems based on branched nanostructural materials, contributing to solving global energy and environmental issues.

  15. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. Link to an amendment... model, either from testing the basic model or from applying an alternative method for determining...

  16. Energy Efficient Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum-based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are presented. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  17. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag. The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag-2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed-power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NTF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  18. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag . The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag -2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed- power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NIF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  19. Airports offer unrealized potential for alternative energy production.

    PubMed

    DeVault, Travis L; Belant, Jerrold L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Martin, James A; Schmidt, Jason A; Wes Burger, L; Patterson, James W

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  20. Airports Offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devault, Travis L.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Martin, James A.; Schmidt, Jason A.; Wes Burger, L.; Patterson, James W.

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  1. Energy, vulnerability, and war: alternatives for America

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.; Page, J.

    1981-01-01

    With an analysis of energy problems in relation to defense-related problems, this book presents a blueprint for an orderly restructuring of energy and resource programs needed to make the nation safe in an increasingly perilous era. Based on a report commissioned by the Defense Department, it explains how moving to a decentralized energy base will lessen our inflationary and dangerous dependence on unreliable countries, but will also provide a new approach to civil defense. The technology already exists, and the economic incentives beckon. This book evaluates and details the national and local policies required to put them to work. 120 references, 19 figures.

  2. Safety's impact on an alternative energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Our ability to make underground mines a safe place to work will be a major concern to those seeking to use coal as an energy source. Increased production will stimulate a heightened concern for making mining a more effective energy resource. This effectiveness means that unless safe performance is achieved, the cost of poor safety, such as loss of lives and costly delays due to breakdowns and other failures, will greatly reduce productivity of underground mining operations. As such, coal companies and miners must be prepared to safely manage their operation before underground mining makes a significant effect on energy independence.

  3. Food, Energy, and The Environment: Alternatives for Creating New Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrells, Nancy R.; Pimentel, David

    1981-01-01

    Provides background information on the interdependency of agriculture and ecological and social systems. Discusses in detail: (1) fossil energy and food production; (2) energy-intensive agriculture and environmental pollution; and (3) methods for developing alternatives. Includes recommendations to conserve fossil energy used in current food…

  4. Residential Energy Use Alternatives: 1976-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Eric

    1976-01-01

    Analyzes changes in household formation and housing choices, fuel rates, per capita income, technological developments, and equipment efficiences to show that residential energy use growth could reach zero by the year 2000. (MLH)

  5. Do alternative energy sources displace fossil fuels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Richard

    2012-06-01

    A fundamental, generally implicit, assumption of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and many energy analysts is that each unit of energy supplied by non-fossil-fuel sources takes the place of a unit of energy supplied by fossil-fuel sources. However, owing to the complexity of economic systems and human behaviour, it is often the case that changes aimed at reducing one type of resource consumption, either through improvements in efficiency of use or by developing substitutes, do not lead to the intended outcome when net effects are considered. Here, I show that the average pattern across most nations of the world over the past fifty years is one where each unit of total national energy use from non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel energy use and, focusing specifically on electricity, each unit of electricity generated by non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-tenth of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These results challenge conventional thinking in that they indicate that suppressing the use of fossil fuel will require changes other than simply technical ones such as expanding non-fossil-fuel energy production.

  6. Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Ken Salazar that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impacts of implementing alternative variants of an emissions cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  7. The use of alternative energies for powering ELTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescador, German R.

    2004-07-01

    The use of alternative energies is becoming common in many places around the world. It is envisaged that most large projects will consider the use of alternative energies in this new century. Such use or at least the attempts to use renewable energies to somewhat offset the power requirements of an ELT will be seen very positively by the general public, as well as by the administration and political authorities. The enclosure of an ELT will be one of the most unique buildings on earth. Its location will be suitable for the use of alternative energies and in particular of solar energy. The use of solar energy to power the building of an ELT will be discussed. A conceptual design of the possible building shall be done cosidering the installation of photovoltaic panels as part of the building structure.

  8. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  9. Alternatives for Financing School Energy Savings Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteves, Rich

    1983-01-01

    This report compares shared-savings programs with financing through the use of internal funds, loans, leases, and lease purchase plans for financing energy conservation in nonprofit buildings. The shared savings option was found to offer the greatest benefits to the customer. (MLF)

  10. Alternative Energy Center, Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dillman, Howard D.; Marshall, JaNice C.

    2007-09-07

    The Lansing Community College Alternative Energy Center was created with several purposes in mind. The first purpose was the development of educational curricula designed to meet the growing needs of advanced energy companies that would allow students to articulate to other educational institutions or enter this growing workforce. A second purpose was the professional development of faculty and teachers to prepare them to train tomorrow's workforce and scholars. Still another purpose was to design, construct, and equip an alternative energy laboratory that could be used for education, demonstration, and public outreach. Last, the Center was to engage in community outreach and education to enhance industry partnerships, inform decision makers, and increase awareness and general knowledge of hydrogen and other alternative energy technologies and their beneficial impacts on society. This project has enabled us to accomplish all of our goals, including greater faculty understanding of advanced energy concepts, who are now able to convey this knowledge to students through a comprehensive alternative energy curriculum, in a facility well-equipped with advanced technologies, which is also being used to better educate the public on the advantages to society of exploring alternative energy technologies.

  11. Southern California Edison bets on energy alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, W. B.

    1981-08-01

    A 10-MW solar-thermal generating plant and a 100-MW integrated coal-gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power facility are being built to develop a wide range of renewable, alternative power sources by 1990. The solar-thermal generating plant will use steam at 500 C and 100 kg/sq cm to produce 10 MW of electricity. It consists of a 1818 heliostat array, each weighing 1155 kg and having 12 mirrors which are rotated at either 0.25 deg/min (for sun following) or 22.5 deg/min (for major focusing and defocusing). A master control system allows both fully automatic and manual operation, and a beam-characterization system permits the operator to check the alignment of each heliostat individually. A central receiver, consisting of 24 panels of tubing, produces steam at 500 C and 100 kg/sq cm. The thermal storage unit uses crushed granite to absorb 50 kWht/cu m, allowing the plant to operate after sundown. The IGCC plant integrates the coal-gasification plant and the combined-cycle unit, demonstrating operational flexibility and reliability, load-following capability, and compliance with environmental regulations. The gasifier produces 79,300 cu m/h of a mixture of 51% CO and 36% H at 1370 C,and the gas turbine regenerates 65 MW through its own generator.

  12. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefelmeyer, James D.; Koodali, Ranjit; Sereda, Grigoriy; Engebretson, Dan; Fong, Hao; Puszynski, Jan; Shende, Rajesh; Ahrenkiel, Phil

    2012-03-13

    The South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG) is a collaborative project with mission to develop advanced catalysts for energy conversion with two primary goals: (1) develop photocatalytic systems in which polyfunctionalized TiO2 are the basis for hydrogen/oxygen synthesis from water and sunlight (solar fuels group), (2) develop new materials for hydrogen utilization in fuel cells (fuel cell group). In tandem, these technologies complete a closed chemical cycle with zero emissions.

  13. Alternative energy conversion demonstration laboratory at U. S. Naval Academy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.

    1983-12-01

    This paper describes an alternative energy conversion demonstration laboratory which supplements classroom theory in a senior engineering elective course in energy conversion in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. Oil, nuclear energy, and other conventional sources of power have been the dominant sources for industrial society and the U.S. Navy, and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future. There are other possibilities, however, including wind power, solar power, ocean thermal power and tidal power. A need for alternative sources of energy for the Navy was recognized at the time of the Arab oil embargo in 1973, and an academic program in alternative energy has been developed to help satisfy that need. Specific demonstrations included in this paper are as follows: Mechanical modeling of the depletion of energy reserve, Computer graphic simulation of energy consumption and energy resource exhaust, Wind model, Thermax helius rotor wind machine, Solar breeze - an electric sailboat project, Vertical axis wind turbine, Helicopter, airplane propeller and windmill models test in wind tunnel, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Device Demonstration, Pneumatic Wave Energy Conversion Device Demonstration, Chemical Energy Storage Device Demonstration, Solar Energy Demonstration.

  14. W6 - Alternate Forms of Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Joel

    2012-10-01

    Build Toys! Learn Science! Is your science program preparing students for success on the Grade 5 and 8 STARR? Put the fun back in physical science and find the ``E'' in STEM with TeacherGeek! Explore a K-12 vertical alignment of physics concepts in energy & motion integrated with engineering practices. Participants design, build and test a Wind Turbine, they will experience engaging, hands-on lessons that can be used in their classroom to teach important physics concepts aligned with the TEKS. FREE materials to take back to your classroom!

  15. Microwind Alternative Energy and the Windbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Eric

    2009-04-01

    The windbelt is an energy generating device which makes use of aeroelastic flutter to produce small amounts of electrical power under very low wind speeds. There are several natural modes of vibration present on the windbelt under different conditions. Each of the modes provide a different waveform for the output voltage. This talk will provide an introduction to the windbelt, will attempt to explain the effect different modes of vibration have on the output waveform, and will provide some potential uses for the windbelt.

  16. Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Alternative Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Gregory

    2013-07-24

    This project has been in effect from July 25th, 2008 to July 24th, 2013. It supported 19 graduate students and 6 post-doctoral students and resulted in 23 publications, 7 articles in preparation, 44 presentations, and many other outreach efforts. Two representative recent publications are appended to this report. The project brought in more than $750,000 in cost share from North Carolina State University. The project funds also supported the purchase and installation of approximately $667,000 in equipment supporting solar energy research.

  17. Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT)

    SciTech Connect

    Mackin, Thomas

    2012-06-30

    The Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT) was established to advance the state of the art in knowledge and education on critical technologies that support a renewable energy future. Our research and education efforts have focused on alternative energy systems, energy storage systems, and research on battery and hybrid energy storage systems.This report details the Center's progress in the following specific areas: Development of a battery laboratory; Development of a demonstration system for compressed air energy storage; Development of electric propulsion test systems; Battery storage systems; Thermal management of battery packs; and Construction of a micro-grid to support real-world performance monitoring of a renewable energy system.

  18. Alternative Energy: A New Frontier for Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Cullen

    2011-03-01

    Microfuidics is classified as the physics of fluid manipulation at sub-mm length scales. Typically, microfluidic techniques benefit from small sample volumes, low power consumption, and increased surface-to-volume ratio. Because of their high surface to volume ratio, microfluidic systems often utilize surface phenomena such as wettability (i.e. droplet microfluidics) and surface charge (i.e. electrokinetics) for actuation. To date, most applications of microfluidics are in medicine or biology with the purpose of creating ``lab on a chip'' devices. However, the scale of microfluidics is favorable for other engineering problems as well. In this talk we will discuss how phenomena typically applied to lab on a chip devices can be used to enhance energy systems. Specifically, we explore electric field driven fluid and particle flows such as electrophoresis, electroosmosis, and dielectrophoresis. We will show how these phenomena can solve a diverse array of problems, from water management in fuel cells to the selection of microorganisms for bio-energy applications.

  19. Alternative Energy Sources. Experiments You Can Do...from Edison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benrey, Ronald M.; Schultz, Robert F.

    Eight experiments dealing with alternative energy sources are presented. Each experiment includes an introductory section which provides background information and discusses the promises and problems of the particular energy source, a list of materials needed to complete the experiment, and the procedures to be used. The experiments involve:…

  20. Alternative energy sources for surgical atrial ablation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mathew R; Garrido, Mauricio; Oz, Mehmet C; Argenziano, Michael

    2004-01-01

    As less complex modifications of the Maze procedure have been developed, a number of energy sources have been introduced to facilitate the creation of electrically isolating lesions within the atria. These include cryoablation, radiofrequency, microwave, laser, and focused ultrasound. Although each of these sources works slightly differently, the goal of all thermal sources is to heat tissue to a temperature (50 degrees C) above which irreversible electrical isolation occurs. These sources have been utilized both endocardially in arrested heart procedures as well as epicardially in the beating heart setting. There are several obstacles to the use of these sources epicardially, mostly related to the heat sink effect of endocardial blood. Several recent modifications have been introduced that will hopefully increase the efficacy of these sources in beating heart applications.

  1. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various energy usages

  2. Alternative biomass sources for thermal energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steensen, Torge; Müller, Sönke; Dresen, Boris; Büscher, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, renewable biomass energy sources comprise forests, agriculture and other large vegetation units. With the increasing demand on those landscape elements, including conflicts of interest to nature conservation and food production, the research focus should also incorporate smaller vegetation entities. In this study, we highlight the availability of small-scale features like roadside vegetation or hedges, which are rarely featured in maps. Roadside vegetation, however, is well known and regularly trimmed to allow the passing of traffic but the cut material is rarely harvested. Here, we combine a remote-sensing-based approach to quantify the seasonal biomass harvests with a GIS-based method to outline optimal transportation routes to, and the location of, storage units and power plants. Our main data source will be ESA's upcoming Sentinel-2 optical satellite. Spatial resolution of 10 meters in the visible and near infrared requires the use of spectral unmixing to derive end member spectra of the targeted biomass objects. Additional stereo-matching and LIDAR measurements allow the accompanying height estimate to derive the biomass volume and its changes over time. GIS data bases from the target areas allow the discrimination between traditional, large features (e.g. forests and agriculture) as well as previously unaccounted for, smaller vegetation units. With the mapped biomass occurrence and additional, GIS-based infrastructure information, we can outline transport routes that take into account local restrictions like nature reserve areas, height or weight limitations as well as transport costs in relation to potential gains. This information can then be processed to outline optimal places for power plants. To simulate the upcoming Sentinel-2 data sets, we use airborne data from the AISA Eagle, spatially and spectrally down-sampled to match Sentinel 2's resolution. Our test scenario is an area in western Germany, the Kirchheller Heide, close to the city

  3. Energy demand analysis and alternative fuels. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Dingemans, D.; Sperling, D.; Greene, D.L.; Hu, P.S.; Hallet, P.

    1986-01-01

    Contents include: Mental maps and the refueling behavior of vehicle drivers; A functional form analysis of the short-run demand for travel and gasoline by one-vehicle households; An assessment methodology for alternative fuels technologies; Drive-up windows, energy, and air quality; Travel characteristics and transportation energy consumption patterns of minority and poor households; An investigation into the use of market segmentation analysis for transportation energy planning.

  4. Proceedings of the conference on alternative energy sources for Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, I.N.

    1981-01-01

    Four primary areas of study for alternative energy sources for Texas are considered. These are: energy demand supply and economics; prospects for energy resources (oil, lignite, coal, nuclear, goethermal and solar) and conservation; financial and technical constraints; and future planning. The following papers are presented: US energy outlook to 1990; energy supply and demand projections; comparative economics of solar energy in the generation of big power; gas present and future prospects; prospects for enhanced recovery of oil in Texas; the outlook for coal in USA; implementation of nuclear power in Texas; future outlook - geopressured-geothermal energy for Texas; future prospects for conservation and solar energy; financing and money supply constraints; technical constraints to energy supply increase; planning for the future - the crisis that drones on. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  5. FEMP (Federal Energy Management Program) presents alternative financing guidance memoranda

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Utility financing of energy efficient measures becomes easier to accomplish with the two new alternative financing guidance memoranda, released April 17, 1998, that address the use of utility incentives for Federal facilities. The memoranda have been approved by the Alternative Financing Guidance Committee on the Interagency Energy Management Task Force. The memoranda include: (1) Policy Statement No. 001: Authority to Sole Source Utility Service Contracts as Referenced in Section 152 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 1992; and (2) Policy Statement No. 002: Congressional Notification for Utility Projects Under the Authority of Section 152 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 1992. The purpose for developing the financing memoranda was to address specific issues within current Federal procurement regulations that require clarification or guidance. This new guidance will allow for increased use of utility incentives as a means of financing energy efficient and life cycle cost-effective projects in Federal facilities.

  6. Energy levels, Auger branching ratios, and radiative rates of the core-excited states of B-like carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yan; Gou Bingcong; Chen Feng

    2011-09-28

    Energy levels, Auger branching ratios, and radiative rates of the core-excited states of B-like carbon are calculated by the saddle-point variation and saddle-point complex-rotation methods. Relativistic and mass polarization corrections are included using first-order perturbation theory. Calculated Auger channel energies and branching ratios are used to identify high-resolution Auger spectrum in the 300-keV C{sup +}{yields} CH{sub 4} collision experiment. It is found that Auger decay of these five-electron core-excited states gives significant contributions to Auger spectrum in the range of 238-280 eV.

  7. New antineutrino energy spectra predictions from the summation of beta decay branches of the fission products.

    PubMed

    Fallot, M; Cormon, S; Estienne, M; Algora, A; Bui, V M; Cucoanes, A; Elnimr, M; Giot, L; Jordan, D; Martino, J; Onillon, A; Porta, A; Pronost, G; Remoto, A; Taín, J L; Yermia, F; Zakari-Issoufou, A-A

    2012-11-16

    In this Letter, we study the impact of the inclusion of the recently measured beta decay properties of the (102;104;105;106;107)Tc, (105)Mo, and (101)Nb nuclei in an updated calculation of the antineutrino energy spectra of the four fissible isotopes (235,238)U and (239,241)Pu. These actinides are the main contributors to the fission processes in pressurized water reactors. The beta feeding probabilities of the above-mentioned Tc, Mo, and Nb isotopes have been found to play a major role in the γ component of the decay heat of (239)Pu, solving a large part of the γ discrepancy in the 4-3000 s range. They have been measured by using the total absorption technique, insensitive to the pandemonium effect. The calculations are performed by using the information available nowadays in the nuclear databases, summing all the contributions of the beta decay branches of the fission products. Our results provide a new prediction of the antineutrino energy spectra of (235)U, (239,241)Pu, and, in particular, (238)U for which no measurement has been published yet. We conclude that new total absorption technique measurements are mandatory to improve the reliability of the predicted spectra. PMID:23215477

  8. New Antineutrino Energy Spectra Predictions from the Summation of Beta Decay Branches of the Fission Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallot, M.; Cormon, S.; Estienne, M.; Algora, A.; Bui, V. M.; Cucoanes, A.; Elnimr, M.; Giot, L.; Jordan, D.; Martino, J.; Onillon, A.; Porta, A.; Pronost, G.; Remoto, A.; Taín, J. L.; Yermia, F.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.

    2012-11-01

    In this Letter, we study the impact of the inclusion of the recently measured beta decay properties of the Tc102;104;105;106;107, Mo105, and Nb101 nuclei in an updated calculation of the antineutrino energy spectra of the four fissible isotopes U235,238 and Pu239,241. These actinides are the main contributors to the fission processes in pressurized water reactors. The beta feeding probabilities of the above-mentioned Tc, Mo, and Nb isotopes have been found to play a major role in the γ component of the decay heat of Pu239, solving a large part of the γ discrepancy in the 4-3000 s range. They have been measured by using the total absorption technique, insensitive to the pandemonium effect. The calculations are performed by using the information available nowadays in the nuclear databases, summing all the contributions of the beta decay branches of the fission products. Our results provide a new prediction of the antineutrino energy spectra of U235, Pu239,241, and, in particular, U238 for which no measurement has been published yet. We conclude that new total absorption technique measurements are mandatory to improve the reliability of the predicted spectra.

  9. New antineutrino energy spectra predictions from the summation of beta decay branches of the fission products.

    PubMed

    Fallot, M; Cormon, S; Estienne, M; Algora, A; Bui, V M; Cucoanes, A; Elnimr, M; Giot, L; Jordan, D; Martino, J; Onillon, A; Porta, A; Pronost, G; Remoto, A; Taín, J L; Yermia, F; Zakari-Issoufou, A-A

    2012-11-16

    In this Letter, we study the impact of the inclusion of the recently measured beta decay properties of the (102;104;105;106;107)Tc, (105)Mo, and (101)Nb nuclei in an updated calculation of the antineutrino energy spectra of the four fissible isotopes (235,238)U and (239,241)Pu. These actinides are the main contributors to the fission processes in pressurized water reactors. The beta feeding probabilities of the above-mentioned Tc, Mo, and Nb isotopes have been found to play a major role in the γ component of the decay heat of (239)Pu, solving a large part of the γ discrepancy in the 4-3000 s range. They have been measured by using the total absorption technique, insensitive to the pandemonium effect. The calculations are performed by using the information available nowadays in the nuclear databases, summing all the contributions of the beta decay branches of the fission products. Our results provide a new prediction of the antineutrino energy spectra of (235)U, (239,241)Pu, and, in particular, (238)U for which no measurement has been published yet. We conclude that new total absorption technique measurements are mandatory to improve the reliability of the predicted spectra.

  10. The use of hydrazine as an alternate source of energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Bressan, C.; Ferreira, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The potentials of using hydrazine as an alternative source of energy was studied. Three chemical reactions are considered: oxidation with air, oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, and thermocatalytic decomposition. Performance data of gasoline, ethylic alcohol, and propane are compared. An item about the NO(x) emissions by the various investigated reactions is included. Promising results are shown, mainly those regarding the available energy per unit volume of unburned gases (vaporized fuel and oxidizer).

  11. 77 FR 48148 - Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC's application for...

  12. Using Alternate Energy Sources. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with using alternate energy sources. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons:…

  13. Alternative oxidase and uncoupling protein: thermogenesis versus cell energy balance.

    PubMed

    Jarmuszkiewicz, W; Sluse-Goffart, C M; Vercesi, A E; Sluse, F E

    2001-04-01

    The physiological role of an alternative oxidase and an uncoupling protein in plant and protists is discussed in terms of thermogenesis and energy metabolism balance in the cell. It is concluded that thermogenesis is restricted not only by a lower-limit size but also by a kinetically-limited stimulation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

  14. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of anthropogenic development on local populations is important for conservation biology and wildlife management. However, these local populations are often subject to demographic stochasticity because of their small population size. Traditional modeling efforts such as population projection matrices do not consider this source of variation whereas individual-based models, which include demographic stochasticity, are computationally intense and lack analytical tractability. One compromise between approaches is branching process models because they accommodate demographic stochasticity and are easily calculated. These models are known within some sub-fields of probability and mathematical ecology but are not often applied in conservation biology and applied ecology. We applied branching process models to quantitatively compare and prioritize species locally vulnerable to the development of wind energy facilities. Specifically, we examined species vulnerability using branching process models for four representative species: A cave bat (a long-lived, low fecundity species), a tree bat (short-lived, moderate fecundity species), a grassland songbird (a short-lived, high fecundity species), and an eagle (a long-lived, slow maturation species). Wind turbine-induced mortality has been observed for all of these species types, raising conservation concerns. We simulated different mortality rates from wind farms while calculating local extinction probabilities. The longer-lived species types (e.g., cave bats and eagles) had much more pronounced transitions from low extinction risk to high extinction risk than short-lived species types (e.g., tree bats and grassland songbirds). High-offspring-producing species types had a much greater variability in baseline risk of extinction than the lower-offspring-producing species types. Long-lived species types may appear stable until a critical level of incidental mortality occurs. After this threshold, the risk of

  15. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  16. Alternative futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This Task Force was asked to propose alternate futures for the Department of Energy laboratories noted in the report. The authors` intensive ten months` study revealed multiple missions and sub-missions--traditional missions and new missions--programs and projects--each with factors of merit. They respectively suggest that the essence of what the Department, and particularly the laboratories, should and do stand for: the energy agenda. Under the overarching energy agenda--the labs serving the energy opportunities--they comment on their national security role, the all important energy role, all related environmental roles, the science and engineering underpinning for all the above, a focused economic role, and conclude with governance/organization change recommendations.

  17. Development of alternative energy science and engineering in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, J. A., Jr.; Koehler, W. C., Jr.

    1983-11-01

    A pilot designed to improve the capabilities of Caribbean universities and research institutes in helping solve the energy problems of the region is discussed. Most of the region is almost entirely dependent on imported petroleum to satisfy its energy needs. That dependency has exascerbated economic problems with the escalation of petroleum prices in the past ten years. A potential solution to reduce both the high degree of dependence and economic costs is to develop other energy systems. A project to foster cooperative research efforts to assist in the introduction of alternative energy solutions was developed. A network of scientists and engineers working in energy was established to promote cooperation, interchange of technical information and development of joint projects.

  18. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Alternative energy balances for Bulgaria to mitigate climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christov, Christo

    1996-01-01

    Alternative energy balances aimed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are developed as alternatives to the baseline energy balance. The section of mitigation options is based on the results of the GHG emission inventory for the 1987 1992 period. The energy sector is the main contributor to the total CO2 emissions of Bulgaria. Stationary combustion for heat and electricity production as well as direct end-use combustion amounts to 80% of the total emissions. The parts of the energy network that could have the biggest influence on GHG emission reduction are identified. The potential effects of the following mitigation measures are discussed: rehabilitation of the combustion facilities currently in operation; repowering to natural gas; reduction of losses in thermal and electrical transmission and distribution networks; penetration of new combustion technologies; tariff structure improvement; renewable sources for electricity and heat production; wasteheat utilization; and supply of households with natural gas to substitute for electricity in space heating and cooking. The total available and the achievable potentials are estimated and the implementation barriers are discussed.

  20. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

  1. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Tawil, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) were mandated by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976 (Title III of Energy Conservation and Production Act) to promote energy efficiency and the use of renewable resources in new buildings. The report analyzes alternative Federal strategies and their component policy instruments and recommends a strategy for achieving the goals of the Act. The concern is limited to space conditioning (heating, cooling, and lighting) and water heating. The policy instruments considered include greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are then described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) BEPS with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings. (MCW)

  2. 78 FR 62472 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative... alternatives to testing for the purposes of certifying compliance with the applicable energy conservation..., U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-2J, Alternative...

  3. 78 FR 13695 - Information Collection: Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing... requirements in the regulations under ``Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer...: 1010-0176. Title: 30 CFR 585, Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the...

  4. The Nuclear Alternative: Energy Production within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liodakis, Emmanouel Georgiou

    2011-06-01

    Over ninety percent of Mongolia's energy load is run through the Central Energy System. This primary grid provides Mongolia's capital, Ulaanbaatar, with the power it uses to function. In the first half of 2010 the Central Energy System managed 1739.45 million kWhs, a 4.6 percent increase from 2009. If this growth rate continues, by 2015 Ulaanbaatar's three power plants will be unable to generate enough heat and electricity to meet the city's needs. Currently, plans have been proposed to rehabilitate the aging coal power plants. However, rising maintenance costs and growing emission levels make the long-term sustainability of this solution uncertain. The following paper analyzes the capital, maintenance, and decommissioning costs associated with the current rehabilitation plans and compares them with a nuclear alternative.

  5. The Nuclear Alternative: Energy Production within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Liodakis, Emmanouel Georgiou

    2011-06-28

    Over ninety percent of Mongolia's energy load is run through the Central Energy System. This primary grid provides Mongolia's capital, Ulaanbaatar, with the power it uses to function. In the first half of 2010 the Central Energy System managed 1739.45 million kWhs, a 4.6 percent increase from 2009. If this growth rate continues, by 2015 Ulaanbaatar's three power plants will be unable to generate enough heat and electricity to meet the city's needs. Currently, plans have been proposed to rehabilitate the aging coal power plants. However, rising maintenance costs and growing emission levels make the long-term sustainability of this solution uncertain. The following paper analyzes the capital, maintenance, and decommissioning costs associated with the current rehabilitation plans and compares them with a nuclear alternative.

  6. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  7. Shoot branching.

    PubMed

    Ward, Sally P; Leyser, Ottoline

    2004-02-01

    The mature form of a plant shoot system is an expression of several genetically controlled traits, many of which are also environmentally regulated. A major component of this architectural variation is the degree of shoot branching. Recent results indicate conserved mechanisms for shoot branch development across the monocots and eudicots. The existence of a novel long-range branch-inhibiting signal has been inferred from studies of branching mutants in pea and Arabidopsis. PMID:14732444

  8. Alternative energy sources and new energy technologies for Turkish rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ultanir, M.O.

    1983-12-01

    Modern agriculture is an energy consumer sector, also agriculture is an energy conversion process. In addition to biomass energy's raw materials are harvested by agriculture. The concept of energy in agriculture, energy is one of the main and outstanding factor which renders the realization of the overall development of the agriculture and rural areas. Agricultural income depends on total mechanical power in agricultural mechanization; general energy consumption of rural sector; cultural energy consumption by agricultural inputs which are fertilizer, pesticides, indirect energy in machinery, irrigation equipments, buildings and other services; direct energy consumption in agricultural mechanization which are fuel and electricity etc. In general, energy input in the rural areas is classified as direct and indirect. Direct energy input reflects demands for mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. Indirect energy consists of inputs which have been produced by industrial sector and introduced into rural sector. Although conventional energy sources, especially petroleum products are used in meeting direct energy input requirements, alternative energy sources may be used as well in this respect. Especially emphasis is being given to new and renewable alternative sources for heat and electrical energy requirements.

  9. The two active sites in human branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase operate independently without an obligatory alternating-site mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Machius, Mischa; Chuang, Jacinta L; Wynn, R Max; Chuang, David T

    2007-04-20

    A long standing controversy is whether an alternating activesite mechanism occurs during catalysis in thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes. We address this question by investigating the ThDP-dependent decarboxylase/dehydrogenase (E1b) component of the mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). Our crystal structure reveals that conformations of the two active sites in the human E1b heterotetramer harboring the reaction intermediate are identical. Acidic residues in the core of the E1b heterotetramer, which align with the proton-wire residues proposed to participate in active-site communication in the related pyruvate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus, are mutated. Enzyme kinetic data show that, except in a few cases because of protein misfolding, these alterations are largely without effect on overall activity of BCKDC, ruling out the requirement of a proton-relay mechanism in E1b. BCKDC overall activity is nullified at 50% phosphorylation of E1b, but it is restored to nearly half of the pre-phosphorylation level after dissociation and reconstitution of BCKDC with the same phosphorylated E1b. The results suggest that the abolition of overall activity likely results from the specific geometry of the half-phosphorylated E1b in the BCKDC assembly and not due to a disruption of the alternating active-site mechanism. Finally, we show that a mutant E1b containing only one functional active site exhibits half of the wild-type BCKDC activity, which directly argues against the obligatory communication between active sites. The above results provide evidence that the two active sites in the E1b heterotetramer operate independently during the ThDP-dependent decarboxylation reaction. PMID:17329260

  10. Alternate Energy Sources for Thermalplastic Binding Agent Consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate microwave and electron beam technologies as alternate energy sources to consolidate fiber coated with a thermoplastic binding agent into preforms for composite molding applications. Bench experiments showed that both microwave and electron beam energy can produce heat sufficient to melt and consolidate a thermoplastic binding agent applied to fiberglass mat, and several two- and three-dimensional fiberglass preforms were produced with each method. In both cases, it is postulated that the heating was accomplished by the effective interaction of the microwave or electron beam energy with the combination of the mat preform and the tooling used to shape the preform. Both methods contrast with conventional thermal energy applied via infrared heaters or from a heated tool in which the heat to melt the thermoplastic binding agent must diffuse over time from the outer surface of the preform toward its center under a thermal gradient. For these reasons, the microwave and electron beam energy techniques have the potential to rapidly consolidate thick fiber preforms more efficiently than the thermal process. With further development, both technologies have the potential to make preform production more cost effective by decreasing cycle time in the preform tool, reducing energy costs, and by enabling the use of less expensive tooling materials. Descriptions of the microwave and electron beam consolidation experiments and a summary of the results are presented in this report.

  11. A universal high energy anomaly in angle resolved photoemissionspectra of high temperature superconductors -- possible evidence ofspinon and holon branches

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, J.; Gweon, G.-H.; McElroy, K.; Zhou, S.Y.; Jozwiak, C.; Rotenberg, E.; Bill, A.; Sasagawa, T.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Takagi,H.; Lee, D.-H.; Lanzara A.

    2006-12-19

    A universal high energy anomaly in the single particlespectral function is reported in three different families of hightemperature superconductors by using angle-resolved photoemissionspectroscopy. As we follow the dispersing peak of the spectral functionfrom the Fermi energy to the valence band complex, we find dispersionanomalies marked by two distinctive high energy scales, E_1 approx 0.38eV and E_2 approx 0.8 eV. E_1 marks the energy above which the dispersionsplits into two branches. One is a continuation of the near parabolicdispersion, albeit with reduced spectral weight, and reaches the bottomof the band at the Gamma point at approx 0.5 eV. The other is given by apeak in the momentum space, nearly independent of energy between E_1 andE_2. Above E_2, a band-like dispersion re-emerges. We conjecture thatthese two energies mark the disintegration of the low energyquasiparticles into a spinon and holon branch in the high T_c cuprates.

  12. 77 FR 41873 - In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil... current and accurate information concerning the securities of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc. because...

  13. Integrated alternative energy systems for use in small communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the principles and conceptual design of an integrated alternative energy system for use in typical farming communities in developing countries. A system is described that, utilizing the Sun and methane produced from crop waste, would supply sufficient electric and thermal energy to meet the basic needs of villagers for water pumping, lighting, and cooking. The system is sized to supply enough pumping capacity to irrigate 101 ha (249 acres) sufficiently to optimize annual crop yields for the community. Three economic scenarios were developed, showing net benefits to the community of $3,578 to $15,547 anually, payback periods of 9.5 to 20 years, and benefit-to-cost ratios of 1.1 to 1.9.

  14. Alternative Energy Science and Policy: Biofuels as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammous, Saifedean H.

    This dissertation studies the science and policy-making of alternative energy using biofuels as a case study, primarily examining the instruments that can be used to alleviate the impacts of climate change and their relative efficacy. Three case studies of policy-making on biofuels in the European Union, United States of America and Brazil are presented and discussed. It is found that these policies have had large unintended negative consequences and that they relied on Lifecycle Analysis studies that had concluded that increased biofuels production can help meet economic, energy and environmental goals. A close examination of these Lifecycle Analysis studies reveals that their results are not conclusive. Instead of continuing to attempt to find answers from Lifecycle Analyses, this study suggests an alternative approach: formulating policy based on recognition of the ignorance of real fuel costs and pollution. Policies to combat climate change are classified into two distinct approaches: policies that place controls on the fuels responsible for emissions and policies that target the pollutants themselves. A mathematical model is constructed to compare these two approaches and address the central question of this study: In light of an ignorance of the cost and pollution impacts of different fuels, are policies targeting the pollutants themselves preferable to policies targeting the fuels? It is concluded that in situations where the cost and pollution functions of a fuel are unknown, subsidies, mandates and caps on the fuel might result in increased or decreased greenhouse gas emissions; on the other hand, a tax or cap on carbon dioxide results in the largest decrease possible of greenhouse gas emissions. Further, controls on greenhouse gases are shown to provide incentives for the development and advancement of cleaner alternative energy options, whereas controls on the fuels are shown to provide equal incentives to the development of cleaner and dirtier

  15. The role of the legislative and regulatory branches in promoting the use of geothermal energy in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.; Cers, A.

    2016-09-01

    Latvia currently is self-sufficient in energy resources up to approximately 35 %. Annual fossil energy prices rise and risks of security of energy supply promote the development legislation in the matter of renewable resources. One of the Latvian Ministry of Economics' recent products is a new draft law called the "Renewable Energy Law", which has been created due to one of the European Union and Latvian national energy policy objectives: to increase the share of renewable energy up to 40 % by 2020 (Moore and Vanags, 2012). Currently, geothermal energy potential is assessed at 1 × 1013 kWh; nevertheless, it is difficult for geothermal energy to compete with other renewable energy resources in the Latvian energy market. A great job has been done in recent years at the legislative branch to choose the right methods for supporting the use of renewable energy resources. This paper aims is analysis of current situation and assessment of Latvian legislation possibilities to promote the use of geothermal energy.

  16. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  17. A Project-Based, STEM-Integrated Alternative Energy Team Challenge for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Allison; Harris, John

    2010-01-01

    The topic of alternative energy is not only relevant to a multitude of issues today, it is also an effective vehicle for developing instruction that applies across a variety of content disciplines and academic standards. Since many of the issues associated with alternative energy are open-ended, alternative energy also lends itself to…

  18. Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program Erie County

    SciTech Connect

    Beiswanger, Jr, Robert C

    2010-05-20

    The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center, Daemen will

  19. Celiac trunk and branches dissection due to energy drink consumption and heavy resistance exercise: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    González, Wilma; Altieri, Pablo I; Alvarado, Enrique; Banchs, Héctor L; Colón, Edgar; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María

    2015-01-01

    Higher doses and consumption of energy drinks leads to cardiovascular effects and potential consequences. Principal components found in energy drinks such as caffeine, guarana and taurine has been related to dilatation, aneurysm formation, dissection and ruptures. There is no evidence showing an integration of these components and its effects in endothelium and aortic walls due to higher levels of pressure during exercises. We report a case of a 44 years male with celiac trunk and branches dissection due to long-term consumption of energy drinks and intense exercise routine. Our proposition relates cell and vessel walls alterations including elasticity in endothelial wall due to higher blood pressure, resistance by intense exercise routine and long-term consumption of energy drinks. PMID:26035983

  20. Celiac trunk and branches dissection due to energy drink consumption and heavy resistance exercise: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    González, Wilma; Altieri, Pablo I; Alvarado, Enrique; Banchs, Héctor L; Colón, Edgar; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María

    2015-01-01

    Higher doses and consumption of energy drinks leads to cardiovascular effects and potential consequences. Principal components found in energy drinks such as caffeine, guarana and taurine has been related to dilatation, aneurysm formation, dissection and ruptures. There is no evidence showing an integration of these components and its effects in endothelium and aortic walls due to higher levels of pressure during exercises. We report a case of a 44 years male with celiac trunk and branches dissection due to long-term consumption of energy drinks and intense exercise routine. Our proposition relates cell and vessel walls alterations including elasticity in endothelial wall due to higher blood pressure, resistance by intense exercise routine and long-term consumption of energy drinks.

  1. An alternative energy source utilization with an MHD generator

    SciTech Connect

    Bityurin, V.A.

    1995-12-31

    One of the main goal of the MHD generators development is to increase an efficiency of electrical power generation systems and, as a consequence, to reduce an fossil fuel consumption. It is well known now that earth fossil fuel resources are rather limited and especially the oil and natural gas being the most valuable fossil fuel are predicted to be exhausted in several decades. The coal resources are much more huge and can serve as main energy source for another century. For this reason besides so called renewable energy sources the nuclear both fission and fusion is considered as the first candidate for the future. This prospective looks not very much desirable due to very heavy problem in large scale radioactive waste removal from the Earth. From this point of view a search for alternative energy sources available for commercial scale electrical power production is still actual. On our opinion among usually accounted energy sources one of the most huge one is not presented. This is an energy of any mass located in the gravitational field of the Earth. Such a mass infinitely distant from the Earth has a potential of about 62 MJ/kg which is significantly higher then for any fossil fuel-oxidizer system. The nearest natural huge storage of such a type is the Moon with the total amount of energy {approximately}5x10{sup 30} which is of two order of magnitude greater than nuclear energy stored in all deuterium in the ocean. One possible way to use this energy is to bring the moon mass into the upper atmosphere of the Earth and to convert this energy into electricity with an MHD generator working on external air flow heated by the interaction of moving mass with atmospheric air. It should be noted that in contrast to the conventional MHD generator considered earlier for fossil fuel utilization the space based MHD generator deals with much higher enthalpy flux and, consequently, the enthalpy extraction ratio could be also much higher.

  2. Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Kimberly Michelle

    Increasing concerns for the escalating issues activated by the effect of carbon dioxide emissions on the global climate from extensive use of fossil fuels and the limited amount of fossil resources has led to an in-depth search for alternative energy systems, primarily based on nuclear or renewable energy sources. Recent innovations in the production of more efficient devices for energy harvesting, storage, and conversion are based on the incorporation of nanostructured materials into electrochemical systems. The aforementioned nano-electrochemical energy systems hold particular promise for alternative energy transportation related technologies including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, and electrochemical supercapacitors. In each of these devices, nanostructured materials can be used to increase the surface area where the critical chemical reactions occur within the same volume and mass, thereby increasing the energy density, power density, electrical efficiency, and physical robustness of the system. Durable corrosion resistant carbon support materials for fuel cells have been designed by adding conductive low cost carbon materials with chemically robust ceramic materials. Since a strict control of the pore size is mandatory to optimize properties for improved performance, chemical activation agents have been utilized as porogens to tune surface areas, pore size distributions, and composition of carbon-based mesoporous materials. Through the use of evaporative self-assembly methods, both randomly disordered and surfactant-templated, ordered carbon-silica nanocomposites have been synthesized with controlled surface area, pore volume, and pore size ranging from 50-800 m2/g, 0.025-0.75 cm3/g, and 2-10 nm, respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) ranging from 0.05-1.0 wt. % were added to the aforementioned carbon-silica nanocomposites, which provided an additional increase in surface area and improved conductivity. Initially, a conductivity value of 0.0667 S

  3. Economy in energy through alternative sources of energy in mass-housing of developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, I.B.

    1980-12-01

    Energy is an integral part of the development process and a major determinant for the improvement of the quality of life in human settlements. Skyrocketing oil price increases in recent years has made development increasingly difficult for at least two-thirds of the developing countries. An increasing number of developing countries are searching for new sources of energy and more efficient use of what is available. So, there is a need for well thought-out comprehensive energy saving program. There is a need for radical thinking in devising new and innovative energy policies, which should be dynamic, technologically flexible, and responsive to the needs and aspirations of people. There is large percentage of energy used in buildings which can be economised in the planning of new settlements. The paper discusses and recommends the adoption of some of the straight-forward technology through which there is a full scope for minimizing the usage of energy in housing. Moving ahead, the paper also makes suggestions to developing countries how to develop and adopt alternative sources of energy in housing; especially solar energy, for cooling and heating purposes, because in solar energy most of the developing countries are very rich. Further, the paper strongly recommends that Universities, Colleges, and Schools should teach the latest concepts of energy conservation and use of alternative energy sources. However, the largest savings in energy consumption would arise from a real desire and economy consciousness on the part of the individual in the community to limit energy usage.

  4. Don't forget alternate energy sources: biomass, geothermal, wind

    SciTech Connect

    Miskell, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The United States is probably the most fortunate country in the world in terms of potential energy resources, and that is part of the problem in developing alternate sources. Which ones should be given preference, and which ones will give the quickest, most economic return on investment. The exploration of converting potential plant life to energy is already underway. One such plant is the milkweed. The milky latex substance of the weed contains 30% hydrocarbon and 70% water. About 7% to 10% of the plant weight is extractable crude oil. The unused plant residue can be processed to produce alcohol. In Utah, a milkweed project yielded 2.5 pounds of oil from 35 lbs. of milkweed. The California Commission is looking into the possibility of using two million tons of rice straw, now left in the fields to be burned. The basic thrust of geothermal activity is still the dry steam plants in the Geyser field in California, but the movement to develop more prevalent hot water persists. Binary production and the use of moderate hot water are gaining in acceptance. The government's goal for wind for the year 2000 is 2% of total energy usage. Both utility and consumer participation will be required to meet that goal. Utilities will have to install 20,000 to 30,000 large-scale machines and nearly 1 million would have to be installed by consumers for homes and farms. Movement is already underway.

  5. Orimulsion{reg_sign} an alternative source of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Marruffo, F.; Sarmiento, W.

    1997-07-01

    This paper gives a brief summary of the Orimulsion{reg_sign} capabilities, current applications and its potential as an alternative energy source. Orimulsion{reg_sign} is a fuel based on natural Bitumen dispersed in water. The characteristics of Orimulsion{reg_sign} permit its handling in a manner similar to that used for conventional liquid fuels. Conclusive proof that Orimulsion{reg_sign} maintains its stability during long periods of time has been provided by the favorable experience over the past years in the storage facilities used by Bitor and its clients. More than 4 million metric tons per year of Orimulsion{reg_sign} are being used worldwide for power generation with excellent results, not only in economic aspects but also in environmental matter. Furthermore, Orimulsion{reg_sign} has been tested successfully with most existing combustion technologies, as well as with sulfur abatement and recovery equipment. Orimulsion{reg_sign} represents an excellent cost-effective alternative for clean power generation. It has been demonstrated that Orimulsion{reg_sign} CO{sub 2} emission are 20 % lower than Coal, also Orimulsion{reg_sign} has an enormous potential to lower NO{sub x} emissions as a reburning fuel, due to its inherent pre-atomization nature, water content and lower flame temperature. The paper will describe the Orimulsion{reg_sign} performance in different combustion technologies, like: Conventional Boilers, Diesel Engines, Gasification Process and Cement Kilns.

  6. Modified gravity as an alternative to dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvvuri, Vikram

    We consider general curvature-invariant modifications of the Einstein-Hilbert action that become important only in regions of extremely low space-time curvature. We investigate the late-time evolution of the universe in such models, examining the possibilities for cosmic acceleration and other ultimate destinies. The models generically possess de Sitter space as an unstable solution and exhibit an interesting set of attractor solutions which, in some cases, provide alternatives to dark energy models. We show that modifications of the form f ( R ) are ruled out by solar system tests of gravitation. In addition, we also review the Palatini method of variation for such theories and contrast it with the metric variation approach.

  7. High-energy radiation forming chain scission and branching in polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otaguro, H.; de Lima, L. F. C. P.; Parra, D. F.; Lugão, A. B.; Chinelatto, M. A.; Canevarolo, S. V.

    2010-03-01

    The degradation of high molecular weight isotactic polypropylene (iPP) subjected to gamma rays irradiation up to 100 kGy in inert atmosphere was analyzed. The investigation relied upon complex viscosity, elastic modulus, gel fraction, morphology of the insoluble fraction and deconvoluted molecular weight distribution (MWD) curves. At low irradiation doses, already at 5 kGy, the MWD curve is strongly shifted to the low molecular weight side showing chain scission, which is confirmed using the calculated chain scission distribution function (CSDF). At high dose levels, the appearance of a shoulder in the high molecular weight side of the MWD curve indicates the formation of chain branching. The presence of a considerable insoluble fraction at these high dose levels indicates also the formation of cross-linking, which has different morphology then the insoluble fraction present in the original iPP. The rheological results show changes in the molecular structure of irradiated samples in agreement with the gel content data. The chromatographic and rheological data has shown that gamma irradiation of iPP produces chain scission, branching and cross-linking.

  8. Gasohol: An Energy Alternative. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    This 2-3 week high school chemistry unit is designed to provide students with an awareness of Gasohol as an energy alternative. Gasohol is a blend of 10 percent pure ethanol and 90 percent unleaded gasoline. The unit consists of nine activities (five laboratory experiments, three informational readings, and a sample problem activity). The five…

  9. Energy conservation and alternate energy resources for a dairy utilizing a water flush waste disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, M.D.; Bryan, W.L.; Johnson, J.C. Jr.; Newton, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Electricity use and costs were evaluated for a dairy farm using a water flush disposal system. Electricity conservastion, reducing the peak electrical demand, and alternative energy production from animal waste can be reduce purchased electrical costs while still maintaining the benefits derived from mechanization. ref.

  10. ECAS Phase I fuel cell results. [Energy Conservation Alternatives Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses the fuel cell system results of Phase I of the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). Ten advanced electric powerplant systems for central-station baseload generation using coal were studied by NASA in ECAS. Three types of low-temperature fuel cells (solid polymer electrolyte, SPE, aqueous alkaline, and phosphoric acid) and two types of high-temperature fuel cells (molten carbonate, MC, and zirconia solid electrolyte, SE) were studied. The results indicate that (1) overall efficiency increases with fuel cell temperature, and (2) scale-up in powerplant size can produce a significant reduction in cost of electricity (COE) only when it is accompanied by utilization of waste fuel cell heat through a steam bottoming cycle and/or integration with a gasifier. For low-temperature fuel cell systems, the use of hydrogen results in the highest efficiency and lowest COE. In spite of higher efficiencies, because of higher fuel cell replacement costs integrated SE systems have higher projected COEs than do integrated MC systems. Present data indicate that life can be projected to over 30,000 hr for MC fuel cells, but data are not yet sufficient for similarly projecting SE fuel cell life expectancy.

  11. Comparison of mainline and alternate approaches to fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, Paul W.; Roth, J. Reece

    1985-02-01

    The tokamak and tandem mirror concepts are compared with alternate confinement concepts using the criteria established in DOE/ET-0047, “An Evaluation of Alternate Magnetic Fusion Concepts 1977.” The concepts are evaluated and rated in each of three broad categories: confidence in physics and technology, and reactor desirability. The STARFIRE and MARS reactors are used as a basis for comparing the mainline tokamak and tandem mirror concepts with the alternate concepts evaluated in DOE/ET-0047. Two recent alternate concepts, the ohmically heated toroidal experiment (OHTE) and the compact reversed field pinch reactor (CRFPR), are also evaluated. Results indicate that the physics of the mainline tokamaks and tandem mirrors is better understood than that of most alternate concepts. Both mainline concepts rank near the middle for technology requirements, and both rank near or at the bottom when compared with the reactor desirability of alternate concepts.

  12. Highly branched sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s membrane for energy efficient vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Bibo; Li, Zhaohua; Dai, Wenjing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Lihong; Xi, Jingyu

    2015-07-01

    A series of highly branched sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s (HSPAEK) are synthesized by direct polycondensation reactions. The HSPAEK with 8% degree of branching is further investigated as membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The HSPAEK membrane prepared by solution casting method exhibits smooth, dense and tough morphology. It possesses very low VO2+ permeability and high ion selectivity compared to those of Nafion 117 membrane. When applied to VRFB, this novel membrane shows higher coulombic efficiency (CE, 99%) and energy efficiency (EE, 84%) than Nafion 117 membrane (CE, 92% and EE, 78%) at current density of 80 mA cm-2. Besides, the HSPAEK membrane shows super stable CE and EE as well as excellent discharge capacity retention (83%) during 100 cycles life test. After being soaked in 1.5 mol L-1 VO2+ solution for 21 days, the weight loss of HSPAEK membrane and the amount of VO2+ reduced from VO2+ are only 0.26% and 0.7%, respectively, indicating the superior chemical stability of the membrane.

  13. Measurement of the B to Xs gammaBranching Fraction and Photon Energy Spectrum usingthe Recoil Method

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2007-12-04

    We present a measurement of the branching fraction and photon energy spectrum for the decay B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma} using data from the BABAR experiment. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 210 fb{sup -1}, from which approximately 680,000 B{bar B} events are tagged by a fully reconstructed hadronic decay of one of the B mesons. In the decay of the second B meson, an isolated high-energy photon is identified. We measure {Beta}(B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}) = (3.66 {+-} 0.85{sub stat} {+-} 0.60{sub syst}) x 10{sup -4} for photon energies E{sub {gamma}} above 1.9 GeV in the B rest frame. From the measured spectrum we calculate the first and second moments for different minimum photon energies, which are used to extract the heavy-quark parameters m{sub b} and {mu}{sub {pi}}{sup 2}. In addition, measurements of the direct CP asymmetry and isospin asymmetry are presented.

  14. The far-ultraviolet energy distribution of two globular cluster blue horizontal-branch stars in M13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, K. S.; Code, A. D.

    1981-01-01

    The far-UV energy distribution of two blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars detected in the nucleus of M13 is presented. Their continua can be characterized by a model atmosphere of an effective temperature of 15,000 to 20,000 K and log g = 4.5, and it follows that V is in the range 15.9-16.7 for these stars. Comparison with integrated photometry by OAO 2 and by ANS indicates that, at wavelengths smaller than 1800 A, the integrated light is from BHB stars only, of which M13 contains about 200. For these far-UV wavelengths, the color of the BHB stars is also very similar to the integrated color of the elliptical galaxy M87.

  15. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1980-01-01

    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations.

  16. Supplement to energy for rural development: Renewable resources and alternative technologies for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The publication energy for rural development: renewable resources and alternative technologies for developing countries, which presented information on a variety of subjects, including direct uses of solar energy (heating, cooling, distillation, crop drying, photovoltaics), indirect uses of solar energy (wind power, hydropower, photosynthesis, biomass), geothermal energy, and energy storage is reviewed. New technologies developed and advances made in technologies are discussed.

  17. 78 FR 79579 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination... AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final...

  18. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  19. Nanoscale heat transfer and thermoelectrics for alternative energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Richard

    2011-03-01

    In the area of alternative energy, thermoelectrics have experienced an unprecedented growth in popularity because of their ability to convert waste heat into electricity. Wired in reverse, thermoelectrics can act as refrigeration devices, where they are promising because they are small in size and lightweight, have no moving parts, and have rapid on/off cycles. However, due to their low efficiencies bulk thermoelectrics have historically been a niche market. Only in the last decade has thermoelectric efficiency exceeded ~ 20 % due to fabrication of nanostructured materials. Nanoscale materials have this advantage because electronic and acoustic confinement effects can greatly increase thermoelectric efficiency beyond bulk values. In this talk, I will introduce our work in the area of nanoscale heat transfer with the goal of more efficient thermoelectrics. I will discuss our experiments and methods to study acoustic confinement in nanostructures and present some of our new nanostructured thermoelectric materials. To study acoustic confinement we are building a nanoscale phonon spectrometer. The instrument can excite phonon modes in nanostructures in the ~ 100 s of GHz. Ballistic phonons from the generator are used to probe acoustic confinement and surface scattering effects. Transmission studies using this device will help optimize materials and morphologies for more efficient nanomaterial-based thermoelectrics. For materials, our group has synthesized nano-layer superlattices of Na x Co O2 . Sodium cobaltate was recently discovered to have a high Seebeck coeficent and is being studied as an oxide thermoelectric material. The thickness of our nano-layers ranges from 5 nm to 300 nm while the lengths can be varied between 10 μ m and 4 mm. Typical aspect ratios are 40 nm: 4 mm, or 1:100,000. Thermoelectric characterization of samples with tilted multiple-grains along the measurement axis indicate a thermoelectric efficiency on par with current polycrystalline samples

  20. Alternative Energy: A Guide to Free Information for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Janet A.

    This guide was compiled to help teachers and students locate free educational materials (both lessons and nontechnical background references) on renewable energy resources and energy conservation. The 214 entries are arranged by these topic areas: (1) energy efficiency and renewables; (2) biomass; (3) hydropower; (4) solar thermal energy; (5)…

  1. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  2. Productive resources in students' ideas about energy: An alternative analysis of Watts' original interview transcripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, Benedikt W.; Flood, Virginia J.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2013-12-01

    For over 30 years, researchers have investigated students’ ideas about energy with the intent of reforming instructional practice. In this pursuit, Watts contributed an influential study with his 1983 paper “Some alternative views of energy” [Phys. Educ. 18, 213 (1983)]. Watts’ “alternative frameworks” continue to be used for categorizing students’ non-normative ideas about energy. Using a resources framework, we propose an alternate analysis of student responses from Watts’ interviews. In our analysis, we show how students’ activated resources about energy are disciplinarily productive. We suggest that fostering seeds of scientific understandings in students’ ideas about energy may play an important role in their development of scientific literacy.

  3. An evaluation of alternate energy sources for the Guyana energy crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankies, M.

    Hydropower, tidal power, and Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) are evaluated as energy sources for the economic development of Guyana. The realization of a 3000 MW hydropower scheme is expected to promote industries such as an aluminum smelting plant and an ammonium nitrate plant in the hinterland. A proposal is made for a tidal power plant on the Saint John River with a million kW capacity. Although Guyana's geological location and atmospheric conditions make it a favorable site for solar seapower, OTEC cannot be considered as a current alternative. It is concluded that hydropower will play an important role as an inexpensive source of energy for industry, and that tidal power will supply coastal areas and function as part of the sea-defense system.

  4. Local alternative energy futures: developing economies/building communities

    SciTech Connect

    Totten, M.; Glass, B.; Freedberg, M.; Webb, L.

    1980-12-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the three parts of the conference. A sufficient range of information is presented to enable interested parties to explore the viable alternatives for community self-sufficiency. The parts are entitled: Financial Incentives and Funding Sources; Standards, Regulations, Mandates, Ordinances, Covenants; and Community/Economic Development. (MCW)

  5. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cart, E. N., Jr.

    1980-06-01

    Alternate fuels for nonhighway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline) were investigated. A recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to nonhighway transportation users from now through 2025 is made. The research and development needed to allow nonpetroleum derived fuels to be used in nonhighway transportation is discussed. In the near term (present-1985), there is unlikely to be any major change in the fuels used in any of the four modes of transportation except that the average quality of the marine fuel is likely to get worse. In the midterm period (1985-2000), there will be a transition to nonpetroleum fuels, based primarily on shale oil derived liquids assuming a shale oil industry is started during this time.

  6. Current alternative energy research and development in Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swager, R.

    1984-12-01

    This directory lists research and demonstration projects, as well as sponsoring organization and investigators involved in developing nonfossil, nonnuclear energy sources. Areas of concern are: bioenergy; solar heating and cooling; solar photovoltaics; solar thermal and advanced technologies; geothermal and ocean thermal; wind energy; waste heat and materials recovery; and energy storage projects performed by Illinois organizations, both within by out-of-state organizations at sites within Illinois.

  7. Renewable energy alternatives - a growing opportunity for engineering & technology education

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hallmark of the United States’ economic growth is an ever-increasing demand for energy, which has traditionally been met primarily by combusting the hydrocarbons found in fossil fuels. As national security and environmental concerns grow, renewable energy resources are gaining increased attention...

  8. Oil may hinder alternative energy growth, study says

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    Worldwatch Institute warns that if oil prices fall below $20 per barrel, many investments in coal and gas projects and more efficient technologies will no longer be economical. This would encourage an unsustainable level of oil dependence, and could lead to another energy crisis in the 1990s. Supporting evidence for this conclusion is OPEC's drop in production to only half the level of four years ago, while non-OPEC reserves are draining rapidly. Increased energy efficiency has done the most to lower world oil consumption, exceeding the contribution of all new energy sources combined. Coal has been the principal source of additional energy, although the use of renewable resources is expanding rapidly. The transition to a more efficient world energy system will slow if the crisis and glut cycle continues.

  9. Parity splitting and E1/E2 branching in the alternating parity band of {sup 240}Pu from two-center octupole wave functions using supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Jolos, R. V.; Brentano, P. von

    2011-08-15

    An interpretation is suggested of the recently published experimental data on the alternating parity bands in {sup 240}Pu. The interpretation is based on the assumption that the main role in the description of the properties of the alternating parity bands plays the octupole mode which preserves the axial symmetry. The mathematical technique of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics is used for the realization of the model with the two-center octupole wave functions. A good description of the parity splitting and of the ratio of the dipole and quadrupole transitional moments is obtained for the first two bands.

  10. Safety's impact on an alternative energy source: coal

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Our ability to make underground mines a safe place to work will be a major concern to those seeking to use coal as an energy source. Increased production will stimulate a heightened concern for making mining a more effective energy resource. This effectiveness means that unless safe performance is achieved, the cost of poor safety, such as loss of lives and costly delays due to breakdowns and other failures, will greatly reduce productivity of underground mining operations. As such, coal companies and miners must be prepared to safely manage their operation before underground mining makes a significant effect on energy independence.

  11. 76 FR 4244 - Regulation and Enforcement; Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management 30 CFR Part 285 RIN 1010-AD71 Regulation and Enforcement; Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf--Acquire a Lease... renewable energy regulatory provisions that pertain to noncompetitive acquisition of leases, published...

  12. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 4: Energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. H.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed-cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum-based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. The advanced and commercially available cogeneration energy conversion systems studied in CTAS are fined together with their performance, capital costs, and the research and developments required to bring them to this level of performance.

  13. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 4: Energy conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. H.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-04-01

    Industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed-cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum-based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. The advanced and commercially available cogeneration energy conversion systems studied in CTAS are fined together with their performance, capital costs, and the research and developments required to bring them to this level of performance.

  14. Comparing energy technology alternatives from an environmental perspective

    SciTech Connect

    House, P W; Coleman, J A; Shull, R D; Matheny, R W; Hock, J C

    1981-02-01

    A number of individuals and organizations advocate the use of comparative, formal analysis to determine which are the safest methods for producing and using energy. Some have suggested that the findings of such analyses should be the basis upon which final decisions are made about whether to actually deploy energy technologies. Some of those who support formal comparative analysis are in a position to shape the policy debate on energy and environment. An opposing viewpoint is presented, arguing that for technical reasons, analysis can provide no definitive or rationally credible answers to the question of overall safety. Analysis has not and cannot determine the sum total of damage to human welfare and ecological communities from energy technologies. Analysis has produced estimates of particular types of damage; however, it is impossible to make such estimates comparable and commensurate across different classes of technologies and environmental effects. As a result of the deficiencies, comparative analysis connot form the basis of a credible, viable energy policy. Yet, without formal comparative analysis, how can health, safety, and the natural environment be protected. This paper proposes a method for improving the Nation's approach to this problem. The proposal essentially is that health and the environment should be considered as constraints on the deployment of energy technologies, constraints that are embodied in Government regulations. Whichever technologies can function within these constraints should then compete among themselves. This competition should be based on market factors like cost and efficiency and on political factors like national security and the questions of equity.

  15. Alternative Energy Saving Technology Analysis Report for Richland High School Renovation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing

    2004-08-09

    On July 8, 2004, L&S Engineering, Inc. submitted a technical assistance request to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to help estimate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of the solar energy and daylighting design alternatives for Richland High School Renovation Project in Richland, WA. L&S Engineering expected PNNL to evaluate the potential energy savings and energy cost savings, the probable installation costs, incentives or grants to reduce the installed costs and simple payback for the following alternative measures: (1) Daylighting in New Gym; (2) Solar Photovoltaics; (3) Solar Domestic Hot Water Pre-Heat; and (4) Solar Outside Air Pre-Heat Following are the findings of the energy savings and cost-effectiveness analysis of above alternative energy saving technologies.

  16. Alternate energy dissipation? Phenolic metabolites and the xanthophyll cycle.

    PubMed

    Close, Dugald C; Beadle, Chris L

    2003-04-01

    The dynamics of phenolic galloylglucoses (di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-galloylglucose), flavonoids (quercitin and quercitin glycosides) and sideroxylonal were compared with that of xanthophyll cycle-dependent energy dissipation during rapid induction of chilling-dependent photo-inhibition. Pre-dawn xanthophyll cycle engagement of seedlings of Eucalyptus nitens transferred from mild nursery conditions to a low temperature controlled environment increased logarithmically during eight days of treatment. Photochemical efficiency and flavonoids decreased after four days of treatment and non-photochemical quenching after two days of treatment. Galloylglucoses and sideroxylonal decreased linearly during treatment. These results demonstrate that rapid changes in foliar phenolic levels are associated with abrupt changes in the plant environment. It is argued that under these growth-chamber conditions, the xanthophyll cycle facilitated dissipation of excess light energy, lessening the requirement for the dissipation of energy or antioxidant activity through phenolic metabolites.

  17. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  18. Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Shipkovs, P.; Grislis, V.; Zebergs, V. )

    1991-01-01

    The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made use of to ensure the optimum temperature on residential and industrial premises. The influence of climatic conditions on the selection of heat supply systems has been studied at large. In the present paper the use of alternative energy sources (AES) in combined heat supply systems (CHSS) is described.

  19. 75 FR 1634 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0176, Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... governments that submit information or comments relative to alternative energy-related uses of the OCS... information to administer and carry out the offshore alternative energy program via Federal Register Notices... $2,866,000 non-hour costs Subpart B--Issuance of OCS Alternative Energy Leases 200; 224; 231;...

  20. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  1. The Energy Crisis in the Public Schools; Alternative Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossbach, Wilmar; Shaffer, William

    One hundred and eighty school personnel held a workshop with representatives of the petroleum, natural gas, and electrical power industries. The objectives of the workshop were (1) to provide participants with a common body of knowledge and a common understanding of the energy crisis and its implications for the public schools, (2) to delineate…

  2. Alternative Fueled Vehicles Competitiveness and Energy Security Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2013-06-26

    06/26/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5270-5272) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Evaluation of alternative future energy scenarios for Brazil using an energy mix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Maysa Joppert

    The purpose of this study is to model and assess the performance and the emissions impacts of electric energy technologies in Brazil, based on selected economic scenarios, for a time frame of 40 years, taking the year of 1995 as a base year. A Base scenario has been developed, for each of three economic development projections, based upon a sectoral analysis. Data regarding the characteristics of over 300 end-use technologies and 400 energy conversion technologies have been collected. The stand-alone MARKAL technology-based energy-mix model, first developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, was applied to a base case study and five alternative case studies, for each economic scenario. The alternative case studies are: (1) minimum increase in the thermoelectric contribution to the power production system of 20 percent after 2010; (2) extreme values for crude oil price; (3) minimum increase in the renewable technologies contribution to the power production system of 20 percent after 2010; (4) uncertainty on the cost of future renewable conversion technologies; and (5) model is forced to use the natural gas plants committed to be built in the country. Results such as the distribution of fuel used for power generation, electricity demand across economy sectors, total CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels for power generation, shadow price (marginal cost) of technologies, and others, are evaluated and compared to the Base scenarios previous established. Among some key findings regarding the Brazilian energy system it may be inferred that: (1) diesel technologies are estimated to be the most cost-effective thermal technology in the country; (2) wind technology is estimated to be the most cost-effective technology to be used when a minimum share of renewables is imposed to the system; and (3) hydroelectric technologies present the highest cost/benefit relation among all conversion technologies considered. These results are subject to the limitations of key input

  4. Crack stability and branching at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Robb

    1995-11-01

    The various events that occur at a crack on an interface are explored, and described in terms of a simple graphical construction called the crack stability diagram. For simple Griffith cleavage in a homogeneous material, the stability diagram is a sector of a circle in the space of stress intensity factors, KI/KII. The Griffith circle is limited in both positive and negative KII directions by nonblunting dislocation emission on the cleavage plane. For a branching plane inclined at an angle to the original cleavage plane, both cleavage and emission (which blunts the crack) can be described as a balance between an elastic driving force and a lattice resistance for the event. We use an analytic expression obtained by Cotterell and Rice for cleavage, and show that it is an excellent approximation, but show that the lattice resistance includes a cornering resistance, in addition to the standard surface energy in the final cleavage criterion. Our discussion of the lattaice resistance is derived from simulations in two-dimensional hexagonal lattices with UBER force laws with a variety of shapes. Both branching cleavage and blunting emission can be described in terms of a stability diagram in the space of the remote stress intensity factors, and the competition between events on the initial cleavage plane and those on the branching plane can be described by overlays of the two appropriate stability diagrams. The popular criterion that kII=0 on the branching plane is explored for lattices and found to fail significantly, because the lattice stabilizes cleavage by the anisotropy of the surface energy. Also, in the lattice, dislocation emission must must always be considered as an alternative competing event to branching.

  5. Alternative Approaches to Calculate Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2012-06-01

    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Authority Areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive loads has resulted in a proposal for an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM). This paper extends prior work to estimate the reserve requirements for regulation, spinning, and non-spinning reserves with and without the EIM. We also discuss alternative approaches to allocating reserve requirements and show that some apparently attractive allocation methods have undesired consequences.

  6. Solar-hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source for mobile robots and the new-age car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, A.; Inambao, F.; Bright, G.

    2014-07-01

    The disastrous effects of climate change as witnessed in recent violent storms, and the stark reality that fossil fuels are not going to last forever, is certain to create renewed demands for alternative energy sources. One such alternative source, namely solar energy, although unreliable because of its dependence on available sunlight, can nevertheless be utilised to generate a secondary source of energy, namely hydrogen, which can be stored and thereby provide a constant and reliable source of energy. The only draw-back with hydrogen, though, is finding efficient means for its storage. This study demonstrates how this problem can be overcome by the use of metal hydrides which offers a very compact and safe way of storing hydrogen. It also provides a case study of how solar and hydrogen energy can be combined in an energy system to provide an efficient source of energy that can be applied for modern technologies such as a mobile robot. Hydrogen energy holds out the most promise amongst the various alternative energy sources, so much so that it is proving to be the energy source of choice for automobile manufacturers in their quest for alternative fuels to power their cars of the future.

  7. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation: technical section

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Eighteen different alternative fuels were considered in the preliminary screening, from three basic resource bases. Coal can be used to provide 13 of the fuels; oil shale was the source for three of the fuels; and biomass provided the resource base for two fuels not provided from coal. In the case of biomass, six different fuels were considered. Nuclear power and direct solar radiation were also considered. The eight prime movers that were considered in the preliminary screening are boiler/steam turbine; open and closed cycle gas turbines; low and medium speed diesels; spark ignited and stratified charge Otto cycles; electric motor; Stirling engine; free piston; and fuel cell/electric motor. Modes of transport considered are pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft. Section 2 gives the overall summary and conclusions, the future outlook for each mode of transportation, and the R and D suggestions by mode of transportation. Section 3 covers the preliminary screening phase and includes a summary of the data base used. Section 4 presents the methodology used to select the fuels and prime movers for the detailed study. Sections 5 through 8 cover the detailed evaluation of the pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft modes of transportation. Section 9 covers the demand related issues.

  8. Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. II. Solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etnier, E. L.; Watson, A. P.

    1981-09-01

    No energy technology is risk free when all aspects of its utilization are taken into account. Every energy technology has some attendant direct and indirect health and safety concerns. Solar technologies examined in this paper are wind, ocean thermal energy gradients, passive, photovoltaic, satellite power systems, low- and high-temperature collectors, and central power stations, as well as tidal power. For many of these technologies, insufficient historical data are available from which to assess the health risks and environmental impacts. However, their similarities to other projects make certain predictions possible. For example, anticipated problems in worker safety in constructing ocean thermal energy conversion systems will be similar to those associated with other large-scale construction projects, like deep-sea oil drilling platforms. Occupational hazards associated with photovoltaic plant operation would be those associated with normal electricity generation, although for workers involved in the actual production of photovoltaic materials, there is some concern for the toxic effects of the materials used, including silicon, cadmium, and gallium arsenide. Satellite power systems have several unique risks. These include the effects of long-term space travel for construction workers, effects on the ozone layer and the attendant risk of skin cancer in the general public, and the as-yet-undetermined effects of long-term, low-level microwave exposure. Hazards may arise from three sources in solar heating and cooling systems: water contamination from corrosion inhibitors, heat transfer fluids, and bactericides; collector over-heating, fires, and “out-gassing” and handling and disposal of system fluids and wastes. Similar concerns exist for solar thermal power systems. Even passive solar systems may increase indoor exposure levels to various air pollutants and toxic substances, eitherdirectly from the solar system itself or indirectly by trapping released

  9. Alternative energy efficient membrane bioreactor using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    PubMed

    Ho, J; Smith, S; Roh, H K

    2014-01-01

    A novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot system, using membrane reciprocation instead of air scouring, was operated at constant high flux and daily fluctuating flux to demonstrate its application under peak and diurnal flow conditions. Low and stable transmembrane pressure was achieved at 40 l/m(2)/h (LMH) by use of repetitive membrane reciprocation. The results reveal that the inertial forces acting on the membrane fibers effectively propel foulants from the membrane surface. Reciprocation of the hollow fiber membrane is beneficial for the constant removal of solids that may build up on the membrane surface and inside the membrane bundle. The membrane reciprocation in the reciprocating MBR pilot consumed less energy than coarse air scouring used in conventional MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for the membrane reciprocation was 0.072 kWh/m(3) permeate produced at 40 LMH flux, which is 75% less than for a conventional air scouring system as reported in literature without consideration of energy consumption for biological aeration (0.29 kWh/m(3)). The daily fluctuating flux test confirmed that the membrane reciprocation is effective to handle fluctuating flux up to 50 LMH. The pilot-scale reciprocating MBR system successfully demonstrated that fouling can be controlled via 0.43 Hz membrane reciprocation with 44 mm or higher amplitude.

  10. Dark goo: bulk viscosity as an alternative to dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Jean-Sebastien; Lesgourgues, Julien E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch

    2011-09-01

    We present a simple (microscopic) model in which bulk viscosity plays a role in explaining the present acceleration of the universe. The effect of bulk viscosity on the Friedmann equations is to turn the pressure into an 'effective' pressure containing the bulk viscosity. For a sufficiently large bulk viscosity, the effective pressure becomes negative and could mimic a dark energy equation of state. Our microscopic model includes self-interacting spin-zero particles (for which the bulk viscosity is known) that are added to the usual energy content of the universe. We study both background equations and linear perturbations in this model. We show that a dark energy behavior is obtained for reasonable values of the two parameters of the model (i.e. the mass and coupling of the spin-zero particles) and that linear perturbations are well-behaved. There is no apparent fine tuning involved. We also discuss the conditions under which hydrodynamics holds, in particular that the spin-zero particles must be in local equilibrium today for viscous effects to be important.

  11. Hot dry rock: A versatile alternative energy technology

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    Hot dry rock (HDR) is the most abundant geothermal resource, and is found almost everywhere at depth. The technology to extract energy from HDR for practical use has been under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than twenty years. During the 1970`s, the possibility of mining the heat from HDR by circulating water through an engineered geothermal reservoir was first demonstrated on a small scale. Between 1980 and 1986 a larger, deeper, and hotter HDR reservoir was constructed. This large reservoir was subsequently mated to a permanent surface plant. A number of flow tests of this large HDR reservoir were conducted between 1991 and 1995. The results of these tests have indicated that it should be practical to operate an HDR heat mining facility to produce power on a sustained basis. An industry-led, government cost-shared project to produce and market energy generated from HDR is currently being put in place. That project should help demonstrate that HDR reservoirs can be operated to provide energy for long periods of time at rates sufficient to be commercially viable. In the longer run, additional applications of HDR technology such as water and waste treatment, and steam generation for oil field flooding may come into widespread use.

  12. Alternative energy efficient membrane bioreactor using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    PubMed

    Ho, J; Smith, S; Roh, H K

    2014-01-01

    A novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot system, using membrane reciprocation instead of air scouring, was operated at constant high flux and daily fluctuating flux to demonstrate its application under peak and diurnal flow conditions. Low and stable transmembrane pressure was achieved at 40 l/m(2)/h (LMH) by use of repetitive membrane reciprocation. The results reveal that the inertial forces acting on the membrane fibers effectively propel foulants from the membrane surface. Reciprocation of the hollow fiber membrane is beneficial for the constant removal of solids that may build up on the membrane surface and inside the membrane bundle. The membrane reciprocation in the reciprocating MBR pilot consumed less energy than coarse air scouring used in conventional MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for the membrane reciprocation was 0.072 kWh/m(3) permeate produced at 40 LMH flux, which is 75% less than for a conventional air scouring system as reported in literature without consideration of energy consumption for biological aeration (0.29 kWh/m(3)). The daily fluctuating flux test confirmed that the membrane reciprocation is effective to handle fluctuating flux up to 50 LMH. The pilot-scale reciprocating MBR system successfully demonstrated that fouling can be controlled via 0.43 Hz membrane reciprocation with 44 mm or higher amplitude. PMID:25521136

  13. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy - Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefelmeyer, James

    2014-10-03

    I. Project Summary Catalytic processes are a major technological underpinning of modern society, and are essential to the energy sector in the processing of chemical fuels from natural resources, fine chemicals synthesis, and energy conversion. Advances in catalyst technology are enormously valuable since these lead to reduced chemical waste, reduced energy loss, and reduced costs. New energy technologies, which are critical to future economic growth, are also heavily reliant on catalysts, including fuel cells and photo-electrochemical cells. Currently, the state of South Dakota is underdeveloped in terms of research infrastructure related to catalysis. If South Dakota intends to participate in significant economic growth opportunities that result from advances in catalyst technology, then this area of research needs to be made a high priority for investment. To this end, a focused research effort is proposed in which investigators from The University of South Dakota (USD) and The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT) will contribute to form the South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG). The multidisciplinary team of the (SDCG) include: (USD) Dan Engebretson, James Hoefelmeyer, Ranjit Koodali, and Grigoriy Sereda; (SDSMT) Phil Scott Ahrenkiel, Hao Fong, Jan Puszynski, Rajesh Shende, and Jacek Swiatkiewicz. The group is well suited to engage in a collaborative project due to the resources available within the existing programs. Activities within the SDCG will be monitored through an external committee consisting of three distinguished professors in chemistry. The committee will provide expert advice and recommendations to the SDCG. Advisory meetings in which committee members interact with South Dakota investigators will be accompanied by individual oral and poster presentations in a materials and catalysis symposium. The symposium will attract prominent scientists, and will enhance the visibility of research in the state of South Dakota. The SDCG requests

  14. Evidence for a host-material dependence of the n/p branching ratio of low-energy d+d reactions within metallic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huke, A.; Czerski, K.; Dorsch, T.; Biller, A.; Heide, P.; Ruprecht, G.

    2006-03-01

    Angular distributions and the neutron-proton branching ratio of the mirror reactions 2H(d, p)3H and 2H(d, n)3He have been investigated using different self-implanted deuterized metallic targets at projectile energies between 5 and 60. Whereas the experimental results obtained for the transition metals Zr, Pd, Ta and also Al do not differ from those known from gas-target experiments, an enhancement of the angular anisotropy in the neutron channel and an attenuation of the neutron-proton branching ratio have been observed for the (earth)alkaline metals Li, Sr and Na at deuteron energies below 20. Experimental results are discussed with consideration of the special problems arising from the properties of these chemically very reactive target materials. A first theoretical effort explaining simultaneously both n/p asymmetry effects based on an induced polarization of the reacting deuterons within the crystal lattice is presented.

  15. Evidence for a Target-Material Dependence of the Neutron-Proton Branching Ratio in d + d Reactions for Deuteron Energies Below 20 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huke, A.; Czerski, K.; Dorsch, T.; Heide, P.

    2006-02-01

    Angular distributions and the neutron-proton branching ratio of the mirror reactions 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He have been investigated using different deuterized metallic targets at projectile energies ranging from 5 to 60 keV. Whereas the experimental results obtained for Al, Zr, Pd, and Ta targets do not differ from those known from gas-target experiments, an enhancement of the angular anisotropy in the neutron channel and a quenching of the neutron-proton branching ratio have been observed for Li and Sr targets at deuteron energies below 20 keV. Both effects can be explained assuming an induced adiabatic polarization of the reacting deuterons in the crystal lattice.

  16. Alternative Energy Sources for Heating the Stratospheres of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, K.; Freedman, R.; Lodders, K.; Fortney, J.

    2009-09-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope observations have constrained the atmospheric thermal structure of many transiting extrasolar giant planets. Many of these planets, like their solar system cousins, apparently have hot stratospheres. It has been suggested that absorption in the optical by gaseous TiO and VO provides the necessary energy source to power their thermal emission. While this mechanism is certainly plausible in the hottest Jupiters, temperature inversions have also been observed in cooler planets in which TiO and VO should be condensed into grains. Motivated by the importance of photochemistry in producing important atmospheric absorbers in the solar system, we have explored the role of atmospheric sulfur photochemistry in hot Jupiter atmospheres. Our photochemical kinetics code was previously used to study various problems in solar system, including the aftermath of the S/L-9 impacts into Jupiter. We find that the optically active gases S2 and HS (mercapto) are generated photochemically and thermochemically at T > 1200 K from H2S with peak abundances between 1 and 10 mbar. S2 absorbs UV between 240 and 340 nm and is optically thick for metallicities higher than solar. HS is generally more abundant than S2 and absorbs between 300 and 460 nm. Together these species play an important role in the stratospheric energy budget of hot Jupiters and may provide a mechanism for producing temperature inversions under conditions where gaseous TiO and VO are not present. At lower temperatures, below 1200 K, we find that the atmospheric chemistry enters a different domain where the production of soots may be favored. Such soots may be responsible for the haze detected in the atmosphere of HD189733 and may also play a role in the stratospheric energy budgets of cooler planets.

  17. Regenerative Fuel Cell System As Alternative Energy Storage For Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, J.; Bockstahler, K.; Funke, H.; Jehle, W.; Markgraf, S.; Henn, N.; Schautz, M.

    2011-10-01

    Next generation telecommunication satellites will demand more power. Power levels of 20 to 30kW are foreseen for the next 10 years. Battery technology that can sustain 30kW for eclipse lengths of up to 72 minutes (equals amount of stored energy of 36kWh) will represent a major impact on the total mass of the satellite, even with Li-ion battery technologies, which are estimated to reach an energy density of 250Wh/kg (begin of life) on cell level i.e. 150Wh/kg on subsystem level in 10 years. For the high power level another technology is needed to reach the next goal of 300 - 350Wh/kg on subsystem level. One candidate is the Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) technology which proves to be superior to batteries with increasing power demand and increasing discharge time. Such an RFC system based on hydrogen and oxygen technology consists of storage for the reactants (H2, O2 and H2O), a fuel cell (FC) and an electrolyser (ELY). In charge mode, the electrolyser splits water in hydrogen and oxygen using electrical power from solar cells. The gases are stored in appropriate tanks. In discharge mode, during time intervals of power demand, O2 and H2 are converted in the fuel cell to generate electricity under formation of water as by-product. The water is stored in tanks and during charge mode rerouted to the electrolyser thus creating a closed-loop process. Today Astrium is developing an RFCS as energy storage and supply unit for some future ESA missions. A complete RFCS breadboard has been established and the operational behaviour of the system is being tested. First test results, dedicated experience gained from system testing and a comparison with the analytical prediction will be discussed and presented.

  18. Some alternate methods of energy recovery from reverse osmosis plants

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, D.B.; Singh, R.

    1982-07-01

    Only random information is available on the subject of energy recovery from reverse osmosis plants. This study includes an attempt to collect this information and bring it up to date. The equipment discussed includes classic turbines, reversed pump turbines, integrated hydroturbines and work exchangers, including integrated pump and power recovery units. A short description of each type of equipment is given, followed by advantages and disadvantages, including their state of development. Plants that are or will be using them are enumerated, as are some development possibilities.

  19. What Do You Know about Alternative Energy? Development and Use of a Diagnostic Instrument for Upper Secondary School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh-Ai Cheong, Irene; Johari, Marliza; Said, Hardimah; Treagust, David F.

    2015-01-01

    The need for renewable and non-fossil fuels is now recognised by nations throughout the world. Consequently, an understanding of alternative energy is needed both in schools and in everyday life-long learning situations. This study developed a two-tier instrument to diagnose students' understanding and alternative conceptions about alternative energy in terms of: sources of alternative energy, greenhouse gas emission, as well as advantages, and disadvantages. Results obtained with Years 10 and 11 students (n = 491) using the 12-item two-tier instrument (α = 0.61) showed that students' understanding of alternative energy was low (M = 7.03; SD = 3.90). The 23 alternative conceptions about alternative energy sources that could be identified from the instrument are reported. The implications for teaching and learning about alternative energy and suggestions for further development and improvement of the instrument are presented.

  20. Method of utilizing possible alternative energy sources in ground transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This work discusses the magnitude of the problem of depleting world oil reserves and their impact on ground-transportation systems. One of several possible solutions is postulated and analyzed. The solution examined is one in which energy from various sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is converted to electricity and distributed throughout the roadway network for use by vehicles. The energy is transferred to the vehicle via an on-board noncontacting, inductively coupled, pickup. The power-distribution system is fully compatible with existing vehicles and with pedestrians. A Hedonic Choice Model is developed to predict the market penetration of electric vehicles thru the year 2030. A life-cycle-cost optimization model and a system-simulation model are developed to analyze a system for the Denver metropolitan area. Results indicate that such a system is both economically and technically feasible. About 3600 lane miles of roadway would need to be electrified. This system would serve about 90% of all metro trips and would cost less than two billion dollars The system could provide mobility equivalent to that we presently experience through the foreseeable future.

  1. A bioelectrolyte cell — an alternate source of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai Kumar, A.; Kolli, Naveen

    An electrochemical cell is fabricated using an extract of the leaves of Ipomoea aquatica from the family Convolvulaceae as the electrolyte. To obtain a close value to the available energy density, the cell is discharged at a current drain of 1 μA and is calculated to be 1.1 Wh/kg of electrolyte. A second cell is fabricated with a paste of the leave as the electrolyte. The initial open-circuit voltage is 1.16 V. An observation is made regarding the variation of current under short-circuit condition with respect to time, which is unlike the variation observed for any other electrochemical cell. The curve features are discussed and interpreted. This observation opens a new field of interest for electrochemists, molecular biologists, botanist, etc. It is expected to signify the electrical activity associated with the majority of processes in plant metabolism. The promising feature lies in supporting devices with high voltage and low current requirements. With proper design, the cell can be employed on a larger scale to meet energy requirements.

  2. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  3. Solar Panels and Alternative Energy in the Eighth-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this solar panels and alternative energy project, students were challenged to develop a researchable question about solar energy and electronics and devise a means of answering it. Students worked cooperatively, with specific roles for each member, conducting research, conducting experiments, analyzing results, and writing the final…

  4. Land-Rich Colleges Explore Opportunities to Create Alternative-Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In a time of expensive energy and concerns about climate change, land may be a major asset for colleges, providing a vastly different opportunity than it did in the past, when it was merely a place to set down new buildings, new campuses, or research parks. Since new alternative-energy technologies like wind and solar demand a lot of land--along…

  5. Biomass: An Alternative Source of Energy for Eighth or Ninth Grade Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Lillie; Murff, Marye

    This teaching unit develops the possibility of using biomass as an alternative source of energy. The concept of biomass is explained and the processes associated with its conversion to energy are stated. Suggestions for development of biomass technology in different geographic areas are indicated. Lessons for 6 days are presented for use with…

  6. Performance Evaluation of Lower-Energy Energy Storage Alternatives for Full-Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-11

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle fuel use. However, the incremental cost of HEVs such as the Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The b b b b battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can correspondingly improve the vehicle-level cost/benefit relationship. Such an improvement would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Program managers asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collaborate with a USABC Workgroup and analyze the trade-offs between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the decade-old minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL’s analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than the previous targets, which prompted USABC to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform, and laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results with alternate energy storage configurations as compared to the production battery system. The alternate energy storage technologies considered include lithium-ion capacitors -- i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery

  7. Energy efficiency of alternative coke-free metallurgical technologies

    SciTech Connect

    V.G. Lisienko; A.V. Lapteva; A.E. Paren'kov

    2009-02-15

    Energy analysis is undertaken for the blast-furnace process, for liquid-phase processes (Corex, Hismelt, Romelt), for solid-phase pellet reduction (Midrex, HYL III, LP-V in a shaft furnace), for steel production in systems consisting of a blast furnace and a converter, a Midrex unit and an arc furnace, or a Romelt unit and an arc furnace, and for scrap processing in an arc furnace or in an LP-V shaft furnace. Three blast-furnace processes with sinter and coke are adopted as the basis of comparison, as in: the standard blast-furnace process used in Russia; the improved blast-furnace process with coal-dust injection; and the production of vanadium hot metal from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite ore (with a subsequent duplex process, ferrovanadium production, and its use in the arc furnace).

  8. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to sustain

  9. Alternatives to Rare Earth Permanent Magnets for Energy Harvesting Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazdozian, Helena; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Direct-drive permanent magnet generators (DDPMGs) offer increased reliability and efficiency over the more commonly used geared doubly-fed induction generator, yet are only employed in less than 1 percent of utility scale wind turbines in the U.S. One major barrier to increased deployment of DDPMGs in the U.S. wind industry is NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs), which contain critical rare earth elements Nd and Dy. To allow for the use of rare earth free PMs, the magnetic loading, defined as the average magnetic flux density over the rotor surface, must be maintained. Halbach cylinders are employed in 3.5kW Halbach PMGs (HPMGs) of varying slot-to-pole ratio to concentrate the magnetic flux output by a lower energy density PM over the rotor surface. We found that for high pole and slot number, the increase in magnetic loading is sufficient to allow for the use of strontium iron oxide hard ferrite PMs and achieved rated performance. Joule losses in the stator windings were found to increase for the hard ferrite PMs due to increased inductance in the stator windings. However, for scaling of the HPMG designs to 3MW, rated performance and high efficiency were achieved, demonstrating the potential for elimination for rare earth PMs in commercial scale wind turbines. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1069283 and a Barbara and James Palmer Endowment at Iowa State University.

  10. Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies - 2. solar

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.; Watson, A.P.

    1981-09-01

    Solar technologies examined in this paper are wind, ocean thermal energy gradients, passive, photovoltaic, satellite power systems, low- and high-temperature collectors, and central power stations, as well as tidal power. For many of these technologies, insufficient historical data are available from which to assess the health risks and environmental impacts. However, their similarities to other projects make certain predictions possible, and some examples of these are discussed with respect to worker safety in the construction and operation of various systems. Satellite power systems have several unique risks. These include the effects of long-term space travel for construction workers, effects on the ozone layer and the attendant risk of skin cancer in the general public, and the as-yet-undetermined effects of long-term, low-level microwave exposure. Hazards may arise from three sources in solar heating and cooling systems: water contamination from corrosion inhibitors, heat transfer fluids, and bactericides; collector over-heating, fires, and ''out-gassing''; and handling and disposal of system fluids and wastes. Similar concerns exist for solar thermal power systems. Even passive solar systems may increase indoor exposure levels to various air pollutants and toxic substances. Refs.

  11. Minilaparoscopic hysterectomy made easy: first report on alternative instrumentation and new integrated energy platform.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ying Woo; Lim, Li Min; Fong, Yoke Fai

    2014-05-01

    Minilaparoscopy is an attractive approach for hysterectomy due to advantages such as reduced morbidities and enhanced cosmesis. However, it has not been popularized due to the lack of suitable instruments and high technical demand. We aim to highlight the first case of minilaparoscopic hysterectomy reported in Asia and the use of a new integrated energy platform, Thunderbeat. We would like to propose an alternative method of instrumentation, so as to improve the feasibility and safety of minilaparoscopic hysterectomy. The first minilaparoscopic hysterectomy in Singapore was successfully completed using the alternative instrumentation and new energy platform. There was no conversion or complication during the surgery. The patient recovered uneventfully. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of such alternative instrumentation. This approach in instrumentation and the new energy platform will improve the feasibility and speed of the surgery and ensure safety in our patients.

  12. State transition analysis of spontaneous branch migration of the Holliday junction by photon-based single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenji; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-02-01

    Branch migration of Holliday junction (HJ) DNA in solution is a spontaneous conformational change between multiple discrete states. We applied single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurement to three-state branch migration. The photon-based variational Bayes-hidden Markov model (VB-HMM) method was applied to fluorescence signals to reproduce the state transition trajectories and evaluate the transition parameters, such as transition rate. The upper limit of time resolution suggested in simulation was nearly achieved for the state dynamics with relatively small FRET changes, and the distinctions in the populations of different states were successfully retrieved. We also discuss the suitability of the HJ as a standard sample for smFRET dynamics measurements and data analysis.

  13. State transition analysis of spontaneous branch migration of the Holliday junction by photon-based single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenji; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-02-01

    Branch migration of Holliday junction (HJ) DNA in solution is a spontaneous conformational change between multiple discrete states. We applied single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurement to three-state branch migration. The photon-based variational Bayes-hidden Markov model (VB-HMM) method was applied to fluorescence signals to reproduce the state transition trajectories and evaluate the transition parameters, such as transition rate. The upper limit of time resolution suggested in simulation was nearly achieved for the state dynamics with relatively small FRET changes, and the distinctions in the populations of different states were successfully retrieved. We also discuss the suitability of the HJ as a standard sample for smFRET dynamics measurements and data analysis. PMID:26687325

  14. Life cycle comparison of waste-to-energy alternatives for municipal waste treatment in Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Bezama, Alberto; Douglas, Carla; Méndez, Jacqueline; Szarka, Nóra; Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo; Schock, Steffen; Konrad, Odorico; Ulloa, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The energy system in the Region of Aysén, Chile, is characterized by a strong dependence on fossil fuels, which account for up to 51% of the installed capacity. Although the implementation of waste-to-energy concepts in municipal waste management systems could support the establishment of a more fossil-independent energy system for the region, previous studies have concluded that energy recovery systems are not suitable from an economic perspective in Chile. Therefore, this work intends to evaluate these technical options from an environmental perspective, using life cycle assessment as a tool for a comparative analysis, considering Coyhaique city as a case study. Three technical alternatives were evaluated: (i) landfill gas recovery and flaring without energy recovery; (ii) landfill gas recovery and energy use; and (iii) the implementation of an anaerobic digestion system for the organic waste fraction coupled with energy recovery from the biogas produced. Mass and energy balances of the three analyzed alternatives have been modeled. The comparative LCA considered global warming potential, abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion as impact categories, as well as required raw energy and produced energy as comparative regional-specific indicators. According to the results, the use of the recovered landfill gas as an energy source can be identified as the most environmentally appropriate solution for Coyhaique, especially when taking into consideration the global impact categories.

  15. Life cycle comparison of waste-to-energy alternatives for municipal waste treatment in Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Bezama, Alberto; Douglas, Carla; Méndez, Jacqueline; Szarka, Nóra; Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo; Schock, Steffen; Konrad, Odorico; Ulloa, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The energy system in the Region of Aysén, Chile, is characterized by a strong dependence on fossil fuels, which account for up to 51% of the installed capacity. Although the implementation of waste-to-energy concepts in municipal waste management systems could support the establishment of a more fossil-independent energy system for the region, previous studies have concluded that energy recovery systems are not suitable from an economic perspective in Chile. Therefore, this work intends to evaluate these technical options from an environmental perspective, using life cycle assessment as a tool for a comparative analysis, considering Coyhaique city as a case study. Three technical alternatives were evaluated: (i) landfill gas recovery and flaring without energy recovery; (ii) landfill gas recovery and energy use; and (iii) the implementation of an anaerobic digestion system for the organic waste fraction coupled with energy recovery from the biogas produced. Mass and energy balances of the three analyzed alternatives have been modeled. The comparative LCA considered global warming potential, abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion as impact categories, as well as required raw energy and produced energy as comparative regional-specific indicators. According to the results, the use of the recovered landfill gas as an energy source can be identified as the most environmentally appropriate solution for Coyhaique, especially when taking into consideration the global impact categories. PMID:23988463

  16. Can China use alternative energies instead of coal to provide more electricity by 2030?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan

    Following the rapid growth of China's economy, energy consumption, especially electricity consumption of China, has made a huge increase in the past 30 years. Since China has been using coal as the major energy source to produce electricity during these years, environmental problems have become more and more serious. The research question for this paper is: "Can China use alternative energies instead of coal to produce more electricity in 2030?" Hydro power, nuclear power, natural gas, wind power and solar power are considered as the possible and most popular alternative energies for the current situation of China. To answer the research question above, there are two things to know: How much is the total electricity consumption in China by 2030? And how much electricity can the alternative energies provide in China by 2030? For a more reliable forecast, an econometric model using the Ordinary Least Squares Method is established on this paper to predict the total electricity consumption by 2030. The predicted electricity coming from alternative energy sources by 2030 in China can be calculated from the existing literature. The research results of this paper are analyzed under a reference scenario and a max tech scenario. In the reference scenario, the combination of the alternative energies can provide 47.71% of the total electricity consumption by 2030. In the max tech scenario, it provides 57.96% of the total electricity consumption by 2030. These results are important not only because they indicate the government's long term goal is reachable, but also implies that the natural environment of China could have an inspiring future.

  17. Influence of energy alternatives and carbon emissions on an institution's green reputation.

    PubMed

    Komarek, Timothy M; Lupi, Frank; Kaplowitz, Michael D; Thorp, Laurie

    2013-10-15

    Institutions' reputation for being environmentally friendly or 'green' can come from many sources. This paper examines how the attributes of alternative energy management plans impact an institutions' 'green' reputation by focusing on the interaction between 'external' and 'internal' influences. Some 'external' influences on environmental reputation we studied include the institution's mix of fuels, energy conservation effort, carbon emissions targets, investment time-frame, and program cost. The 'internal' influences on institutions' green reputation we examined include altruism (respondents' concern for the welfare of others) and environmentalism (respondents' concern for the environment). Using a stated-preference conjoint survey, we empirically examine how attributes of alternative energy management plans influence a large, research university's 'green' reputation. Our results show that constituents benefit from their institution's green reputation and that the energy management choices of the institution can significantly influence its perceived green reputation. Furthermore, integrating internal and external influences on reputation can create more informative models and better decision-making.

  18. Influence of energy alternatives and carbon emissions on an institution's green reputation.

    PubMed

    Komarek, Timothy M; Lupi, Frank; Kaplowitz, Michael D; Thorp, Laurie

    2013-10-15

    Institutions' reputation for being environmentally friendly or 'green' can come from many sources. This paper examines how the attributes of alternative energy management plans impact an institutions' 'green' reputation by focusing on the interaction between 'external' and 'internal' influences. Some 'external' influences on environmental reputation we studied include the institution's mix of fuels, energy conservation effort, carbon emissions targets, investment time-frame, and program cost. The 'internal' influences on institutions' green reputation we examined include altruism (respondents' concern for the welfare of others) and environmentalism (respondents' concern for the environment). Using a stated-preference conjoint survey, we empirically examine how attributes of alternative energy management plans influence a large, research university's 'green' reputation. Our results show that constituents benefit from their institution's green reputation and that the energy management choices of the institution can significantly influence its perceived green reputation. Furthermore, integrating internal and external influences on reputation can create more informative models and better decision-making. PMID:23774751

  19. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  20. The estimation of economic and demographic impacts for Department of Energy alternative scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, K. P.

    1980-04-01

    A multistate interactive econometric model of the U.S. economy is used to estimate the spatial distribution of impacts from model forecasts of energy development alternatives. The model is overviewed to familiarize the reader with the structure, advantages, and limitations of this multiregional modeling system. The linking methodology between the energy forecasting model and the multiregional economic-demographic model is described. The results of the application of this methodology are presented. General conclusions follows.

  1. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an alternative scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, J.R.; Cavanagh, R.C.; Lash, T.R.; Mott, L.

    1980-05-19

    A strategy is presented for averting the short-term energy supply uncertainties that undermine prospects for stable economic development in the Pacific Northwest. This strategy is based on: an analysis of the present electric power consumption by various end-use sectors; comparison of incentives to promote energy conservation and lower demand growth; analysis of alternatives to current dependency on hydro power; and a study of the cost of planning and implementing future power supply programs. (LCL)

  2. An Alternative Energy Career Project at the Warwick School, Redhill, Surrey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmer, Denise

    2014-01-01

    The article describes an innovative project for year 9 (age 13-14) students that has run since 2002 with the help of professional engineers and scientists and incorporates careers information and hands-on practical work. The programme was developed to highlight alternative energy as a subject and also to provide a hands-on practical day for the…

  3. The Search for Energy Alternatives: Responses Received by State Agricultural Experiment Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, William M.

    Directors of the 51 agricultural experiment stations in the United States (including Guam) were mailed questionnaires inquiring as to the extent of requests which had been received for information about wind, solar, and other energy alternatives such as wood and gasahol. There was a total response of 88% with three mailings. The returned…

  4. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  5. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, Ralph; Schindler, Anton; Duke, Steve; Burch, Thom; Bransby, David; Stafford, Don

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  6. Changing the way we work: elevating energy expenditure with workstation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Tudor-Locke, C; Schuna, J M; Frensham, L J; Proenca, M

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence supports the feasibility of raising daily energy expenditure (EE) by replacing office work-related sedentary behavior with low-intensity non-exercise physical activity (PA) via workstation alternatives to the traditional office chair and desktop computer-based combinations. The purpose of this review article is to introduce a simple taxonomy to facilitate classification and study of workstation alternatives, catalog the diversity of research undertaken to date related to energy balance, and present and summarize the gaps and opportunities for a research agenda for workstation alternatives moving forward. A PubMed search elicited 57 English language articles published since 2000; additional articles were identified by reviewing reference sections and contacting authors. Selection criteria ultimately focused on use of workstation alternatives during simulated or real work tasks. The EE of sitting on a stability ball or using sit-stand/standing desks is comparable to the traditional seated condition (≅1.2 kcal min(-1)). The treadmill and pedal desks (active workstation alternatives) offer the greatest promise in terms of EE (≅2-4 kcal min(-1)). Sitting on a stability ball or using sit-stand/standing desks does not impair task performance relative to the traditional seated condition. Some evidence of typing impairment is inconsistently reported with active workstation alternatives; the finer motor skills required for mouse-related tasks may be more affected. Little is known about learning or adaptation with practice. Users are generally accepting of workstation alternatives; however, there is evidence of less than optimal use. Active workstations (that is, treadmill desks and pedal desks) in particular represent a potential strategy for mitigating the diminished EE inherent to contemporary office-based workplaces, but only if they are scalable. The science supporting active workstations is young and heterogeneous; however, this means that

  7. Changing the way we work: elevating energy expenditure with workstation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Tudor-Locke, C; Schuna, J M; Frensham, L J; Proenca, M

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence supports the feasibility of raising daily energy expenditure (EE) by replacing office work-related sedentary behavior with low-intensity non-exercise physical activity (PA) via workstation alternatives to the traditional office chair and desktop computer-based combinations. The purpose of this review article is to introduce a simple taxonomy to facilitate classification and study of workstation alternatives, catalog the diversity of research undertaken to date related to energy balance, and present and summarize the gaps and opportunities for a research agenda for workstation alternatives moving forward. A PubMed search elicited 57 English language articles published since 2000; additional articles were identified by reviewing reference sections and contacting authors. Selection criteria ultimately focused on use of workstation alternatives during simulated or real work tasks. The EE of sitting on a stability ball or using sit-stand/standing desks is comparable to the traditional seated condition (≅1.2 kcal min(-1)). The treadmill and pedal desks (active workstation alternatives) offer the greatest promise in terms of EE (≅2-4 kcal min(-1)). Sitting on a stability ball or using sit-stand/standing desks does not impair task performance relative to the traditional seated condition. Some evidence of typing impairment is inconsistently reported with active workstation alternatives; the finer motor skills required for mouse-related tasks may be more affected. Little is known about learning or adaptation with practice. Users are generally accepting of workstation alternatives; however, there is evidence of less than optimal use. Active workstations (that is, treadmill desks and pedal desks) in particular represent a potential strategy for mitigating the diminished EE inherent to contemporary office-based workplaces, but only if they are scalable. The science supporting active workstations is young and heterogeneous; however, this means that

  8. Experimental and theoretical studies of the O(3P) + C2H4 reaction dynamics: Collision energy dependence of branching ratios and extent of intersystem crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bina; Han, Yong-Chang; Bowman, Joel M.; Leonori, Francesca; Balucani, Nadia; Angelucci, Luca; Occhiogrosso, Angela; Petrucci, Raffaele; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio

    2012-12-01

    The reaction of O(3P) with C2H4, of importance in combustion and atmospheric chemistry, stands out as paradigm reaction involving not only the indicated triplet state potential energy surface (PES) but also an interleaved singlet PES that is coupled to the triplet surface. This reaction poses great challenges for theory and experiment, owing to the ruggedness and high dimensionality of these potentials, as well as the long lifetimes of the collision complexes. Crossed molecular beam (CMB) scattering experiments with soft electron ionization detection are used to disentangle the dynamics of this polyatomic multichannel reaction at a collision energy Ec of 8.4 kcal/mol. Five different primary products have been identified and characterized, which correspond to the five exothermic competing channels leading to H + CH2CHO, H + CH3CO, CH3 + HCO, CH2 + H2CO, and H2 + CH2CO. These experiments extend our previous CMB work at higher collision energy (Ec ˜ 13 kcal/mol) and when the results are combined with the literature branching ratios from kinetics experiments at room temperature (Ec ˜ 1 kcal/mol), permit to explore the variation of the branching ratios over a wide range of collision energies. In a synergistic fashion, full-dimensional, QCT surface hopping calculations of the O(3P) + C2H4 reaction using ab initio PESs for the singlet and triplet states and their coupling, are reported at collision energies corresponding to the CMB and the kinetics ones. Both theory and experiment find almost an equal contribution from the triplet and singlet surfaces to the reaction, as seen from the collision energy dependence of branching ratios of product channels and extent of intersystem crossing (ISC). Further detailed comparisons at the level of angular distributions and translational energy distributions are made between theory and experiment for the three primary radical channel products, H + CH2CHO, CH3 + HCO, and CH2 + H2CO. The very good agreement between theory and

  9. Alternative planning methodologies: the case of rural energy in the Third World

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapathy, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Alternative planning methodologies are based on different ideologies and theories. Methodological choice in planning implies a prior theory and ideology and is linked to the planning outcome. The relationship is one of structural causality. A typology of planning methodologies is developed and, through a critique and reconstruction, the methodology of dialectical planning is outlined. It is designed to integrate theory and practice in a framework of praxis. The substantive area of rural-energy planning in the Third World is chosen to illustrate this general approach in a concrete manner. Rural energy planning from alternative perspectives is reviewed, and specific case studies described and critiqued. A dialectical planning analysis of rural energy is undertaken. Dialectical planning in a deep sense, us a meta-methodology, as it transcends conventional planning. The possibilities of this methodology for creating a critical awareness and hence overcoming the limitations of conventional planning are explored.

  10. Navajo Generating Station and Clean-Energy Alternatives: Options for Renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Turchi, C. S.; Burman, K.

    2012-06-01

    In January 2012, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory delivered to the Department of the Interior the first part of a study on Navajo Generating Station (Navajo GS) and the likely impacts of BART compliance options. That document establishes a comprehensive baseline for the analysis of clean energy alternatives, and their ability to achieve benefits similar to those that Navajo GS currently provides. This analysis is a supplement to NREL's January 2012 study. It provides a high level examination of several clean energy alternatives, based on the previous analysis. Each has particular characteristics affecting its relevance as an alternative to Navajo GS. It is assumed that the development of any alternative resource (or portfolio of resources) to replace all or a portion of Navajo GS would occur at the end of a staged transition plan designed to reduce economic disruption. We assume that replacing the federal government's 24.3% share of Navajo GS would be a cooperative responsibility of both the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Central Arizona Water Conservation District (CAWCD).

  11. Additional chain-branching pathways in the low-temperature oxidation of branched alkanes

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhandong; Zhang, Lidong; Moshammer, Kai; Popolan-Vaida, Denisia M.; Shankar, Vijai Shankar Bhavani; Lucassen, Arnas; Hemken, Christian; Taatjes, Craig A.; Leone, Stephen R.; Kohse-Hoinghaus, Katharina; et al

    2015-12-31

    Chain-branching reactions represent a general motif in chemistry, encountered in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, polymerization, and photochemistry; the nature and amount of radicals generated by chain-branching are decisive for the reaction progress, its energy signature, and the time towards its completion. In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. The oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane (DMH) in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) was studied using synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet photoionization molecular beam mass spectrometry (SVUV-PI-MBMS).more » Specifically, species with four and five oxygen atoms were probed, having molecular formulas of C8H14O4 (e.g., diketo-hydroperoxide/keto-hydroperoxy cyclic ether) and C8H16O5 (e.g., keto-dihydroperoxide/dihydroperoxy cyclic ether), respectively. The formation of C8H16O5 species involves alternative isomerization of OOQOOH radicals via intramolecular H-atom migration, followed by third O2 addition, intramolecular isomerization, and OH release; C8H14O4 species are proposed to result from subsequent reactions of C8H16O5 species. The mechanistic pathways involving these species are related to those proposed as a source of low-volatility highly oxygenated species in Earth's troposphere. At the higher temperatures relevant to auto-ignition, they can result in a net increase of hydroxyl radical production, so these are additional radical chain-branching pathways for ignition. Furthermore, the results presented herein extend the conceptual basis of reaction mechanisms used to predict the reaction behavior of ignition, and have implications on atmospheric gas-phase chemistry and the oxidative stability of organic substances.« less

  12. The impact of u.s. Energy policy on international health: alternate paths into the future.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J W; Merrill, J C

    1982-01-01

    Historical, sociological, and epidemiological research shows that international health and mortality levels are determined primarily not by health sector policies but, instead, by national and international policies that shape the broader sociopolitical and economic systems within which health sectors are embedded. Such policies have traditionally been considered to lie outside the domain of the health sector and, therefore, not of concern to health educators. One such national policy with the potential to powerfully influence international health and mortality levels is the looming choice between alternate American energy paths: the capital-intensive, large-scale, and centralized "hard" path of non-renewable energy resources; and the labor-intensive, small-scale, and decentralized "soft" path of renewable energy sources. Substantial effort has been directed to projecting the physical environmental impacts in the United States for both paths. But the social environmental impacts of each path and their implications for international health have been ignored. This article reviews links between alternate U.S. energy paths and alternate international health futures, and their implications for health educators around the world. PMID:20841098

  13. Development Of Educational Programs In Renewable And Alternative Energy Processing: The Case Of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirina, Anna; Shindor, Olga; Tatmyshevsky, Konstantin

    2014-12-01

    The paper deals with the main problems of Russian energy system development that proves necessary to provide educational programs in the field of renewable and alternative energy. In the paper the process of curricula development and defining teaching techniques on the basis of expert opinion evaluation is defined, and the competence model for renewable and alternative energy processing master students is suggested. On the basis of a distributed questionnaire and in-depth interviews, the data for statistical analysis was obtained. On the basis of this data, an optimization of curricula structure was performed, and three models of a structure for optimizing teaching techniques were developed. The suggested educational program structure which was adopted by employers is presented in the paper. The findings include quantitatively estimated importance of systemic thinking and professional skills and knowledge as basic competences of a masters' program graduate; statistically estimated necessity of practice-based learning approach; and optimization models for structuring curricula in renewable and alternative energy processing. These findings allow the establishment of a platform for the development of educational programs.

  14. SOLPLAN report: An assessment of barriers and incentives to conservation and alternative-energy use in the residential sector in Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulenwider, C. K.; Weiss, L. S.; Pfefferkorn, C.; Wiener, D. E.; Feldmam, S. L.

    1981-03-01

    The Alternative Energy Policy Project of the Wisconsin Center for Public Policy focused upon two principle objectives: gathering and analyzing data on energy conservation and alternative energy commercialization; and building consensus around alternative energy policy to develop guidelines for alternative energy policy for the state. Particular attention was paid to public involvement in the policy process and to assessing barriers and incentives from as many key sectors of the energy field as possible. Data were gathered from the general public, alternative energy users, the heating industry generally, the alternative-energy industry specifically, and key decision makers.

  15. TiO2-V2O5 nanocomposites as alternative energy storage substances for photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Ngaotrakanwiwat, Pailin; Meeyoo, Vissanu

    2012-01-01

    TiO2-V2O5 was prepared and evaluated as an energy storage material for photocatalysts with high capacity and initial charging rate. The compound was successfully obtained by sol-gel technique and effects of compound composition and calcination temperature on the energy storage ability were investigated. The synthesized compounds were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveals that the compound of Ti:V molar ratio equal to 1:0.11 calcined at 550 degrees C exhibited superior energy storage ability than parent substances and 1.7-times higher capacity and 2.3-times higher initial charging rate compared to WO3, indicating that the compound is a remarkable alternative to conventional energy storage substances.

  16. Energy consumption due to local travel by urban households under three alternative policies: 1980 to 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M K

    1981-11-01

    An evaluation was made of total energy consumption, by fuel type, resulting from local travel (by urban households) in 1980, 1990, and 2000, in two scenarios and three alternative policies. Energy consumed in vehicle operation, fuel production, vehicle production, and infrastructure construction was projected; and the relative impact of each policy was also evaluated. The results indicate that the Group Travel and Individual Travel Policies in both scenarios save on total energy use and total petroleum use relative to the In-Place Travel Policy in both scenarios. However, the results also indicate that some of the savings achieved in direct energy consumed by vehicle operation under the Group Travel and Individual Travel Policies are offset by the increased energy required to manufacture the vehicles and to build the infrastructure associated with these policies.

  17. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  18. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  19. Productive Resources in Students' Ideas about Energy: An Alternative Analysis of Watts' Original Interview Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrer, Benedikt W.; Flood, Virginia J.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    For over 30 years, researchers have investigated students' ideas about energy with the intent of reforming instructional practice. In this pursuit, Watts contributed an influential study with his 1983 paper "Some alternative views of energy" ["Phys. Educ." 18, 213 (1983)]. Watts' "alternative frameworks"…

  20. The road to Clean Cities: Promoting energy security and cleaner air through alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, C.A.

    1997-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program is a locally-based government/industry partnership program coordinated by DOE to expand the use of alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. By combining local decision-making with the voluntary action of partners, the Clean Cities grass roots approach departs from traditional government programs. It creates an effective plan, carried out at the local level, to establish a sustainable alternative fuels market. The broad goals of the Clean Cities Program are to: reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve the environment, and increase economic growth and competitiveness. The key element of success for this program is partnerships -- public/private partnerships that engage the necessary market forces to accomplish the infusion of new alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) technologies. DOE does not provide direct funding for acquisition of AFVs and products, but rather, provides market development assistance. DOE technical and management resources are targeted at building local coalitions, coordinating technology product suppliers, and improving market and customer information. Clean Cities works directly with local governments and local businesses and shares innovations along the network of Clean Cities coalitions. Since 1993, Clean Cities has made great strides in diversifying transportation fuel consumption. Voluntary Clean Cities partnerships around the United States have heightened public awareness of alternative fuel usage, increased the number of AFVs on the road, and developed alternative fuels infrastructure throughout North America. The Clean Cities Program encourages sustainable development by reducing a community`s dependence on nonrenewable fossil fuels (both domestic and imported), cleaning up the local and global environment, and boosting local economies through the development of alternative fuels industries.

  1. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  2. Geothermal energy: tomorrow's alternative today. A handbook for geothermal-energy development in Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Mancus, J.; Perrone, E.

    1982-08-01

    This is a general procedure guide to various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development in Delaware. The following are covered: geothermal as an alternative, resource characteristics, geology, well mechanics and pumping systems, fluid disposal, direct heat utilization-feasibility, environmental and legal issues, permits and regulations, finance and taxation, and steps necessary for geothermal development. (MHR)

  3. Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source for Aviation-A Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowellBomani, Bilal M.; Bulzan, Dan L.; Centeno-Gomez, Diana I.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years because of their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. As a renewable energy source, biofuels can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We investigate past, present, and possible future biofuel alternatives currently being researched and applied around the world. More specifically, we investigate the use of ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel (palm oil, algae, and halophytes), and synthetic fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and nonaerospace applications. We also investigate the processing of biomass via gasification, hydrolysis, and anaerobic digestion as a way to extract fuel oil from alternative biofuels sources.

  4. Carbon fiber-reinforced composites: Applications in alternative energy & transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, A.; Betts, J.; Strandburg, D.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, carbon fiber-reinforced composites (CFRCs) were limited to aerospace applications, primarily due to the high cost of the staple carbon fiber strands and labor-intensive composite manufacturing. By the early 1990s, new cost-effective fabrication methods reduced the price of carbon fiber tenfold from the initial level of over $100.00/lb. to around $12.00/lb. As a result, entirely new markets for CFRCs emerged to take advantage of the unbeatable strength/weight properties, primarily in the sporting goods industry. Today`s market is much more varied, with applications appearing in infrastructure, industrial and mechanical components, and alternative energy and transportation systems. In fact, carbon fiber-reinforced composites are enabling the technologies for the myriad of new alternative energy and transportation systems in development. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquid natural gas (LNG) tanks are filament wound from carbon fiber, which provides the lightweight/high strength construction necessary for efficient energy storage. Similarly, carbon fiber flywheels allow higher rotor speeds for greater energy storage capability. Lightweight carbon fiber-reinforced windmill blades, are in development with longer chord lengths for greater energy capture. In summary, CFRCs are being evaluated for structural components in practically all alternative fuel and transportation sectors, including automotive, due to the increased energy efficiency allowed by the overall weight reduction. As new programs to further develop these high volume applications emerge, the carbon fiber industry will be challenged to reduce the cost of carbon fiber and composite manufacturing methods to ensure continued market expansion.

  5. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Project Financing Alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W. D.; Hail, John C.; Sullivan, Gregory P.

    2000-02-14

    This document provides findings and recommendations that resulted from an assessment of the Brookhaven National Laboratory by a team from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the site's potential for various alternative financing options as a means to implement energy-efficiency improvements. The assessment looked for life-cycle cost-effective energy-efficiency improvement opportunities, and through a series of staff interviews, evaluated the various methods by which these opportunities may be financed, while considering availability of funds, staff, and available financing options. This report summarizes the findings of the visit and the resulting recommendations.

  6. Analysis of energy conservation alternatives for standard Army building. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hittle, D.C.; O'Brien, R.E.; Percivall, G.S.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes energy conservation alternatives for five standard Army building designs. By surveying maps of major Army installations and using the Integrated Facilities System, the most popular designs were determined to be a two-company, rolling-pin-shaped barracks for enlisted personnel; a Type 64 barracks; a motor repair shop; a battalion headquarters and classroom building; and an enlisted personnel mess hall. The Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) energy-analysis computer program was used to develop baseline energy consumption for each design based on the building descriptions and calibrated by comparison with the measured energy usage of similar buildings. Once the baseline was established, the BLAST program was used to study energy conservation alternatives (ECAs) which could be retrofit to the existing buildings. The ECAs included closing off air-handling units, adding storm windows, adding 2 in. (0.051 m) of exterior insulation to the walls, partially blocking the windows, adding roof insulation, putting up south overhangs, installing programmable thermostats, recovering heat from exhaust fans, installing temperature economizers, replacing lights, and installing partitions between areas of differing temperature.

  7. Transformative research issues and opportunities in alternative energy generation and storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Rockett, A.; Chung, Y. W.; Blaschek, H.; Butterfield, S.; Chance, R. R.; Ferekides, C.; Robinson, M.; Snyder, S. W; Thackeray, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a summary of research issues and opportunities in alternative energy source research identified by panels of experts assembled by the Engineering Directorate of the US National Science Foundation. The objective was to identify transformative research issues and opportunities to make alternative energy sources viable. The article presents motivations for energy research, grand challenges, and specific challenges in the research areas covered. The grand challenges identified for the United States include supplying 30% of US electricity from photovoltaics by 2030, supplying 25% of US electricity from wind by 2025, displacing 30% of US hydrocarbon use by 2030 with bio-based products, and providing a practical 250-300 W h/kg energy storage system by 2025. Similar challenges could be outlined along the same lines for the remainder of the world. Examples of specific areas of research focus identified as promising include high performance p-type transparent conductors, multijunction thin-film photovoltaic devices, defects in chalcogenide semiconductors, experimental study and numerical modeling of the fluid mechanics of airflow as applied to wind turbines, improved materials for wind turbines, methods for creating high energy density transportable biological feedstocks, biorefinery processes yielding infrastructure-compatible biofuels and biochemicals directly, and improved electrodes and electrolytes for Li ion batteries. Arguments for each of these as research priorities are given.

  8. Alternative energy heating of dairy process water. Final report, March 1, 1978-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Elwell, D.L.; Roller, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The system made use of three alternative energy sources. First, heat was recovered from the milk. Second, solar energy was collected, and third, off-peak electric heating was used as a back-up energy source during periods of cloudy weather. Heat was recovered from the milk directly through an in-line heat exchanger and indirectly from the bulk-tank, milk refrigeration compressors. It was found that refrigeration heat recovery provided, for the 110 to 120 cow herd studied, 1.6 x 10/sup 5/ Btu/day in direct energy for heating replacement and that, at 4 cents/kWh, this represented a savings of $700/yr. From this, it was concluded that milk refrigeration heat recovery equipment can pay for itself in less than one year for a milking herd of 250 head or more and that this period will increase to roughly five years as herd size is reduced to 50 head.

  9. 77 FR 1019 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management 30 CFR Part 585 RIN 1010-AD79 Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of... for offshore renewable energy projects. DATES: Effective Date: This correction is effective on January..., fax (703) 787-1555, or email peter.meffert@boem.gov or Timothy Redding, Renewable Energy, BOEM,...

  10. Measurement of the Branching Fraction and Photon Energy Moments of B→Xsγ and ACP(B→Xs+dγ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kukartsev, G.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Ronan, M. T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Barrett, M.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Morgan, S. E.; Watson, A. T.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Boyd, J. T.; Burke, J. P.; Cottingham, W. N.; Walker, D.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu; Best, D. S.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spradlin, P.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dvoretskii, A.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Ford, W. T.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Kreisel, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q.; Altenburg, D. D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Brandt, T.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Mader, W. F.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Grenier, P.; Latour, E.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Verderi, M.; Bard, D. J.; Clark, P. J.; Gradl, W.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Brandenburg, G.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Wu, J.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Flack, R. L.; Nash, J. A.; Nikolich, M. B.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Meyer, N. T.; Ziegler, V.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Fritsch, M.; Schott, G.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Oyanguren, A.; Pruvot, S.; Rodier, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wang, W. F.; Wormser, G.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Chavez, C. A.; Forster, I. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; George, K. A.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Schofield, K. C.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; di Lodovico, F.; Menges, W.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; Hopkins, D. A.; Jackson, P. S.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Lafferty, G. D.; Naisbit, M. T.; Williams, J. C.; Yi, J. I.; Chen, C.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Jawahery, A.; Lae, C. K.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Li, X.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Kim, H.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Brunet, S.; Côté, D.; Taras, P.; Viaud, F. B.; Nicholson, H.; Cavallo, N.; de Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Losecco, J. M.; Allmendinger, T.; Benelli, G.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Hufnagel, D.; Jackson, P. D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Rahimi, A. M.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Lu, M.; Potter, C. T.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Galeazzi, F.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Pompili, A.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Benayoun, M.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; Del Buono, L.; de La Vaissière, Ch.; Hamon, O.; Hartfiel, B. L.; John, M. J. J.; Malclès, J.; Ocariz, J.; Roos, L.; Therin, G.; Behera, P. K.; Gladney, L.; Panetta, J.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Mazur, M. A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Wagoner, D. E.; Biesiada, J.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Lau, Y. P.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Del Re, D.; di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; de Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Aleksan, R.; Emery, S.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Legendre, M.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; Wilson, J. R.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Berger, N.; Claus, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Cristinziani, M.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dujmic, D.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Halyo, V.; Hast, C.; Hryn'Ova, T.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Libby, J.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Tinslay, J. S.; Va'Vra, J.; van Bakel, N.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Young, C. C.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Petersen, B. A.; Roat, C.; Wilden, L.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Jain, V.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Wappler, F. R.; Zain, S. B.; Bugg, W.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Spanier, S. M.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Satpathy, A.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Brown, C. M.; Fortin, D.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Pappagallo, M.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Cheng, B.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Flood, K. T.; Hollar, J. J.; Kutter, P. E.; Mellado, B.; Mihalyi, A.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Neal, H.

    2006-10-01

    The photon spectrum in B→Xsγ decay, where Xs is any strange hadronic state, is studied using a data sample of 88.5×106 e+e-→Υ(4S)→BB¯ decays collected by the BABAR experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The partial branching fraction, ΔB(B→Xsγ)=(3.67±0.29(stat)±0.34(syst)±0.29(model))×10-4, the first moment ⟨Eγ⟩=2.288±0.025±0.017±0.015GeV, and the second moment ⟨Eγ2⟩=0.0328±0.0040±0.0023±0.0036GeV2 are measured for the photon energy range 1.9GeVbranching fraction to Eγ>1.6GeV. In addition, the direct CP asymmetry ACP(B→Xs+dγ) is measured to be -0.110±0.115(stat)±0.017(syst).

  11. Measurement of the branching fraction and photon energy moments of B-->Xs gamma and A(CP)(B --> X(s+d gamma)).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Tinslay, J S; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-10-27

    The photon spectrum in B-->Xs gamma decay, where Xs is any strange hadronic state, is studied using a data sample of 88.5 x 10(6) e+ e- --> Upsilon(4S) --> BB decays collected by the BABAR experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The partial branching fraction, DeltaB(B --> Xs gamma) = (3.67+/-0.29(stat)+/-0.34(syst)+/-0.29(model)) x 10(-4), the first moment = 2.288+/-0.025+/-0.017+/-0.015 GeV, and the second moment E2(gamma) = 0.0328+/-0.0040+/-0.0023+/-0.0036 GeV2 are measured for the photon energy range 1.9 GeV < E gamma < 2.7 GeV. They are also measured for narrower E gamma ranges. The moments are then fit to recent theoretical calculations to extract the heavy quark expansion parameters m(b) and mu2(pi) and to extrapolate the partial branching fraction to E gamma > 1.6 GeV. In addition, the direct CP asymmetry A(CP)(B-->X(s+d gamma) is measured to be -0.110+/-0.115(stat)+/-0.017(syst). PMID:17155462

  12. Measurement of the branching fraction and photon energy moments of B-->Xs gamma and A(CP)(B --> X(s+d gamma)).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Tinslay, J S; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-10-27

    The photon spectrum in B-->Xs gamma decay, where Xs is any strange hadronic state, is studied using a data sample of 88.5 x 10(6) e+ e- --> Upsilon(4S) --> BB decays collected by the BABAR experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The partial branching fraction, DeltaB(B --> Xs gamma) = (3.67+/-0.29(stat)+/-0.34(syst)+/-0.29(model)) x 10(-4), the first moment = 2.288+/-0.025+/-0.017+/-0.015 GeV, and the second moment E2(gamma) = 0.0328+/-0.0040+/-0.0023+/-0.0036 GeV2 are measured for the photon energy range 1.9 GeV < E gamma < 2.7 GeV. They are also measured for narrower E gamma ranges. The moments are then fit to recent theoretical calculations to extract the heavy quark expansion parameters m(b) and mu2(pi) and to extrapolate the partial branching fraction to E gamma > 1.6 GeV. In addition, the direct CP asymmetry A(CP)(B-->X(s+d gamma) is measured to be -0.110+/-0.115(stat)+/-0.017(syst).

  13. Energy from waste: a possible alternative energy source for large size municipalities.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Polyvios

    2007-10-01

    The net calorific values and weight composition of solid waste from all the major municipalities of the island of Cyprus were measured. Representative waste samples were collected, processed and tested for energy generation over a complete year. The energy values appear to vary from city to city depending on the season. The total energy that could be recovered from the waste amounted to approximately 8.5% of the total electricity generation of the island of Cyprus.

  14. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an Alternative Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, R.C.; Mott, L.; Beers, J.R.; Lash, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    An Alternative Scenario for the electric energy future of the Pacific Northwest is presented. The Scenario includes an analysis of each major end use of electricity in the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. This approach affords the most direct means of projecting the likely long-term growth in consumption and the opportunities for increasing the efficiency with which electricity is used in each instance. The total demand for electricity by these end uses then provides a basis for determining whether additional central station generation is required to 1995. A projection of total demand for electricity depends on the combination of many independent variables and assumptions. Thus, the approach is a resilient one; no single assumption or set of linked assumptions dominates the analysis. End-use analysis allows policymakers to visualize the benefits of alternative programs, and to make comparison with the findings of other studies. It differs from the traditional load forecasts for the Pacific Northwest, which until recently were based largely on straightforward extrapolations of historical trends in the growth of electrical demand. The Scenario addresses the supply potential of alternative energy sources. Data are compiled for 1975, 1985, and 1995 in each end-use sector.

  15. Alternative strategies for energy recovery from municipal solid waste Part A: Mass and energy balances.

    PubMed

    Consonni, S; Giugliano, M; Grosso, M

    2005-01-01

    This two-part paper assesses four strategies for energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) by dedicated waste-to-energy (WTE) plants generating electricity through a steam cycle. The feedstock is the residue after materials recovery (MR), assumed to be 35% by weight of the collected MSW. In strategy 1, the MR residue is fed directly to a grate combustor. In strategy 2, the MR residue is first subjected to light mechanical treatment. In strategies 3 and 4, the MR residue is converted into RDF, which is combusted in a fluidized bed combustor. To examine the relevance of scale, we considered a small waste management system (WMS) serving 200,000 people and a large WMS serving 1,200,000 people. A variation of strategy 1 shows the potential of cogeneration with district heating. The assessment is carried out by a Life Cycle Analysis where the electricity generated by the WTE plant displaces electricity generated by fossil fuel-fired steam plants. Part A focuses on mass and energy balances, while Part B focuses on emissions and costs. Results show that treating the MR residue ahead of the WTE plant reduces energy recovery. The largest energy savings are achieved by combusting the MR residue "as is" in large scale plants; with cogeneration, primary energy savings can reach 2.5% of total societal energy use.

  16. Branch Library Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, John W.; And Others

    Designed for the training of a newly appointed branch librarian as well as for general background on the function of a branch library for the entire staff, this publication was written as a comprehensive guide to the administration of a branch library. Specific chapters focus on: (1) administrative goals and activities, (2) organizational…

  17. Precision measurement of the B → Xs γ photon energy spectrum, branching fraction, and direct CP asymmetry A(CP)((B → X(s+d)γ).

    PubMed

    Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Brown, D N; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; So, R Y; Khan, A; Blinov, V E; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Yushkov, A N; Bondioli, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; West, C A; Eisner, A M; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Winstrom, L; Chao, D S; Cheng, C H; Echenard, B; Flood, K T; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Rakitin, A Y; Andreassen, R; Huard, Z; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Sun, L; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Spaan, B; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Luppi, E; Munerato, M; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Bhuyan, B; Prasad, V; Lee, C L; Morii, M; Edwards, A J; Adametz, A; Uwer, U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Dauncey, P D; Mallik, U; Chen, C; Cochran, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Griessinger, K; Hafner, A; Prencipe, E; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; Behn, E; Cenci, R; Hamilton, B; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Dallapiccola, C; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Sciolla, G; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Biassoni, P; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; De Nardo, G; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Martinelli, M; Raven, G; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K; Losecco, J M; Wang, W F; Honscheid, K; Kass, R; Brau, J; Frey, R; Lu, M; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Feltresi, E; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Akar, S; Ben-Haim, E; Bomben, M; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Sitt, S; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Pacetti, S; Rossi, A; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Paoloni, E; Perez, A; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Piredda, G; Bünger, C; Grünberg, O; Hartmann, T; Leddig, T; Schröder, H; Voss, C; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Aston, D; Bard, D J; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Benitez, J F; Cartaro, C; Convery, M R; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Ebert, M; Field, R C; Franco Sevilla, M; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Lewis, P; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Randle-Conde, A; Sekula, S J; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Miyashita, T S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Gorodeisky, R; Guttman, N; Peimer, D R; Soffer, A; Lund, P; Spanier, S M; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Zambito, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Oyanguren, A; Ahmed, H; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bernlochner, F U; Choi, H H F; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Tasneem, N; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Puccio, E M T; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Wu, S L

    2012-11-01

    The photon spectrum in the inclusive electromagnetic radiative decays of the B meson, B → X(s)γ plus B → X(d)γ, is studied using a data sample of (382.8 ± 4.2) × 10(6)Υ(4S) → BB decays collected by the BABAR experiment at SLAC. The spectrum is used to extract the branching fraction B(B → X(s)γ) = (3.21 ± 0.33) × 10(-4) for E(γ) >1.8 GeV and the direct CP asymmetry A(CP) (B → X(s+d)γ) = 0.057 ± 0.063. The effects of detector resolution and Doppler smearing are unfolded to measure the photon energy spectrum in the B meson rest frame. PMID:23215373

  18. Conceptional design of a novel next-generation cryogenic stopping cell for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickel, T.; Plaß, W. R.; Geissel, H.; Heiße, F.; Miskun, I.; Purushothman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Rink, A.-K.; Scheidenberger, C.

    2016-06-01

    The conceptual design of a next-generation cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) for the Low-Energy Branch (LEB) of the Super-FRS has been developed. It builds on advanced techniques implemented in the prototype version of the CSC, which has recently been commissioned as part of the FRS Ion Catcher with 238U projectile and fission fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u. These techniques include cryogenic operation to ensure a high purity of the stopping gas and high-density operation enabled using an RF carpet with a small electrode structure size. The next generation CSC implements several novel concepts (e.g. perpendicular extraction) which lead to enhanced performance compared to the prototype CSC: (i) extremely short extraction times, (ii) higher rate capability, (iii) increased areal density without deteriorating extraction times, efficiencies or rate capability, (iv) minimized RF power, (v) precise range measurement of the ions and (vii) improved cleanliness of the CSC.

  19. Precision measurement of the B → Xs γ photon energy spectrum, branching fraction, and direct CP asymmetry A(CP)((B → X(s+d)γ).

    PubMed

    Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Brown, D N; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; So, R Y; Khan, A; Blinov, V E; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Yushkov, A N; Bondioli, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; West, C A; Eisner, A M; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Winstrom, L; Chao, D S; Cheng, C H; Echenard, B; Flood, K T; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Rakitin, A Y; Andreassen, R; Huard, Z; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Sun, L; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Spaan, B; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Luppi, E; Munerato, M; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Bhuyan, B; Prasad, V; Lee, C L; Morii, M; Edwards, A J; Adametz, A; Uwer, U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Dauncey, P D; Mallik, U; Chen, C; Cochran, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Griessinger, K; Hafner, A; Prencipe, E; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; Behn, E; Cenci, R; Hamilton, B; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Dallapiccola, C; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Sciolla, G; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Biassoni, P; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; De Nardo, G; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Martinelli, M; Raven, G; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K; Losecco, J M; Wang, W F; Honscheid, K; Kass, R; Brau, J; Frey, R; Lu, M; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Feltresi, E; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Akar, S; Ben-Haim, E; Bomben, M; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Sitt, S; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Pacetti, S; Rossi, A; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Paoloni, E; Perez, A; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Piredda, G; Bünger, C; Grünberg, O; Hartmann, T; Leddig, T; Schröder, H; Voss, C; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Aston, D; Bard, D J; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Benitez, J F; Cartaro, C; Convery, M R; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Ebert, M; Field, R C; Franco Sevilla, M; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Lewis, P; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Randle-Conde, A; Sekula, S J; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Miyashita, T S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Gorodeisky, R; Guttman, N; Peimer, D R; Soffer, A; Lund, P; Spanier, S M; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Zambito, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Oyanguren, A; Ahmed, H; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bernlochner, F U; Choi, H H F; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Tasneem, N; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Puccio, E M T; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Wu, S L

    2012-11-01

    The photon spectrum in the inclusive electromagnetic radiative decays of the B meson, B → X(s)γ plus B → X(d)γ, is studied using a data sample of (382.8 ± 4.2) × 10(6)Υ(4S) → BB decays collected by the BABAR experiment at SLAC. The spectrum is used to extract the branching fraction B(B → X(s)γ) = (3.21 ± 0.33) × 10(-4) for E(γ) >1.8 GeV and the direct CP asymmetry A(CP) (B → X(s+d)γ) = 0.057 ± 0.063. The effects of detector resolution and Doppler smearing are unfolded to measure the photon energy spectrum in the B meson rest frame.

  20. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  1. Teaching physics using project-based engineering curriculum with a theme of alternative energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasior, Bryan

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) provide a new set of science standards that, if adopted, shift the focus from content knowledge-based to skill-based education. Students will be expected to use science to investigate the natural world and solve problems using the engineering design process. The world also is facing an impending crisis related to climate, energy supply and use, and alternative energy development. Education has an opportunity to help provide the much needed paradigm shift from our current methods of providing the energy needs of society. The purpose of this research was to measure the effectiveness of a unit that accomplishes the following objectives: uses project-based learning to teach the engineering process and standards of the NGSS, addresses required content expectations of energy and electricity from the HSCE's, and provides students with scientific evidence behind issues (both environmental and social/economic) relating to the energy crisis and current dependence of fossil fuels as our primary energy source. The results of the research indicate that a physics unit can be designed to accomplish these objectives. The unit that was designed, implemented and reported here also shows that it was highly effective at improving students' science content knowledge, implementing the engineering design standards of the NGSS, while raising awareness, knowledge and motivations relating to climate and the energy crisis.

  2. Assessment of energy crops alternative to maize for biogas production in the Greater Region.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Stilmant, Didier; Schmit, Thomas; Leclech, Nathael; Ruelle, Luc; Gennen, Jerome; von Francken-Welz, Herbert; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Weyland, Marc; Delfosse, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The biomethane yield of various energy crops, selected among potential alternatives to maize in the Greater Region, was assessed. The biomass yield, the volatile solids (VS) content and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare of all plant species. For all species, the dry matter biomass yield and the VS content were the main factors that influence, respectively, the biomethane yield and the BMP. Both values were predicted with good accuracy by linear regressions using the biomass yield and the VS as independent variable. The perennial crop miscanthus appeared to be the most promising alternative to maize when harvested as green matter in autumn and ensiled. Miscanthus reached a biomethane yield of 5.5 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) during the second year after the establishment, as compared to 5.3 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) for maize under similar crop conditions.

  3. Conditions for energy generation as an alternative approach to compost utilization.

    PubMed

    Raclavska, H; Juchelkova, D; Skrobankova, H; Wiltowski, T; Campen, A

    2011-01-01

    Very strict limits constrain the current possibilities for compost utilization in agriculture and for land reclamation, thus creating a need for other compost utilization practices. A favourable alternative can be compost utilization as a renewable heat source - alternative fuel. The changes of the basic physical-chemical parameters during the composting process are evaluated. During the composting process, energy losses of 920 kJ/kg occur, caused by carbohydrate decomposition (loss of 12.64% TOC). The net calorific value for mature compost was 11.169 kJ/kg dry matter. The grain size of compost below 0.045 mm has the highest ash content. The energetic utilization of compost depended on moisture, which can be influenced by paper addition or by prolonging the time of maturation to six months.

  4. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Alternative definitions of the frozen energy in energy decomposition analysis of density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Horn, Paul R; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-02-28

    In energy decomposition analysis (EDA) of intermolecular interactions calculated via density functional theory, the initial supersystem wavefunction defines the so-called "frozen energy" including contributions such as permanent electrostatics, steric repulsions, and dispersion. This work explores the consequences of the choices that must be made to define the frozen energy. The critical choice is whether the energy should be minimized subject to the constraint of fixed density. Numerical results for Ne2, (H2O)2, BH3-NH3, and ethane dissociation show that there can be a large energy lowering associated with constant density orbital relaxation. By far the most important contribution is constant density inter-fragment relaxation, corresponding to charge transfer (CT). This is unwanted in an EDA that attempts to separate CT effects, but it may be useful in other contexts such as force field development. An algorithm is presented for minimizing single determinant energies at constant density both with and without CT by employing a penalty function that approximately enforces the density constraint.

  6. Alternative definitions of the frozen energy in energy decomposition analysis of density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Paul R.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In energy decomposition analysis (EDA) of intermolecular interactions calculated via density functional theory, the initial supersystem wavefunction defines the so-called "frozen energy" including contributions such as permanent electrostatics, steric repulsions, and dispersion. This work explores the consequences of the choices that must be made to define the frozen energy. The critical choice is whether the energy should be minimized subject to the constraint of fixed density. Numerical results for Ne2, (H2O)2, BH3-NH3, and ethane dissociation show that there can be a large energy lowering associated with constant density orbital relaxation. By far the most important contribution is constant density inter-fragment relaxation, corresponding to charge transfer (CT). This is unwanted in an EDA that attempts to separate CT effects, but it may be useful in other contexts such as force field development. An algorithm is presented for minimizing single determinant energies at constant density both with and without CT by employing a penalty function that approximately enforces the density constraint.

  7. Characterizing Branched Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Heller, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Branched flow appears in a variety of physical systems spanning length scales from microns to thousands of kilometers. For instance, it plays an important role in both electron transport in two dimensional electron gases and the propagation of tsunamis in the ocean. Branches have typically been identified with caustics in the theoretical literature, but concentrations of flux recognizable as branches can arise from other mechanisms. We propose a generalized definition of branching based on a local measure of the stability of trajectories. We analytically and numerically study the characteristics of Hamiltonian flow in phase space and characterize the relationship between branch formation and trajectory stability.

  8. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  9. Assessment of Energy Storage Alternatives in the Puget Sound Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Jin, Chunlian; Wu, Di; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Leslie, Patrick; Daitch, Charles

    2013-12-12

    As part of an ongoing study co-funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, under its Technology Innovation Grant Program, and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed an approach and modeling tool for assessing the net benefits of using energy storage located close to the customer in the distribution grid to manage demand. PNNL in collaboration with PSE and Primus Power has evaluated the net benefits of placing a zinc bromide battery system at two locations in the PSE system (Baker River / Rockport and Bainbridge Island). Energy storage can provide a number of benefits to the utility through the increased flexibility it provides to the grid system. Applications evaluated in the assessment include capacity value, balancing services, arbitrage, distribution deferral and outage mitigation. This report outlines the methodology developed for this study and Phase I results.

  10. Climate and energy: A comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermeyer, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effects of five energy technologies on global, regional, and local climate are assessed. The energy technologies examined are coal combustion, light water nuclear reactors, satellite power systems, terrestrial photovoltaics, and fusion. The assessment focuses on waste heat rejection, production of particulate aerosols, and emission of carbon dioxide. The current state of climate modeling and long range climate prediction introduces considerable uncertainty into the assessment, but it may be concluded that waste heat will not produce detectable changes in global climate until world energy use increases 100fold, although minor effects on local weather may occur now; that carbon dioxide from coal combustion in the US alone accounts for about 30% of the current increase in global atmospheric CO2 which may, by about 2050 increase world temperature 2to 3 C, with pronounced effects on world climate; and that rocket exhaust from numerous launches during construction of a satellite power system may affect the upper atmosphere, with uncertain consequences.

  11. Environmental value considerations in public attitudes about alternative energy development in Oregon and Washington.

    PubMed

    Steel, Brent S; Pierce, John C; Warner, Rebecca L; Lovrich, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  12. Environmental Value Considerations in Public Attitudes About Alternative Energy Development in Oregon and Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, Brent S.; Pierce, John C.; Warner, Rebecca L.; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  13. Environmental value considerations in public attitudes about alternative energy development in Oregon and Washington.

    PubMed

    Steel, Brent S; Pierce, John C; Warner, Rebecca L; Lovrich, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management. PMID:25491114

  14. Alternative method for evaluating the pair energy of nucleons in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmukhamedov, A. M.

    2015-12-15

    An alternative method for determining the odd–even effect parameter related to special features of the Casimir operator in Wigner’s mass formula for nuclei is proposed. A procedure for calculating this parameter is presented. The proposed method relies on a geometric interpretation of the Casimir operator, experimental data concerning the contribution of spin–orbit interaction to the nuclear mass for even–even and odd–odd nuclei, and systematics of energy gaps in the spectra of excited states of even–even nuclei.

  15. Coal and peat in the sub-Saharan region of Africa: alternative energy options?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.N.; Landis, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Coal and peat are essentially unused and in some cases unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. However, they might comprise valuable alternative energy sources in some or all of the developing nations of the region. The 11 countries considered in this appraisal reportedly contain coal and peat. On the basis of regional geology, another five countries might also contain coal-bearing rocks. If the resource potential is adequate, coal and peat might be utilized in a variety of ways including substituting for fuelwood, generating electricity, supplying process heat for local industry and increasing agricultural productivity. -from Author

  16. Overview of Alternative Bunching and Current-shaping Techniques for Low-Energy Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Techniques to bunch or shape an electron beam at low energies (E <15 MeV) have important implications toward the realization of table-top radiation sources [1] or to the design of compact multi-user free-electron lasers[2]. This paper provides an overview of alternative methods recently developed including techniques such as wakefield-based bunching, space-charge-driven microbunching via wave-breaking [3], ab-initio shaping of the electron-emission process [4], and phase space exchangers. Practical applications of some of these methods to foreseen free-electron-laser configurations are also briefly discussed [5].

  17. What Do You Know about Alternative Energy? Development and Use of a Diagnostic Instrument for Upper Secondary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Johari, Marliza; Said, Hardimah; Treagust, David F.

    2015-01-01

    The need for renewable and non-fossil fuels is now recognised by nations throughout the world. Consequently, an understanding of alternative energy is needed both in schools and in everyday life-long learning situations. This study developed a two-tier instrument to diagnose students' understanding and alternative conceptions about…

  18. Effective gravitational wave stress-energy tensor in alternative theories of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Leo C.; Yunes, Nicolas

    2011-03-15

    The inspiral of binary systems in vacuum is controlled by the stress-energy of gravitational radiation and any other propagating degrees of freedom. For gravitational waves, the dominant contribution is characterized by an effective stress-energy tensor at future null infinity. We employ perturbation theory and the short-wavelength approximation to compute this stress-energy tensor in a wide class of alternative theories. We find that this tensor is generally a modification of that first computed by Isaacson, where the corrections can dominate over the general relativistic term. In a wide class of theories, however, these corrections identically vanish at asymptotically flat, future, null infinity, reducing the stress-energy tensor to Isaacson's. We exemplify this phenomenon by first considering dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity, which corrects the action via a scalar field and the contraction of the Riemann tensor and its dual. We then consider a wide class of theories with dynamical scalar fields coupled to higher-order curvature invariants and show that the gravitational wave stress-energy tensor still reduces to Isaacson's. The calculations presented in this paper are crucial to perform systematic tests of such modified gravity theories through the orbital decay of binary pulsars or through gravitational wave observations.

  19. The Alternative complex III: properties and possible mechanisms for electron transfer and energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Refojo, Patrícia N; Teixeira, Miguel; Pereira, Manuela M

    2012-10-01

    Alternative complexes III (ACIII) are recently identified membrane-bound enzymes that replace functionally the cytochrome bc(1/)b(6)f complexes. In general, ACIII are composed of four transmembrane proteins and three peripheral subunits that contain iron-sulfur centers and C-type hemes. ACIII are built by a combination of modules present in different enzyme families, namely the complex iron-sulfur molybdenum containing enzymes. In this article a historical perspective on the investigation of ACIII is presented, followed by an overview of the present knowledge on these enzymes. Electron transfer pathways within the protein are discussed taking into account possible different locations (cytoplasmatic or periplasmatic) of the iron-sulfur containing protein and their contribution to energy conservation. In this way several hypotheses for energy conservation modes are raised including linear and bifurcating electron transfer pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012).

  20. Materials for Alternative Energies: Computational Materials Discovery and Crystal Structure Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, Chris

    2013-03-01

    Many of the key technological problems associated with alternative energies may be traced back to the lack of suitable materials. The materials discovery process may be greatly aided by the use of computational methods, particular those atomistic methods based on density functional theory. In this talk, we present an overview of recent work on energy-related materials from density-functional based approaches. We have developed novel computational tools which enable accurate prediction of crystal structures for new materials (using both Monte Carlo and Genetic Algorithm based approaches), materials discovery via high-throughput, data mining techniques, and automated phase diagram calculations. We highlight applications in the area of Li battery materials and hydrogen storage materials.

  1. Social issues and energy alternatives: the context of conflict over nuclear waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.; Perry, R.W.

    1980-06-01

    The perceived risks and benefits of electric power alternatives were used to explore the context of attitudes toward nuclear power. Supporters and opponents of nuclear power responded to thirty-three items which referred to five categories of energy issue: the production potential of electric, risks of those technologies, power generation technologies, energy conservation, comparisons of risks among technologies and comparisons between risks and benefits of each technology. The results are summarized. The nuclear supporters studied here do favor nuclear power. However, they believe that there are limited prospects for contributions from solar, wind and hydroelectric technologies. They also believe that there are serious disadvantages to conservation. Nuclear opponents, on the other hand, disagree that there are such limited prospects for solar and wind, although they are neutral on the prospects for increased hydro capacity. They also do not believe that conservation necessarily poses serious adverse consequences either for themselves or others.

  2. Reduced oil demand mustn't stall alternate energy R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.S.

    1982-03-15

    An improved energy picture emerged during the past two years as oil imports declined, and this was reflected in a lower OPEC production. While this moderated world-energy-price increases, it also parallels a worldwide economic slowdown. The US political shift in 1981 to supply side economics with reliance on the private sector and market forces led to new production and not new exploration. The administration has also terminated the DOE demonstration program for synthetic fuels, which were to provide the impetus to find oil alternatives. Dr. Lee notes that we need to keep in mind that the oil glut is a short-term situation (partly the result of the recession) and that demand reduction will slow once the less-expensive conservation measures are in place. Further, he feels the US must continue the tradition of peacetime public investment in areas of national interest. A viable synthetic-fuels industry meets that criterion. (DCK)

  3. Walker Branch Watershed Ecosystems Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Walker Branch Watershed is located on the U. S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation near Oak Ridge, in Anderson County, Tennessee. The Walker Branch Watershed Project began in 1967 under sponsorship of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U. S. Department of Energy). Initially, the project centered primarily on the geologic and hydrologic processes that control the amounts and chemistry of water moving through the watershed. Past projects have included: • U. S. Department of Energy funded studies of watershed hydrology and forest nutrient dynamics • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration funded studies of forest micrometeorology • Studies of atmospheric deposition under the National Atmospheric Deposition Program • The International Biological Program Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome Project • National Science Foundation sponsored studies of trace element cycling and stream nutrient spiraling • Electric Power Research Institute funded studies of the effects of acidic deposition on canopy processes and soil chemistry. These projects have all contributed to a more complete understanding of how forest watersheds function and have provided insights into the solution of energy-related problems associated with air pollution, contaminant transport, and forest nutrient dynamics. This is one of a few sites in the world characterized by long-term, intensive environmental studies. The Walker Branch Watershed website at http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ provides maps, photographs, and data on climate, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, stream discharge and runoff, stream chemistry, and vegetation. [Taken from http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ABOUTAAA.HTM

  4. Cell-free unnatural amino acid incorporation with alternative energy systems and linear expression templates.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prashanta; Smith, Mark Thomas; Bundy, Bradley Charles

    2014-01-25

    Site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids (uAAs) during protein synthesis expands the proteomic code through the addition of unique residue chemistry. This field provides a unique tool to improve pharmacokinetics, cancer treatments, vaccine development, proteomics and protein engineering. The limited ability to predict the characteristics of proteins with uAA-incorporation creates a need for a low-cost system with the potential for rapid screening. Escherichia coli-based cell-free protein synthesis is a compelling platform for uAA incorporation due to the open and accessible nature of the reaction environment. However, typical cell-free systems can be expensive due to the high cost of energizing reagents. By employing alternative energy sources, we reduce the cost of uAA-incorporation in CFPS by 55%. While alternative energy systems reduce cost, the time investment to develop gene libraries can remain cumbersome. Cell-free systems allow the direct use of PCR products known as linear expression templates, thus alleviating tedious plasmid library preparations steps. We report the specific costs of CFPS with uAA incorporation, demonstrate that LETs are suitable expression templates with uAA-incorporation, and consider the substantial reduction in labor intensity using LET-based expression for CFPS uAA incorporation.

  5. A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Takanashi, Kazumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukunaga, Tomoko; Ogawa, Seiji; Sugawara, Kana; Shinoda, Kosaku; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kuji, Naoaki; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Tomita, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-(13)C(8)] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development.

  6. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes.

  7. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125

  8. A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Takanashi, Kazumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukunaga, Tomoko; Ogawa, Seiji; Sugawara, Kana; Shinoda, Kosaku; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kuji, Naoaki; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Tomita, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-13C8] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development. PMID:23226596

  9. Controlled Soil Warming Powered by Alternative Energy for Remote Field Sites

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Jill F.; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2°C in 1 m2 plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes. PMID:24386125

  10. Education and the energy crisis: policies and actions for the Department of Energy. [Options and alternatives, DOE Education Programs Div

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-22

    This report is the result of a study carried out to determine options and alternatives for the Education Programs Division (EPD) of the Department of Energy. In the conduct of this study, numerous individuals from various concerned institutions were interviewed. While the project scope clearly precluded contact with every involved or potentially involved party, a concerted effort was made to obtain a representative sampling of the opinions and views of relevant government, academic and private sector agencies and organizations. A listing of those contacted, excluding the Department of Energy, is provided. In addition to interviews, an extensive range of literature was drawn upon including memoranda, brochures, program statements, school-enrollment data, speeches and the like. It was determined during this study that a wide range of public and private institutions are actively involved in the energy-education field. Oil companies, utilities, public interest groups, schools, agencies at every level of government, and others are formulating and delivering education which is enormously varied. It was concluded, however, that the public is not being reached, partially because current efforts are unfocused and partially because the public has become inured to problems and resistant to many of the traditional means of education. The study found that within this crowded and varied energy education field the Department of Energy is well placed to begin to provide direction and focus to the widespread activity now occurring.

  11. High-Energy Permanent Magnets for Hybrid Vehicles and Alternative Energy Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjipanayis, George C.; McCallum, William R.; Sellmyer, David J.; Harris, Vincent; Carpenter, Everett E.; Liu, Jinfang

    2013-12-17

    The report summarizes research undertaken by a multidisciplinary team aimed at the development of the next generation high-energy permanent magnets. The principal approach was relied on bottom-up fabrication of anisotropic nanocomposite magnets. Our efforts resulted in further development of the theoretical concept and fabrication principles for the nanocomposites and in synthesis of a range of rare-earth-based hard magnetic nanoparticles. Even though we did not make a breakthrough in the assembly of these hard magnetic particles with separately prepared Fe(Co) nanoparticles and did not obtain a compact nanocomposite magnet, our performed research will help to direct the future efforts, in particular, towards nano-assembly via coating, when the two phases which made the nanocomposite are first organized in core-shell-structured particles. Two other approaches were to synthesize (discover) new materials for the traditional singe-material magnets and the nanocomposite magnets. Integrated theoretical and experimental efforts lead to a significant advance in nanocluster synthesis technique and yielded novel rare-earth-free nanostructured and nanocomposite materials. Examination of fifteen R-Fe-X alloy systems (R = rare earth), which have not been explored earlier due to various synthesis difficulties reveal several new ferromagnetic compounds. The research has made major progress in bottom-up manufacturing of rare-earth-containing nanocomposite magnets with superior energy density and open new directions in development of higher-energy-density magnets that do not contain rare earths. The advance in the scientific knowledge and technology made in the course of the project has been reported in 50 peer-reviewed journal articles and numerous presentations at scientific meetings.

  12. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues.

  13. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues. PMID:21942396

  14. Choice between constant and variable alternatives by rats: effects of different reinforcer amounts and energy budgets.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Takatsuru, S; Saeki, D

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments, using rats as subjects, investigated the effect of different reinforcer amounts and energy budgets on choice between constant and variable alternatives under a closed economy. Rats were housed in the chamber and were exposed to a modified concurrent-chains schedule in which the choice phase was separated from a rest phase during which the rats could engage in other activities. In the choice phase, a single variable-interval schedule arranged entry into one of two equal terminal links (fixed-interval schedules). The constant terminal link ended with the delivery of a fixed number of food pellets (two or three, depending on the condition), whereas the variable terminal link ended with a variable number of food pellets (means of two or three, depending on the condition). Energy budget was defined as positive when body weights were over 90% of free-feeding weights, and as negative when they were under 80% of free-feeding weights. The different body weights were produced by varying the duration of the equal terminal-link schedules within daily 3-hr sessions. In Experiment 1, rats chose between a constant and a variable three pellets under both energy budgets. Rats preferred the constant three pellets more under the positive energy budget, whereas they were indifferent under the negative energy budget. In Experiment 2, rats chose between a constant three pellets and a variable two pellets, and chose between a constant two pellets and a variable three pellets under both energy budgets. The rats strongly preferred the constant three pellets over the variable two pellets under both energy budgets. In contrast, rats preferred the variable three pellets over the constant two pellets only under the negative energy budget, whereas they were indifferent under the positive energy budget. These results indicate that rats choices are sensitive to the difference in reinforcer amounts and to the energy budgets defined by the level of body weight. The present results

  15. Manufacturing Industrial Development for the Alternative Energy Systems-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chuck Ryan, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences; Dr. Dawn White, Accio Energy; Mr. Duncan Pratt, General Electric Global Research

    2013-01-30

    NCMS identified and developed critical manufacturing technology assessments vital to the affordable manufacturing of alternative-energy systems. NCMS leveraged technologies from other industrial sectors and worked with our extensive member organizations to provide DOE with two projects with far-reaching impact on the generation of wind energy. In the response for a call for project ideas, 26 project teams submitted ideas. Following a detailed selection criteria, two projects were chosen for development: Advanced Manufacturing for Modular Electro-kinetic (E-K) Wind Energy Conversion Technology - The goal of this project was to demonstrate that a modular wind energy technology based on electrohydrodynamic wind energy principles and employing automotive heritage high volume manufacturing techniques and modular platform design concepts can result in significant cost reductions for wind energy systems at a range of sizes from 100KW to multi-MW. During this program, the Accio/Boeing team made major progress on validating the EHD wind energy technology as commercially viable in the wind energy sector, and moved along the manufacturing readiness axis with a series of design changes that increased net system output. Hybrid Laser Arc Welding for Manufacture of Wind Towers - The goal of this research program was to reduce the cost of manufacturing wind towers through the introduction of hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) into the supply chain for manufacturing wind towers. HLAW has the potential to enhance productivity while reducing energy consumption to offset the foreign low-cost labor advantage and thereby enhance U.S. competitiveness. HLAW technology combines laser welding and arc welding to produce an energy efficient, high productivity, welding process for heavy manufacturing. This process leverages the ability of a laser to produce deep weld penetration and the ability of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) to deposit filler material, thereby producing stable, high quality

  16. Choice between constant and variable alternatives by rats: effects of different reinforcer amounts and energy budgets.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, M; Takatsuru, S; Saeki, D

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments, using rats as subjects, investigated the effect of different reinforcer amounts and energy budgets on choice between constant and variable alternatives under a closed economy. Rats were housed in the chamber and were exposed to a modified concurrent-chains schedule in which the choice phase was separated from a rest phase during which the rats could engage in other activities. In the choice phase, a single variable-interval schedule arranged entry into one of two equal terminal links (fixed-interval schedules). The constant terminal link ended with the delivery of a fixed number of food pellets (two or three, depending on the condition), whereas the variable terminal link ended with a variable number of food pellets (means of two or three, depending on the condition). Energy budget was defined as positive when body weights were over 90% of free-feeding weights, and as negative when they were under 80% of free-feeding weights. The different body weights were produced by varying the duration of the equal terminal-link schedules within daily 3-hr sessions. In Experiment 1, rats chose between a constant and a variable three pellets under both energy budgets. Rats preferred the constant three pellets more under the positive energy budget, whereas they were indifferent under the negative energy budget. In Experiment 2, rats chose between a constant three pellets and a variable two pellets, and chose between a constant two pellets and a variable three pellets under both energy budgets. The rats strongly preferred the constant three pellets over the variable two pellets under both energy budgets. In contrast, rats preferred the variable three pellets over the constant two pellets only under the negative energy budget, whereas they were indifferent under the positive energy budget. These results indicate that rats choices are sensitive to the difference in reinforcer amounts and to the energy budgets defined by the level of body weight. The present results

  17. Alternative Formats to Achieve More Efficient Energy Codes for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Halverson, Mark A.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Makela, Eric J.

    2013-01-26

    This paper identifies and examines several formats or structures that could be used to create the next generation of more efficient energy codes and standards for commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) to provide technical support to the development of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. While the majority of PNNL’s ASHRAE Standard 90.1 support focuses on developing and evaluating new requirements, a portion of its work involves consideration of the format of energy standards. In its current working plan, the ASHRAE 90.1 committee has approved an energy goal of 50% improvement in Standard 90.1-2013 relative to Standard 90.1-2004, and will likely be considering higher improvement targets for future versions of the standard. To cost-effectively achieve the 50% goal in manner that can gain stakeholder consensus, formats other than prescriptive must be considered. Alternative formats that include reducing the reliance on prescriptive requirements may make it easier to achieve these aggressive efficiency levels in new codes and standards. The focus on energy code and standard formats is meant to explore approaches to presenting the criteria that will foster compliance, enhance verification, and stimulate innovation while saving energy in buildings. New formats may also make it easier for building designers and owners to design and build the levels of efficiency called for in the new codes and standards. This paper examines a number of potential formats and structures, including prescriptive, performance-based (with sub-formats of performance equivalency and performance targets), capacity constraint-based, and outcome-based. The paper also discusses the pros and cons of each format from the viewpoint of code users and of code enforcers.

  18. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  19. Melons are Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Razvan; Ryan, James P.

    2014-11-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  20. Energy Efficiency Under Alternative Carbon Policies. Incentives, Measurement, and Interregional Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Daniel C.; Boyd, Erin

    2015-08-28

    In this report, we examine and compare how tradable mass-based polices and tradable rate-based policies create different incentives for energy efficiency investments. Through a generalized demonstration and set of examples, we show that as a result of the output subsidy they create, traditional rate-based policies, those that do not credit energy savings from efficiency measures, reduce the incentive for investment in energy efficiency measures relative to an optimally designed mass-based policy or equivalent carbon tax. We then show that this reduced incentive can be partially addressed by modifying the rate-based policy such that electricity savings from energy efficiency measures are treated as a source of zero-carbon generation within the framework of the standard, or equivalently, by assigning avoided emissions credit to the electricity savings at the rate of the intensity target. These approaches result in an extension of the output subsidy to efficiency measures and eliminate the distortion between supply-side and demand-side options for GHG emissions reduction. However, these approaches do not address electricity price distortions resulting from the output subsidy that also impact the value of efficiency measures. Next, we assess alternative approaches for crediting energy efficiency savings within the framework of a rate-based policy. Finally, we identify a number of challenges that arise in implementing a rate-based policy with efficiency crediting, including the requirement to develop robust estimates of electricity savings in order to assess compliance, and the requirement to track the regionality of the generation impacts of efficiency measures to account for their interstate effects.

  1. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Built out of books: lesbian energy and feminist ideology in alternative publishing.

    PubMed

    Adams, K

    1998-01-01

    This paper chronicles the birth of lesbian-feminist publishing in the 1970s, a significant but often overlooked chapter of American alternative publishing history, and one that would help create the circumstances supporting a flourishing lesbian and gay literature in the 1980s and 1990s. Between 1968 and 1973, over 500 feminist and lesbian publications appeared across the country, and what would become an organized network of independent women's bookstores began to appear. In 1976, a group of feminist trades-women-printers, booksellers, and others-would meet in the first of a series of Women in Print conferences that would give a name to the fledgling alternative press movement. Fueled by the energy of the women's movement, lesbians were instrumental actors in a variety of feminist publishing enterprises that, taken together, constituted a unique brand of print activism that illuminated and revised categories of identity; empowered individuals to overcome social isolation and discrimination; and informed nascent lesbian and feminist communities about strategies of resistance.

  4. The vulnerabilities of the power-grid system: renewable microgrids as an alternative source of energy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Victor; Myres, Charles; Bakshi, Nitin

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the vulnerabilities of current power-grid systems and to propose alternatives to using fossil fuel power generation and infrastructure solutions in the form of microgrids, particularly those from renewable energy sources. One of the key potential benefits of microgrids, apart from their inherent sustainability and ecological advantages, is increased resilience. The analysis is targeted towards the context of business process outsourcing in India. However, much of the research on vulnerabilities has been derived from the USA and as such many of the examples cite vulnerabilities in the USA and other developed economies. Nevertheless, the vulnerabilities noted are to a degree common to all grid systems, and so the analysis may be more broadly applicable.

  5. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    PubMed

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  6. A summary of the ECAS performance and cost results for MHD system. [Energy Conversion Alternatives Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Sovie, R. J.; Burns, R. K.; Barna, G. J.; Burkhart, J. A.; Nainiger, J. J.; Smith, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The interagency-funded, NASA-coordinated Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) has studied the potential of various advanced power plant concepts using coal and coal-derived fuel. Principle studies were conducted through prime contracts with the General Electric Company and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The results indicate that open-cycle coal-fired direct-preheat MHD systems have potentially one of the highest coal-pile-to-bus-bar efficiencies and also one of the lowest costs of electricity (COE) of the systems studied. Closed-cycle MHD systems may have the potential to approach the efficiency and COE of open-cycle MHD. The 1200-1500 F liquid-metal MHD systems studied do not appear to have the potential of exceeding the efficiency or competing with the COE of advanced steam plants.

  7. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    PubMed

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success. PMID:26667058

  8. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    G. Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; T. Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-07-01

    After rapid growth in economic development and energy demand over the last three decades, China has undertaken energy efficiency improvement efforts to reduce its energy intensity under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP). Since becoming the world's largest annual CO{sub 2} emitter in 2007, China has set reduction targets for energy and carbon intensities and committed to meeting 15% of its total 2020 energy demand with non-fossil fuel. Despite having achieved important savings in 11th FYP efficiency programs, rising per capita income and the continued economic importance of trade will drive demand for transport activity and fuel use. At the same time, an increasingly 'electrified' economy will drive rapid power demand growth. Greater analysis is therefore needed to understand the underlying drivers, possible trajectories and mitigation potential in the growing industrial, transport and power sectors. This study uses scenario analysis to understand the likely trajectory of China's energy and carbon emissions to 2030 in light of the current and planned portfolio of programs, policies and technology development and ongoing urbanization and demographic trends. It evaluates the potential impacts of alternative transportation and power sector development using two key scenarios, Continued Improvement Scenario (CIS) and Accelerated Improvement Scenario (AIS). CIS represents the most likely path of growth based on continuation of current policies and meeting announced targets and goals, including meeting planned appliance efficiency standard revisions, fuel economy standards, and industrial targets and moderate phase-out of subcritical coal-fired generation with additional non-fossil generation. AIS represents a more aggressive trajectory of accelerated improvement in energy intensity and decarbonized power and transport sectors. A range of sensitivity analysis and power technology scenarios are tested to evaluate the impact of additional actions such as carbon capture and

  9. Determination of ammonia in water based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer between peroxymonocarbonate and branched NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2012-10-16

    The ultraweak chemiluminescence (CL) from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and carbonate is strongly enhanced by the branched NaYF(4):Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanoparticle (NP) in the presence of aqueous ammonia. It was explained that ammonia catalyzes the decomposition of peroxymonocarbonate, which is the product of hydrogen peroxide mixing with bicarbonate, making the formation of (CO(2))(2)*, (O(2))(2)*, and (1)O(2). The excitation energy, carried by these emitter intermediates, can be transferred to NaYF(4):Yb(3+)/Er(3+) NP. The CL intensity is directly proportional to the concentration of ammonia present in the solution. A flow-injection CL system with high sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility is proposed for the determination of aqueous ammonia. The proposed method exhibited advantages in a larger linear range from 0.5 μmol L(-1) to 50 μmol L(-1) and a lower detection limit of 1.1 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) (S/N = 3). This method has been successfully applied to the evaluation of ammonia in water samples with recoveries from 95% to 108%. The relative standard deviations are 1.8% and 4.1% for intra-assay and inter-assay precision, respectively.

  10. Additional chain-branching pathways in the low-temperature oxidation of branched alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhandong; Zhang, Lidong; Moshammer, Kai; Popolan-Vaida, Denisia M.; Shankar, Vijai Shankar Bhavani; Lucassen, Arnas; Hemken, Christian; Taatjes, Craig A.; Leone, Stephen R.; Kohse-Hoinghaus, Katharina; Hansen, Nils; Dagaut, Philippe; Sarathy, S. Mani

    2015-12-31

    Chain-branching reactions represent a general motif in chemistry, encountered in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, polymerization, and photochemistry; the nature and amount of radicals generated by chain-branching are decisive for the reaction progress, its energy signature, and the time towards its completion. In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. The oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane (DMH) in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) was studied using synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet photoionization molecular beam mass spectrometry (SVUV-PI-MBMS). Specifically, species with four and five oxygen atoms were probed, having molecular formulas of C8H14O4 (e.g., diketo-hydroperoxide/keto-hydroperoxy cyclic ether) and C8H16O5 (e.g., keto-dihydroperoxide/dihydroperoxy cyclic ether), respectively. The formation of C8H16O5 species involves alternative isomerization of OOQOOH radicals via intramolecular H-atom migration, followed by third O2 addition, intramolecular isomerization, and OH release; C8H14O4 species are proposed to result from subsequent reactions of C8H16O5 species. The mechanistic pathways involving these species are related to those proposed as a source of low-volatility highly oxygenated species in Earth's troposphere. At the higher temperatures relevant to auto-ignition, they can result in a net increase of hydroxyl radical production, so these are additional radical chain-branching pathways for ignition. Furthermore, the results presented herein extend the conceptual basis of reaction mechanisms used to predict the reaction behavior of ignition, and have

  11. Stepwise drying of medicinal plants as alternative to reduce time and energy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuervo-Andrade, S. P.; Hensel, O.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of drying medicinal plants is to extend the shelf life and conserving the fresh characteristics. This is achieved by reducing the water activity (aw) of the product to a value which will inhibit the growth and development of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, significantly reducing enzyme activity and the rate at which undesirable chemical reactions occur. The technical drying process requires an enormous amount of thermal and electrical energy. An improvement in the quality of the product to be dried and at the same time a decrease in the drying cost and time are achieved through the utilization of a controlled conventional drying method, which is based on a good utilization of the renewable energy or looking for other alternatives which achieve lower processing times without sacrificing the final product quality. In this work the method of stepwise drying of medicinal plants is presented as an alternative to the conventional drying that uses a constant temperature during the whole process. The objective of stepwise drying is the decrease of drying time and reduction in energy consumption. In this process, apart from observing the effects on decreases the effective drying process time and energy, the influence of the different combinations of drying phases on several characteristics of the product are considered. The tests were carried out with Melissa officinalis L. variety citronella, sowed in greenhouse. For the stepwise drying process different combinations of initial and final temperature, 40/50°C, are evaluated, with different transition points associated to different moisture contents (20, 30, 40% and 50%) of the product during the process. Final quality of dried foods is another important issue in food drying. Drying process has effect in quality attributes drying products. This study was determining the color changes and essential oil loses by reference the measurement of the color and essential oil content of the fresh product was

  12. Addressing the Need for Alternative Transportation Fuels: The Joint BioEnergy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Blanch, Harvey; Adams, Paul; Andrews-Cramer, Katherine; Frommer, Wolf; Simmons, Blake; Keasling, Jay

    2008-01-18

    Today, carbon-rich fossil fuels, primarily oil, coal, and natural gas, provide 85% of the energy consumed in the U.S. As world demand increases, oil reserves may become rapidly depleted. Fossil fuel use increases CO{sub 2} emissions and raises the risk of global warming. The high energy content of liquid hydrocarbon fuels makes them the preferred energy source for all modes of transportation. In the U.S. alone, transportation consumes >13.8 million barrels of oil per day and generates 0.5 gigatons of carbon per year. This release of greenhouse gases has spurred research into alternative, nonfossil energy sources. Among the options (nuclear, concentrated solar thermal, geothermal, hydroelectric, wind, solar, and biomass), only biomass has the potential to provide a high-energy-content transportation fuel. Biomass is a renewable resource that can be converted into carbon-neutral transporation fuels. Currently, biofuels such as ethanol are produced largely from grains, but there is a large, untapped resource (estimated at more than a billion tons per year) of plant biomass that could be utilized as a renewable, domestic source of liquid fuels. Well-established processes convert the starch content of the grain into sugars that can be fermented to ethanol. The energy efficiency of starch-based biofuels is however not optimal, while plant cell walls (lignocellulose) represent a huge untapped source of energy. Plant-derived biomass contains cellulose, which is more difficult to convert to sugars; hemicellulose, which contains a diversity of carbohydrates that have to be efficiently degraded by microorganisms to fuels; and lignin, which is recalcitrant to degradation and prevents cost-effective fermentation. The development of cost-effective and energy-efficient processes to transform lignocellulosic biomass into fuels is hampered by significant roadblocks, including the lack of specifically developed energy crops, the difficulty in separating biomass components, low

  13. A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW MEASUREMENT ALTERNATIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used

  14. Chimney related energy losses in oil-fired heating systems: Configuration effects and venting alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.; Krajewski, R.; Batey, J.

    1990-12-01

    Conventional venting systems for oil-fired residential heating equipment include the flue connector, a barometric damper, and the chimney. This venting arrangement is directly responsible for some of the annual energy losses associated with these heating installations. In the work described in this report a study of the relevant characteristics of burners and dampers was done to permit these energy losses to be estimated as a function of the installation details. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential energy savings which might be realized from alternative venting methods in a wide range of situations. The basic draft/flow characteristics of barometric dampers were measured using a flow tunnel arrangement under cold (no combustion) conditions. A range of damper diameters and draft settings were used. Off-cycle draft/flow relations for several burners and heating units with the burner ports sealed were also measured over a range of conditions. Recently, oil burners have become available which have significantly higher static pressure fans. The excess air level provided by these burners is much less sensitive to variations in draft and burners of this type might be operated without a barometric damper. Burner fan performance curves for both high and low static pressure units have been measured. Flows through the heating unit and barometric damper flows have been calculated during the on- and off-cycle for a range of configurations as a function of outdoor temperature. The annual energy losses due to the venting system were calculated using a bin method. The calculated flows were compared with available field data. To supplement the available data some additional field measurements were taken during this project and are described in this report. 19 refs., 42 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Emission reductions from woody biomass waste for energy as an alternative to open burning.

    PubMed

    Springsteen, Bruce; Christofk, Tom; Eubanks, Steve; Mason, Tad; Clavin, Chris; Storey, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Woody biomass waste is generated throughout California from forest management, hazardous fuel reduction, and agricultural operations. Open pile burning in the vicinity of generation is frequently the only economic disposal option. A framework is developed to quantify air emissions reductions for projects that alternatively utilize biomass waste as fuel for energy production. A demonstration project was conducted involving the grinding and 97-km one-way transport of 6096 bone-dry metric tons (BDT) of mixed conifer forest slash in the Sierra Nevada foothills for use as fuel in a biomass power cogeneration facility. Compared with the traditional open pile burning method of disposal for the forest harvest slash, utilization of the slash for fuel reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions by 98% (6 kg PM/BDT biomass), nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 54% (1.6 kg NOx/BDT), nonmethane volatile organics (NMOCs) by 99% (4.7 kg NMOCs/BDT), carbon monoxide (CO) by 97% (58 kg CO/BDT), and carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) by 17% (0.38 t CO2e/BDT). Emission contributions from biomass processing and transport operations are negligible. CO2e benefits are dependent on the emission characteristics of the displaced marginal electricity supply. Monetization of emissions reductions will assist with fuel sourcing activities and the conduct of biomass energy projects.

  16. Decision analysis: a tool to guide the R and D selection of alternative energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, T.

    1980-05-01

    The array of alternative energy sources which are vying for the federal government's R and D dollar is formidable when compared to the politically acceptable amount which can be used to fund the research. To guide how these funds should be dispersed, a rational, defensible procedure is needed which can repeatedly be applied as new technologies and new information become available. The procedure advanced in this paper is a decision analysis technique known as multi attribute decision analysis (MADA) and its use is illustrated in an evaluation and ranking of solar thermal electric power generating systems. Since the ultimate purchase decision is made in the market place, the preferences of potential users have been sampled and brought to bear on the ranking. The focus of this description is on the formulation of the problem structure and the decision model, the treatment of uncertainty, and how the results relate to the questions asked by and of the Department of Energy, which funded the study. A final note proposes how decision analysis can be used to address the broader questions of choice among competing technologies with cautions concerning misuse of the procedure.

  17. Alternating magnetic field energy absorption in the dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles in a viscous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolkova, Ilona S.; Kazantseva, Natalia E.; Babayan, Vladimir; Smolka, Petr; Parmar, Harshida; Vilcakova, Jarmila; Schneeweiss, Oldrich; Pizurova, Nadezda

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a coprecipitation method in a controlled growth process leading to the formation of uniform highly crystalline nanoparticles with average size of 13 nm, which corresponds to the superparamagnetic state. Nanoparticles obtained are a mixture of single-phase nanoparticles of magnetite and maghemite as well as nanoparticles of non-stoichiometric magnetite. The subsequent annealing of nanoparticles at 300 °C in air during 6 h leads to the full transformation to maghemite. It results in reduced value of the saturation magnetization (from 56 emu g-1 to 48 emu g-1) but does not affect the heating ability of nanoparticles. A 2-7 wt% dispersion of as-prepared and annealed nanoparticles in glycerol provides high heating rate in alternating magnetic fields allowed for application in magnetic hyperthermia; however the value of specific loss power does not exceed 30 W g-1. This feature of heat output is explained by the combined effect of magnetic interparticle interactions and the properties of the carrier medium. Nanoparticles coalesce during the synthesis and form aggregates showing ferromagnetic-like behavior with magnetization hysteresis, distinct sextets on Mössbauer spectrum, blocking temperature well about room temperature, which accounts for the higher energy barrier for magnetization reversal. At the same time, low specific heat capacity of glycerol intensifies heat transfer in the magnetic dispersion. However, high viscosity of glycerol limits the specific loss power value, since predominantly the Neel relaxation accounts for the absorption of AC magnetic field energy.

  18. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  19. Alternative reproductive tactics in snail shell-brooding cichlids diverge in energy reserve allocation.

    PubMed

    von Kuerthy, Corinna; Tschirren, Linda; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Life history theory predicts that the amount of resources allocated to reproduction should maximize an individual's lifetime reproductive success. So far, resource allocation in reproduction has been studied mainly in females. Intraspecific variation of endogenous energy storage and utilization patterns of males has received little attention, although these patterns may vary greatly between individuals pursuing alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). ARTs are characterized by systematic variation of behavioral, physiological, and often morphological traits among same-sex conspecifics. Some individuals may rely on previously accumulated reserves, because of limited foraging opportunities during reproduction. Others may be able to continue foraging during reproduction, thus relying on reserves to a lesser extent. We therefore predicted that, if male tactics involve such divergent limitations and trade-offs within a species, ARTs should correspondingly differ in energy reserve allocation and utilization. To test this prediction, we studied short-term and long-term reserve storage patterns of males in the shell-brooding cichlid Lamprologus callipterus. In this species, bourgeois males investing in territory defense, courtship, and guarding of broods coexist with two distinct parasitic male tactics: (1) opportunistic sneaker males attempting to fertilize eggs by releasing sperm into the shell opening when a female is spawning; and (2) specialized dwarf males attempting to enter the shell past the spawning female to fertilize eggs from inside the shell. Sneaker males differed from other male types by showing the highest amount of accumulated short-term and long-term fat stores, apparently anticipating their upcoming adoption of the nest male status. In contrast, nest males depleted previously accumulated energy reserves with increasing nest holding period, as they invest heavily into costly reproductive behaviors while not taking up any food. This conforms to a capital

  20. Alternative reproductive tactics in snail shell-brooding cichlids diverge in energy reserve allocation

    PubMed Central

    von Kuerthy, Corinna; Tschirren, Linda; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Life history theory predicts that the amount of resources allocated to reproduction should maximize an individual's lifetime reproductive success. So far, resource allocation in reproduction has been studied mainly in females. Intraspecific variation of endogenous energy storage and utilization patterns of males has received little attention, although these patterns may vary greatly between individuals pursuing alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). ARTs are characterized by systematic variation of behavioral, physiological, and often morphological traits among same-sex conspecifics. Some individuals may rely on previously accumulated reserves, because of limited foraging opportunities during reproduction. Others may be able to continue foraging during reproduction, thus relying on reserves to a lesser extent. We therefore predicted that, if male tactics involve such divergent limitations and trade-offs within a species, ARTs should correspondingly differ in energy reserve allocation and utilization. To test this prediction, we studied short-term and long-term reserve storage patterns of males in the shell-brooding cichlid Lamprologus callipterus. In this species, bourgeois males investing in territory defense, courtship, and guarding of broods coexist with two distinct parasitic male tactics: (1) opportunistic sneaker males attempting to fertilize eggs by releasing sperm into the shell opening when a female is spawning; and (2) specialized dwarf males attempting to enter the shell past the spawning female to fertilize eggs from inside the shell. Sneaker males differed from other male types by showing the highest amount of accumulated short-term and long-term fat stores, apparently anticipating their upcoming adoption of the nest male status. In contrast, nest males depleted previously accumulated energy reserves with increasing nest holding period, as they invest heavily into costly reproductive behaviors while not taking up any food. This conforms to a capital

  1. Distributed Energy Alternative to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated Edison Service Territory

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, Tim; Kelly, John

    2008-08-01

    The nation's power grid, specifically the New York region, faces burgeoning energy demand and suffers from congested corridors and aging equipment that cost New York consumers millions of dollars. Compounding the problem is high-density buildup in urban areas that limits available space to expand grid capacity. Coincidently, these urban areas are precisely where additional power is required. DER in this study refers to combined heat and power (CHP) technology, which simultaneously generates heat and electricity at or near the point where the energy will be consumed. There are multiple CHP options available that, combined with a portfolio of other building energy efficiency (EE) strategies, can help achieve a more efficient supply-demand balance than what the grid can currently provide. As an alternative to expanding grid capacity, CHP and EE strategies can be deployed in a flexible manner at virtually any point on the grid to relieve load. What's more, utilities and customers can install them in a variety of potentially profitable applications that are more environmentally friendly. Under the auspices of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory representing the Office of Electricity of the U.S. Department of Energy, Gas Technology Institute (GTI) conducted this study in cooperation with Consolidated Edison to help broaden the market penetration of EE and DER. This study provides realistic load models and identifies the impacts that EE and DER can have on the electrical distribution grid; specifically within the current economic and regulatory environment of a high load growth area of New York City called Hudson Yards in Midtown Manhattan. These models can be used to guide new policies that improve market penetration of appropriate CHP and EE technologies in new buildings. The following load modeling scenarios were investigated: (1) Baseline: All buildings are built per the Energy Conservation

  2. Assessment of Energy Storage Alternatives in the Puget Sound Energy System Volume 2: Energy Storage Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2013-12-01

    This volume presents the battery storage evaluation tool developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which is used to evaluate benefits of battery storage for multiple grid applications, including energy arbitrage, balancing service, capacity value, distribution system equipment deferral, and outage mitigation. This tool is based on the optimal control strategies to capture multiple services from a single energy storage device. In this control strategy, at each hour, a look-ahead optimization is first formulated and solved to determine battery base operating point. The minute by minute simulation is then performed to simulate the actual battery operation. This volume provide background and manual for this evaluation tool.

  3. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  4. Restoration technology branch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The mission of Leetown Science Center (LSC), Restoration Technology Branch (RTB) is to conduct research needed to restore or protect the chemical, physical and biological integrity of desirable aquatic systems.

  5. Branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Sadaf; Mirza, Sajid Ali; Shokh, Ishrat

    2008-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusions (RVO) are the second commonest sight threatening vascular disorder. Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) are the two basic types of vein occlusion. Branch retinal vein occlusion is three times more common than central retinal vein occlusion and- second only to diabetic retinopathy as the most common retinal vascular cause of visual loss. The origin of branch retinal vein occlusion undoubtedly includes both systemic factors such as hypertension and local anatomic factors such as arteriovenous crossings. Branch retinal vein occlusion causes a painless decrease in vision, resulting in misty or distorted vision. Current treatment options don't address the underlying aetiology of branch retinal vein occlusion. Instead they focus on treating sequelae of the occluded venous branch, such as macular oedema, vitreous haemorrhage and traction retinal detachment from neovascularization. Evidences suggest that the pathogenesis of various types of retinal vein occlusion, like many other ocular vascular occlusive disorders, is a multifactorial process and there is no single magic bullet that causes retinal vein occlusion. A comprehensive management of patients with retinal vascular occlusions is necessary to correct associated diseases or predisposing abnormalities that could lead to local recurrences or systemic event. Along with a review of the literature, a practical approach for the management of retinal vascular occlusions is required, which requires collaboration between the ophthalmologist and other physicians: general practitioner, cardiologist, internist etc. as appropriate according to each case. PMID:19385476

  6. Taenia crassiceps: fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy source in in vitro cysticerci exposed to anthelminthic drugs.

    PubMed

    Vinaud, Marina Clare; Ferreira, Cirlane Silva; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto

    2009-07-01

    Cysticerci metabolic studies demonstrate alternative pathways responsible for its survival, such as energy sources, fatty acids oxidation and excretion of beta-hydroxybutyrate, which indicates the capability of energy production from proteins. The aim of this study was to detect alternative metabolic pathways for energy production and its end products in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole, in sub-lethal doses. Spectrophotometer and chromatographic analysis were performed to detect: propionate, acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, urea and creatinine, SE by cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole. The drugs influenced the metabolism by inducing the creatinine phosphate phosphorylation as an alternative energy source, inhibiting the use of proteins and amino acids in the acid nucleic synthesis; and preventing the budding and replication of the cysticerci. This study also highlights the description of urea excretion, which is an important metabolic pathway to excrete toxic products such as ammonia, and the fatty acid oxidation as an alternative energy source in cysticerci exposed to anthelmintic drugs.

  7. Parton branching in the color mutation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwa, Rudolph C.; Wu, Yuanfang

    1999-11-01

    The soft production problem in hadronic collisions as described in the eikonal color mutation branching model is improved in the way that the initial parton distribution is treated. Furry branching of the partons is considered as a means of describing the nonperturbative process of parton reproduction in the soft interaction. The values of all the moments, and Cq, for q=2,...,5, as well as their energy dependences, can be correctly determined by the use of only two parameters.

  8. Embodied Energy Assessment and Comparisons for a Residential Building Using Conventional and Alternative Materials in Indian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen Kishore, K.; Chouhan, J. S.

    2014-06-01

    Building sector is responsible for 40 % of the primary energy use and 24 % of carbon dioxide emissions in India. The main source of green house gas emissions from buildings is due to energy consumption. This paper aims to assess the embodied energy index and environmental impact of a two storied residential building. The study proposes various alternative materials which can be used in day to day construction in order to mitigate the environmental impact and climate change due to construction activity in India. Two types of construction techniques have been considered for the study, namely load bearing and reinforced concrete framed construction. Embodied energy and carbon dioxide emissions of walling and roofing components using conventional and alternative materials has also been analyzed and compared. The comparison is done based on two parameters namely, embodied energy/m2 and CO2 emissions per unit of floor area. The study shows that bricks, cement and steel are the three major contributors to the energy cost of constructing a building by conventional methods. A conventional two storied load bearing structure is 22 % more energy efficient when compared to a reinforced concrete structure. It has also been observed from the study that use of alternative material in the building envelope gives embodied energy savings between 50 and 60 % for a two storey load bearing structure and 30-42 % for a two storey reinforced concrete structure. Hence a load bearing construction is certainly a better alternative to RC framed construction for up to two storied structures in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts.

  9. Dispersed, decentralized and renewable energy sources: alternatives to national vulnerability and war. Final report, July 1979-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McCasker, J.; Clark, W.

    1980-12-01

    Section 1 and 2 of this report contain background information on centralized energy systems and the relationship between vulnerability of these systems, energy planning, and existing civil defense programs. Section 3 and 4 contain an extensive investigation, review and categorization of alternative approaches to centralized, vulnerable energy systems; a review of dispersed and renewable technologies which can be appropriately implemented at the local level; and matrices for evaluation of these technologies for emergency and crisis planning. Specific recommendations to FEMA are included on the use of localized energy approaches for emergency response and recovery situations.

  10. Alternating carrier models of asymmetric glucose transport violate the energy conservation laws.

    PubMed

    Naftalin, Richard J

    2008-11-01

    Alternating access transporters with high-affinity externally facing sites and low-affinity internal sites relate substrate transit directly to the unliganded asymmetric "carrier" (Ci) distribution. When both bathing solutions contain equimolar concentrations of ligand, zero net flow of the substrate-carrier complex requires a higher proportion of unliganded low-affinity inside sites (proportional, variant 1/KD(in)) and slower unliganded "free" carrier transit from inside to outside than in the reverse direction. However, asymmetric rates of unliganded carrier movement, kij, imply that an energy source, DeltaGcarrier = RT ln (koi/kio) = RT ln (Cin/Cout) = RT ln (KD(in)/KD(out)), where R is the universal gas constant (8.314 Joules/M/K degrees), and T is the temperature, assumed here to be 300 K degrees , sustains the asymmetry. Without this invalid assumption, the constraints of carrier path cyclicity, combined with asymmetric ligand affinities and equimolarity at equilibrium, are irreconcilable, and any passive asymmetric uniporter or cotransporter model system, e.g., Na-glucose cotransporters, espousing this fundamental error is untenable. With glucose transport via GLUT1, the higher maximal rate and Km of net ligand exit compared to net ligand entry is only properly simulated if ligand transit occurs by serial dissociation-association reactions between external high-affinity and internal low-affinity immobile sites. Faster intersite transit rates occur from lower-affinity sites than from higher-affinity sites and require no other energy source to maintain equilibrium. Similar constraints must apply to cotransport.

  11. PTENα, a PTEN isoform translated through alternative initiation, regulates mitochondrial function and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui; He, Shiming; Yang, Jingyi; Jia, Xinying; Wang, Pan; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zhong; Zou, Xiajuan; McNutt, Michael A; Shen, Wen Hong; Yin, Yuxin

    2014-05-01

    PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. It is known that PTEN has a wide range of biological functions beyond tumor suppression. Here, we report that PTENα, an N-terminally extended form of PTEN, functions in mitochondrial metabolism. Translation of PTENα is initiated from a CUG codon upstream of and in-frame with the coding region of canonical PTEN. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A (eIF2A) controls PTENα translation, which requires a CUG-centered palindromic motif. We show that PTENα induces cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP production in mitochondria. TALEN-mediated somatic deletion of PTENα impairs mitochondrial respiratory chain function. PTENα interacts with canonical PTEN to increase PINK1 protein levels and promote energy production. Our studies demonstrate the importance of eIF2A-mediated alternative translation for generation of protein diversity in eukaryotic systems and provide insights into the mechanism by which the PTEN family is involved in multiple cellular processes.

  12. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    PubMed

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results.

  13. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    PubMed

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. PMID:26951719

  14. Automatic identification of Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP) sequences based on the Teager Energy Operator.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fátima; Sales, Francisco; Bento, Conceição; Dourado, António; Teixeira, César

    2015-01-01

    The Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP) is a periodic cerebral activity prevalent during Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep-stages. The CAP is composed by A-phases that are related to a change in amplitude, frequency or both from the background activity epochs, called B-phases. Depending on the type of increase the A-phase could be classified as A1, A2 or A3 subtype. This paper proposes the usage of the Teager Energy Operator (TEO) to analyze the amplitude changes in the different frequency-bands to detect A-phases subtypes. The TEO classification performance is compared with the performance of a state-of-the art EEG feature, applied previously for CAP scoring and referred as the macro-micro structure descriptor (MMSD). In general, the TEO is the best feature and the improved results were obtained in the delta band for the A1 and A2 sub-types. More precisely, a sensitivity and specificity of 80.31% and 82.93% were obtained for the A1 subtype, respectively. A2 phases were detected with 76.96% of sensitivity and 73.22% of specificity. The two features detected A3 subtype with approximately the same sensitivity (approx. 70%) and specificity (approx. 75%), however the results were improved by considering the highest frequency band. These results are consistent with the frequency content of the different sub-phases. PMID:26737517

  15. Simple rules describe bottom-up and top-down control in food webs with alternative energy pathways.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Sabine; Diehl, Sebastian; De Roos, André M

    2012-09-01

    Many human influences on the world's ecosystems have their largest direct impacts at either the top or the bottom of the food web. To predict their ecosystem-wide consequences we must understand how these impacts propagate. A long-standing, but so far elusive, problem in this endeavour is how to reduce food web complexity to a mathematically tractable, but empirically relevant system. Simplification to main energy channels linking primary producers to top consumers has been recently advocated. Following this approach, we propose a general framework for the analysis of bottom-up and top-down forcing of ecosystems by reducing food webs to two energy pathways originating from a limiting resource shared by competing guilds of primary producers (e.g. edible vs. defended plants). Exploring dynamical models of such webs we find that their equilibrium responses to nutrient enrichment and top consumer harvesting are determined by only two easily measurable topological properties: the lengths of the component food chains (odd-odd, odd-even, or even-even) and presence vs. absence of a generalist top consumer reconnecting the two pathways (yielding looped vs. branched webs). Many results generalise to other looped or branched web structures and the model can be easily adapted to include a detrital pathway.

  16. Alternative Financing of Alternative Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Higher Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The University of San Francisco financed conversion of three dormitories to solar heat by having private investors purchase and install equipment through a limited partnership. A public utilities rebate and eventual donation of the equipment also resulted. Available from California Higher Education, P.O. Box 26541, Sacramento, CA 95826, $2.00.…

  17. High-Energy Composite Permanent Magnets: High-Energy Permanent Magnets for Hybrid Vehicles and Alternative Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Delaware is developing permanent magnets that contain less rare earth material and produce twice the energy of the strongest rare earth magnets currently available. The University of Delaware is creating these magnets by mixing existing permanent magnet materials with those that are more abundant, like iron. Both materials are first prepared in the form of nanoparticles via techniques ranging from wet chemistry to ball milling. After that, the nanoparticles must be assembled in a 3-D array and consolidated at low temperatures to form a magnet. With small size particles and good contact between these two materials, the best qualities of each allow for the development of exceptionally strong composite magnets.

  18. Fuzzy branching temporal logic.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-ick; Lee, Kwang H; Lee, Doheon

    2004-04-01

    Intelligent systems require a systematic way to represent and handle temporal information containing uncertainty. In particular, a logical framework is needed that can represent uncertain temporal information and its relationships with logical formulae. Fuzzy linear temporal logic (FLTL), a generalization of propositional linear temporal logic (PLTL) with fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states defined on a linear time model, was previously proposed for this purpose. However, many systems are best represented by branching time models in which each state can have more than one possible future path. In this paper, fuzzy branching temporal logic (FBTL) is proposed to address this problem. FBTL adopts and generalizes concurrent tree logic (CTL*), which is a classical branching temporal logic. The temporal model of FBTL is capable of representing fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states, and the order relation among them is represented as a directed graph. The utility of FBTL is demonstrated using a fuzzy job shop scheduling problem as an example. PMID:15376850

  19. Pen Branch delta expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E.; Sharitz, R.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E.

    1984-02-01

    Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.

  20. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  1. United States biomass energy: An assessment of costs and infrastructure for alternative uses of biomass energy crops as an energy feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, William Russell, III

    Reduction of the negative environmental and human health externalities resulting from both the electricity and transportation sectors can be achieved through technologies such as clean coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic technologies for electricity; reformulated gasoline and other fossil fuels, hydrogen, and electrical options for transportation. Negative externalities can also be reduced through demand reductions and efficiency improvements in both sectors. However, most of these options come with cost increases for two primary reasons: (1) most environmental and human health consequences have historically been excluded from energy prices; (2) fossil energy markets have been optimizing costs for over 100 years and thus have achieved dramatic cost savings over time. Comparing the benefits and costs of alternatives requires understanding of the tradeoffs associated with competing technology and lifestyle choices. As bioenergy is proposed as a large-scale feedstock within the United States, a question of "best use" of bioenergy becomes important. Bioenergy advocates propose its use as an alternative energy resource for electricity generation and transportation fuel production, primarily focusing on ethanol. These advocates argue that bioenergy offers environmental and economic benefits over current fossil energy use in each of these two sectors as well as in the U.S. agriculture sector. Unfortunately, bioenergy research has offered very few comparisons of these two alternative uses. This thesis helps fill this gap. This thesis compares the economics of bioenergy utilization by a method for estimating total financial costs for each proposed bioenergy use. Locations for potential feedstocks and bio-processing facilities (co-firing switchgrass and coal in existing coal fired power plants and new ethanol refineries) are estimated and linear programs are developed to estimate large-scale transportation infrastructure costs for each sector

  2. Development of Indonesia corncob and rice husk biobriquette as alternative energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyana, Cukup; Wulandari, Asry Peni; Hidayat, Darmawan; Wibawa, Bambang Mukti; Aditya Permana, P.

    2016-02-01

    Facing the increasing of fuel price and lacking of world oil resource, research for biobriquette as alternative energy for fossil fuel is conducted. Indonesia has considerable amount of biomass and it is still remain unused that can be used as biobriquette. As the initial research, Garut, Ciamis, and Sumedang district, West Java are selected which have rice husk and corncob commodities. In these disrticts, rice husk and corncob potency are respectively 4,460.73 tons and 3,222.85 tons and potentially result 57,572.86 GJ from husk and 60,911.86 GJ from corncob. To optimize mechanical properties and calorie value of biobriquette, research for calorie content and combination of rice husk and corncob are being conducted with various adhesive content and mixture. The best result of shatter index, durability, and calorie test on the corncob biobriquette is from biobriquette with 6% adhesive with calorie content as 5,516.85 kkal/kg. While the best calorie content for husk biobriquette is 6% adhesive with calorie content as 2,650.20 kkal/kg. The best calorie content for mixed biobriquette is biobriquette with 75% corncob and 25% rice husk with calorie content as 5,331.95 kkal/kg. Economy analysis show for corncob and husk biobriquette production cost per kg are respectively Rp 2,585.00 and Rp 2.625.00 with price of Rp 5,000.00 and Rp 3,000.00 obtained nett profit respectively Rp 2,173.00 and Rp 338.00.

  3. Alternative lattice options for energy recovery in high-average-power high-efficiency free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /NICADD, DeKalb /Fermilab

    2009-03-01

    High-average-power free-electron lasers often rely on energy-recovering linacs. In a high-efficiency free electron laser, the main limitation to high average power stems from the fractional energy spread induced by the free-electron laser process. Managing beams with large fractional energy spread while simultaneously avoiding beam losses is extremely challenging and relies on intricate longitudinal phase space manipulations. In this paper we discuss a possible alternative technique that makes use of an emittance exchange between one of the transverse and the longitudinal phase spaces.

  4. A proposed alternative approach for protection of inadvertent human intruders from buried Department of Energy low level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    The burial of radioactive wastes creates a legacy. To limit the impact of this legacy on future generations, we establish and comply with performance objectives. This paper reviews performance objectives for the long-term isolation of buried radioactive wastes; identifies regulatorly-defined performance objectives for protecting the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) from buried low-level radioactive waste (LLW); (3) discusses a shortcoming of the current approach; and (4) offers an alternative approach for protecting the IHI. This alternative approach is written specifically for the burial of US Department of Energy (DOE) wastes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), although the approach might be applied at other DOE burial sites.

  5. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  6. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  7. Mapping alternative energy paths for taiwan to reach a sustainable future: An application of the leap model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Ming

    Energy is the backbone of modern life which is highly related to national security, economic growth, and environmental protection. For Taiwan, a region having limited conventional energy resources but constructing economies and societies with high energy intensity, energy became the throat of national security and development. This dissertation explores energy solutions for Taiwan by constructing a sustainable and comprehensive energy planning framework (SCENE) and by simulating alternative energy pathways on the horizon to 2030. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system (LEAP) is used as a platform for the energy simulation. The study models three scenarios based on the E4 (energy -- environment -- economic -- equity) perspectives. Three scenarios refer to the business-as-usual scenario (BAU), the government target scenario (GOV), and the renewable and efficiency scenario (REEE). The simulation results indicate that the most promising scenario for Taiwan is the REEE scenario, which aims to save 48.7 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) of final energy consumption. It avoids USD 11.1 billion on electricity expenditure in final demand sectors. In addition, the cost of the REEE path is the lowest among all scenarios before 2020 in the electricity generation sector. In terms of global warming potential (GWP), the REEE scenario could reduce 35 percent of the GWP in the demand sectors, the lowest greenhouse gases emission in relation to all other scenarios. Based on lowest energy consumption, competitive cost, and least harm to the environment, the REEE scenario is the best option to achieve intergenerational equity. This dissertation proposes that promoting energy efficiency and utilizing renewable energy is the best strategy for Taiwan. For efficiency improvement, great energy saving potentials do exist in Taiwan so that Taiwan needs more ambitious targets, policies, and implementation mechanisms for energy efficiency enhancement to slow down and decrease

  8. Alternative energy input: Mechanochemical, microwave and ultrasound-assisted organic synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave, ultrasound, sunlight and mechanochemical mixing can be used to augment conventional laboratory techniques. By applying these alternative means of activation, a number of chemical transformations have been achieved thereby improving many existing protocols with superi...

  9. Tomorrow`s energy today for cities and counties -- Alternative wastewater treatment: Advanced Integrated Pond systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a discussion of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the Advanced Integrated Pond System as an alternative for other more costly municipal waste water treatment plants.

  10. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center; Vol. 2, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-05-01

    Official publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center featuring alternative fuels activity in every state, the Clean Cities game plan '98, and news from the Automakers.

  11. Dealing with Energy Conservation Alternatives. CEFP Special Report No. 9. Energy Conservation: A New Challenge for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Richard G.

    1973-01-01

    Examines how rising energy costs will affect school planning in general and urban school planning in particular. It discusses the energy crisis, the energy consumption by schools, and the potential for energy conservation in education. Also describes a project to be undertaken in New York City to determine ways of conserving energy in that city's…

  12. A Feasibility Study to Assess Alternative Energy Program Development Potential at the Community College Level, October 1, 1983-June 30, 1984. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Brittain A.

    In 1983-84, a feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of establishing a comprehensive alternative energy technology program at Southeastern Illinois College (SIC). The study involved an examination of a number of exemplary associate degree programs in alternative energy, through on-site visits and telephone surveys; a survey of…

  13. Beyond prometheus and Bakasura: Elements of an alternative to nuclear power in India's response to the energy-environment crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathai, Manu Verghese

    In India, as elsewhere, modern energy-society relations and economic development, metaphorically, Prometheus and the insatiable demon Bakasura, respectively, have produced unprecedented economic growth even as they have ushered in the "energy-environment crisis." Government efforts interpret the crisis as insufficiently advanced modernity. Resulting efforts to redress this crisis reaffirm more economic growth through modern energy-society relations and economic development. The civilian nuclear power renaissance in India, amidst rapidly accelerating economic growth and global climate change, is indicative. It presents the prospect of producing "abundant energy" and being "green" at the same time. This confidence in civilian nuclear power is questioned. It is investigated as proceeding from the modern discourse of "Cornucopianism" and its institutionalization as "modern megamachine organization of society." It is found that civilian nuclear power as energy policy is based on a presumption of overabundance as imperative for viable social and economic development; is predisposed to centralization and secrecy; its institutionalization limits deliberation on energy-society relations to technocratic terms; such deliberation is restrained to venues accessible only to the highest political office and technocratic elite; it fails to redress entrenched "energy injustice;" it embodies "modern technique" fostering the "displaced person" while eclipsing the "complete human personality." Overall, despite its green rhetoric, civilian nuclear power reaffirms the "politics of commodification" and refutes social and political arrangements for sustainability and equity. Alternatives are surveyed as strategies for resistance. They include the DEFENDUS approach for energy planning, the "Human Development and Capability Approach" and the "Sustainable Energy Utility." These alternatives and the synergy between them are offered as avenues to resist nuclear power as a response to the

  14. Alternative electric energy sources for rail transit. Final report. Phase 1. Report for 17 August 1990-16 February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Uher, R.A.; Howard, J.

    1993-08-01

    After labor costs, electrical energy costs constitute the second largest item in the annual operating budget of rail transit authorities. These costs continue to increase putting heavier burdens on the authorities. Native (local) electric power utility companies are currently the standard sources of electrical energy for rail transit systems. Present deregulation trends in the electric power industry opens the market for competition and lower cost electrical service for transit authorities. In the long term, rail transit operating cost will be reduced. In the context of the report, an alternative energy source means purchasing energy at a time different from when it will be used and/or from a source which is not the local utility. The former case is energy storage and the latter case is termed bypass. The report discusses these sources. Certain conditions are required for a rail transit authority to seriously consider alternative energy sources. The report discusses these conditions and investigates the technical and regulatory issues involved in investigating such sources.

  15. Heat transfer and bubble dynamics in slurry bubble columns for Fischer-Tropsch clean alternative energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengtian

    With the increasing demand for alternative energy resources, the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process that converts synthesis gas into clean liquid fuels has attracted more interest from the industry. Slurry bubble columns are the most promising reactors for FT synthesis due to their advantages over other reactors. Successful operation, design, and scale-up of such reactors require detailed knowledge of hydrodynamics, bubble dynamics, and transport characteristics. However, most previous studies have been conducted at ambient pressure or covered only low superficial gas velocities. The objectives of this study were to experimentally investigate the heat transfer coefficient and bubble dynamics in slurry bubble columns at conditions that can mimic FT conditions. The air-C9C 11-FT catalysts/glass beads systems were selected to mimic the physical properties of the gas, liquid, and solid phases at commercial FT operating conditions. A heat transfer coefficient measurement technique was developed, and for the first time, this technique was applied in a pilot scale (6-inch diameter) high pressure slurry bubble column. The effects of superficial gas velocity, pressure, solids loading, and liquid properties on the heat transfer coefficients were investigated. Since the heat transfer coefficient can be affected by the bubble properties (Kumar et al., 1992), in this work bubble dynamics (local gas holdup, bubble chord length, apparent bubble frequency, specific interfacial area, and bubble velocity) were studied using the improved four-point optical probe technique (Xue et al., 2003; Xue, 2004). Because the four-point optical technique had only been successfully applied in a churn turbulent flow bubble column (Xue, 2004), this technique was first assessed in a small scale slurry bubble column in this study. Then the bubble dynamics were studied at the same conditions as the heat transfer coefficient investigation in the same pilot scale column. The results from four-point probe

  16. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  17. Parametric scattering of microcavity polaritons into ghost branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajac, Joanna M.; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Polaritons of defined momentum and energy are excited resonantly on the lower polariton branch of a planar semiconductor microcavity in the strong coupling regime, and the spectrally and momentum resolved emission is analyzed. We observe ghost branches from scattering within the lower polariton branch, as well as from scattering to the middle polariton branch, showing the nonlinear mixing between different branches. Extending the theoretical treatment of spontaneous parametric luminescence developed in Ciuti et al. [Phys. Rev. B 63, 041303 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevB.63.041303], the eigenmodes of the driven polariton system and its photoluminescence are modeled. A quantitative agreement with the measured branch positions and a qualitative agreement with the branch intensities is found.

  18. Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts of Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Satchwell, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2010-08-06

    Increased interest by state (and federal) policymakers and regulatory agencies in pursuing aggressive energy efficiency efforts could deliver significant utility bill savings for customers while having long-term implications for ratepayers (e.g. potential rate impacts). Equity and distributional concerns associated with the authorized recovery of energy efficiency program costs may necessitate the pursuit of alternative program funding approaches. In 2008, Massachusetts passed the Green Communities Act which directed its energy efficiency (EE) program administrators to obtain all cost-effective EE resources. This goal has translated into achieving annual electric energy savings equivalent to a 2.4% reduction in retail sales from energy efficiency programs in 2012. Representatives of electricity consumer groups supported the new portfolio of EE programs (and the projected bill savings) but raised concerns about the potential rate impacts associated with achieving such aggressive EE goals, leading policymakers to seek out alternative funding sources which can potentially mitigate these effects. Utility administrators have also raised concerns about under-recovery of fixed costs when aggressive energy efficiency programs are pursued and have proposed ratemaking policies (e.g. decoupling) and business models that better align the utility's financial interests with the state's energy efficiency public policy goals. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other states looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. We use a pro-forma utility financial model to quantify the bill and rate impacts on electricity customers when very aggressive annual energy efficiency savings goals ({approx}2.4%) are achieved over the long-term and also assess the impact of different

  19. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  20. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  1. Critical branching neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kello, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical branching and, in doing so, simulates observed scaling laws as pervasive to neural and behavioral activity. These scaling laws are related to neural and cognitive functions, in that critical branching is shown to yield spiking activity with maximal memory and encoding capacities when analyzed using reservoir computing techniques. The model is also shown to account for findings of pervasive 1/f scaling in speech and cued response behaviors that are difficult to explain by isolable causes. Issues and questions raised by the model and its results are discussed from the perspectives of physics, neuroscience, computer and information sciences, and psychological and cognitive sciences.

  2. Atomic branching in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Juan A.; Randić, Milan

    A graph theoretic measure of extended atomic branching is defined that accounts for the effects of all atoms in the molecule, giving higher weight to the nearest neighbors. It is based on the counting of all substructures in which an atom takes part in a molecule. We prove a theorem that permits the exact calculation of this measure based on the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix of the graph representing a molecule. The definition of this measure within the context of the Hückel molecular orbital (HMO) and its calculation for benzenoid hydrocarbons are also studied. We show that the extended atomic branching can be defined using any real symmetric matrix, as well as any Hermitian (self-adjoint) matrix, which permits its calculation in topological, geometrical, and quantum chemical contexts.

  3. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-04-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13% - 22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement.

  4. Assessment of energy efficiency project financing alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    WDM Hunt; JC Hail; GP Sullivan

    2000-03-13

    Energy reduction goals for Federal agencies were first established in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1988, and directed 10{percent} reduction in facility energy use based on a 1985 baseline. Since that time, Federal sites have been actively seeking and implementing a wide variety of energy-efficiency measures in facilities across the Federal sector. In the intervening years this energy reduction goal has been progressively increased to 20{percent} through legislation (Public Law 102-486, The Energy Policy Act of 1992) and a number of Executive Orders. Executive Order 13123, Greening the Government Through Efficient Energy management (signed June 3, 1999), further increased the facility energy-efficiency improvement goal from 30{percent} in 2005 to 35{percent} by 2010 relative to the 1985 baseline.

  5. The potential contribution of biodiesel with improved properties to an alternative energy mix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuing and increasing world-wide concerns regarding the availability of petroleum and other "conventional" sources of energy have sparked the search for sustainable sources of energy. Fuels derived from renewable biological sources (biomass) play a prominent role among the sustainable energy so...

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of alternate energy carriers, hydrogen and chemical heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. E.; Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Soliman, M. A.; Funk, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen and chemical heat pipes were proposed as methods of transporting energy from a primary energy source (nuclear, solar) to the user. In the chemical heat pipe system, primary energy is transformed into the energy of a reversible chemical reaction; the chemical species are then transmitted or stored until the energy is required. Analysis of thermochemical hydrogen schemes and chemical heat pipe systems on a second law efficiency or available work basis show that hydrogen is superior especially if the end use of the chemical heat pipe is electrical power.

  7. Immunolocalization of an alternative respiratory chain in Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae spores: mitosomes retain their role in microsporidial energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dolgikh, Viacheslav V; Senderskiy, Igor V; Pavlova, Olga A; Naumov, Anton M; Beznoussenko, Galina V

    2011-04-01

    Microsporidia are a group of fungus-related intracellular parasites with severely reduced metabolic machinery. They lack canonical mitochondria, a Krebs cycle, and a respiratory chain but possess genes encoding glycolysis enzymes, a glycerol phosphate shuttle, and ATP/ADP carriers to import host ATP. The recent finding of alternative oxidase genes in two clades suggests that microsporidial mitosomes may retain an alternative respiratory pathway. We expressed the fragments of mitochondrial chaperone Hsp70 (mitHsp70), mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mitG3PDH), and alternative oxidase (AOX) from the microsporidium Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae in Escherichia coli. Immunoblotting with antibodies against recombinant polypeptides demonstrated specific accumulation of both metabolic enzymes in A. locustae spores. At the same time comparable amounts of mitochondrial Hsp70 were found in spores and in stages of intracellular development as well. Immunoelectron microscopy of ultrathin cryosections of spores confirmed mitosomal localization of the studied proteins. Small amounts of enzymes of an alternative respiratory chain in merogonial and early sporogonial stages, alongside their accumulation in mature spores, suggest conspicuous changes in components and functions of mitosomes during the life cycle of microsporidia and the important role of these organelles in parasite energy metabolism, at least at the final stages of sporogenesis.

  8. The renewable energy alternative: How the United States and the world can prosper without nuclear energy or coal

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    This book asserts that the temporary glut in oil supplies has masked energy supply problems and argues that with proper planning overall energy needs can be reduced and those reduced needs can be supplied through a combination of renewable sources, including sun, wind, water, biomass, and nonsolar sources such as geothermal energy and the tides.

  9. Energy and IAQ Implications of Alternative Minimum Ventilation Rates in California Retail and School Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Spencer M.; Fisk, William J.

    2015-01-01

    For a stand-alone retail building, a primary school, and a secondary school in each of the 16 California climate zones, the EnergyPlus building energy simulation model was used to estimate how minimum mechanical ventilation rates (VRs) affect energy use and indoor air concentrations of an indoor-generated contaminant. The modeling indicates large changes in heating energy use, but only moderate changes in total building energy use, as minimum VRs in the retail building are changed. For example, predicted state-wide heating energy consumption in the retail building decreases by more than 50% and total building energy consumption decreases by approximately 10% as the minimum VR decreases from the Title 24 requirement to no mechanical ventilation. The primary and secondary schools have notably higher internal heat gains than in the retail building models, resulting in significantly reduced demand for heating. The school heating energy use was correspondingly less sensitive to changes in the minimum VR. The modeling indicates that minimum VRs influence HVAC energy and total energy use in schools by only a few percent. For both the retail building and the school buildings, minimum VRs substantially affected the predicted annual-average indoor concentrations of an indoor generated contaminant, with larger effects in schools. The shape of the curves relating contaminant concentrations with VRs illustrate the importance of avoiding particularly low VRs.

  10. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  11. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  12. Horizontal branch evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, R. T.; Crocker, D. A.

    In 1973 the outstanding problems confronting the theory of horizontal-branch (HB) evolution were the second-parameter problem and the Oosterhoff effect. Despite significant progress, particularly in the observations and in the observation/theory interface, they remain as the outstanding problems of 1988. The Oosterhoff effect is now discussed primarily in the guise of the Sandage period-shift effect. The morphology of the HB seems more complicated than ever. Many clusters show bimodal distributions along the HB. Here these are tentatively considered to be manifestations of the second parameter problem.

  13. Alternative energy input: mechanochemical, microwave and ultrasound-assisted organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Baig, R B Nasir; Varma, Rajender S

    2012-02-21

    Microwave, ultrasound, sunlight and mechanochemical mixing can be used to augment conventional laboratory techniques. By applying these alternative means of activation, a number of chemical transformations have been achieved thereby improving many existing protocols with superior results when compared to reactions performed under traditional conditions. The purpose of this critical review is to highlight the advances in this general area by presenting such newer applications in organic synthesis (175 references).

  14. Branch formation during organ development

    PubMed Central

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates and vertebrates use branching morphogenesis to build epithelial trees to maximize the surface area of organs within a given volume. Several molecular regulators of branching have recently been discovered, a number of which are conserved across different organs and species. Signals that control branching at the cellular and tissue levels are also starting to emerge, and are rapidly unveiling the physical nature of branch development. Here we discuss the molecular, cellular and physical processes that govern branch formation and highlight the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:20890968

  15. A research needs assessment: Energy efficient alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Final reprot

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum -- based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are present. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  16. Biosolids management strategies: an evaluation of energy production as an alternative to land application.

    PubMed

    Egan, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    Currently, more than half of the biosolids produced within the USA are land applied. Land application of biosolids introduces organic contaminants into the environment. There are potential ecological and human health risks associated with land application of biosolids. Biosolids may be used as a renewable energy source. Nutrients may be recovered from biosolids used for energy generation for use as fertilizer. The by-products of biosolids energy generation may be used beneficially in construction materials. It is recommended that energy generation replace land application as the leading biosolids management strategy.

  17. Pen Branch Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V.; Stieve, A.L.; Aadland, R.

    1990-09-28

    Evidence from subsurface mapping and seismic reflection surveys at Savannah River Site (SRS) suggests the presence of a fault which displaces Cretaceous through Tertiary (90--35 million years ago) sediments. This feature has been described and named the Pen Branch fault (PBF) in a recent Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) paper (DP-MS-88-219). Because the fault is located near operating nuclear facilities, public perception and federal regulations require a thorough investigation of the fault to determine whether any seismic hazard exists. A phased program with various elements has been established to investigate the PBF to address the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guidelines represented in 10 CFR 100 Appendix A. The objective of the PBF program is to fully characterize the nature of the PBF (ESS-SRL-89-395). This report briefly presents current understanding of the Pen Branch fault based on shallow drilling activities completed the fall of 1989 (PBF well series) and subsequent core analyses (SRL-ESS-90-145). The results are preliminary and ongoing: however, investigations indicate that the fault is not capable. In conjunction with the shallow drilling, other activities are planned or in progress. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Impacts of Alternative Residential Energy Standards - Rural Housing Amendments Study, Phase I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Balistocky, S.; Bohn, A.A.; Heidell, J.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lee, A.D.; Pratt, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1985-11-01

    The results of a preliminary study on the impacts of several national energy conservation standards that apply to manufactured housing (mobile homes) and conventional site-built housing are presented. The housing market and how these standards affect the overall energy economics of these two housing types are briefly discussed. (BCS)

  19. The Impact of Traditional and Alternative Energy Production on Water Resources: Assessment and Adaptation Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water, fuel and energy issues are intricately related and cannot be addressed in isolation. With increasing population, increasing energy demand, continued migration towards and population growth within water stressed regions of the U.S., and with the continuing impacts of climat...

  20. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The food industry, its energy consumption, and its energy conservation targets are discussed. Activities of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch are described. Summaries of research, development, and demonstration programs of the Branch are given. The programs are categorized into the following: energy integrated farm systems; irrigation systems; crop drying systems; fertilizer; dairy and milk processing; meat processing; sugar processing; citrus processing; ethanol production; food processing efficiency systems; and food sterilization. Summaries are presented of 26 completed projects. (MCW)

  1. Energy use, environmental quality, and ethanol production: an analysis of the impacts of alternative policies on western New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, B.W.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis examines the impacts on the agricultural sector of western New York State of alternative environmental and energy policies. Environmental quality is measured by gross soil loss and an index measuring the environmental exposure to pesticides. One of the measures of energy use is the amount of diesel fuel used in the cropping activities. Another measure is the indirect energy encompassed in the pesticide and fertilizer inputs. In addition to investigating the impacts of reduced fuel supplies and lower soil-loss levels, the impacts of several ethanol production policies are investigated with respect to their effect on the regional levels of the energy and environmental variables included in this study. A synthesis of the regional and representative farm approaches to modelling agricultural production responses is used within a linear-programming model. A multiple objective form of the model is constructed which considers the simultaneous policy objectives of maximizing farm income, minimizing energy use, and the maintenance of environmental quality. The programming models reveal that efforts to reduce energy use and improve environmental quality require tradeoffs in terms of the levels of the other policy variables of concern in this study. These tradeoffs can be affected by the type of policy used.

  2. Branching ratio measurements of the predissociation of {sup 12}C{sup 16}O by time-slice velocity-map ion imaging in the energy region from 108 000 to 110 500 cm{sup -1}

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Hong; Song Yu; Yang Lei; Shi Xiaoyu; Ng, C. Y.; Jackson, William M.; Yin Qingzhu

    2012-07-21

    Direct branching ratio measurements of the three lowest dissociation channels of {sup 12}C{sup 16}O that produce C({sup 3}P) + O({sup 3}P), C({sup 1}D) + O({sup 3}P), and C({sup 3}P) + O({sup 1}D) are reported in the vacuum ultraviolet region from 108 000 cm{sup -1} (92.59 nm) to 110 500 cm{sup -1} (90.50 nm) using the time-slice velocity-map ion imaging and nonlinear resonant four-wave mixing techniques. Rotationally, resolved carbon ion yield spectra for both {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} and {sup 1}{Pi} bands of CO in this region have been obtained. Our measurements using this technique show that the branching ratio in this energy region, especially the relative percentages of the two spin-forbidden channels, is strongly dependent on the particular electronic and vibrational energy levels of CO that are excited.

  3. Exploring Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Souhern California Edison Service Territory

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Kingston, Tim

    2005-12-01

    Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the desires to globally reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and concerns with interconnection on the distribution system. This study assesses the costs and benefits of DE to both consumers and distribution utilities and expands upon a precursory study done with Detroit Edison (DTE)1, by evaluating the combined impact of DE, energy-efficiency, photovoltaics (a use of solar energy), and demand response that will shape the grid of the future. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Gas Research Institute (GRI), American Electric Power (AEP), and Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) Distributed Energy Collaborative Program (DECP). It focuses on two real Southern California Edison (SCE) circuits, a 13 MW suburban circuit fictitiously named Justice on the Lincoln substation, and an 8 MW rural circuit fictitiously named Prosper on the Washington Substation. The primary objectives of the study were threefold: (1) Evaluate the potential for using advanced energy technologies, including DE, energy-efficiency (EE), demand response, electricity storage, and photovoltaics (PV), to reshape electric load curves by reducing peak demand, for real circuits. (2) Investigate the potential impact on guiding technology deployment and managing operation in a way that benefits both utilities and their customers by: (a) Improving grid load factor for utilities; (b) Reducing energy costs for customers; and (c) Optimizing electric demand growth. (3) Demonstrate benefits by reporting on a recently installed advanced energy system at a utility customer site. This

  4. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  5. Shallow, non-pumped wells: a low-energy alternative for cleaning polluted groundwater.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2013-07-01

    This modeling study evaluated the capability of non-pumped wells with filter media for preventing contaminant plumes from migrating offsite. Linear configurations of non-pumped wells were compared to permeable reactive barriers in simulated shallow homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifers. While permeable reactive barriers enabled faster contaminant removal and shorter distances of contaminant travel, non-pumped wells also prevented offsite contaminant migration. Overall, results of this study suggest that discontinuous, linear configurations of non-pumped wells may be a viable alternative to much more costly permeable reactive barriers for preventing offsite contaminant travel in some shallow aquifers.

  6. Shallow, non-pumped wells: a low-energy alternative for cleaning polluted groundwater.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2013-07-01

    This modeling study evaluated the capability of non-pumped wells with filter media for preventing contaminant plumes from migrating offsite. Linear configurations of non-pumped wells were compared to permeable reactive barriers in simulated shallow homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifers. While permeable reactive barriers enabled faster contaminant removal and shorter distances of contaminant travel, non-pumped wells also prevented offsite contaminant migration. Overall, results of this study suggest that discontinuous, linear configurations of non-pumped wells may be a viable alternative to much more costly permeable reactive barriers for preventing offsite contaminant travel in some shallow aquifers. PMID:23609453

  7. Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on plasma concentrations of free amino acids, insulin, and energy substrates in young men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Mawatari, Kazunori; Sato, Juichi; Bajotto, Gustavo; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine alterations in the concentrations of plasma free amino acids, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), and urea nitrogen induced by branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in young men. Overnight-fasted subjects ingested drinks containing 1 or 5 g of a BCAA mixture (weight ratio of 1 : 2.3 : 1.2 for isoleucine : leucine : valine), and blood was intermittently collected for 3 h after ingestion. Ingestion of the BCAA mixture resulted in significant increases in the plasma concentrations of individual BCAAs, corresponding to the amounts of amino acids ingested. On the other hand, plasma concentrations of methionine and aromatic amino acids tended to decrease in the trial with 5 g BCAAs, suggesting that BCAA ingestion affects the metabolism of these amino acids. The ingestion of BCAAs temporarily increased plasma insulin levels and affected plasma concentrations of FFAs, but had almost no effect on glucose or urea nitrogen. PMID:21512300

  8. M.A.E.G.U.S.: Measuring alternate energy generation via unity simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataraja, Kavin Muhilan

    This paper presents the MAEGUS serious game and a study to determine its efficacy as a pedagogical tool. The MAEGUS serious game teaches sustainable energy concepts through gameplay simulating wind turbines and solar arrays. Players take the role of an energy manager for a city and use realistic data and information visualizations to learn the physical factors of wind and solar energy generation. The MAEGUS serious game study compares game assisted learning to a more traditional teaching method such as reading material in a crossover study, the results of which can inform future serious game development for educational purposes.

  9. Dynamics of multidissociation paths of acetaldehyde photoexcited at 157 nm: Branching ratios, distributions of kinetic energy, and angular anisotropies of products

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Shih-Huang

    2009-11-07

    After the photolysis of acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO) at 157.6 nm in a molecular-beam apparatus using photofragment translational spectroscopy and vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization to detect products, we observed 13 photofragments associated with six primary dissociation channels and secondary dissociation of products CH{sub 3}CO and HCO. We measured time-of-flight spectra and spatial angular anisotropies of products and evaluated the branching ratios of products. All photoproducts have nearly isotropic angular distributions with an average |{beta}| value less than 0.05. Primary dissociations to CH{sub 3}CO+H and CH{sub 3}+HCO are two major paths; most CH{sub 3}CO subsequently decomposes spontaneously to CH{sub 3}+CO and CH{sub 2}CO+H and most HCO decomposes to H+CO. The ternary dissociation to CH{sub 3}+CO+H thus accounts for approximately half of the total branching. Dissociations to CH{sub 2}CO+H{sub 2} and CH{sub 2}+CH{sub 2}O are observable, but the production of CH{sub 4}+CO is ambiguous. The productions of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}+OH and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O indicate that isomerization from acetaldehyde to ethenol occurs before fragmentation. After photoexcitation to the n-3p state, most acetaldehyde converts into states T{sub 1} and S{sub 0} but a little isomerizes to ethenol followed by multichannel decomposition.

  10. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  11. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  12. Evolutionary Branching in a Finite Population: Deterministic Branching vs. Stochastic Branching

    PubMed Central

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Iwasa, Yoh

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive dynamics formalism demonstrates that, in a constant environment, a continuous trait may first converge to a singular point followed by spontaneous transition from a unimodal trait distribution into a bimodal one, which is called “evolutionary branching.” Most previous analyses of evolutionary branching have been conducted in an infinitely large population. Here, we study the effect of stochasticity caused by the finiteness of the population size on evolutionary branching. By analyzing the dynamics of trait variance, we obtain the condition for evolutionary branching as the one under which trait variance explodes. Genetic drift reduces the trait variance and causes stochastic fluctuation. In a very small population, evolutionary branching does not occur. In larger populations, evolutionary branching may occur, but it occurs in two different manners: in deterministic branching, branching occurs quickly when the population reaches the singular point, while in stochastic branching, the population stays at singularity for a period before branching out. The conditions for these cases and the mean branching-out times are calculated in terms of population size, mutational effects, and selection intensity and are confirmed by direct computer simulations of the individual-based model. PMID:23105010

  13. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: Executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, D.; Singer, G.

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process.

  14. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Energy conversion system characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a frame work for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasifications. Data and information for both current and advanced energy conversion technology are presented. Schematic and physical descriptions, performance data, equipment cost estimates, and predicted emissions are included. Technical developments which are needed to achieve commercialization in the 1985-2000 period are identified.

  15. Alternative strategies for energy recovery from municipal solid waste Part B: Emission and cost estimates.

    PubMed

    Consonni, S; Giugliano, M; Grosso, M

    2005-01-01

    This two-part paper assesses four strategies for energy recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) by dedicated Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants. In strategy 1, the residue of Material Recovery (MR) is fed directly to a grate combustor, while in strategy 2 the grate combustor comes downstream of light mechanical treatment. In strategies 3 and 4, the MR residue is converted into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), in a fluidized cumbuster bed. The results of Part A, devoted to mass and energy balances, clearly show that pre-treating the MR residue in order to increase the heating value of the feedstock fed to the WTE plant has marginal effects on the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. When considering the efficiency of the whole strategy of waste management, the energy balances show that the more thorough the pre-treatment, the smaller the amount of energy recovered per unit of MR residue. Starting from the heat/mass balances illustrated in Part A, Part B examines the environmental impacts and economics of the various strategies by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Results show that treating the MR residues ahead of the WTE plant does not provide environmental or economic benefits. RDF production worsens almost all impact indicators because it reduces net electricity production and thus the displacement of power plant emissions; it also increases costs, because the benefits of improving the quality of the material fed to the WTE plant do not compensate the cost of such improvement.

  16. Journey on greener pathways: from the use of alternate energy inputs and benign reaction media to sustainable applications of nano-catalysts in synthesis and environmental remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic processes developed during the past two decades involving the use of alternate energy inputs and greener reaction media are summarized. These processes include examples of coupling reactions, the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of reactio...

  17. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory.

    PubMed

    Stoyanova, Alexandrina; Teale, Andrew M; Toulouse, Julien; Helgaker, Trygve; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2013-10-01

    The alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies proposed by Toulouse et al. [Theor. Chem. Acc. 114, 305 (2005)] is explored in the context of multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory. The new decomposition of the short-range exchange-correlation energy relies on the auxiliary long-range interacting wavefunction rather than the Kohn-Sham (KS) determinant. The advantage, relative to the traditional KS decomposition, is that the wavefunction part of the energy is now computed with the regular (fully interacting) Hamiltonian. One potential drawback is that, because of double counting, the wavefunction used to compute the energy cannot be obtained by minimizing the energy expression with respect to the wavefunction parameters. The problem is overcome by using short-range optimized effective potentials (OEPs). The resulting combination of OEP techniques with wavefunction theory has been investigated in this work, at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and multi-configuration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) levels. In the HF case, an analytical expression for the energy gradient has been derived and implemented. Calculations have been performed within the short-range local density approximation on H2, N2, Li2, and H2O. Significant improvements in binding energies are obtained with the new decomposition of the short-range energy. The importance of optimizing the short-range OEP at the MCSCF level when static correlation becomes significant has also been demonstrated for H2, using a finite-difference gradient. The implementation of the analytical gradient for MCSCF wavefunctions is currently in progress. PMID:24116558

  18. Response of corn markets to climate volatility under alternative energy futures.

    PubMed

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Hertel, Thomas W; Scherer, Martin; Verma, Monika

    2012-07-01

    Recent price spikes(1,2) have raised concern that climate change could increase food insecurity by reducing grain yields in the coming decades(3,4). However, commodity price volatility is also influenced by other factors(5,6), which may either exacerbate or buffer the effects of climate change. Here we show that US corn price volatility exhibits higher sensitivity to near-term climate change than to energy policy influences or agriculture-energy market integration, and that the presence of a biofuels mandate enhances the sensitivity to climate change by more than 50%. The climate change impact is driven primarily by intensification of severe hot conditions in the primary corn-growing region of the US, which causes US corn price volatility to increase sharply in response to global warming projected over the next three decades. Closer integration of agriculture and energy markets moderates the effects of climate change, unless the biofuels mandate becomes binding, in which case corn price volatility is instead exacerbated. However, in spite of the substantial impact on US corn price volatility, we find relatively small impact on food prices. Our findings highlight the critical importance of interactions between energy policies, energy-agriculture linkages, and climate change.

  19. Response of corn markets to climate volatility under alternative energy futures

    PubMed Central

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Scherer, Martin; Verma, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Recent price spikes1,2 have raised concern that climate change could increase food insecurity by reducing grain yields in the coming decades3,4. However, commodity price volatility is also influenced by other factors5,6, which may either exacerbate or buffer the effects of climate change. Here we show that US corn price volatility exhibits higher sensitivity to near-term climate change than to energy policy influences or agriculture-energy market integration, and that the presence of a biofuels mandate enhances the sensitivity to climate change by more than 50%. The climate change impact is driven primarily by intensification of severe hot conditions in the primary corn-growing region of the US, which causes US corn price volatility to increase sharply in response to global warming projected over the next three decades. Closer integration of agriculture and energy markets moderates the effects of climate change, unless the biofuels mandate becomes binding, in which case corn price volatility is instead exacerbated. However, in spite of the substantial impact on US corn price volatility, we find relatively small impact on food prices. Our findings highlight the critical importance of interactions between energy policies, energy-agriculture linkages, and climate change. PMID:23243468

  20. Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow: An alternative view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Peter S.; Speziale, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if vortex stretching is accounted for in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are present for a k-epsilon model modified to account for vortex stretching. The calculations indicate an initial exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate for elapsed times that are as large as those considered in any of the previously conducted physical or numerical experiments on homogeneous shear flow. However, vortex stretching eventually takes over and forces a production-equals-dissipation equilibrium with bounded energy states. The validity of this result is further supported by an independent theoretical argument. It is concluded that the generally accepted structural equilibrium for homogeneous shear flow with unbounded component energies is in need of re-examination.

  1. Response of corn markets to climate volatility under alternative energy futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Scherer, Martin; Verma, Monika

    2012-07-01

    Recent price spikes have raised concern that climate change could increase food insecurity by reducing grain yields in the coming decades. However, commodity price volatility is also influenced by other factors, which may either exacerbate or buffer the effects of climate change. Here we show that US corn price volatility exhibits higher sensitivity to near-term climate change than to energy policy influences or agriculture-energy market integration, and that the presence of a biofuels mandate enhances the sensitivity to climate change by more than 50%. The climate change impact is driven primarily by intensification of severe hot conditions in the primary corn-growing region of the United States, which causes US corn price volatility to increase sharply in response to global warming projected to occur over the next three decades. Closer integration of agriculture and energy markets moderates the effects of climate change, unless the biofuels mandate becomes binding, in which case corn price volatility is instead exacerbated. However, in spite of the substantial impact on US corn price volatility, we find relatively small impact on food prices. Our findings highlight the critical importance of interactions between energy policies, energy-agriculture linkages and climate change.

  2. Identification of future engineering-development needs of alternative concepts for magnetic-fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakowski, R. A.

    The future engineering needs of alternative fusion concepts (AFCs) are assessed relative to the similar needs of the Tokamak in order to emphasize differences in required technology with respect to the well documented mainline approach. Although nearly thirty AFCs can be identified as being associated with some level of reactor projection redirection, refocusing, and general similarities can be used to generate a reduced AFC list that includes only the bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids. Furthermore, each AFC has the potential of operating as a conventional (low power density, superconducting magnets) or a compact, high-power-density (HPD) system. Hence, in order to make tractable an otherwise difficult task, the future engineering needs for the AFCs are addressed for conventional versus compact approaches, with the latter being treated as a generic class and the former being composed of bumpy tori, stellarators, reversed-field pinches, and compact toroids.

  3. A water system model for exploring electric energy alternatives in southeastern US basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-López, F.; Yates, D.

    2013-09-01

    Electric power generation often involves the use of water for power plant cooling and steam generation, which typically involves the release of cooling water to nearby rivers and lakes. The resulting thermal pollution may negatively impact the ecosystems of these water bodies. Water resource systems models enable the examination of the implications of alternative electric generation on regional water resources. This letter documents the development, calibration, and validation of a climate-driven water resource systems model of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint, the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa, and the Tombigbee River basins in the states of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, in the southeastern US. The model represents different water users, including power plants, agricultural water users, and municipal users. The model takes into account local population, per-capita use estimates, and changes in population growth. The water resources planning model was calibrated and validated against the observed, managed flows through the river systems of the three basins. Flow calibration was performed on land cover, water capacity, and hydraulic conductivity of soil horizons; river water temperature calibration was performed on channel width and slope properties. Goodness-of-fit statistics indicate that under 1980-2010 levels of water use, the model robustly represents major features of monthly average streamflow and water temperatures. The application of this integrated electricity generation-water resources planning model can be used to explore alternative electric generation and water implications. The implementation of this model is explored in the companion paper of this focus issue (Yates et al 2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 035042).

  4. Bounded energy exchange as an alternative to the third law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    This paper introduces a postulate explicitly forbidding the extraction of an infinite amount of energy from a thermodynamic system. It also introduces the assumption that no measuring equipment is capable of detecting arbitrarily small energy exchanges. The Kelvin formulation of the second law is reinterpreted accordingly. Then statements related to both the unattainability version and the entropic version of the third law are derived. The value of any common thermodynamic potential of a one-component system at absolute zero of temperature is ascertained if some assumptions with regard to the state space can be made. The point of view is the phenomenological, macroscopic and non-statistical one of classical thermodynamics.

  5. Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow - An alternative view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, P. S.; Speziale, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if a residual vortex stretching term is maintained in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are presented for a k-epsilon model modified to account for net vortex stretching.

  6. On sulfur core level binding energies in thiol self-assembly and alternative adsorption sites: An experimental and theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Juanjuan; Kara, Abdelkader E-mail: vladimir.esaulov@u-psud.fr; Pasquali, Luca; Bendounan, Azzedine; Sirotti, Fausto; Esaulov, Vladimir A. E-mail: vladimir.esaulov@u-psud.fr

    2015-09-14

    Characteristic core level binding energies (CLBEs) are regularly used to infer the modes of molecular adsorption: orientation, organization, and dissociation processes. Here, we focus on a largely debated situation regarding CLBEs in the case of chalcogen atom bearing molecules. For a thiol, this concerns the case when the CLBE of a thiolate sulfur at an adsorption site can be interpreted alternatively as due to atomic adsorption of a S atom, resulting from dissociation. Results of an investigation of the characteristics of thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) obtained by vacuum evaporative adsorption are presented along with core level binding energy calculations. Thiol ended SAMs of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol (BDMT) obtained by evaporation on Au display an unconventional CLBE structure at about 161.25 eV, which is close to a known CLBE of a S atom on Au. Adsorption and CLBE calculations for sulfur atoms and BDMT molecules are reported and allow delineating trends as a function of chemisorption on hollow, bridge, and atop sites and including the presence of adatoms. These calculations suggest that the 161.25 eV peak is due to an alternative adsorption site, which could be associated to an atop configuration. Therefore, this may be an alternative interpretation, different from the one involving the adsorption of atomic sulfur resulting from the dissociation process of the S–C bond. Calculated differences in S(2p) CLBEs for free BDMT molecules, SH group sulfur on top of the SAM, and disulfide are also reported to clarify possible errors in assignments.

  7. Healing, Mental Energy in the Physics Classroom: Energy Conceptions and Trust in Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Grade 10-12 Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedholm, Annika M.; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2013-03-01

    Lay conceptions of energy often conflict with scientific knowledge, hinder science learning and scientific literacy, and provide a basis for ungrounded beliefs. In a sample of Finnish upper secondary school students, energy was attributed with features of living and animate beings and thought of as a mental property. These ontologically confused conceptions (OCC) were associated with trust in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and independent of scientifically valid conceptions. Substance-based energy conceptions followed the correlational pattern of OCC, rather than scientific conceptions. OCC and CAM decreased both during the regular school physics curriculum and after a lesson targeted at the ontological confusions. OCC and CAM were slightly less common among students with high actively open-minded thinking, low trust in intuition and high need for cognition. The findings are discussed in relation to the goals of scientific education.

  8. Testing Low-Energy, High-Power Energy Storage Alternatives in a Full-Hybrid Vehicle (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, J.; Gonger, J.

    2014-01-01

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle gasoline use. However, the battery cost in HEVs contribute to higher incremental cost of HEVs (a few thousand dollars) than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. Significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can improve the vehicle-level cost vs. benefit relationship for HEVs. Such an improvement could lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate gasoline savings. After significant analysis by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage program suggested a new set of requirements for ESS for power-assist HEVs for cost reduction without impacting performance and fuel economy significantly. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This poster will describe development of the LEESS HEV test platform, and LEESS laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results. The first LEESS technology tested was lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) - i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery-type characteristics (lithiated graphite) and one with ultracapacitor-type characteristics (carbon). We will discuss the performance and fuel saving results with LIC with comparison with original NiMH battery.

  9. Colleges Offer New Alternative-Energy Degrees, Fueled by Student Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2009-01-01

    More U.S. college students are enrolling in power- and energy-engineering courses, but the increase is not enough to meet the need, says a new report by the IEEE, the professional association of electrical engineers. About 45% of engineers at electric utilities are expected to retire or leave their jobs within five years, creating as many as…

  10. Computer simulation of an alternate-energy-based, high-density brooding facility

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    A computer model was developed to simulate a poultry brooding facility characterized by high-density cage or floor brooding, environmental housing, ventilation heat recovery, solar energy collection, and biogas generation. Repeated simulations revealed the following: (1) Solar collection and ventilation heat recovery could reduce fossil fuel use by 12 and 91%, respectively. Combining solar collection and heat recovery may reduce fossil fuel use by only an additional 1.5%. (2) Methane generation can provide more energy on a yearly basis than is required for supplemental heat for brooding. Seasonal energy demands do not match supplies from methane generation and shortages may occur in winter as well as excesses in summer. A digester operated in the thermophilic temperature range produces more net energy than one operated in the mesophilic range. (3) Operating expenses for the simulated cage facility exceeded conventional brooding. (4) Relative humidity patterns of certain areas create the need for complex controls to properly maintain the internal environment. (5) Feed and fuel account for nearly 100% of the operating expenses of brooding. Controlling heat and ventilation with a microprocessor may be the only way to optimize the environment of a broiler brooding facility.

  11. Analysis of market penetration of renewable energy alternatives under uncertain and carbon constrained world

    EPA Science Inventory

    Future energy prices and supply, availability and costs can have a significant impact on how fast and cost effectively we could abate carbon emissions. Two-staged decision making methods embedded in U.S. EPA's MARKAL modeling system will be utilized to find the most robust mitig...

  12. Evaluation of alternative phase change materials for energy storage in solar dynamic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. A.; Dustin, M. O.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of fluoride salt and metallic thermal energy storage materials are compared in terms of basic performance as applied to solar dynamic power generation. Specific performance considerations include uniformity of cycle inlet temperature, peak cavity temperature, TES utilization, and system weights. Also investigated were means of enhancing the thermal conductivity of the salts and its effect on the system performance.

  13. The potential of biodiesel with improved properties to an alternative energy mix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuels derived from renewable biological sources (biomass) are prominent among the sustainable energy sources. Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is one of the significant biomass-derived fuels. It is obtained from vegetable oils or other triacylglycerol feedstocks b...

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of alternate energy carriers, hydrogen and chemical heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. E.; Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Soliman, M. A.; Funk, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the production concept and efficiency of two new energy transmission and storage media intended to overcome the disadvantages of electricity as an overall energy carrier. These media are hydrogen produced by water-splitting and the chemical heat pipe. Hydrogen can be transported or stored, and burned as energy is needed, forming only water and thus obviating pollution problems. The chemical heat pipe envisions a system in which heat is stored as the heat of reaction in chemical species. The thermodynamic analysis of these two methods is discussed in terms of first-law and second-law efficiency. It is concluded that chemical heat pipes offer large advantages over thermochemical hydrogen generation schemes on a first-law efficiency basis except for the degradation of thermal energy in temperature thus providing a source of low-temperature (800 K) heat for process heat applications. On a second-law efficiency basis, hydrogen schemes are superior in that the amount of available work is greater as compared to chemical heat pipes.

  15. Wind, Sun and Water: Complexities of Alternative Energy Development in Rural Northern Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…

  16. Branches in the Everett interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Arthur J.

    2014-05-01

    Hugh Everett III describes a quantum measurement as resulting in the "branching" of the quantum state of observer and measured system, with all possible measurement outcomes represented by the ensuing branches of the total quantum state. But Everett does not specify a general rule for decomposing a quantum state into branches, and commentators have long puzzled over how, and even whether, to regard Everett's notion of branching states as physically meaningful. It is common today to appeal to decoherence considerations as a way of giving physical content to the Everettian notion of branches, but these appeals to decoherence are often regarded as considerations foreign to Everett's own approach. This paper contends that this assessment is only half right: though he does not invoke environmental decoherence, Everett does appeal to decoherence considerations, broadly understood, in his treatment of measurement. Careful consideration of his idealized models of measurement, and of the significance he ascribes to the branching of states corresponding to definite measurement outcomes, reveals that his notion of branching refers to a special physical characteristic of elements of a particular decomposition, namely the absence of interference between these component states as a result of the particular dynamics governing the evolution of the system. Characterizations of branching that appeal to the results of modern decoherence theory should therefore be regarded as a natural development of Everett's own physically meaningful conception of branching.

  17. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  18. The control of branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Iber, Dagmar; Menshykau, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms are heavily branched structures and arise by an apparently similar process of branching morphogenesis. Yet the regulatory components and local interactions that have been identified differ greatly in these organs. It is an open question whether the regulatory processes work according to a common principle and how far physical and geometrical constraints determine the branching process. Here, we review the known regulatory factors and physical constraints in lung, kidney, pancreas, prostate, mammary gland and salivary gland branching morphogenesis, and describe the models that have been formulated to analyse their impacts. PMID:24004663

  19. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

  20. Miami International Conference on Alternative Energy Sources, 5th, Miami Beach, FL, December 13-15, 1982, Proceedings of Condensed Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    1982-10-01

    The rate of progress and state of the art in various alternative energy systems is assessed in a series of extended abstracts. Renewable energy sources such as hydroelectricity, solar heating, wind power, solar cells, bioconversion, OTEC, and alcohol are discussed. Attention is given to thermal energy storage, solar stills, hydrogen fuel systems, and the economics of wind power. Fusion, breeder, and fission reactors are considered, as are geothermal energy extraction, wave energy systems, the CO2 effects on the atmosphere caused by burning fuels, and conservation and waste utilization technologies. Finally, energy education programs and national energy policy are investigated

  1. Lactate is an alternative energy fuel to glucose in neurons under anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akifumi; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Imamoto, Natsumi; Momosaki, Sotaro; Hosoi, Rie; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Inoue, Osamu

    2009-11-25

    The uptake of [14C]lactate was measured in the brains of mice anesthetized with pentobarbital or chloral hydrate. The results showed significant increase of the [14C]lactate uptake in the brain under both anesthesia. Despite energy metabolism in the brain being suppressed by both pentobarbital and chloral hydrate, the [14C]lactate uptake was unexpectedly increased under anesthesia. [14C]Lactate uptake in rat brain injured by infusion of quinolic acid was significantly decreased, and the reduction of [14C]lactate uptake was parallel to neural cell death, suggesting that exogenous lactate might be selectively taken up by neuron. These results indicated that lactate rather than glucose might serve as an energy substrate for neuron in intact brain under anesthesia.

  2. Mixed metal oxides as alternate cathodes for high energy density electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Silver (II) oxide is currently the Navy`s cathode of choice in high energy density, high rate batteries for torpedo and mobile target applications, for medium rate applications such as Seal Delivery Vehicles, and may be useful for low rate, long endurance UUV missions. While it is certainly a versatile material, silver (II) oxide is expensive to produce and has a lower faradaic (storage) capacity than desired. New research being conducted at the NUWC electric propulsion laboratory is focused toward developing new, lower cost cathode materials with energy densities at least comparable to silver (II) oxide. Mixed metal oxides, with silver (II) oxide as one component, are under investigation. Other materials, without a silver component, are also being considered. This poster will illustrate recent developments in the modification of the silver (II) oxide cathode for Navy applications.

  3. Environmental impact assessment for alternative-energy power plants in México.

    PubMed

    González-Avila, María E; Beltrán-Morales, Luis Felipe; Braker, Elizabeth; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo

    2006-07-01

    Ten Environmental Impact Assessment Reports (EIAR) were reviewed for projects involving alternative power plants in Mexico developed during the last twelve years. Our analysis focused on the methods used to assess the impacts produced by hydroelectric and geothermal power projects. These methods used to assess impacts in EIARs ranged from the most simple, descriptive criteria, to quantitative models. These methods are not concordant with the level of the EIAR required by the environmental authority or even, with the kind of project developed. It is concluded that there is no correlation between the tools used to assess impacts and the assigned type of the EIAR. Because the methods to assess impacts produced by these power projects have not changed during 2000 years, we propose a quantitative method, based on ecological criteria and tools, to assess the impacts produced by hydroelectric and geothermal plants, according to the specific characteristics of the project. The proposed method is supported by environmental norms, and can assist environmental authorities in assigning the correct level and tools to be applied to hydroelectric and geothermal projects. The proposed method can be adapted to other production activities in Mexico and to other countries.

  4. In silico search of energy metabolism inhibitors for alternative leishmaniasis treatments.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lourival A; Vinaud, Marina C; Castro, Ana Maria; Cravo, Pedro Vítor L; Bezerra, José Clecildo B

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that affects mammals and is caused by approximately 20 distinct protozoa from the genus Leishmania. Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease that exerts a large socioeconomic impact on poor and developing countries. The current treatment for leishmaniasis is complex, expensive, and poorly efficacious. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop more selective, less expensive new drugs. The energy metabolism pathways of Leishmania include several interesting targets for specific inhibitors. In the present study, we sought to establish which energy metabolism enzymes in Leishmania could be targets for inhibitors that have already been approved for the treatment of other diseases. We were able to identify 94 genes and 93 Leishmania energy metabolism targets. Using each gene's designation as a search criterion in the TriTrypDB database, we located the predicted peptide sequences, which in turn were used to interrogate the DrugBank, Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), and PubChem databases. We identified 44 putative targets of which 11 are predicted to be amenable to inhibition by drugs which have already been approved for use in humans for 11 of these targets. We propose that these drugs should be experimentally tested and potentially used in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  5. Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. I. Geothermal and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, A. P.; Etnier, E. L.

    1981-07-01

    An evaluation of potential occupational and public health aspects of geopressure, hydrothermal, hot dry rock, silviculture, crop and animal residues, fermentable plant products, municipal waste, and plantation energy technologies has been performed. Future development of these energy options in the United States will contain hazards that could easily be eliminated by safer equipment design and common-sense attention to operation and maintenance. Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide gas occurs near all geothermal sites and wherever organic matter decomposes anaerobically. Respiratory damage has occurred to laborers in geothermal fields, while farm workers have been fatally overcome when employed near agitating liquid manure systems. However, the most frequent and severe of reported injuries to geothermal workers is dermal exposure to caustic sludges produced by H2S abatement systems. Principal health and safety considerations of biomass pathways are directly related to the diffuse nature of solar energy fixation by photosynthesis and subsequent transfer to animal food chains. Since the potential fuel is in an unconcentrated form, cultivation, harvest, and transport are necessarily laborintensive. Thus, a significant potential for occupational injuries and fatalities exists. Of all biomass systems evaluated, direct burning of solid fuels presents the greatest public health risk. Data are presented to characterize the population at risk and the frequency and severity of injuries.

  6. Risks and psychic costs of alternative energy sources for generating electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    Divisive personal issues will continue to impede the formulation of a coherent national energy policy until we come to grips with the disagreements and anxieties behind the issues. Variations in individual anxiety profiles and limited knowledge are the major sources of conflict. A structured approach for analyzing psychic costs in the risk-cost-benefit analyses of energy options focuses on the electric-utility industry. Coupling psychic costs with economic costs requires an understanding of how social values interact to produce either risk acceptance or risk rejection. A review of the literature shows that people experiencing a continuous anxiety state may come to value the focus of their fear as a policy issue more than on loss of life. Public reaction after the Three Mile Island accident illustrates this condition. Personal bias in risk perception is variable partly because of differences in information. Information and personal values, however, can be mutually incompatible and lead to psychic conflicts. Proponents of soft energy technology, for example, are criticized for their lack of information about the associated risks and not credited for the psychic benefits of their goals. 58 references. (DCK)

  7. COMPLEAT (Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities. [Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies (Compleat)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    COMPLEAT takes its name, as an acronym, from Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies. It is an electric utility planning model designed for use principally by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

  8. Annual report, Materials Science Branch, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, S.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Materials Science Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid State Theory, Solid State Spectroscopy, and Program Management. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  9. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  10. Foraging in chemically diverse environments: energy, protein, and alternative foods influence ingestion of plant secondary metabolites by lambs.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Juan J; Provenza, Frederick D

    2005-01-01

    Interactions among nutrients and plant secondary metabolites (PSM) may influence how herbivores mix their diets and use food resources. We determined intake of a food containing a mix of terpenoids identified in sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) when present in isoenergetic diets of increasing concentrations of protein (6, 9, 15, or 21% CP) or in isonitrogenous diets of increasing concentrations of energy (2.17, 2.55, 3.30, or 3.53 Mcal/kg). Lambs were offered choices between those diets with or without terpenes or between diets with terpenes and alfalfa hay. Intake of the diets with terpenes was lowest with the lowest concentrations of protein (6%) and energy (2.17 Mcal/kg) in the diets, and highest with diets of 15% CP and 3.53 Mcal/kg. In contrast, when terpenes were absent from the diets, lambs consumed similar amounts of all four diets with different concentrations of protein, and more of the diets with intermediate amounts of energy. When given a choice between the diet with or without terpenes, lambs preferred the diet without terpenes. When lambs were offered choices between terpene-containing diets and alfalfa, energy and protein concentrations influenced the amount of terpenes animals ingested. Energy densities higher than alfalfa, and protein concentrations higher than 6%, increased intake of the terpene-containing diet. Thus, the nutritional environment interacted with terpenes to influence preference such that lambs offered diets of higher energy or protein concentration ate more terpenes when forced, but not when offered alternative food without terpenes. The nutrients supplied by a plant and its neighbors likely influence how much PSM an animal can ingest, which in turn may affect the dynamics of plant communities, and the distribution of herbivores in a landscape. We discuss implications of these findings for traditional views of grazing refuges and varied diets in herbivores.

  11. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  12. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and natural…

  13. Voids as alternatives to dark energy and the propagation of γ rays through the universe.

    PubMed

    DeLavallaz, Arnaud; Fairbairn, Malcolm

    2012-04-27

    We test the opacity of a void universe to TeV energy γ rays having obtained the extragalactic background light in that universe using a simple model and the observed constraints on the star formation rate history. We find that the void universe has significantly more opacity than a Λ cold dark matter universe, putting it at odds with observations of BL-Lac objects. We argue that while this method of distinguishing between the two cosmologies contains uncertainties, it circumvents any debates over fine-tuning.

  14. A Branch Meeting in Avon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kathryn; Coles, Alf

    2011-01-01

    The Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) exists for, and is run by, its members. Branch meetings are so much more than the "grass roots" of the association--it can be a powerhouse of inspiration and creativity. In this article, the authors provide commentaries on a recent branch meeting.

  15. French Brittany macroalgae screening: composition and methane potential for potential alternative sources of energy and products.

    PubMed

    Jard, G; Marfaing, H; Carrère, H; Delgenes, J P; Steyer, J P; Dumas, C

    2013-09-01

    Macroalgae are biomass resources that represent a valuable feedstock to be used entirely for human consumption or for food additives after some extractions (mainly colloids) and/or for energy production. In order to better develop the algal sector, it is important to determine the capacity of macroalgae to produce these added-values molecules for food and/or for energy industries on the basis of their biochemical characteristics. In this study, ten macroalgae obtained from French Brittany coasts (France) were selected. The global biochemical composition (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, fibers), the presence and characteristics of added-values molecules (alginates, polyphenols) and the biochemical methane potential of these algae were determined. Regarding its biochemical composition, Palmaria palmata is interesting for food (rich in nutrients) and for anaerobic digestion (0.279 LCH4/gVS). Saccharina latissima could be used for alginate extraction (242 g/kgTS, ratio between mannuronic and guluronic acid M/G=1.4) and Sargassum muticum for polyphenol extraction (19.8 g/kgTS).

  16. Institutional constraints on alternative water for energy: a guidebook for regional assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Basic information is presented about the legal, political, and social constraints faced by energy developers in the acquisition of water from underground, irrigation return flow, municipal waste, and saline sources. It is a guide to those institutional constraints which are general and pronounced enough to be important for regional assessments. First, attention was focused on the acquisition phase of the water use cycle. Second, constraints were analyzed primarily from a regional, rather than state-by-state, perspective. Emphasis was placed generally on the West - particularly the synfuel-rich Rocky Mountain states, the East, and Mid-West, in that order. Alaska and Hawaii were not surveyed. Third, the study focuses on the constraints associated with groundwater, municipal waste, irrigation return flow, and sea water, in that order. The phrase, institutional constraints, as used in the study, means legal, social, economic, and political restrictions, requirements, circumstances, or conditions that must be anticipated or responded to in order to acquire water for energy development. The study focuses primarily on legal constraints and secondarily on political constraints, because they tend to encompass or reflect other forms of institutional constraints.

  17. French Brittany macroalgae screening: composition and methane potential for potential alternative sources of energy and products.

    PubMed

    Jard, G; Marfaing, H; Carrère, H; Delgenes, J P; Steyer, J P; Dumas, C

    2013-09-01

    Macroalgae are biomass resources that represent a valuable feedstock to be used entirely for human consumption or for food additives after some extractions (mainly colloids) and/or for energy production. In order to better develop the algal sector, it is important to determine the capacity of macroalgae to produce these added-values molecules for food and/or for energy industries on the basis of their biochemical characteristics. In this study, ten macroalgae obtained from French Brittany coasts (France) were selected. The global biochemical composition (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, fibers), the presence and characteristics of added-values molecules (alginates, polyphenols) and the biochemical methane potential of these algae were determined. Regarding its biochemical composition, Palmaria palmata is interesting for food (rich in nutrients) and for anaerobic digestion (0.279 LCH4/gVS). Saccharina latissima could be used for alginate extraction (242 g/kgTS, ratio between mannuronic and guluronic acid M/G=1.4) and Sargassum muticum for polyphenol extraction (19.8 g/kgTS). PMID:23896436

  18. Alternative Energy Sources for Stratospheric Heating in the Atmospheres of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, K.; Fortney, J.; Lodders, K.; Freedman, R.

    2009-05-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transiting hot Jupiter exoplanets have revealed that some possess hot stratospheres, well in excess of the planetary equilibrium temperatures. Stratospheres are a commonplace attribute of solar system planetary atmospheres and are often heated by absorption of incident UV flux by photochemically produced species. Hubeny et al. (2003) and Fortney et al. (2008), however, suggested that strong optical absorption by equilibrium gaseous atmospheric TiO and VO could provide the necessary energy source for at least some hot Jupiters. Fortney et al. in fact suggested that hot Jupiters might be spectroscopically classified on the basis of the presence or absence of these species into pM and pL spectral classes, analogously to ultracool dwarfs. However there are difficulties with this mechanism, most notably that TiO and VO may condense out into a refractory cloud layer relatively deeply in the atmosphere of even very hot giant planets. Guided by the prediction of Zahnle et al. (2009) that sulfur photochemistry will produce copious S2 in hot Jupiter atmospheres, we explore the heating potential of this and other photochemical species. We find that sulfur products, in at least some cases, may provide an important component of the stratospheric energy budget. This prediction may be tested by UV transit spectroscopy.

  19. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  20. Methodology for assessing alternative water-acquisition-and-use strategies for energy facilities in the American West

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.J.; Adams, E.E.; Harleman, D.R.F.; Marks, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    A method for assessing alternative strategies for acquiring and using water at western energy plants was developed. The method was tested in a case study of cooling-water use for a hypothetical steam-electric power plant on the Crazy Woman Creek, an unregulated stream in Wyoming. The results from the case study suggest a careful analysis of reservoir design and water-right purchase strategies can reduce the cost of acquiring and using water at an energy facility. The method uses simulation models to assess the capital and operating costs and expected monthly water-consumption rates for different cooling-system designs. The method also uses reservoir operating algorithms to select, for a fixed cooling-system design, the optimal tradeoff between building a make-up water reservoir and purchasing water rights. These tradeoffs can be used to derive the firm's true demand curve for different sources of water. The analysis also reveals the implicit cost of selecting strategies that minimize conflicts with other water users. Results indicate that: (1) cooling ponds are as good as or preferred to wet towers because their costs already include provisions for storing water for use during the normally dry summer months and during occasional drought years; (2) the energy firm's demand for overall water consumption in the cooling system was found to be inversely proportional to both the cost of installing make-up water reservoirs, and the size of the energy facility; and (3) the firm's willingness to pay for existing rights is proportional to both the cost of installing reservoirs, and the size of the energy facility.

  1. Health and safety: Preliminary comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habegger, L. J.; Gasper, J. R.; Brown, C.

    1980-01-01

    Data readily available from the literature were used to make an initial comparison of the health and safety risks of a fission power system with fuel reprocessing; a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a central-station, terrestrial, solar photovoltaic power system; the satellite power system; and a first-generation fusion system. The assessment approach consists of the identification of health and safety issues in each phase of the energy cycle from raw material extraction through electrical generation, waste disposal, and system deactivation; quantitative or qualitative evaluation of impact severity; and the rating of each issue with regard to known or potential impact level and level of uncertainty.

  2. Utero-placental transfer of alternate energy substrates and glucose homeostasis in the newborn pig

    SciTech Connect

    Thulin, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    In the first experiment, three sows in late gestation were infused with (/sup 14/C)..beta..-hydroxybutyrate to evaluate utero-placental transfer of ketones. ..beta..-Hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB) concentrations were low in both the mother and fetus throughout the experiments (0.0189, 0.0197, 0.0054, and 0.0063 mmole/liter blood for UV, UA, FV, and FA, respectively). Radioactive BOHB was detected in fetal blood within two minutes post-injection. Lipid extracts of liver and adipose tissue exhibited the greatest relative incorporation of (/sup 14/C)..beta..-hydroxybutyrate followed by lung and heart tissues (3540, 3674, 1214, and 528 dpm/g wet weight, respectively). In a second study, five gravid gilts during late gestation were used to determine utero-placental transfer of maternal free fatty acids (FFA). Using similar techniques as Exp. 1, injections were given containing (/sup 14/C) linoleic acid and (/sup 3/H) palmitic acid or (/sup 14/C) octanoic acid. In a third experiment, gravid gilts were fed supplemental energy as starch (C), soybean oil (SO) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during late gestation to determine the influence on colostrum composition and neonatal pig glucose homeostasis. Energy content of colostrum was increased (P = 0.05 by feeding SO and MCT. After a 36 h fast, mean piglet glucose concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for MCT pigs. Glucose and creatinine levels showed quadratic effects, while FFA and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubic patterns during the fasting period. Although creatine levels were similar, BUN concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) for MCT progeny.

  3. Impacts of alternative residential energy standards - Rural Housing Amendments Study, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Balistocky, S.; Bohn, A.A.; Heidell, J.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lee, A.D.; Pratt, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1985-11-01

    This report has examined the role of manufactured housing in the housing market, the energy impacts of three manufactured housing standards and three site-built standards in 13 cities, and the economic impacts of those standards in 6 cities. The three standards applied to manufactured housing are the HUD Title VI standard (Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards, or MHCSS), the Hud Title II-E standard, and the existing FmHA Title V standard. Those applied to site-built homes are the HUD Minimum Property Standards (MPS), the ASHRAE 90A-80 standard, and the FmHA Title V standard. Based on energy consumption alone, these analyses show that the FmHA Title V standard is the most stringent standard for both housing types (a single-section menufactured home and a single-story detached ''ranch house''). The HUD Title VI standard is the least stringent for manufactured homes, while the HUD Minimum Property Standards are the least stringent for site-built homes. Cost-effectiveness comparisons required by the Act were made for the two prototypical homes. Results of this preliminary economic analysis indicate that none of the site-built standards reflect minimum life-cycle cost as a basic criterion of their development. For manufactured homes, both the FmHA standard and the HUD Title II-E standard reduce life-cycle cost and effect positive first-year cash flows in all cities analyzed when electric resistance heating is assumed. When natural gas heating is used, both standards pass the life-cycle cost test in all cities, but the FmHA standard fails the cash flow test in all but one city. However, in the worst case, net monthly expenditures in the first year are increased by less than $9.

  4. How Seasonal Drought Affect Carbon and Water Fluxes of Alternative Energy Crops in the US?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, E.; Hussain, M. Z.; Zeri, M.; Masters, M.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The cellulosic biomass of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) and native prairie are considered candidate second-generation biofuels, potentially resulting in partial replacement annual row crops within the Midwestern US. There is an increasing focus to study the environmental impact of agricultural crops, however not much is known on the influence on the energy, carbon and water cycles of energy crops, especially under drought conditions. This study compares the impact of drought episodes (in 2011 and 2012) on evapotranspiration (ET), net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and water use efficiency (WUE; equals to NEP/ET) for Switchgrass (SW), Miscanthus (MXG), Maize (MZ) and native prairie (NP) grown in Central Illinois using the eddy covariance technique. Due to the prolonged drought and the rapid growth development with increasing ET of MXG in 2012, large water deficit (precipitation-ET) was observed for each species up to the highest deficit of -360 mm for this species. The gross primary production (GPP) of MZ was radically decreased by the drought in 2011 and 2012, while SW and NP were not influenced. MXG increased NEP throughout the typically wet and drought years, mainly due to the decrease in respiration and by the largest GPP upon the drought in 2012. Despite having the largest water deficit, MXG showed an enhanced WUE of 12.8 and 11.4 Kg C ha-1mm-1 in 2011 and 2012, respectively, in comparison to years typical to the region with WUE of 3.7-7.3 Kg C ha-1mm-1. Other species did not show a significant enhancement of WUE. Therefore we conclude that out of the studied species, MXG has more access to water, and uses this water the most efficiently to store carbon, under drought conditions.

  5. Accident analysis for transuranic waste management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Nabelssi, B.; Mueller, C.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Tompkins, M.; Jackson, R.

    1995-03-01

    Preliminary accident analyses and radiological source term evaluations have been conducted for transuranic waste (TRUW) as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) effort to manage storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes at its various sites. The approach to assessing radiological releases from facility accidents was developed in support of the Office of Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). The methodology developed in this work is in accordance with the latest DOE guidelines, which consider the spectrum of possible accident scenarios in the implementation of various actions evaluated in an EIS. The radiological releases from potential risk-dominant accidents in storage and treatment facilities considered in the EM PEIS TRUW alternatives are described in this paper. The results show that significant releases can be predicted for only the most severe and extremely improbable accidents sequences.

  6. Design of an alternating phase focusing Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac with low injection energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Pang, J.; He, X.; Ying, Z.; Shi, J.

    2016-01-01

    An Inter-digital H-mode (IH) Drift Tube Linac (DTL) was designed to accelerate a proton beam in the low energy region with high RF efficiency and high gradient. The IH DTL is 1.078 m long and operates at 200 MHz. Protons could be accelerated from 0.04 MeV to 2.4 MeV (the β range is from 0.0092 to 0.0714). The method of alternating phase focusing (APF) was applied for beam focusing. The simulation results show that the transmission is 38% and the longitudinal acceptance is approximately 140°. The shunt impedance of the entire cavity is 365 MΩ/m. Adjustments of the electric-field were performed, and the beam dynamics design was described. The beam loss and voltage sensitivity were calculated.

  7. Energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge from UASB reactors: case study of the Laboreaux wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A P; Conesa, J A; Fullana, A; Melo, G C B; Borges, J M; Chernicharo, C A L

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge generated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors at the Laboreaux sewage treatment plant (STP), Brazil. Two scenarios were considered: (i) priority use of biogas for the thermal drying of dehydrated sludge and the use of the excess biogas for electricity generation in an ICE (internal combustion engine); and (ii) priority use of biogas for electricity generation and the use of the heat of the engine exhaust gases for the thermal drying of the sludge. Scenario 1 showed that the electricity generated is able to supply 22.2% of the STP power demand, but the thermal drying process enables a greater reduction or even elimination of the final volume of sludge to be disposed. In Scenario 2, the electricity generated is able to supply 57.6% of the STP power demand; however, the heat in the exhaust gases is not enough to dry the total amount of dehydrated sludge.

  8. An alternative scheme of angular-dispersion analyzers for high-resolution medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian Rong

    2011-11-01

    The development of medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering optics with meV and sub-meV resolution has attracted considerable efforts in recent years. Meanwhile, there are also concerns or debates about the fundamental and feasibility of the involved schemes. Here the central optical component, the back-reflection angular-dispersion monochromator or analyzer, is analyzed. The results show that the multiple-beam diffraction effect together with transmission-induced absorption can noticeably reduce the diffraction efficiency, although it may not be a fatal threat. In order to improve the efficiency, a simple four-bounce analyzer is proposed that completely avoids these two adverse effects. The new scheme is illustrated to be a feasible alternative approach for developing meV- to sub-meV-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy.

  9. An alternative route to detect parity violating energy differences through Bose-Einstein condensation of chiral molecules.

    PubMed

    Bargueño, Pedro; Pérez de Tudela, Ricardo; Miret-Artés, Salvador; Gonzalo, Isabel

    2011-01-21

    Interactions which do not conserve parity might influence chiral compounds giving rise to a parity violating energy difference (PVED) that might have affected the evolution towards homochirality. However, this tiny effect predicted by electroweak-quantum chemistry calculations is easily masked by thermal effects, making it desirable to reach cold regimes in the laboratory. As an alternative route to the detection of the PVED, we study a simplified model of Bose-Einstein condensation of a sample of non-interacting chiral molecules, showing that it leads to a nonzero optical activity of the condensate and also to a subcritical temperature in the heat capacity, due to the internal structure of the molecule characterized by tunneling and parity violation. This predicted singular behavior found for the specific heat, below the condensation temperature, might shed some light on the existence of the thus far elusive PVED between enantiomers.

  10. Thermoelectric properties of SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 for thermoelectric devices and alternative energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, M.; Khan, Banaras; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H. A.; Maqbool, M.; Jalai Asadabadi, S.; Ahmad, I.

    2014-05-01

    Thermoelectric properties of two antiperovskites SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 are calculated using first principles calculations. High values of Seebeck coefficients are observed for these materials. Electrical and thermal conductivities are also calculated. Increase in thermal conductivity and decrease in electrical conductivity are found with increasing temperature. The maximum values of thermal conductivity are 92×1014 W/m K s and 88×1014 W/m K s for SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 respectively at a temperature of 900 K. The peak values of 5×1020/Ω m s and 5.2×1020/Ω m s are achieved for n-type SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 respectively at a temperature of 300 K. Figure of merit is achieved for these materials at room temperature which shows that these materials can be useful for thermoelectric devices and alternative energy sources.

  11. Regulation of energy partitioning and alternative electron transport pathways during cold acclimation of lodgepole pine is oxygen dependent.

    PubMed

    Savitch, Leonid V; Ivanov, Alexander G; Krol, Marianna; Sprott, David P; Oquist, Gunnar; Huner, Norman P A

    2010-09-01

    Second year needles of Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta L.) were exposed for 6 weeks to either simulated control summer ['summer'; 25 °C/250 photon flux denisty (PFD)], autumn ('autumn'; 15°C/250 PFD) or winter conditions ('winter'; 5 °C/250 PFD). We report that the proportion of linear electron transport utilized in carbon assimilation (ETR(CO2)) was 40% lower in both 'autumn' and 'winter' pine when compared with the 'summer' pine. In contrast, the proportion of excess photosynthetic linear electron transport (ETR(excess)) not used for carbon assimilation within the total ETR(Jf) increased by 30% in both 'autumn' and 'winter' pine. In 'autumn' pine acclimated to 15°C, the increased amounts of 'excess' electrons were directed equally to 21  kPa O2-dependent and 2  kPa O2-dependent alternative electron transport pathways and the fractions of excitation light energy utilized by PSII photochemistry (Φ(PSII)), thermally dissipated through Φ(NPQ) and dissipated by additional quenching mechanism(s) (Φ(f,D)) were similar to those in 'summer' pine. In contrast, in 'winter' needles acclimated to 5 °C, 60% of photosynthetically generated 'excess' electrons were utilized through the 2  kPa O2-dependent electron sink and only 15% by the photorespiratory (21  kPa O2) electron pathway. Needles exposed to 'winter' conditions led to a 3-fold lower Φ(PSII), only a marginal increase in Φ(NPQ) and a 2-fold higher Φ(f,D), which was O2 dependent compared with the 'summer' and 'autumn' pine. Our results demonstrate that the employment of a variety of alternative pathways for utilization of photosynthetically generated electrons by Lodgepole pine depends on the acclimation temperature. Furthermore, dissipation of excess light energy through constitutive non-photochemical quenching mechanisms is O2 dependent. PMID:20630988

  12. Fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy sources detected in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci after host treatment with antihelminthic drugs.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Carolina Miguel; Costa, Tatiane Luiza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto; de Souza Lino Junior, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2012-05-01

    Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps is rare however it is considered of zoonotic risk. The treatment of the infected patients was successful when using albendazole or praziquantel. The active forms of albendazole inhibit the glucose uptake and the active forms of praziquantel alter glycogen levels and nutrients absorption. The aim of this study was to analyze the production of organic acids that indicate the oxidation of fatty acids and the use of alternative energy sources from T. crassiceps cysticerci removed from the peritoneal cavity of mice treated with low dosages of albendazole (5.75 and 11.5mg/kg) or praziquantel (3.83 and 7.67 mg/kg). The beta-hydroxibutyrate production was higher by the larval stage cysticerci in all treated groups and the propionate production was higher in final stage cysticerci treated with 11.5mg/kg of albendazole when compared to the control group. The larval stages of cysticerci from the groups treated with 5.75 mg/kg of albendazole and 3.83 mg/kg of praziquantel produced more urea than the initial and final stages which indicate amino acids breakdown. We conclude that it was possible to detect the fatty acid oxidation and amino acids breakdown which indicate the use of alternative energy production sources as the used dosages only cause a partial blockage of the glucose uptake and leads to metabolic alterations in the cysticerci. The metabolic behavior observed after host treatment was different from former descriptions of the in vitro one which indicates great host-parasite interaction.

  13. Regulation of energy partitioning and alternative electron transport pathways during cold acclimation of lodgepole pine is oxygen dependent.

    PubMed

    Savitch, Leonid V; Ivanov, Alexander G; Krol, Marianna; Sprott, David P; Oquist, Gunnar; Huner, Norman P A

    2010-09-01

    Second year needles of Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta L.) were exposed for 6 weeks to either simulated control summer ['summer'; 25 °C/250 photon flux denisty (PFD)], autumn ('autumn'; 15°C/250 PFD) or winter conditions ('winter'; 5 °C/250 PFD). We report that the proportion of linear electron transport utilized in carbon assimilation (ETR(CO2)) was 40% lower in both 'autumn' and 'winter' pine when compared with the 'summer' pine. In contrast, the proportion of excess photosynthetic linear electron transport (ETR(excess)) not used for carbon assimilation within the total ETR(Jf) increased by 30% in both 'autumn' and 'winter' pine. In 'autumn' pine acclimated to 15°C, the increased amounts of 'excess' electrons were directed equally to 21  kPa O2-dependent and 2  kPa O2-dependent alternative electron transport pathways and the fractions of excitation light energy utilized by PSII photochemistry (Φ(PSII)), thermally dissipated through Φ(NPQ) and dissipated by additional quenching mechanism(s) (Φ(f,D)) were similar to those in 'summer' pine. In contrast, in 'winter' needles acclimated to 5 °C, 60% of photosynthetically generated 'excess' electrons were utilized through the 2  kPa O2-dependent electron sink and only 15% by the photorespiratory (21  kPa O2) electron pathway. Needles exposed to 'winter' conditions led to a 3-fold lower Φ(PSII), only a marginal increase in Φ(NPQ) and a 2-fold higher Φ(f,D), which was O2 dependent compared with the 'summer' and 'autumn' pine. Our results demonstrate that the employment of a variety of alternative pathways for utilization of photosynthetically generated electrons by Lodgepole pine depends on the acclimation temperature. Furthermore, dissipation of excess light energy through constitutive non-photochemical quenching mechanisms is O2 dependent.

  14. Branch strategies - Modeling and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubey, Pradeep K.; Flynn, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors provide a common platform for modeling different schemes for reducing the branch-delay penalty in pipelined processors as well as evaluating the associated increased instruction bandwidth. Their objective is twofold: to develop a model for different approaches to the branch problem and to help select an optimal strategy after taking into account additional i-traffic generated by branch strategies. The model presented provides a flexible tool for comparing different branch strategies in terms of the reduction it offers in average branch delay and also in terms of the associated cost of wasted instruction fetches. This additional criterion turns out to be a valuable consideration in choosing between two strategies that perform almost equally. More importantly, it provides a better insight into the expected overall system performance. Simple compiler-support-based low-implementation-cost strategies can be very effective under certain conditions. An active branch prediction scheme based on loop buffers can be as competitive as a branch-target-buffer based strategy.

  15. Lessons from an Energy Curriculum for the Senior High Grades. Unit VI - Fossil Fuels and Energy Alternatives (Solar, Coal). Energy Education Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis. Div. of Curriculum.

    Energy education units (consisting of a general teacher's guide and nine units containing a wide variety of energy lessons, resources, learning aids, and bibliography) were developed for the Indiana Energy Education Program from existing energy education materials. The units were designed to serve as an entire curriculum, resource document,…

  16. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  17. Market-Based Decision Guidance Framework for Power and Alternative Energy Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaleb, Hesham

    With the introduction of power energy markets deregulation, innovations have transformed once a static network into a more flexible grid. Microgrids have also been deployed to serve various purposes (e.g., reliability, sustainability, etc.). With the rapid deployment of smart grid technologies, it has become possible to measure and record both, the quantity and time of the consumption of electrical power. In addition, capabilities for controlling distributed supply and demand have resulted in complex systems where inefficiencies are possible and where improvements can be made. Electric power like other volatile resources cannot be stored efficiently, therefore, managing such resource requires considerable attention. Such complex systems present a need for decisions that can streamline consumption, delay infrastructure investments, and reduce costs. When renewable power resources and the need for limiting harmful emissions are added to the equation, the search space for decisions becomes increasingly complex. As a result, the need for a comprehensive decision guidance system for electrical power resources consumption and productions becomes evident. In this dissertation, I formulate and implement a comprehensive framework that addresses different aspect of the electrical power generation and consumption using optimization models and utilizing collaboration concepts. Our solution presents a two-prong approach: managing interaction in real-time for the short-term immediate consumption of already allocated resources; and managing the operational planning for the long-run consumption. More specifically, in real-time, we present and implement a model of how to organize a secondary market for peak-demand allocation and describe the properties of the market that guarantees efficient execution and a method for the fair distribution of collaboration gains. We also propose and implement a primary market for peak demand bounds determination problem with the assumption that

  18. NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Hoberecht, Mark; Reid, Concha

    2010-01-01

    This presentation covers an overview of NASA Glenn's history and heritage in the development of electrochemical systems for aerospace applications. Current programs related to batteries and fuel cells are addressed. Specific areas of focus are Li-ion batteries and Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel cells systems and their development for future Exploration missions. The presentation covers details of current component development efforts for high energy and ultra high energy Li-ion batteries and non-flow-through fuel cell stack and balance of plant development. Electrochemistry Branch capabilities and facilities are also addressed.

  19. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  20. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Fenstermacher, D.; Mahar, C.

    1988-03-15

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-/sup 14/C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular distribution of the aminotransferase(s) was determined. Branched chain aminotransferase activity was measured using two concentrations of isoleucine as amino donor and (1-/sup 14/C)KIV as amino acceptor. The data show that branched chain aminotransferase activity is located exclusively in the mitochondria in rat heart. Metabolism of extramitochondrial branched chain alpha-keto acids was examined using 20 microM (1-/sup 14/C)KIV and alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)caproate (KIC). There was rapid uptake and oxidation of labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid, and, regardless of the experimental condition, greater than 90% of the labeled keto acid substrate was metabolized during the 20-min incubation. When a branched chain amino acid (200 microM) or glutamate (5 mM) was present, 30-40% of the labeled keto acid was transaminated while the remainder was oxidized. Provision of an alternate amino acceptor in the form of alpha-keto-glutarate (0.5 mM) decreased transamination of the labeled KIV or KIC and increased oxidation. Metabolism of intramitochondrially generated branched chain alpha-keto acids was studied using (1-/sup 14/C)leucine and (1-/sup 14/C)valine. Essentially all of the labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid produced by transamination of (1-/sup 14/C)leucine or (1-/sup 14/C)valine with a low concentration of unlabeled branched chain alpha-keto acid (20 microM) was oxidized.

  1. Partial replacement of non renewable fossil fuels energy by the use of waste materials as alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrawati, V.; Manaf, A.; Purwadi, G.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reports recent investigations on the use of biomass like rice husk, palm kernel shell, saw dust and municipal waste to reduce the use of fossil fuels energy in the cement production. Such waste materials have heat values in the range approximately from 2,000 to 4,000 kcal/kg. These are comparable to the average value of 5800 kcal/kg from fossil materials like coals which are widely applied in many industrial processing. Hence, such waste materials could be used as alternative fuels replacing the fossil one. It is shown that replacement of coals with such waste materials has a significant impact on cost effectiveness as well as sustainable development. Variation in moisture content of the waste materials, however should be taken into account because this is one of the parameter that could not be controlled. During fuel combustion, some amount of the total energy is used to evaporate the water content and thus the net effective heat value is less.

  2. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  3. Developing New Alternative Energy in Virginia: Bio-Diesel from Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, Patrick

    2012-03-29

    . The positive economics of this process are influenced by the following: 1. the weight percent of dry algae in suspension that can be fed into the evaporator, 2. the alga species’ ability to produce a higher yield of biodiesel, 3. the isolation of valuable methoxylated by-products, 4. recycling and regeneration of methanol and TMAH, and 5. the market value of biodiesel, commercial agricultural fertilizer, and the three methoxylated by-products. The negative economics of the process are the following: 1. the cost of producing dried, ground algae, 2. the capital cost of the equipment required for feedstock mixing, reaction, separation and recovery of products, and reactant recycling, and 3. the electrical cost and other utilities. In this report, the economic factors and results are assembled to predict the commercialization cost and its viability. This direct conversion process and equipment discussed herein can be adapted for various feedstocks including: other algal species, vegetable oil, jatropha oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, and other TAG containing raw materials as a renewable energy resource.

  4. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics Branch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jim; Melcher, C.; Bowen, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Complex natural resource issues require understanding a web of interactions among ecosystem components that are (1) interdisciplinary, encompassing physical, chemical, and biological processes; (2) spatially complex, involving movements of animals, water, and airborne materials across a range of landscapes and jurisdictions; and (3) temporally complex, occurring over days, weeks, or years, sometimes involving response lags to alteration or exhibiting large natural variation. Scientists in the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, investigate a diversity of these complex natural resource questions at the landscape and systems levels. This Fact Sheet describes the work of the Ecosystems Dynamics Branch, which is focused on energy and land use, climate change and long-term integrated assessments, herbivore-ecosystem interactions, fire and post-fire restoration, and environmental flows and river restoration.

  5. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, K A

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  6. Dynamics of branched tissue assembly

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of cells into tissues is a complex process controlled by numerous signaling pathways to ensure the fidelity of the final structure. Tissue assembly is also very dynamic, as exemplified by the formation of branched organs. Here we present two examples of tissue assembly in branched systems that highlight this dynamic nature: formation of the tracheal network in Drosophila melanogaster and the ducts of the mammary gland in mice. Extension of the branches during tracheal development is a stereotyped process that produces identical organ geometries across individuals, whereas elongation of the ducts of the pubertal mammary gland is a non-stereotyped process that produces unique patterns. By studying these two organs, we can begin to understand the dynamic nature of development of other stereotyped and non-stereotyped branching systems, including the lung, kidney, and salivary gland. PMID:23114096

  7. Multiplicity distributions from branching equations with constant vertex probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, B.; Sarcevic, I.

    1987-11-01

    We present multiplicity distributions which are solutions to branching equations, based on the assumption that the shapes and energy dependence of multiplicity distributions are principally determined by hard parton scattering and subsequent branching. We consider the four processes g..-->..gg, q..-->..qg, g..-->..qq-bar, and in a few cases g..-->..ggg. All vertex probabilities for these processes are taken to be constant. In this simple approximation, we find that Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling is systemically violated. We compare the properties of branching distributions with the properties of the widely used negative-binomial distribution and of the stochastic approach.

  8. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  9. On the energy losses of hot worked Nd-Fe-B magnets and ferrites in a small alternating magnetic field perpendicular to a bias field

    SciTech Connect

    Staa, F. von; Hempel, K.A.; Artz, H.

    1995-11-01

    Torsion pendulum magnetometer measurements on ferrites and on neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets are presented. The damping of the oscillation of the pendulum leads to information on the magnetic energy losses of the magnets in a small alternating magnetic field applied perpendicular to a bias field. The origin of the energy absorption is explained by the magnetization reversal of single-domain particles. It is shown experimentally that the energy absorption mechanism requires the ferromagnetic order of the sample, and that the magnetic field strength of maximal energy absorption coincides with the effective anisotropy field strength.

  10. Alternative energy sources in fisheries and aquaculture; management of tropical fisheries, and aquaranching: ICLARM newsletter, volume 4, numbers 2-4. Report for Apr-Oct 81

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    These Newsletters have articles on: ADB-ICLARM Workshop on Alternative Energy; Working group recommendations on strategy, technology identification, and research priorities; Oil, fish, and the sun and the wind; Wind energy, hydropower, and heat pumps for aquaculture; Village integrated energy systems; Low energy fishing vessels-the use of sail power; Solar power for on-shore activities; Fuels from biomass - prospects for use in fishing communities; Why Sinarapan almost disappeared from Lake Buhi; Research and management for tropical multispecies fisheries; and Toward economic management of fisheries in China.

  11. Bone age assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children: an alternative for X-ray?

    PubMed Central

    Heppe, D H M; Taal, H R; Ernst, G D S; Van Den Akker, E L T; Lequin, M M H; Hokken-Koelega, A C S; Geelhoed, J J M; Jaddoe, V W V

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to validate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a method to assess bone age in children. Methods Paired dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans and X-rays of the left hand were performed in 95 children who attended the paediatric endocrinology outpatient clinic of University Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands. We compared bone age assessments by DXA scan with those performed by X-ray. Bone age assessment was performed by two blinded observers according to the reference method of Greulich and Pyle. Intra-observer and interobserver reproducibility were investigated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and agreement was tested using Bland and Altman plots. Results The intra-observer ICCs for both observers were 0.997 and 0.991 for X-ray and 0.993 and 0.987 for DXA assessments. The interobserver ICC was 0.993 and 0.991 for X-ray and DXA assessments, respectively. The mean difference between bone age assessed by X-ray and DXA was 0.11 years. The limits of agreement ranged from −0.82 to 1.05 years, which means that 95% of all differences between the methods were covered by this range. Conclusions Results of bone age assessment by DXA scan are similar to those obtained by X-ray. The DXA method seems to be an alternative for assessing bone age in a paediatric hospital-based population. PMID:21586503

  12. Energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge from UASB reactors: case study of the Laboreaux wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A P; Conesa, J A; Fullana, A; Melo, G C B; Borges, J M; Chernicharo, C A L

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge generated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors at the Laboreaux sewage treatment plant (STP), Brazil. Two scenarios were considered: (i) priority use of biogas for the thermal drying of dehydrated sludge and the use of the excess biogas for electricity generation in an ICE (internal combustion engine); and (ii) priority use of biogas for electricity generation and the use of the heat of the engine exhaust gases for the thermal drying of the sludge. Scenario 1 showed that the electricity generated is able to supply 22.2% of the STP power demand, but the thermal drying process enables a greater reduction or even elimination of the final volume of sludge to be disposed. In Scenario 2, the electricity generated is able to supply 57.6% of the STP power demand; however, the heat in the exhaust gases is not enough to dry the total amount of dehydrated sludge. PMID:27054741

  13. Determination of polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) substance descriptors for established and alternative flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Angelika; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Endo, Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    Polyparameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs) can predict partition coefficients for a multitude of environmental and biological phases with high accuracy. In this work, the pp-LFER substance descriptors of 40 established and alternative flame retardants (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hexabromocyclododecane, bromobenzenes, trialkyl phosphates) were determined experimentally. In total, 251 data for gas-chromatographic (GC) retention times and liquid/liquid partition coefficients (K) were measured and used to calibrate the pp-LFER substance descriptors. Substance descriptors were validated through a comparison between predicted and experimental log K for the systems octanol/water (K(ow)), water/air (K(wa)), organic carbon/water (K(oc)) and liposome/water (K(lipw)), revealing a high reliability of pp-LFER predictions based on our descriptors. For instance, the difference between predicted and experimental log K(ow) was <0.3 log units for 17 out of 21 compounds for which experimental values were available. Moreover, we found an indication that the H-bond acceptor value (B) depends on the solvent for some compounds. Thus, for predicting environmentally relevant partition coefficients it is important to determine B values using measurements in aqueous systems. The pp-LFER descriptors calibrated in this study can be used to predict partition coefficients for which experimental data are unavailable, and the predicted values can serve as references for further experimental measurements.

  14. The use of nucleosides and arginine as alternative energy sources by coagulase-negative staphylococci in view of meat fermentation.

    PubMed

    Janssens, M; Van der Mijnsbrugge, A; Sánchez Mainar, M; Balzarini, T; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2014-05-01

    The ability of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) to use alternative energy sources in meat may partially explain their occurrence in fermented meats. Of 61 CNS strains tested, all metabolized adenosine and inosine in a meat simulation medium (MSM). The ability to catabolize arginine via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway varied between strains. All tested strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis possessed an arcA gene and showed ADI activity, whereas other species, such as Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus, did not. Arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), as in the positive control S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, were uncommon and only found in Staphylococcus xylosus 3PA6 (sausage isolate) and Staphylococcus chromogenes G222 (teat apex isolate). Monoculture experiments were performed in MSM with S. carnosus 833 and SS3-4, S. xylosus G211, and S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 and 2S7-4. At all pH values tested (5.3, 5.8, and 6.5), the strains of S. carnosus catabolized arginine faster than the strains of S. xylosus and S. epidermidis. Only at pH 6.5 could a low ADI activity be found for S. xylosus G211. Increased ADI activity occurred in the case of the ACME-positive S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, when compared to the ACME-negative S. epidermidis 2S7-4.

  15. Non-CFC vacuum alternatives for the energy-efficient insulation of household refrigerators: Design and use

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Energy efficiency, environmental issues, and market incentives all encourage government and industry to continue work on thin-profile vacuum insulations for domestic refrigerators and freezers (R/Fs). Vacuum insulations promise significant improvement in thermal savings over current insulations; the technical objective of one design is an R-value of better than 10 (hr-ft{sup 2}-F/Btu) in 0.1 in. thickness. If performance is improved by a factor of 10 over that of CFC-blown insulating foams, the new insulations (made without CFCs or other potentially troublesome fill gases) will change the design and improve the efficiency of refrigerators. Such changes will meet the conservation, regulatory, and market drivers now strong in developed countries and likely to increase in developing countries. Prototypes of various designs have been tested in the laboratory and in factories, and results to date confirm the good thermal performance of these thin-profile alternatives. The next step is to resolve issues of reliability and cost effectiveness. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Effect of dense plasmas on exchange-energy shifts in highly charged ions: An alternative approach for arbitrary perturbation potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Rosmej, F.; Bennadji, K.; Lisitsa, V. S.

    2011-09-15

    An alternative method of calculation of dense plasma effects on exchange-energy shifts {Delta}E{sub x} of highly charged ions is proposed which results in closed expressions for any plasma or perturbation potential. The method is based on a perturbation theory expansion for the inner atomic potential produced by charged plasma particles employing the Coulomb Green function method. This approach allows us to obtain analytic expressions and scaling laws with respect to the electron temperature T, density n{sub e}, and nuclear charge Z. To demonstrate the power of the present method, two specific models were considered in detail: the ion sphere model (ISM) and the Debye screening model (DSM). We demonstrate that analytical expressions can be obtained even for the finite temperature ISM. Calculations have been carried out for the singlet 1s2p{sup 1} P{sub 1} and triplet 1s2p{sup 3} P{sub 1} configurations of He-like ions with charge Z that can be observed in dense plasmas via the He-like resonance and intercombination lines. Finally we discuss recently available purely numerical calculations and experimental data.

  17. The use of nucleosides and arginine as alternative energy sources by coagulase-negative staphylococci in view of meat fermentation.

    PubMed

    Janssens, M; Van der Mijnsbrugge, A; Sánchez Mainar, M; Balzarini, T; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2014-05-01

    The ability of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) to use alternative energy sources in meat may partially explain their occurrence in fermented meats. Of 61 CNS strains tested, all metabolized adenosine and inosine in a meat simulation medium (MSM). The ability to catabolize arginine via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway varied between strains. All tested strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis possessed an arcA gene and showed ADI activity, whereas other species, such as Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus, did not. Arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), as in the positive control S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, were uncommon and only found in Staphylococcus xylosus 3PA6 (sausage isolate) and Staphylococcus chromogenes G222 (teat apex isolate). Monoculture experiments were performed in MSM with S. carnosus 833 and SS3-4, S. xylosus G211, and S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 and 2S7-4. At all pH values tested (5.3, 5.8, and 6.5), the strains of S. carnosus catabolized arginine faster than the strains of S. xylosus and S. epidermidis. Only at pH 6.5 could a low ADI activity be found for S. xylosus G211. Increased ADI activity occurred in the case of the ACME-positive S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, when compared to the ACME-negative S. epidermidis 2S7-4. PMID:24387852

  18. Warped branches of flux compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2012-03-01

    We consider Freund-Rubin-type compactifications which are described by (p+q)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant and a q-form flux. Using perturbative expansions of Kinoshita’s ansatz for warped dSp×Sq and AdSp×Sq spacetimes, we obtain analytical solutions describing the warped branches and their respective phase spaces. These equations are given by inhomogeneous Gegenbauer differential equations which can be solved by the Green’s function method. The requirement that the Green’s functions are regular provides constraints which determine the structure of the phase space of the warped branches. We apply the perturbation results to calculate the thermodynamic variables for the warped dSp×Sq branch. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics can be reproduced using this method.

  19. Choice of Bond Dissociation Enthalpies on which to Base the Stabilization Energies of Simple Radicals: DH(R-H)is Preferred because DH(R-Me) is Perturbed by Changes in Chain Branching

    SciTech Connect

    Poutsma, Marvin L

    2008-01-01

    The relative stabilization energies of radicals, SE(R ), along the simple series methyl/ethyl/i-propyl/t-butyl are known to vary in spread and even direction dependent on which dissociation enthalpies, DH(R-X), they are based on. Using a highly electronegative X is recognized as unwise, but it is not clear whether a choice of X = Me or X = R might not be preferred over the almost universal use of R = H. The enthalpies of isomerization of C4 radical pairs that vary only in the substitution pattern at the radical center but not in carbon skeleton illustrate that R = H is indeed the better choice. Comparisons in the context of recent predictive models for alkane and radical stability indicate that, while relative DH(R-H) values highlight the desired difference in substitution pattern at the radical center, relative DH(R-Me) values are perturbed by differences in skeletal branching or protobranching which are well-known to affect thermochemistry. As a result, SE(R ) values derived from relative DH(R-Me) values are consistently too small. The same pattern is illustrated for prim, sec, and tert allylic and benzylic radicals (larger SE(R )) and for the parent vinyl, phenyl, and ethynyl radicals (negative SE(R )).

  20. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  2. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  3. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  5. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  8. Summary Report for National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) and Centro Para Prevencao da Poluicao (C3P) 2011 International Workshop on Environment and Alternative Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The C3P &. NASA International Workshop on Environment and Alternative Energy was held on November 15-18, 2011 at the European Space Agency (ESA)'s Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. The theme of the workshop was "Global Collaboration in Environmental and Alternative Energy Strategies". The workshop was held at ESTEC's conference center. More than 110 individuals from eleven countries attended the workshop. For the first time since the inception of NASA-C3P workshops, a full day was dedicated to a student session. Fifteen students from around the globe gave oral presentations along with poster displays relating to the latest technologies in environmental and alternative energy strategies. Judges from NASA, C3P and ESA awarded plaques to the top three students. In addition to the students, thirty eight U.S. and international subject matter experts presented on the following general environmental-related topics: (1) Hazardous materials management and substitution in support of space operations (2) Emerging renewable and alternative energy technologies (3) Sustainable development and redevelopment (4) Remediation technologies and strategies The workshop also included a panel discussion on the topic of the challenges of operating installations across borders. Throughout the workshop, attendees heard about the scope of environmental and energy challenges that industry and governments face. They heard about technologies for increasing energy efficiency and increasing use of renewable energy. They learned about ways companies and government agencies are using materials, processes, goods and services in a manner more respectful with the environment and in compliance with health and safety rules. The concept of partnerships and their inherent benefits was evidenced throughout the workshop. Partnering is a key aspect of sustainability because sustainable development is complicated. Through formal presentations and side discussions, attendees

  9. Hidden branches: developments in root system architecture.

    PubMed

    Osmont, Karen S; Sibout, Richard; Hardtke, Christian S

    2007-01-01

    The root system is fundamentally important for plant growth and survival because of its role in water and nutrient uptake. Therefore, plants rely on modulation of root system architecture (RSA) to respond to a changing soil environment. Although RSA is a highly plastic trait and varies both between and among species, the basic root system morphology and its plasticity are controlled by inherent genetic factors. These mediate the modification of RSA, mostly at the level of root branching, in response to a suite of biotic and abiotic factors. Recent progress in the understanding of the molecular basis of these responses suggests that they largely feed through hormone homeostasis and signaling pathways. Novel factors implicated in the regulation of RSA in response to the myriad endogenous and exogenous signals are also increasingly isolated through alternative approaches such as quantitative trait locus analysis.

  10. Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  11. A comparative analysis of well-to-wheel primary energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions for the operation of alternative and conventional vehicles in Switzerland, considering various energy carrier production pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanie, Mashael; Noembrini, Fabrizio; Dossetto, Lionel; Boulouchos, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of well-to-wheel (WTW) primary energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the operation of conventional and alternative passenger vehicle drivetrains. Results are determined based on a reference vehicle, drivetrain/production process efficiencies, and lifecycle inventory data specific to Switzerland. WTW performance is compared to a gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Both industrialized and novel hydrogen and electricity production pathways are evaluated. A strong case is presented for pluggable electric vehicles (PEVs) due to their high drivetrain efficiency. However, WTW performance strongly depends on the electricity source. A critical electricity mix can be identified which divides optimal drivetrain performance between the EV, ICEV, and plug-in hybrid vehicle. Alternative drivetrain and energy carrier production pathways are also compared by natural resource. Fuel cell vehicle (FCV) performance proves to be on par with PEVs for energy carrier (EC) production via biomass and natural gas resources. However, PEVs outperform FCVs via solar energy EC production pathways. ICE drivetrains using alternative fuels, particularly biogas and CNG, yield remarkable WTW energy and emission reductions as well, indicating that alternative fuels, and not only alternative drivetrains, play an important role in the transition towards low-emission vehicles in Switzerland.

  12. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  13. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  14. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  15. Theoretical horizontal-branch evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.

    1987-01-01

    The general features of the theoretical evolution of canonical horizontal-branch (HB) stars are briefly reviewed with specific emphasis on the track morphology in the HR diagram and the determination of the globular cluster helium abundance. The observational evidence for the occurrence of semiconvection is discussed together with some remaining theoretical uncertainty.

  16. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  17. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  18. Alternate Alternates: A Medley of Alternate Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Paula J.; Olsen, Ken

    This paper highlights eight states that have implemented alternate assessments for children with disabilities who cannot participate in their state and district-wide assessment programs. The alternate assessment systems in Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Minnesota, North Dakota, Utah, and West Virginia are briefly described, along with their…

  19. The SOLAR Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, E. H., Jr.; Walton, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Only when the sun's energy can be captured at a comparable or lower opportunity cost than that of competing sources will solar energy systems become viable alternatives. Economic issues of solar energy are discussed. The legitimate role of government is also examined. (RM)

  20. Elimination of branching in self- assembled beta hairpin peptide fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathaye, Sameer; Pochan, Darrin

    2012-02-01

    Hydrophobic collapse of amphiphilic -hairpin peptides (e.g. MAX1 VKVKVKVKV^DPPTKVKVKVKV-NH2) into fibrils and their hierarchical assembly into branched, hydrogel networks has been extensively studied. A physically crosslinked hydrogel network is formed due to fibrillar entanglement and branched defects in hydrophobic collapse during fibril formation. Alternating valine residues with side chains of the same size are responsible for the hydrophobic collapse of the molecule into a b-hairpin and fibril nanostructure with branching. In a new sequence LNK1 (LNK1 (Nal)K(Nal)KAKAKV^DPPTKAKAK(Nal)K(Nal)-NH2) the non-beta turn valines were replaced with Napthylalanine and alanine amino acid residues, with hydrophobic side chains of larger and smaller volume, respectively, than valine. Thus, formation of a ``lock and key'' type structure was attempted in the hydrophobic core of the peptide fibrils that would eliminate fibril branching. The folding and network formation of LNK1 has been studied by Circular Dichroism spectroscopy (CD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Oscillatory Rheology. Preliminary rheological characterization suggests the elimination of branching in the fibrils and also a possibility that LNK1 networks, unlike MAX1, are just nanofibrillar suspensions rather than permanently physically crosslinked hydrogels.