Science.gov

Sample records for alternative experimental method

  1. Alternate Methods to Experimentally Investigate Shock Initiation Properties of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svingala, Forrest; Lee, Richard; Sutherland, Gerrit; Samuels, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Reactive flow models are desired for many new explosives early in the formulation development stage. Traditionally, these models are parameterized by carefully-controlled 1-D shock experiments, including gas-gun testing with embedded gauges and wedge testing with explosive plane wave lenses (PWL). These experiments are easy to interpret, due to their 1-D nature, but are generally expensive to perform, and cannot be performed at all explosive test facilities. We investigate alternative methods to probe shock-initiation behavior of new explosives using widely-available pentolite gap test donors and simple time-of-arrival type diagnostics. These methods can be performed at a low cost at virtually any explosives testing facility, which allows experimental data to parameterize reactive flow models to be collected much earlier in the development of an explosive formulation. However, the fundamentally 2-D nature of these tests may increase the modeling burden in parameterizing these models, and reduce general applicability. Several variations of the so-called modified gap test were investigated and evaluated for suitability as an alternative to established 1-D gas gun and PWL techniques. At least partial agreement with 1-D test methods was observed for the explosives tested, and future work is planned to scope the applicability and limitations of these experimental techniques.

  2. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence. PMID:24548737

  3. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence.

  4. A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Daneshian, Mardas; Akbarsha, Mohammad A; Blaauboer, Bas; Caloni, Francesca; Cosson, Pierre; Curren, Rodger; Goldberg, Alan; Gruber, Franz; Ohl, Frauke; Pfaller, Walter; van der Valk, Jan; Vinardell, Pilar; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Development of improved communication and education strategies is important to make alternatives to the use of animals, and the broad range of applications of the 3Rs concept better known and understood by different audiences. For this purpose, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing in Europe (CAAT-Europe) together with the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t(4)) hosted a three-day workshop on "Teaching Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation". A compilation of the recommendations by a group of international specialists in the field is summarized in this report. Initially, the workshop participants identified the different audience groups to be addressed and also the communication media that may be used. The main outcome of the workshop was a framework for a comprehensive educational program. The modular structure of the teaching program presented here allows adaptation to different audiences with their specific needs; different time schedules can be easily accommodated on this basis. The topics cover the 3Rs principle, basic research, toxicological applications, method development and validation, regulatory aspects, case studies and ethical aspects of 3Rs approaches. This expert consortium agreed to generating teaching materials covering all modules and providing them in an open access online repository.

  5. MANOVA versus alternative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatim, Bidin; Ismail, Suzilah

    2014-12-01

    Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a powerful tool in analysing multivariate data of multi-factorial experiments. However one of the assumptions in MANOVA requires the data to be normally distributed. This study concerned with the violation of this assumption, particularly when the data are either moderately non-normal or extremely non-normal. Possible alternative methods of handling such data are (i) permutational MANOVA (PMANOVA) or (ii) analysis of distance (AoD). Both of these alternative methods were compared with MANOVA via Monte Carlo experiments using the power of tests. The experiments focussed on testing interaction effects by incorporating different data types (i.e. having multivariate normal distribution, moderately non-normal and extremely non-normal), three level of inter-variable correlations (low: 0.25, medium: 0.5 and high: 0.75), two designs (small: 3×3 and large: 7×7) and two sample sizes (2 and 5 replicates). Overall, the results revealed that irrespective of the data types and the level of inter-variable correlations MANOVA performed satisfactorily in situations having larger sample size (5 replicates). In these situations, no alternative method is necessary. However, in small design with high inter-variable correlations PMANOVA performed slightly better. In small samples (2 replicates), AoD outperformed both MANOVA and PMANOVA. This is especially true in situation having small sample (2 replicates), large design and highly correlated inter-variables.

  6. 75 FR 71155 - Market Test of Experimental Product: “Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test... Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of a market test of an experimental... CONTACT: David H. Rubin, 202-268-2986. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Postal Service...

  7. OVERVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  8. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    PubMed

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666

  9. Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background

    SciTech Connect

    Garthoff, Bernward . E-mail: bernward.garthoff@bayercropscience.com

    2005-09-01

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political worldto feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry.

  10. Alternatives to animal experimentation: the regulatory background.

    PubMed

    Garthoff, Bernward

    2005-09-01

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political world to feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry.

  11. Alternatives to animal experimentation: the regulatory background.

    PubMed

    Garthoff, Bernward

    2005-09-01

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political world to feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry. PMID:15982684

  12. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research: Alternative Methods To Demolition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  13. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) ... with cancer here. What are complementary and alternative methods? How are complementary methods used to manage cancer? ...

  14. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to animal testing required by law to guarantee minimum safety standards for the licensing of drugs and chemicals, there are no regulations in basic research forcing scientists to perform animal tests. By (usually) free choice, questions are posed and hypotheses are examined which, in many cases, can only be answered by means of animal tests. Just as easily, different questions could be asked or different hypotheses could be examined which do not require animal tests. The only criterion for the choice of a topic is its relevance which cannot necessarily be judged in the short-term. Thus, it is up to the individual scientist to judge what is worth studying and therefore worth animal consumption. The educated mind will consider ethical aspects of this choice. However, on the other hand, this decision is largely influenced by questions of efficacy or (in a negative sense) by the obstacles posed to an animal consuming approach. Here, peer review and general attitude will strongly influence the methodology chosen. Availability and awareness of adequate in vitro techniques represent the prerequisites for the use of alternative methods. The least one can do in basic research is to avoid tests which cause severe suffering to animals, as is required in Switzerland and other European countries by binding ethical principles and guidelines. The increasing standard of approval and control procedures has improved the situation over the years. There are many examples of successful alternative methods in basic research. But, the application of such methods is in most cases limited to the laboratories in which they were developed, calling for technology transfer. Exceptions are procedures that are used worldwide, like the production of monoclonal antibodies, which instead of using the ascites mouse can also be performed in vitro with some good will. In these cases, commercialisation of the techniques has aided their spread within the scientific community. Sadly, many

  15. A computational and experimental study of alternative energy technologies: Constructing photochemical electron-transfer cascades and the development of computational methods for understanding fuel cell electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waraksa, Chad C.

    Producing viable, vertically-integrated alternative energy systems requires solving chemical and engineering problems at many levels. This work presents experimental results seeking to make visible light driven water splitting more feasible, computational efforts aiding in the combinatorial screening of fuel cell catalysts, and a physically-realistic model of the electrochemistry at porous electrode surfaces to understand and improve the porous electrodes used in fuel cells. Combinatorial chemistry is a valuable technique for developing and screening large quantities of candidate catalysts. Data obtained from such experiments can be difficult to analyze and communicate. We implement a system to identify catalytically-active clusters within data sets and to compactly visualize four and five-metal catalytic compositions graphically as tetrahedra or animations. Combinatorially-determined catalysts are often deposited on porous electrodes providing high surface area supports for many reactions, but the influences of electrode preparation conditions on electrocatalysts are not always well understood. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can provide extensive information about an electrode, but idealized models describing spectra limit the ability to draw useful conclusions. We describe a new model based on an array of parallel, non-uniform transmission lines for predicting the response of porous electrodes. The model incorporates physically realistic elements, such as discrete particles of variable size and adjustable multi-layer stacking geometries. Resistance parameters were derived from experimental data for Pt4Ru4Ir coated Ti0.9Nb0.1O 2 and Ebonex electrodes prepared under varying degrees of oxidative conditioning. The results, which indicate a high degree of impedance at the support-solution interface and consequently low catalyst utilization, suggest several strategies for improved electrode design. Fuel cells' popularity, however, is limited by the cost

  16. Optimization methods for alternative energy system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Michael Henry

    An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study

  17. Alternate Methods of Teaching Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Benjamin, Sheldon; Balon, Richard; Glick, Ira; Louie, Alan; Moutier, Christine; Moyer, Trenton; Santos, Cynthia; Servis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews methods used to teach psychopharmacology to psychiatry residents that utilize principles of adult learning, enlist active participation of residents, and provide faculty with skills to seek, analyze, and use new information over the course of their careers. Methods: The pros and cons of five "nonlecture" methods of…

  18. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Samuel E; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing "minigene" in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest.

  19. "Alternative Responses to Literature": Experimental Writing, Experimental Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittier, Gayle

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that, despite the expanding variety of the university population, despite diversity and challenges to the literary canon, writing assignments continue to be uninspired and outdated. Describes an "Alternative Responses to Literature" course whose aim was to open up the communal readings, the forms of response to them, and the classroom…

  20. Statistical Health Monitoring Applied to a Metabolomic Study of Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis: An Alternative Approach to Supervised Methods for the Identification of False Positives.

    PubMed

    Del Carratore, Francesco; Lussu, Milena; Kowalik, Marta Anna; Perra, Andrea; Griffin, Julian Leether; Atzori, Luigi; Grosso, Massimiliano

    2016-08-16

    In a typical metabolomics experiment, two or more conditions (e.g., treated versus untreated) are compared, in order to investigate the potential differences in the metabolic profiles. When dealing with complex biological systems, a two-class classification is often unsuitable, since it does not consider the unpredictable differences between samples (e.g., nonresponder to treatment). An approach based on statistical process control (SPC), which is able to monitor the response to a treatment or the development of a pathological condition, is proposed here. Such an approach has been applied to an experimental hepatocarcinogenesis model to discover early individual metabolic variations associated with a different response to the treatment. Liver study was performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, followed by multivariate statistical analysis. By this approach, we were able to (1) identify which treated samples have a significantly different metabolic profile, compared to the control (in fact, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry, the method correctly classified 7 responders and 3 nonresponders among the 10 treated animals); (2) recognize, for each individual sample, the metabolites that are out of control (e.g., glutathione, acetate, betaine, and phosphocholine). The first point could be used for classification purposes, and the second point could be used for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the early phase of carcinogenesis. The statistical control approach can be used for diagnosis (e.g., healthy versus pathological, responder versus nonresponder) and for generation of an individual metabolic profile, leading to a better understanding of the individual pathological processes and to a personalized diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27437557

  1. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  2. An Examination of Alternative Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Peggy D.

    2004-01-01

    Demographic shifts, advances in technology, and changing student perceptions and expectations have influenced the development of alternative means and methods for offering and delivering traditional college courses. This study reports student perceptions of four alternatives at one university where students were asked to rate course offerings…

  3. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Wisconsin Dells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  4. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - St. Louis, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  5. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  6. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA).

    SciTech Connect

    Leick, Michael T.; Moses, Ronald W.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  7. 77 FR 43827 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing... for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) announces an ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the...

  8. Experimental Investigation of Turbine Vane Heat Transfer for Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, Andrew Carl

    2015-03-23

    modern turbine engines; and What advancements in film cooling hole geometry and design can increase effectiveness of film cooling in turbines burning high-hydrogen coal syngas due to the higher heat loads and mass flow rates of the core flow? Experimental and numerical investigations of advanced cooling geometries that can improve resistance to surface deposition were performed. The answers to these questions were investigated through experimental measurements of turbine blade surface temperature and coolant coverage (via infrared camera images and thermocouples) and time-varying surface roughness in the NETL high-pressure combustion rig with accelerated, simulated surface deposition and advanced cooling hole concepts, coupled with detailed materials analysis and characterization using conventional methods of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), 3-D Surface Topography (using a 3-D stylus profilometer). Detailed surface temperatures and cooling effectiveness could not be measured due to issues with the NETL infrared camera system. In collaboration with faculty startup funding from the principal investigator, experimental and numerical investigations were performed of an advanced film cooling hole geometry, the anti-vortex hole (AVH), focusing on improving cooling effectiveness and decreasing the counter-rotating vortex of conventional cooling holes which can entrain mainstream particulate matter to the surface. The potential benefit of this program is in gaining a fundamental understanding of how the use of alternative fuels will effect the operation of modern gas turbine engines, providing valuable data for more effective cooling designs for future turbine systems utilizing alternative fuels.

  9. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Files, Bradley; Scott, Carl; Gorelik, Olga; Nikolaev, Pasha; Hulse, Lou; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2000-01-01

    Traditional carbon nanotube purification process involves nitric acid refluxing and cross flow filtration using surfactant TritonX. This is believed to result in damage to nanotubes and surfactant residue on nanotube surface. Alternative purification procedures involving solvent extraction, thermal zone refining and nitric acid refiuxing are used in the current study. The effect of duration and type of solvent to dissolve impurities including fullerenes and P ACs (polyaromatic compounds) are monitored by nuclear magnetic reasonance, high performance liquid chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal zone refining yielded sample areas rich in nanotubes as seen by scanning electric microscopy. Refluxing in boiling nitric acid seem to improve the nanotube content. Different procedural steps are needed to purify samples produced by laser process compared to arc process. These alternative methods of nanotube purification will be presented along with results from supporting analytical techniques.

  10. Complementary and alternative methods in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, William L

    2009-10-01

    There are no published studies specifically addressing complementary and alternative treatments in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). However, national surveys of adults with chronic disabilities document that a majority of them use such treatments, that they are willing to pay out of pocket, if necessary, and that they believe that pursuing such treatment relieves pain, reduces stress and anxiety, and leads to improved feelings of fitness and well-being. Individuals enjoy taking charge of their own health care decisions, and frequently feel more in control with these therapies than with more traditional methods. In contrast to adults, there is some information on complementary and alternative methods (CAM) in children with CP. This article discusses some of the CAM used in children that may be carried over into adulthood, as well as the pitfalls for patients and conventional physicians as they try to sort out what might be helpful and what might be harmful in this arena. Practitioners of both conventional and CAM therapies believe that exercise can be beneficial; accordingly, activities such as recreational sports, yoga, and hippotherapy may be continued from childhood into adulthood. General treatments for stress and anxiety, through such activities as yoga and meditation, though not directed at CP per se, may be more popular for adults than children. Research in this area should first identify what methods are being utilized and then subject these methods to well-designed outcome studies that take into account any associated risks.

  11. Alternative Test Methods for Electronic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    It is common practice within NASA to test electronic parts at the manufacturing lot level to demonstrate, statistically, that parts from the lot tested will not fail in service using generic application conditions. The test methods and the generic application conditions used have been developed over the years through cooperation between NASA, DoD, and industry in order to establish a common set of standard practices. These common practices, found in MIL-STD-883, MIL-STD-750, military part specifications, EEE-INST-002, and other guidelines are preferred because they are considered to be effective and repeatable and their results are usually straightforward to interpret. These practices can sometimes be unavailable to some NASA projects due to special application conditions that must be addressed, such as schedule constraints, cost constraints, logistical constraints, or advances in the technology that make the historical standards an inappropriate choice for establishing part performance and reliability. Alternate methods have begun to emerge and to be used by NASA programs to test parts individually or as part of a system, especially when standard lot tests cannot be applied. Four alternate screening methods will be discussed in this paper: Highly accelerated life test (HALT), forward voltage drop tests for evaluating wire-bond integrity, burn-in options during or after highly accelerated stress test (HAST), and board-level qualification.

  12. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  13. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  14. An Alternative Method to Project Wind Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadillioglu, Cagla; Kiyisuren, I. Cagatay; Collu, Kamil; Turp, M. Tufan; Kurnaz, M. Levent; Ozturk, Tugba

    2016-04-01

    Wind energy is one of the major clean and sustainable energy sources. Beside its various advantages, wind energy has a downside that its performance cannot be projected very accurately in the long-term. In this study, we offer an alternative method which can be used to determine the best location to install a wind turbine in a large area aiming maximum energy performance in the long run. For this purpose, a regional climate model (i.e. RegCM4.4) is combined with a software called Winds on Critical Streamline Surfaces (WOCSS) in order to identify wind patterns for any domains even in a changing climate. As a special case, Çanakkale region is examined due to the terrain profile having both coastal and mountainous features. WOCSS program was run twice for each month in the sample years in a double nested fashion, using the provisional RegCM4.4 wind data between years 2020 and 2040. Modified version of WOCSS provides terrain following flow surfaces and by processing those data, it makes a wind profile output for certain heights specified by the user. The computational time of WOCSS is also in reasonable range. Considering the lack of alternative methods for long-term wind performance projection, the model used in this study is a very good way for obtaining quick indications for wind performance taking the impact of the terrain effects into account. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  15. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Parts 429, 430, and 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating Methods: Public Meeting AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed modifications to the regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining...

  16. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  17. Alternative methods of normalising EMG during running.

    PubMed

    Albertus-Kajee, Yumna; Tucker, Ross; Derman, Wayne; Lamberts, Robert P; Lambert, Michael I

    2011-08-01

    We evaluated possible methods of normalising EMG measured during running. MVC, Sprint and 70% Peak Running Speed methods were evaluated and their repeatability, reliability and sensitivity to incremental running speed were compared. Twelve runners performed the same experimental protocol on three separate occasions. Each day, subjects firstly performed MVCs, followed by a 20 m maximal sprint (with a 20-30 m run-up). Following this, they performed the peak running speed (PRS) test until exhaustion. After which they ran at 70% of PRS for 5 laps. Results indicated that normalising EMG data to MVC and Sprint methods are more repeatable for VM, BF, MG and RF, VL, LG, respectively, with the average ICC>0.80. The 70% PRS demonstrated poor to fair levels of repeatability ranging between ICC 0.27 and 0.70. Whereas the 70% PRS method had the least intra-subject variability and the greatest sensitivity to increasing running speeds. More specifically, demonstrating significant changes in muscle activity in VM with increasing running speed while MVC and Sprint methods were unable to detect these changes. The dynamic methods were the most appropriate for EMG normalisation showing repeatability, better intra-subject reliability and better sensitivity during running over different days and for once-off measurements. PMID:21531148

  18. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  19. Maggot Debridement: An Alternative Method for Debridement

    PubMed Central

    Gottrup, Finn; Jørgensen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Debridement is an essential component to promote healing in a problem wound. Several techniques are available including maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Objective: To describe the efficacy of MDT for treating problem wound especially diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: The topic is elucidated from different points of view: the mode of action, when to use, use in a practice, clinical results, and discussing the problem of creating evidence for the clinical effect. Results: Literature and own results demonstrate that MDT is a safe method with few side effects. Maggot debridement therapy is as good as or better than conventional often surgical debridement, is more selective than surgical debridement, decreases time to healing and stay of patients in the ward, and may decrease the risk of major amputations. However, the evidence of these effects of MDT on the highest level is presently lacking. A detailed description of how to use MDT in practice is provided including a visual demonstration in a video. Conclusion: In spite of lacking clinical evidence, MDT clinical experience strongly suggests that this technique is effective and safe. It can be used for most types of problem wounds, but our indication is primarily diabetic foot ulcers, because of its selectivity for debriding necrotic dead tissue. It may be a valuable alternative surgical/sharp debridement. PMID:21776326

  20. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  1. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  2. Alternate methods to teach history of anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Desai, Manisha S; Desai, Sukumar P

    2014-02-01

    Residency programs in anesthesiology in the United States struggle to balance the conflicting needs of formal didactic sessions, clinical teaching, and clinical service obligations. As a consequence of the explosion in knowledge about basic and applied sciences related to our specialty, residents and fellows are expected to make substantial efforts to supplement formal lectures with self-study. There is strong evidence to suggest that members of the younger generation use nontraditional methods to acquire information. Although training programs are not required to include topics related to history of anesthesia (HOA) in the didactic curriculum, and despite the fact that such knowledge does not directly impact clinical care, many programs include such lectures and discussions. We describe and discuss our experience with 3 alternate modalities of teaching HOA.First, we provide brief descriptions of HOA-related historical narratives and novels within the domain of popular literature, rather than those that might be considered textbooks. Second, we analyze content in movies and videodiscs dealing with HOA and determine their utility as educational resources. Third, we describe HOA tours to sites in close proximity to our institutions, as well as those in locations elsewhere in the United States and abroad.We suggest that informal HOA teaching can be implemented by every residency program without much effort and without taking away from the traditional curriculum. Participating in this unique and enriching experience may be a means of academic advancement. It is our hope and expectation that graduates from programs that incorporate such exposure to HOA become advocates of history and may choose to devote a part of their academic career toward exploration of HOA. PMID:24445641

  3. From alternative methods to a new toxicology.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Mechanistic toxicology has evolved by relying, to a large extent, on methodologies that substitute or complement traditional animal tests. The biotechnology and informatics revolutions of the last decades have made such technologies broadly available and useful, but regulatory toxicology has been slow to embrace these new approaches. Major validation efforts, however, have delivered the evidence that new approaches do not lower safety standards and can be integrated into regulatory safety assessments. Particularly in the EU, political pressures, such as the REACH legislation and the 7th Amendment to the cosmetic legislation, have prompted the need of new approaches. In the US, the NRC vision report calling for a toxicology for the 21st century (and its most recent adaptation by EPA for their toxicity testing strategy) have initiated a debate about how to create a novel approach based on human cell cultures, lower species, high-throughput testing, and modeling. Lessons learned from the development, validation, and acceptance of alternative methods support the creation of a new approach based on identified toxicity pathways. Conceptual steering and an objective assessment of current practices by evidence-based toxicology (EBT) are required. EBT is modeled on evidence-based medicine, which has demonstrated that rigorous systematic reviews of current practices and meta-analyses of studies provide powerful tools to provide health care professionals and patients with the current best scientific evidence. Similarly, a portal for high-quality reviews of toxicological approaches and tools for the quantitative meta-analyses of data promise to serve as door opener for a new regulatory toxicology.

  4. Alternative methods for the design of jet engine control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Leake, R. J.; Basso, R.; Gejji, R.; Maloney, A.; Seshadri, V.

    1976-01-01

    Various alternatives to linear quadratic design methods for jet engine control systems are discussed. The main alternatives are classified into two broad categories: nonlinear global mathematical programming methods and linear local multivariable frequency domain methods. Specific studies within these categories include model reduction, the eigenvalue locus method, the inverse Nyquist method, polynomial design, dynamic programming, and conjugate gradient approaches.

  5. Experimental methods for identifying failure mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental methods for identifying failure mechanisms in fibrous composites are studied. Methods to identify failure in composite materials includes interferometry, holography, fractography and ultrasonics.

  6. Learning and performance under alternative instructional manifestations of experimental practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Michael J.

    Before we can understand how students learn "to do" science, we must make explicit our assumptions about what scientific practice is. This study compares the learning outcomes of two sixth-grade instructional units on experimentation, each based on a particular characterization of practice. In one unit, instruction focused on acquisition and application of the control of variables strategy (CVS; Chen & Klahr, 1999), which is consistent with a popular conception of science education, stemming from Piaget, as the mastery of logical forms. In the other unit, students designed experimental apparatus to answer a target question, and instruction emphasized practices of rendering and transforming the material world in ways that support scientific understanding. Students in both groups were assessed for CVS acquisition and subsequent experimental performance on a novel task, and group performances on these assessments different across instructional conditions. I will argue that student understandings of goals, norms of instructional expectation, and strategies explain these differences, in some cases by supporting performance and in other cases by hindering it. I will also argue that the results question the role typically attributed to logical method in learning to design experiments.

  7. Which Alternative Purchasing Methods Do Large School Districts Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tak Cheung; Choi, Namok

    1999-01-01

    School districts are constantly seeking alternative purchasing methods to ease paperwork, lost time, storage problems, and overstocking. A study showed that in large districts, fast-track electronic requisition and online purchasing were most commonly used alternative electronic purchasing methods. Most common nonelectronic methods were direct and…

  8. 49 CFR 218.29 - Alternate methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate methods of protection. 218.29 Section....29 Alternate methods of protection. Instead of providing blue signal protection for workers in accordance with § 218.27, the following methods for blue signal protection may be used: (a) When workers...

  9. 49 CFR 218.79 - Alternative methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative methods of protection. 218.79 Section....79 Alternative methods of protection. Instead of providing protection for occupied camp cars in accordance with § 218.75 or § 218.77, the following methods of protection may be used: (a) When occupied...

  10. Experimental study of the effects of alternating fields on HTS coils according to the winding insulation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Y. J.; Ahn, M. C.; Lee, T. S.; Lee, W. S.; Ko, T. K.

    2013-08-01

    This paper examines the effects of alternating fields on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils according to the winding insulation condition. Alternating fields can occur in synchronous machines (armature reaction, faults) and other devices. In superconducting synchronous machines, alternating fields affect the operational characteristics of the machine and the superconducting field coil. Therefore, a method of reducing the effects of alternating fields is necessary in superconducting synchronous design. In this study, the effects of alternating fields on the HTS field coil according to the winding insulation condition were experimentally evaluated. The experimental results show that HTS coils made using the no-insulation technique can be a solution for reducing the effects of the alternating field. These results are expected to suggest useful data for applications of HTS field coils in superconducting synchronous machines.

  11. Experimental implementation of the modified independent modal space control method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental realization of a modified independent modal space control (MIMSC) method to control the vibration of a flexible cantilevered beam is presented. In its operation the method relies on the use of one piezoelectric actuator to control several vibration modes through a time-sharing strategy. The effectiveness of the MIMSC method in damping out the beam vibration is demonstrated by comparing the results with those obtained by other modal control methods. Two methods are considered, the independent modal space control method and the pseudo-inverse method. The feasibility of the MIMSC method as a viable alternative for controlling large flexible structures with a very small number of actuators is emphasized.

  12. 7 CFR 3565.455 - Alternative disposition methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternative disposition methods. 3565.455 Section 3565.455 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....455 Alternative disposition methods. The Agency, in its sole discretion, may choose to obtain...

  13. Alternate Conceptions of Preservice Elementary Teachers: The Itakura Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we determined the effectiveness of the inquiry-based Itakura method for mediating alternate conceptions of preservice elementary teachers (N = 38) in an integrated mathematics, science, and technology methods course. We investigated alternate conceptions in the expansion of solids due to heating. There was a significant increase in…

  14. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Alternative methods of sale... Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale. (a) Sale by auction... forfeited administratively may be sold, the Director or his delegate shall cause a notice of sale to...

  15. Alternative Inspection Methods for Single Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Timothy J.; Alzheimer, James M.; Hurley, David E.

    2010-01-19

    This document was prepared to provide evaluations and recommendations regarding nondestructive evaluation methods that might be used to determine cracks and bowing in the ceiling of waste storage tanks on the Hanford site. The goal was to determine cracks as small as 1/16 in. wide in the ceiling, and bowing as small as 0.25 in. This report describes digital video camera methods that can be used to detect a crack in the ceiling of the dome, and methods for determining the surface topography of the ceiling in the waste storage tanks to detect localized movements in the surface. A literature search, combined with laboratory testing, comprised this study.

  16. Alternate differencing technique for the synthetic method

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbard, E.M.; Khalil, H.

    1983-01-01

    Larsen and coworkers have shown that the effectiveness of the synthetic method is often determined by the techniques used to difference the diffusion equation, the equation taken, in current forms of the synthetic method, as the low-order approximation. They have also developed their own differencing technique. On the other hand, the Los Alamos (LA) approach generates point-centered diffusion difference equations, a feature which is inconvenient for the many people now using box-centered codes. More importantly, for the weighted-diamond scheme the LA method yields difference equations involving not only the scalar fluxes, but also the currents and, at this point, no way to eliminate the currents has been devised. A different differencing technique is proposed for the synthetic method, one which gives, for the XY weighted-diamond scheme, box-centered equations in the scalar flux alone.

  17. Alternative methods to determine headwater benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Y.S.; Perlack, R.D.; Sale, M.J.

    1997-11-10

    In 1992, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) began using a Flow Duration Analysis (FDA) methodology to assess headwater benefits in river basins where use of the Headwater Benefits Energy Gains (HWBEG) model may not result in significant improvements in modeling accuracy. The purpose of this study is to validate the accuracy and appropriateness of the FDA method for determining energy gains in less complex basins. This report presents the results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) validation of the FDA method. The validation is based on a comparison of energy gains using the FDA method with energy gains calculated using the MWBEG model. Comparisons of energy gains are made on a daily and monthly basis for a complex river basin (the Alabama River Basin) and a basin that is considered relatively simple hydrologically (the Stanislaus River Basin). In addition to validating the FDA method, ORNL was asked to suggest refinements and improvements to the FDA method. Refinements and improvements to the FDA method were carried out using the James River Basin as a test case.

  18. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  19. Evaluation of alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Edson Yukio; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Balducci, Ivan; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes considering that most of the previously proposed methods are expensive and cannot be easily implemented. Two-hundred toothbrushes with standardized dimensions and bristles were included in the study. The toothbrushes were divided into 20 experimental groups (n = 10), according to microorganism considered and chemical agent used. The toothbrushes were contaminated in vitro by standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. The following disinfectants were tested: 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 50% white vinegar, a triclosan-containing dentifrice solution, and a perborate-based tablet solution. The disinfection method was immersion in the disinfectant for 10 min. After the disinfection procedure, the number of remaining microbial cells was evaluated. The values of cfu/toothbrush of each group of microorganism after disinfection were compared by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Dunn's test for multiple comparisons (5%). The chlorhexidine digluconate solution was the most effective disinfectant. The triclosan-based dentifrice solution promoted a significant reduction of all microorganisms' counts in relation to the control group. As to the disinfection with 50% vinegar, a significant reduction was observed for all the microorganisms, except for C. albicans. The sodium perborate solution was the less effective against the tested microorganisms. Solutions based on triclosan-containing dentifrice may be considered effective, nontoxic, cost-effective, and an easily applicable alternative for the disinfection of toothbrushes. The vinegar solution reduced the presence of S. aureus, S. mutans and S. pyogenes on toothbrushes. PMID:20339710

  20. Proposal for a Brazilian centre on alternative test methods.

    PubMed

    Eskes, Chantra; Sá-Rocha, Vanessa de Moura; Nunes, Jadir; Presgrave, Octavio; de Carvalho, Dermeval; Masson, Philippe; Rivera, Ekaterina; Coecke, Sandra; Kreysa, Joachim; Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Several initiatives have recently taken place in Brazil in order to foster the creation of centers dedicated to alternatives to animal testing. In 2008, Vanessa Sá-Rocha organized a meeting with Brazilian regulatory authorities and the major stakeholders in the field of testing to foster discussions on the process of funding, development, and validation of alternative methods in Brazil. Octavio Presgrave published a scientific article on "The Need for the Establishment of a Brazilian Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods." Also in 2008, Jadir Nunes, together with Dermeval de Carvalho, prepared and presented a proposal to the Brazilian National Agency of Health Surveillance (ANVISA) for the creation of a Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. ECVAM and other European stakeholders have been involved in the initiatives. Furthermore, also in 2008, a new legislation has been adopted in Brazil regarding the use of animals for scientific purposes ("lei Arouca"). The legislation establishes, among other provisions, the task of monitoring and evaluating the introduction of alternative methods. However, the legislation does not provide for promotion of or information about, existing alternative methods to the larger Brazilian scientific community. In order to streamline the different activities, Chantra Eskes acted as a facilitator by establishing a new joint proposal with the current Brazilian stakeholders, aimed at setting up a Brazilian Center on Alternative Test Methods. PMID:20383476

  1. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  2. PID techniques: Alternatives to RICH Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vavra, J.; /SLAC

    2011-03-01

    In this review article we discuss the recent progress in PID techniques other than the RICH methods. In particular we mention the recent progress in the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), dE/dx cluster counting, and Time Of Flight (TOF) techniques. The TRD technique is mature and has been tried in many hadron colliders. It needs space though, about 20cm of detector radial space for every factor of 10 in the {pi}/e rejection power, and this tends to make such detectors large. Although the cluster counting technique is an old idea, it was never tried in a real physics experiment. Recently, there are efforts to revive it for the SuperB experiment using He-based gases and waveform digitizing electronics. A factor of almost 2 improvement, compared to the classical dE/dx performance, is possible in principle. However, the complexity of the data analysis will be substantial. The TOF technique is well established, but introduction of new fast MCP-PMT and G-APD detectors creates new possibilities. It seems that resolutions below 20-30ps may be possible at some point in the future with relatively small systems, and perhaps this could be pushed down to 10-15ps with very small systems, assuming that one can solve many systematic issues. However, the cost, rate limitation, aging and cross-talk in multi-anode devices at high BW are problems. There are several groups working on these issues, so progress is likely. Table 6 summarizes the author's opinion of pros and cons of various detectors presented in this paper based on their operational capabilities. We refer the reader to Ref.40 for discussion of other more general limits from the PID point of view.

  3. An Alternative Method for Multiplication of Rhotrices. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, B.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, an alternative multiplication method for rhotrices is proposed. The method establishes some relationships between rhotrices and matrices. This article has discussed a modified multiplication method for rhotrices. The method has a direct relationship with matrix multiplication, and so rhotrices under this multiplication procedure…

  4. Transmission and phase balancing of alternating phase-shifting masks (5x): theoretical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesinger, Uwe A.; Pforr, Rainer; Knobloch, Juergen; Friedrich, Christoph M.

    1999-12-01

    Dual trench alternating phase shifting masks with an optimized value of the so-called shallow trench depth represents an interesting approach to overcome aerial image imbalances. In order to get a better understanding of the possibilities and limits of this approach, especially for 5X reduction, theoretical and experimental investigations were accomplished. In this paper experimental data obtained from 5X dual trench type alternating PSMs, using DUV-lithography are introduced and compared with 3D-mask simulations. The masks were fabricated with different etch depths and contain parts of typical DRAM patterns. Besides the transmission balancing also the phase balancing has an important influence on the effective process window of an alternating PSM. The effective phase error can be measured with an AIMS-system (MSM100). The comparison with simulated data allows the determination of the phase error. In a second step the influence of different balancing methods on phase and transmission were investigated with the TEMPEST mask simulator for unpolarized light. The optimization of the balancing with respect to the CD-bias, undercut and etch depth will be shown and a first approach of a sensitivity analysis will be presented.

  5. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  6. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  7. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  8. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  9. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  10. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  11. Experimental design methods for bioengineering applications.

    PubMed

    Keskin Gündoğdu, Tuğba; Deniz, İrem; Çalışkan, Gülizar; Şahin, Erdem Sefa; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Experimental design is a form of process analysis in which certain factors are selected to obtain the desired responses of interest. It may also be used for the determination of the effects of various independent factors on a dependent factor. The bioengineering discipline includes many different areas of scientific interest, and each study area is affected and governed by many different factors. Briefly analyzing the important factors and selecting an experimental design for optimization are very effective tools for the design of any bioprocess under question. This review summarizes experimental design methods that can be used to investigate various factors relating to bioengineering processes. The experimental methods generally used in bioengineering are as follows: full factorial design, fractional factorial design, Plackett-Burman design, Taguchi design, Box-Behnken design and central composite design. These design methods are briefly introduced, and then the application of these design methods to study different bioengineering processes is analyzed.

  12. Overview On Alternate Asbestos Control Method Research And NESHAP Comparison - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  13. A Modified Alternating Direction Method for Variational Inequality Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D.

    2002-07-01

    The alternating direction method is an attractive method for solving large-scale variational inequality problems whenever the subproblems can be solved efficiently. However, the subproblems are still variational inequality problems, which are as structurally difficult to solve as the original one. To overcome this disadvantage, in this paper we propose a new alternating direction method for solving a class of nonlinear monotone variational inequality problems. In each iteration the method just makes an orthogonal projection to a simple set and some function evaluations. We report some preliminary computational results to illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  14. Alternative experimental protocol to demonstrate the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph (PBR) have recently proven an important new theorem in the foundations of quantum mechanics [Pusey , Nature Phys.1745-247310.1038/nphys2309 8, 475 (2012)]. Here we propose alternative experimental protocols which lead to the PBR result for a special case and a weaker PBR-like result generally. Alternative experimental protocols support the assumption of measurement independence required for the PBR theorem.

  15. 27 CFR 24.22 - Alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate method or procedure. 24.22 Section 24.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... purpose of, and consistent with the effect intended by, the specifically prescribed method or...

  16. EU member state government contribution to alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy

    2014-01-01

    Article 47 of the new EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires national governments to contribute to the development and promotion of alternative methods. A recent survey of EU member states found that reported funding of alternative (3Rs) methods totalled € 18.7 million in 2013, provided by only seven countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the UK). There were indications that the contributions of some of these countries have increased since the implementation of the new Directive. However, funding of alternatives is between 0 and 0.036% of national science R&D expenditure and nearly half of the countries that responded reported that they do not specifically contribute. Data (and, by assumption, financial contribution) remains unavailable from half of the member states across the EU, regardless of the method of collection.

  17. Using Experimental Methods in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Morrison, Gary R.; Lowther, Deborah L.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental methods have been used extensively for many years to conduct research in education and psychology. However, applications of experiments to investigate technology and other instructional innovations in higher education settings have been relatively limited. The present paper examines ways in which experiments can be used productively…

  18. A method for experimental modal separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallauer, W. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the numerical simulation of multiple-shaker modal survey testing using simulated experimental data to optimize the shaker force-amplitude distribution for the purpose of isolating individual modes of vibration. Inertia, damping, stiffness, and model data are stored on magnetic disks, available by direct access to the interactive FORTRAN programs which perform all computations required by this relative force amplitude distribution method.

  19. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-01-01

    Background An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be <1 cm in size. The tumor is characterized by night-time pain that may be relieved by aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Osteoid osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. Material/Methods In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. Results Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. Conclusions The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment. PMID:26898923

  20. 27 CFR 19.26 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 19.26 Section 19.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... preserved until renewed unless revoked by operation of law due to the enactment of law that is contrary...

  1. 27 CFR 19.665 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 19.665 Section 19.665 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... April 18, 2011, which are not contrary to the regulations in this part, are preserved until...

  2. Alternative methods of obtaining the computed tomography dose index.

    PubMed

    Knox, H H; Gagne, R M

    1996-08-01

    The most direct way of getting the value of the multiple scan average dose (MSAD) in computed tomography is to employ a pencil chamber for integration of a single scan dose profile. Because the active length of the pencil chamber is fixed, the measurement can represent the value of the MSAD from a different number of contiguous scans depending on the slice thickness. This characteristic makes it difficult to compare the value of MSAD using the pencil chamber to the information required by Federal regulations on the computed tomography dose index (CTDI). The CTDI, which is the MAD at the center of a set of 14 contiguous scans, is the dose descriptor used in the Federal Performance Standard. Two alternative methods were developed to make the CTDI measurements at the center of a CT dosimetry phantom. These alternative methods were compared to the results of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements from more than 20 different CT scanners. One alternative method involved the use of radio-opaque sleeves with the pencil chamber to limit the length of the single scan dose profile incident on the pencil chamber. In addition, the TLD data were also used to obtain a set of conversion factors for converting the results of a measurement with the pencil chamber without a radio-opaque sleeve to a value of the CTDI. The alternative methods of obtaining the CTDI agree on the average to better than 10% for all values of slice thickness on the different CT scanners.

  3. 27 CFR 18.13 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 18.13 Section 18.13 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE...

  4. 27 CFR 18.13 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 18.13 Section 18.13 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE...

  5. 27 CFR 17.3 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 17.3 Section 17.3 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS General Provisions §...

  6. Alternative method of retesting UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, R.

    1991-12-31

    The paper describes an alternative method to perform the periodic inspection of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The hydraulic test is replaced by ultrasonic checking of wall thickness and by magnetic particle testing of all the weld seams. Information about the legal background, the air leak test and the qualification of inspectors is also given.

  7. Alternative Asbestos Control Method and the Asbestos Releasability Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative Asbestos Control Method shows promise in speed, cost, and efficiency if equally protective. ORD conducted side by side test of AACM vs NESHAP on identical asbestos-containing buildings at Fort Chaffee. This abstract and presentation are based, at least in part, on pr...

  8. Distributional Impacts of Alternative Methods of Financing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredeveld, George M.

    1978-01-01

    The income redistributive effects of financing public higher education in a midwestern state is measured. The results show that the financing scheme is regressive in that low-income families' share of program costs exceeds their benefits. The effects of four alternative methods of financing are also considered. (Author/LBH)

  9. Substitutional Reality System: A Novel Experimental Platform for Experiencing Alternative Reality

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Wakisaka, Sohei; Fujii, Naotaka

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel experimental platform, referred to as a substitutional reality (SR) system, for studying the conviction of the perception of live reality and related metacognitive functions. The SR system was designed to manipulate people's reality by allowing them to experience live scenes (in which they were physically present) and recorded scenes (which were recorded and edited in advance) in an alternating manner without noticing a reality gap. All of the naïve participants (n = 21) successfully believed that they had experienced live scenes when recorded scenes had been presented. Additional psychophysical experiments suggest the depth of visual objects does not affect the perceptual discriminability between scenes, and the scene switch during head movement enhance substitutional performance. The SR system, with its reality manipulation, is a novel and affordable method for studying metacognitive functions and psychiatric disorders. PMID:22724058

  10. Cost/benefit analysis method for evaluating coal cleaning alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, R.

    1981-01-01

    A general analytical method that can be used to evaluate multiple coal cleaning alternatives by comparing their costs and benefits is described. The benefits and costs of coal cleaning are briefly reviewed. To illustrate how the general method may be applied to a given set of conditions, a specific case is presented. Certain non-quantifiable factors that should be considered during the evalution process are identified.

  11. 77 FR 40358 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM..., revised, and alternative safety testing methods with regulatory applicability and promotes the scientific... Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the NTP Interagency Center for...

  12. Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

    PubMed

    Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2014-07-01

    The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production.

  13. Predicting sediment yield from alternative surface mining methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, R.C.; Wells, L.G.; Barfield, B.J.; Moore, I.D.; Wilson, B.N.

    1982-12-01

    The focus of this research was to compare the predicted sediment yield and hydrologic impact of three alternative surface mining methods used in the Central and Southern Appalachian coal regions. The mining methods investigated were: 1) mountaintop removal, 2) post-1977 block-cut haul-back contour mining, and 3) pre-1977 contour mining. Sediment and hydrologic impacts were predicted through use of the SEDIMOT model. For the mine plans analyzed the post-1977 block-cut haul-back mining method produced significantly lower sediment and peak storm response.

  14. Alternative to the Palatini method: A new variational principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenner, Hubert

    2010-06-01

    A variational principle is suggested within Riemannian geometry, in which an auxiliary metric and the Levi Civita connection are varied independently. The auxiliary metric plays the role of a Lagrange multiplier and introduces nonminimal coupling of matter to the curvature scalar. The field equations are 2nd order PDEs and easier to handle than those following from the so-called Palatini method. Moreover, in contrast to the latter method, no gradients of the matter variables appear. In cosmological modeling, the physics resulting from the alternative variational principle will differ from the modeling using the standard Palatini method.

  15. Update from the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM).

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established in 2005 to promote the use of alternatives to animal testing in regulatory studies, thereby replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, according to the Three Rs principles. JaCVAM assesses the utility, limitations and suitability for use in regulatory studies, of test methods needed to determine the safety of chemicals and other materials. JaCVAM also organises and performs validation studies of new test methods, when necessary. In addition, JaCVAM co-operates and collaborates with similar organisations in related fields, both in Japan and internationally, which also enables JaCVAM to provide input during the establishment of guidelines for new alternative experimental methods. These activities help facilitate application and approval processes for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, and other products, as well as for revisions to standards for cosmetic products. In this manner, JaCVAM plays a leadership role in the introduction of new alternative experimental methods for regulatory acceptance in Japan. PMID:24512226

  16. Alternative Processing Methods for Ultra High Temperature Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gusman, Michael; Beckman, Sarah; Gasch, Matthew; Ellerby, Don; Lau, Kai-Hung; Sanjurjo, Angel; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are being developed for possible use in a number of structural applications including hypersonic vehicles, engines, plasma arc electrodes and high temperature shielding. Alternative methods of processing Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) will be discussed. Techniques that may improve oxidation resistance, strength, and reduce the processing temperature of the UHTCs will be presented. Hot-pressed UHTCs made using either milled/uncoated powders or non-milled coated powders will be compared.

  17. Schwarz alternating methods for anisotropic problems with prolate spheroid boundaries.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhenlong; Du, Qikui; Liu, Baoqing

    2016-01-01

    The Schwarz alternating algorithm, which is based on natural boundary element method, is constructed for solving the exterior anisotropic problem in the three-dimension domain. The anisotropic problem is transformed into harmonic problem by using the coordinate transformation. Correspondingly, the algorithm is also changed. Continually, we analysis the convergence and the error estimate of the algorithm. Meanwhile, we give the contraction factor for the convergence. Finally, some numerical examples are computed to show the efficiency of this algorithm. PMID:27625977

  18. An alternate method to springback compensation for sheet metal forming.

    PubMed

    Siswanto, Waluyo Adi; Anggono, Agus Dwi; Omar, Badrul; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the accuracy of cold stamping product by accommodating springback. This is a numerical approach to improve the accuracy of springback analysis and die compensation process combining the displacement adjustment (DA) method and the spring forward (SF) algorithm. This alternate hybrid method (HM) is conducted by firstly employing DA method followed by the SF method instead of either DA or SF method individually. The springback shape and the target part are used to optimize the die surfaces compensating springback. The hybrid method (HM) algorithm has been coded in Fortran and tested in two- and three-dimensional models. By implementing the HM, the springback error can be decreased and the dimensional deviation falls in the predefined tolerance range. PMID:25165738

  19. An Alternate Method to Springback Compensation for Sheet Metal Forming

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Badrul; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the accuracy of cold stamping product by accommodating springback. This is a numerical approach to improve the accuracy of springback analysis and die compensation process combining the displacement adjustment (DA) method and the spring forward (SF) algorithm. This alternate hybrid method (HM) is conducted by firstly employing DA method followed by the SF method instead of either DA or SF method individually. The springback shape and the target part are used to optimize the die surfaces compensating springback. The hybrid method (HM) algorithm has been coded in Fortran and tested in two- and three-dimensional models. By implementing the HM, the springback error can be decreased and the dimensional deviation falls in the predefined tolerance range. PMID:25165738

  20. SLCA/IP power alternative screening method (SPASM)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.C. |; Ancrile, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the SLCA/IP Power Alternative Screening Method (SPASM), which was used to screen 784 possible combinations of electric power marketing alternatives and dam operational scenarios to provide a representative range for analysis in the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Each combination consists of one energy and capacity commitment level and one operational scenario for each of the hydroelectric facilities at Glen Canyon Dam, Flaming Gorge Dam, and the Aspinall Unit. The total annual cost to the SLCA/IP firm power customers of each of the 784 combinations is estimated and included in a relative frequency distribution. A relative frequency distribution is also generated for each marketing alternative. The number of combinations is reduced to 12 by taking the mean value and endpoint value for each of four marketing alternatives. Some minor deviations from this procedure, which are made for political purposes, are explained. 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. An Experimental Method for Stereolithic Mandible Fabrication and Image Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Russett, Shawn; Major, Paul; Carey, Jason; Toogood, Roger; Boulanger, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Reproduction of anatomical structures by rapid prototyping has proven to be a valid adjunct for craniofacial surgery, providing alternative methods to produce prostheses and development of surgical guides. The aim of this study was to introduce a methodology to fabricate asymmetric human mandibles by rapid prototyping to be used in future studies for evaluating mandibular symmetries. Stereolithic models of human mandibles were produced with varying amounts of asymmetry in the condylar neck, ramus and body of the mandible by means of rapid prototyping. A method for production of the synthetic mandibles was defined. Model preparation, landmark description and development of the experimental model were described. A series of synthetic mandibles ranging in asymmetry were accurately produced from a scanned human mandible. A method for creating the asymmetries, fabricating, coating and landmarking the synthetic mandibles was formulated. A description for designing a reproducible experimental model for image acquisition was also outlined. Production of synthetic mandibles by stereolithic modeling is a viable method for creating skeletal experimental models with known amounts of asymmetry. PMID:19662121

  2. Alternative Methods for Measuring Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ashley E.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi; Smith, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) may not be the most appropriate measurement tool in determining obesity in diverse populations. We studied a convenience sample of 108 African American (AA) women to determine the best method for measuring obesity in this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to determine if percent body fat (PBF) and percent body water (PBW) could be used as alternatives to BMI in predicting obesity and risk for hypertension (HTN) among AA women. After accounting for age, BMI, and the use of anti-hypertensive medication, PBF (p = 0.0125) and PBW (p = 0.0297) were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, while BMI was not. Likewise, PBF (p = 0.0316) was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure, while PBW and BMI were not. Thus, health care practitioners should consider alternative anthropometric measurements such as PBF when assessing obesity in AA women. PMID:23483836

  3. Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Martella, L.L.; Saba, M.T.; Campbell, G.K.

    1984-02-08

    Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative conversion methods tested because of the larger particle-size formation, faster filtration rates, and the low plutonium loss to the filtrate. These were found to be as efficient as, and in some cases more efficient than, the peroxide method. 18 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.

  4. 48 CFR 32.503-9 - Liquidation rates-alternate method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-alternate method. 32.503-9 Section 32.503-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Liquidation rates—alternate method. (a) The liquidation rate determined under 32.503-8 shall apply throughout... the alternate method in this 32.503-9. The objective of the alternate liquidation rate method is...

  5. Alternative microbial methods: An overview and selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Jasson, Vicky; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel; Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-09-01

    This study provides an overview and criteria for the selection of a method, other than the reference method, for microbial analysis of foods. In a first part an overview of the general characteristics of rapid methods available, both for enumeration and detection, is given with reference to relevant bibliography. Perspectives on future development and the potential of the rapid method for routine application in food diagnostics are discussed. As various alternative "rapid" methods in different formats are available on the market, it can be very difficult for a food business operator or for a control authority to select the most appropriate method which fits its purpose. Validation of a method by a third party, according to international accepted protocol based upon ISO 16140, may increase the confidence in the performance of a method. A list of at the moment validated methods for enumeration of both utility indicators (aerobic plate count) and hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coagulase positive Staphylococcus) as well as for detection of the four major pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157 and Campylobacter spp.) is included with reference to relevant websites to check for updates. In a second part of this study, selection criteria are introduced to underpin the choice of the appropriate method(s) for a defined application. The selection criteria link the definition of the context in which the user of the method functions - and thus the prospective use of the microbial test results - with the technical information on the method and its operational requirements and sustainability. The selection criteria can help the end user of the method to obtain a systematic insight into all relevant factors to be taken into account for selection of a method for microbial analysis. PMID:20630313

  6. Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Christian; Schmid, Freia F; Rossi, Angela; Kurdyn, Szymon; Kampik, Daniel; De Wever, Bart; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian K

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test has been criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation.This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed in regard of possible limitations and their status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be applicable to predict all GHS categories.

  7. Alternative sewerage solution: Condominial method and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türker, Umut

    In this study, the fundamental of the theory of condominial sewer design is discussed through a readily available computer program and the theory is used to bring out the effect of pipe diameter and sewer gradient on design calculations through alternative solutions. It is proved that the roughness of the pipe is effective on the size, lifetime, and cost-saving property of the condominial sewer system, whereas the pipe diameter is not a vital parameter for the same criteria. Any expansion on the pipe roughness increased the gradient of flow and thus enlarged the excavation area hence; undermine the cost-saving property of the condominial method.

  8. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity, as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.

  9. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    DOE PAGES

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity,more » as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.« less

  10. Alternative methods of reproduction. Effects on the child.

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, B Z

    1987-01-01

    Artificial donor insemination (DI), surrogate parenting, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer are alternative methods of reproduction being utilized with increasing frequency. Technological developments are being studied in detail. Because of the secrecy inherent in the families involved, there has been little written describing the emotional and psychological well-being of the participants. Significant factors, such as unlimited pregnancies per donor, lack of recordkeeping of the genetic background of each insemination, need for psychological counseling of the parents, the impact of the "family secret" of the pregnancy, and the well-being of the offspring, have not been adequately addressed. There has been little effort to make use of our experience in adoption in relation to many of these same areas. No medical guidelines or legislation exist. The inherent problems associated with these parenting methods and practices are discussed along with recommendations for improvement.

  11. Outcome modelling strategies in epidemiology: traditional methods and basic alternatives.

    PubMed

    Greenland, Sander; Daniel, Rhian; Pearce, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Controlling for too many potential confounders can lead to or aggravate problems of data sparsity or multicollinearity, particularly when the number of covariates is large in relation to the study size. As a result, methods to reduce the number of modelled covariates are often deployed. We review several traditional modelling strategies, including stepwise regression and the 'change-in-estimate' (CIE) approach to deciding which potential confounders to include in an outcome-regression model for estimating effects of a targeted exposure. We discuss their shortcomings, and then provide some basic alternatives and refinements that do not require special macros or programming. Throughout, we assume the main goal is to derive the most accurate effect estimates obtainable from the data and commercial software. Allowing that most users must stay within standard software packages, this goal can be roughly approximated using basic methods to assess, and thereby minimize, mean squared error (MSE).

  12. Outcome modelling strategies in epidemiology: traditional methods and basic alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Greenland, Sander; Daniel, Rhian; Pearce, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Controlling for too many potential confounders can lead to or aggravate problems of data sparsity or multicollinearity, particularly when the number of covariates is large in relation to the study size. As a result, methods to reduce the number of modelled covariates are often deployed. We review several traditional modelling strategies, including stepwise regression and the ‘change-in-estimate’ (CIE) approach to deciding which potential confounders to include in an outcome-regression model for estimating effects of a targeted exposure. We discuss their shortcomings, and then provide some basic alternatives and refinements that do not require special macros or programming. Throughout, we assume the main goal is to derive the most accurate effect estimates obtainable from the data and commercial software. Allowing that most users must stay within standard software packages, this goal can be roughly approximated using basic methods to assess, and thereby minimize, mean squared error (MSE). PMID:27097747

  13. Development of an alternating integrator for magnetic measurements for experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Liu, D M; Wan, B N; Zhao, W Z; Shen, B; He, Y G; Chen, B; Huang, J; Liu, H Q

    2014-11-01

    A high-performance integrator is one of the key electronic devices for reliably controlling plasma in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak for long pulse operation. We once designed an integrator system of real-time drift compensation, which has a low integration drift. However, it is not feasible for really continuous operations due to capacitive leakage error and nonlinearity error. To solve the above-mentioned problems, this paper presents a new alternating integrator. In the new integrator, the integrator system of real-time drift compensation is adopted as one integral cell while two such integral cells work alternately. To achieve the alternate function, a Field Programmable Gate Array built in the digitizer is utilized. The performance test shows that the developed integrator with the integration time constant of 20 ms has a low integration drift (<15 mV) for 1000 s.

  14. Development of an alternating integrator for magnetic measurements for experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D. M. Zhao, W. Z.; He, Y. G.; Chen, B.; Wan, B. N.; Shen, B.; Huang, J.; Liu, H. Q.

    2014-11-15

    A high-performance integrator is one of the key electronic devices for reliably controlling plasma in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak for long pulse operation. We once designed an integrator system of real-time drift compensation, which has a low integration drift. However, it is not feasible for really continuous operations due to capacitive leakage error and nonlinearity error. To solve the above-mentioned problems, this paper presents a new alternating integrator. In the new integrator, the integrator system of real-time drift compensation is adopted as one integral cell while two such integral cells work alternately. To achieve the alternate function, a Field Programmable Gate Array built in the digitizer is utilized. The performance test shows that the developed integrator with the integration time constant of 20 ms has a low integration drift (<15 mV) for 1000 s.

  15. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. [LCC (Leadless Chip Carriers)

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  16. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... scientific experts from government, industry, and academia to review these methods and to define efforts... HUMAN SERVICES International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine... Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) announces...

  17. Alternative method for evaluating the pair energy of nucleons in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmukhamedov, A. M.

    2015-12-15

    An alternative method for determining the odd–even effect parameter related to special features of the Casimir operator in Wigner’s mass formula for nuclei is proposed. A procedure for calculating this parameter is presented. The proposed method relies on a geometric interpretation of the Casimir operator, experimental data concerning the contribution of spin–orbit interaction to the nuclear mass for even–even and odd–odd nuclei, and systematics of energy gaps in the spectra of excited states of even–even nuclei.

  18. Understanding Alternative Education: A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassett Farrelly, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Alternative schools operate today as a hidden, parallel educational system, providing a separate and often unequal education to many at-risk students, with little to no accountability. The number of alternative schools, and enrollment in alternative schools, is increasing, due in part to excessive use of zero tolerance policies. Students of color,…

  19. Alternative method for Hamilton-Jacobi PDEs in image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagoutte, A.; Salat, H.; Vachier, C.

    2011-03-01

    Multiscale signal analysis has been used since the early 1990s as a powerful tool for image processing, notably in the linear case. However, nonlinear PDEs and associated nonlinear operators have advantages over linear operators, notably preserving important features such as edges in images. In this paper, we focus on nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi PDEs defined with adaptive speeds or, alternatively, on adaptive morphological fiters also called semi-flat morphological operators. Semi-flat morphology were instroduced by H. Heijmans and studied only in the case where the speed (or equivalently the filtering parameter) is a decreasing function of the luminance. It is proposed to extend the definition suggested by H. Heijmans in the case of non decreasing speeds. We also prove that a central property for defining morphological filters, that is the adjunction property, is preserved while dealing with our extended definitions. Finally experimental applications are presented on actual images, including connection of thin lines by semi-flat dilations and image filtering by semi-flat openings.

  20. An alternate high yielding purification method for Clitoria ternatea lectin.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Aabgeena; Ahmad, Ejaz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2007-10-01

    In our previous publication we had reported the purification and characterization of Clitoria ternatea agglutinin from its seeds on fetuin CL agarose affinity column, designated CTA [A. Naeem, S. Haque, R.H. Khan. Protein J., 2007]. Since CTA binds beta-d-galactosides, this lectin can be used as valuable tool for glycobiology studies in biomedical and cancer research. So an attempt was made for a high yielding alternative purification method employing the use of asialofetuin CL agarose column for the above-mentioned lectin, designated CTL. The fetuin affinity purified agglutinin was found similar to asialofetuin affinity purified lectin in SDS pattern, HPLC and N-terminal sequence. The content of lectin was found to be 30mg/30g dry weight of pulse. The yield was 2.8% as compared to 0.3% obtained on fetuin column. The number of tryptophan and tyrosine estimated was four and six per subunit. PMID:17590430

  1. An alternative method to achieve metrological confirmation in measurement process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeta, M.; Rubio, E. M.; Sanz, A.; Sevilla, L.

    2012-04-01

    Metrological confirmation process must be designed and implemented to ensure that metrological characteristics of the measurement system meet metrological requirements of the measurement process. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative method to the traditional metrological requirements about the relationship between tolerance and measurement uncertainty, to develop such confirmation processes. The proposed way to metrological confirmation considers a given inspection task of the measurement process into the manufacturing system, and it is based on the Index of Contamination of the Capability, ICC. Metrological confirmation process is then developed taking into account the producer risks and economic considerations on this index. As a consequence, depending on the capability of the manufacturing process, the measurement system will be or will not be in adequate state of metrological confirmation for the measurement process.

  2. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to simulate expected ranges of mercury

  3. An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.

    2008-01-01

    Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching rule…

  4. Experimental design for stable genetic manipulation in mammalian cell lines: lentivirus and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Robert F; Saunders, Darren N

    2015-01-01

    The use of third-generation lentiviral vectors is now commonplace in most areas of basic biology. These systems provide a fast, efficient means for modulating gene expression, but experimental design needs to be carefully considered to minimize potential artefacts arising from off-target effects and other confounding factors. This review offers a starting point for those new to lentiviral-based vector systems, addressing the main issues involved with the use of lentiviral systems in vitro and outlines considerations which should be taken into account during experimental design. Factors such as selecting an appropriate system and controls, and practical titration of viral transduction are important considerations for experimental design. We also briefly describe some of the more recent advances in genome editing technology. TALENs and CRISPRs offer an alternative to lentivirus, providing endogenous gene editing with reduced off-target effects often at the expense of efficiency.

  5. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  6. Combining sources in stable isotope mixing models: alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Donald L; Newsome, Seth D; Gregg, Jillian W

    2005-08-01

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants; or water bodies, and many others. A common problem is having too many sources to allow a unique solution. We discuss two alternative procedures for addressing this problem. One option is a priori to combine sources with similar signatures so the number of sources is small enough to provide a unique solution. Aggregation should be considered only when isotopic signatures of clustered sources are not significantly different, and sources are related so the combined source group has some functional significance. For example, in a food web analysis, lumping several species within a trophic guild allows more interpretable results than lumping disparate food sources, even if they have similar isotopic signatures. One result of combining mixing model sources is increased uncertainty of the combined end-member isotopic signatures and consequently the source contribution estimates; this effect can be quantified using the IsoError model (http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models/isotopes/isoerror1_04.htm). As an alternative to lumping sources before a mixing analysis, the IsoSource mixing model (http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models/isosource/isosource.htm) can be used to find all feasible solutions of source contributions consistent with isotopic mass balance. While ranges of feasible contributions for each individual source can often be quite broad, contributions from functionally related groups of sources can be summed a posteriori, producing a range of solutions for the aggregate source that may be considerably narrower. A paleo-human dietary analysis example illustrates this method, which involves a terrestrial meat food source, a combination of three terrestrial plant foods, and a combination of three marine foods. In this case, a posteriori aggregation of sources allowed

  7. Integrated Experimental and Computational Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and the Use of Alternative Fracking Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, H.; Carey, J. W.; Karra, S.; Porter, M. L.; Rougier, E.; Zhang, D.; Makedonska, N.; Middleton, R. S.; Currier, R.; Gupta, R.; Lei, Z.; Kang, Q.; O'Malley, D.; Hyman, J.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas is an unconventional fossil energy resource that is already having a profound impact on US energy independence and is projected to last for at least 100 years. Production of methane and other hydrocarbons from low permeability shale involves hydrofracturing of rock, establishing fracture connectivity, and multiphase fluid-flow and reaction processes all of which are poorly understood. The result is inefficient extraction with many environmental concerns. A science-based capability is required to quantify the governing mesoscale fluid-solid interactions, including microstructural control of fracture patterns and the interaction of engineered fluids with hydrocarbon flow. These interactions depend on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes over scales from microns to tens of meters. Determining the key mechanisms in subsurface THMC systems has been impeded due to the lack of sophisticated experimental methods to measure fracture aperture and connectivity, multiphase permeability, and chemical exchange capacities at the high temperature, pressure, and stresses present in the subsurface. This project uses innovative high-pressure microfluidic and triaxial core flood experiments on shale to explore fracture-permeability relations and the extraction of hydrocarbon. These data are integrated with simulations including lattice Boltzmann modeling of pore-scale processes, finite-element/discrete element models of fracture development in the near-well environment, discrete-fracture modeling of the reservoir, and system-scale models to assess the economics of alternative fracturing fluids. The ultimate goal is to make the necessary measurements to develop models that can be used to determine the reservoir operating conditions necessary to gain a degree of control over fracture generation, fluid flow, and interfacial processes over a range of subsurface conditions.

  8. Experimental Study of Sand Production and Mud Erosion Phenomena for Sand Mud Alternate Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, H.; Sato, T.

    2014-12-01

    Methane hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds under specific thermodynamic conditions. The existence of methane hydrates is confirmed in the Nankai Trough, an offshore area of Japan. Japan's Methane Hydrate Research and Development Program (MH21) has been under way at this area. In the early 2013, the world's first intentional gas production attempt from marine gas hydrate deposits was tried and accomplished in the Daini Atumi Knoll area of the Eastern Nankai Trough. For gas production, depressurization method has been considered as a promising gas production technique from methane hydrate reservoirs. However, considering of continuous gas production over a long period, there is still something to clarify. The methane hydrate crystals are very small and existed in the intergranular pores of sandy layer of turbidite sediments. When the intergranular methane hydrates will be dissociated, it is considered that dissociated gas and water flow will cause sand production and mud erosion phenomena of turbidite sediments. The production of framework sands into a well is one of the problems plaguing the gas because of its adverse effects on well productivity and equipment. If the eroded mud is accumulated in the pore space of sand, skin is generated and permeability becomes lower. In addition, mud erosion has a negative effect for the well stability. This research presents an experimental study to understand sand production and mud erosion phenomena for sand mud alternate layer. The aims of this study are to understand these phenomena and clarify driving forces. In our experiments, we used an artificial sedimentary core and performed experiments under various conditions. As the results, the driving forces of these phenomena are not dissociation gas flow but water flow through pore.

  9. Alternative methods for the use of non-human primates in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Burm, Saskia M; Prins, Jan-Bas; Langermans, Jan; Bajramovic, Jeffrey J

    2014-01-01

    The experimental use of non-human primates (NHP) in Europe is tightly regulated and is only permitted when there are no alternatives available. As a result, NHP are most often used in late, pre-clinical phases of biomedical research. Although the impetus for scientists, politicians and the general public to replace, reduce and refine NHP in biomedical research is strong, the development of 3Rs technology for NHP poses specific challenges. In February 2014 a workshop on "Alternative methods for the use of NHP in biomedical research" was organized within the international exchange program of EUPRIM-Net II, a European infrastructure initiative that links biomedical primate research centers. The workshop included lectures by key scientists in the field of alternatives as well as by experts from governmental and non-governmental organizations. Furthermore, parallel sessions were organized to stimulate discussion on the challenges of advancing the use of alternative methods for NHP. Subgroups voted on four statements and together composed a list with opportunities and priorities. This report summarizes the presentations that were held, the content of the discussion sessions and concludes with recommendations on 3Rs development for NHP specifically. These include technical, conceptual as well as political topics.

  10. Alternative method for intramuscular fat analysis using common laboratory equipment.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Calvo, L; Óvilo, C; González-Bulnes, A; Olivares, A; Cambero, M I; López-Bote, C J

    2015-05-01

    A procedure to quantify intramuscular fat was developed using common inexpensive laboratory equipment. Three homogenization methods of lyophilized muscle samples (Ball-mill, Grinder and Mortar) and two extraction methods (Ball-mill or Vortex) were used in turkey meat and pork. Two-hundred mg of lyophilized and homogenized samples were accurately weighed and mixed with 1.5 mL of dichloromethane-methanol (8:2) and shaken either in a Mixer Mill (MM400, Retsch Technology) or in a Vortex. The final mixture was separated by centrifugation. Solvent was evaporated under a nitrogen stream and lipid content was gravimetrically determined. Besides, it was checked that the fatty acid profile was not altered by the protocol used. Moreover, the analysis of 4 replicas from the same sample showed different variation coefficients (16-29%) for the new procedures proposed over a wide range of IMF content. The combination of Grinder and Vortex methodologies can be proposed as a simple and inexpensive alternative to previous ones.

  11. Alternative method for intramuscular fat analysis using common laboratory equipment.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Calvo, L; Óvilo, C; González-Bulnes, A; Olivares, A; Cambero, M I; López-Bote, C J

    2015-05-01

    A procedure to quantify intramuscular fat was developed using common inexpensive laboratory equipment. Three homogenization methods of lyophilized muscle samples (Ball-mill, Grinder and Mortar) and two extraction methods (Ball-mill or Vortex) were used in turkey meat and pork. Two-hundred mg of lyophilized and homogenized samples were accurately weighed and mixed with 1.5 mL of dichloromethane-methanol (8:2) and shaken either in a Mixer Mill (MM400, Retsch Technology) or in a Vortex. The final mixture was separated by centrifugation. Solvent was evaporated under a nitrogen stream and lipid content was gravimetrically determined. Besides, it was checked that the fatty acid profile was not altered by the protocol used. Moreover, the analysis of 4 replicas from the same sample showed different variation coefficients (16-29%) for the new procedures proposed over a wide range of IMF content. The combination of Grinder and Vortex methodologies can be proposed as a simple and inexpensive alternative to previous ones. PMID:25591172

  12. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM... the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and safety testing methods that.../live ). SACATM advises the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative...

  13. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    PubMed

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed.

  14. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    PubMed

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed. PMID:26184446

  15. Phototoxicity: Its Mechanism and Animal Alternative Test Methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeonji; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The skin exposure to solar irradiation and photoreactive xenobiotics may produce abnormal skin reaction, phototoxicity. Phototoxicity is an acute light-induced response, which occurs when photoreacive chemicals are activated by solar lights and transformed into products cytotoxic against the skin cells. Multifarious symptoms of phototoxicity are identified, skin irritation, erythema, pruritis, and edema that are similar to those of the exaggerated sunburn. Diverse organic chemicals, especially drugs, are known to induce phototoxicity, which is probably from the common possession of UV-absorbing benzene or heterocyclic rings in their molecular structures. Both UVB (290~320 nm) and UVA (320~400 nm) are responsible for the manifestation of phototoxicity. Absorption of photons and absorbed energy (hv) by photoactive chemicals results in molecular changes or generates reactive oxygen species and depending on the way how endogenous molecules are affected by phototoxicants, mechanisms of phototoxcity is categorized into two modes of action: Direct when unstable species from excited state directly react with the endogenous molecules, and indirect when endogeneous molecules react with secondary photoproducts. In order to identify phototoxic potential of a chemical, various test methods have been introduced. Focus is given to animal alternative test methods, i.e., in vitro, and in chemico assays as well as in vivo. 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, erythrocyte photohemolysis test, and phototoxicity test using human 3-dimensional (3D) epidermis model are examples of in vitro assays. In chemico methods evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species or DNA strand break activity employing plasmid for chemicals, or drugs with phototoxic potential. PMID:26191378

  16. Experimental characterization of composites. [load test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bert, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental characterization for composite materials is generally more complicated than for ordinary homogeneous, isotropic materials because composites behave in a much more complex fashion, due to macroscopic anisotropic effects and lamination effects. Problems concerning the static uniaxial tension test for composite materials are considered along with approaches for conducting static uniaxial compression tests and static uniaxial bending tests. Studies of static shear properties are discussed, taking into account in-plane shear, twisting shear, and thickness shear. Attention is given to static multiaxial loading, systematized experimental programs for the complete characterization of static properties, and dynamic properties.

  17. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... alternative method for determining energy efficiency or energy use (AEDM) to the basic model, in...

  18. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. Link to an amendment... model, either from testing the basic model or from applying an alternative method for determining...

  19. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... alternative method for determining energy efficiency or energy use (AEDM) to the basic model, in...

  20. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted...

  1. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted...

  2. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted...

  3. Understanding Alternative Education: A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Susan Glassett; Daniels, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Alternative education plays a critical role in the opportunity gap that persists in the US public education system. However, there has been little research on alternative schools. Scaffolded by a theoretical framework constructed from critical theory, self-determination theory (SDT) and student voice, this research examined how well students in…

  4. An alternative experimental approach for subcritical configurations of the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnelli, E.; Lee, S. M.; Pinto, L. N.; Landim, H. R.; Diniz, R.; Jerez, R.; dos Santos, A.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents an alternative approach for the reactivity worth experiments analysis in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor considering highly subcritical arrays. In order to reach the subcritical levels, the removal of a specific number of fuel rods is proposed. Twenty three configurations were carried out for this purpose. The control bank insertion experiment was used only as reference for the fuel rod experiment and, in addition, the control banks were maintained completely withdrawn during all the fuel rods experiment. The theoretical simulation results using the MCNP5 code and the ENDF/B-VII.0 library neutron data are in a very good agreement to experimental results.

  5. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives.

  6. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): Promoting Alternative Methods in Europe and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public–private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives. PMID:25836968

  7. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives. PMID:25836968

  8. An alternative calibration method for counting P-32 reactor monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, T.J.; Vehar, D.W.

    2011-07-01

    Radioactivation of sulfur is a common technique used to measure fast neutron fluences in test and research reactors. Elemental sulfur can be pressed into pellets and used as monitors. The {sup 32}S(n, p) {sup 32}P reaction has a practical threshold of about 3 MeV and its cross section and associated uncertainties are well characterized [1]. The product {sup 32P} emits a beta particle with a maximum energy of 1710 keV [2]. This energetic beta particle allows pellets to be counted intact. ASTM Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates and Fast-Neutron Fluences by Radioactivation of Sulfur-32 (E265) [3] details a method of calibration for counting systems and subsequent analysis of results. This method requires irradiation of sulfur monitors in a fast-neutron field whose spectrum and intensity are well known. The resultant decay-corrected count rate is then correlated to the known fast neutron fluence. The Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia has traditionally performed calibration irradiations of sulfur pellets using the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron source at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) [4] as a transfer standard. However, decay has reduced the intensity of NIST's source; thus lowering the practical upper limits of available fluence. As of May 2010, neutron emission rates have decayed to approximately 3 e8 n/s. In practice, this degradation of capabilities precludes calibrations at the highest fluence levels produced at test reactors and limits the useful range of count rates that can be measured. Furthermore, the reduced availability of replacement {sup 252}Cf threatens the long-term viability of the NIST {sup 252}Cf facility for sulfur pellet calibrations. In lieu of correlating count rate to neutron fluence in a reference field the total quantity of {sup 32}P produced in a pellet can be determined by absolute counting methods. This offers an attractive alternative to extended {sup 252}Cf exposures because it

  9. Alternate Methods in Refining the SLS Nozzle Plug Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbank, Scott; Allen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Numerical analysis has shown that the SLS nozzle environmental barrier (nozzle plug) design is inadequate for the prelaunch condition, which consists of two dominant loads: 1) the main engines startup pressure and 2) an environmentally induced pressure. Efforts to reduce load conservatisms included a dynamic analysis which showed a 31% higher safety factor compared to the standard static analysis. The environmental load is typically approached with a deterministic method using the worst possible combinations of pressures and temperatures. An alternate probabilistic approach, utilizing the distributions of pressures and temperatures, resulted in a 54% reduction in the environmental pressure load. A Monte Carlo simulation of environmental load that used five years of historical pressure and temperature data supported the results of the probabilistic analysis, indicating the probabilistic load is reflective of a 3-sigma condition (1 in 370 probability). Utilizing the probabilistic load analysis eliminated excessive conservatisms and will prevent a future overdesign of the nozzle plug. Employing a similar probabilistic approach to other design and analysis activities can result in realistic yet adequately conservative solutions.

  10. Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1995-12-31

    Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. Results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Postconsolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

  11. Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1996-06-01

    Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot isostatic pressing (HEPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. The results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Post consolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

  12. Alternative production methods to face global molybdenum-99 supply shortage.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Maria; Charalambatou, Paraskevi; Roussou, Eirini; Fytros, Stavros; Baka, Irini

    2011-01-01

    The sleeping giant of molybdenum-99 ((99)Mo) production is grinding to a halt and the world is wondering how this happened. Fewer than 10 reactors in the world are capable of producing radio nuclides for medicine; approximately 50% of the world's supply of raw material comes from National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. Many of these reactors, like the NRU, are old and aging. No one of these reactors, and probably not even all of them in combination, can replace the production of NRU. As the healthcare industry faces an aging population and the demand for diagnostic services using (99m)Tc continues to rise, the need for a consistent, reliable supply of (99)Mo has become increasingly important, so alternative methods to produce (99)Mo or even directly (99m)Tc had to be considered to avoid a supply shortage in the coming years. This need guides to the production of (99)Mo by replacing the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) target in a nuclear reactor with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and furthermore to the use of accelerators for manufacturing (99)Mo or for directly producing (99m)Tc.

  13. An alternative method for determining GPS receiver phase biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, Tobias; Schön, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is used in a broad variety of applications to determine very economically high precision parameters for positioning, navigation and timing. In comparison to traditional differential approaches, PPP with undifferenced phase measurements is highly attractive, since the effort on the user side can be reduced to minimum, e.g. due to an unnecessary reference station. The quality of obtained position solutions is comparable to those obtained from a differential approach. One of the most important limiting factor is the long integration time to determine (float) ambiguities. Furthermore, it is critical to consider adequately all occurring error sources. In this context, receiver phase biases are one of the limiting factors and very complex to model. At least they are highly correlated with the ambiguities during the estimation process, (Laurichesse et al. 2009). This contribution presents an alternative method to estimate carrier phase biases of different GPS/GNSS receivers and signals w.r.t. a reference receiver. Receiver phase biases are estimated on a zero baseline and in combination with a very stable and precise clock (H-Maser) using single differences. The presented method will be discussed in detail. This includes a critical look to the estimability of bias values for several GPS/GNSS receivers as well as a discussion on the stability and universality of these bias values. Finally relative phase biases are quantified and it will be discussed how GPS/GNSS observation equations have to be extended, to take these bias values correctly into account. References: Laurichesse D., Mercier F., Berthias J.P., Broca P., Cerri L. (2009): Integer ambiguity resolution on undifferenced GPS phase measurements and its application to PPP and satellite precise orbit determination, In: NAVIGATION, Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Volume 56, Number 2, pages: 135 - 149

  14. Alternative methods for management of the complicated gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A B; Fink, A S

    1998-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the procedure of choice for symptomatic cholelithiasis. However, in the presence of acute cholecystitis, 10% to 15% of patients face conversion to laparotomy. Alternatives to conventional therapy may therefore help to improve the clinical outcome of patients with complicated gallbladder disease. In selecting patients for alternative therapies, preoperative and intraoperative factors must be considered. Preoperative factors include the severity of biliary disease and preexisting medical risk factors; whereas intraoperative factors include conditions at the time of surgery that make dissection difficult or unsafe. Alternative therapies provide the least invasive management to safely temporize or definitively treat the acute condition. These alternatives include percutaneous cholecystostomy alone or followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic cholecystostomy followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy, endoscopic retrograde cannulation of the gallbladder, and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. By appropriate selection of the initial therapeutic approach, the surgeon may ultimately improve the clinical outcome in these complicated patients.

  15. A MILP-based flux alternative generation and NMR experimental design strategy for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Phalakornkule, C; Lee, S; Zhu, T; Koepsel, R; Ataai, M M; Grossmann, I E; Domach, M M

    2001-04-01

    A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) is described that can enumerate all the ways fluxes can distribute in a metabolic network while still satisfying the same constraints and objective function. The multiple solutions can be used to (1) generate alternative flux scenarios that can account for limited experimental observations, (2) forecast the potential responses to mutation (e.g., new reaction pathways may be used), and (3) (as illustrated) design (13)C NMR experiments such that different potential flux patterns in a mutant can be distinguished. The experimental design is enabled by using the MILP results as an input to an isotopomer mapping matrices (IMM)-based program, which accounts for the network circulation of (13)C from a precursor such as glucose. The IMM-based program can interface to common plotting programs with the result that the user is provided with predicted NMR spectra that are complete with splittings and Lorentzian line-shape features. The example considered is the trafficking of carbon in an Escherichia coli mutant, which has pyruvate kinase activity deleted for the purpose of eliminating acetate production. Similar yields and extracellular measurements would be manifested by the flux alternatives. The MILP-IMM results suggest how NMR experiments can be designed such that the spectra of glutamate for two flux distribution scenarios differ significantly.

  16. Experimental methods for geological remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    During the past year a two channel IR technique for discrimination among silicate rocks was tested for a second time, a three channel IR method was tested for the first time, and a new visible-reflective IR ratio method was hypothesized and qualitatively tested for iron oxide recognition. Both the two channel and three channel IR ratios methods were capable of discriminating felsic from mafic rock types. The three-channel ratio values measured by the scanner were found to agree, within reasonable limits, with the values of R calculated from laboratory data. The capability of the three channel method to obtain absolute ratios is accompanied by a costly processing routine. The two channel technique is superior for low thermal contrast scenes about which some ground truth is available because of its speed and economy.

  17. Simple Method To Measure the Vapor Pressure of Phthalates and Their Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaoxing; Eichler, Clara M A; Chen, Shengyang; Little, John C

    2016-09-20

    Phthalates and alternative plasticizers are semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), an important class of indoor pollutants that may have significant adverse effects on human health. Unfortunately, models that predict emissions of and the resulting exposure to SVOCs have substantial uncertainties. One reason is that the characteristics governing emissions, transport, and exposure are usually strongly dependent on vapor pressure. Furthermore, available data for phthalates exhibit significant variability, and vapor pressures for the various alternatives are usually unavailable. For these reasons, a new approach based on modeling of the evaporation process was developed to determine vapor pressures of phthalates and alternate plasticizers. A laminar flow forced convection model was used in the design of a partial saturator (PS) tube. The mass transfer mechanisms in the PS tube are accurately modeled and enable the determination of vapor pressure even when the carrier gas is not completely saturated, avoiding the complicated procedure to establish vapor saturation. The measured vapor pressures ranged from about 10(-2) to 10(-7) Pa. Compared to the traditional gas saturation method, the model-based approach is advantageous in terms of both predictability and simplicity. The knowledge provides new insight into experimental design and a sound basis for further method development.

  18. Simple Method To Measure the Vapor Pressure of Phthalates and Their Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaoxing; Eichler, Clara M A; Chen, Shengyang; Little, John C

    2016-09-20

    Phthalates and alternative plasticizers are semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), an important class of indoor pollutants that may have significant adverse effects on human health. Unfortunately, models that predict emissions of and the resulting exposure to SVOCs have substantial uncertainties. One reason is that the characteristics governing emissions, transport, and exposure are usually strongly dependent on vapor pressure. Furthermore, available data for phthalates exhibit significant variability, and vapor pressures for the various alternatives are usually unavailable. For these reasons, a new approach based on modeling of the evaporation process was developed to determine vapor pressures of phthalates and alternate plasticizers. A laminar flow forced convection model was used in the design of a partial saturator (PS) tube. The mass transfer mechanisms in the PS tube are accurately modeled and enable the determination of vapor pressure even when the carrier gas is not completely saturated, avoiding the complicated procedure to establish vapor saturation. The measured vapor pressures ranged from about 10(-2) to 10(-7) Pa. Compared to the traditional gas saturation method, the model-based approach is advantageous in terms of both predictability and simplicity. The knowledge provides new insight into experimental design and a sound basis for further method development. PMID:27571317

  19. An Experimental Database for Conventional and Alternate Control Concepts on the HSR 1.675% Reference H Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Naomi; Allen, Jerry; Erickson, Gary; Campbell, Jim; Mann, Mike; Kubiatko, Paul; Yingling, David; Mason, Charlie

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to experimentally evaluate the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of the Reference H configuration at supersonic and transonic speeds. A series of conventional and alternate control devices were also evaluated at supersonic and transonic speeds. A database on the conventional and alternate control devices was to be created for use in the HSR program.

  20. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods; Announcement of Meeting; Request for Comments SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological...

  1. Experimental Mathemataics: Examples, Methods andImplications

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2005-01-31

    Recent years have seen the flowering of ''experimental'' mathematics, namely the utilization of modern computer technology as an active tool in mathematical research. This development is not limited to a handful of researchers, nor to a handful of universities, nor is it limited to one particular field of mathematics. Instead, it involves hundreds of individuals, at many different institutions, who have turned to the remarkable new computational tools now available to assist in their research, whether it be in number theory, algebra, analysis, geometry or even topology. These tools are being used to work out specific examples, generate plots, perform various algebraic and calculus manipulations, test conjectures, and explore routes to formal proof. Using computer tools to test conjectures is by itself a major time saver for mathematicians, as it permits them to quickly rule out false notions.

  2. Experimental and analysis methods in radiochemical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattadori, C. M.; Pandola, L.

    2016-04-01

    Radiochemical experiments made the history of neutrino physics by achieving the first observation of solar neutrinos (Cl experiment) and the first detection of the fundamental pp solar neutrinos component (Ga experiments). They measured along decades the integral νe charged current interaction rate in the exposed target. The basic operation principle is the chemical separation of the few atoms of the new chemical species produced by the neutrino interactions from the rest of the target, and their individual counting in a low-background counter. The smallness of the expected interaction rate (1 event per day in a ˜ 100 ton target) poses severe experimental challenges on the chemical and on the counting procedures. The main aspects related to the analysis techniques employed in solar neutrino experiments are reviewed and described, with a special focus given to the event selection and the statistical data treatment.

  3. Single-Case Research Methods: History and Suitability for a Psychological Science in Need of Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; López-López, Wilson

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a historical and conceptual analysis of a group of research strategies known as the Single-Case Methods (SCMs). First, we present an overview of the SCMs, their history, and their major proponents. We will argue that the philosophical roots of SCMs can be found in the ideas of authors who recognized the importance of understanding both the generality and individuality of psychological functioning. Second, we will discuss the influence that the natural sciences' attitude toward measurement and experimentation has had on SCMs. Although this influence can be traced back to the early days of experimental psychology, during which incipient forms of SCMs appeared, SCMs reached full development during the subsequent advent of Behavior Analysis (BA). Third, we will show that despite the success of SCMs in BA and other (mainly applied) disciplines, these designs are currently not prominent in psychology. More importantly, they have been neglected as a possible alternative to one of the mainstream approaches in psychology, the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST), despite serious controversies about the limitations of this prevailing method. Our thesis throughout this section will be that SCMs should be considered as an alternative to NHST because many of the recommendations for improving the use of significance testing (Wilkinson & the TFSI, 1999) are main characteristics of SCMs. The paper finishes with a discussion of a number of the possible reasons why SCMs have been neglected.

  4. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.

    1996-04-30

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking. 6 figs.

  5. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, John R.

    1996-01-01

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking.

  6. Experimental Tests of Subjective Bayesian Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li,Yuelin; Krantz, David H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated Samaniego and Reneau's 1994 novel weight method for eliciting subjective probability estimates. Experiment 1 replicated their experiment (subjects weighed their prior estimate against 10 new observations), with an additional weight judgment against 50 observations. In Experiment 2, subjects gave prior estimates to questions in a…

  7. An experimental unification of reservoir computing methods.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B; D'Haene, M; Stroobandt, D

    2007-04-01

    Three different uses of a recurrent neural network (RNN) as a reservoir that is not trained but instead read out by a simple external classification layer have been described in the literature: Liquid State Machines (LSMs), Echo State Networks (ESNs) and the Backpropagation Decorrelation (BPDC) learning rule. Individual descriptions of these techniques exist, but a overview is still lacking. Here, we present a series of experimental results that compares all three implementations, and draw conclusions about the relation between a broad range of reservoir parameters and network dynamics, memory, node complexity and performance on a variety of benchmark tests with different characteristics. Next, we introduce a new measure for the reservoir dynamics based on Lyapunov exponents. Unlike previous measures in the literature, this measure is dependent on the dynamics of the reservoir in response to the inputs, and in the cases we tried, it indicates an optimal value for the global scaling of the weight matrix, irrespective of the standard measures. We also describe the Reservoir Computing Toolbox that was used for these experiments, which implements all the types of Reservoir Computing and allows the easy simulation of a wide range of reservoir topologies for a number of benchmarks.

  8. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models

  9. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources.

    PubMed

    Veitzer, Seth A; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H; Beckwith, Kristian R C

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H(-) source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H(-) ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD

  10. Alternatives in Medical Education: Non-Animal Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Peggy, Ed.

    The technology explosion in medical education has led to the use of computer models, videotapes, interactive videos, and state-of-the-art simulators in medical training. This booklet describes alternatives to using animals in medical education. Although it is mainly intended to describe products applicable to medical school courses, high-quality,…

  11. Methods of Securing Alternative Funding for Community Colleges. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges, Los Angeles, CA.

    Now that the growth period for community colleges is over, and public funding has stabilized or decreased, many colleges are turning to alternative funding sources as a means of financing new projects and maintaining services. Among the funding approaches are the following: (1) grants development, which requires a library of material on funding…

  12. Dynamic analysis of free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator-load system - Experimentally validated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. D.; Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Santiago, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of a variations in system parameters on the dynamic behavior of a Free-Piston Stirling Engine/Linear Alternator (FPSE/LA)-load system. The mathematical formulations incorporates both the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of the FPSE, as well as the electrical equations of the connected load. State-space technique in the frequency domain is applied to the resulting system of equations to facilitate the evaluation of parametric impacts on the system dynamic stability. Also included is a discussion on the system transient stability as affected by sudden changes in some key operating conditions. Some representative results are correlated with experimental data to verify the model and analytic formulation accuracies. Guidelines are given for ranges of the system parameters which will ensure an overall stable operation.

  13. La Methode Experimentale en Pedagogie (The Experimental Method in Pedagogy)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouquette, Michel-Louis

    1975-01-01

    The pedagogue is caught between the qualitative and quantitative or regularized aspects of his work, a situation not automatically conducive to scientific study. The article refreshes the instructor on the elementary principles of experimentation: observation, systematization, elaboration of hypothesis, and startegies of comparison. (Text is in…

  14. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, David. A.; Jones, Scott B.; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T.; Smith, Andrew R.; Jones, Davey L.; Marshall, Miles R.; Emmett, Bridget A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction.

  15. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David. A.; Jones, Scott B.; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T.; Smith, Andrew R.; Jones, Davey L.; Marshall, Miles R.; Emmett, Bridget A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction. PMID:26804897

  16. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture.

    PubMed

    Robinson, David A; Jones, Scott B; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T; Smith, Andrew R; Jones, Davey L; Marshall, Miles R; Emmett, Bridget A

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction. PMID:26804897

  17. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture.

    PubMed

    Robinson, David A; Jones, Scott B; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T; Smith, Andrew R; Jones, Davey L; Marshall, Miles R; Emmett, Bridget A

    2016-01-25

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction.

  18. Administrative Support and Alternatively Certified Teachers: A Mixed Methods Study on New Teacher Support and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Erin M.

    2012-01-01

    A non-experimental study was conducted to examine the perceived administrative support needs of alternatively certified teachers and determine their impact on teacher retention. The study sought to identify the most valued administrative support needs of alternatively-certified teachers; to compare those needs by gender and tier teaching level;…

  19. Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Dentistry: An Experimental Teaching Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vann, William F., Jr.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A traditional method of teaching psychomotor skills in a preclinical restorative dentistry laboratory course was compared with an experimental method. The experimental group was taught using a guided systematic approach that relied on detailed checklists and exhaustive faculty feedback. (Author/MLW)

  20. Alternative Methods for Field Corrections in Helical Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M. L.; Krave, S. T.; Tompkins, J. C.; Yonehara, K.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S. A.; Melconian, K.

    2015-05-01

    Helical cooling channels have been proposed for highly efficient 6D muon cooling. Helical solenoids produce solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical gradient field components. Previous studies explored the geometric tunability limits on these main field components. In this paper we present two alternative correction schemes, tilting the solenoids and the addition of helical lines, to reduce the required strength of the anti-solenoid and add an additional tuning knob.

  1. 48 CFR 6302.30 - Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule 30).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.30 Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule... Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): Settlement Judges and Mini-Trials. These procedures are designed to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative...

  2. 48 CFR 6302.30 - Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule 30).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.30 Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule... Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): Settlement Judges and Mini-Trials. These procedures are designed to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative...

  3. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods...

  4. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods...

  5. An Alternative Field Method for Screening Soybean Genotypes for Resistance to Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Arantes, N. E.; Mauro, A. O.; Tihohood, D.

    1998-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) has become an increasingly severe problem in soybean production areas in Brazil. The development and use of resistant cultivars is the most efficient method of minimizing losses due to this pathogen. Our objective was to test the efficiency of an alternative method for screening soybean genotypes for resistance to H. glycines in field plots. The alternative method was compared to the standard method of sowing the test genotypes in fields found to be infested during the previous crop season. In the alternative method, the test genotypes are sown in the furrow following the uprooting of 45-day-old infected plants. The alternative method resulted in twice the cyst population and fewer escapes, and more consistent results than the standard method. The major advantage of the alternative method is that it permits screening in a more homogeneous distribution of H. glycines in the soil. PMID:19274244

  6. Experimental study of artificial recharge alternatives in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinclair, William C.

    1977-01-01

    Extensive water withdrawal from the Floridan aquifer in the urban Tampa Bay area has induced leakage from the overlying surficial aquifer adversely effecting the water table and lake levels. Artificial recharge could reduce the impact of these effects. Four experiments were conducted to investigate possible recharge alternatives; sinkhole recharge, water-spreading, connector wells, and subsurface-tile drainage to a deep well. Experiments indicate that all four methods can be effective. However, the sink-hole recharge experiment moved the greatest volume of water into the Floridan aquifer. The drain-tile experiment indicated greatest potential for draining the surficial aquifer. Combinations of the four methods could be used where potential exists for downward movement of water and sufficient unsaturated aquifer for water storage. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. An Alternative Method To Measure MIS Faculty Teaching Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Judith C.; Soliman, Khalid S.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a method of measuring a professor's performance using student evaluations in the field of information systems by measuring differences in student perceptions and knowledge. Findings for 328 students show the usefulness of this method in assessing teacher performance. (SLD)

  8. Flexible backbone sampling methods to model and design protein alternative conformations.

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Noah; Smith, Colin A; Fraser, James S; Kortemme, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Sampling alternative conformations is key to understanding how proteins work and engineering them for new functions. However, accurately characterizing and modeling protein conformational ensembles remain experimentally and computationally challenging. These challenges must be met before protein conformational heterogeneity can be exploited in protein engineering and design. Here, as a stepping stone, we describe methods to detect alternative conformations in proteins and strategies to model these near-native conformational changes based on backrub-type Monte Carlo moves in Rosetta. We illustrate how Rosetta simulations that apply backrub moves improve modeling of point mutant side-chain conformations, native side-chain conformational heterogeneity, functional conformational changes, tolerated sequence space, protein interaction specificity, and amino acid covariation across protein-protein interfaces. We include relevant Rosetta command lines and RosettaScripts to encourage the application of these types of simulations to other systems. Our work highlights that critical scoring and sampling improvements will be necessary to approximate conformational landscapes. Challenges for the future development of these methods include modeling conformational changes that propagate away from designed mutation sites and modulating backbone flexibility to predictively design functionally important conformational heterogeneity.

  9. Biostatistical methods for the validation of alternative methods for in vitro toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Edler, Lutz; Ittrich, Carina

    2003-06-01

    Statistical methods for the validation of toxicological in vitro test assays are developed and applied. Validation is performed either in comparison with in vivo assays or in comparison with other in vitro assays of established validity. Biostatistical methods are presented which are of potential use and benefit for the validation of alternative methods for the risk assessment of chemicals, providing at least an equivalent level of protection through in vitro toxicity testing to that obtained through the use of current in vivo methods. Characteristic indices are developed and determined. Qualitative outcomes are characterised by the rates of false-positive and false-negative predictions, sensitivity and specificity, and predictive values. Quantitative outcomes are characterised by regression coefficients derived from predictive models. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) technique, applicable when a continuum of cut-off values is considered, is discussed in detail, in relation to its use for statistical modelling and statistical inference. The methods presented are examined for their use for the proof of safety and for toxicity detection and testing. We emphasise that the final validation of toxicity testing is human toxicity, and that the in vivo test itself is only a predictor with an inherent uncertainty. Therefore, the validation of the in vitro test has to account for the vagueness and uncertainty of the "gold standard" in vivo test. We address model selection and model validation, and a four-step scheme is proposed for the conduct of validation studies. Gaps and research needs are formulated to improve the validation of alternative methods for in vitro toxicity testing.

  10. An Alternative Method to the Classical Partial Fraction Decomposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherif, Chokri

    2007-01-01

    PreCalculus students can use the Completing the Square Method to solve quadratic equations without the need to memorize the quadratic formula since this method naturally leads them to that formula. Calculus students, when studying integration, use various standard methods to compute integrals depending on the type of function to be integrated.…

  11. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  12. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  13. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  14. Alternative Method for the Mass Rearing of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E F; Fernandes, W S; Oshiro, E T; Oliveira, A G; Galati, E A B

    2015-09-01

    The understanding of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania spp. Ross as well as the epidemiology and spread of leishmaniasis is related to parasite-vector-host interactions. These interactions can be studied using specimens of a sand fly population reared in the laboratory, exposing individuals to experimental infection for the investigation of vector competence and parameters of the vectorial capacity of the species. The present study sought to describe an alternative method for the implantation of a Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi colony with wild specimens captured in the municipality of Corumbá, Brazil. With Method 1, engorged females were individualized for oviposition. The eggs were transferred to an acrylic petri dish with a layer of plaster on the bottom, on which food was placed after hatching of the first larvae. With Method 2, females were kept in groups for oviposition in containers, in which soil and food were placed on their bottom for the larvae. In addition, the exposure time of the larvae to light was reduced in comparison with Method 1. With Method 2, a significantly greater number of specimens of Lu. cruzi was obtained. The ratio between the number of emerged adults and the females followed for oviposition was 0.42 with Method 1 and 2.75 with Method 2. The optimization of the rearing conditions for Lu. cruzi will enable the establishment of a colony providing a sufficient number of specimens to develop experimental infection by Leishmania as well as vectorial competence and some parameters of the vectorial capacity of this sand fly.

  15. Consensus methods: review of original methods and their main alternatives used in public health

    PubMed Central

    Bourrée, Fanny; Michel, Philippe; Salmi, Louis Rachid

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Consensus-based studies are increasingly used as decision-making methods, for they have lower production cost than other methods (observation, experimentation, modelling) and provide results more rapidly. The objective of this paper is to describe the principles and methods of the four main methods, Delphi, nominal group, consensus development conference and RAND/UCLA, their use as it appears in peer-reviewed publications and validation studies published in the healthcare literature. Methods A bibliographic search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE, Banque de Données Santé Publique (BDSP), The Cochrane Library, Pascal and Francis. Keywords, headings and qualifiers corresponding to a list of terms and expressions related to the consensus methods were searched in the thesauri, and used in the literature search. A search with the same terms and expressions was performed on Internet using the website Google Scholar. Results All methods, precisely described in the literature, are based on common basic principles such as definition of subject, selection of experts, and direct or remote interaction processes. They sometimes use quantitative assessment for ranking items. Numerous variants of these methods have been described. Few validation studies have been implemented. Not implementing these basic principles and failing to describe the methods used to reach the consensus were both frequent reasons contributing to raise suspicion regarding the validity of consensus methods. Conclusion When it is applied to a new domain with important consequences in terms of decision making, a consensus method should be first validated. PMID:19013039

  16. Alternative Method for the Thermospheric Atomic Oxygen Density Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, A. C.; Omidvar, K.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atomic oxygen density in the upper thermosphere (approximately 300 km) can be calculated using ground based incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Burnside et al. was the first to try this method, but Buonsanto et al. provided an extensive treatment of the method in 1997. This paper further examines the method using 46 nights of data collected over six years and the latest information on the oxygen collision frequency. The method is compared with the MSIS (Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter)-86 atomic oxygen prediction values, which are based upon in situ rocket born and satellite measurements from the 70s to the mid-80s. In general, the method supports the MSIS-86 model, but indicates several areas of discrepancy. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between the geomagnetic conditions and the difference between the method and MSIS-86 predictions.

  17. Alternative Methods of the Thermospheric Atomic Oxygen Density Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett. Adam C.; Omidvar, Kazem; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Atomic oxygen density in the upper thermosphere (approximately 300 km) can be calculated using ground based incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Burnside et al. [1991] was the first to try this method, but Buonsanto et al. provided an extensive treatment of the method in 1997. This paper further examines the method using 46 nights of data collected over six years and the latest information on the oxygen collision frequency. The method is compared with the MSIS-86 atomic oxygen prediction values, which are based upon in situ rocket born and satellite measurements from the 70's to the mid-80's In general, the method supports the MSIS-86 model, but indicates several areas of discrepancy. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between the geomagnetic conditions and the difference between the method and MSIS-86 predictions.

  18. Update and Improve Subsection NH –– Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Tai Asayama

    2009-10-26

    This report described the results of investigation on Task 10 of DOE/ASME Materials NGNP/Generation IV Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 10 is to Update and Improve Subsection NH -- Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods. Five newly proposed promising creep-fatigue evaluation methods were investigated. Those are (1) modified ductility exhaustion method, (2) strain range separation method, (3) approach for pressure vessel application, (4) hybrid method of time fraction and ductility exhaustion, and (5) simplified model test approach. The outlines of those methods are presented first, and predictability of experimental results of these methods is demonstrated using the creep-fatigue data collected in previous Tasks 3 and 5. All the methods (except the simplified model test approach which is not ready for application) predicted experimental results fairly accurately. On the other hand, predicted creep-fatigue life in long-term regions showed considerable differences among the methodologies. These differences come from the concepts each method is based on. All the new methods investigated in this report have advantages over the currently employed time fraction rule and offer technical insights that should be thought much of in the improvement of creep-fatigue evaluation procedures. The main points of the modified ductility exhaustion method, the strain range separation method, the approach for pressure vessel application and the hybrid method can be reflected in the improvement of the current time fraction rule. The simplified mode test approach would offer a whole new advantage including robustness and simplicity which are definitely attractive but this approach is yet to be validated for implementation at this point. Therefore, this report recommends the following two steps as a course of improvement of NH based on newly proposed creep-fatigue evaluation

  19. Multidimensional Programming Methods for Energy Facility Siting: Alternative Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, B. D.; Haynes, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of multidimensional optimization methods in solving power plant siting problems, which are characterized by several conflicting, noncommensurable objectives is addressed. After a discussion of data requirements and exclusionary site screening methods for bounding the decision space, classes of multiobjective and goal programming models are discussed in the context of finite site selection. Advantages and limitations of these approaches are highlighted and the linkage of multidimensional methods with the subjective, behavioral components of the power plant siting process is emphasized.

  20. 75 FR 7593 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... alternative test methods are outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). EPA will continue to announce... 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt... AGENCY Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental...

  1. 78 FR 11174 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... alternative test methods are outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). We will continue to announce approvals... published at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt... AGENCY Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental...

  2. Effectiveness of Alternative Extension Methods through Radio Broadcasting in West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Bokar; Otoo, Miriam; Fulton, Joan; Lowenberg-DeBoer, James

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to quantify which extension methods are most effective in Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of alternative extension methods on adoption of the triple bagging cowpea storage technology in Niger and Burkina Faso. This study was designed as a quasi-experiment with two alternative extension…

  3. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Production Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may use... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250.1504 Section 250.1504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Production Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may use... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250.1504 Section 250.1504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Production Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may use... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250.1504 Section 250.1504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  6. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  7. Methods for the evaluation of alternative disaster warning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Anderson, R. J., Jr.; Lanen, W. N.

    1977-01-01

    For each of the methods identified, a theoretical basis is provided and an illustrative example is described. The example includes sufficient realism and detail to enable an analyst to conduct an evaluation of other systems. The methods discussed in the study include equal capability cost analysis, consumers' surplus, and statistical decision theory.

  8. An alternative method for Ra determinations in water

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, D.H.; Drake, E.N. 2d.

    1989-07-01

    Concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 224/Ra in 13 wells distributed throughout McCulloch and Mason counties in the Hickory Aquifer of the Llano Uplift Region of West-Central Texas are reported. Measurable alpha-particle activity is present in all wells, with seven wells having /sup 226/Ra radioactivity concentrations greater than 185 Bq m-3 (5 pCi L-1). An alternative methodology for measuring /sup 226/Ra, /sup 224/Ra and /sup 228/Ra is described. The EPA-approved methodology for estimating total Ra is shown to be invalid for aquifers containing significant levels of /sup 224/Ra. Alpha-particle activity measurements made in the interval of 12 to 300 h after Ra isolation lead to self-consistent solutions for radioactivity concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 224/Ra, with negligible contributions from /sup 228/Ra. Radioactivity concentrations of /sup 228/Ra can be calculated from grow-in terms for this isotope used with alpha-particle activity measurements at post-isolation times significantly longer than 800 h. Comparison of the /sup 226/Ra radioactivity concentration with that reported previously by the Texas Department of Health for a single well indicates acceptable agreement. However, the radioactivity concentration attributable to /sup 228/Ra for the same well was found to be in significant disagreement with the Texas Department of Health value.

  9. Alternative Methods to Treat Nausea and Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Ali; Ebadi, Ahmad; Talaeizadeh, Abdolhassan; Rahmani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is among the most intensive side effects and critical concerns for patients with cancer. Most of these patients experience nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. Sometimes, this is so annoying that it may prevent them from continuing the therapy. With the recent advances, a variety of therapeutic methods are innovated and applied to control CINV. Among them, the main methods include medicinal therapy, relaxation, and herbal therapy. Yet, using dexamethasone together with massage therapy and ginger is identified as the most effective method. PMID:26634155

  10. Alternative Methods to Treat Nausea and Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Ali; Ebadi, Ahmad; Talaeizadeh, Abdolhassan; Rahmani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is among the most intensive side effects and critical concerns for patients with cancer. Most of these patients experience nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. Sometimes, this is so annoying that it may prevent them from continuing the therapy. With the recent advances, a variety of therapeutic methods are innovated and applied to control CINV. Among them, the main methods include medicinal therapy, relaxation, and herbal therapy. Yet, using dexamethasone together with massage therapy and ginger is identified as the most effective method. PMID:26634155

  11. An alternative method for the recovery of lithium from spodumene

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, L.F.; El - Naggar, M.M.A.A.

    1984-12-01

    Two important processes applied presently for the extraction of lithium from spodumene, the acid method and the lime method, are described in this paper. The less common method of chlorination roasting is also discussed. The behavior of tachydrite and spodumene, individually, during heating is investigated by differential thermal analysis. It was observed that tachydrite gradually loses its water of crystallization, becoming anhydrous at 573 K. Spodumene, on the other hand, is stable, showing a mass loss of 0.3 pct. around 693 K. At the reaction temperatures used in this study, the mixture can then be regarded as a mixture of spodumene plus MgO and CaCl/sub 2/.

  12. Experimental method for investigating helium effects in irradiated vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.; Greenwood, L.; Loomis, B.

    1987-10-01

    Analyses have been performed which indicate that an effective method for experimentally investigating helium effects in neutron irradiated vanadium base alloys can be developed. The experimental procedure involves only modest modifications to existing procedures currently used for irradiation testing of vanadium-base alloys in the FFTF reactor. Helium is generated in the vanadium alloy by decay of tritium which is either preinjected or generated within the test capsule. Calculations indicate that nearly constant He/dpa ratios of desired magnitude can be attained by proper selection of experimental parameters. The proposed method could have a major impact on the development of vanadium base alloys for fusion reactor applications. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Evaluation of Alternate Stainless Steel Surface Passivation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  14. FMEA, the alternative process hazard method. [Failure Mode Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, R.K. )

    1993-05-01

    Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) is an old reliability/assurance tool finding its way into the HPI. Not popular yet, this hazard technique has some viable applications that can improve hazard assessment data. Notably, FMEA studies can identify possible areas for improvement that may have not been discovered using other methods. Also, FMEA is not as labor intensive and costly as other process hazard analysis (PHA) methods. PSHA 1910.119 set in place an informational structure whose main purpose is the reduction of potential accidents and minimizing risks in the event of an accident. Consequently, HPI operators must evaluate their process systems and identify potential major hazards, such as fires, explosions and accidental release of toxic/hazardous chemicals, and protect their facilities, employees, the public and the environment. But, which PHA method(s) apply to a particular plant or process still remains a difficult question. This paper describes what FMEA is; types of FMEA; how to conduct a FMEA study; comparison with HAZOP (hazard and operability study); computer software; applicability of FMEA; and examples of its use.

  15. Evaluation of Alternative Difference-in-Differences Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Difference-in-differences (DID) strategies are particularly useful for evaluating policy effects in natural experiments in which, for example, a policy affects some schools and students but not others. However, the standard DID method may produce biased estimation of the policy effect if the confounding effect of concurrent events varies by…

  16. Inhibitions within Idea Generating Groups: An Alternative Method of Brainstorming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochery, Tim

    Alex F. Osborn's group brainstorming treatment remains the most frequently applied procedure for the creative generation of ideas despite considerable evidence that demonstrates its ineffectiveness. This paper synthesizes many findings that challenge the premise that Osborn's traditional "group" brainstorming treatment is the optimal method for…

  17. An alternative method for neonatal cerebro-myocardial perfusion.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Giovanni Battista; De Rita, Fabrizio; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Several techniques have already been described for selective cerebral perfusion during repair of aortic arch pathology in children. One method combining cerebral with myocardial perfusion has also been proposed. A novel technique is reported here for selective and independent cerebro-myocardial perfusion for neonatal and infant arch surgery. Technical aspects and potential advantages are discussed.

  18. The alternative methods for disinfection of E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetim, Tuba; Görmez, Arzu; Gürkök, Sümeyra

    2016-04-01

    Recently, advanced oxidation processes have gained significant interest for bacterial inactivation. In the present study, the efficacy of sonolysis, photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis was evaluated for disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain. Sonophotocatalysis proved to be the most effective disinfection methods by generating greater amount of •OHradical.

  19. An Alternative Method Of Specifying Shock Test Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, R. C.; Clayton, J.; Alldredge, D.; Irvine, T.

    2008-01-01

    Shock testing of aerospace vehicle hardware has presented many challenges over the years due to the high magnitude and short duration of the specifications. Recently, component structural failures have occurred during testing that have not manifested themselves on over 200 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) flights (two boosters per flight). It is suspected that the method of specifying shock test criteria may be leaving important information out of the test process. The traditional test criteria specification, the shock response spectrum, can be duplicated by any number of waveforms that may not resemble the actual flight test recorded time history. One method of overcoming this limitation is described herein, which may prove useful for qualifying hardware for the upcoming Constellation Program.

  20. Comparison of Two Alternative Methods for Tracking Toe Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Brady, Rachel; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Warren, Liz; Feiveson, Al; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Toe trajectory during the swing phase of locomotion has been identified as a precise motor control task (Karst, et al., 1999). The standard method for tracking toe trajectory is to place a marker on the superior aspect of the distal end of the 2nd toe itself (Karst, et al., 1999; Winter, 1992). However, others have based their toe trajectory results either on a marker positioned on the lateral aspect of the 5th metatarsal head (Dingwell, et al., 1999; Osaki, et al., 2007), or on a virtual toe marker computed at the anterior tip of the second toe based on the positions of other real foot markers (Miller, et al., 2006). While these methods for tracking the toe may seem similar, their results may not be directly comparable. The purpose of this study was to compute toe trajectory parameters using a 5th metatarsal marker and a virtual toe marker, and compare their results with those of the standard toe marker.

  1. The Reflective Experimental Construction of Meanings about the Shape of the Earth and the Alternation of Day and Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the process of construction of meaning about the shape of the Earth and the alternation of day and night, which is inherent to the practice of experimental science teaching. This teaching practice was gradually done by the researcher in a 1st grade class of a Portuguese primary school. The class…

  2. Experimental and Numerical Assessment of a New Alternative of RBS Moment Connection

    SciTech Connect

    Mirghaderi, Rasoul; Imanpour, Ali; Keshavarzi, Farhad; Torabian, Shahab

    2008-07-08

    Reduced beam section (RBS) connection has been known as a famous connection for steel moment-resisting seismic frames in high-rise buildings, because of their economical advantages and seismic ductility. In the ordinary RBS connection, often portions of the beam flanges are selectively trimmed in the region adjacent to the beam-to-column connection, and beam section is weakened in the plastic hinge region; section weakening concept in the plastic hinge region of beam cause to reduction of beam plastic section modulus in this region, and force plastic hinge to occur within the reduced section.This paper presents a new alternative of RBS connection that has been used aforesaid weakening concept in it, with this difference that corrugated steel plate webs instead of beam flange cutting has been used in limited specific length near the column face. Corrugated steel plates because of their accordion effect don't have bending rigidity, then using of these plates in plastic hinge region reduces the beam plastic section modulus and plastic hinge is formed in corrugated region. For investigating the seismic behavior and performance of new RBS moment connection, experimental specimen of new RBS connection were subjected to cyclic load, and finite element analysis were executed. The result of cyclic test and numerical analysis specified that the corrugated webs improved the plastic stability and provided capability of large plastic rotation at the plastic hinge location without any appreciable buckling and brittle fractures in this region. The test observations also showed that the specimens' plastic rotations exceeded 0.04 rad without any local and global buckling. All of the analytical results for proposed connection are generally in good agreement with the test observations.

  3. Experimental Evolution of Gene Expression and Plasticity in Alternative Selective Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuheng; Agrawal, Aneil F.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of how gene expression and its plasticity evolves as populations adapt to different environmental regimes. Expression is expected to evolve adaptively in all populations but only those populations experiencing environmental heterogeneity are expected to show adaptive evolution of plasticity. We measured the transcriptome in a cadmium-enriched diet and a salt-enriched diet for experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster that evolved for ~130 generations in one of four selective regimes: two constant regimes maintained in either cadmium or salt diets and two heterogeneous regimes that varied either temporally or spatially between the two diets. For populations evolving in constant regimes, we find a strong signature of counter-gradient evolution; the evolved expression differences between populations adapted to alternative diets is opposite to the plastic response of the ancestral population that is naïve to both diets. Based on expression patterns in the ancestral populations, we identify a set of genes for which we predict selection in heterogeneous regimes to result in increases in plasticity and we find the expected pattern. In contrast, a set of genes where we predicted reduced plasticity did not follow expectation. Nonetheless, both gene sets showed a pattern consistent with adaptive expression evolution in heterogeneous regimes, highlighting the difference between observing “optimal” plasticity and improvements in environment-specific expression. Looking across all genes, there is evidence in all regimes of differences in biased allele expression across environments (“allelic plasticity”) and this is more common among genes with plasticity in total expression. PMID:27661078

  4. Taguchi method of experimental design in materials education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Taguchi Method of experimental design as applied to Materials Science will be discussed. This is a fractional factorial method that employs the minimum number of experimental trials for the information obtained. The analysis is also very simple to use and teach, which is quite advantageous in the classroom. In addition, the Taguchi loss function can be easily incorporated to emphasize that improvements in reproducibility are often at least as important as optimization of the response. The disadvantages of the Taguchi Method include the fact that factor interactions are normally not accounted for, there are zero degrees of freedom if all of the possible factors are used, and randomization is normally not used to prevent environmental biasing. In spite of these disadvantages it is felt that the Taguchi Method is extremely useful for both teaching experimental design and as a research tool, as will be shown with a number of brief examples.

  5. Development of alternate methods of determining integrated SMR source terms

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Kenneth

    2014-06-10

    The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Licensing Task Force (TF) has been evaluating licensing issues unique and important to iPWRs, ranking these issues, and developing NEI position papers for submittal to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) during the past three years. Papers have been developed and submitted to the NRC in a range of areas including: Price-Anderson Act, NRC annual fees, security, modularity, and staffing. In December, 2012, NEI completed a draft position paper on SMR source terms and participated in an NRC public meeting presenting a summary of this paper, which was subsequently submitted to the NRC. One important conclusion of the source term paper was the evaluation and selection of high importance areas where additional research would have a significant impact on source terms. The highest ranked research area was iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition. The NRC accepts the use of existing aerosol deposition correlations in Regulatory Guide 1.183, but these were developed for large light water reactor (LWR) containments. Application of these correlations to an iPWR design has resulted in greater than a ten-fold reduction of containment airborne aerosol inventory as compared to large LWRs. Development and experimental justification of containment aerosol natural deposition correlations specifically for the unique iPWR containments is expected to result in a large reduction of design basis and beyond-design-basis accident source terms with concomitantly smaller dose to workers and the public. Therefore, NRC acceptance of iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition correlations will directly support the industry’s goal of reducing the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for SMRs. Based on the results in this work, it is clear that thermophoresis is relatively unimportant for iPWRs. Gravitational settling is well understood, and may be the dominant process for a dry environment. Diffusiophoresis and enhanced

  6. Alternative lithographic methods for variable aspect ratio vias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepis, Anthony R.

    The foundation of semiconductor industry has historically been driven by scaling. Device size reduction is enabled by increased pattern density, enhancing functionality and effectively reducing cost per chip. Aggressive reductions in memory cell size have resulted in systems with diminishing area between parallel bit/word lines. This affords an even greater challenge in the patterning of contact level features that are inherently difficult to resolve because of their relatively small area, a product of their two domain critical dimension image. To accommodate these trends there has been a shift toward the implementation of elliptical contact features. This empowers designers to maximize the use of free space between bit/word lines and gate stacks while preserving contact area; effectively reducing the minor via axis dimension while maintaining a patternable threshold in increasingly dense circuitry. It is therefore critical to provide methods that enhance the resolving capacity of varying aspect ratio vias for implementation in electronic design systems. This work separately investigates two unique, non-traditional lithographic techniques in the integration of an optical vortex mask as well as a polymer assembly system as means to augment ellipticity while facilitating contact feature scaling. This document affords a fundamental overview of imaging theory, details previous literature as to the technological trends enabling the resolving of contact features and demonstrates simulated & empirical evidence that the described methods have great potential to extend the resolution of variable aspect ratio vias using lithographic technologies.

  7. Fluorescence And Alternative Methods In Urine Drug Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Naresh C.

    1988-04-01

    Drug abuse has become-one of the most compelling realities _ ot contemporary society. It has penetrated every segment ot our population: trom schools to sports and trom organized crime to board rooms . Drugs in tie w9rkplace allegedly cost government agencies and business millions ot dollars each year in increased absenteeism,. poor work performance, thefts,accidents andwastedtime. The President's Commission on Organized Crime and the federal government are in tavor ot urine drug testing. In fact many employers are now resorting to urine drug testing on current and prospective employees. This presep.tation discusses different laboratory methods used in urine drug.testing, including immunoassays, fluorescence polarization, thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  8. Innovative Solutions for Words with Emphasis: Alternative Methods of Braille Transcription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The author of this study proposed two alternative methods for transcribing words with emphasis into braille and compared the use of the symbols for emphasis with the current braille code. The results showed that students were faster at locating words presented in one of the alternate formats, but that there was no difference in students' accuracy…

  9. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial...-type volumetric field standards and associated test procedures) widely used by weights and measures officials and service companies to test commercial measuring devices as well as proposed alternatives...

  10. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization... for the evaluation of alternative skin sensitization test methods and testing strategies. The National... niceatm@niehs.nih.gov are preferred. NICEATM, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,...

  11. Statistical and Computational Methods for High-Throughput Sequencing Data Analysis of Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The burgeoning field of high-throughput sequencing significantly improves our ability to understand the complexity of transcriptomes. Alternative splicing, as one of the most important driving forces for transcriptome diversity, can now be studied at an unprecedent resolution. Efficient and powerful computational and statistical methods are in urgent need to facilitate the characterization and quantification of alternative splicing events. Here we discuss methods in splice junction read mapping, and methods in exon-centric or isoform-centric quantification of alternative splicing. In addition, we discuss HITS-CLIP and splicing QTL analyses which are novel high-throughput sequencing based approaches in the dissection of splicing regulation. PMID:24058384

  12. An Alternative Method for Analyzing Active Multiplicity Data.

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors have developed a novel method for analyzing active neutron multiplicity data. The conventional method was derived from the standard passive multiplicity equations known as the point model. The approach was to substitute a term consisting of the product of the interrogation source strength, the coupling coefficient, and the sample mass for the product term of the sample mass and the fission rate: I{kappa}{sub c}m {yields} F{sub 0}m, where I is the source strength, {kappa}{sub c} is the coupling coefficient, m is the sample mass and F is the fission rate. Note that the sample mass, m, refers to the fissile material (e.g. {sup 235}U) in the active case and fertile material (e.g. {sup 240}Pu{sub eff}) in the passive case. In addition, the spontaneous fission multiplicity coefficients, {nu}{sub s}, were replaced with the induced fission multiplicity coefficients, {nu}{sub i}. This model has several drawbacks. The most significant is that the coupling coefficient, {kappa}{sub c}, varies significantly with the multiplication. As a consequence, there is not a clear linear relationship between the doubles rate and the sample mass, nor is there a clear linear relationship between the multiplication-corrected doubles rate and the sample mass. This problem has limited the application of active neutron multiplicity counting. They propose here a novel approach to deriving the multiplicity equations. A different substitution is made in the point model equations. The value of alpha is replaced with a new term, alpha-prime: {alpha} {yields} {alpha}{prime} {triple_bond} {alpha} + {kappa}{sub p}I/Fm{sub 0}{nu}{sub s1}. There are several benefits to this approach, but most significant is that the new coupling coefficient, {kappa}{sub p}, remains constant. In this paper they will establish the general physics justification why this different substitution is appropriate. They will derive the new point model equations for active neutron multiplicity starting from the original

  13. Alternative to the traditional discount method of wholesaler purchasing.

    PubMed

    Lee, G F; Bair, J N; Piz, J W

    1982-07-01

    A program of purchasing drugs from wholesalers at the wholesaler's exact invoice cost plus a percentage is described and compared with the traditional method of average wholesale price (AWP) less a discount. The comparison was conducted by the pharmacy department of a 310-bed, teaching hospital that awarded a one-year contract to a wholesaler offering its items at the exact cost plus a pre-established percentage. Data collected from monthly wholesaler computer printouts gave the following information on each product: (1) list price per item, (2) actual cost to pharmacy per item, (3) percentage discount from AWP, and (4) quantity ordered. The net percentage discount from AWP for 12 months was calculated and compared to the former (traditional) discount rate. The net discount from AWP was 15.6% for purchases made by the hospital during the first 12 months of the program. When compared with the smaller discount the hospital traditionally received, the new program saved the hospital $5758 on annual purchases of $136,419. The actual dollar savings to an institution that changes from a traditional discount program to a cost-plus-percentage program depends on: (1) the negotiated percentage added to wholesaler cost, (2) the discount from AWP that the institution was previously receiving, and (3) the volume of wholesale purchases. PMID:7114064

  14. An alternate and reversible method for flight restraint of cranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sen Lin; Yang, Shu Hui; Li, Bing; Xu, Yan Chun; Ma, Jian Hua; Xu, Jian Feng; Zhang, Xian Guang

    2011-01-01

    Flight restraint is important for zoos, safaris, and breeding centers for large birds. Currently used techniques for flight restraint include both surgical and non-surgical approaches. Surgical approaches usually cause permanent change to or removal of tendon, patagial membrane, or wing bones, and can cause pain and inflammation. Non-surgical approaches such as clipping or trimming feathers often alter the bird's appearance, and can damage growing blood feathers in fledglings or cause joint stiffness. We observed microstructure of primary feathers of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) and found that the width of barbs is a determinative factor influencing vane stiffness and geometric parameters. We hypothesized that partial longitudinal excision of barbs on the ventral surface of the primary feathers would reduce the stiffness of the vane and render the feathers unable to support the crane's body weight during flight. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this modification of barbs would also change the aerodynamic performance of feathers such that they could not generate sufficient lift and thrust during flapping to enable the bird to fly. We tested this hypothesis on a red-crowned crane that had normal flight capability by excising the ventral margin of barbs on all 10 primaries on the left wing. The bird was unable to take off until the modified feathers were replaced by new ones. Removal of barbs proved to be a simple, non-invasive, low-cost and reversible method for flight restraint. It is potentially applicable to other large birds with similar structural characteristics of primary feathers. PMID:21538502

  15. Experimental methods for phase equilibria at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Dohrn, Ralf; Fonseca, José M S; Peper, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of high-pressure phase equilibria is crucial in many fields, e.g., for the design and optimization of high-pressure chemical and separation processes, carbon capture and storage, hydrate formation, applications of ionic liquids, and geological processes. This review presents the variety of methods to measure phase equilibria at high pressures and, following a classification, discusses the measurement principles, advantages, challenges, and error sources. Examples of application areas are given. A detailed knowledge and understanding of the different methods is fundamental not only for choosing the most suitable method for a certain task but also for the evaluation of experimental data. The discrepancy between the (sometimes low) true accuracy of published experimental data and the (high) accuracy claimed by authors is addressed. Some essential requirements for the generation of valuable experimental results are summarized.

  16. 27 CFR 46.261 - Purpose of an alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Alternate Methods Or Procedures §...

  17. 27 CFR 46.261 - Purpose of an alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Alternate Methods Or Procedures §...

  18. 27 CFR 46.261 - Purpose of an alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Alternate Methods Or Procedures §...

  19. 27 CFR 46.261 - Purpose of an alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Alternate Methods Or Procedures §...

  20. 27 CFR 46.261 - Purpose of an alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Alternate Methods Or Procedures §...

  1. The advantages and disadvantages of leasing as an alternative financing method.

    PubMed

    Frankel, A N

    1990-04-01

    The pros and cons of leasing as an alternative financing method are the topic of this article by Alan N. Frankel. A lease must meet certain criteria to qualify as a "true" lease and provide tax advantages.

  2. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: EVALUATIONS OF THE ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD FOR BUILDING DEMOLITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the preliminary results of the evaluations of the alternative asbestos control method for demolishing buildings containing asbestos, and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbestos NESHAP. This abstract and presentation are based, at ...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Well Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may...

  4. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    PubMed

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future.

  5. The Continuized Log-Linear Method: An Alternative to the Kernel Method of Continuization in Test Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou

    2008-01-01

    Von Davier, Holland, and Thayer (2004) laid out a five-step framework of test equating that can be applied to various data collection designs and equating methods. In the continuization step, they presented an adjusted Gaussian kernel method that preserves the first two moments. This article proposes an alternative continuization method that…

  6. Methods for the evaluation of alternative disaster warning systems. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Anderson, R. J., Jr.; Lanen, W. N.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for estimating the economic costs and benefits of the transmission-reception and reception-action segments of a disaster warning system (DWS) are described. Methods were identified for the evaluation of the transmission and reception portions of alternative disaster warning systems. Example analyses using the methods identified were performed.

  7. Experimental comparison of empirical material decomposition methods for spectral CT.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kevin C; Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2015-04-21

    Material composition can be estimated from spectral information acquired using photon counting x-ray detectors with pulse height analysis. Non-ideal effects in photon counting x-ray detectors such as charge-sharing, k-escape, and pulse-pileup distort the detected spectrum, which can cause material decomposition errors. This work compared the performance of two empirical decomposition methods: a neural network estimator and a linearized maximum likelihood estimator with correction (A-table method). The two investigated methods differ in how they model the nonlinear relationship between the spectral measurements and material decomposition estimates. The bias and standard deviation of material decomposition estimates were compared for the two methods, using both simulations and experiments with a photon-counting x-ray detector. Both the neural network and A-table methods demonstrated a similar performance for the simulated data. The neural network had lower standard deviation for nearly all thicknesses of the test materials in the collimated (low scatter) and uncollimated (higher scatter) experimental data. In the experimental study of Teflon thicknesses, non-ideal detector effects demonstrated a potential bias of 11-28%, which was reduced to 0.1-11% using the proposed empirical methods. Overall, the results demonstrated preliminary experimental feasibility of empirical material decomposition for spectral CT using photon-counting detectors.

  8. Experimental comparison of empirical material decomposition methods for spectral CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Kevin C.; Gilat Schmidt, Taly

    2015-04-01

    Material composition can be estimated from spectral information acquired using photon counting x-ray detectors with pulse height analysis. Non-ideal effects in photon counting x-ray detectors such as charge-sharing, k-escape, and pulse-pileup distort the detected spectrum, which can cause material decomposition errors. This work compared the performance of two empirical decomposition methods: a neural network estimator and a linearized maximum likelihood estimator with correction (A-table method). The two investigated methods differ in how they model the nonlinear relationship between the spectral measurements and material decomposition estimates. The bias and standard deviation of material decomposition estimates were compared for the two methods, using both simulations and experiments with a photon-counting x-ray detector. Both the neural network and A-table methods demonstrated a similar performance for the simulated data. The neural network had lower standard deviation for nearly all thicknesses of the test materials in the collimated (low scatter) and uncollimated (higher scatter) experimental data. In the experimental study of Teflon thicknesses, non-ideal detector effects demonstrated a potential bias of 11-28%, which was reduced to 0.1-11% using the proposed empirical methods. Overall, the results demonstrated preliminary experimental feasibility of empirical material decomposition for spectral CT using photon-counting detectors.

  9. Experimental Comparison of Empirical Material Decomposition Methods for Spectral CT

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Kevin C.; Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2015-01-01

    Material composition can be estimated from spectral information acquired using photon counting x-ray detectors with pulse height analysis. Non-ideal effects in photon counting x-ray detectors such as charge-sharing, k-escape, and pulse-pileup distort the detected spectrum, which can cause material decomposition errors. This work compared the performance of two empirical decomposition methods: a neural network estimator and a linearized maximum likelihood estimator with correction (A-table method). The two investigated methods differ in how they model the nonlinear relationship between the spectral measurements and material decomposition estimates. The bias and standard deviation of material decomposition estimates were compared for the two methods, using both simulations and experiments with a photon-counting x-ray detector. Both the neural network and A-table methods demonstrated similar performance for the simulated data. The neural network had lower standard deviation for nearly all thicknesses of the test materials in the collimated (low scatter) and uncollimated (higher scatter) experimental data. In the experimental study of Teflon thicknesses, non-ideal detector effects demonstrated a potential bias of 11–28%, which was reduced to 0.1–11% using the proposed empirical methods. Overall, the results demonstrated preliminary experimental feasibility of empirical material decomposition for spectral CT using photon-counting detectors. PMID:25813054

  10. Brazilian Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (BraCVAM) and the process of validation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Presgrave, Octavio; Moura, Wlamir; Caldeira, Cristiane; Pereira, Elisabete; Bôas, Maria H Villas; Eskes, Chantra

    2016-03-01

    The need for the creation of a Brazilian centre for the validation of alternative methods was recognised in 2008, and members of academia, industry and existing international validation centres immediately engaged with the idea. In 2012, co-operation between the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) and the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) instigated the establishment of the Brazilian Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (BraCVAM), which was officially launched in 2013. The Brazilian validation process follows OECD Guidance Document No. 34, where BraCVAM functions as the focal point to identify and/or receive requests from parties interested in submitting tests for validation. BraCVAM then informs the Brazilian National Network on Alternative Methods (RENaMA) of promising assays, which helps with prioritisation and contributes to the validation studies of selected assays. A Validation Management Group supervises the validation study, and the results obtained are peer-reviewed by an ad hoc Scientific Review Committee, organised under the auspices of BraCVAM. Based on the peer-review outcome, BraCVAM will prepare recommendations on the validated test method, which will be sent to the National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA). CONCEA is in charge of the regulatory adoption of all validated test methods in Brazil, following an open public consultation. PMID:27031604

  11. The contour method: a new approach in experimental mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Prime, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    The recently developed contour method can measure complex residual-stress maps in situations where other measurement methods cannot. This talk first describes the principle of the contour method. A part is cut in two using a precise and low-stress cutting technique such as electric discharge machining. The contour of the resulting new surface, which will not be flat if residual stresses are relaxed by the cutting, is then measured. Finally, a conceptually simple finite element analysis determines the original residual stresses from the measured contour. Next, this talk gives several examples of applications. The method is validated by comparing with neutron diffraction measurements in an indented steel disk and in a friction stir weld between dissimilar aluminum alloys. Several applications are shown that demonstrate the power of the contour method: large aluminum forgings, railroad rails, and welds. Finally, this talk discusses why the contour method is significant departure from conventional experimental mechanics. Other relaxation method, for example hole-drilling, can only measure a 1-D profile of residual stresses, and yet they require a complicated inverse calculation to determine the stresses from the strain data. The contour method gives a 2-D stress map over a full cross-section, yet a direct calculation is all that is needed to reduce the data. The reason for these advantages lies in a subtle but fundamental departure from conventional experimental mechanics. Applying new technology to old methods like will not give similar advances, but the new approach also introduces new errors.

  12. Biogeomorphic feedback between plant growth and flooding causes alternative stable states in an experimental floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Wang, Qiao; Meire, Dieter; Ma, Wandong; Wu, Chuanqing; Meng, Zhen; Van de Koppel, Johan; Troch, Peter; Verhoeven, Ronny; De Mulder, Tom; Temmerman, Stijn

    2016-07-01

    It is important to understand the mechanisms of vegetation establishment on bare substrate in a disturbance-driven ecosystem because of many valuable ecosystem services. This study tested for empirical indications of local alternative stable states controlled by biogeomorphic feedbacks using flume experiments with alfalfa: (1) single flood experiments different in flood intensity and plant growth, (2) long-term evolution experiments with repeated flooding and seeding. We observed: (1) a combination of thresholds in plant growth and flooding magnitude for upgrowing seedlings to survive; (2) bimodality in vegetation biomass after floods indicating the existence of two alternative states, either densely vegetated or bare; (3) facilitation of vegetation establishment by the spatial pattern formation of channels and sand bars. In conclusion, empirical indicators were demonstrated for local alternative stable states in a disturbance-driven ecosystem associated with biogeomorphic feedbacks, which could contribute to the protection and restoration of vegetation in such ecosystems.

  13. Aiding alternatives assessment with an uncertainty-tolerant hazard scoring method.

    PubMed

    Faludi, Jeremy; Hoang, Tina; Gorman, Patrick; Mulvihill, Martin

    2016-11-01

    This research developed a single-score system to simplify and clarify decision-making in chemical alternatives assessment, accounting for uncertainty. Today, assessing alternatives to hazardous constituent chemicals is a difficult task-rather than comparing alternatives by a single definitive score, many independent toxicological variables must be considered at once, and data gaps are rampant. Thus, most hazard assessments are only comprehensible to toxicologists, but business leaders and politicians need simple scores to make decisions. In addition, they must balance hazard against other considerations, such as product functionality, and they must be aware of the high degrees of uncertainty in chemical hazard data. This research proposes a transparent, reproducible method to translate eighteen hazard endpoints into a simple numeric score with quantified uncertainty, alongside a similar product functionality score, to aid decisions between alternative products. The scoring method uses Clean Production Action's GreenScreen as a guide, but with a different method of score aggregation. It provides finer differentiation between scores than GreenScreen's four-point scale, and it displays uncertainty quantitatively in the final score. Displaying uncertainty also illustrates which alternatives are early in product development versus well-defined commercial products. This paper tested the proposed assessment method through a case study in the building industry, assessing alternatives to spray polyurethane foam insulation containing methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The new hazard scoring method successfully identified trade-offs between different alternatives, showing finer resolution than GreenScreen Benchmarking. Sensitivity analysis showed that different weighting schemes in hazard scores had almost no effect on alternatives ranking, compared to uncertainty from data gaps. PMID:27454102

  14. Aiding alternatives assessment with an uncertainty-tolerant hazard scoring method.

    PubMed

    Faludi, Jeremy; Hoang, Tina; Gorman, Patrick; Mulvihill, Martin

    2016-11-01

    This research developed a single-score system to simplify and clarify decision-making in chemical alternatives assessment, accounting for uncertainty. Today, assessing alternatives to hazardous constituent chemicals is a difficult task-rather than comparing alternatives by a single definitive score, many independent toxicological variables must be considered at once, and data gaps are rampant. Thus, most hazard assessments are only comprehensible to toxicologists, but business leaders and politicians need simple scores to make decisions. In addition, they must balance hazard against other considerations, such as product functionality, and they must be aware of the high degrees of uncertainty in chemical hazard data. This research proposes a transparent, reproducible method to translate eighteen hazard endpoints into a simple numeric score with quantified uncertainty, alongside a similar product functionality score, to aid decisions between alternative products. The scoring method uses Clean Production Action's GreenScreen as a guide, but with a different method of score aggregation. It provides finer differentiation between scores than GreenScreen's four-point scale, and it displays uncertainty quantitatively in the final score. Displaying uncertainty also illustrates which alternatives are early in product development versus well-defined commercial products. This paper tested the proposed assessment method through a case study in the building industry, assessing alternatives to spray polyurethane foam insulation containing methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The new hazard scoring method successfully identified trade-offs between different alternatives, showing finer resolution than GreenScreen Benchmarking. Sensitivity analysis showed that different weighting schemes in hazard scores had almost no effect on alternatives ranking, compared to uncertainty from data gaps.

  15. Student perspectives on the use of alternative methods for teaching in veterinary faculties.

    PubMed

    Sachana, Magda; Theodoridis, Alexandros; Cortinovis, Cristina; Pizzo, Fabiola; Kehagias, Evaggelos; Albonico, Marco; Caloni, Francesca

    2014-09-01

    The use of alternative methods for teaching purposes is gradually increasing in higher education. In order to evaluate the usefulness of non-animal based practical classes in veterinary science, and to inform on possible benefits and limitations of these teaching tools, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to students. Although there was no complete agreement among the student responses, it was apparent that the majority of the students would like traditional training methods to be paired with alternative approaches, and expressed their desire to be exposed to as many humane modes of learning as possible. In addition, the students agreed that alternative teaching methods for training in veterinary science can reinforce existing knowledge that is required at the clinical stage, and that they can be effective supplements to traditional training methods. It was also concluded from the study that the use of new alternative approaches is very much appreciated by the students, whereas the validity and effectiveness of these methods are debatable, suggesting that further optimisation, proper application and evaluation of these alternative methods is required.

  16. Extraction of gadolinium from high flux isotope reactor control plates. [Alternative method

    SciTech Connect

    Kohring, M.W.

    1987-04-01

    Gadolinium-153 is an important radioisotope used in the diagnosis of various bone disorders. Recent medical and technical developments in the detection and cure of osteoporosis, a bone disease affecting an estimated 50 million people, have greatly increased the demand for this isotope. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has produced /sup 153/Gd since 1980 primarily through the irradiation of a natural europium-oxide powder followed by the chemical separation of the gadolinium fraction from the europium material. Due to the higher demand for /sup 153/Gd, an alternative production method to supplement this process has been investigated. This process involves the extraction of gadolinium from the europium-bearing region of highly radioactive, spent control plates used at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) with a subsequent re-irradiation of the extracted material for the production of the /sup 153/Gd. Based on the results of experimental and calculational analyses, up to 25 grams of valuable gadolinium (greater than or equal to60% enriched in /sup 152/Gd) resides in the europium-bearing region of the HFIR control components of which 70% is recoverable. At a specific activity yield of 40 curies of /sup 153/Gd for each gram of gadolinium re-irradiated, 700 one-curie sources can be produced from each control plate assayed.

  17. Experimental Data for Two Different Alternator Configurations in a Solar Brayton Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Espinosa, William D.

    1997-01-01

    A solar dynamic (SD) space power system has been under test at the NASA Lewis Research Center since 1994. The SD Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) system includes a solar concentrator, heat receiver with thermal energy storage, Brayton power conversion unit, and radiator installed in a thermal-vacuum chamber with a solar simulator. The Brayton unit has been operated with two different turboalternator compressor (TAC) assemblies, one which included a Rice Lundell alternator and another which incorporated a permanent magnet (PM) alternator. The Rice alternator was part of the mini-Brayton rotating unit, designed and built during the 1970's and refurbished for the GTD. The PM TAC was a development unit from the Joint US/Russian SD Flight Project. This paper highlights the operational differences (and similarities) between the Rice and PM TAC configurations including a comparative evaluation of startup characteristics and operating performance. The two alternator configurations were tested under similar thermal conditions, as an interchangeable component within the SD system. The electrical characteristics of the two units, however, dictated the use of significantly different power conditioning and control strategies. The electrical control architectures are described and compared. Test data are presented on TAC startup and system operating performance for both configurations.

  18. Determination of the Molar Volume of Hydrogen from the Metal-Acid Reaction: An Experimental Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berg, Kevin; Chapman, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Describes an alternative technique for determining the molar volume of hydrogen from the metal-acid reaction in which the metal sample is encased in a specially prepared cage and a pipette filler is used to fill an inverted burette with water. Eliminates some difficulties encountered with the conventional technique. (JRH)

  19. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.

  20. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  1. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  2. An Alternative Method to Gauss-Jordan Elimination: Minimizing Fraction Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Luke; Powell, Joan

    2011-01-01

    When solving systems of equations by using matrices, many teachers present a Gauss-Jordan elimination approach to row reducing matrices that can involve painfully tedious operations with fractions (which I will call the traditional method). In this essay, I present an alternative method to row reduce matrices that does not introduce additional…

  3. A Static Method as an Alternative to Gel Chromatography: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burum, Alex D.; Splittgerber, Allan G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a static method as an alternative to gel chromatography, which may be used as an undergraduate laboratory experiment. In this method, a constant mass of Sephadex gel is swollen in a series of protein solutions. UV-vis spectrophotometry is used to find a partition coefficient, KD, that indicates the fraction of the interior…

  4. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  5. An Exploratory Study of a Subspace Iteration Method as an Alternative to the QR Method for Floquet Eigenanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, N. S.; Gaonkar, G. H.

    1994-01-01

    Floquet eigenanalysis requires a few dominant eigenvalues of the Floquet transition matrix (FTM). Although the QR method is used almost exclusively, it is expensive for such partial eigenanalysis; the operation counts and, thereby, the approximate machine-time grow cubically with the matrix order. Accordingly, for Floquet eigenanalysis, the Arnold-Saad method, a subspace iteration method, is investigated as an alternative to the QR method. The two methods are compared for machine-time efficiency and the residual errors of the corresponding eigenpairs. The Arnolds-Saad method takes much less machine-time than the QR method with comparable computational reliability and offers promise fpr large-scale Floquet eigenanalysis.

  6. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  7. [Experimental study on an auditory method for analyzing DNA segments].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shouzhong; Fang, Xianglin

    2002-01-01

    To explore a new method for analyzing biological molecules that have already been sequenced, an experimental study on an auditory method was carried out. The auditory method for analyzing biological molecules includes audible representation of sequence data. Audible representation of sequence data was implemented by using a multimedia computer. Each mononucleotide in a DNA sequence was matched with a corresponding sound, i.e., a DNA sequence was "dubbed" in a sound sequence. When the sound sequence is played, a special cadence can be heard. In the audible representation experiment, special cadences of different exons can be clearly heard. The results show that audible representation of DNA sequence data can be implemented by using a multimedia technique. After a 5-time auditory training, subjects both in internal testing and external testing can obtain 93%-100% of judgment accuracy rate for the difference between two sound sequences of two different exons, thus providing an experimental basis for the practicability of this method. Auditory method for analyzing DNA segments might be beneficial for the research in comparative genomics and functional genomics. This new technology must be robust and be carefully evaluated and improved in a high-throughput environment before its implementation in an application setting. PMID:11951511

  8. Alternative methods of accounting for underreporting and overreporting when measuring dietary intake-obesity relations.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Michelle A; Popkin, Barry M; Buckland, Genevieve; Schroder, Helmut; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, José-María; Quirós, José R; Sánchez, María-José; González, Carlos A

    2011-02-15

    Misreporting characterized by the reporting of implausible energy intakes may undermine the valid estimation of diet-disease relations, but the methods to best identify and account for misreporting are unknown. The present study compared how alternate approaches affected associations between selected dietary factors and body mass index (BMI) by using data from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Spain. A total of 24,332 women and 15,061 men 29-65 years of age recruited from 1992 to 1996 for whom measured height and weight and validated diet history data were available were included. Misreporters were identified on the basis of disparities between reported energy intakes and estimated requirements calculated using the original Goldberg method and 2 alternatives: one that substituted basal metabolic rate equations that are more valid at higher BMIs and another that used doubly labeled water-predicted total energy expenditure equations. Compared with results obtained using the original method, underreporting was considerably lower and overreporting higher with alternative methods, which were highly concordant. Accounting for misreporters with all methods yielded diet-BMI relations that were more consistent with expectations; alternative methods often strengthened associations. For example, among women, multivariable-adjusted differences in BMI for the highest versus lowest vegetable intake tertile (β = 0.37 (standard error, 0.07)) were neutral after adjusting with the original method (β = 0.01 (standard error, 07)) and negative using the predicted total energy expenditure method with stringent cutoffs (β = -0.15 (standard error, 0.07)). Alternative methods may yield more valid associations between diet and obesity-related outcomes. PMID:21242302

  9. A unique method of neutron flux determination from experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, Frank A.

    1998-12-01

    A method is provided for determining the fission heat flux of a prime specimen inserted into a specimen of a test reactor. A pair of thermocouple test specimens are positioned at the same level in the holder and a determination is made of various experimental data including the temperature of the thermocouple test specimens, the temperature of bulk water channels located in the test holder, the gamma scan count ratios for the thermocouple test specimens and the prime specimen, and the thicknesses of the outer clads, the fuel fillers, and the backclad of the thermocouple test specimen. Using this experimental data, the absolute value of the fission heat flux for the thermocouple test specimens and prime specimen can be calculated.

  10. Nonlinear feedback method of robot control - A preliminary experimental study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, T. J.; Ganguly, S.; Li, Z.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear feedback method of robot control has been experimentally implemented on two PUMA 560 robot arms. The feasibility of the proposed controller, which was shown viable through simulation results earlier, is stressed. The servomechanism operates in task space, and the nonlinear feedback takes care of the necessary transformations to compute the necessary joint currents. A discussion is presented of the implementation with details of the experiments performed. The performance of the controller is encouraging but was limited to 100-Hz sampling frequency and to derived velocity information at the time of the experimentation. The setup of the lab, the software aspects, results, and the control hardware architecture that has recently been implemented are discussed.

  11. Method of fission heat flux determination from experimental data

    DOEpatents

    Paxton, Frank A.

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided for determining the fission heat flux of a prime specimen inserted into a specimen of a test reactor. A pair of thermocouple test specimens are positioned at the same level in the holder and a determination is made of various experimental data including the temperature of the thermocouple test specimens, the temperature of bulk water channels located in the test holder, the gamma scan count ratios for the thermocouple test specimens and the prime specimen, and the thicknesses of the outer clads, the fuel fillers, and the backclad of the thermocouple test specimen. Using this experimental data, the absolute value of the fission heat flux for the thermocouple test specimens and prime specimen can be calculated.

  12. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems. 77.701-1 Section 77.701-1 Mineral...-1 Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems, the following methods of grounding...

  13. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems. 77.701-1 Section 77.701-1 Mineral...-1 Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems, the following methods of grounding...

  14. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems. 77.701-1 Section 77.701-1 Mineral...-1 Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current... receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems, the following methods of grounding...

  15. Experimental validation of an analytical method of calculating photon distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.G.; Celler, A.; Harrop, R.

    1996-12-31

    We have developed a method for analytically calculating photon distributions in SPECT projections. This method models primary photon distributions as well as first and second order Compton scattering and Rayleigh scattering. It uses no free fitting parameters and so the projections produced are completely determined by the characteristics of the SPECT camera system, the energy of the isotope, an estimate of the source distribution and an attenuation map of the scattering object. The method was previously validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and we are now verifying its accuracy with respect to phantom experiments. We have performed experiments using a Siemens MS3 SPECT camera system for a point source (2mm in diameter) within a homogeneous water bath and a small spherical source (1cm in diameter) within both a homogeneous water cylinder and a non-homogeneous medium consisting of air and water. Our technique reproduces well the distribution of photons in the experimentally acquired projections.

  16. Modeling alternatives for basin-level hydropower development: 1. Optimization methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Liaw, Shu-Liang; Railsback, Steven F.; Sale, Michael J.

    1992-10-01

    Development of multiple hydroelectric projects at navigation dams on large river systems can result in a number of environmental impacts, including potential reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. This study presents a method for generating hydropower development alternatives for evaluation by planners by quantifying the trade-offs between water quality and power generation. This method employs a Streeter-Phelps model to simulate DO and the bounded implicit enumeration algorithm to solve an optimization model formulated to maximize hydroelectric energy production. A portion of the upper Ohio River basin was selected to illustrate the methodology. The results indicate that various alternatives that meet the specified DO constraints can be generated efficiently. These alternatives are nearly optimal solutions with respect to the modeled objectives but are different with respect to decision variables.

  17. Propagation of terahertz radiation through random structures: An alternative theoretical approach and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, J. R.; Swift, G. P.; Dai, De Chang; Levitt, J. A.; Chamberlain, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    A model describing the propagation of terahertz frequency radiation through inhomogeneous materials is proposed. In such materials (e.g., powders or clothing), the size of the scattering centers, their separation, and the wavelength of the radiation are all commensurate. A phase distribution function is used to model the optical properties of a randomly structured transmitting layer. The predictions of the model are compared with exact (Mie) theory for isolated spherical scatterers and with previously published experimental data. Measurements of the transmission of terahertz radiation through a variety of samples in order to validate the present model are also reported. These include arrays of cylinders, textiles, powders, and glass balls. Overall, satisfactory agreement between the experimental data and theoretical predictions is obtained.

  18. The accessory limb model: an alternative experimental system of limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Gardiner, David M; Makanae, Aki; Satoh, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Accessory limb model (ALM) was developed as an experimental model and functional assay for limb regeneration. The ALM provides several ways to identify pathways and test for signaling molecules that regulate limb regeneration. Here, we summarize the history of the ALM and describe the specific details involved in inducing ectopic blastemas and limbs from a skin wound on the side of the arm. PMID:25740480

  19. Computational and Experimental Unsteady Pressures for Alternate SLS Booster Nose Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braukmann, Gregory J.; Streett, Craig L.; Kleb, William L.; Alter, Stephen J.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Glass, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) predictions of the unsteady transonic flow about a Space Launch System (SLS) configuration were made with the Fully UNstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) flow solver. The computational predictions were validated against results from a 2.5% model tested in the NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Unitary Plan Facility. The peak C(sub p,rms) value was under-predicted for the baseline, Mach 0.9 case, but the general trends of high C(sub p,rms) levels behind the forward attach hardware, reducing as one moves away both streamwise and circumferentially, were captured. Frequency of the peak power in power spectral density estimates was consistently under-predicted. Five alternate booster nose shapes were assessed, and several were shown to reduce the surface pressure fluctuations, both as predicted by the computations and verified by the wind tunnel results.

  20. The Assessment of Experimental Methods of Serial Number Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo, Mackenzie

    Serial number restoration is a common and successful process of revealing obliterated serial numbers on firearms. In a crime laboratory setting, obliterated serial numbers are commonly processed in order to tie a person to a crime scene or provide an investigative lead for officers. Currently serial numbers are restored using a chemical etchant method that can eat away at the metal on the firearm even after the examination is complete. It can also take several hours to complete and only provide an examiner with a partial number. There are other nondestructive options however little to no literature is available. The purpose of this study is to discover new methods for nondestructive serial number restoration and to compare them to the traditional chemical method used. Metal bars of premeasured obliteration depths and different compositions were examined using three proposed experimental methods: near infrared imaging, cold frost, and scanning acoustic microscopy. Results did not indicate significant difference in the median number of visible digits recovered for each of the three proposed methods compared to the traditional chemical method. There were significant results in the median number of composition utilized and depth of obliteration. This indicates that different firearm compositions and depth of obliteration has an effect on serial number restoration.

  1. Experimental evaluation of the certification-trail method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.; Itoh, Mamoru; Smith, Warren W.; Kay, Jonathan S.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault-detection and fault-tolerance. A comprehensive attempt to assess experimentally the performance and overall value of the method is reported. The method is applied to algorithms for the following problems: huffman tree, shortest path, minimum spanning tree, sorting, and convex hull. Our results reveal many cases in which an approach using certification-trails allows for significantly faster overall program execution time than a basic time redundancy-approach. Algorithms for the answer-validation problem for abstract data types were also examined. This kind of problem provides a basis for applying the certification-trail method to wide classes of algorithms. Answer-validation solutions for two types of priority queues were implemented and analyzed. In both cases, the algorithm which performs answer-validation is substantially faster than the original algorithm for computing the answer. Next, a probabilistic model and analysis which enables comparison between the certification-trail method and the time-redundancy approach were presented. The analysis reveals some substantial and sometimes surprising advantages for ther certification-trail method. Finally, the work our group performed on the design and implementation of fault injection testbeds for experimental analysis of the certification trail technique is discussed. This work employs two distinct methodologies, software fault injection (modification of instruction, data, and stack segments of programs on a Sun Sparcstation ELC and on an IBM 386 PC) and hardware fault injection (control, address, and data lines of a Motorola MC68000-based target system pulsed at logical zero/one values). Our results indicate the viability of the certification trail technique. It is also believed that the tools developed provide a solid base for additional exploration.

  2. 29 CFR 2520.104-4 - Alternative method of compliance for certain successor pension plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pension plans. 2520.104-4 Section 2520.104-4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE... certain successor pension plans. (a) General. Under the authority of section 110 of the Act, this section sets forth an alternative method of compliance for certain successor pension plans in which...

  3. 29 CFR 2520.104-4 - Alternative method of compliance for certain successor pension plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE Provisions Applicable to Both Reporting and Disclosure Requirements § 2520.104-4 Alternative method of compliance...

  4. 48 CFR 48.104-4 - Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method. 48.104-4 Section 48.104-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-4...

  5. 48 CFR 48.104-4 - Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method. 48.104-4 Section 48.104-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-4...

  6. Chaos Theory: A Scientific Basis for Alternative Research Methods in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peca, Kathy

    This paper has three purposes. First, it places in scientific perspective the growing acceptance in educational administration research of alternative methods to empiricism by an explication of chaos theory and its assumptions. Second, it demonstrates that chaos theory provides a scientific basis for investigation of complex qualitative variables…

  7. Accelerating the Use of Weblogs as an Alternative Method to Deliver Case-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charlie; Wu, Jiinpo; Yang, Samuel C.

    2008-01-01

    Weblog technology is an alternative medium to deliver the case-based method of learning business concepts. The social nature of this technology can potentially promote active learning and enhance analytical ability of students. The present research investigates the primary factors contributing to the adoption of Weblog technology by students to…

  8. Report to the Congress on alternative methods for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to fulfill the requirements of Public Law No. 101-46, approved June 30, 1989. The study describes and evaluates alternative methods for financing the future expansion of the Strategic petroleum Reserve (SPR), both to the current target level of 750 million barrels and to potential future levels of up to one billion barrels.

  9. 27 CFR 478.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures; emergency variations from requirements. 478.22 Section 478.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS...

  10. 27 CFR 20.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. 20.22 Section 20.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND...

  11. 27 CFR 555.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures; emergency variations from requirements. 555.22 Section 555.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE...

  12. 27 CFR 22.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. 22.22 Section 22.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND...

  13. 27 CFR 479.26 - Alternate methods or procedures; emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures; emergency variations from requirements. 479.26 Section 479.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS...

  14. 27 CFR 28.20 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. 28.20 Section 28.20 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION...

  15. 30 CFR 253.32 - Are there alternative methods to demonstrate OSFR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are there alternative methods to demonstrate OSFR? 253.32 Section 253.32 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... appeal under 30 CFR part 290 or 43 CFR part 4....

  16. 77 FR 11536 - Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... FR 45254). In accordance with the ICCVAM Authorization Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. 285l-3), agencies have... comment in May 2008 (73 FR 29136). The Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods... 2008 meeting (73 FR 25754). ICCVAM considered the panel's report, comments from SACATM, and...

  17. Alternative Assessment Methods Based on Categorizations, Supporting Technologies, and a Model for Betterment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Jacob, Marion G.; Ben-Jacob, Tyler E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores alternative assessment methods from the perspective of categorizations. It addresses the technologies that support assessment. It discusses initial, formative, and summative assessment, as well as objective and subjective assessment, and formal and informal assessment. It approaches each category of assessment from the…

  18. Alternating Renewal Process Models for Behavioral Observation: Simulation Methods, Software, and Validity Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pustejovsky, James E.; Runyon, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Direct observation recording procedures produce reductive summary measurements of an underlying stream of behavior. Previous methodological studies of these recording procedures have employed simulation methods for generating random behavior streams, many of which amount to special cases of a statistical model known as the alternating renewal…

  19. Table or Circles: A Comparison of Two Methods for Choosing among Career Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amit, Adi; Gati, Itamar

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 182 young adults about to choose their college major were randomly assigned to 2 guidance methods aimed at facilitating choosing among promising career alternatives: Table-for-Choice and Circles-for-Choice. Table-for-Choice was perceived as more effective, but individuals' confidence in their choice was higher in the Circles-for-Choice…

  20. 29 CFR 2530.204-3 - Alternative computation methods for benefit accrual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR EMPLOYEE PENSION BENEFIT PLANS UNDER THE EMPLOYEE... BENEFIT PLANS Participation, Vesting and Benefit Accrual § 2530.204-3 Alternative computation methods for..., a defined benefit pension plan may determine an employee's service for purposes of benefit...

  1. Reflexive Photography as an Alternative Method for the Study of the Freshman Year Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Charles E.; Schibik, Timothy J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes alternative method for studying first-year students' impressions of first-semester experiences. Undergraduates were asked to take a series of reflexive photographs, then, in writing describe the reasons why they illustrate their experiences. Research revealed a number of primary themes, including perceptions about the university's…

  2. Communicative Approach: An Alternative Method Used in Improving Students' Academic Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irmawati, Noer Doddy

    2012-01-01

    Academic reading is a difficult subject to be mastered. It is needed because most of books or references are written in English. The emphasis is on academic reading which becomes a compulsory subject that must be taught and understood in Faculty of Letters UAD Yogyakarta. Communicative approach is used and applied as an alternative method in the…

  3. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250.1504 Section 250.1504 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Well Control and...

  4. 48 CFR 48.104-4 - Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sharing alternative-no-cost settlement method. 48.104-4 Section 48.104-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-4...

  5. Experimental validation of boundary element methods for noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, A. F.; Oswald, Fred B.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental validation of methods to predict radiated noise is presented. A combined finite element and boundary element model was used to predict the vibration and noise of a rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker. The predicted noise was compared to sound power measured by the acoustic intensity method. Inaccuracies in the finite element model shifted the resonance frequencies by about 5 percent. The predicted and measured sound power levels agree within about 2.5 dB. In a second experiment, measured vibration data was used with a boundary element model to predict noise radiation from the top of an operating gearbox. The predicted and measured sound power for the gearbox agree within about 3 dB.

  6. Theoretical and experimental physical methods of neutron-capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, G. I.

    2011-09-01

    This review is based to a substantial degree on our priority developments and research at the IR-8 reactor of the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. New theoretical and experimental methods of neutron-capture therapy are developed and applied in practice; these are: A general analytical and semi-empiric theory of neutron-capture therapy (NCT) based on classical neutron physics and its main sections (elementary theories of moderation, diffuse, reflection, and absorption of neutrons) rather than on methods of mathematical simulation. The theory is, first of all, intended for practical application by physicists, engineers, biologists, and physicians. This theory can be mastered by anyone with a higher education of almost any kind and minimal experience in operating a personal computer.

  7. Integrating Informative Priors from Experimental Research with Bayesian Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hamra, Ghassan; Richardson, David; MacLehose, Richard; Wing, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Informative priors can be a useful tool for epidemiologists to handle problems of sparse data in regression modeling. It is sometimes the case that an investigator is studying a population exposed to two agents, X and Y, where Y is the agent of primary interest. Previous research may suggest that the exposures have different effects on the health outcome of interest, one being more harmful than the other. Such information may be derived from epidemiologic analyses; however, in the case where such evidence is unavailable, knowledge can be drawn from toxicologic studies or other experimental research. Unfortunately, using toxicologic findings to develop informative priors in epidemiologic analyses requires strong assumptions, with no established method for its utilization. We present a method to help bridge the gap between animal and cellular studies and epidemiologic research by specification of an order-constrained prior. We illustrate this approach using an example from radiation epidemiology. PMID:23222512

  8. An evaluation of alternative cleaning methods for removing an organic contaminant from a stainless steel part

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    As of December 1995, the manufacture of Freon, along with many other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), was prohibited by the Clean Air Act of 1990 (CAA). The ban of CFC solvents has forced manufacturers across the country to search for alternative metal cleaning techniques. The objective of this study was to develop a thorough, scientific based approach for resolving one specific manufacturer`s problem of removing organic contamination from a stainless steel part. This objective was accomplished with an approach that involved: (1) defining the problem, (2) identifying the process constraints, (3) researching alternate cleaning methods, (4) researching applicable government regulations, (5) performing a scientific evaluation and (6) drawing conclusions.

  9. An alternative method for modeling the size distribution of top wealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanjun; You, Shibing

    2016-09-01

    The Pareto distribution has been widely applied in modeling the distribution of wealth, as well as top incomes, cities and firms. However, recent evidence has shown that the Pareto distribution is not consistent with many situations in which it was previously considered applicable. We propose an alternative method for estimating the upper tail distribution of wealth and suggest a new Lorenz curve for building models to provide such estimates. Applying our new models to the Forbes World's Billionaire Lists, we show that they significantly outperform the Pareto Lorenz curve as well as some other popular alternatives.

  10. Effect of the overshoot level in an alternative method for processing of tail chopped lightning impulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. S.; Barbosa, C. R. H.; Silva, M. T.; Azevedo, L. C.

    2016-07-01

    The construction of new Ultra High Voltage laboratories requires more studies about standards for equipment as well as for testing and measurement techniques. Currently, the analysis of tail chopped lightning impulse waveforms is possible only by prior application of a full reference lightning impulse, creating difficulties for testing and processing of waveforms. A new method for evaluating the relevant parameters of tail chopped waveforms has been previously developed and this paper studies the effect of the overshoot in this alternative method.

  11. Pectin extraction from quince (Cydonia oblonga) pomace applying alternative methods: effect of process variables and preliminary optimization.

    PubMed

    Brown, Valeria Anahí; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego Bautista

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to introduce alternative methods in the process of pectin extraction from quince pomace, to determine the effect of selected process variables (factors) on the obtained pectin, and to perform a preliminary optimization of the process. A fractional factorial experimental design was applied, where the factors considered were six: quince pomace pretreatment (washing vs blanching), drying method (hot air vs LPSSD), acid extraction conditions (pH, temperature, and time), and pectin extract concentration method (vacuum evaporation vs ultrafiltration). The effects of these factors and their interactions on pectin yield (Y: 0.2-34.2 mg/g), GalA content (44.5-76.2%), and DM (47.5-90.9%), were determined. For these three responses, extraction pH was the main effect, but it was involved in two and three factors interactions. Regarding alternative methods, LPSSD was required for maximum Y and GalA, and ultrafiltration for maximum GalA and DM. Response models were used to predict optimum process conditions (quince blanching, pomace drying by LPSSD, acid extraction at pH 2.20, 80 , 3 h, and concentration under vacuum) to simultaneously maximize Y (25.2 mg/g), GalA (66.3%), and DM (66.4%).

  12. Chemical response of soil leachate to alternative approaches to experimental acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, I.J.; Kosian, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    One approach to evaluating computer models which predict terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem response to acid deposition is the experimental acidification of soils with subsequent comparisons among predicted and measured soil solution response. Using a soil microcosm experimental approach, comparisons between simulated acid rain (i.e. dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), dry NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, and prilled reduced S were made for suitability for large-scale field experiments. Soil microcosms consisting of reconstructed soil profiles received a background simulated throughfall dosing over the six month treatment period. Results indicated that simulated throughfall, applied at twice the ambient rate, acidified soil leachates approximately 0.5 pH units over the treatment period. Along with the decline in leachate pH was an apparent release of base cations as well as Fe and Al. Over the length of the treatment period, very little of the prilled S dissolved and the simulated acid rain treatment did not have significant effects on leachate chemistry.

  13. Habitat structure mediates predation risk for sedentary prey: Experimental tests of alternative hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Predation is an important and ubiquitous selective force that can shape habitat preferences of prey species, but tests of alternative mechanistic hypotheses of habitat influences on predation risk are lacking. 2. We studied predation risk at nest sites of a passerine bird and tested two hypotheses based on theories of predator foraging behaviour. The total-foliage hypothesis predicts that predation will decline in areas of greater overall vegetation density by impeding cues for detection by predators. The potential-prey-site hypothesis predicts that predation decreases where predators must search more unoccupied potential nest sites. 3. Both observational data and results from a habitat manipulation provided clear support for the potential-prey-site hypothesis and rejection of the total-foliage hypothesis. Birds chose nest patches containing both greater total foliage and potential nest site density (which were correlated in their abundance) than at random sites, yet only potential nest site density significantly influenced nest predation risk. 4. Our results therefore provided a clear and rare example of adaptive nest site selection that would have been missed had structural complexity or total vegetation density been considered alone. 5. Our results also demonstrated that interactions between predator foraging success and habitat structure can be more complex than simple impedance or occlusion by vegetation. ?? 2008 British Ecological Society.

  14. Method for exploiting bias in factor analysis using constrained alternating least squares algorithms

    DOEpatents

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2008-12-30

    Bias plays an important role in factor analysis and is often implicitly made use of, for example, to constrain solutions to factors that conform to physical reality. However, when components are collinear, a large range of solutions may exist that satisfy the basic constraints and fit the data equally well. In such cases, the introduction of mathematical bias through the application of constraints may select solutions that are less than optimal. The biased alternating least squares algorithm of the present invention can offset mathematical bias introduced by constraints in the standard alternating least squares analysis to achieve factor solutions that are most consistent with physical reality. In addition, these methods can be used to explicitly exploit bias to provide alternative views and provide additional insights into spectral data sets.

  15. Use of Biosensors as Alternatives to Current Regulatory Methods for Marine Biotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Vilariño, Natalia; Fonfría, Eva S.; Louzao, M. Carmen; Botana, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    Marine toxins are currently monitored by means of a bioassay that requires the use of many mice, which poses a technical and ethical problem in many countries. With the exception of domoic acid, there is a legal requirement for the presence of other toxins (yessotoxin, saxitoxin and analogs, okadaic acid and analogs, pectenotoxins and azaspiracids) in seafood to be controlled by bioassay, but other toxins, such as palytoxin, cyclic imines, ciguatera and tetrodotoxin are potentially present in European food and there are no legal requirements or technical approaches available to identify their presence. The need for alternative methods to the bioassay is clearly important, and biosensors have become in recent years a feasible alternative to animal sacrifice. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using biosensors as alternatives to animal assays for marine toxins, with particular focus on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. PMID:22291571

  16. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  17. Experimental paracoccidioidomycosis: alternative therapy with ajoene, compound from Allium sativum, associated with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.

    PubMed

    Thomaz, L; Apitz-Castro, R; Marques, A F; Travassos, L R; Taborda, C P

    2008-03-01

    Ajoene has been described as an antithrombotic, anti-tumour, antifungal, antiparasitic and antibacterial agent. This study deals with the efficacy of ajoene to treat mice intratracheally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The results indicate that ajoene therapy is effective in association with antifungal drugs (sulfametoxazol/trimethoprim), showing a positive additive effect. Ajoene-treated mice developed Th1-type cytokine responses producing higher levels of IFN-gamma and IL-12 when compared to the infected but untreated members of the control group. Antifungal activity of ajoene involves a direct effect on fungi and a protective pro-inflammatory immune response. Reduction of fungal load is additive to chemotherapy and therefore the combined treatment is mostly effective against experimental paracoccidioidomycosis.

  18. Experimental imaging performance evaluation for alternate configurations of undersea pulsed laser serial imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgleish, Fraser R.; Vuorenkoski, Anni K.; Nootz, Gero; Ouyang, Bing; Caimi, Frank M.

    2011-06-01

    This paper examines imaging performance bounds for undersea electro-optic identification (EOID) sensors that use pulsed laser line scanners to form serial images, typically utilizing one laser pulse for each formed image element. The experimental results presented include the use of two distinct imaging geometries; firstly where the laser source and single element optical detector are nearly co-aligned (near monostatic) and secondly where the laser source is deployed on a separate platform positioned closer to the target (bistatic) to minimize source-to-target beam spread, volumetric scatter and attenuation, with the detector being positioned much further from the target. The former system uses synchronous scanning in order to significantly limit the required instantaneous angular acceptance function of the detector and has the desired intention of acquiring only ballistic photons that have directly interacted with the target element and the undesirable property of acquiring snake photon contributions that indirectly arrive into the detector aperture via multiple forward scattering over the two-way propagation path. The latter system utilizes a staring detector with a much wider angular acceptance function, the objective being to deliver maximum photon density to each target element and acquire diffuse, snake and ballistic photon contributions in order to maximize the signal. The objective of this work was to experimentally investigate pulse-to-pulse detection statistics for both imaging geometries in carefully controlled particle suspensions, with and without artificially generated random uncharacterized scattering inhomogeneities to assess potential image performance in realistic conditions where large biological and mineral particles, aggregates, thin biological scattering layers and turbulence will exist. More specifically, the study investigates received pulse energy variance in clear filtered water, as well as various well-characterized particle suspensions

  19. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria. [Alternative methods are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults; earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, augered holes

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria.

  20. The Bosch Process-Performance of a Developmental Reactor and Experimental Evaluation of Alternative Catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Mansell, J. Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Bosch-based reactors have been in development at NASA since the 1960's. Traditional operation involves the reduction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen over a steel wool catalyst to produce water and solid carbon. While the system is capable of completely closing the loop on oxygen and hydrogen for Atmosphere Revitalization, steel wool requires a reaction temperature of 650C or higher for optimum performance. The single pass efficiency of the reaction over steel wool has been shown to be less than 10% resulting in a high recycle stream. Finally, the formation of solid carbon on steel wool ultimately fouls the catalyst necessitating catalyst resupply. These factors result in high mass, volume and power demands for a Bosch system. Interplanetary transportation and surface exploration missions of the moon, Mars, and near-earth objects will require higher levels of loop closure than current technology cannot provide. A Bosch system can provide the level of loop closure necessary for these long-term missions if mass, volume, and power can be kept low. The keys to improving the Bosch system lie in reactor and catalyst development. In 2009, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration refurbished a circa 1980's developmental Bosch reactor and built a sub-scale Bosch Catalyst Test Stand for the purpose of reactor and catalyst development. This paper describes the baseline performance of two commercially available steel wool catalysts as compared to performance reported in the 1960's and 80's. Additionally, the results of sub-scale testing of alternative Bosch catalysts, including nickel- and cobalt-based catalysts, are discussed.

  1. Parents’ attitude toward multiple vaccinations at a single visit with alternative delivery methods

    PubMed Central

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Kleijne, Deborah E; Knol, Mirjam J; Harmsen, Irene A; Ophorst, Olga JAE; Rots, Nynke Y

    2014-01-01

    Last decades, the number of routine childhood vaccinations has increased considerably, which consequently has led to multiple vaccine injections per consultation. Implementation of additional vaccines will probably lead to more than 2 vaccine injections per consult, which might be a barrier for parents to vaccinate their child. A decrease in vaccination coverage, however, increases the risk of disease outbreaks. Less stressful alternative methods for vaccine delivery might lead to an increased acceptance of multiple childhood vaccinations by parents. The present questionnaire study was set up to explore the maximum number of vaccine injections per visit that is acceptable for parents, as well as to gauge parents’ attitude toward alternative needle-free methods for vaccine delivery. For this purpose, the parents’ opinion toward a jet injector, a patch, a microneedle system, and nasal spray device as methods for vaccine delivery was assessed. The majority of the 1154 participating parents indicated that 3 vaccine injections per visit was perceived as too much. Most participants had a positive attitude with respect to the jet injector and the patch as alternative vaccine delivery method, whereas the microneedle device and an intranasal spray device were not perceived as better than the conventional syringe by the parents. Parents indicated that both the jet injector and the patch might increase their acceptance of giving their children more than 2 vaccinations at the same time. This should encourage vaccine developers and manufacturers to put efforts in developing these delivery methods for their vaccines. PMID:25424960

  2. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  3. Fast acquisition of multidimensional NMR spectra of solids and mesophases using alternative sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Lesot, Philippe; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof; Trébosc, Julien; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Lafon, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Unique information about the atom-level structure and dynamics of solids and mesophases can be obtained by the use of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Nevertheless, the acquisition of these experiments often requires long acquisition times. We review here alternative sampling methods, which have been proposed to circumvent this issue in the case of solids and mesophases. Compared to the spectra of solutions, those of solids and mesophases present some specificities because they usually display lower signal-to-noise ratios, non-Lorentzian line shapes, lower spectral resolutions and wider spectral widths. We highlight herein the advantages and limitations of these alternative sampling methods. A first route to accelerate the acquisition time of multidimensional NMR spectra consists in the use of sparse sampling schemes, such as truncated, radial or random sampling ones. These sparsely sampled datasets are generally processed by reconstruction methods differing from the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). A host of non-DFT methods have been applied for solids and mesophases, including the G-matrix Fourier transform, the linear least-square procedures, the covariance transform, the maximum entropy and the compressed sensing. A second class of alternative sampling consists in departing from the Jeener paradigm for multidimensional NMR experiments. These non-Jeener methods include Hadamard spectroscopy as well as spatial or orientational encoding of the evolution frequencies. The increasing number of high field NMR magnets and the development of techniques to enhance NMR sensitivity will contribute to widen the use of these alternative sampling methods for the study of solids and mesophases in the coming years.

  4. Alternative Method for Simulating IPSF in Two-Photon Laser Scanning Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, YongJun; Chen, DeQiang; Huang, Wenhao; Xia, Andong

    2002-09-01

    The refractive-index mismatch induced by coverslips will lead to the distortion of two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) images. Such distortion will result in the elongation of the intensity point spread function (IPSF). In order to predict the trend and extent of the distortion, we develop a new data proceeding method which combines Torok"s theory with the experimental value. This method considers the fluorescence quantum efficiency of the sample together with the detection efficiency of the system. By calculating IPSF and using our method to proceed the data, the simulation results are quite consistent with experimental results.

  5. Experimental analysis of alternative models of charge movement in frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C L

    1983-01-01

    A series of pulse procedures was used to distinguish experimentally between a 'capacitative' (Schneider & Chandler, 1973) and a 'resistive' (Matthias, Levis & Eisenberg, 1980) model of 'charge movements' in skeletal muscle. A general condition describing the conservation of charge in a non-linear capacitor that was used as the basis for the experiments is derived in the Appendix. It was shown that earlier criteria concerning equality of 'on' and 'off' charge in response to large steps are insufficient to exclude resistive models. However, the capacitative, but not the resistive model successfully explained results bearing on charge conservation assessed through pulse procedures involving: (i) small, 10 mV voltage steps from a series of prepulse voltages, (ii) voltage steps to a fixed potential from a series of hyperpolarized voltages, (iii) pulse sequences incorporating a 'staircase' of voltage steps. It is concluded that the earlier use of 'on' and 'off' equality in response to large voltage steps is insufficient to exclude a resistive basis for the non-linear transient. However pulse procedures explicitly designed to distinguish the two models give results consistent with a capacitative model for the non-linear charge and at variance with a resistive one. PMID:6875919

  6. Gas-mediated vitreous compression: an experimental alternative to mechanized vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Thresher, R J; Ehrenberg, M; Machemer, R

    1984-01-01

    We have developed a simple technique in rabbit and baboon eyes that utilizes intravitreally injected perfluoropropane gas, which expands slowly to efficiently compress and displace nearly completely the vitreous body. There is cataract formation after extended contact of the gas bubble with the lens. However, it is rapidly reversible by reducing the duration of lens contact (gas-fluid exchange) and by using young animals. No long-term alterations in intraocular pressure or retinal function were observed, as determined by electroretinography, during the 4-month test period. Gross examination and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the vitreous cavity, shortly after full expansion of the gas bubble, was practically free of collagen. The vitreous body had been detached from most of the retina and compressed into a collagenous strand between the optic nerve head and lens in the rabbit eyes, and there was also a dense collagen accumulation on the inferior retinal surface and anterior vitreous base in the rabbits and the baboon. Large areas of the retina and medullary wings were stripped of overlying collagen. By the end of 4 months, the compressed vitreous body had expanded to become an irregular structure that remained separated from the retina in areas of previous detachment. Mechanized vitrectomy is a difficult procedure often needed in experimental work. We believe that the vitreous compression and gas-fluid exchange technique is a valid alterative to a mechanical approach. We also believe that we have a model that simulates the human situation of posterior vitreous detachment and vitreous syneresis.

  7. Experimental study on spray characteristics of alternate jet fuels using Phase Doppler Anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuels have gained global attention due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. The chemical and physical properties of GTL jet fuels are different from conventional jet fuels owing to the difference in their production methodology. It is important to study the spray characteristics of GTL jet fuels as the change of physical properties can affect atomization, mixing, evaporation and combustion process, ultimately affecting emission process. In this work, spray characteristics of two GTL synthetic jet fuels are studied using a pressure-swirl nozzle at different injection pressures and atmospheric ambient condition. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements of droplet size and velocity are compared with those of regular Jet A-1 fuel at several axial and radial locations downstream of the nozzle exit. Experimental results show that although the GTL fuels have different physical properties such as viscosity, density, and surface tension, among each other the resultant change in the spray characteristics is insignificant. Furthermore, the presented results show that GTL fuel spray characteristics exhibit close similarity to those of Jet A-1 fuel. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  8. Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Combustion Characteristics of Conventional and Alternative Jet Fuels. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Ellen; Naik, Chitral V.; Puduppakkam, Karthik V.; Modak, Abhijit; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, Theo; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this project have been to develop a comprehensive set of fundamental data regarding the combustion behavior of jet fuels and appropriately associated model fuels. Based on the fundamental study results, an auxiliary objective was to identify differentiating characteristics of molecular fuel components that can be used to explain different fuel behavior and that may ultimately be used in the planning and design of optimal fuel-production processes. The fuels studied in this project were Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels and biomass-derived jet fuels that meet certain specifications of currently used jet propulsion applications. Prior to this project, there were no systematic experimental flame data available for such fuels. One of the key goals has been to generate such data, and to use this data in developing and verifying effective kinetic models. The models have then been reduced through automated means to enable multidimensional simulation of the combustion characteristics of such fuels in real combustors. Such reliable kinetic models, validated against fundamental data derived from laminar flames using idealized flow models, are key to the development and design of optimal combustors and fuels. The models provide direct information about the relative contribution of different molecular constituents to the fuel performance and can be used to assess both combustion and emissions characteristics.

  9. An alternative experimental approach to produce rare-earth-doped SiOx films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanatta, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    Rare-earth (RE) doped silicon-oxide (SiOx) films were prepared by sputtering a combined Si + RE2O3 target with argon ions. The study comprised the neodymium (Nd) and samarium (Sm) rare-earth species and the Si + RE2O3 targets were obtained by partially covering a solid disc of Si with area-defined thin layers of Nd2O3 or Sm2O3 powders. The films were investigated by energy-dispersive x-ray, Raman scattering, optical transmission, and photo-luminescence measurements. According to the experimental results, in the as-deposited form, the films were amorphous and presented RE and oxygen concentrations that scaled with the RE2O3 target area. Additional compositional-structural changes were obtained by thermal annealing the films under a flow of oxygen. Within these changes, one can mention: increase of oxygen concentration, optical bandgap widening, partial Si crystallization, and the development of RE-related light emission. The main aspects associated to the production and structural-optical properties of the films, as determined either by the deposition conditions or by the annealing treatments, are presented and discussed in detail.

  10. Evaluation of Alternatives to the Ontario Hydro Method as a Reference Method for CAMR

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2007-03-31

    In June 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). As part of the rule, all coal-fired power plants will be required to do continuous mercury measurements. To complete the required relative accuracy test assessment (RATA), the only reference methods allowed are the wet-chemistry methods: the Ontario Hydro (OH) mercury speciation method (ASTM International D6784-02) and EPA Method 29. Either method will be a challenge and expensive. It would be much more desirable to use an instrumental reference method (IRM) or use sorbent traps as a reference method so that the results can be obtained quickly and cheaply. This report presents the results from testing at Reliant Energy, Inc.'s, Portland Station. The project was designed to compare mercury concentrations measured using sorbent traps to those obtained using the OH method. The tests were done using a RATA scenario and at three different conditions. In addition, as part of the project, limited IRM testing was also completed. The results from the testing show that the sorbent traps compared very well with the OH method and, therefore, must be considered as a potential reference method. Although the IRM testing using manual injection of elemental and oxidized mercury for dynamic spiking showed some promise, it was clear that additional testing was needed. However, this method of dynamic spiking may not be acceptable to EPA, as it does not consider vapor pressure curves for elemental mercury a National Institute of Standards Technology traceable standard.

  11. Experimental methods of molecular matter-wave optics.

    PubMed

    Juffmann, Thomas; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Arndt, Markus

    2013-08-01

    We describe the state of the art in preparing, manipulating and detecting coherent molecular matter. We focus on experimental methods for handling the quantum motion of compound systems from diatomic molecules to clusters or biomolecules.Molecular quantum optics offers many challenges and innovative prospects: already the combination of two atoms into one molecule takes several well-established methods from atomic physics, such as for instance laser cooling, to their limits. The enormous internal complexity that arises when hundreds or thousands of atoms are bound in a single organic molecule, cluster or nanocrystal provides a richness that can only be tackled by combining methods from atomic physics, chemistry, cluster physics, nanotechnology and the life sciences.We review various molecular beam sources and their suitability for matter-wave experiments. We discuss numerous molecular detection schemes and give an overview over diffraction and interference experiments that have already been performed with molecules or clusters.Applications of de Broglie studies with composite systems range from fundamental tests of physics up to quantum-enhanced metrology in physical chemistry, biophysics and the surface sciences.Nanoparticle quantum optics is a growing field, which will intrigue researchers still for many years to come. This review can, therefore, only be a snapshot of a very dynamical process.

  12. Performance of two alternative methods for Listeria detection throughout Serro Minas cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Mata, Gardênia Márcia Silva Campos; Martins, Evandro; Machado, Solimar Gonçalves; Pinto, Maximiliano Soares; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to survive cheese ripening is a food-security concern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of two alternative methods of analysis of Listeria during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese. These methods were tested and compared with the conventional method: Lateral Flow System™, in cheeses produced on laboratory scale using raw milk collected from different farms and inoculated with Listeria innocua; and VIDAS(®)-LMO, in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers in Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were also characterized in terms of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms and physical-chemical analysis. In the inoculated samples, L. innocua was detected by Lateral Flow System™ method with 33% false-negative and 68% accuracy results. L. innocua was only detected in the inoculated samples by the conventional method at 60-days of cheese ripening. L. monocytogenes was not detected by the conventional and the VIDAS(®)-LMO methods in cheese samples collected from different manufacturers, which impairs evaluating the performance of this alternative method. We concluded that the conventional method provided a better recovery of L. innocua throughout cheese ripening, being able to detect L. innocua at 60-day, aging period which is required by the current legislation. PMID:27268116

  13. An alternative method for cardioplegia delivery during totally endoscopic robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Guden, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Askin A; Sagbas, Ertan; Sanisoglu, Ilhan; Akpinar, Belhhan

    2009-01-01

    The optimal technique for myocardial protection and cardioplegia delivery during totally endoscopic robotic surgery is still under evolution. Cardioplegia delivery with endovascular clamping of the aorta is a common method used for this purpose but has several disadvantages and may lead to serious complications. Here we describe an alternative cardioplegia delivery method during totally endoscopic atrial septal defect closure and mitral valve repair. The method using a transthoracic aortic clamp and an antegrade cardioplegia cannula without any thoracotomy seems to be a safe and reproducible technique, which may enhance myocardial protection and prevent some of the complications of the endoclamp technique during robotically assisted cardiac surgery. PMID:19732223

  14. Alternative exact method for random walks on finite and periodic lattices with traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Jose M.

    1982-07-01

    An alternative general method for random walks in finite or periodic lattices with traps is presented. The method gives, in a straightforward manner and in very little computing time, the exact probability that a random walker, starting from a given site, will undergo n steps before trapping. Another version gives the probability that the walker is at any other given position after n steps. The expected walk lengths calculated for simple lattices agree exactly with those given by a previous exact method by Walsh and Kozak.

  15. Alternative methods for determination of composition and porosity in abradable materials

    SciTech Connect

    Matejicek, Jiri . E-mail: jmatejic@ipp.cas.cz; Kolman, Blahoslav; Dubsky, Jiri; Neufuss, Karel; Hopkins, Noel; Zwick, Jochen

    2006-07-15

    Materials properties and performance are governed by their composition and structure. These are commonly characterized using materialography and image analysis. However, in abradable materials, obtaining a reliable and representative sample (polished section) for this widespread technique is complicated by their abradable nature and heterogeneity. Therefore, alternative methods are also considered in this paper. They are namely X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis to determine the composition, and mercury intrusion porosimetry, Archimedean porosimetry and helium pycnometry to determine the porosity. These methods, including materialography, were applied on representative abradable materials produced by plasma spraying; their results are compared and the advantages and drawbacks of each method are discussed.

  16. 23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate Method of Determining the Color of... Subpart F of Part 655—Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and...-fluorescent retroreflective materials may be measured in accordance with ASTM Test Method E1349,...

  17. Passive Samplers for Investigations of Air Quality: Method Description, Implementation, and Comparison to Alternative Sampling Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Paper covers the basics of passive sampler design, compares passive samplers to conventional methods of air sampling, and discusses considerations when implementing a passive sampling program. The Paper also discusses field sampling and sample analysis considerations to ensu...

  18. Measurement of the resistivity of porous materials with an alternating air-flow method.

    PubMed

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Ianniello, Carmine; Romano, Rosario A

    2011-02-01

    Air-flow resistivity is a main parameter governing the acoustic behavior of porous materials for sound absorption. The international standard ISO 9053 specifies two different methods to measure the air-flow resistivity, namely a steady-state air-flow method and an alternating air-flow method. The latter is realized by the measurement of the sound pressure at 2 Hz in a small rigid volume closed partially by the test sample. This cavity is excited with a known volume-velocity sound source implemented often with a motor-driven piston oscillating with prescribed area and displacement magnitude. Measurements at 2 Hz require special instrumentation and care. The authors suggest an alternating air-flow method based on the ratio of sound pressures measured at frequencies higher than 2 Hz inside two cavities coupled through a conventional loudspeaker. The basic method showed that the imaginary part of the sound pressure ratio is useful for the evaluation of the air-flow resistance. Criteria are discussed about the choice of a frequency range suitable to perform simplified calculations with respect to the basic method. These criteria depend on the sample thickness, its nonacoustic parameters, and the measurement apparatus as well. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of acoustic materials.

  19. Alternative sieving method for extraction of light filth from cheeses: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, M J

    1994-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on an alternative sieving method for the extraction of light filth from cheeses. The alternative method was developed that is applicable to broad variety of cheeses. A 225 g test portion is dispersed in a solution of 5.7% HCl, Igepal CO-730, and Igepal DM-710. Digested cheese is wet-sieved on a No. 230 sieve. The residue is treated with Tergitol Anionic 4, transferred to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate solution, heated, and maintained at 65 degrees-75 degrees C for 10 min. The residue is washed with these 2 surfactants a maximum of 4 times until it is reduced to an amount that is filterable. The residue is filtered and the filter papers are examined microscopically at a magnification of ca 30x. Average recoveries by 9 collaborators for 3 spike levels of rat hairs (5, 10, and 15) were 80, 68, and 81%, respectively; for insect fragments (5, 15, and 30) recoveries were 97, 90, and 92%, respectively. The alternative sieving method for extraction of light filth from cheeses has been adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:7950417

  20. Harmonic amplitude dependent dynamic stiffness of hydraulic bushings: Alternate nonlinear models and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredette, Luke; Dreyer, Jason T.; Rook, Todd E.; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic stiffness properties of automotive hydraulic bushings exhibit significant amplitude sensitivity which cannot be captured by linear time-invariant models. Quasi-linear and nonlinear models are therefore proposed with focus on the amplitude sensitivity in magnitude and loss angle spectra (up to 50 Hz). Since production bushing model parameters are unknown, dynamic stiffness tests and laboratory experiments are utilized to extract model parameters. Nonlinear compliance and resistance elements are incorporated, including their interactions in order to improve amplitude sensitive predictions. New solution approximations for the new nonlinear system equations refine the multi-term harmonic balance term method. Quasi-linear models yield excellent accuracy but cannot predict trends in amplitude sensitivity since they rely on available dynamic stiffness measurements. Nonlinear models containing both nonlinear resistance and compliance elements yield superior predictions to those of prior models (with a single nonlinearity) while also providing more physical insight. Suggestion for further work is briefly mentioned.

  1. An experimental database for evaluating PIV uncertainty quantification methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Scott; Neal, Douglas; Sciacchitano, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Uncertainty quantification for particle image velocimetry (PIV) data has recently become a topic of great interest as shown by the publishing of several different methods within the past few years. A unique experiment has been designed to test the efficacy of PIV uncertainty methods, using a rectangular jet as the flow field. The novel aspect of the experimental setup consists of simultaneous measurements by means of two different time-resolved PIV systems and a hot-wire anemometer (HWA). The first PIV system, called the ``PIV-Measurement'' system, collects the data for which uncertainty is to be evaluated. It is based on a single camera and features a dynamic velocity range (DVR) representative of many PIV experiments. The second PIV system, called the ``PIV-HDR'' (high dynamic range) system, has a significantly higher DVR obtained with a higher digital imaging resolution. The hot-wire was placed in close proximity to the PIV measurement domain. All three of the measurement systems were carefully set to simultaneously collect time-resolved data on a point-by-point basis. The HWA validates the PIV-HDR system as the reference velocity so that it can be used to evaluate the instantaneous error in the PIV-measurement system.

  2. Dynamic analysis of Free-Piston Stirling Engine/Linear Alternator-load system-experimentally validated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. David; Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Santiago, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of variations in system parameters on the dynamic behavior of the Free-Piston Stirling Engine/Linear Alternator (FPSE/LA)-load system. The mathematical formulations incorporate both the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of the FPSE, as well as the electrical equations of the connected load. A state-space technique in the frequency domain is applied to the resulting system of equations to facilitate the evaluation of parametric impacts on the system dynamic stability. Also included is a discussion on the system transient stability as affected by sudden changes in some key operating conditions. Some representative results are correlated with experimental data to verify the model and analytic formulation accuracies. Guidelines are given for ranges of the system parameters which will ensure an overall stable operation.

  3. Solute transport via alternating-direction collocation using the modified method of characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Myron B.; Khosravani, Azar

    We present a finite-element collocation method for modeling underground solute transport in two space dimensions when advection is dominant. The scheme uses a modified method of characteristics to approximate advective terms, thereby reducing the temporal truncation error and allowing accurate transport of solute by the velocity field. In conjunction with this approach, we employ an alternating-direction algorithm to yield a highly parallelizable algorithm for solving two-dimensional problems as sequences of simpler problems having one-dimensional matrix structure.

  4. Short communication: appropriate and alternative methods to determine viable bacterial counts in cow milk samples.

    PubMed

    Loss, G; Apprich, S; Kneifel, W; von Mutius, E; Genuneit, J; Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2012-06-01

    Farm milk consumption is reported to be inversely related to the development of asthma and atopy in children and it has been hypothesized that microorganisms in milk might contribute to this protective effect. The GABRIEL study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a large population of European children, calling for a rapid alternative to classical culture techniques to determine bacteriological properties of milk samples. One objective was to evaluate 2 different rapid methods to determine bacteriological properties in a large number of cow milk samples collected under field conditions. BactoScan (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark), an automated standard flow cytometric method utilized for routine testing of milk quality, and TEMPO (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), an automated most-probable-number method, were used to assess the total viable bacterial count in farm and commercial milk samples. Both methods were compared with standard plate count method and each other. Measurements based on the TEMPO method were in good agreement with the standard plate count method and showed reliable results, whereas BactoScan results did not correlate with standard plate count measurements and yielded higher bacteria counts in heat-treated milk samples compared with raw milk samples. Most likely, these discrepant results were due to inferences with staining reactions and detection of bacteria in heat-treated milk samples. We conclude that, in contrast to the routinely used BactoScan method, the TEMPO method is an inexpensive and rapid alternative to standard culture methods suitable to assess total bacterial counts in processed and raw milk samples.

  5. Alternative statistical methods for estimating efficacy of interferon beta-1b for multiple sclerosis clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the randomized study of interferon beta-1b (IFN beta-1b) for multiple sclerosis (MS), it has usually been evaluated the simple annual relapse rate as the study endpoint. This study aimed to investigate the performance of various regression models using information regarding the time to each recurrent event and considering the MS specific data generation process, and to estimate the treatment effect of a MS clinical trial data. Methods We conducted a simulation study with consideration of the pathological characteristics of MS, and applied alternative efficacy estimation methods to real clinical trial data, including 5 extended Cox regression models for time-to-event analysis, a Poisson regression model and a Poisson regression model with Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). We adjusted for other important covariates that may have affected the outcome. Results We compared the simulation results for each model. The hazard ratios of real data were estimated for each model including the effects of other covariates. The results (hazard ratios of high-dose to low-dose) of all models were approximately 0.7 (range, 0.613 - 0.769), whereas the annual relapse rate ratio was 0.714. Conclusions The precision of the treatment estimation was increased by application of the alternative models. This suggests that the use of alternative models that include recurrence event data may provide better analyses. PMID:21612661

  6. Report to the Congress on alternative financing methods for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    Under current practice, the Federal Government owns the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil and the storage facilities. The funds to acquire and maintain the reserve generally have been derived from normal Federal budget resources; $20 billion in appropriated funds have thus far been made available. During 1989, in Public Law No. 101-46, the Congress extended the EPCA authorities until April 1, 1990 and required the Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study of alternative ways of financing the reserve, with a final report on the study to be submitted by February 1, 1990. The Administration decided to undertake the study of alternative SPR financing methods in conjunction with a parallel study of SPR size, through an Interagency Steering group, chaired by the DOE Deputy Under Secretary. Day-to-day responsibility for the study was assigned to an Interagency Working Group comprised of representatives of interested Federal agencies. Study activities are described. 4 tabs.

  7. Geobacter strains that use alternate organic compounds, methods of making, and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Lovley, Derek R; Summers, Zarath Morgan; Haveman, Shelley Annette; Izallalen, Mounir

    2013-12-03

    In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides new isolated strains of Geobacter species that are capable of using a carbon source that is selected from C.sub.3 to C.sub.12 organic compounds selected from pyruvate or metabolic precursors of pyruvate as an electron donor in metabolism and in subsequent energy production. In other aspects, other preferred embodiments of the present invention include methods of making such strains and methods of using such strains. In general, the wild type strain of the microorganisms has been shown to be unable to use these C.sub.3 to C.sub.12 organic compounds as electron donors in metabolic steps such as the reduction of metallic ions. The inventive strains of microorganisms are useful improving bioremediation applications, including in situ bioremediation (including uranium bioremediation and halogenated solvent bioremediation), microbial fuel cells, power generation from small and large-scale waste facilities (e.g., biomass waste from dairy, agriculture, food processing, brewery, or vintner industries, etc.) using microbial fuel cells, and other applications of microbial fuel cells, including, but not limited to, improved electrical power supplies for environmental sensors, electronic sensors, and electric vehicles.

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigation of multispectral photoacoustic osteoporosis detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Idan; Hershkovich, Hadas Sara; Gannot, Israel; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread disorder, which has a catastrophic impact on patients lives and overwhelming related to healthcare costs. Recently, we proposed a multispectral photoacoustic technique for early detection of osteoporosis. Such technique has great advantages over pure ultrasonic or optical methods as it allows the deduction of both bone functionality from the bone absorption spectrum and bone resistance to fracture from the characteristics of the ultrasound propagation. We demonstrated the propagation of multiple acoustic modes in animal bones in-vitro. To further investigate the effects of multiple wavelength excitations and of induced osteoporosis on the PA signal a multispectral photoacoustic system is presented. The experimental investigation is based on measuring the interference of multiple acoustic modes. The performance of the system is evaluated and a simple two mode theoretical model is fitted to the measured phase signals. The results show that such PA technique is accurate and repeatable. Then a multiple wavelength excitation is tested. It is shown that the PA response due to different excitation wavelengths revels that absorption by the different bone constitutes has a profound effect on the mode generation. The PA response is measured in single wavelength before and after induced osteoporosis. Results show that induced osteoporosis alters the measured amplitude and phase in a consistent manner which allows the detection of the onset of osteoporosis. These results suggest that a complete characterization of the bone over a region of both acoustic and optical frequencies might be used as a powerful tool for in-vivo bone evaluation.

  9. Dendrite growth under forced convection: analysis methods and experimental tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Galenko, P. K.

    2014-08-01

    An analysis is given of the nonisothermal growth of a dendrite crystal under forced fluid flow in a binary system. The theoretical model utilized employs a free moving crystal-liquid interface and makes use of the Oseen approximation for the equations of motion of the liquid. A criterion for the stable growth of two-dimensional and three-dimensional parabolic dendrites is derived under the assumption of an anisotropic surface tension at the crystal-liquid interface, which generalizes the previous known results for the stable growth of a dendrite with convection in a one-component fluid and for the growth of a dendrite in a two-component system at rest. The criterion obtained within the Oseen hydrodynamic approximation is extended to arbitrary Peclet numbers and dendrite growth with convection in a nonisothermal multicomponent system. Model predictions are compared with experimental data on crystal growth kinetics in droplets processed in electromagnetic and electrostatic levitation facilities. Theoretical and simulation methods currently being developed are applied to crystallization processes under earthly and reduced gravity conditions.

  10. 29 CFR 2520.104-48 - Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions-IRS Form 5305-SEP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative method of compliance for model simplified... Provisions Applicable to Both Reporting and Disclosure Requirements § 2520.104-48 Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions—IRS Form 5305-SEP. Under the authority of section 110...

  11. 29 CFR 2520.104-48 - Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions-IRS Form 5305-SEP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative method of compliance for model simplified... Provisions Applicable to Both Reporting and Disclosure Requirements § 2520.104-48 Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions—IRS Form 5305-SEP. Under the authority of section 110...

  12. 29 CFR 2520.104-48 - Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions-IRS Form 5305-SEP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative method of compliance for model simplified... Provisions Applicable to Both Reporting and Disclosure Requirements § 2520.104-48 Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions—IRS Form 5305-SEP. Under the authority of section 110...

  13. 29 CFR 2520.104-48 - Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions-IRS Form 5305-SEP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative method of compliance for model simplified... Provisions Applicable to Both Reporting and Disclosure Requirements § 2520.104-48 Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions—IRS Form 5305-SEP. Under the authority of section 110...

  14. 41 CFR 102-85.125 - What alternate methods may be used to establish Rent in Federally-owned space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... may be used to establish Rent in Federally-owned space? 102-85.125 Section 102-85.125 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.125 What alternate methods may be used to establish Rent in Federally-owned space? Alternate methods of...

  15. An alternative method of gas boriding applied to the formation of borocarburized layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kulka, M. Makuch, N.; Pertek, A.; Piasecki, A.

    2012-10-15

    The borocarburized layers were produced by tandem diffusion processes: carburizing followed by boriding. An alternative method of gas boriding was proposed. Two-stage gas boronizing in N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}-BCl{sub 3} atmosphere was applied to the formation of iron borides on a carburized substrate. This process consisted in two stages, which were alternately repeated: saturation by boron and diffusion annealing. The microstructure and microhardness of produced layer were compared to those-obtained in case of continuous gas boriding in H{sub 2}-BCl{sub 3} atmosphere, earlier used. The first objective of two-stage boronizing, consisting in acceleration of boron diffusion, has been efficiently implemented. Despite the lower temperature and shorter duration of boronizing, about 1.5 times larger iron borides' zone has been formed on carburized steel. Second objective, the absolute elimination of brittle FeB phase, has failed. However, the amount of FeB phase has been considerably limited. Longer diffusion annealing should provide the boride layer with single-phase microstructure, without FeB phase. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alternative method of gas boriding in H{sub 2}-N{sub 2}-BCl{sub 3} atmosphere was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process consisted in two stages: saturation by boron and diffusion annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These stages of short duration were alternately repeated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acceleration of boron diffusion was efficiently implemented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of FeB phase in the boride zone was limited.

  16. Hypnosis and Local Anesthesia for Dental Pain Relief-Alternative or Adjunct Therapy?-A Randomized, Clinical-Experimental Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Thomas Gerhard; Wolf, Dominik; Callaway, Angelika; Below, Dagna; d'Hoedt, Bernd; Willershausen, Brita; Daubländer, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This prospective randomized clinical crossover trial was designed to compare hypnosis and local anesthesia for experimental dental pain relief. Pain thresholds of the dental pulp were determined. A targeted standardized pain stimulus was applied and rated on the Visual Analogue Scale (0-10). The pain threshold was lower under hypnosis (58.3 ± 17.3, p < .001), maximal (80.0) under local anesthesia. The pain stimulus was scored higher under hypnosis (3.9 ± 3.8) than with local anesthesia (0.0, p < .001). Local anesthesia was superior to hypnosis and is a safe and effective method for pain relief in dentistry. Hypnosis seems to produce similar effects observed under sedation. It can be used in addition to local anesthesia and in individual cases as an alternative for pain control in dentistry.

  17. Hypnosis and Local Anesthesia for Dental Pain Relief-Alternative or Adjunct Therapy?-A Randomized, Clinical-Experimental Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Thomas Gerhard; Wolf, Dominik; Callaway, Angelika; Below, Dagna; d'Hoedt, Bernd; Willershausen, Brita; Daubländer, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This prospective randomized clinical crossover trial was designed to compare hypnosis and local anesthesia for experimental dental pain relief. Pain thresholds of the dental pulp were determined. A targeted standardized pain stimulus was applied and rated on the Visual Analogue Scale (0-10). The pain threshold was lower under hypnosis (58.3 ± 17.3, p < .001), maximal (80.0) under local anesthesia. The pain stimulus was scored higher under hypnosis (3.9 ± 3.8) than with local anesthesia (0.0, p < .001). Local anesthesia was superior to hypnosis and is a safe and effective method for pain relief in dentistry. Hypnosis seems to produce similar effects observed under sedation. It can be used in addition to local anesthesia and in individual cases as an alternative for pain control in dentistry. PMID:27585724

  18. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    PubMed

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb.

  19. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    PubMed

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb. PMID:27041305

  20. An alternative method of promoter assessment by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Dipak K; Ranjan, Rajiv; Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Alok; Sahoo, Bhabani S; Raha, Sumita; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2009-10-01

    A rapid and useful method of promoter activity analysis using techniques of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is described in the present study. The activities of some pararetroviral promoters such as CaMV35S (Cauliflower mosaic virus), FMVSgt3 (Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript) and MMVFLt12 (Mirabilis mosaic virus full-length transcript) coupled to GFP (green fluorescent protein) and GUS (beta-glucuronidase) reporter genes were determined simultaneously by the CLSM technique and other available conventional methods for reporter gene assay based on relevant biochemical and molecular approaches. Consistent and comparable results obtained by CLSM as well as by other conventional assay methods confirm the effectiveness of the CLSM approach for assessment of promoter activity. Hence the CLSM method can be suggested as an alternative way for promoter analysis on the basis of high throughput.

  1. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    PubMed

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated.

  2. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    PubMed

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated. PMID:21533817

  3. Timing of peripheral blood stem cell yield: comparison of alternative methods with the classic method for CD34+ cell determination.

    PubMed

    Fatorova, I; Blaha, M; Lanska, M; Vokurkova, D; Rezacova, V; Zak, P

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), still represent a certain mystery in biology, have a unique property of dividing into equal cells and repopulating the hematopoietic tissue. This potential enables their use in transplantation treatments. The quality of the HSC grafts for transplantation is evaluated by flow cytometric determination of the CD34(+) cells, which enables optimal timing of the first apheresis and the acquisition of maximal yield of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). To identify a more efficient method for evaluating CD34(+) cells, we compared the following alternative methods with the reference method: hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) enumeration (using the Sysmex XE-2100 analyser), detection of CD133(+) cells, and quantification of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the PBSCs. 266 aphereses (84 patients) were evaluated. In the preapheretic blood, the new methods produced data that were in agreement with the reference method. The ROC curves have shown that for the first-day apheresis target, the optimal predictive cut-off value was 0.032 cells/mL for the HPC method (sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 69.3%). HPC method exhibited a definite practical superiority as compared to other methods tested. HPC enumeration could serve as a supplementary method for the optimal timing of the first apheresis; it is simple, rapid, and cheap.

  4. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Testing the Bioefficacy of Household Ambient Insecticide Products Against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Rudi; Scremin, Mara; Contiero, Barbara; Drago, Andrea; Vettorato, Christian; Marcer, Federica; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane

    2016-06-01

    Ambient insecticides are receiving increasing attention in many developed countries because of their value in reducing mosquito nuisance. As required by the European Union Biocidal Products Regulation 528/2012, these devices require appropriate testing of their efficacy, which is based on estimating the knockdown and mortality rates of free-flying (free) mosquitoes in a test room. However, evaluations using free mosquitoes present many complexities. The performances of 6 alternative methods with mosquitoes held in 2 different cage designs (steel wire and gauze/plastic) with and without an operating fan for air circulation were monitored in a test room through a closed-circuit television system and were compared with the currently recommended method using free mosquitoes. Results for caged mosquitoes without a fan showed a clearly delayed knockdown effect, whereas outcomes for caged mosquitoes with a fan recorded higher mortality at 24 h, compared to free mosquitoes. Among the 6 methods, cages made of gauze and plastic operating with fan wind speed at 2.5-2.8 m/sec was the only method without a significant difference in results for free mosquitoes, and therefore appears as the best alternative to assess knockdown by ambient insecticides accurately. PMID:27280352

  5. Online signal filtering based on the algebraic method and its experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, R.; Segura, E.; Somolinos, J. A.; Núñez, L. R.; Sira-Ramírez, H.

    2016-01-01

    An on-line algebraic filtering scheme, based on the recently introduced algebraic approach to parameter and state estimation, is presented along with successful experimental results. The proposed filtering algorithm is based on the connections between a time derivative estimator and an algebraically based signal filtering option. The main advantages of the proposed approach are: (i) there are no appreciable delays in the filtered signal; (ii) the method does not require any statistical assessment of the noises corrupting the signal; (iii) high attenuation of the noise effects is achieved; (iv) the on-line computations are carried out in real time; and (v) high versatility and ease of implementation. Several experiments related to real depth measurements were conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Comparisons are performed with different filtering alternatives.

  6. A Simple Accurate Alternative to the Minimum-Deviation Method for the Determination of the Refractive Index of a Prism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldenstrom, S.; Naqvi, K. Razi

    1978-01-01

    Proposes an alternative to the classical minimum-deviation method for determining the refractive index of a prism. This new "fixed angle of incidence method" may find applications in research. (Author/GA)

  7. Can We Study Intelligence Using the Experimental Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysenck, Hans J.

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that the study of one important aspect of intelligence, creativity, can be furthered by the introduction of causal theories and their experimental study. Purely correlational investigations are a useful beginning, but psychology can only acquire true scientific stature by combining correlational and experimental approaches. (SLD)

  8. An alternate method for extracting DNA from environmentally challenged teeth for improved DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Warnke, Frauke; van Daal, Angela

    2016-01-01

    A grinding-free method to extract DNA from teeth via a direct minimal-invasive retrograde approach to the pulp cavity and dentine was compared to a standard grinding/pulverisation method. This alternate method uses endodontic dental files to access the root canals and pulp cavity for tissue and dentine harvest via the apical end of the roots and avoids mechanical damage to the crown and root morphology. In contrast, other methods require pulverisation of the whole root or tooth, transection or destruction of the occlusal surface to gain access to the DNA in the root canals and pulp chamber. This study compared two methods for preparing dentine powder from the roots of environmentally challenged teeth for forensic DNA analysis. We found that although the filing method was more laborious, and produced less dentine powder, the amount of amplifiable DNA per milligram of powder was substantially higher with the filing method compared to grinding the entire root. In addition, the number of short tandem repeat (STR) alleles detected and the peak height ratios of the STR profiles were notably higher. Although several other methods of extracting DNA-rich tissue from the pulp chamber of teeth have previously been reported, the method presented in this study is minimally invasive, thereby allowing the preservation of tooth and crown morphology. PMID:26832373

  9. Alternative normalization methods demonstrate widespread cortical hypometabolism in untreated de novo Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    BERTI, V.; POLITO, C.; BORGHAMMER, P.; RAMAT, S.; MOSCONI, L.; VANZI, E.; DE CRISTOFARO, M. T.; DE LEON, M.; SORBI, S.; PUPI, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Previous positron emission tomography (PET) [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) studies in Parkinson’s disease (PD) demonstrated that moderate to late stage patients display widespread cortical hypometabolism, whereas early stage PD patients exhibit little or no cortical changes. However, recent studies suggested that conventional data normalization procedures may not always be valid, and demonstrated that alternative normalization strategies better allow detection of low magnitude changes. We hypothesized that these alternative normalization procedures would disclose more widespread metabolic alterations in de novo PD. Methods [18F]FDG PET scans of 26 untreated de novo PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr stage I-II) and 21 age-matched controls were compared using voxel-based analysis. Normalization was performed using gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) reference regions and Yakushev normalization. Results Compared to GM normalization, WM and Yakushev normalization procedures disclosed much larger cortical regions of relative hypometabolism in the PD group with extensive involvement of frontal and parieto-temporal-occipital cortices, and several subcortical structures. Furthermore, in the WM and Yakushev normalized analyses, stage II patients displayed more prominent cortical hypometabolism than did stage I patients. Conclusion The use of alternative normalization procedures, other than GM, suggests that much more extensive cortical hypometabolism is present in untreated de novo PD patients than hitherto reported. The finding may have implications for our understanding of the basic pathophysiology of early-stage PD. PMID:22695340

  10. Development of a list of reference chemicals for evaluating alternative methods to in vivo fish bioaccumulation tests.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Neus; Cronin, Mark Timothy David; Lillicrap, Adam; Madden, Judith Clare; Piechota, Przemyslaw; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2014-12-01

    The aim to reduce the number of animals in experiments has highlighted the need to develop and validate nonanimal methods as alternatives to bioaccumulation studies using fish. The present study details a novel 3-tier approach to develop a list of reference compounds to aid this process. The approach was based on 1) the inclusion of relevant chemical classes supported by high-quality in vivo data for the bioconcentration factor (BCF), whole-body biotransformation rates (K(met)), and metabolism characterization for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (tiers I and II); and 2) the refinement to ensure a broad coverage of hydrophobicity, bioconcentration potential, molecular weight, maximum molecular diameter, whole-body biotransformation half-lives, and metabolic pathways (tier III). In silico techniques were employed to predict maximal log BCF and molecular and metabolic properties. Of the 157 compounds considered as reference compounds, 144 were supported by high-quality BCF data, 8 were supported by K(met) data, and 5 were supported by in vivo metabolism data. Additional criteria for refinement of the list of reference compounds were suggested to aid practical implementation in experimental efforts. The present list of reference compounds is anticipated to facilitate the development of alternative approaches, enhance understanding of in vivo and in vitro bioaccumulation relationships, and refine in silico BCF and metabolism predictions.

  11. In-situ and thin-specimen aging of experimental polyisocyanurate roof insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J.E.; Courville, G.E.; Graves, R.S.; Linkous, R.L.; McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports apparent thermal conductivity (k) values from field and laboratory aging tests on a set of industry-produced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminated boardstock foamed with hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as alternatives to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). The PIR boards were blown with five gases: CFC-11, HCFC-123, HCFC-14lb, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-14lb. The k-values were determined from 0 to 50{degree}C (30 to 120{degree}F) using techniques that meet ASTM C 114 (Thin Heater Apparatus) and ASTM C 518 (Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). Results on laminate boards with facers provide an independent laboratory check on the increase in k observed for field exposure in the ORNL Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA). The observed laboratory increase in k was between 8% and 11% for a 240 day field exposure in the RTRA. A thin-specimen aging procedure established the long-term thermal resistance of gas-filled foams. Thin specimens were planed from the industry-produced boardstock foams and aged at 24 and 65{degree}C (75{degree}F and 150{degree}F) for up to 300 days. An exponential dependency of k with the quantity (diffusion coefficient X time){sup {1/2}}/ thickness, provide effective diffusion coefficients for air components into the foams and blowing agent out of the foams. The foams blown with alternative blowing agents exhibited k-values 3 to 16% (average 9.4%) above CFC-11 foams under similar conditions. Field exposures were conducted on specimens under single ply EPDM membranes in the RTRA for over 400 days. Hourly averages of panel temperature and heat flux were analyzed to obtain K as a function of mean temperature on a week by week basis. The relative performance of test specimens of HCFC-14B under a black and under a white membrane is reported. 29 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.

    PubMed

    Zolnikov, Tara R

    2012-03-01

    Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Many developing nations have sizable gold ore deposits, making small artisanal gold mining a major source of employment in the world. Poverty drives vulnerable, rural populations into gold mining because of social and economic instabilities. Educational programs responding to this environmental hazard have been implemented in the past, but have had low positive results due to lack of governmental support and little economic incentive. Educational and enforced intervention programs must be developed in conjunction with governmental agencies in order to successfully eliminate this ongoing problem. Industry leaders offered hopeful suggestions, but revealed limitations when trying to develop encompassing solutions to halt mercury emissions. This research highlights potential options that have been attempted in the past and suggests alternative solutions to improve upon these methods. Some methods include buyer impact recognition, risk assessment proposals exposing a cost-benefit analysis and toxicokinetic modeling, public health awareness campaigns, and the education of miners, healthcare workers, and locals within hazardous areas of mercury exposure. These methods, paired with the implementation of alternative mining techniques, propose a substantial reduction of mercury emissions.

  13. Electrodeposition as an alternate method for preparation of environmental samples for iodide by AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamic, M. L.; Lister, T. E.; Dufek, E. J.; Jenson, D. D.; Olson, J. E.; Vockenhuber, C.; Watrous, M. G.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an alternate method for preparing environmental samples for 129I analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Idaho National Laboratory. The optimal sample preparation method is characterized by ease of preparation, capability of processing very small quantities of iodide, and ease of loading into a cathode. Electrodeposition of iodide on a silver wire was evaluated using these criteria. This study indicates that the electrochemically-formed silver iodide deposits produce ion currents similar to those from precipitated silver iodide for the same sample mass. Precipitated silver iodide samples are usually mixed with niobium or silver powder prior to loading in a cathode. Using electrodeposition, the silver is already mixed with the sample and can simply be picked up with tweezers, placed in the sample die, and pressed into a cathode. The major advantage of this method is that the silver wire/electrodeposited silver iodide is much easier to load into a cathode.

  14. Fast alternative method for measuring the wavefront of lithography exposure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabardiadi, Alexander; Assmann, Heiko; Greiner, Andreas; Baselt, Tobias; Taudt, Christopher; Hartmann, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The work presented here describes the analysis of problems of the realization of alternative wavefront measurement methods for lithography exposure machines. The measurement method that is introduced is a redesign of a conventional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and was based on the usage of a single pinhole and the lithography machine itself. Such a redesign is useful because it increases the degrees of freedom. Therefore, there is more freedom to analyze the problems of designing and planning measurements. A group of hardware prototypes under laboratory conditions with the required angular and lateral resolution were realized. For the approximation of the measurement results, numerical simulations are implemented using the Monte-Carlo method in order to statistically design the experiments themselves.

  15. Electrodeposition as an alternate method for preparation of environmental samples for iodide by AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Adamic, M. L.; Lister, T. E.; Dufek, E. J.; Jenson, D. D.; Olson, J. E.; Vockenhuber, C.; Watrous, M. G.

    2015-03-25

    This paper presents an evaluation of an alternate method for preparing environmental samples for 129I analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Idaho National Laboratory. The optimal sample preparation method is characterized by ease of preparation, capability of processing very small quantities of iodide, and ease of loading into a cathode. Electrodeposition of iodide on a silver wire was evaluated using these criteria. This study indicates that the electrochemically-formed silver iodide deposits produce ion currents similar to those from precipitated silver iodide for the same sample mass. Furthermore, precipitated silver iodide samples are usually mixed with niobium or silver powder prior to loading in a cathode. Using electrodeposition, the silver is already mixed with the sample and can simply be picked up with tweezers, placed in the sample die, and pressed into a cathode. The major advantage of this method is that the silver wire/electrodeposited silver iodide is much easier to load into a cathode.

  16. Potential Use of Lime as Nitric Acid Source for Alternative Electrolyte Fuel-Cell Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianto, V.; Smarandache, Florentin

    2011-04-01

    Despite growing popularity for the use of biofuel and other similar methods to generate renewable energy sources from natural plantation in recent years, there is also growing concern over its disadvantage, i.e. that the energy use of edible plants may cause unwanted effects, because the plantation price tends to increase following the oil price. Therefore an alternative solution to this problem is to find `natural plantation' which have no direct link to `food chain' (for basic foods, such as palm oil etc.).

  17. An alternate interconnect method for joining flexible circuits using conductive adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Schurman, W.R.

    1990-04-17

    Conductive adhesives were evaluated as a labor-saving alternate method for interconnecting flexible circuit layers in slapper detonators. Short-term aging, high temperature and high humidity storage, thermal cycle, and thermal shock studies were done. The adhesive interconnections were also studied under the high voltage and high current operating conditions of a slapper detonator. In all tests, interconnections made with conductive adhesive compared favorably with standard diffusion bonded joints, demonstrating the feasibility of joining flexible circuit components without metallic solders, brazes, thermo-compression bonds, diffusion bonds, or welds. 8 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Designing specific protein–protein interactions using computation, experimental library screening, or integrated methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, T Scott; Keating, Amy E

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of protein–protein interactions for nearly all biological processes, the design of protein affinity reagents for use in research, diagnosis or therapy is an important endeavor. Engineered proteins would ideally have high specificities for their intended targets, but achieving interaction specificity by design can be challenging. There are two major approaches to protein design or redesign. Most commonly, proteins and peptides are engineered using experimental library screening and/or in vitro evolution. An alternative approach involves using protein structure and computational modeling to rationally choose sequences predicted to have desirable properties. Computational design has successfully produced novel proteins with enhanced stability, desired interactions and enzymatic function. Here we review the strengths and limitations of experimental library screening and computational structure-based design, giving examples where these methods have been applied to designing protein interaction specificity. We highlight recent studies that demonstrate strategies for combining computational modeling with library screening. The computational methods provide focused libraries predicted to be enriched in sequences with the properties of interest. Such integrated approaches represent a promising way to increase the efficiency of protein design and to engineer complex functionality such as interaction specificity. PMID:22593041

  19. Influence of delayed muscle reflexes on spinal stability: model-based predictions allow alternative interpretations of experimental data.

    PubMed

    Liebetrau, Anne; Puta, Christian; Anders, Christoph; de Lussanet, Marc H E; Wagner, Heiko

    2013-10-01

    Model-based calculations indicate that reflex delay and reflex gain are both important for spinal stability. Experimental results demonstrate that chronic low back pain is associated with delayed muscle reflex responses of trunk muscles. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of such time-delayed reflexes on the stability using a simple biomechanical model. Additionally, we compared the model-based predictions with experimental data from chronic low back pain patients and healthy controls using surface-electromyography. Linear stability methods were applied to the musculoskeletal model, which was extended with a time-delayed reflex model. Lateral external perturbations were simulated around equilibrium to investigate the effects of reflex delay and gain on the stability of the human lumbar spine. The model simulations predicted that increased reflex delays require a reduction of the reflex gain to avoid spinal instability. The experimental data support this dependence for the investigated abdominal muscles in chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects. Reflex time-delay and gain dependence showed that a delayed reflex latency could have relevant influence on spinal stability, if subjects do not adapt their reflex amplitudes. Based on the model and the experimental results, the relationship between muscle reflex response latency and the maximum of the reflex amplitude should be considered for evaluation of (patho) physiological data. We recommend that training procedures should focus on speeding up the delayed reflex response as well as on increasing the amplitude of these reflexes.

  20. An alternative method for the measurement of the microwave temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. A. S.; Fernandes, T. S. M.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper an alternative method for the measurement of the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf), is presented. The traditional method (based on the Courtney method) present some limitations of measuring the values of τf, for samples with high dielectric loss due to their inability to observe clearly the TE011 mode. The alternative experimental setup, to measure the τf value, is based on the variation of the temperature of the dominant mode of a dielectric resonator antenna. The method is quite compatible with the measurement of τf, based on the Courtney method. It presents the advantage that it is less sensitive to the sample loss. In the studied samples, with loss higher than 10-2, the τf were obtained. Samples of known τf were measured in both methods, using the configuration proposed by Courtney and the present study. The alumina (Al2O3) and calcium titanate (CaTiO3) were selected because they have well known values of τf and have low dielectric losses, the bismuth niobate and titanium (Bi3NbTiO9) was chosen because it is not possible to measure its τf by the traditional method due to its high dielectric loss. The obtained results, by measuring, the τf value of CaTiO3 and Al2O3, in this proposed method, present excellent agreement when compared to the traditional Courtney, transmission method. It was also very efficient for measurements of the τf value, of high dielectric loss materials (>10-2), as for the bismuth and titanium niobate (Bi3NbTiO9). The analysis of the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) in dielectric resonators is an important property for the development of electronic devices. This is because the τf is a fundamental parameter, for the production of new components like filters, oscillators and antennas, with high thermal stability.

  1. Spoilt for choice: implications of using alternative methods of costing hospital episode statistics.

    PubMed

    Geue, Claudia; Lewsey, James; Lorgelly, Paula; Govan, Lindsay; Hart, Carole; Briggs, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    In the absence of a 'gold standard' to estimate the economic burden of disease, a decision about the most appropriate costing method is required. Researchers have employed various methods to cost hospital stays, including per diem or diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based costs. Alternative methods differ in data collection and costing methodology. Using data from Scotland as an illustrative example, costing methods are compared, highlighting the wider implications for other countries with a publicly financed healthcare system. Five methods are compared using longitudinal data including baseline survey data (Midspan) linked to acute hospital admissions. Cost variables are derived using two forms of DRG-type costs, costs per diem, costs per episode-using a novel approach that distinguishes between variable and fixed costs and incorporates individual length of stay (LOS), and costs per episode using national average LOS. Cost estimates are generated using generalised linear model regression. Descriptive analysis shows substantial variation between costing methods. Differences found in regression analyses highlight the magnitude of variation in cost estimates for subgroups of the sample population. This paper emphasises that any inference made from econometric modelling of costs, where the marginal effect of explanatory variables is assessed, is substantially influenced by the costing method.

  2. Google Street View as an alternative method to car surveys in large-scale vegetation assessments.

    PubMed

    Deus, Ernesto; Silva, Joaquim S; Catry, Filipe X; Rocha, Miguel; Moreira, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Car surveys (CS) are a common method for assessing the distribution of alien invasive plants. Google Street View (GSV), a free-access web technology where users may experience a virtual travel along roads, has been suggested as a cost-effective alternative to car surveys. We tested if we could replicate the results from a countrywide survey conducted by car in Portugal using GSV as a remote sensing tool, aiming at assessing the distribution of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wildlings on roadsides adjacent to eucalypt stands. Georeferenced points gathered along CS were used to create road transects visible as lines overlapping the road in GSV environment, allowing surveying the same sampling areas using both methods. This paper presents the results of the comparison between the two methods. Both methods produced similar models of plant abundance, selecting the same explanatory variables, in the same hierarchical order of importance and depicting a similar influence on plant abundance. Even though the GSV model had a lower performance and the GSV survey detected fewer plants, additional variables collected exclusively with GSV improved model performance and provided a new insight into additional factors influencing plant abundance. The survey using GSV required ca. 9 % of the funds and 62 % of the time needed to accomplish the CS. We conclude that GSV may be a cost-effective alternative to CS. We discuss some advantages and limitations of GSV as a survey method. We forecast that GSV may become a widespread tool in road ecology, particularly in large-scale vegetation assessments. PMID:27624742

  3. Fast gain calibration in radio astronomy using alternating direction implicit methods: Analysis and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvini, Stefano; Wijnholds, Stefan J.

    2014-11-01

    Context. Modern radio astronomical arrays have (or will have) more than one order of magnitude more receivers than classical synthesis arrays, such as the VLA and the WSRT. This makes gain calibration a computationally demanding task. Several alternating direction implicit (ADI) approaches have therefore been proposed that reduce numerical complexity for this task from 𝒪(P3) to 𝒪(P2), where P is the number of receive paths to be calibrated Aims: We present an ADI method, show that it converges to the optimal solution, and assess its numerical, computational and statistical performance. We also discuss its suitability for application in self-calibration and report on its successful application in LOFAR standard pipelines. Methods: Convergence is proved by rigorous mathematical analysis using a contraction mapping. Its numerical, algorithmic, and statistical performance, as well as its suitability for application in self-calibration, are assessed using simulations. Results: Our simulations confirm the 𝒪(P2) complexity and excellent numerical and computational properties of the algorithm. They also confirm that the algorithm performs at or close to the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB, lower bound on the variance of estimated parameters). We find that the algorithm is suitable for application in self-calibration and discuss how it can be included. We demonstrate an order-of-magnitude speed improvement in calibration over traditional methods on actual LOFAR data. Conclusions: In this paper, we demonstrate that ADI methods are a valid and computationally more efficient alternative to traditional gain calibration methods and we report on its successful application in a number of actual data reduction pipelines.

  4. On the rate of convergence of the alternating projection method in finite dimensional spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galántai, A.

    2005-10-01

    Using the results of Smith, Solmon, and Wagner [K. Smith, D. Solomon, S. Wagner, Practical and mathematical aspects of the problem of reconstructing objects from radiographs, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 83 (1977) 1227-1270] and Nelson and Neumann [S. Nelson, M. Neumann, Generalizations of the projection method with application to SOR theory for Hermitian positive semidefinite linear systems, Numer. Math. 51 (1987) 123-141] we derive new estimates for the speed of the alternating projection method and its relaxed version in . These estimates can be computed in at most O(m3) arithmetic operations unlike the estimates in papers mentioned above that require spectral information. The new and old estimates are equivalent in many practical cases. In cases when the new estimates are weaker, the numerical testing indicates that they approximate the original bounds in papers mentioned above quite well.

  5. Alternative method to Mariotte reservoir system for maintaining constant hydraulic pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thamir, Falah; ,

    1991-01-01

    Several problems with the Mariotte reservoir system were discovered when it was used to apply a constant water pressure as a boundary condition for a prolonged period. The constant-pressure boundary condition is required for some laboratory experiments to study water flow through porous media. The observed problems were caused by temperature and barometric-pressure fluctuations while the flow rates were very small and caused erroneous water flow-rate measurements. An alternative method was developed and used where the water pressure is controlled by regulating its level by using water-level sensing electrodes. The new method eliminated the effects of temperature and barometric-pressure fluctuations and maintained an acceptable accuracy of the estimated water flow rate without compromising the advantages of the Mariotte reservoir.

  6. The bridge permeameter; An alternative method for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, D.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

    1994-03-01

    Laboratory measurements of single-phase, steady-state permeability of porous rock are important for a number of different applications. The oil and gas industry uses permeability data as a key indicator of the producability of a hydrocarbon reservoir; effective containment of large volumes of oil in underground salt caverns is directly dependent upon the permeability of the adjacent cavern walls; and safe, long term underground isolation of radioactive and hazardous waste is contingent upon the flow and transport characteristics of the surrounding geologic formations. An alternative method for measuring single-phase, steady-state permeability of porous rock is presented. The use of troublesome and expensive mass flow meters is eliminated and replaced with a bridge configuration of flow resistors. Permeability values can be determined directly from differential pressures across the bridge network, resulting in potentially significant cost savings and simplification for conducting these types of measurements. Results from the bridge permeameter are compared with results obtained using conventional methods.

  7. Implementing a method of screening one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Hillel; Shoemaker, Christine A; Köngeter, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    This article provides details of applying the method developed by the authors (Rubin et al. 2008b) for screening one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives. The present article with its supporting information (manual and electronic spreadsheets with a case history example) provides the reader complete details and examples of solving the set of nonlinear equations developed by Rubin et al. (2008b). It allows proper use of the analytical solutions and also depicting the various charts given by Rubin et al. (2008b). The final outputs of the calculations are the required position and the discharge of the pumping well. If the contaminant source is nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) entrapped within the aquifer, then the method provides an estimate of the aquifer remediation progress (which is a by-product) due to operating the hydraulic barrier.

  8. Experimental Methods for Investigation of Shape Memory Based Elastocaloric Cooling Processes and Model Validation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marvin; Ullrich, Johannes; Wieczorek, André; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther; Schütze, Andreas; Seelecke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) using elastocaloric cooling processes have the potential to be an environmentally friendly alternative to the conventional vapor compression based cooling process. Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) based alloy systems, especially, show large elastocaloric effects. Furthermore, exhibit large latent heats which is a necessary material property for the development of an efficient solid-state based cooling process. A scientific test rig has been designed to investigate these processes and the elastocaloric effects in SMAs. The realized test rig enables independent control of an SMA's mechanical loading and unloading cycles, as well as conductive heat transfer between SMA cooling elements and a heat source/sink. The test rig is equipped with a comprehensive monitoring system capable of synchronized measurements of mechanical and thermal parameters. In addition to determining the process-dependent mechanical work, the system also enables measurement of thermal caloric aspects of the elastocaloric cooling effect through use of a high-performance infrared camera. This combination is of particular interest, because it allows illustrations of localization and rate effects - both important for efficient heat transfer from the medium to be cooled. The work presented describes an experimental method to identify elastocaloric material properties in different materials and sample geometries. Furthermore, the test rig is used to investigate different cooling process variations. The introduced analysis methods enable a differentiated consideration of material, process and related boundary condition influences on the process efficiency. The comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results (of a thermomechanically coupled finite element model) allows for better understanding of the underlying physics of the elastocaloric effect. In addition, the experimental results, as well as the findings based on the simulation results, are used to improve the

  9. Experimental Methods for Investigation of Shape Memory Based Elastocaloric Cooling Processes and Model Validation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marvin; Ullrich, Johannes; Wieczorek, André; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther; Schütze, Andreas; Seelecke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) using elastocaloric cooling processes have the potential to be an environmentally friendly alternative to the conventional vapor compression based cooling process. Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) based alloy systems, especially, show large elastocaloric effects. Furthermore, exhibit large latent heats which is a necessary material property for the development of an efficient solid-state based cooling process. A scientific test rig has been designed to investigate these processes and the elastocaloric effects in SMAs. The realized test rig enables independent control of an SMA's mechanical loading and unloading cycles, as well as conductive heat transfer between SMA cooling elements and a heat source/sink. The test rig is equipped with a comprehensive monitoring system capable of synchronized measurements of mechanical and thermal parameters. In addition to determining the process-dependent mechanical work, the system also enables measurement of thermal caloric aspects of the elastocaloric cooling effect through use of a high-performance infrared camera. This combination is of particular interest, because it allows illustrations of localization and rate effects - both important for efficient heat transfer from the medium to be cooled. The work presented describes an experimental method to identify elastocaloric material properties in different materials and sample geometries. Furthermore, the test rig is used to investigate different cooling process variations. The introduced analysis methods enable a differentiated consideration of material, process and related boundary condition influences on the process efficiency. The comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results (of a thermomechanically coupled finite element model) allows for better understanding of the underlying physics of the elastocaloric effect. In addition, the experimental results, as well as the findings based on the simulation results, are used to improve the

  10. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. ); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

  11. Assessing Methods for Generalizing Experimental Impact Estimates to Target Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Holger L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Hill, Jennifer; Green, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized experiments are considered the gold standard for causal inference because they can provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects for the experimental participants. However, researchers and policymakers are often interested in using a specific experiment to inform decisions about other target populations. In education research,…

  12. Leveraging the Experimental Method to Inform Solar Cell Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette; Ribblett, Jason W.; Hershberger, Heather Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the underlying logic of experimentation is exemplified within the context of a photoelectrical experiment for students taking a high school engineering, technology, or chemistry class. Students assume the role of photochemists as they plan, fabricate, and experiment with a solar cell made of copper and an aqueous solution of…

  13. Quasi-Experimental Analysis: A Mixture of Methods and Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordray, David S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of human judgment in the development and synthesis of evidence has not been adequately developed or acknowledged within quasi-experimental analysis. Corrective solutions need to confront the fact that causal analysis within complex environments will require a more active assessment that entails reasoning and statistical modeling.…

  14. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Bachelli, Mara Lígia Biazotto; Amaral, Rívia Darla Álvares; Benedetti, Benedito Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L−1/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L−1/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L−1 /1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L−1 free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 °C with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 μm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days. PMID:24516433

  15. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Bachelli, Mara Lígia Biazotto; Amaral, Rívia Darla Álvares; Benedetti, Benedito Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L(-1)/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L(-1)/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L(-1)/1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L(-1) free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 °C with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 μm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days. PMID:24516433

  16. Evaluation of the long-term performance of six alternative disposal methods for LLRW

    SciTech Connect

    Kossik, R.; Sharp, G.; Chau, T.

    1995-12-31

    The State of New York has carried out a comparison of six alternative disposal methods for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). An important part of these evaluations involved quantitatively analyzing the long-term (10,000 yr) performance of the methods with respect to dose to humans, radionuclide concentrations in the environment, and cumulative release from the facility. Four near-surface methods (covered above-grade vault, uncovered above-grade vault, below-grade vault, augered holes) and two mine methods (vertical shaft mine and drift mine) were evaluated. Each method was analyzed for several generic site conditions applicable for the state. The evaluations were carried out using RIP (Repository Integration Program), an integrated, total system performance assessment computer code which has been applied to radioactive waste disposal facilities both in the U.S. (Yucca Mountain, WIPP) and worldwide. The evaluations indicate that mines in intact low-permeability rock and near-surface facilities with engineered covers generally have a high potential to perform well (within regulatory limits). Uncovered above-grade vaults and mines in highly fractured crystalline rock, however, have a high potential to perform poorly, exceeding regulatory limits.

  17. An alternate method for achieving temperature control in the -130 C to 75 C range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth R.; Anderson, Mark R.; Lane, Robert W.; Cortez, Maximo G.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal vacuum testing often requires temperature control of chamber shrouds and heat exchangers within the -130 C to 75 C range. There are two conventional methods which are normally employed to achieve control through this intermediate temperature range: (1) single-pass flow where control is achieved by alternately pulsing hot gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and cold LN2 into the feed line to yield the setpoint temperature; and (2) closed-loop circulation where control is achieved by either electrically heating or LN2 cooling the circulating GN2 to yield the setpoint temperature. A third method, using a mass flow ratio controller along with modulating control valves on GN2 and LN2 lines, provides excellent control but equipment for this method is expensive and cost-prohibitive for all but long-term continuous processes. The single-pass method provides marginal control and can result in unexpected overcooling of the test article from even a short pulse of LN2. The closed-loop circulation method provides excellent control but requires an expensive blower capable of operating at elevated pressures and cryogenic temperatures. Where precise control is needed (plus or minus 2 C), single-pass flow systems typically have not provided the precision required, primarily because of overcooling temperature excursions. Where several individual circuits are to be controlled at different temperatures, the use of expensive cryogenic blowers for each circuit is also cost-prohibitive, especially for short duration of one-of-a-kind tests. At JPL, a variant of the single-pass method was developed that was shown to provide precise temperature control in the -130 C to 75 C range while exhibiting minimal setpoint overshoot during temperature transitions. This alternate method uses a commercially available temperature controller along with a GN2/LN2 mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold temperature spikes caused by LN2 pulsing. The design of the GN2/LN2 mixer, the overall control system

  18. Occupational radiation exposures associated with alternative methods of low-level waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Herrington, W.N.; Harty, R.; Merwin, S.E.

    1987-05-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments (LLRWPA) Act of 1985 assigns the responsibility for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes to individual states. The Act also mandates that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in consultation with states and other interested parties, identify disposal methods other than shallow land burial (SLB), the method currently used at the three low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites operating in the United States. The NRC contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to compare projected occupational exposures associated with the SLB method and five alternative disposal methods, including below ground vaults (BGV), above ground vaults (AGV), earth mounded concrete bunkers (EMCB), augured holes (AH) and minded cavities (MC). This report is intended to inform state and local governments about these projected exposures in anticipation of their participation in siting new low-level waste disposal facilities. The results of this study suggest that, with the design and operation assumptions made in this study, occupational dose equivalents for the five methods examined in detail would be highest for the EMCB method (1.81 person-mrem/m/sup 3/ of waste disposed). The lowest occupational dose equivalents would occur for the AH method (1.29 person-mrem/m/sup 3/). Projected occupational dose equivalents for SLB, BGV, and AGV disposal methods are 1.38, 1.47, and 1.61 person-mrem/m/sup 3/, respectively. Based on simularities between the reference BGV and MC facilities, it was projected that the occupational dose equivalents for a MC facility would be 40% higher than for the reference BGV facility. 17 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Anderson acceleration of the Jacobi iterative method: An efficient alternative to Krylov methods for large, sparse linear systems

    DOE PAGES

    Pratapa, Phanisri P.; Suryanarayana, Phanish; Pask, John E.

    2015-12-01

    We employ Anderson extrapolation to accelerate the classical Jacobi iterative method for large, sparse linear systems. Specifically, we utilize extrapolation at periodic intervals within the Jacobi iteration to develop the Alternating Anderson–Jacobi (AAJ) method. We verify the accuracy and efficacy of AAJ in a range of test cases, including nonsymmetric systems of equations. We demonstrate that AAJ possesses a favorable scaling with system size that is accompanied by a small prefactor, even in the absence of a preconditioner. In particular, we show that AAJ is able to accelerate the classical Jacobi iteration by over four orders of magnitude, with speed-upsmore » that increase as the system gets larger. Moreover, we find that AAJ significantly outperforms the Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) method in the range of problems considered here, with the relative performance again improving with size of the system. As a result, the proposed method represents a simple yet efficient technique that is particularly attractive for large-scale parallel solutions of linear systems of equations.« less

  20. Anderson acceleration of the Jacobi iterative method: An efficient alternative to Krylov methods for large, sparse linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pratapa, Phanisri P.; Suryanarayana, Phanish; Pask, John E.

    2015-12-01

    We employ Anderson extrapolation to accelerate the classical Jacobi iterative method for large, sparse linear systems. Specifically, we utilize extrapolation at periodic intervals within the Jacobi iteration to develop the Alternating Anderson–Jacobi (AAJ) method. We verify the accuracy and efficacy of AAJ in a range of test cases, including nonsymmetric systems of equations. We demonstrate that AAJ possesses a favorable scaling with system size that is accompanied by a small prefactor, even in the absence of a preconditioner. In particular, we show that AAJ is able to accelerate the classical Jacobi iteration by over four orders of magnitude, with speed-ups that increase as the system gets larger. Moreover, we find that AAJ significantly outperforms the Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) method in the range of problems considered here, with the relative performance again improving with size of the system. As a result, the proposed method represents a simple yet efficient technique that is particularly attractive for large-scale parallel solutions of linear systems of equations.

  1. Musical training as an alternative and effective method for neuro-education and neuro-rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    François, Clément; Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Duarte, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases. In the first part of this review, we highlight several studies showing that learning to play a musical instrument can induce substantial neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical regions of motor, auditory and speech processing networks in healthy population. In a second part, we provide an overview of the evidence showing that musical training can be an alternative, low-cost and effective method for the treatment of language-based learning impaired populations. We then report results of the few studies showing that training with musical instruments can have positive effects on motor, emotional, and cognitive deficits observed in patients with non-communicable diseases such as stroke or Parkinson Disease. Despite inherent differences between musical training in educational and rehabilitation contexts, these results favor the idea that the structural, multimodal, and emotional properties of musical training can play an important role in developing new, creative and cost-effective intervention programs for education and rehabilitation in the next future. PMID:25972820

  2. Musical training as an alternative and effective method for neuro-education and neuro-rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    François, Clément; Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Duarte, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases. In the first part of this review, we highlight several studies showing that learning to play a musical instrument can induce substantial neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical regions of motor, auditory and speech processing networks in healthy population. In a second part, we provide an overview of the evidence showing that musical training can be an alternative, low-cost and effective method for the treatment of language-based learning impaired populations. We then report results of the few studies showing that training with musical instruments can have positive effects on motor, emotional, and cognitive deficits observed in patients with non-communicable diseases such as stroke or Parkinson Disease. Despite inherent differences between musical training in educational and rehabilitation contexts, these results favor the idea that the structural, multimodal, and emotional properties of musical training can play an important role in developing new, creative and cost-effective intervention programs for education and rehabilitation in the next future.

  3. Musical training as an alternative and effective method for neuro-education and neuro-rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    François, Clément; Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Duarte, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases. In the first part of this review, we highlight several studies showing that learning to play a musical instrument can induce substantial neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical regions of motor, auditory and speech processing networks in healthy population. In a second part, we provide an overview of the evidence showing that musical training can be an alternative, low-cost and effective method for the treatment of language-based learning impaired populations. We then report results of the few studies showing that training with musical instruments can have positive effects on motor, emotional, and cognitive deficits observed in patients with non-communicable diseases such as stroke or Parkinson Disease. Despite inherent differences between musical training in educational and rehabilitation contexts, these results favor the idea that the structural, multimodal, and emotional properties of musical training can play an important role in developing new, creative and cost-effective intervention programs for education and rehabilitation in the next future. PMID:25972820

  4. Profiling of alternative polyadenylation sites in luminal B breast cancer using the SAPAS method

    PubMed Central

    WANG, XINMEI; LI, MINGYUE; YIN, YINGCHUN; LI, LIANG; TAO, YUQIAN; CHEN, DENGGUO; LI, JIANZHAO; HAN, HONGMEI; HOU, ZHENBO; ZHANG, BAOHUA; WANG, XINYUN; DING, YU; CUI, HAIYAN; ZHANG, HENGMING

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in females and is recognized as a molecularly heterogeneous disease. Previous studies have suggested that alternative messenger RNA (mRNA) processing, particularly alternative polyadenylation [poly(A)] (APA), can be a powerful molecular biomarker with prognostic potential. Therefore, in the present study, we profiled APA sites in the luminal B subtype of BC by sequencing APA sites (SAPAS) method, in order to assess the relation of these APA site-switching events to the recognized molecular subtypes of BC, and to discover novel candidate genes and pathways in BC. Through comprehensive analysis, the trend of APA site-switching events in the 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs) in the luminal B subtype of BC were found to be the same as that in MCF7 cell lines. Among the genes involved in the events, a significantly greater number of genes was found with shortened 3′UTRs in the samples, which were samples of primary cancer with relatively low proliferation. These findings may provide novel information for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis on a molecular level. Several potential biomarkers with significantly differential tandem 3′UTRs and expression were found and validated. The related biological progresses and pathways involved were partly confirmed by other studies. In conclusion, this study provides new insight into the diagnosis and prognosis of BC from the APA site profile aspect. PMID:25333330

  5. Experimental methods of determining thermal properties of granite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of thermal properties of granite using the block method is discussed and compared with other methods. Problems that limit the accuracy of contact method in determining thermal properties of porous media are evaluated. Thermal properties of granite is determined in the laboratory with a...

  6. Greener Synthesis and Chemical transformations Using Sustainable Alternative Methods and Applications of Nano-Catalysts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation summarizes our sustainable chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, namely greener reaction medium in aqueous or solventfree conditions and using alternative activation via microwave or photocatalytic activation. Eco-friendly synthesis of nanoma...

  7. Greener Syntheses and Chemical Transformations Using SustainableAlternative Methods and Nano-Catalysts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation summarizes our sustainable chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, namely greener reaction medium in aqueous or solventfree conditions and using alternative activation via microwave or photocatalytic activation. Eco-friendly synthesis of nanoma...

  8. Sphericity measurements by the radial method: II. Experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecki, D.; Stępień, K.; Adamczak, S.

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of sphericity measurements enables accurate measurement of spherical elements. This concept assumes that measurements can be performed using a typical radial roundness measuring instrument equipped with a special mechanism for controlled positioning of a measured element. The concept requires solving numerous theoretical problems, and this was described in the previous companion paper. This second paper discusses the measuring equipment and the results of the experimental verification of the concept.

  9. Experimental method for the purification and reconditioning of ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotae, Constantin

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the theoretical aspects regarding the magnetogravimetric purification of ferrofluids both in the process of preparation and for their reconditioning from impurities. An experimental device used for magnetogravimetric purification is described together with experiments on some samples of oil-based ferrofluid that became impure with non-mixible solid, liquid, magnetic and nonmagnetic ingredients. The experiments resulted in a complete purification of the ferrofluid samples.

  10. Robust fluence map optimization via alternating direction method of multipliers with empirical parameter optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hao

    2016-04-01

    For the treatment planning during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), beam fluence maps can be first optimized via fluence map optimization (FMO) under the given dose prescriptions and constraints to conformally deliver the radiation dose to the targets while sparing the organs-at-risk, and then segmented into deliverable MLC apertures via leaf or arc sequencing algorithms. This work is to develop an efficient algorithm for FMO based on alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Here we consider FMO with the least-square cost function and non-negative fluence constraints, and its solution algorithm is based on ADMM, which is efficient and simple-to-implement. In addition, an empirical method for optimizing the ADMM parameter is developed to improve the robustness of the ADMM algorithm. The ADMM based FMO solver was benchmarked with the quadratic programming method based on the interior-point (IP) method using the CORT dataset. The comparison results suggested the ADMM solver had a similar plan quality with slightly smaller total objective function value than IP. A simple-to-implement ADMM based FMO solver with empirical parameter optimization is proposed for IMRT or VMAT.

  11. Nonlinear projection trick in kernel methods: an alternative to the kernel trick.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Nojun

    2013-12-01

    In kernel methods such as kernel principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machines, the so called kernel trick is used to avoid direct calculations in a high (virtually infinite) dimensional kernel space. In this brief, based on the fact that the effective dimensionality of a kernel space is less than the number of training samples, we propose an alternative to the kernel trick that explicitly maps the input data into a reduced dimensional kernel space. This is easily obtained by the eigenvalue decomposition of the kernel matrix. The proposed method is named as the nonlinear projection trick in contrast to the kernel trick. With this technique, the applicability of the kernel methods is widened to arbitrary algorithms that do not use the dot product. The equivalence between the kernel trick and the nonlinear projection trick is shown for several conventional kernel methods. In addition, we extend PCA-L1, which uses L1-norm instead of L2-norm (or dot product), into a kernel version and show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. A new method of UCN production using a spatially alternating magnetic field with spin flips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Asahi, K.; Ogawa, H.; Goto, A.; Yogo, K.; Suga, T.; Miyoshi, H.; Kameda, D.; Utsuro, M.; Okumura, K.; Hino, M.; Yoshimi, A.

    2001-06-01

    Neutrons with energies E below the Fermi effective potential Ueff~0.2 μeV are called ultracold neutrons (UCN), which are totally reflected from a surface of material and thus can be stored in a bottle. The UCN in a bottle are of a great advantage for high-precision measurements in fundamental physics with neutrons, where the UCN density ρUCN takes the key role. We have proposed a new method for the production of UCN, which is based on the repeated application of a field-gradient force on a magnetic moment realized with a spatially alternating field and the correlated spin flips. To evaluate the feasibility and performance of the method, a computer simulation of neutron decelerating and transporting processes has been performed. The result indicates that the UCN density ρUCN in a storage bottle in the present method reaches quite large values as ρUCN~2.2×103 n/cm3 in a realistic condition. An experiment to test the principle and to explore the technical ingredients of the present method is being conducted using the UCN beam from the supermirror turbine at KUR. .

  13. Nonlinear projection trick in kernel methods: an alternative to the kernel trick.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Nojun

    2013-12-01

    In kernel methods such as kernel principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machines, the so called kernel trick is used to avoid direct calculations in a high (virtually infinite) dimensional kernel space. In this brief, based on the fact that the effective dimensionality of a kernel space is less than the number of training samples, we propose an alternative to the kernel trick that explicitly maps the input data into a reduced dimensional kernel space. This is easily obtained by the eigenvalue decomposition of the kernel matrix. The proposed method is named as the nonlinear projection trick in contrast to the kernel trick. With this technique, the applicability of the kernel methods is widened to arbitrary algorithms that do not use the dot product. The equivalence between the kernel trick and the nonlinear projection trick is shown for several conventional kernel methods. In addition, we extend PCA-L1, which uses L1-norm instead of L2-norm (or dot product), into a kernel version and show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:24805227

  14. Effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Toothbrush Disinfection: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Peker, Ilkay; Akca, Gulcin; Sarikir, Cigdem; Celik, Irem

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative methods for toothbrush disinfection. Methods. Two-hundred eighty toothbrushes were included in the study. The toothbrushes were divided into 7 groups and were contaminated by standardized suspensions of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus), Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The following disinfectants were tested: 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 100% and 50% white vinegar, microwave (MW) oven, ultraviolet (UV) sanitizer, and mouth rinse-containing propolis (MCP). Data were analyzed with Kruskal Wallis and Dunn's tests. Results. Statistically significant differences were found between different methods and control group for all tested bacteria. There were statistically significant differences between all test groups for all microorganisms. MW was the most effective for L. rhamnosus and 100% white vinegar was the most effective method for S. mutans and S. aureus. NaOCl was the most effective for E. coli. Conclusion. This study showed that 100% white vinegar was considered to be effective for tested microorganisms. Similarly, 1% NaOCl is cost-effective, easily accessible, and comparatively effective for toothbrush disinfection. Because these agents are nontoxic, cost-effective and easily accessible, they may be appropriate for household use. PMID:24971388

  15. Alternate Methods For Eluting Cesium From Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Johnson, Heather Lauren

    2009-01-01

    A Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removing cesium from the supernate and dissolved salt solutions in the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX system could use either crystalline silicotitanate (CST) an inorganic, non-regenerable sorbent or spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), a new regenerable resin, to remove cesium from the waste solutions. The standard method for eluting the cesium from the RF resin uses 15-20 bed volumes (BV) of 0.5 M nitric acid (HNO3). The nitric acid eluate, containing the radioactive cesium, would be combined with the sludge from the waste tanks, and would be converted into glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The amount of nitric acid generated by the standard elution method exceeds the capacity of DWPF to destroy the nitrate ions and maintain the required chemical reducing conditions in the glass melt. Alternate methods for eluting the resin have been tested, including using lower concentrations of nitric acid, other acids, and changing the flow regimes. About 4 bed volumes of 0.5 M nitric acid are required to remove the sodium (titrate the resin) and most of the cesium from the resin, so the bulk of the acid used for the standard elution method removes a very small quantity of cesium from the resin. The resin was loaded with 9.5 g Cs/L of resin prior to elution, which is the maximum expected loading for RF resin treating the actual dissolved salt waste at SRS. For the baseline elution method, 465 g of nitrate is used per liter of resin, and >99.9999% of the cesium is removed from the resin. An alternative method that used 4 bed volumes of 0.5 M HNO3 followed by 11 bed volumes of 0.05 M HNO3, used 158 g of nitrate per liter of resin (66% less nitrate than used for the standard elution) and removed >99.998% of the cesium. A staccato flow mode using 0.5 M HNO3 (1 hr on at 1 BV/hr, followed by 3 hrs off) after the resin had been titrated using a continuous

  16. Feeling blue, going green and finding other attractive alternatives: a case of biphasic anaphylaxis to patent blue and a literature review of alternative sentinel node localisation methods.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Fahad Mujtaba; Basit, Abdul; Salem, Fathi; Vidya, Raghavan

    2015-12-15

    Patent blue dye is used for sentinel lymph node localisation in order to stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer. Patent blue is one of the most common dyes used across the UK, however, the incidence of adverse effects seems to be increasing. This case highlights our experience of a biphasic anaphylactic reaction to patent blue dye, and we conduct a brief literature review of alternative and more novel methods to adequately visualise the lymphatics for sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  17. Alternative Methods for Assessing Contaminant Transport from the Vadose Zone to Indoor Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylor, K. J.; Lee, A.; Reddy, P.; Plate, M.

    2010-12-01

    Vapor intrusion, which is the transport of contaminant vapors from groundwater and the vadose zone to indoor air, has emerged as a significant human health risk near hazardous waste sites. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) can volatilize from groundwater and from residual sources in the vadose zone and enter homes and commercial buildings through cracks in the slab, plumbing conduits, or other preferential pathways. Assessment of the vapor intrusion pathway typically requires collection of groundwater, soil gas, and indoor air samples, a process which can be expensive and time-consuming. We evaluated three alternative vapor intrusion assessment methods, including 1) use of radon as a surrogate for vapor intrusion, 2) use of pressure differential measurements between indoor/outdoor and indoor/subslab to assess the potential for vapor intrusion, and 3) use of passive, longer-duration sorbent methods to measure indoor air VOC concentrations. The primary test site, located approximately 30 miles south of San Francisco, was selected due to the presence of TCE (10 - 300 ug/L) in shallow groundwater (5 to 10 feet bgs). At this test site, we found that radon was not a suitable surrogate to asses vapor intrusion and that pressure differential measurements are challenging to implement and equipment-intensive. More significantly, we found that the passive, longer-duration sorbent methods are easy to deploy and compared well quantitatively with standard indoor air sampling methods. The sorbent technique is less than half the cost of typical indoor air methods, and also provides a longer duration sample, typically 3 to 14 days rather than 8 to 24 hours for standard methods. The passive sorbent methods can be a reliable, cost-effective, and easy way to sample for TCE, PCE and other VOCs as part of a vapor intrusion investigation.

  18. Cluster detection of diseases in heterogeneous populations: an alternative to scan methods.

    PubMed

    Ramis, Rebeca; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2014-05-01

    Cluster detection has become an important part of the agenda of epidemiologists and public health authorities, the identification of high- and low-risk areas is fundamental in the definition of public health strategies and in the suggestion of potential risks factors. Currently, there are different cluster detection techniques available, the most popular being those using windows to scan the areas within the studied region. However, when these areas are heterogeneous in populations' sizes, scan window methods can lead to inaccurate conclusions. In order to perform cluster detection over heterogeneously populated areas, we developed a method not based on scanning windows but instead on standard mortality ratios (SMR) using irregular spatial aggregation (ISA). Its extension, i.e. irregular spatial aggregation with covariates (ISAC), includes covariates with residuals from Poisson regression. We compared the performance of the method with the flexible shaped spatial scan statistic (FlexScan) using mortality data for stomach and bladder cancer for 8,098 Spanish towns. The results show a collection of clusters for stomach and bladder cancer similar to that detected by ISA and FlexScan. However, in general, clusters detected by FlexScan were bigger and include towns with SMR, which were not statistically significant. For bladder cancer, clusters detected by ISAC differed from those detected by ISA and FlexScan in shape and location. The ISA and ISAC methods could be an alternative to the traditional scan window methods for cluster detection over aggregated data when the areas under study are heterogeneous in terms of population. The simplicity and flexibility of the methods make them more attractive than methods based on more complicated algorithms. PMID:24893029

  19. Comparison of Marine Spatial Planning Methods in Madagascar Demonstrates Value of Alternative Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Allnutt, Thomas F.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Andréfouët, Serge; Baker, Merrill; Lagabrielle, Erwann; McClennen, Caleb; Rakotomanjaka, Andry J. M.; Tianarisoa, Tantely F.; Watson, Reg; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value). The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the “strict protection” class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative approaches during

  20. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobates (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensors U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  1. Evaluation of Alternate Materials and Methods for Strontium and Alpha Removal from Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2000-11-07

    A literature survey indicated a number of alternate materials and methods for the removal of strontium and alpha-emitting radionuclides (actinides). We evaluated the use of alternate materials versus proposed flowsheets for salt processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). From this evaluation we recommend the following materials for further testing to determine the rate and extent of removal. We do not recommend testing of liquid/liquid extraction and polymer filtration methods at this time.

  2. 78 FR 62472 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative... alternatives to testing for the purposes of certifying compliance with the applicable energy conservation..., U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-2J, Alternative...

  3. Methods to enhance compost practices as an alternative to waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Stuckey, H.T.; Hudak, P.F.

    1998-12-31

    Creating practices that are ecologically friendly, economically profitable, and ethically sound is a concept that is slowly beginning to unfold in modern society. In developing such practices, the authors challenge long-lived human behavior patterns and environmental management practices. In this paper, they trace the history of human waste production, describe problems associated with such waste, and explore regional coping mechanisms. Composting projects in north central Texas demonstrate new methods for waste disposal. The authors studied projects conducted by municipalities, schools, agricultural organizations, and individual households. These efforts were examined within the context of regional and statewide solid waste plans. They conclude that: (1) regional composting in north central Texas will substantially reduce the waste stream entering landfills; (2) public education is paramount to establishing alternative waste disposal practices; and (3) new practices for compost will catalyze widespread and efficient production.

  4. Alternative method for gas detection using pulsed quantum-cascade-laser spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Grouiez, Bruno; Parvitte, Bertrand; Joly, Lilian; Zeninari, Virginie

    2009-01-15

    Pulsed quantum-cascade-laser (QCL) spectrometers are usually used to detect atmospheric gases with either the interpulse technique (short pulses, typically 5-20 ns) or the intrapulse technique (long pulses, typically 500-800 ns). Each of these techniques has many drawbacks, which we present. Particularly the gas absorption spectra are generally distorted. We demonstrate the possibility to use intermediate pulses (typically 50-100 ns) for gas detection using pulsed QCL spectrometers. IR spectra of ammonia recorded in the 10 microm region are presented in various conditions of pulse emission. These experiences demonstrate the large influence of the pulse shape on the recorded spectrum and the importance to use our alternative method for gas detection with pulsed QCL spectrometers.

  5. Experimental study of the self-deflection of a light beam in a photorefractive crystal exposed to an external alternating electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselborn, S. A.; Kundikova, N. D.; Novikov, I. V.

    2008-02-01

    We have experimentally studied the propagation of an intensity-modulated light beam in a Ba2NaNb5O15 photorefractive crystal exposed to an external alternating sinusoidal electric field. The dependence of the extent of beam self-focusing on the applied field amplitude is determined. The possibility of soliton formation under such conditions is demonstrated.

  6. Statin Attenuates Experimental Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Glomerulonephritis Together with the Augmentation of Alternatively Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Emiko; Shimizu, Akira; Masuda, Yukinari; Kuwahara, Naomi; Arai, Takashi; Nagasaka, Shinya; Aki, Kaoru; Mii, Akiko; Natori, Yasuhiro; Iino, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Yasuo; Fukuda, Yuh

    2010-01-01

    Macrophages are heterogeneous and include classically activated M1 and alternatively activated M2 macrophages, characterized by pro- and anti-inflammatory functions, respectively. Macrophages that express heme oxygenase-1 also exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. We assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of statin in experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis and in vitro, focusing on the macrophage heterogeneity. Rats were induced anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis and treated with atorvastatin (20 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (control). Control rats showed infiltration of macrophages in the glomeruli at day 3 and developed crescentic glomerulonephritis by day 7, together with increased mRNA levels of the M1 macrophage-associated cytokines, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-12. In contrast, statin reduced the level of proteinuria, reduced infiltration of macrophages in glomeruli with suppression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression, and inhibited the formation of necrotizing and crescentic lesions. The number of glomerular ED3-positive macrophages decreased with down-regulation of M1 macrophage-associated cytokines. Furthermore, statin augmented ED2-positive M2 macrophages with up-regulation of the M2 macrophage-associated chemokines and cytokines, chemokine (C-C motif) Iigand-17 and interleukin-10. Statin also increased the glomerular interleukin-10-expressing heme oxygenase-1-positive macrophages. Statin inhibited macrophage development, and suppressed ED3-positive macrophages, but augmented ED2-positive macrophages in M2-associated cytokine environment in vitro. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory effects of statin in glomerulonephritis are mediated through inhibition of macrophage infiltration as well as augmentation of anti-inflammatory macrophages. PMID:20696778

  7. The Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test as an alternative test method for serious eye damage/eye irritation.

    PubMed

    Spöler, Felix; Kray, Oya; Kray, Stefan; Panfil, Claudia; Schrage, Norbert F

    2015-07-01

    Ocular irritation testing is a common requirement for the classification, labelling and packaging of chemicals (substances and mixtures). The in vivo Draize rabbit eye test (OECD Test Guideline 405) is considered to be the regulatory reference method for the classification of chemicals according to their potential to induce eye injury. In the Draize test, chemicals are applied to rabbit eyes in vivo, and changes are monitored over time. If no damage is observed, the chemical is not categorised. Otherwise, the classification depends on the severity and reversibility of the damage. Alternative test methods have to be designed to match the classifications from the in vivo reference method. However, observation of damage reversibility is usually not possible in vitro. Within the present study, a new organotypic method based on rabbit corneas obtained from food production is demonstrated to close this gap. The Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test (EVEIT) retains the full biochemical activity of the corneal epithelium, epithelial stem cells and endothelium. This permits the in-depth analysis of ocular chemical trauma beyond that achievable by using established in vitro methods. In particular, the EVEIT is the first test to permit the direct monitoring of recovery of all corneal layers after damage. To develop a prediction model for the EVEIT that is comparable to the GHS system, 37 reference chemicals were analysed. The experimental data were used to derive a three-level potency ranking of eye irritation and corrosion that best fits the GHS categorisation. In vivo data available in the literature were used for comparison. When compared with GHS classification predictions, the overall accuracy of the three-level potency ranking was 78%. The classification of chemicals as irritating versus non-irritating resulted in 96% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 95% accuracy.

  8. Method for experimental determination of flutter speed by parameter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1989-01-01

    A method for flight flutter testing is proposed which enables one to determine the flutter dynamic pressure from flights flown far below the flutter dynamic pressure. The method is based on the identification of the coefficients of the equations of motion at low dynamic pressures, followed by the solution of these equations to compute the flutter dynamic pressure. The initial results of simulated data reported in the present work indicate that the method can accurately predict the flutter dynamic pressure, as described. If no insurmountable difficulties arise in the implementation of this method, it may significantly improve the procedures for flight flutter testing.

  9. Application of the correlation constrained multivariate curve resolution alternating least-squares method for analyte quantitation in the presence of unexpected interferences using first-order instrumental data.

    PubMed

    Goicoechea, Héctor C; Olivieri, Alejandro C; Tauler, Romà

    2010-03-01

    Correlation constrained multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares is shown to be a feasible method for processing first-order instrumental data and achieve analyte quantitation in the presence of unexpected interferences. Both for simulated and experimental data sets, the proposed method could correctly retrieve the analyte and interference spectral profiles and perform accurate estimations of analyte concentrations in test samples. Since no information concerning the interferences was present in calibration samples, the proposed multivariate calibration approach including the correlation constraint facilitates the achievement of the so-called second-order advantage for the analyte of interest, which is known to be present for more complex higher-order richer instrumental data. The proposed method is tested using a simulated data set and two experimental data systems, one for the determination of ascorbic acid in powder juices using UV-visible absorption spectral data, and another for the determination of tetracycline in serum samples using fluorescence emission spectroscopy. PMID:20174722

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Momentum Method for Determining Profile Drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goett, Harry J

    1939-01-01

    Report presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted in the full-scale tunnel to determine the accuracy of the Jones and the Betz equations for computing profile drag from total and static pressure surveys in the wake of wings. Surveys were made behind 6 by 8-foot airfoils of the NACA 0009, and 0018 sections at zero lift and behind the NACA 0012 at positive lifts. The surveys were made at various spanwise positions and at distances behind the airfoil ranging from 0.05c to 3.00c.

  11. Electrodeposition as an alternate method for preparation of environmental samples for iodide by AMS

    DOE PAGES

    Adamic, M. L.; Lister, T. E.; Dufek, E. J.; Jenson, D. D.; Olson, J. E.; Vockenhuber, C.; Watrous, M. G.

    2015-03-25

    This paper presents an evaluation of an alternate method for preparing environmental samples for 129I analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Idaho National Laboratory. The optimal sample preparation method is characterized by ease of preparation, capability of processing very small quantities of iodide, and ease of loading into a cathode. Electrodeposition of iodide on a silver wire was evaluated using these criteria. This study indicates that the electrochemically-formed silver iodide deposits produce ion currents similar to those from precipitated silver iodide for the same sample mass. Furthermore, precipitated silver iodide samples are usually mixed with niobium or silver powdermore » prior to loading in a cathode. Using electrodeposition, the silver is already mixed with the sample and can simply be picked up with tweezers, placed in the sample die, and pressed into a cathode. The major advantage of this method is that the silver wire/electrodeposited silver iodide is much easier to load into a cathode.« less

  12. Experimental verification of a recursive method to calculate evapotranspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, a recursive combination method (RCM) to calculate potential and crop evapotranspiration (ET) was given by Lascano and Van Bavel (Agron. J. 2007, 99:585–590). The RCM differs from the Penman-Monteith (PM) method, the main difference being that the assumptions made regarding the temperature ...

  13. Experimental Methods in Reduced-gravity Soldering Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Struk, Peter M.; Watson, John K.; Haylett, Daniel R.

    2002-01-01

    The National Center for Microgravity Research, NASA Glenn Research Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center are conducting an experimental program to explore the influence of reduced gravity environments on the soldering process. An improved understanding of the effects of the acceleration environment is important to application of soldering during current and future human space missions. Solder joint characteristics that are being considered include solder fillet geometry, porosity, and microstructural features. Both through-hole and surface mounted devices are being investigated. This paper focuses on the experimental methodology employed in this project and the results of macroscopic sample examination. The specific soldering process, sample configurations, materials, and equipment were selected to be consistent with those currently on-orbit. Other apparatus was incorporated to meet requirements imposed by operation onboard NASA's KC-135 research aircraft and instrumentation was provided to monitor both the atmospheric and acceleration environments. The contingent of test operators was selected to include both highly skilled technicians and less skilled individuals to provide a population cross-section that would be representative of the skill mix that might be encountered in space mission crews.

  14. Fractionation of macromolecules in an alternating transverse electric field: simulation of the method.

    PubMed

    Stevens, F J

    1990-01-01

    An electric field of alternating polarity applied in a direction transverse to the direction of solute transport is used as the basis of a method for the separation of biological macromolecules. The method derives directly from the ability of an electric field to induce movement of a charged macromolecule and from the physics of laminar fluid flow; no adsorptive immobile phase component is involved. The method is simulated by computer for the case of solute molecules in a solvent flowing through a narrow chamber of rectangular cross section. A voltage differential of periodically reversed polarity generates an electric field orthogonal to the direction of solvent flow. Solute molecules repetitively traverse the solvent channel at rates determined by their electrophoretic mobility. During the transit across the channel, solute molecules are transported in the direction of solvent flow; at the channel wall, solvent velocity is negligible and solute transport is limited to that provided by transient diffusion into a mobile solvent zone. Molecules of different intrinsic electrophoretic mobility are separated. The computer model was used to illustrate the process and to demonstrate the 'tunability' of the method as a function of the oscillation frequency and voltage wave form. Because of this tunability, a single instrument can function as the equivalent of several different chromatographic systems. Because fractionation is effected by direct physicochemical phenomena rather than via interaction with chromatographic sites, variations in fractionation results arising from formation of polymers for gel electrophoresis, packing of chromatography columns, or deterioration of columns with use are avoided. This method may be of particular use for the purification of nucleic acid fragments and for the analysis of protein: nucleic acid interactions. PMID:2365947

  15. An alternative method to estimate zero flow temperature differences for Granier's thermal dissipation technique.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

    2007-08-01

    Calibration of the Granier thermal dissipation technique for measuring stem sap flow in trees requires determination of the temperature difference (DeltaT) between a heated and an unheated probe when sap flow is zero (DeltaT(max)). Classically, DeltaT(max) has been estimated from the maximum predawn DeltaT, assuming that sap flow is negligible at nighttime. However, because sap flow may continue during the night, the maximum predawn DeltaT value may underestimate the true DeltaT(max). No alternative method has yet been proposed to estimate DeltaT(max) when sap flow is non-zero at night. A sensitivity analysis is presented showing that errors in DeltaT(max) may amplify through sap flux density computations in Granier's approach, such that small amounts of undetected nighttime sap flow may lead to large diurnal sap flux density errors, hence the need for a correct estimate of DeltaT(max). By rearranging Granier's original formula, an optimization method to compute DeltaT(max) from simultaneous measurements of diurnal DeltaT and micrometeorological variables, without assuming that sap flow is negligible at night, is presented. Some illustrative examples are shown for sap flow measurements carried out on individuals of Erica arborea L., which has needle-like leaves, and Myrica faya Ait., a broadleaf species. We show that, although DeltaT(max) values obtained by the proposed method may be similar in some instances to the DeltaT(max) predicted at night, in general the values differ. The procedure presented has the potential of being applied not only to Granier's method, but to other heat-based sap flow systems that require a zero flow calibration, such as the Cermák et al. (1973) heat balance method and the T-max heat pulse system of Green et al. (2003).

  16. An alternative method to estimate zero flow temperature differences for Granier's thermal dissipation technique.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

    2007-08-01

    Calibration of the Granier thermal dissipation technique for measuring stem sap flow in trees requires determination of the temperature difference (DeltaT) between a heated and an unheated probe when sap flow is zero (DeltaT(max)). Classically, DeltaT(max) has been estimated from the maximum predawn DeltaT, assuming that sap flow is negligible at nighttime. However, because sap flow may continue during the night, the maximum predawn DeltaT value may underestimate the true DeltaT(max). No alternative method has yet been proposed to estimate DeltaT(max) when sap flow is non-zero at night. A sensitivity analysis is presented showing that errors in DeltaT(max) may amplify through sap flux density computations in Granier's approach, such that small amounts of undetected nighttime sap flow may lead to large diurnal sap flux density errors, hence the need for a correct estimate of DeltaT(max). By rearranging Granier's original formula, an optimization method to compute DeltaT(max) from simultaneous measurements of diurnal DeltaT and micrometeorological variables, without assuming that sap flow is negligible at night, is presented. Some illustrative examples are shown for sap flow measurements carried out on individuals of Erica arborea L., which has needle-like leaves, and Myrica faya Ait., a broadleaf species. We show that, although DeltaT(max) values obtained by the proposed method may be similar in some instances to the DeltaT(max) predicted at night, in general the values differ. The procedure presented has the potential of being applied not only to Granier's method, but to other heat-based sap flow systems that require a zero flow calibration, such as the Cermák et al. (1973) heat balance method and the T-max heat pulse system of Green et al. (2003). PMID:17472936

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Research of Error of Method of Thermocouple with Controlled Profile of Temperature Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Su; Kochan, O.; Chunzhi, Wang; Kochan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The method of study and experimental researches of the error of method of the thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field along the main thermocouple are considered in this paper. Experimentally determined values of error of method are compared to the theoretical estimations done using Newton's law of cooling. They converge well.

  18. Microwave Heating as an Alternative Quarantine Method for Disinfestation of Stored Food Grains.

    PubMed

    Das, Ipsita; Kumar, Girish; Shah, Narendra G

    2013-01-01

    Insects and pests constitute a major threat to food supplies all over the world. Some estimates put the loss of food grains because of infestation to about 40% of the world production. Contemporary disinfestation methods are chemical fumigation, ionizing radiation, controlled atmosphere, conventional hot air treatment, and dielectric heating, that is, radio frequency and microwave energy, and so forth. Though chemical fumigation is being used extensively in stored food grains, regulatory issues, insect resistance, and environmental concerns demand technically effective and environmentally sound quarantine methods. Recent studies have indicated that microwave treatment is a potential means of replacing other techniques because of selective heating, pollution free environment, equivalent or better quality retention, energy minimization, and so forth. The current paper reviews the recent advances in Microwave (MW) disinfestation of stored food products and its principle and experimental results from previous studies in order to establish the usefulness of this technology.

  19. Microwave Heating as an Alternative Quarantine Method for Disinfestation of Stored Food Grains

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Girish; Shah, Narendra G.

    2013-01-01

    Insects and pests constitute a major threat to food supplies all over the world. Some estimates put the loss of food grains because of infestation to about 40% of the world production. Contemporary disinfestation methods are chemical fumigation, ionizing radiation, controlled atmosphere, conventional hot air treatment, and dielectric heating, that is, radio frequency and microwave energy, and so forth. Though chemical fumigation is being used extensively in stored food grains, regulatory issues, insect resistance, and environmental concerns demand technically effective and environmentally sound quarantine methods. Recent studies have indicated that microwave treatment is a potential means of replacing other techniques because of selective heating, pollution free environment, equivalent or better quality retention, energy minimization, and so forth. The current paper reviews the recent advances in Microwave (MW) disinfestation of stored food products and its principle and experimental results from previous studies in order to establish the usefulness of this technology. PMID:26904615

  20. Modeling the impacts of alternative fertilization methods on nitrogen loading in rice production in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zheng; Sha, Zhimin; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Shuhang; Zhang, Hanlin; Li, Changsheng; Zhao, Qi; Cao, Linkui

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from paddy fields is an important source of agricultural non-point source pollution that leads to eutrophication of water bodies and degradation of water quality. The impacts of alternative N fertilizer management practices on N loading (N loss through runoff and leaching) from paddy fields in Shanghai were assessed using a process-based biogeochemical model, DNDC. The results indicated that the current fertilization rate in paddy fields of Shanghai (300kgN/ha) exceeds the actual rice demand and has led to substantial N loading of 1142±276kg. The combined application of urea at 150kgN/ha and organic manure at 100kgN/ha was identified as the best fertilization method for rice cultivation in Shanghai; this application maintained optimal rice yields and significantly reduced N loading to 714±151kg in comparison with the current fertilization rate. A sensitivity test was conducted with various input parameters, and the results indicated that fertilization, precipitation and soil properties were the most sensitive factors that regulate N loss from paddy fields. The variability of soil properties, especially SOC led to high uncertainties in the simulated results. Therefore, the local climate conditions and soil properties should be taken into account in the identification of the best management practice (BMP) for rice cultivation, given the high spatially heterogeneous N loading values across all towns used in the simulation. The DNDC model is an effective approach for simulating and predicting N loading in paddy fields under alternative agricultural management practices. PMID:27317135

  1. Modeling the impacts of alternative fertilization methods on nitrogen loading in rice production in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zheng; Sha, Zhimin; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Shuhang; Zhang, Hanlin; Li, Changsheng; Zhao, Qi; Cao, Linkui

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from paddy fields is an important source of agricultural non-point source pollution that leads to eutrophication of water bodies and degradation of water quality. The impacts of alternative N fertilizer management practices on N loading (N loss through runoff and leaching) from paddy fields in Shanghai were assessed using a process-based biogeochemical model, DNDC. The results indicated that the current fertilization rate in paddy fields of Shanghai (300kgN/ha) exceeds the actual rice demand and has led to substantial N loading of 1142±276kg. The combined application of urea at 150kgN/ha and organic manure at 100kgN/ha was identified as the best fertilization method for rice cultivation in Shanghai; this application maintained optimal rice yields and significantly reduced N loading to 714±151kg in comparison with the current fertilization rate. A sensitivity test was conducted with various input parameters, and the results indicated that fertilization, precipitation and soil properties were the most sensitive factors that regulate N loss from paddy fields. The variability of soil properties, especially SOC led to high uncertainties in the simulated results. Therefore, the local climate conditions and soil properties should be taken into account in the identification of the best management practice (BMP) for rice cultivation, given the high spatially heterogeneous N loading values across all towns used in the simulation. The DNDC model is an effective approach for simulating and predicting N loading in paddy fields under alternative agricultural management practices.

  2. Tsunakawa-Shaw method - an absolute paleointensity technique using alternating field demagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Mochizuki, N.; Shibuya, H.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    Among geologic materials volcanic rocks have been typically used to deduce an absolute paleointensity. In the last decade, however, there seems a becoming consensus that volcanic rocks are not so ideal materials due to such as magnetic grains other than non-interacting single domain particles. One approach to obtain a good paleointensity estimate from the rocks is to reduce and correct the non-ideality, suppress alterations in laboratory and screen out suspicious results. We have been working on a development and an application of the Tsunakawa-Shaw method, which has been previously called the LTD-DHT Shaw method. This method is an AF(alternating field)-based technique and thus a paleointensity is estimated using coercivity spectra. To reduce the non-ideality, all remanences undergo low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) before any AF demagnetizations to remove multi-domain like component. To correct the non-ideality, anhysteretic remanent magnetizations (ARMs) are imparted with their directions parallel to natural remanent magnetizations and laboratory-imparted thermoremanent magnetizations (TRMs) and measured before and after laboratory heating. These ARMs are used to correct remanence anisotropies, possible interaction effects originated from the non-ideal grains and TRM changes caused by laboratory alterations. TRMs are imparted by heating specimens above their Curie temperatures and then cooling to room temperature at once to simulate nature conditions. These cycles are done in vacuum to suppress alterations in laboratory. Obtained results are judged by selection criteria, including a check for validity of the ARM corrections.It has been demonstrated that successful paleointensities are obtained from historical lavas in Japan and Hawaii, and from baked clay samples from a reconstructed ancient kiln, with the flow-mean precision of 5-10%. In case of old volcanic rocks, however, the method does not necessarily seem to be perfect. We will summarize these points in

  3. Alternate Methods for Eluting Cesium from Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Johnson, Heather Lauren

    2009-02-01

    A small-column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removing cesium from the supernate and dissolved salt solutions in the high-level-waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX system could use either crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, non-regenerable sorbent, or spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), a new regenerable resin, to remove cesium from the waste solutions. The baseline method for eluting the cesium from the RF resin uses 15 bed volumes (BV) of 0.5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The nitric acid eluate, containing the radioactive cesium, would be combined with the sludge from the waste tanks and would be converted into glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The amount of nitric acid that would be used to elute the RF resin, using the current elution protocol, exceeds the capacity of DWPF to destroy the nitrate ions and maintain the required chemical reducing environment in the glass melt. Installing a denitration evaporator at SRS is technically feasible but would add considerable cost to the project. Alternate methods for eluting the resin have been tested, including using lower concentrations of nitric acid, other acids, and changing the flow regimes. About 4 BV of 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} are required to remove the sodium (titrate the resin) and most of the cesium from the resin, so the bulk of the acid used for the baseline elution method removes a very small quantity of cesium from the resin. A summary of the elution methods that have been tested are listed.

  4. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; King, W.; Hay, M.; Jones, D.

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  5. Alternative method for design and optimization of the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kunbo; Feng, Lishuang; Wang, Junjie; Lei, Ming

    2013-03-01

    The ring resonator is one of the key elements in the micro-optic gyro system, but there is not a uniform method for designing the parameters of a ring resonator, especially for its size. In this paper, an alternative method is presented for designing the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro. Maximization of the resonator output is proposed to be the principle in design and optimization for the first time to our knowledge. The scale factor accuracy and the full range of the gyro system are taken into account to obtain the optimum diameter of the ring. A theoretical optimal diameter of 0.25 m is achieved for SiO(2) waveguide resonator with a dynamic range of ±500°/s by analyzing the influence of resonator parameters on the output in detail, and the corresponding sensitivity of the gyro is less than 1.28°/h, which can meet the demands of a tactical inertia system.

  6. Enhancement of CO2 Trapping in Saline Aquifers Using a Water-Alternating-Gas Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joodaki, Saba; Niemi, Auli; Rasmusson, Kristina; Yang, Zhibing; Bensabat, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Geological formations in general and saline aquifer in particular can be used to store considerable amount of CO2. The efficiency and durability of the storage are not only defined by the formation hydro-geological properties but also by injection strategy employed. Previous studies have shown that certain injection strategies result in enhanced residual trapping and dissolution trapping that can noticeably increase CO2 immobilization and the efficiency of the aquifer to store CO2. One such enhancement method to increase the trapping mechanisms is water-alternating-gas (WAG) in which intermittent slugs of gas and water are injected. The injection rate, injection duration, the WAG ratio and the total volume of the injected components affect the efficiency of trapping. The objective of this study is to investigate different WAG injection schemes considering a heterogeneous field and find an optimized method to enhance the storage efficiency. The Heletz site in Israel, where CO2 trapping will be quantified in a field injection experiment, is selected as an example for the optimization. We use the iTOUGH2-EOS7C code to simulate the trapping processes. The formation heterogeneity is considered; gas injection and migration are simulated in spatially correlated random permeability fields, which are generated based on currently available geological information and borehole data at Heletz.

  7. Go3R - semantic Internet search engine for alternative methods to animal testing.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Grune, Barbara; Doms, Andreas; Alvers, Michael R; Spielmann, Horst; Schroeder, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consideration and incorporation of all available scientific information is an important part of the planning of any scientific project. As regards research with sentient animals, EU Directive 86/609/EEC for the protection of laboratory animals requires scientists to consider whether any planned animal experiment can be substituted by other scientifically satisfactory methods not entailing the use of animals or entailing less animals or less animal suffering, before performing the experiment. Thus, collection of relevant information is indispensable in order to meet this legal obligation. However, no standard procedures or services exist to provide convenient access to the information required to reliably determine whether it is possible to replace, reduce or refine a planned animal experiment in accordance with the 3Rs principle. The search engine Go3R, which is available free of charge under http://Go3R.org, runs up to become such a standard service. Go3R is the world-wide first search engine on alternative methods building on new semantic technologies that use an expert-knowledge based ontology to identify relevant documents. Due to Go3R's concept and design, the search engine can be used without lengthy instructions. It enables all those involved in the planning, authorisation and performance of animal experiments to determine the availability of non-animal methodologies in a fast, comprehensive and transparent manner. Thereby, Go3R strives to significantly contribute to the avoidance and replacement of animal experiments.

  8. Cancer biology, toxicology and alternative methods development go hand-in-hand.

    PubMed

    Kohonen, Pekka; Ceder, Rebecca; Smit, Ines; Hongisto, Vesa; Myatt, Glenn; Hardy, Barry; Spjuth, Ola; Grafström, Roland

    2014-07-01

    Toxicological research faces the challenge of integrating knowledge from diverse fields and novel technological developments generally in the biological and medical sciences. We discuss herein the fact that the multiple facets of cancer research, including discovery related to mechanisms, treatment and diagnosis, overlap many up and coming interest areas in toxicology, including the need for improved methods and analysis tools. Common to both disciplines, in vitro and in silico methods serve as alternative investigation routes to animal studies. Knowledge on cancer development helps in understanding the relevance of chemical toxicity studies in cell models, and many bioinformatics-based cancer biomarker discovery tools are also applicable to computational toxicology. Robotics-aided, cell-based, high-throughput screening, microscale immunostaining techniques and gene expression profiling analyses are common tools in cancer research, and when sequentially combined, form a tiered approach to structured safety evaluation of thousands of environmental agents, novel chemicals or engineered nanomaterials. Comprehensive tumour data collections in databases have been translated into clinically useful data, and this concept serves as template for computer-driven evaluation of toxicity data into meaningful results. Future 'cancer research-inspired knowledge management' of toxicological data will aid the translation of basic discovery results and chemicals- and materials-testing data to information relevant to human health and environmental safety.

  9. Alternate calibration method of radiochromic EBT3 film for quality assurance verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soah; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Hwang, Taejin; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Koo, Taeryool; Han, Tae Jin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me Yeon; Bae, Hoonsik; Kim, Kyoung Ju

    2016-07-01

    EBT3 film is utilized as a dosimetry quality assurance tool for the verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments. In this work, we suggest a percentage-depth-dose (PDD) calibration method that can calibrate several EBT3 film pieces together at different dose levels because photon beams provide different dose levels at different depths along the axis of the beam. We investigated the feasibility of the film PDD calibration method based on PDD data and compared the results those from the traditional film calibration method. Photon beams at 6 MV were delivered to EBT3 film pieces for both calibration methods. For the PDD-based calibration, the film pieces were placed on solid phantoms at the depth of maximum dose (dmax) and at depths of 3, 5, 8, 12, 17, and 22 cm, and a photon beam was delivered twice, at 100 cGy and 400 cGy, to extend the calibration dose range under the same conditions. Fourteen film pieces, to maintain their consistency, were irradiated at doses ranging from approximately 30 to 400 cGy for both film calibrations. The film pieces were located at the center position on the scan bed of an Epson 1680 flatbed scanner in the parallel direction. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were created, and their dose distributions were delivered to the film. The dose distributions for the traditional method and those for the PDD-based calibration method were evaluated using a Gamma analysis. The PDD dose values using a CC13 ion chamber and those obtained by using a FC65-G Farmer chamber and measured at the depth of interest produced very similar results. With the objective test criterion of a 1% dosage agreement at 1 mm, the passing rates for the four cases of the three IMRT plans were essentially identical. The traditional and the PDD-based calibrations provided similar plan verification results. We also describe another alternative for calibrating EBT3 films, i.e., a PDD-based calibration method that provides an easy and time-saving approach

  10. The Keyword Method of Vocabulary Acquisition: An Experimental Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Douglas

    The keyword method of vocabulary acquisition is a two-step mnemonic technique for learning vocabulary terms. The first step, the acoustic link, generates a keyword based on the sound of the foreign word. The second step, the imagery link, ties the keyword to the meaning of the item to be learned, via an interactive visual image or other…

  11. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: BESIII track fitting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-Ke; Mao, Ze-Pu; Bian, Jian-Ming; Cao, Guo-Fu; Cao, Xue-Xiang; Chen, Shen-Jian; Deng, Zi-Yan; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Gao, Yuan-Ning; He, Kang-Lin; He, Miao; Hua, Chun-Fei; Huang, Bin; Huang, Xing-Tao; Ji, Xiao-Bin; Li, Fei; Li, Bai-Bo; Li, Wei-Dong; Liang, Yu-Tie; Liu, Chun-Xiu; Liu, Huai-Min; Liu, Suo; Liu, Ying-Jie; Ma, Qiu-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Mao, Ya-Jun; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Pan, Ming-Hua; Pang, Cai-Ying; Ping, Rong-Gang; Qin, Ya-Hong; Qiu, Jin-Fa; Sun, Sheng-Sen; Sun, Yong-Zhao; Wang, Liang-Liang; Wen, Shuo-Pin; Wu, Ling-Hui; Xie, Yu-Guang; Xu, Min; Yan, Liang; You, Zheng-Yun; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Bing-Yun; Zhang, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Yang-Heng; Zhu, Ke-Jun; Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Zhu, Zhi-Li; Zou, Jia-Heng

    2009-10-01

    A track fitting algorithm based on the Kalman filter method has been developed for BESIII of BEPCII. The effects of multiple scattering and energy loss when the charged particles go through the detector, non-uniformity of magnetic field (NUMF) and wire sag, etc., have been carefully handled. This algorithm works well and the performance satisfies the physical requirements tested by the simulation data.

  12. An entrepreneurial physics method and its experimental test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert

    2012-02-01

    As faculty in a master's program for entrepreneurial physics and in an applied physics PhD program, I have advised upwards of 40 master and doctoral theses in industrial physics. I have been closely involved with four robust start-up manufacturing companies focused on physics high-technology and I have spent 30 years collaborating with industrial physicists on research and development. Thus I am in a position to reflect on many articles and advice columns centered on entrepreneurship. What about the goals, strategies, resources, skills, and the 10,000 hours needed to be an entrepreneur? What about business plans, partners, financing, patents, networking, salesmanship and regulatory affairs? What about learning new technology, how to solve problems and, in fact, learning innovation itself? At this point, I have my own method to propose to physicists in academia for incorporating entrepreneurship into their research lives. With this method, we do not start with a major invention or discovery, or even with a search for one. The method is based on the training we have, and the teaching we do (even quantum electrodynamics!), as physicists. It is based on the networking we build by 1) providing courses of continuing education for people working in industry and 2) through our undergraduate as well as graduate students who have gone on to work in industry. In fact, if we were to be limited to two words to describe the method, they are ``former students.'' Data from local and international medical imaging manufacturing industry are presented.

  13. Experimental analysis of methods for measuring small mammal populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1946-01-01

    SUMMARY: The Peromyscus leucopus on a 17-acre study area were live-trapped, marked, and released over a seven-day period. On the three following nights intensive snap-trapping was done on the central acre of the study plot. The animals caught by snap traps in the central acre represented the population of the central acre and several surrounding acres. By the currently accepted methods of interpreting snap-trap data, the population per acre would be considered to be 23 adults. The live-trap data show that the true population was between six and seven adults per acre. Modern methods of live-trapping are shown to be valid for population studies. Two methods are presented for the conversion of live-trap data into per acre figures. Errors involved in the current use of snap-trap data are discussed and snap-trap methods are shown to be invalid for determining actual population numbers. It should be practical to use a snap-trap quadrant technique to obtain a relative measure or index figure for small mammal populations.

  14. An Experimental Method for the Active Learning of Greedy Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez-Iturbide, J. Angel

    2013-01-01

    Greedy algorithms constitute an apparently simple algorithm design technique, but its learning goals are not simple to achieve.We present a didacticmethod aimed at promoting active learning of greedy algorithms. The method is focused on the concept of selection function, and is based on explicit learning goals. It mainly consists of an…

  15. Interleaved Carbon Minibeams: An Experimental Radiosurgery Method With Clinical Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Rusek, Adam; Fois, Giovanna R.; Olschowka, John; Desnoyers, Nicolle R.; Park, Jane Y.; Dioszegi, Istvan; Dane, Bari; Wang Ruiliang; Tomasi, Dardo; Lee, Hedok; Hurley, Sean D.; Coyle, Patricia K.; Meek, Allen G.; O'Banion, M. Kerry

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of 'interleaved carbon minibeams' for ablating a 6.5-mm target in a rabbit brain with little damage to the surrounding brain. The method is based on the well-established tissue-sparing effect of arrays of thin planes of radiation. Methods and Materials: Broad carbon beams from the National Aeronautics and Space Agency Space Radiation Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory were segmented into arrays of parallel, horizontal, 0.3-mm-thick planar beams (minibeams). The minibeams' gradual broadening in tissues resulted in 0.525-mm beam thickness at the target's proximal side in the spread-out Bragg peak. Interleaving was therefore implemented by choosing a 1.05 mm beam spacing on-center. The anesthetized rabbit, positioned vertically on a stage capable of rotating about a vertical axis, was exposed to arrays from four 90 Degree-Sign angles, with the stage moving up by 0.525 mm in between. This produced a solid radiation field at the target while exposing the nontargeted tissues to single minibeam arrays. The target 'physical' absorbed dose was 40.2 Gy. Results: The rabbit behaved normally during the 6-month observation period. Contrast magnetic resonance imaging and hematoxylin and eosin histology at 6 months showed substantial focal target damage with little damage to the surrounding brain. Conclusion: We plan to evaluate the method's therapeutic efficacy by comparing it with broad-beam carbon therapy in animal models. The method's merits would combine those of carbon therapy (i.e., tight target dose because of the carbon's Bragg-peak, sharp dose falloff, and high relative biological effectiveness at the target), together with the method's low impact on the nontargeted tissues. The method's smaller impact on the nontargeted brain might allow carbon therapy at higher target doses and/or lower normal tissue impact, thus leading to a more effective treatment of radioresistant tumors. It should also make the method more amenable to

  16. Dental movement acceleration: Literature review by an alternative scientific evidence method

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Angela Domínguez; Cujar, Sergio Andres Velásquez

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the majority of publications using effective methods to speed up orthodontic treatment and determine which publications carry high evidence-based value. The literature published in Pubmed from 1984 to 2013 was reviewed, in addition to well-known reports that were not classified under this database. To facilitate evidence-based decision making, guidelines such as the Consolidation Standards of Reporting Trials, Preferred Reporting items for systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses, and Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomized Designs check list were used. The studies were initially divided into three groups: local application of cell mediators, physical stimuli, and techniques that took advantage of the regional acceleration phenomena. The articles were classified according to their level of evidence using an alternative method for orthodontic scientific article classification. 1a: Systematic Reviews (SR) of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 1b: Individual RCT, 2a: SR of cohort studies, 2b: Individual cohort study, controlled clinical trials and low quality RCT, 3a: SR of case-control studies, 3b: Individual case-control study, low quality cohort study and short time following split mouth designs. 4: Case-series, low quality case-control study and non-systematic review, and 5: Expert opinion. The highest level of evidence for each group was: (1) local application of cell mediators: the highest level of evidence corresponds to a 3B level in Prostaglandins and Vitamin D; (2) physical stimuli: vibratory forces and low level laser irradiation have evidence level 2b, Electrical current is classified as 3b evidence-based level, Pulsed Electromagnetic Field is placed on the 4th level on the evidence scale; and (3) regional acceleration phenomena related techniques: for corticotomy the majority of the reports belong to level 4. Piezocision, dentoalveolar distraction, alveocentesis, monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament

  17. An experimental method for the assessment of color simulation tools.

    PubMed

    Lillo, Julio; Alvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto

    2014-07-22

    The Simulcheck method for evaluating the accuracy of color simulation tools in relation to dichromats is described and used to test three color simulation tools: Variantor, Coblis, and Vischeck. A total of 10 dichromats (five protanopes, five deuteranopes) and 10 normal trichromats participated in the current study. Simulcheck includes two psychophysical tasks: the Pseudoachromatic Stimuli Identification task and the Minimum Achromatic Contrast task. The Pseudoachromatic Stimuli Identification task allows determination of the two chromatic angles (h(uv) values) that generate a minimum response in the yellow–blue opponent mechanism and, consequently, pseudoachromatic stimuli (greens or reds). The Minimum Achromatic Contrast task requires the selection of the gray background that produces minimum contrast (near zero change in the achromatic mechanism) for each pseudoachromatic stimulus selected in the previous task (L(R) values). Results showed important differences in the colorimetric transformations performed by the three evaluated simulation tools and their accuracy levels. Vischeck simulation accurately implemented the algorithm of Brettel, Viénot, and Mollon (1997). Only Vischeck appeared accurate (similarity in huv and L(R) values between real and simulated dichromats) and, consequently, could render reliable color selections. It is concluded that Simulcheck is a consistent method because it provided an equivalent pattern of results for huv and L(R) values irrespective of the stimulus set used to evaluate a simulation tool. Simulcheck was also considered valid because real dichromats provided expected huv and LR values when performing the two psychophysical tasks included in this method.

  18. Alternate Methods of Effluent Disposal for On-Lot Home Sewage Systems. Special Circular 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Several alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches and oversized absorption areas are discussed. Site characteristics and preparation are outlined. Each alternative is accompanied by a diagram…

  19. Exploring alternative wind vulnerability and loss modeling methods - application to Europe extra-tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiris, N.

    2009-04-01

    Catastrophe models are used to assess the economic and insured loss to the built environment due to natural hazards such as earthquakes, windstorms, floods, storm surges, tsunamis, etc. A conventional catastrophe model estimating direct economic loss could be divided into three basic components; hazard, vulnerability and exposure. For a single event, the hazard component represents the best estimate realization of the hazard footprint over a region at the modeling resolution, i.e. variable grid, postalcode, cresta, etc. The vulnerability component represents the response of the buildings or any modeled structure to the hazard, quantified in terms of a loss ratio. The exposure component represents the value of the buildings in a portfolio covering a region or those underwritten by an insurer or a re-insurer. The exposure together with the vulnerability functions produces the expected economic loss of the hazard footprint for a given hazard event. In the case of estimating indirect economic losses and insured losses financial models are utilized with various financial structures applied on the economic loss estimates. The commonly used method of characterizing wind vulnerability of buildings is to develop functions of mean loss ratio or mean damage ratio (MDR) vs wind speed where the wind speed is often defined as the peak gust measured at a height of 10m above the ground elevation. The uncertainty associated with MDR due to the likelihood of the building experiencing a range of damage states and hence loss ratios at a given wind speed is quantified by a continuous statistical distribution with a mean (which is the MDR) and a standard deviation, SD. For a given event footprint a conventional catastrophe model calculates an MDR and associated SD for each location of a building portfolio. This together with the location exposure or insured value results in the location loss. The location losses are then aggregated together with their SDs to obtain the total expected

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Titration 4500-ClO2 E. Alternative Testing Methods for Disinfectant Residuals Listed at 40 CFR 141.131(c)(1... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(3) Organism Methodology SM 21st edition 1 Other Total Coliforms Total... Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(6) Organism Methodology SM 20thedition 6...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prescribed in 40 CFR 141.132(b)(2)(i)(A). Amperometric Titration 4500-ClO2 E. Alternative Testing Methods for... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(3) Organism Methodology SM 21st edition 1 Other Total Coliforms Total... Testing Methods for Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.21(f)(6) Organism Methodology SM 20thedition 6...

  2. Comparison of methods for evaluation of experimentally induced emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, R.H.; Buschbom, R.L.; Smith, L.G.

    1984-04-01

    Four methods to quantify induced emphysema, in a manner economically applicable to large numbers of animals, are compared by correlation analyses. Lung tissue used was from rats pretreated intratracheally with elastase or saline prior to exposure to air or (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ aerosols. The most sensitive quantitative evaluation was from mean chord length (MCL) measurements on scanning electron micrographs (SEM). Four-corner and parallel-line grids provided similar results, and reducing sample size to one selected field per lobe yielded a high degree of reliability for MCL measurements. Alveolar-pore perimeter and area (also measured on SEM photographs) were increased by induced emphysema, but were not reliable indicators for degree of pulmonary involvement. Both subjective score (grading the degree of emphysema) and percentage-area-affected determinations indicated the presence of emphysema, but with less sensitivity than MCL measurements. However, these two subgross methods (performed with a dissecting microscope) provided valuable information on the distribution of pulmonary lesions; emphysema was induced in a nonuniform but consistent and progressive pattern in the two lobes of the lung studied. 23 studied.

  3. Alternative method to control radiative vortex forces in a magneto-optical trap

    SciTech Connect

    Kiersnowski, K.; Kawalec, T.; Dohnalik, T.

    2006-06-15

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of controlling the atomic spatial distributions in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). With a diaphragm we can vary the waist and power of one of the cooling laser beams and we can change parameters of large-diameter, parallelogram-shaped atomic orbits. We show that the radiative force generated by the repumping MOT laser has to be taken into consideration. Computer simulations of atomic trajectories explain the observed spatial structures, and we employ these simulations to present potential applications of controlling the diaphragm diameter as a function of time. A potential use of controlled vortex forces seems to have a great significance in recently presented important new methods to investigate cold atom collisions in the MOT, which were recently published.

  4. a Study on the Alternative Technology Using Unsm Instead of the Presetting Method for Torsion Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Chang-Min; Kim, Min-Ho; Baek, Un-Bong; Pyoun, Young-Sik; Kim, Chang-Sik; Chi, Chong-Ho

    The torsion bar must be changed periodically due to its lack of durability and a phenomenon related to stress relaxation. Therefore technical development regarding the torsion bar's durability is urgently needed. In order to improve the fatigue life and durability of the dynamic components, new surface treatment technology such as ultrasonic shot peening, deep rolling, laser shock peening, etc. are developing widely. In this study, Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (UNSM) technology is applied as an advanced one to replace the presetting method (PM). UNSM and PM technology also induced the compressive residual stress on the surface layer of the torsion bar, which is the main improvement factor of fatigue life. DIN17221 material as a new MIL specification of torsion bar and SCM440 (as an alternative one to a old MIL-DTL-62567C) were processed with the UNSM technology to obtain the basic data and compare it between two, and then torsion fatigue tests of two materials were carried out to obtain the characteristics of torsion fatigue in this study.

  5. Alternative Methods of Classifying Eating Disorders: Models Incorporating Comorbid Psychopathology and Associated Features

    PubMed Central

    Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the limitations of current approaches to psychiatric classification. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the eating disorders (EDs). Several alternative methods of classifying EDs have been proposed, which can be divided into two major groups: 1) those that have classified individuals on the basis of disordered eating symptoms; and, 2) those that have classified individuals on the basis of comorbid psychopathology and associated features. Several reviews have addressed symptom-based approaches to ED classification, but we are aware of no paper that has critically examined comorbidity-based systems. Thus, in this paper, we review models of classifying EDs that incorporate information about comorbid psychopathology and associated features. Early approaches are described first, followed by more recent scholarly contributions to comorbidity-based ED classification. Importantly, several areas of overlap among the classification schemes are identified that may have implications for future research. In particular, we note similarities between early models and newer studies in the salience of impulsivity, compulsivity, distress, and inhibition versus risk taking. Finally, we close with directions for future work, with an emphasis on neurobiologically-informed research to elucidate basic behavioral and neuropsychological correlates of comorbidity-based ED classes, as well as implications for treatment. PMID:23416343

  6. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    PubMed

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research.

  7. Equine tracheal epithelial membrane strips - An alternate method for examining epithelial cell arachidonic acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.R.; Derksen, F.J.; Robinson, N.E.; Peter-Golden, M.L. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor )

    1990-02-26

    Arachidonic acid metabolism by tracheal epithelium can be studied using enzymatically dispersed cell suspensions or cell cultures. Both techniques require considerable tissue disruption and manipulation and may not accurately represent in vivo activity. The authors have developed an alternate method for obtaining strips of equine tracheal epithelium without enzymatic digestion. In the horse, a prominent elastic lamina supports the tracheal epithelium. By physical splitting this lamina, they obtained strips ({le}12 x 1.5 cm) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium attached to a layer of elastic tissue 30-100 {mu}m thick. Epithelial strips (1.2 x 0.5 cm) were attached to plexiglass rods and incubated with ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid in M199 medium (0.5 {mu}Ci/ml) for 24 hours at 37C. The strips incorporated 36{+-}4% (mean {+-} SEM) of the total radioactivity and released 8.0{+-}1.2% of incorporated radioactivity when stimulated by 5.0 {mu}M calcium ionophore A23187. The extracted supernatant was processed using HPLC, resulting in peaks of radioactivity that co-eluted with authentic PGE{sub 2}, PGF{sub 2}{alpha}, and 12-HETE standards. The greatest activity corresponded to the PGE{sub 2} and PGF{sub 2}{alpha} standards, which is a similar pattern to that reported for cultured human tracheal epithelium.

  8. Hepatotoxic microcystin removal using pumice embedded monolithic composite cryogel as an alternative water treatment method.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Fatma; Ceylan, Şeyda; Odabaşı, Mehmet; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins are the most commonly encountered water-borne cyanotoxins which present short- and long-term risks to human health. Guidelines at international and national level, and legislation in some countries, have been introduced for the effective health risk management of these potent hepatotoxic, tumour-promoters. The stable cyclic structure of microcystins and their common production by cyanobacteria in waterbodies at times of high total dissolved organic carbon content presents challenges to drinking water treatment facilities, with conventional, advanced and novel strategies under evaluation. Here, we have studied the removal of microcystins using three different forms of pumice particles (PPs), which are embedded into macroporous cryogel columns. Macroporous composite cryogel columns (MCCs) are a new generation of separation media designed to face this challenging task. Three different MCCs were prepared by adding plain PPs, Cu(2+)-attached PPs and Fe(3+)-attached PPs to reaction media before the cryogelation step. Column studies showed that MCCs could be successfully used as an alternative water treatment method for successful microcystin removal.

  9. Hepatotoxic microcystin removal using pumice embedded monolithic composite cryogel as an alternative water treatment method.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Fatma; Ceylan, Şeyda; Odabaşı, Mehmet; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins are the most commonly encountered water-borne cyanotoxins which present short- and long-term risks to human health. Guidelines at international and national level, and legislation in some countries, have been introduced for the effective health risk management of these potent hepatotoxic, tumour-promoters. The stable cyclic structure of microcystins and their common production by cyanobacteria in waterbodies at times of high total dissolved organic carbon content presents challenges to drinking water treatment facilities, with conventional, advanced and novel strategies under evaluation. Here, we have studied the removal of microcystins using three different forms of pumice particles (PPs), which are embedded into macroporous cryogel columns. Macroporous composite cryogel columns (MCCs) are a new generation of separation media designed to face this challenging task. Three different MCCs were prepared by adding plain PPs, Cu(2+)-attached PPs and Fe(3+)-attached PPs to reaction media before the cryogelation step. Column studies showed that MCCs could be successfully used as an alternative water treatment method for successful microcystin removal. PMID:26760486

  10. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    PubMed

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. PMID:27183516

  11. An alternative purification method for human serum paraoxonase 1 and its interactions with anabolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Demir, Dudu; Gencer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an alternative purification method for human paraoxonase 1 (hPON1) enzyme was developed using two-step procedures, namely, ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sepharose-4B-L-tyrosine-3-aminophenantrene hydrophobic interaction chromatography. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the enzyme indicates a single band with an apparent M(W) of 43 kDa. The enzyme was purified 219-fold with a final specific activity of 4,408,400 U/mg and a yield of 10%. Furthermore, we examined the in vitro effects of some anabolic compounds, such as zeranol, 17 β-estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, oxytocin, and trenbolone on the enzyme activity to understand the better inhibitory properties of these molecules. The five anabolic compounds dose dependently decreased the activity of hPON1 with inhibition constants in the millimolar-micromolar range. The results show that these compounds exhibit inhibitory effects on hPON1 at low concentrations with IC50 values ranging from 0.064 to 16.900 µM.

  12. Development of advanced methods for analysis of experimental data in diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaques, Alonso V.

    There are numerous experimental configurations and data analysis techniques for the characterization of diffusion phenomena. However, the mathematical methods for estimating diffusivities traditionally do not take into account the effects of experimental errors in the data, and often require smooth, noiseless data sets to perform the necessary analysis steps. The current methods used for data smoothing require strong assumptions which can introduce numerical "artifacts" into the data, affecting confidence in the estimated parameters. The Boltzmann-Matano method is used extensively in the determination of concentration - dependent diffusivities, D(C), in alloys. In the course of analyzing experimental data, numerical integrations and differentiations of the concentration profile are performed. These methods require smoothing of the data prior to analysis. We present here an approach to the Boltzmann-Matano method that is based on a regularization method to estimate a differentiation operation on the data, i.e., estimate the concentration gradient term, which is important in the analysis process for determining the diffusivity. This approach, therefore, has the potential to be less subjective, and in numerical simulations shows an increased accuracy in the estimated diffusion coefficients. We present a regression approach to estimate linear multicomponent diffusion coefficients that eliminates the need pre-treat or pre-condition the concentration profile. This approach fits the data to a functional form of the mathematical expression for the concentration profile, and allows us to determine the diffusivity matrix directly from the fitted parameters. Reformulation of the equation for the analytical solution is done in order to reduce the size of the problem and accelerate the convergence. The objective function for the regression can incorporate point estimations for error in the concentration, improving the statistical confidence in the estimated diffusivity matrix

  13. Superconducting microstrip antennas: An experimental comparison of two feeding methods

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, M.A.; Claspy, P.C. ); Bhasin, K.B. . Lewis Research Center)

    1993-07-01

    The recent discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTS's) has generated a substantial amount of interest in microstrip antenna applications. However, the high permittivity of substrates compatible with HTS causes difficulty in feeding such antennas because of the high patch edge impedance. In this paper, two methods for feeding HTS microstrip antennas at K and Ka-band are examined. Superconducting microstrip antennas that are directly coupled and gap-coupled to a microstrip transmission line have been designed and fabricated on lanthanum aluminate substrates using Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting thin films. Measurements from these antennas, including input impedance, bandwidth, efficiency, and patterns, are presented and compared with published models. The measured results demonstrate that usable antennas can be constructed using either of these architectures, although the antennas suffer from narrow bandwidths. In each case, the HTS antenna shows a substantial improvement over an identical antenna made with normal metals.

  14. Superconducting microstrip antennas - An experimental comparison of two feeding methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, M. A.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Claspy, Paul C.

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) has generated a substantial amount of interest in microstrip antenna applications. However, the high permittivity of substrates compatible with HTS causes difficulty in feeding such antennas because of the high patch edge impedance. Two methods for feeding HTS microstrip antennas at K- and Ka-band are examined. Superconducting microstrip antennas that are directly coupled and gap-coupled to a microstrip transmission line have been designed and fabricated on lanthanum aluminate substrates using Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting thin films. Measurements from these antennas, including input impedance, bandwidth, efficiency, and patterns, are presented and compared with published models. The measured results demonstrate that usable antennas can be constructed using either of these architectures, although the antennas suffer from narrow bandwidths. In each case, the HTS antenna shows a substantial improvement over an identical antenna made with normal metals.

  15. Superconducting Microstrip Antennas: An Experimental Comparison of Two Feeding Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Mark A.; Claspy, Paul C.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) has generated a substantial amount of interest in microstrip antenna applications. However, the high permittivity of substrates compatible with HTS causes difficulty in feeding such antennas because of the high patch edge impedance. Two methods for feeding HTS microstrip antennas at K- and Ka-band are examined. Superconducting microstrip antennas that are directly coupled and gas-coupled to a microstrip transmission line have been designed and fabricated on lanthanum aluminate substrates using Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting thin films. Measurements from these antennas, including input impedance, bandwidth, efficiency, and patterns, are presented and compared with published models. The measured results demonstrate that usable antennas can be constructed using either of these architectures, although the antennas suffer from narrow bandwidths. In each case, the HTS antenna shows a substantial improvement over an identical antenna made with normal metals

  16. Experimental Validation for Hot Stamping Process by Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawzi Zamri, Mohd; Lim, Syh Kai; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Due to the demand for reduction in gas emissions, energy saving and producing safer vehicles has driven the development of Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) material. To strengthen UHSS material such as boron steel, it needed to undergo a process of hot stamping for heating at certain temperature and time. In this paper, Taguchi method is applied to determine the appropriate parameter of thickness, heating temperature and heating time to achieve optimum strength of boron steel. The experiment is conducted by using flat square shape of hot stamping tool with tensile dog bone as a blank product. Then, the value of tensile strength and hardness is measured as response. The results showed that the lower thickness, higher heating temperature and heating time give the higher strength and hardness for the final product. In conclusion, boron steel blank are able to achieve up to 1200 MPa tensile strength and 650 HV of hardness.

  17. Translocations of amphibians: Proven management method or experimental technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seigel, Richard A.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    In an otherwise excellent review of metapopulation dynamics in amphibians, Marsh and Trenham (2001) make the following provocative statements (emphasis added): If isolation effects occur primarily in highly disturbed habitats, species translocations may be necessary to promote local and regional population persistence. Because most amphibians lack parental care, they areprime candidates for egg and larval translocations. Indeed, translocations have already proven successful for several species of amphibians. Where populations are severely isolated, translocations into extinct subpopulations may be the best strategy to promote regional population persistence. We take issue with these statements for a number of reasons. First, the authors fail to cite much of the relevant literature on species translocations in general and for amphibians in particular. Second, to those unfamiliar with current research in amphibian conservation biology, these comments might suggest that translocations are a proven management method. This is not the case, at least in most instances where translocations have been evaluated for an appropriate period of time. Finally, the authors fail to point out some of the negative aspects of species translocation as a management method. We realize that Marsh and Trenham's paper was not concerned primarily with translocations. However, because Marsh and Trenham (2001) made specific recommendations for conservation planners and managers (many of whom are not herpetologists or may not be familiar with the pertinent literature on amphibians), we believe that it is essential to point out that not all amphibian biologists are as comfortable with translocations as these authors appear to be. We especially urge caution about advocating potentially unproven techniques without a thorough review of available options.

  18. Structural Integration, an Alternative Method of Manual Therapy and Sensorimotor Education

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objectives of this report are to review the clinical practice of Structural Integration (SI), an alternative method of soft-tissue manipulation and sensorimotor education, and to summarize the evidence to date for mechanism and clinical efficacy. Methods The author's personal knowledge of SI literature, theory, and practice was supplemented by a database search, consultation with other senior SI practitioners, and examination of published bibliographies and websites that archive SI literature. Results SI purports to improve biomechanical functioning as a whole by progressively approximating specific ideals of posture and movement, rather than to treat particular symptoms. Hypothesized mechanisms at the level of local tissue change include increases in soft-tissue pliability, release of adhesions between adjacent soft-tissue structures, and increased interstitial fluid flow with consequently improved clearance of nociceptive potentiators. Hypothesized mechanisms for more global changes include improved biomechanical organization leading to reductions in mechanical stress and nociceptive irritation, a perception of improved biomechanical efficiency and coordination that generalizes to the self, and improvements in sensory processing and vagal tone. Emotional catharsis is also thought to contribute to psychologic changes. Limited preliminary evidence exists for improvements in neuromotor coordination, sensory processing, self-concept and vagal tone, and for reductions in state anxiety. Preliminary, small sample clinical studies with cerebral palsy, chronic musculoskeletal pain, impaired balance, and chronic fatigue syndrome have reported improvements in gait, pain and range-of-motion, impaired balance, functional status, and well-being. Adverse events are thought to be mild and transient, although survey data are not available. Contraindications are thought to be the same as for massage. Conclusions Evidence for clinical effectiveness and

  19. An Alternative In Vivo Method to Refine the Mouse Bioassay for Botulinum Toxin Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Kofie, Temeri D; Lúquez, Carolina; Adler, Michael; Dykes, Janet K; Coleman, JoAnn D; Maslanka, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    Botulism is a rare, life-threatening paralytic disease of both humans and animals that is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT). Botulism is confirmed in the laboratory by the detection of BoNT in clinical specimens, contaminated foods, and cultures. Despite efforts to develop an in vitro method for botulinum toxin detection, the mouse bioassay remains the standard test for laboratory confirmation of this disease. In this study, we evaluated the use of a nonlethal mouse toe-spread reflex model to detect BoNT spiked into buffer, serum, and milk samples. Samples spiked with toxin serotype A and nontoxin control samples were injected into the left and right extensor digitorum longus muscles, respectively. Digital photographs at 0, 8, and 24 h were used to obtain objective measurements through effective paralysis scores, which were determined by comparing the width-to-length ratio between right and left feet. Both objective measurements and clinical observation could accurately identify over 80% of animals injected with 1 LD50 (4.3 pg) BoNT type A within 24 h. Half of animals injected with 0.5 LD50 BoNT type A and none injected with 0.25 LD50 demonstrated localized paralysis. Preincubating the toxin with antitoxin prevented the development of positive effective paralysis scores, demonstrating that (1) the effect was specific for BoNT and (2) identification of toxin serotype could be achieved by using this method. These results suggest that the mouse toe-spread reflex model may be a more humane alternative to the current mouse bioassay for laboratory investigations of botulism. PMID:21819693

  20. Teaching Experimental Method Using the Feature-Present/Feature-Absent Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, William R.

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether a classroom experiment improved the learning of experimental method, at the start of the semester 2 introductory psychology classes took a 10-question multiple-choice pretest on experimental method. Two days later, before the instructor covered the relevant material in the course, 1 class took part in a classroom experiment on…

  1. Topics on Test Methods for Space Systems and Operations Safety: Applicability of Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews topics on test methods for space systems and operations safety through experimentation and analysis. The contents include: 1) Perception of reality through experimentation and analysis; 2) Measurements, methods, and correlations with real life; and 3) Correlating laboratory aerospace materials flammability data with data in spacecraft environments.

  2. An alternant method to the traditional NASA hindlimb unloading model in mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J Andries; Crissey, Jacqueline M; Brown, Marybeth

    2011-03-10

    The Morey-Holton hindlimb unloading (HU) method is a widely accepted National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ground-based model for studying disuse-atrophy in rodents. Our study evaluated an alternant method to the gold-standard Morey-Holton HU tail-traction technique in mice. Fifty-four female mice (4-8 mo.) were HU for 14 days (n=34) or 28 days (n=20). Recovery from HU was assessed after 3 days of normal cage ambulation following HU (n=22). Aged matched mice (n=76) served as weight-bearing controls. Prior to HU a tail ring was formed with a 2-0 sterile surgical steel wire that was passed through the 5(th), 6(th), or 7(th) inter-vertebral disc space and shaped into a ring from which the mice were suspended. Vertebral location for the tail-ring was selected to appropriately balance animal body weight without interfering with defecation. We determined the success of this novel HU technique by assessing body weight before and after HU, degree of soleus atrophy, and adrenal mass following HU. Body weight of the mice prior to HU (24.3 ± 2.9g) did not significantly decline immediately after 14d of HU (22.7 ± 1.9g), 28d of HU (21.3 + 2.1g) or after 3 days recovery (24.0 ± 1.8g). Soleus muscle mass significantly declined (-39.1%, and -46.6%) following HU for 14 days and 28 days respectively (p<0.001). Following 3 days of recovery soleus mass significantly increased to 74% of control values. Adrenal weights of HU mice were not different compared to control mice. The success of our novel HU method is evidenced by the maintenance of animal body weight, comparable adrenal gland weights, and soleus atrophy following HU, corresponding to expected literature values. The primary advantages of this HU method include: 1) ease of tail examination during suspension; 2) decreased likelihood of cyanotic, inflamed, and/or necrotic tails frequently observed with tail-taping and HU; 3) no possibility of mice chewing the traction tape and coming out of the suspension

  3. The agencies method for coalition formation in experimental games

    PubMed Central

    Nash, John F.; Nagel, Rosemarie; Ockenfels, Axel; Selten, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    In society, power is often transferred to another person or group. A previous work studied the evolution of cooperation among robot players through a coalition formation game with a non-cooperative procedure of acceptance of an agency of another player. Motivated by this previous work, we conduct a laboratory experiment on finitely repeated three-person coalition formation games. Human players with different strength according to the coalition payoffs can accept a transfer of power to another player, the agent, who then distributes the coalition payoffs. We find that the agencies method for coalition formation is quite successful in promoting efficiency. However, the agent faces a tension between short-term incentives of not equally distributing the coalition payoff and the long-term concern to keep cooperation going. In a given round, the strong player in our experiment often resolves this tension approximately in line with the Shapley value and the nucleolus. Yet aggregated over all rounds, the payoff differences between players are rather small, and the equal division of payoffs predicts about 80% of all groups best. One reason is that the voting procedure appears to induce a balance of power, independent of the individual player's strength: Selfish subjects tend to be voted out of their agency and are further disciplined by reciprocal behaviors. PMID:23175792

  4. Measuring decision weights in recognition experiments with multiple response alternatives: comparing the correlation and multinomial-logistic-regression methods.

    PubMed

    Dai, Huanping; Micheyl, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    Psychophysical "reverse-correlation" methods allow researchers to gain insight into the perceptual representations and decision weighting strategies of individual subjects in perceptual tasks. Although these methods have gained momentum, until recently their development was limited to experiments involving only two response categories. Recently, two approaches for estimating decision weights in m-alternative experiments have been put forward. One approach extends the two-category correlation method to m > 2 alternatives; the second uses multinomial logistic regression (MLR). In this article, the relative merits of the two methods are discussed, and the issues of convergence and statistical efficiency of the methods are evaluated quantitatively using Monte Carlo simulations. The results indicate that, for a range of values of the number of trials, the estimated weighting patterns are closer to their asymptotic values for the correlation method than for the MLR method. Moreover, for the MLR method, weight estimates for different stimulus components can exhibit strong correlations, making the analysis and interpretation of measured weighting patterns less straightforward than for the correlation method. These and other advantages of the correlation method, which include computational simplicity and a close relationship to other well-established psychophysical reverse-correlation methods, make it an attractive tool to uncover decision strategies in m-alternative experiments.

  5. Experimental study of ? RF plasma jet by optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBenedictis, S.; Dilecce, G.; Simek, M.; Vigliotti, M.

    1998-11-01

    An 0963-0252/7/4/013/img9 jet stream expanding from a radio-frequency discharge has been investigated by optical emission spectroscopy. The axial and lateral profiles of the expansion glow and the jet axial velocity have been measured by optical methods in order to infer the fluid-dynamic properties of the jet. The position of the shock wave is located at about 5 mm from the nozzle, and the stream velocity achieves a maximum of about 2 Mach in the supersonic region. Optical titration of N atoms and the analysis of emitting excited species 0963-0252/7/4/013/img10 and 0963-0252/7/4/013/img11) have been carried out to monitor the active species in the jet stream and their energy content. The titration of N atoms by NO, injected in the subsonic region, monitored by 0963-0252/7/4/013/img9 first positive 0963-0252/7/4/013/img13 band, 0963-0252/7/4/013/img14 NO 0963-0252/7/4/013/img15 and 0963-0252/7/4/013/img16 continuum emissions, has been examined. This latter emission has been found to give a reasonable estimation of the N density, which is in the range of about (0.1-0.2)% 0963-0252/7/4/013/img9 for a discharge power varying from 50 to 80 W. The 0963-0252/7/4/013/img9 first positive emission, NO 0963-0252/7/4/013/img15 and 0963-0252/7/4/013/img20 bands, instead, are largely affected by the presence of the 0963-0252/7/4/013/img21 metastable and by the high velocity of the N stream. The analysis of 0963-0252/7/4/013/img22 and 0963-0252/7/4/013/img11 vibrational distributions shows the presence of a significant density of the 0963-0252/7/4/013/img21 metastable as well as a non-negligible presence in the expansion of hot electrons. A quasi-one-dimensional fluid-dynamic model of the expansion gives a rough account of the measured location of the shock wave and of the velocity and temperature axial profiles.

  6. Greener Syntheses and Chemical Transformations: Sustainable Alternative Methods and Applications of Nano-Catalysts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation summarizes our sustainable chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions.1 The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a var...

  7. Greener Syntheses and Chemical Transformations: Sustainable Alternative Methods and Applications of Nano-Catalysts. (Florence, Italy)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation summarizes our sustainable chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions. The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a vari...

  8. SGBEM-FEM Alternating Method for Analyzing 3D Non-Planar Cracks and Their Growth in Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikishkov, G. P.; Park, J. H.; Atluri, S. N.

    2001-01-01

    The highly accurate and efficient Symmetric Galerkin Boundary Element Method (SGBEM), a Finite Element Method (FEM)-based alternating method, is proposed for analyzing three-dimensional non-planar cracks and their growth. The cracks are modeled using the symmetric Galerkin boundary element method as a distribution of displacement discontinuities, simulating an infinite medium. The finite element method only analyzes the stress for the uncracked body. The solution for the cracked structural component is determined by an iteration procedure. This process alternates between an FEM solution for the uncracked body and the SGBEM solution for a crack in an infinite body. Numerical analysis, and the Java code used, evaluate stress intensity factors and model fatigue crack growth. Examples of non-planar cracks in infinite media and planar cracks in finite bodies, as well as growth under fatigue, show the accuracy of the method.

  9. An alternative pulse height correction method for pole zero cancellation circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, T.; Takahashi, I.; Ishitsu, T.; Ueno, Y.; Kobashi, K.

    2012-05-01

    CdTe diode radiation detectors have a problem called the "polarization effect", which causes CdTe performance to degrade with time. The pulsed bias voltage shutdown technique, in which a bias voltage is turned off and on quickly to recombine the accumulated charges, is used to suppress the effect. When this technique is used with a charge sensitive amplifier equipped with a pole zero cancellation (PZC) circuit, an extra dead time is observed. After a 40 ms shutdown, we have to wait for 130 ms (net 170 ms dead time) due to the saturation of the amplifier when equipped with a PZC stage while only 10 ms (net 50 ms dead time) is necessary without a PZC. However, PZC is essential to reduce the degradation of the energy resolution in high count rate conditions. Therefore, an alternative technique to avoid degrading the energy resolution in high count rate conditions without a PZC circuit was investigated. A present pulse height was corrected by using both the pulse heights and the elapsed times from the previous events. As a result, in a readout circuit having no PZC circuitry, an energy resolution of 4.7% for a 122 keV photo peak at a count rate of 20 kcps was obtained when using the correction, and a 9.1% one was obtained without the correction. In addition, an energy resolution of 2.7% for a 662 keV photo peak at a count rate of 21 kcps was obtained when using the correction, and a 5.3% one was obtained without the correction. It is shown that this new correction method has almost the same effect as PZC circuitry.

  10. "Tectonic Petrameter," An Alternative Method to Teaching the Geologic Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    I have over a decade of experience as a performance poet and am now a graduate student in the geosciences. I have created a performance poem / play script, "Tectonic Petrameter," as an alternative method of teaching the geologic time scale. "The Archean came next and it was a blast. Tectonic plates were smaller and they moved pretty fast. In an enthusiastic flash of ash, volcanic islands smashed together." The use of rhyme and rhythm presents a different and interdisciplinary approach to teaching Earth history that appeals to a wide range of learning styles and makes science fun, while clearly describing important concepts in geology and events in Earth history. "Now it's time to get down with the Coal Swamp Stomp! Tap your feet to the beat of the formation of peat like a plant plantation soaking up the bright heat." "Tectonic Petrameter" by itself is an illustrated spoken-word poem that leads audiences from all levels of scientific background on an excitingly educational journey through geologic time. I will perform my 10-minute memorized poem and present results from my ongoing study to assess the effectiveness of "Tectonic Petrameter" as a teaching tool in K-12 and introductory undergraduate classroom curricula. I propose that using "Tectonic Petrameter" as a performance piece and theatrical play script in K-12 and introductory undergraduate classrooms, as well as in broader community venues, may be an avenue for breaking down barriers related to teaching about Earth's long and complex history. Digital copies of "Tectonic Petrameter" will be made available to interested parties.

  11. A new path forward: the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and National Toxicology Program's Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM).

    PubMed

    Casey, Warren; Jacobs, Abigail; Maull, Elizabeth; Matheson, Joanna; Clarke, Carol; Lowit, Anna

    2015-03-01

    In 2000, the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) was congressionally established, with representatives from Federal regulatory and research agencies that require, use, generate, or disseminate toxicologic and safety testing information. For over 15 y, ICCVAM and the National Toxicology Program's Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) have worked together to promote the development, validation, and regulatory acceptance of test methods that replace, reduce, or refine the use of animals in regulatory testing. In 2013, both NICEATM and ICCVAM underwent major changes to their operating paradigms, to increase the speed and efficiency of regulatory approval and industry adoption of 3Rs testing methods within the United States and internationally. Accordingly, increased emphasis has been placed on international activities, primarily through interaction with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and participation in the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods. In addition, ICCVAM has committed to increasing public awareness of and transparency about federal agencies' 3R activities and to fostering interactions with stakeholders. Finally, although it continues to support ICCVAM, NICEATM's work now includes validation support for Tox21, a collaboration aimed at identifying in vitro methods and computational approaches for testing chemicals to better understand and predict hazards to humans and the environment. The combination of more efficient operating paradigms, increased international collaboration, improved communication and interaction with stakeholders, and active participation in Tox21 likely will substantially increase the number of 3Rs methods developed and used in the United States and internationally.

  12. A New Path Forward: The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and National Toxicology Program's Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Warren; Jacobs, Abigail; Maull, Elizabeth; Matheson, Joanna; Clarke, Carol; Lowit, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) was congressionally established, with representatives from Federal regulatory and research agencies that require, use, generate, or disseminate toxicologic and safety testing information. For over 15 y, ICCVAM and the National Toxicology Program's Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) have worked together to promote the development, validation, and regulatory acceptance of test methods that replace, reduce, or refine the use of animals in regulatory testing. In 2013, both NICEATM and ICCVAM underwent major changes to their operating paradigms, to increase the speed and efficiency of regulatory approval and industry adoption of 3Rs testing methods within the United States and internationally. Accordingly, increased emphasis has been placed on international activities, primarily through interaction with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and participation in the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods. In addition, ICCVAM has committed to increasing public awareness of and transparency about federal agencies’ 3R activities and to fostering interactions with stakeholders. Finally, although it continues to support ICCVAM, NICEATM's work now includes validation support for Tox21, a collaboration aimed at identifying in vitro methods and computational approaches for testing chemicals to better understand and predict hazards to humans and the environment. The combination of more efficient operating paradigms, increased international collaboration, improved communication and interaction with stakeholders, and active participation in Tox21 likely will substantially increase the number of 3Rs methods developed and used in the United States and internationally. PMID:25836963

  13. An alternative method of finding bifurcation points in pseudo-barotropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimmi, R.

    1996-10-01

    Starting from the equations of hydrodynamics, which include both collisional and collisionless ideal fluids, the special case of pseudo-barotropes with anisotropic pressure distribution along tangential or vertical direction (in respect to a ``vertical'' rotation axis) is considered. We find that vertical motions are equivalent to an imaginary rotation, and call ``pseudo-rotation'' the combination of rotation and real or imaginary peculiar circular motions. By use of a necessary condition for equilibrium, i.e. the coincidence of the boundary with an isopotential (gravitational + rotational centrifugal + real peculiar or imaginary peculiar centrifugal) surface, a new method of finding bifurcation points from axisymmetric to triaxial pseudo-barotropic sequences -- discussed in an earlier paper -- is dealt with for the systems under discussion. A simple application to the special case where the isopycnic surfaces are spheroidal discloses that, on one hand, steadily pseudo-rotating, heterogeneous spheroids, cannot be equilibrium configurations and, on the other hand, the same results obtained by use of the virial technique hold when the current method can work. Then the coincidence of the boundary with an isopotential surface and the validity of the virial equations of the second order make two independent (necessary) conditions for equilibrium and both must be satisfied. Under the further assumptions of steady rotation and homeoidally or focaloidally striated distribution of matter, the configurations for which a bifurcation point must necessarily occurr, are determined. In the former alternative a connection is also established, between local (on the boundary) and global anisotropy of pressure distribution; in particular, it is found that local isotropy (on the boundary) involves global isotropy and vice versa. In both cases, the right amount of of anisotropy turns out to yield violation of a threshold for stability, {cal E}_rot = - - E_rot / E_pot <= 0

  14. 29 CFR 2520.104-27 - Alternative method of compliance for certain unfunded dues financed pension plans maintained by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

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  15. 29 CFR 2520.104-23 - Alternative method of compliance for pension plans for certain selected employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative method of compliance for pension plans for... pension plans for certain selected employees. (a) Purpose and scope. (1) This section contains an... Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 for unfunded or insured pension plans maintained by...

  16. 29 CFR 2520.104-27 - Alternative method of compliance for certain unfunded dues financed pension plans maintained by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... financed pension plans maintained by employee organizations. 2520.104-27 Section 2520.104-27 Labor... Alternative method of compliance for certain unfunded dues financed pension plans maintained by employee organizations. (a) Scope. Under the authority of section 110 of the Act, a pension benefit plan that meets...

  17. 41 CFR 102-85.125 - What alternate methods may be used to establish Rent in Federally-owned space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What alternate methods may be used to establish Rent in Federally-owned space? 102-85.125 Section 102-85.125 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.125...

  18. 41 CFR 102-85.125 - What alternate methods may be used to establish Rent in Federally-owned space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What alternate methods may be used to establish Rent in Federally-owned space? 102-85.125 Section 102-85.125 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.125...

  19. 14 CFR 39.21 - Where can I get information about FAA-approved alternative methods of compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Where can I get information about FAA-approved alternative methods of compliance? 39.21 Section 39.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES § 39.21 Where can I...

  20. 29 CFR 2520.104-48 - Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions-IRS Form 5305-SEP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative method of compliance for model simplified... compliance for model simplified employee pensions—IRS Form 5305-SEP. Under the authority of section 110 of... Internal Revenue Code of 1954 as amended (the Code) that is created by use without modification of...