Science.gov

Sample records for alternative fuels utilization

  1. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  2. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  3. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  4. Use of alcohol in farming applications: alternative fuels utilization program

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, G.L.; Foster, D.E.; Uyehara, O.A.; McCallum, P.W.; Timbario, T.J.

    1980-11-01

    The use of alcohol with diesel fuel has been investigated as a means of extending diesel fuel supplies. The ability to use ethanol in diesel-powered farm equipment could provide the means for increasing the near-term fuels self-sufficiency of the American farmer. In the longer term, the potential availability of methanol (from coal) in large quantities could serve to further decrease the dependency on diesel fuel. This document gives two separate overviews of the use of alcohols in farm equipment. Part I of this document compares alcohol with No. 1 and No. 2 diesel fuels and describes several techniques for using alcohol in farm diesels. Part II of this document discusses the use of aqueous ethanol in diesel engines, spark ignition engines and provides some information on safety and fuel handling of both methanol and ethanol. This document is not intended as a guide for converting equipment to utilize alcohol, but rather to provide information such that the reader can gain insight on the advantages and disadvantages of using alcohol in existing engines currently used in farming applications.

  5. Alternative Fuels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  6. Alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

  7. Alternative Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-11

    JP-8 BACK-UP SLIDES Unclassified 19 What Are Biofuels ? Cellulose “first generation”“second generation” C18:0 C16:1 Triglycerides (fats, oils ...equipment when supplying jet fuel not practicable or cost effective Unclassified 5 erna ve ue s ocus Petroleum Crude Oil (declining discovery / production...on Jet A/A-1 Approved fuels, DXXXX Unclassified 6 JP-8/5 (Commercial Jet Fuel, ASTM Spec) DARPA Alternative Jet Fuels • Agricultural crop oils

  8. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  9. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2010-06-30

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels. Thailand is of particular interest since it introduced E20 to its commercial market in 2007 and the US is now considering introducing E20 into the US market.

  10. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Stork, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. Thailand has continued to work to promote increased consumption of gasohol especially for highethanol content fuels like E85. The government has confirmed its effort to draw up incentives for auto makers to invest in manufacturing E85-compatible vehicles in the country. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels.

  11. Utilization of waste cooking oil as an alternative fuel for Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ridvan; Ulusoy, Yahya

    2017-04-03

    This study is based on three essential considerations concerning biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil: diesel engine emissions of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil, its potential in Turkey, and policies of the Turkish government about environmentally friendly alternative fuels. Emission tests have been realized with 35.8 kW, four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel tractor engine. Test results are compared with Euro non-road emission standards for diesel fuel and five different blends of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The results of the experimental study show that the best blends are B10 and B20 as they show the lowest emission level. The other dimensions of the study include potential analysis of waste cooking oil as diesel fuels, referring to fuel price policies applied in the past, and proposed future policies about the same issues. It was also outlined some conclusions and recommendations in connection with recycling of waste oils as alternative fuels.

  12. Alternate fusion fuels workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The workshop was organized to focus on a specific confinement scheme: the tokamak. The workshop was divided into two parts: systems and physics. The topics discussed in the systems session were narrowly focused on systems and engineering considerations in the tokamak geometry. The workshop participants reviewed the status of system studies, trade-offs between d-t and d-d based reactors and engineering problems associated with the design of a high-temperature, high-field reactor utilizing advanced fuels. In the physics session issues were discussed dealing with high-beta stability, synchrotron losses and transport in alternate fuel systems. The agenda for the workshop is attached.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  14. Alternate materials for alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports on an extensive investigation of five different crystalline engineering thermoplastics and their reactions to various alternate fuels. The investigation covered acetal copolymer, nylon 6/6, polyphenylene sulfide, PBT polyester, and liquid crystal polymer. These five base resins were used in unfilled, glass fiber reinforced, impact modified, glass/mineral reinforced, and long-glass fiber reinforced grades. All of the materials were tested in ASTM reference Fuel C (50% toluene, 50% iso-octane), Auto-oxidized (sour gas), and Aggressive fuel with M25, M50, and M85 at 60{degrees} and 121{degrees} C. This study was undertaken due to the automotive industry's shift towards alternate fuels and higher operating temperatures.

  15. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  16. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  17. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  18. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    AFWAL-TR-84-2042 ESL-TR-84-29 ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCH 0) PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO CANADA In JULY 1984 Final Report for...in small engincs. -291 REFERENCES 1. Gratton, M., Sampath, P., " Alternate Fuels Combustion Research Phase If", Pratt & Whitney Canada , AFWAL-TR-83-2057...for Period May 80 Sep e ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCHMa80-Sp3 4. PERFORMING ORIJ. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) 4. 60ONTRA-CT-WI GANUMNER(s) *M

  19. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  20. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  1. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  2. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  3. Alternative fuel information sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  4. Evaluation of unthrottled combustion system options for light duty applications with future syncrude derived fuels. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Needham, J. R.; Cooper, B. M.; Norris-Jones, S. R.

    1982-12-01

    An experimental program examining the interaction between several fuel and light duty automotive engine combinations is detailed. Combustion systems addressed covered indirect and direct injection diesel and spark ignited stratified charge. Fuels primarily covered D2, naphtha and intermediate broadcut blends. Low ignition quality diesel fuels were also evaluated. The results indicate the baseline fuel tolerance of each combustion system and enable characteristics of the systems to be compared. Performance, gaseous and particulate emissions aspects were assessed. The data obtained assists in the selection of candidate combustion systems for potential future fuels. Performance and environmental penalties as appropriate are highlighted relative to the individual candidates. Areas of further work for increased understanding are also reviewed.

  5. Alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Askew, W. S.; McNamara, T. M.; Maxfield, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    The commercialization of alternative fuels is analyzed. Following a synopsis of US energy use, the concept of commercialization, the impacts of supply shortages and demand inelasticity upon commercialization, and the status of alternative fuels commercialization to date in the US are discussed. The US energy market is viewed as essentially numerous submarkets. The interrelationship among these submarkets precludes the need to commercialize for a specific fuel/use. However, the level of consumption, the projected growth in demand, and the inordinate dependence upon foreign fuels dictate that additional fuel supplies in general be brought to the US energy marketplace. Commercialization efforts encompass a range of measures designed to accelerate the arrival of technologies or products in the marketplace. As discussed in this paper, such a union of willing buyers and willing sellers requires that three general conditions be met: product quality comparable to existing products; price competitiveness; and adequate availability of supply. Product comparability presently appears to be the least problematic of these three requirements. Ethanol/gasoline and methanol/gasoline blends, for example, demonstrate the fact that alternative fuel technologies exist. Yet price and availability (i.e., production capacity) remain major obstacles. Given inelasticity (with respect to price) in the US and abroad, supply shortages - actual or contrived - generate upward price pressure and should make once-unattractive alternative fuels more price competitive. It is noted, however, that actual price competitiveness has been slow to occur and that even with price competitiveness, the lengthy time frame needed to achieve significant production capacity limits the near-term impact of alternative fuels.

  6. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gushee, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. Alternative fuels for road vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Poulton, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    The finite nature of global fossil fuel resources underscores the need to develop alternative vehicular fuels. Increased use of renewable and alternative fuels can extend fossil fuel supplies and help resolve air pollution problems inherent in automotive use of conventional fuels. Fuel characteristics, safety implications, feedstocks, infrastructure, fuel production costs, emissions performance, required vehicle modifications, and outlook are described for LPG, reformulated gasoline, natural gas, hydrogen, electricity, biofuels, ethanol, and methanol. 26 fig., 288 refs., 29 tabs.

  8. Alternate aircraft fuels prospects and operational implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses NASA studies of the potentials of coal-derived aviation fuels, specifically synthetic aviation kerosene, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen. Topics include areas of fuel production, air terminal requirements for aircraft fueling (for liquid hydrogen only), and the performance characteristics of aircraft designed to utilize alternate fuels. Energy requirements associated with the production of each of the three selected fuels are determined, and fuel prices are estimated. Subsonic commercial air transports using liquid hydrogen fuel have been analyzed, and their performance and the performance of aircraft which use commercial aviation kerosene are compared. Environmental and safety issues are considered.

  9. Biodiesel: an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Manzanera, Maximino; Molina-Muñoz, Maria L; González-López, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative energy source and could be a substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Most of the sources, methods and apparatus to produce biodiesel are reviewed here. Some of the patents propose the use of oils and fats of animal or vegetal origin and other kind of sources. Many others focus on the methods for the production or oxidation stability of the biofuel in order to make its production economically competitive. Several apparatus comprising reactors and refineries are also presented. This review article summarizes recent and important patents relating to the production of biodiesel to make its production a viable alternative.

  10. Alternative Fuels Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Nakley, Leah M.; Yen, Chia H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn has invested over $1.5 million in engineering, and infrastructure upgrades to renovate an existing test facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), which is now being used as an Alternative Fuels Laboratory. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis and thermal stability testing. This effort is supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing project. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale F-T catalyst screening experiments. These experiments require the use of a synthesis gas feedstock, which will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics, product yields and hydrocarbon distributions. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor for catalyst activation studies. Product gas composition and performance data can be continuously obtained with an automated gas sampling system, which directly connects the reactors to a micro-gas chromatograph (micro GC). Liquid and molten product samples are collected intermittently and are analyzed by injecting as a diluted sample into designated gas chromatograph units. The test facility also has the capability of performing thermal stability experiments of alternative aviation fuels with the use of a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) (Ref. 1) in accordance to ASTM D 3241 "Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels" (JFTOT method) (Ref. 2). An Ellipsometer will be used to study fuel fouling thicknesses on heated tubes from the HLPS experiments. A detailed overview of the test facility systems and capabilities are described in this paper.

  11. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  12. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  13. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  14. Synthetic and Alternate Fuels Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    e-e AD-A197 531 AD_ m iI ORNL/TM-10706 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL Synthetic and Alternate LABORATORY Fuels Characterization •_ _ __ _ _Final Report February...21701-5012 62787A 2787A878 CA 294 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) Synthetic and Alternate Fuels Characterization 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) W. H...results suggest that highly refined and finished mobility fuels from synthetic or alternate sources will not pose a significantly greater toxicological

  15. Alternative fuels for cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Melissa M; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metabolism is significantly altered to support the various metabolic needs of tumor cells. The most prominent change is the increased tumor glycolysis that leads to increased glucose uptake and utilization. However, it has become obvious that many non-glucose nutrients, such as amino acids, lactate, acetate, and macromolecules, can serve as alternative fuels for cancer cells. This knowledge reveals an unexpected flexibility and evolutionarily conserved model in which cancer cells uptake nutrients from their external environment to fulfill their necessary energetic needs. Tumor cells may have evolved the ability to utilize different carbon sources because of the limited supply of nutrients in their microenvironment, which can be driven by oncogenic mutations or tumor microenvironmental stresses. In certain cases, these factors permanently alter the tumor cells' metabolism, causing certain nutrients to become indispensable and thus creating opportunities for therapeutic intervention to eradicate tumors by their metabolic vulnerabilities.

  16. Alternative Fuels for Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Melissa; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metabolism is significantly altered to support the various metabolic needs of tumor cells. The most prominent change is the increased tumor glycolysis that leads to increased glucose uptake and utilization. However, it has become obvious that many non-glucose nutrients, such as amino acids, lactate, acetate and macromolecules, can serve as alternative fuels for cancer cells. This knowledge reveals an unexpected flexibility and evolutionarily-conserved model in which cancer cells uptake nutrients from their external environment to fulfill their necessary energetic needs. It is possible that tumor cells have evolved the ability to utilize different carbon sources due to the limited supply of nutrient that can be driven by oncogenic mutations and tumor microenvironmental stresses. In certain cases, these factors permanently alter the tumor cells’ metabolism, causing certain nutrients to become indispensable and thus creating opportunities for therapeutic intervention to eradicate tumors by their metabolic vulnerabilities. PMID:25815843

  17. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    of Temperature on Fuel Density ( ASTh D1298) 43 3.4 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity (ASTM D4AS) 44 3.5 Effect of Tcmperature on Surface Tension 45...Agencies 33 3.3 Fuel Distillation Range (AF.€ D86) 34 3.4 Fuel Distillation Range ( ASTh D2887) 35 3.5 Fuel Properties I 36 3.6 Fuel Properties II 37 3.7...the case of the less volatile fuels. - 29 - Freeze Point ASTh [2386 (QETE) Setapoint (NRC) ASTM D2386 (Figure 3.6) records the disappearance of the

  18. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  19. Alternative Fuels (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-19

    feedstock for HRJ, plant cost for F-T) Courtesy AFRL, Dr. Tim Edwards Unclassified • Agricultural crop oils ( canola , jatropha, soy, palm, etc...dioxide emissions Security of crude oil questioned Qatar GTL Production * Fuels produced from seeds and other organic sources such as Soybean Methyl Ester...Fuels Focus  Various conversion processes  Upgraded to meet fuel specs Diverse energy sources Petroleum Crude Oil Petroleum based Single Fuel in the

  20. Alternative Fuels in Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouroussis, Denis; Karimi, Shahram

    2006-01-01

    The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative…

  1. Alternative Fuels in Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouroussis, Denis; Karimi, Shahram

    2006-01-01

    The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative…

  2. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 6, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-03-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on Alternate Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) in India, alternative fuels for emergency preparedness, and testing of propane vehicles by UPS. Also an interview of author Jeremy Rifkin on how alternative fuels provide pathways to hydrogen.

  3. Hydrogen utilization and alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.; Caputo, R.; Fujita, T.

    1975-01-01

    The historical uses of hydrogen are described along with potential new uses which could develop as a result of the diminishing supply of conventional fossil fuels such as natural gas. A perspective view of hydrogen, both as a chemical feedstock and as a fuel, is necessary to understand its relationship to the overall national energy projections. These projections, which show energy usage in terms of use sectors, forms of energy, and sources of energy, do not specifically identify hydrogen as a component of the energy system. By superimposing the traditional roles upon the new opportunities for hydrogen on the energy projections, the role of hydrogen and future projections is developed within the context of the national energy projections. Use, supply, and other factors affecting application are interrelated and are discussed.

  4. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  5. Fuel utilization and fuel sensitivity of solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kevin

    2011-03-01

    Fuel utilization and fuel sensitivity are two important process variables widely used in operation of SOFC cells, stacks, and generators. To illustrate the technical values, the definitions of these two variables as well as practical examples are particularly given in this paper. It is explicitly shown that the oxygen-leakage has a substantial effect on the actual fuel utilization, fuel sensitivity and V-I characteristics. An underestimation of the leakage flux could potentially results in overly consuming fuel and oxidizing Ni-based anode. A fuel sensitivity model is also proposed to help extract the leakage flux information from a fuel sensitivity curve. Finally, the "bending-over" phenomenon observed in the low-current range of a V-I curve measured at constant fuel-utilization is quantitatively coupled with leakage flux.

  6. Army Alternative Ground Fuels Qualification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-31

    coming decades. The Services have already taken steps to certify aircraft, ships, tactical vehicles, and support equipment to use alternative liquid ... GTL / BTL / CBTL: All use Fischer-Tropsch Processes** H2O unclassified 20 More Possibilities For Making Alternative Jet Fuels (or Blendstocks...Alternatively Sourced Liquid Hydrocarbons Fossil Energy Feedstock (large U.S. resource) coal petcoke oil shale • Various conversion processes

  7. Alternative fuels for mobile fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese Barton, Scott Andrew

    1999-11-01

    Because of limitations associated with the use of hydrogen fuel, the direct use of alternative fuels in fuel cells has been the focus of intense research. Two fuels worthy of consideration are methanol and zinc. This work considers aspects of implementing these fuels in mobile fuel cell applications. Two chapters treat topics relating to direct methanol fuel cells, and three chapters consider the cathode and anode of the zinc-air cell. A methanol concentration sensor is crucial to the control of a direct methanol fuel cell system. The design considered here is based on current output limited by methanol diffusion through a proton exchange membrane. The sensor provides first-order response to changes in concentration and temperature over a concentration range of 0 to 3 M, with a response on the order of 10 seconds. A mixed-reactant, strip-cell direct methanol fuel cell concept is discussed. In this type of cell, reaction-selective electrodes are mounted in an alternating fashion on the same side of a membrane electrolyte, allowing mixing of feed streams, and reduced system complexity. The performance of prototypical cells is demonstrated, and improved fuel efficiency at low current density is predicted. Geometric constraints on the performance of such cells are also considered. A primary zinc-air cell may be considered a fuel cell if the anode is replaceable. The cathode of such a cell is analyzed using a numerical model. Results indicate that oxygen solubility and diffusion in the electrolyte dominate polarization losses. Reduced catalyst particle size and decreased electrolyte concentration are suggested to improve cathode performance. Whereas the air cathode may be modeled adequately, given the wealth of information available on oxygen kinetics, the oxidation of zinc is not well-understood. Thus, the mass-transfer-limited region of zinc electrodissolution was investigated using a zinc rotating disk electrode and electrochemical impedance techniques. The zincate

  8. Alternative fuel car

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-27

    John C. Stennis Space Center, America's largest rocket engine test complex, and one of the country's leading consumers of liquid hydrogen, was the location Feb. 27 for a fuel stop of three Mercedes B-Class F-CELL vehicles. The B-Class F-CELL is an electric vehicle, which is powered by electricity produced on board the vehicle from hydrogen gas. The only emission by this unique vehicle is pure water vapor. Due to the limited number of existing hydrogen locations, Stennis Space Center provided a logical choice for a refueling location as the vehicle made its way across the United States as part of a worldwide tour.

  9. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-08-20

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains.

  10. Opportunities for Alternative Fuels Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-05

    lifecycle emissions can be less than half those of petroleum-derived fuels. In particular, a feedstock consisting of a 60/40 coal/biomass blend (by...available for free download at http://www.rand.org/pubs/testimonies/CT360/. 2 greenhouse gas emissions . Finally, a federal program directed at reducing...liquids production in Qatar and Malaysia, and small amounts of biodiesel production in the United States and Europe. Expanding alternative fuels

  11. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  12. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  13. 77 FR 36423 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...The Commission seeks public comment on two amendments to its ``Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles'' (``Alternative Fuels Rule'' or ``Rule''). Specifically, the proposed amendments consolidate the FTC's alternative fueled vehicle (AFV) labels with new fuel economy labels required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and eliminate FTC requirements for used AFV labels.

  14. 78 FR 23832 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...The Commission amends the Alternative Fuels Rule (``Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles'') to consolidate the FTC's alternative fueled vehicle (AFV) labels with new fuel economy labels required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The amendments also eliminate labeling requirements for used AFV labels.

  15. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  16. Alternate-fuel reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K. Jr.; Ehst, D.A.; Gohar, Y.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.R.

    1983-02-01

    A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a /sup 3/He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding.

  17. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin; Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia; Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell; Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester .

    2009-03-31

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and enzymatic

  18. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  19. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, OH, Oct. 17 to 18, 2007 (ref. 1).

  20. Coupling hydrogen fuel and carbonless utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G.D.

    1998-08-01

    A number of previous analyses have focused on comparisons of single hydrogen vehicles to petroleum and alternative fuel vehicles or of stationary hydrogen storage for utility or local power applications. LLNL`s approach is to compare combined transportation/utility storage systems using hydrogen and fossil fuels. Computer models have been constructed to test the hypothesis that combining carbonless electricity sources and vehicles fueled by electrolytic hydrogen can reduce carbon emissions more cost effectively than either approach alone. Three scenarios have been developed and compared using computer simulations, hourly utility demand data, representative data for solar and wind energy sites, and the latest available EIA projections for transportation and energy demand in the US in 2020. Cost projections were based on estimates from GRI, EIA, and a recent DOE/EPRI report on renewable energy technologies. The key question guiding this analysis was: what can be gained by combining hydrogen fuel production and renewable electricity? Bounding scenarios were chosen to analyze three carbon conscious options for the US transportation fuel and electricity supply system beyond 2020: Reference Case -- petroleum transportation and natural gas electric sector; Benchmark Case -- petroleum transportation and carbonless electric sector; and Target Case -- hydrogen transportation and carbonless electric sector.

  1. Alternative scenarios utilizing nonterrestrial resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Roberts, Barney B.

    1992-01-01

    A collection of alternative scenarios that are enabled or substantially enhanced by the utilization of nonterrestrial resources is provided. We take a generalized approach to scenario building so that our report will have value in the context of whatever goals are eventually chosen. Some of the topics covered include the following: lunar materials processing; asteroid mining; lunar resources; construction of a large solar power station; solar dynamic power for the space station; reduced gravity; mission characteristics and options; and tourism.

  2. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    at a full-scale cement plant with alternative fuels to examine their compatibility with the cement production process. Construction and demolition waste, woodchips, and soybean seeds were used as alternative fuels at a full-scale cement production facility. These fuels were co-fired with coal and waste plastics. The alternative fuels used in this trial accounted for 5 to 16 % of the total energy consumed during these burns. The overall performance of the portland cement produced during the various trial burns performed for practical purposes very similar to the cement produced during the control burn. The cement plant was successful in implementing alternative fuels to produce a consistent, high-quality product that increased cement performance while reducing the environmental footprint of the plant. The utilization of construction and demolition waste, woodchips and soybean seeds proved to be viable replacements for traditional fuels. The future use of these fuels depends on local availability, associated costs, and compatibility with a facility's production process.

  3. Fuel cells: A utilities perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessenius, Chris A.; Ang, Amos; Hamilton, Stephanie

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is actively assessing how to maximize the benefits from fuel cell power systems and other distributed generation (DG) technologies deployed along existing distribution level circuits. From a utility perspective, the viability of DG fuel cell systems increase as the technology matures and more "value-added" features are incorporated. As the number of DG projects grows in SCE's service territory and optimism increases about the potential uses, so does the need to better understand the impact wide-scale deployment may have on the performance of California's energy system. Understanding how DG technologies affect distribution level circuits and devising effective deployment strategies is essential for the technology to gain widespread acceptance and become an integral part of SCE's Transmission and Distribution (T&D) system planning. Simulation results are presented in this paper that indicate fuel cell systems combined with electronically switched power inverters capable or providing reactive power (a.k.a. VAR) support are more advantageous than fuel cell systems without such inverter features. In fact, for the SCE circuit analyzed, a strategically placed 2.5 MW fuel cell system with VAR support capabilities has a greater affect on circuit performance than a 3 MW fuel cell system without VAR support. Even though the 2.5 MW fuel cell system with VAR support inverter possesses 16.7% less power rating than the 3 MW system without VAR support, it was more effective in reducing circuit current flows, reducing distribution line losses, and maintaining circuit voltage within ±5% of 12.47 kilovolts (kV).

  4. Utilizing TEMPO surface estimates to determine changes in emissions, community exposure and environmental impacts from cement kilns across North America using alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, M. J.; Gibson, M. D.; Asamany, E.

    2015-12-01

    A major problem faced by all North American (NA) Governments is managing solid waste from residential and non-residential sources. One way to mitigate the need to expand landfill sites across NA is waste diversion for use as alternative fuel in industries such as cement manufacture. Currently, waste plastic, tires, waste shingles and other high carbon content waste destined for landfill are being explored, or currently used, as an alternative supplemental fuels for use in cement kilns across NA. While this is an attractive, environmentally sustainable solution, significant knowledge gaps remain in our fundamental understanding of whether these alternative fuels may lead to increased air pollution emissions from cement kilns across NA. The long-term objective of using TEMPO is to advance fundamental understanding of uncharacterized air pollution emissions and to assess the actual or potential environmental and health impacts of these emissions from cement kilns across NA. TEMPO measurements will be made in concert with in-situ observations augmented by air dispersion, land-use regression and receptor modelling. This application of TEMPO follows on from current research on a series of bench scale and pilot studies for Lafarge Canada Inc., that investigated the change in combustion emissions from various mixtures of coal (C), petroleum coke (PC) and non-recyclable alternative fuels. From our work we demonstrated that using an alternative fuel mixture in a cement kiln has potential to reduce emissions of CO2 by 34%; reduce NOx by 80%, and reduce fuel SO2 emissions by 98%. We also provided evidence that there would be a significant reduction in the formation of secondary ground-level ozone (O3) and secondary PM2.5 in downwind stack plumes if alternative waste derived fuels are used. The application of air dispersion, source apportionment, land use regression; together with remote sensing offers a powerful set of tools with the potential to improve air pollution

  5. Aviation turbine fuels: An assessment of alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The general outlook for aviation turbine fuels, the effect that broadening permissible aviation turbine fuel properties could have on the overall availability of such fuels, the fuel properties most likely to be affected by use of lower grade petroleum crudes, and the research and technology required to ensure that aviation turbine fuels and engines can function satisfactorily with fuels having a range of fuel properties differing from those of current specification fuel are assessed. Views of industry representatives on alternative aviation turbine fuels are presented.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  7. Alternative Fuels Market and Policy Trends (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Market forces and policies are increasing opportunities for alternative fuels. There is no one-size-fits-all, catch-all, silver-bullet fuel. States play a critical role in the alternative fuel market and are taking a leading role.

  8. Alternative fuels and vehicles choice model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the theory and implementation of a model of alternative fuel and vehicle choice (AFVC), designed for use with the US Department of Energy`s Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). The AFTM is a static equilibrium model of the world supply and demand for liquid fuels, encompassing resource production, conversion processes, transportation, and consumption. The AFTM also includes fuel-switching behavior by incorporating multinomial logit-type equations for choice of alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuels. This allows the model to solve for market shares of vehicles and fuels, as well as for fuel prices and quantities. The AFVC model includes fuel-flexible, bi-fuel, and dedicated fuel vehicles. For multi-fuel vehicles, the choice of fuel is subsumed within the vehicle choice framework, resulting in a nested multinomial logit design. The nesting is shown to be required by the different price elasticities of fuel and vehicle choice. A unique feature of the AFVC is that its parameters are derived directly from the characteristics of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, together with a few key assumptions about consumer behavior. This not only establishes a direct link between assumptions and model predictions, but facilitates sensitivity testing, as well. The implementation of the AFVC model as a spreadsheet is also described.

  9. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  10. Isoprenoid based alternative diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Taek Soon; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-08-18

    Fuel compositions are provided comprising a hydrogenation product of a monocyclic sesquiterpene (e.g., hydrogenated bisabolene) and a fuel additive. Methods of making and using the fuel compositions are also disclosed. ##STR00001##

  11. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  12. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This report analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP-8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0, 50, and 100 percent. The data show that SPK fuel (an FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  13. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  14. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  15. Workshop on the utilization of coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels in the Andean Region. Volume 1. Summary report. Held in Lima, Peru on June 24-28, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    1985-12-31

    The Workshop on the Utilization of Coal as an Alternative to Petroleum Fuels in the Andean Region was one regional effort to examine issues involved in developing coal as a major energy source. Held in Lima, Peru, June 24-28, 1985, and funded by the Government of Peru and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), the workshop examined technological measures and economic policy initiatives needed to promote coal development, particularly in Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador.

  16. Alternative fuels for multiple-hearth furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, B.D.; Lawson, T.U.

    1980-04-01

    A study of alternative procedures for reducing the consumption of No. 2 fuel oil at the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre near Canberra, Aust., indicated that in comparison with the present system of incineration with heat supplied by burning fuel oil, the installation of a sludge drying operation, consisting of a rotary dryer heated by furnace exhaust gases with the dried sludge used to fuel the furnace, would become economically desirable by 1985 if afterburning is not required, and would be justified immediately if afterburning is required to meet air pollution control regulations. The substitution of any of four waste fuels (refuse-derived fuel, waste paper, wood waste, or waste oil) or of coal for the No. 2 fuel oil would not be cost-effective through 1989. The furnace system, including afterburning and fuel oil requirements, the envisioned alternative fuel use systems, sludge processing alternatives, heat balance results, and economics are discussed.

  17. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  18. 76 FR 31513 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...The Commission seeks public comment on its Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles (``Alternative Fuels Rule'' or ``Rule''). As part of its systematic review of all FTC rules and guides, the Commission requests public comment on the overall costs, benefits, necessity, and regulatory and economic impact of the Alternative Fuels Rule. The Commission also seeks comment on whether to merge its alternative fueled vehicle (AFV) labels with fuel economy labels proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA); add new definitions for AFVs contained in recent legislation; and change labeling requirements for used AFVs.

  19. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  20. Distillate Fuel Trends: International Supply Variations and Alternate Fuel Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    general trend toward a more uniform diesel around the world but the use of alternative fuels, such as biodiesel , has introduced additional variations...reduce sulfur; however, there are still areas with high sulfur, poor stability fuel. The primary source of alternate diesel fuel is Biodiesel , more...US FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, aka Biodiesel FIA Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption FT SPK Fischer Tropsch derived Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene

  1. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  2. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  3. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  4. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Tijrn

    2003-01-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  5. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  6. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  7. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  8. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  9. Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.; Greene, Howard L.

    With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security, and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking non-petroleum based alternative fuels, along with more advanced energy technologies (e.g., fuel cells) to increase the efficiency of energy use. The most promising alternative fuel will be the fuel that has the greatest impact on society. The major impact areas include well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions, non-petroleum feed stocks, well-to-wheel efficiencies, fuel versatility, infrastructure, availability, economics, and safety. Compared to some of the other leading alternative fuel candidates (i.e., methane, methanol, ethanol, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels), dimethyl ether appears to have the largest potential impact on society, and should be considered as the fuel of choice for eliminating the dependency on petroleum. DME can be used as a clean high-efficiency compression ignition fuel with reduced NO x, SO x, and particulate matter, it can be efficiently reformed to hydrogen at low temperatures, and does not have large issues with toxicity, production, infrastructure, and transportation as do various other fuels. The literature relevant to DME use is reviewed and summarized to demonstrate the viability of DME as an alternative fuel.

  10. Assessment of Alternative Aircraft Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to provide representatives from industry, government, and academia concerned with the availability and quality of future aviation turbine fuels with recent technical results and a status review of DOD and NASA sponsored fuels research projects. The symposium has included presentations on the potential crude sources, refining methods, and characteristics of future fuels; the effects of changing fuel characteristics on the performance and durability of jet aircraft components and systems; and the prospects for evolving suitable technology to produce and use future fuels.

  11. A Multi-Attribute Utility Decision Analysis for Treatment Alternatives for the DOE/SR Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.; Kuzio, K.; Sorenson, K.; Weiner, R.; Wheeler, T.

    1998-11-01

    A multi-attribute utility analysis is applied to the decision to select a treatment method for the management of aluminum-based spent nuclear i%el (A1-SNF) owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE will receive, treat, and temporarily store Al- SNF, most of which is composed of highly enriched uranium, at its Savannah River Site in South Carolina. DOE intends ultimately to send the treated Al-SNJ? to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. DOE initially considered ten treatment alternatives for the management of A1-SNF, and has narrowed the choice to two of these the direct disposal and melt and dilute alternatives. The decision analysis presented in this document focuses on a decision between these two remaining alternatives.

  12. Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

  13. Synthetic fuel utilization. Final report. Task 330

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of large coal resources in this country provided the spur for consideration of liquids derived from hydrogenation of coal in the search for alternate liquid fuels to replace petroleum. Previous developments particularly in German industry beginning in 1910 and reaching a capacity of approximately four million tons of products a year by 1944 and more recently a series of plants in South Africa have shown the practicability of coal liquefaction. A few more advanced processes have been developed variously to bench, pilot or commercial scale from among the thirty or more which were subject to study. Limitation in the amount of hydrogen used in these for reasons of economy and processing facility results in products containing major amounts of aromatics as well as significant portions of the sulfur and nitrogen of the coal feed. Combustion of the largely aromatic liquids can present problems in commercial burners designed for petroleum fuels, and combustion staging used to reduce NO/sub x/ emissions with the latter may encounter difficulties from sooting in the coal-derived fuels, which occurs readily with aromatics. This report presents a review of such problems in utilization of synthetic fuels from coal, emphasizing basic engineering and scientific studies which have been made. A research program involving a number of universities, industrial laboratories, and non-profit research institutions was carried out under the direction of the Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This program is also reviewed. The major subjects covered are those of liquefaction product composition and properties, fuel spray and droplet processes, synfuel pyrolysis, combustion mechanics, soot formation, and pollutant emission. Recommendations concerning needs for investigation are made from an evaluation of the current status of the field and the results obtained in the program. 15 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  14. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  15. Emerging trends in alternative aviation fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Cody

    The days of petroleum-based aviation fuels are numbered. New regulations to be set in place in the coming years will force current fuels to be phased out in favor of cleaner fuels with less toxic emissions. The alternative fuel industry has already taken its foothold in other modes of transportation, and aviation will soon follow suit. Many companies have cropped up over the last decade, and a few have been around longer, that work hard to develop the alternative aviation fuels of the future. It is important, however, for the aviation community to know what to expect and when to expect it concerning alternative fuels. This study investigates where various companies in the alternative aviation fuel industry currently stand in their development and production processes, and how their products will affect aircraft owners and operators. By interviewing representatives from these companies and analyzing their responses to identify trends, an educated prediction can be made about where the industry is headed and when the aviation community can expect these fuel to be available. The findings of this study indicate that many companies are still in their developmental stages, with a few notable outliers, and that most of these companies expect to see production of their product by 2017. Also, the fuel manufacturers are dealing with all the legal hurdles regarding alternative fuels, so little to no effort will be required on the part of the consumer. These findings, along with their analysis, will enable the aviation community to make educated decisions concerning fuel and their aircraft, as well and do their part to help these beneficial fuels get to market.

  16. Alternative fuels for multiple-hearth furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, B.D.; Lawson, T.U.

    1980-04-01

    Results are described of a feasibility study on the use of refuse-derived fuel, shredded paper, wood waste, coal, and waste oil in multiple-hearth furnaces at the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre in Australia. An assessment of waste fuel availability and characteristics is given, and a summary is made of the technical and economic aspects of using these alternative fuels and of minimizing furnace fuel requirements by reducing sludge moisture. The recommended method of reducing fuel oil consumption in the furnace is shown to be sludge drying, using process exhaust heat in a rotary dryer.

  17. Proceedings of the 1993 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report contains viewgraph papers on the following topics on alternative fuels: availability of alternative fueled engines and vehicles; emerging technologies; overcoming barriers to alternative fuels commercialization; infrastructure issues; and new initiatives in research and development.

  18. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  19. Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Dan; Fast, Matthew

    2009-12-31

    The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is to help both Ford and the City demonstrate and evaluate the performance characteristics of the E-450 H2ICE shuttle buses developed by Ford, which use a 6.8-liter supercharged Triton V-10 engine with a hydrogen storage system equivalent to 29 gallons of gasoline. The technology used during the demonstration project in the Ford buses is a modified internal combustion engine that allows the vehicles to run on 100% hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen gives a more thorough fuel burn which results in more power and responsiveness and less pollution. The resultant emissions from the tailpipe are 2010 Phase II compliant with NO after treatment. The City will lease two of these E-450 H2ICE buses from Ford for two years. The buses are outfitted with additional equipment used to gather information needed for the evaluation. Performance, reliability, safety, efficiency, and rider comments data will be collected. The method of data collection will be both electronically and manually. Emissions readings were not obtained during the project. The City planned to measure the vehicle exhaust with an emissions analyzer machine but discovered the bus emission levels were below the capability of their machine. Passenger comments were solicited on the survey cards. The majority of comments were favorable. The controllable issues encountered during this demonstration project were mainly due to the size of the hydrogen fuel tanks at the site and the amount of fuel that could be dispensed during a specified period of time. The uncontrollable issues encountered during this

  20. Alternative Fuels for Military Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    renewable oils in a sustainable manner in the United States have motivated interest in advanced, but longer-term, approaches using microalgae that...algae-derived fuels prior to establishing their commercial viability. Industrial Preparedness 79 The science is sound for using selected microalgae ...biofuels via microalgae to succeed, Nexant expects that significant genetic breakthroughs will be needed, and high volume fuel production will need

  1. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  2. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 7, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-11-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on recent additions to the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Station Locator database, biodiesel buying co-ops, and developing the CNG infrastructure in Bangladesh. Also a memo from CIVITAS 2003.

  3. Possibility of using alternate fuels in Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Zombori, J.

    1982-12-01

    In Hungary investigations are aimed at the use of fuel mixtures having a moderate ration of alternate fuels in them. For the last two years engine tests have been carried out with the mixture of diesel oil and sunflower oil, and that of diesel oil and ethanol and they show positive results.

  4. First international alternative fueled vehicle round-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The state of Kansas hosted the First International Alternative Fueled Vehicle Round-Up June 8-9, 1992. This event was conceived and initiated in the Alternative Fuels Program of the Energy Section of the Kansas Corporation Commission (KCC). The objective was to emphasize and publicize the need for and the current viability of alternative fuels to the general public, fleet operators, environmentalists, utility operators, government officials, school systems, transportation providers and others interested in moving toward the usage of cost effective clean-burning domestic fuels. When judging this original objective by the parameters of the participation of industry, media coverage, attendance at the event, satisfaction of the participants and exhibitors, feedback from the public and new activity generated by the high exposure, the Round-Up can be declared and outstanding success which exceeded the hopes and designs originally sought.

  5. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    SciTech Connect

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  6. Turbine fuel alternatives (near term). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrara, A.M.

    1989-10-01

    This report discusses the results of a study which investigated several alternatives for turbine fuels, which are being considered for use in the near term, with the intent of identifying the necessary certification criteria. The fuels investigated include Jet-A/ethanol blends, Jet-A/methanol blends, JP-4/ethanol blends, and neat ethanol. The tests were conducted using a T-63 turboshaft engine, which was mounted on the Technical Center's dynamometer. The use of dual fuel systems was also considered. A short series of flight tests was conducted with a T-34, Mentor aircraft. These tests were used to identify the operating conditions which might result in elevated fuel temperature.

  7. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  8. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft. [liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene were assessed as alternate fuels for aircraft in terms of cost, capital requirements, and energy resource utilization. Fuel transmission and airport storage and distribution facilities are considered. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed and detailed descriptions of various fuel production and liquefaction processes are given. Technological deficiencies are identified.

  9. Technical analysis of alternative fueled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The current status of alternative fueled vehicles, such as methanol fueled, compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, and electric vehicles, that have feasibility to take the place of oil fueled ones is analyzed from the viewpoints of environmental pollution control, energy resources conservation, and economic performances. As for environmental pollution control, these three vehicles are compared by such items as nitrogen oxides, photochemical reactivity, adaptability to future regulations, earth warming substances, and toxicity. As for practical applicability, the following items are compared: power density (torque, power, acceleration performance), energy density, range, energy consumption, vehicle initial costs, energy costs, freight transportation energy costs (yen/ton/km), and energy supply suitability. Conclusions include: methanol vehicles have the problem of fueling stations to be arranged; since CNG vehicles are considered to be loaded with CNG fuel tanks on the top of vehicles, safety must be ensured; electric vehicles still have many problems in spite of their many advantages.

  10. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information on transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, and the vehicles that use these fuels. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides this information to support the U.S. Department of Energy`s reporting obligations under Section 503 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The principal information contained in this report includes historical and year-ahead estimates of the following: (1) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles (AFV`s) in use; (2) the consumption of alternative transportation fuels and {open_quotes}replacement fuels{close_quotes}; and (3) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles made available in the current and following years. In addition, the report contains some material on special topics. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology used to develop the estimates (Appendix A), a map defining geographic regions used, and a list of AFV suppliers.

  11. Diesel injector carbonization by three alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Patel, V.C.; McClendon, R.W.

    1996-05-01

    Three alternative diesel fuels were screened by analysis of fuel injector tip deposits. The test engines were operated on the Peterson (torque) test cycle; the average carbon deposit volume on an injector tip was measured by a computer vision method. Relative coke deposit quantity was obtained by area analysis of injector tip images. Repetitive image areas varied less than 1%. Coke deposit areas for repetitive fuel tests also varied less than 1%. Injector coking tendencies of tested fuels decreased in the following order: peanut oil, no. 2 diesel, tricaprylin, and tributyrin/no. 2 diesel blend. The observed dependence of the relative coke quantity on fuel type was consistent with the results from a photographic technique used previously for fuel screening. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transporation Program - State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets: Frequently Asked Questions

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    Factsheet answering frequently asked questions about the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (the Program) that implements provisions of Titles III–V of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). Answers to questions that are frequently asked about the Program by managers of state government and alternative fuel provider fleets are provided in the factsheet.

  13. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any fleet...

  14. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any fleet...

  15. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any fleet...

  16. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any fleet...

  17. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. 490.506 Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any fleet...

  18. Impacts of alternative fuels on air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.H.; Dellinger, B.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the impact of alternative fuels on air quality, particularly ozone formation. The alternative fuels of interest are methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, and natural gas. During the first year of study, researchers obtained qualitative data on the thermal degradation products from the fuel-lean (oxidative), stoichiometric, and fuel-rich (pyrolytic) decomposition of methanol and ethanol. The thermal degradation of ethanol produced a substantially larger number of intermediate organic by-products than the similar thermal degradation of methanol, and the organic intermediate by-products lacked stability. Also, a qualitative comparison of the UDRI flow reactor data with previous engine test showed that, for methanol, formaldehyde and acetone were the organic by-products observed in both types of tests; for ethanol, only very limited data were located.

  19. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Anna E.; Saxena, Nikita T.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize alternative fueling for military and commercial use, the industry has set forth guidelines that must be met by each fuel. These aviation fueling requirements are outlined in MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 Annex (2011) standards, and are classified as "drop-in" fuel replacements. This report provides combustor performance data for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100, relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Data were taken at various nominal inlet conditions: 75 psia (0.52 MPa) at 500 degF (533 K), 125 psia (0.86 MPa) at 625 degF (603 K), 175 psia (1.21 MPa) at 725 degF (658 K), and 225 psia (1.55 MPa) at 790 degF (694 K). Combustor performance analysis assessments were made for the change in flame temperatures, combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, and exhaust plane temperatures at 3, 4, and 5 percent combustor pressure drop (DP) for fuel:air ratios (F/A) ranging from 0.010 to 0.025. Significant general trends show lower liner temperatures and higher flame and combustor outlet temperatures with increases in FT fueling relative to JP-8+100 fueling. The latter affects both turbine efficiency and blade and vane lives.

  20. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Anna E.; Saxena, Nikita T.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize alternative fueling for military and commercial use, the industry has set forth guidelines that must be met by each fuel. These aviation fueling requirements are outlined in MILDTL- 83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 Annex (2011) standards, and are classified as drop-in fuel replacements. This paper provides combustor performance data for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fisher-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100, relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Data were taken at various nominal inlet conditions: 75 psia (0.52 MPa) at 500 F (533 K), 125 psia (0.86 MPa) at 625 F (603 K), 175 psia (1.21 MPa) at 725 F (658 K), and 225 psia (1.55 MPa) at 790 F (694 K). Combustor performance analysis assessments were made for the change in flame temperatures, combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, and exhaust plane temperatures at 3%, 4%, and 5% combustor pressure drop (% delta P) for fuel: air ratios (F/A) ranging from 0.010 to 0.025. Significant general trends show lower liner temperatures and higher flame and combustor outlet temperatures with increases in FT fueling relative to JP-8+100 fueling. The latter affects both turbine efficiency and blade/vane life.

  1. Review of alternative fuels data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harsha, P. T.; Edelman, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the interaction of fuel physical and chemical properties with combustion characteristics and indicators, a ranking of the importance of various fuel properties with respect to the combustion process was established. This ranking was used to define a suite of specific experiments whose objective is the development of an alternative fuels design data base. Combustion characteristics and indicators examined include droplet and spray formation, droplet vaporization and burning, ignition and flame stabilization, flame temperature, laminar flame speed, combustion completion, soot emissions, NOx and SOx emissions, and the fuels' thermal and oxidative stability and fouling and corrosion characteristics. Key fuel property data is found to include composition, thermochemical data, chemical kinetic rate information, and certain physical properties.

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  3. Alternative transport fuels from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, R. Jr.; Bailey, D.G.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and synthetic gasoline and diesel. The analysis includes various scenarios to establish break-even these competing fuels under different assumptions. The study concludes that slow-fill (also known as trickle-fill) CNG is the most economic of the natural gas based fuels. The vehicles most suited for the economic use of these fuels are captive vehicle fleets with relatively high mileage and a restricted range of operation, such as buses and taxis. However, to make the transition economically viable, oil prices would have to increase significantly from their present level and remain there long enough to make the investment in the transition worth while. At present levels of crude oil prices (about US $18 per barrel), little opportunity exists for the economic substitution of natural gas based fuels for gasoline and diesel. These conclusions are based on the economic factors considered. Environmental factors, which are both difficult to measure and of increasing importance, could, however, mitigate these results.

  4. ECAS Phase I fuel cell results. [Energy Conservation Alternatives Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses the fuel cell system results of Phase I of the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). Ten advanced electric powerplant systems for central-station baseload generation using coal were studied by NASA in ECAS. Three types of low-temperature fuel cells (solid polymer electrolyte, SPE, aqueous alkaline, and phosphoric acid) and two types of high-temperature fuel cells (molten carbonate, MC, and zirconia solid electrolyte, SE) were studied. The results indicate that (1) overall efficiency increases with fuel cell temperature, and (2) scale-up in powerplant size can produce a significant reduction in cost of electricity (COE) only when it is accompanied by utilization of waste fuel cell heat through a steam bottoming cycle and/or integration with a gasifier. For low-temperature fuel cell systems, the use of hydrogen results in the highest efficiency and lowest COE. In spite of higher efficiencies, because of higher fuel cell replacement costs integrated SE systems have higher projected COEs than do integrated MC systems. Present data indicate that life can be projected to over 30,000 hr for MC fuel cells, but data are not yet sufficient for similarly projecting SE fuel cell life expectancy.

  5. Available Alternative Fuel School Bus Products--2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of the currently available (and soon to be available) model year 2004 alternative fuel school bus and school bus engine products. It includes information from Blue Bird Corporation, Collins Bus Corporation, Corbeil Bus, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Thomas Built Buses, Inc., Clean Air Partners, Cummins Westport, and Deere & Company.

  6. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  7. Fuel cell power system for utility vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M.; Barbir, F.; Marken, F.; Nadal, M.

    1996-12-31

    Based on the experience of designing and building the Green Car, a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, and Genesis, a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell powered transporter, Energy Partners has developed a fuel cell power system for propulsion of an off-road utility vehicle. A 10 kW hydrogen/air fuel cell stack has been developed as a prototype for future mass production. The main features of this stack are discussed in this paper. Design considerations and selection criteria for the main components of the vehicular fuel cell system, such as traction motor, air compressor and compressor motor, hydrogen storage and delivery, water and heat management, power conditioning, and control and monitoring subsystem are discussed in detail.

  8. Cutting fuel costs: alternatives for commercial fishermen

    SciTech Connect

    Hollin, D.; Windh, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    The shrimp industry, in conjunction with the National Marine Fisheries Service, initiated three energy-related studies in 1981 to help shrimpers adjust to high fuel costs. One project, a joint effort of the Mississippi/Alabama Sea Grant Consortium and the Gulf and South Atlantic Fisheries Development Foundation, studied fuel use by shrimp vessels. Meant to provide information that could help suggest alternatives to decrease fuel consumption, the project looked at total fuel consumption; running, fishing and searching times; duration of average drag; and catch rate. A second project, conducted by the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, looked at fishing vessel fuel use in the U.S. fleet compared to the state of the art of fuel efficiency. The third study, funded through the National Shrimp Congress, was to gather energy conservation information that might help fishermen make decisions about ways to conserve fuel on both a short-term and long-term basis. This report is a summary of the findings of that study.

  9. Alternate aircraft fuels: Prospects and operational implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential use of coal-derived aviation fuels was assessed. The studies addressed the prices and thermal efficiencies associated with the production of coal-derived aviation kerosene, liquid methane and liquid hydrogen and the air terminal requirements and subsonic transport performance when utilizing liquid hydrogen. The fuel production studies indicated that liquid methane can be produced at a lower price and with a higher thermal efficiency than aviation kerosene or liquid hydrogen. Ground facilities of liquefaction, storage, distribution and refueling of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft at airports appear technically feasibile. The aircraft studies indicate modest onboard energy savings for hydrogen compared to conventional fuels. Liquid hydrogen was found to be superior to both aviation kerosene and liquid methane from the standpoint of aircraft engine emissions.

  10. Subtask 2.6 - Assessment of Alternative Fuels on CO2 Production

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Darren Naasz

    2009-06-16

    Many coal-based electric generating units use alternative fuels, and this effort assessed the impact of alternative fuels on CO{sub 2} production and other emissions and also assessed the potential impact of changes in emission regulations under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for facilities utilizing alternative fuels that may be categorized as wastes. Information was assembled from publicly available U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information Administration databases that included alternative fuel use for 2004 and 2005. Alternative fuel types were categorized along with information on usage by coal-based electric, number of facilities utilizing each fuel type, and the heating value of solid, liquid, and gaseous alternative fuels. The sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with alternative fuels and primary fuels were also evaluated. Carbon dioxide emissions are also associated with the transport of all fuels. A calculation of carbon dioxide emissions associated with the transport of biomass-based fuels that are typically accessed on a regional basis was made. A review of CAA emission regulations for coal-based electric generating facilities from Section 112 (1) and Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators was performed with consideration for a potential regulatory change from Section 112 (1) regulation to Section 129 (2). Increased emission controls would be expected to be required if coal-based electric generating facilities using alternative fuels would be recategorized under CAA Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators, and if this change were made, it is anticipated that coal-fired electric generating facilities might reduce the use of alternative fuels. Conclusions included information on the use profile for alternative fuels and the impacts to emissions as well as the impact of potential application of emission regulations for solid waste incinerators to electric generating facilities using alternative fuels.

  11. DoD use of Domestically-Produced Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-10

    fuels and vehicles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS alternative fuel infrastructure, electric vehicles , biofuels, ethanol, biodiesel, drop-in, synthetic fuel...The remaining sites will be completed by the end of CY 2014. • In FY 2013, the Navy purchased 107 low-speed electric vehicles (LSEVs) to replace...Exportable to Multiple DoD and Other Federal Installations Electric Vehicles (EVs)  Tactical vehicles are exempt from Federal mandates to increase

  12. Alternative Regulation for North American Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Mark Newton; Kaufmann, Lawrence

    2006-06-15

    After a decade of favorable operating conditions, utilities find themselves faced with accelerating prices for key inputs and a growing need for new capacity. These pressures are likely to prompt increasingly frequent, and perhaps more contentious, rate cases. Steady progress in the development of alternative regulation provides hope that the utility industry will respond to these challenges much better than in 1975-85. (author)

  13. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables.

  14. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  15. FY2015 Annual Report for Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Sjöberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and the need to secure energy supplies are two reasons for a growing interest in engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This project contributes to the science-base needed by industry to develop highly efficient DISI engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Our emphasis is on lean operation, which can provide higher efficiencies than traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation. Since lean operation can lead to issues with ignition stability, slow flame propagation and low combustion efficiency, we focus on techniques that can overcome these challenges. Specifically, fuel stratification is used to ensure ignition and completeness of combustion but has soot- and NOx- emissions challenges. For ultralean well-mixed operation, turbulent deflagration can be combined with controlled end-gas auto-ignition to render mixed-mode combustion that facilitates high combustion efficiency. However, the response of both combustion and exhaust emissions to these techniques depends on the fuel properties. Therefore, to achieve optimal fuel-economy gains, the engine combustion-control strategies must be adapted to the fuel being utilized.

  16. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  17. Annual Report FY2014 Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2015-01-01

    Due to concerns about future petroleum supply and accelerating climate change, increased engine efficiency and alternative fuels are of interest. This project contributes to the science-base needed by industry to develop highly efficient DISI engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Lean operation is studied since it can provide higher efficiencies than traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation. Since lean operation can lead to issues with ignition stability, slow flame propagation and low combustion efficiency, focus is on techniques that can overcome these challenges. Specifically, fuel stratification can be used to ensure ignition and completeness of combustion, but may lead to soot and NOx emissions challenges. Advanced ignition system and intake air preheating both promote ignition stability. Controlled end-gas autoignition can be used maintain high combustion efficiency for ultra-lean well-mixed conditions. However, the response of both combustion and exhaust emission to these techniques depends on the fuel properties. Therefore, to achieve optimal fuel-economy gains, the combustion-control strategies of the engine must adopt to the fuel being utilized.

  18. Fuel cells for electric utility and transportation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, S.

    1980-04-01

    The status of fuel cell development is reviewed. For terrestrial electric utility applications, the most promising are phosphoric acid, molten carbonate and solid electrolyte fuel cells. The first will be coupled with a reformer (to convert natural gas, petroleum derived and biomass fuels to hydrogen) while the second and third with a coal gasifier. As ground transportation power sources, the promising systems are phosphoric (or alternate acid) and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells. In the first case, methanol is most attractive while in the second, it will be hydrogen stored as a compressed gas or as a hydride. A technoeconomic assessment of a 'Regenerative Hydrogen-Halogen Energy Storage System' demonstrates the prospects of its use for load leveling when coupled with nuclear, solar or wind power plants.

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  20. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  1. Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Park, O.; Veloo, Peter S.; Liu, N.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of laminar flame speeds, as well as extinction and ignition limits of premixed flames. The experiments were modeled using the USC Mech II kinetic model. It was determined that when hydrocarbons are added to hydrogen flames as additives, flame ignition, propagation, and extinction are affected in a counterintuitive manner. More specifically, it was found that by substituting methane by propane or n-butane in hydrogen flames, the reactivity of the mixture is reduced both under pre-ignition and vigorous burning conditions. This behavior stems from the fact that propane and n-butane produce higher amounts of methyl radicals that can readily recombine with atomic hydrogen and reduce thus the rate of the H + O{sub 2} → O + OH branching reaction. The kinetic model predicts closely the experimental data for flame propagation and extinction for various fuel mixtures and pressures, and for various amounts of carbon dioxide in the fuel blend. On the other hand, it underpredicts, in general, the ignition temperatures.

  2. Air quality effects of alternative fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, P.; Ligocki, M.; Looker, R.; Cohen, J.

    1997-11-01

    To support the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, a comparison of potential air quality effects of alternative transportation fuels is being performed. This report presents the results of Phase 1 of this program, focusing on reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol blended with 15 percent gasoline (M85), and compressed natural gas (CNG). The fuels are compared in terms of effects on simulated future concentrations of ozone and mobile source air toxics in a photochemical grid model. The fuel comparisons were carried out for the future year 2020 and assumed complete replacement of gasoline in the projected light-duty gasoline fleet by each of the candidate fuels. The model simulations were carried out for the areas surrounding Los Angeles and Baltimore/DC, and other (non-mobile) sources of atmospheric emissions were projected according to published estimates of economic and population growth, and planned emission control measures specific to each modeling domain. The future-year results are compared to a future-year run with all gasoline vehicle emissions removed. The results of the comparison indicate that the use of M85 is likely to produce similar ozone and air toxics levels as those projected from the use of RFG. Substitution of CNG is projected to produce significantly lower levels of ozone and the mobile source air toxics than those projected for RFG or M85. The relative benefits of CNG substitution are consistent in both modeling domains. The projection methodologies used for the comparison are subject to a large uncertainty, and modeled concentration distributions depend on meteorological conditions. The quantitative comparison of fuel effects is thus likely to be sensitive to alternative assumptions. The consistency of the results for two very different modeling domains, using very different base assumptions, lends credibility to the qualitative differentiation among these fuels. 32 refs., 42 figs., 47 tabs.

  3. Alternate-Fuel Vehicles and Their Application in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Chip

    1991-01-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming increasingly attractive from environmental, energy independence, and economic perspectives. Addresses the following topics: (1) federal and state legislation; (2) alternative fuels and their attributes; (3) practical experience with alternative-fuel vehicles in pupil transportation; and (4) options for school…

  4. Proceedings of the 1996 Windsor workshop on alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document contains information which was presented at the 1996 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels. Topics include: international links; industry topics and infrastructure issues; propane; engine developments; the cleanliness of alternative fuels; heavy duty alternative fuel engines; California zev commercialization efforts; and in-use experience.

  5. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply. 503.21 Section 503.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Temporary Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.21 Lack of alternate fuel supply. (a) Eligibility. Section 211(a)(1) of the Act provides for...

  6. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply. 503.21 Section 503.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Temporary Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.21 Lack of alternate fuel supply. (a) Eligibility. Section 211(a)(1) of the Act provides for...

  7. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply. 503.21 Section 503.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Temporary Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.21 Lack of alternate fuel supply. (a) Eligibility. Section 211(a)(1) of the Act provides for...

  8. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply. 503.21 Section 503.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Temporary Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.21 Lack of alternate fuel supply. (a) Eligibility. Section 211(a)(1) of the Act provides for...

  9. 18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section 281.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination § 281.304 Computation of alternative fuel volume. (a) General rule. For purposes of §...

  10. 18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section 281.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination § 281.304 Computation of alternative fuel volume. (a) General rule. For purposes of §...

  11. 18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section 281.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination § 281.304 Computation of alternative fuel volume. (a) General rule. For purposes of §...

  12. Alternate-Fuel Vehicles and Their Application in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Chip

    1991-01-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming increasingly attractive from environmental, energy independence, and economic perspectives. Addresses the following topics: (1) federal and state legislation; (2) alternative fuels and their attributes; (3) practical experience with alternative-fuel vehicles in pupil transportation; and (4) options for school…

  13. 18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section 281.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination § 281.304 Computation of alternative fuel volume. (a) General rule. For purposes of §...

  14. 18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section 281.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination § 281.304 Computation of alternative fuel volume. (a) General rule. For purposes of §...

  15. Developments in U.S. Alternative Fuel Markets

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The alternative fueled vehicle (AFV)/alternative fuels industry experienced a number of market-related changes in the second half of the 1990s. This article describes each of the alternative transportation fuels and the AFVs in detail. It provides information on the development to date and looks at trends likely to occur in the future.

  16. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    .... These systems allow gasoline or diesel vehicles to operate on alternative fuels such as natural gas... alternative fuel conversion systems may demonstrate compliance with vehicle and engine emissions requirements... alternative fuel conversion systems against a tampering violation, depending on the age of the vehicle or...

  17. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  18. 1991 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Owing to the success of last year's venture, EMR's Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET), the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ontario Ministry of Energy teamed together again to sponsor the eighth Windsor Workshop on Alternative Transportation Fuels. We would like to congratulate ORTECH International on their fine job in coordinating this event. As in earlier years, the 1991 workshop maintained its traditional shirt sleeve approach'' to encourage the informal exchange of information among its participants, which include engine and vehicle manufacturers, fuel suppliers, public and private research organizations, and academic and regulatory bodies. In keeping with this theme, many of the papers presented in these proceedings are not in text form. A number of key questions and answers are appended to each paper, which should serve as a reminder of some of their more salient points.

  19. 1991 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Owing to the success of last year`s venture, EMR`s Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET), the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ontario Ministry of Energy teamed together again to sponsor the eighth Windsor Workshop on Alternative Transportation Fuels. We would like to congratulate ORTECH International on their fine job in coordinating this event. As in earlier years, the 1991 workshop maintained its traditional ``shirt sleeve approach`` to encourage the informal exchange of information among its participants, which include engine and vehicle manufacturers, fuel suppliers, public and private research organizations, and academic and regulatory bodies. In keeping with this theme, many of the papers presented in these proceedings are not in text form. A number of key questions and answers are appended to each paper, which should serve as a reminder of some of their more salient points.

  20. Biodegradability of new engineered fuels compared to conventional petroleum fuels and alternative fuels in current use.

    PubMed

    Speidel, H K; Lightner, R L; Ahmed, I

    2000-01-01

    Concern with environmental issues such as global climate change has stimulated research into the development of more environmentally friendly technologies and energy sources. One critical area of our economy is liquid transportation fuels. This article presents the results of the biodegradability potential of newly developed engineered fuels and compares the results to the biodegradability of conventional fuels and alternative fuels in current use. Biodegradability potential was determined under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Fuels that have a high degree of components derived from renewable sources proved to have a higher degradability potential than those composed of petroleum components.

  1. [Alternative type of fuel--biobutanol].

    PubMed

    Tigunova, E A; Shul'ga, S M; Blium, Ia B

    2013-01-01

    Butanol--an alternative fuel that on amid dwindling global (accessible) oil reserves can serve as a source of energy. In the industrial-scale butanol is produced by chemical synthesis, although initially butanol production was due to microbiological synthesis. For cost-efficient production, a strain of microorganisms must have over production of butanol. In the review of butanol synthesis pathway with the help of microorganisms, their regulation, the principles and techniques of increasing the productivity of the most promising strains and producer strains for industrial production.

  2. Fuel utilization in a progressive conversion reactor (PCR)

    SciTech Connect

    Leyse, C.F.; Judd, J.L.

    1981-05-01

    Preliminary studies indicate that for once-through fuel cycles, the PCR offers potential improvements over current LWRs in the following major areas: improved uranium utilization (reduced uranium demand), degraded plutonium product in spent fuel, reduced plutonium content of spent fuel, reduced amount of spent fuel, reduced fissile content of spent fuel, and reduced separative work.

  3. Holt Alternate Farm Fuels demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J.H. Jr.

    1981-09-30

    The main objective of this project is the establishment of alcohol fuel production capacity. The developmental aspects of this project include extensive research of alcohol fuel production techniques. This research consists of review of literature, fact finding contacts, alternate fuel seminars and site visits. Based on the research it was decided that a distillation system with a capacity of 25 gallons per hour was feasible and needed. Resource development has resulted in the fabrication of a 12 inch distillation column, vaporizer, primary cooker/fermenter, primary heat source and a demonstration cooker/fermenter /distillation unit. The resources developed were designed to meet the 25 gph requirement. The alteration and reconditioning of pumps, storage tanks and power units as well as site preparation are also development aspects of this project. The demonstration cooker/fermenter/distillation unit is manually operated to aid research, instruction and demonstration of alcohol production. This will help create and promote interest in the Harwood Community Coop. The establishment of this Coop is a key to the future and growth of this program. 19 refs.

  4. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: Success Story (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    This success story highlights the EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program's series of workshops that bring fleets regulated under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) together with Clean Cities stakeholders and fuel providers to form and strengthen regional partnerships and initiate projects that will deploy more alternative fuel infrastructure.

  5. Brown Fat Fuel Utilization and Thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Kristy L.; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat to maintain optimal thermogenesis and to contribute to energy expenditure, in rodents and possibly humans. The energetic processes executed by BAT require a readily available fuel supply, which includes glucose and fatty acids (FAs). FAs become available by cellular uptake, de novo lipogenesis, and from multilocular lipid droplets in brown adipocytes. BAT also possesses a great capacity for glucose uptake and metabolism, and an ability to regulate insulin sensitivity. These properties make BAT an appealing target for the treatment of obesity, diabetes and other metabolic disorders. Recent research has revealed a better understanding of the processes of fuel utilization carried out by brown adipocytes, which is the focus of the current review. PMID:24389130

  6. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vol. 5, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-11-01

    A quarterly magazine with articles on alternative fuel school buses, the market growth of biodiesel fuel, National AFV Day 2002, model year 2002 alternative fuel passenger cars and light trucks, the Michelin Challenge Bibendum road rally, and advanced technology vehicles at Robins Air Force Base, the Top Ten Clean Cities coalitions for 2000, and AFVs on college campuses.

  7. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

  8. Investigation of the technology development status of alternate fuel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The main purpose of the introduction of alternate fuel vehicles is to contribute to the reduction of pollution, the alternate energy for petroleum, and the energy savings. This report describes the development status of methanol, natural gas, and electric vehicles, which have high potential as alternate fuel vehicles. Characteristics of alternate fuel vehicles are compared by using the same factors on the basis of technological data. Outlines of individual alternate fuel vehicles are illustrated. Then, practicabilities of the alternate fuel vehicles are compared with each other, as for the output and energy densities, maximum output and torque of motors, power performance, specific consumption of energy, driving distance, initial cost, running cost and life cycle cost, convenience of fuel and energy supply, low pollution, and health effects.

  9. Study of the combustion of various alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Barfield, B.F.; Acker, G.J. Jr.; Lindsay, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    This research project used two methods for studying the problems facing alternate fuels. The first method studied the use of chemicals to improve fuel characteristics without changing the basic engine design. The second method was to make engine modifications to suit characteristics of the alternate fuel. The result of the two methods studied is a two-part report. Alcohols, solvent-refined coal (SRC-II), vegetable oils, and mixtures of these with diesel fuels and with each other are the alternative fuels discussed and tested. 21 references, 4 figures, 10 tables.

  10. California experiment continues: Challenges to alternative motor fuels growth

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration is predicting that by 2010, alternative fueled vehicles will comprise more than 11% of total U.S. new light vehicle sales, up from a predicted 2.3% in 1995. While the current U.S. administration enthusiastically supports alternative fuels, field experience suggests that nascent alternative fuel engine technologies have some way to go before they can achieve widespread acceptance.

  11. Analysis of alternative-fuel price trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-31

    Findings are presented from a study to (1) acquire, analyze, and report alternative published price projections including both oil- and coal-price trajectories, and to (2) apply the fixed-annuity formula to the updated primary source projections (Energy Information Administration; Data Resources, Inc.; and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates, Inc.) and to the newly acquired price projections. This report also encompasses: comparisons of key assumptions underlying the price projections, and a discussion of the applicability of the fixed-annuity formula as used in the alternative-cost calculation. Section II contains graphic presentations of all updated and newly acquired coal and oil price forecasts and the corresponding calculated annuity equivalents, tabulated presentations and discussions of each forecast and underlying assumptions, and a description of how each forecast price series was transformed into input for the present-value formulas. Section III presents the fixed-annuity formula employed and discusses its appropriateness for this application. Section IV discusses the applicability of the net present value approach for comparing alternate-fuel price trajectories. Appendix A contains a listing of contacts as potential sources of price forecasts. Appendix B contains the raw forecast data from each forecast source and the coal and oil price series derived from the raw data which were actually input into the cost calculation procedure. Appendix C contains a description and listing of the computer program developed to implement the cost calculation procedure. Finally, Appendix D contains tabulations and discussions of other alternative world crude price forecasts that were identified, but for which no corresponding coal-price projections were available. (MCW)

  12. Correlation between physical properties and autoignition parameters of alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Henein, N.A.; Fragoulis, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    The correlations between the physical properties and autoignition parameters of several alternate fuels have been examined. The fuels are DF-2 and its blends with petroleum derived fuels, shale derived fuels, high aromatic naphtha sun-flower oils, methanol and ethanol. A total of eighteen existing correlations are discussed. An emphasis is made on the suitability of each of the correlations for the development of electronic controls for diesel engines when run on alternate fuels. A new correlation has been developed between the cetane number of the fuels and its kinematic viscosity and specific gravity.

  13. Waste Vegetable Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    the technology is many years from maturity and a full working system is even further away. Prototype electric vehicles from General Motors , Smart...diesel fuel or alternative fuel if the fuel is used in an on- road motor vehicle (Defense Energy Support Center, 2008). The only exemption is for...inside the fuel tanker trucks and on base storage tanks is the property of DESC. The Air Force owns the fuel when it is pumped into an airplane, motor

  14. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Factors which will determine the future supply and cost of aviation turbine fuels are discussed. The most significant fuel properties of volatility, fluidity, composition, and thermal stability are discussed along with the boiling ranges of gasoline, naphtha jet fuels, kerosene, and diesel oil. Tests were made to simulate the low temperature of an aircraft fuel tank to determine fuel tank temperatures for a 9100-km flight with and without fuel heating; the effect of N content in oil-shale derived fuels on the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester breakpoint temperature was measured. Finally, compatibility of non-metallic gaskets, sealants, and coatings with increased aromatic content jet fuels was examined.

  15. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-12-01

    A DOE/PETC funded study was conducted to examine the use of a liquid phase mixed alcohol synthesis (LPMAS) plant to produce gasoline blending ethers. The LPMAS plant was integrated into three utilization scenarios: a coal fed IGCC power plant, a petroleum refinery using coke as a gasification feedstock, and a standalone natural gas fed partial oxidation plant. The objective of the study was to establish targets for the development of catalysts for the LPMAS reaction. In the IGCC scenario, syngas conversions need only be moderate because unconverted syngas is utilized by the combined cycle system. A once through LPMAS plant achieving syngas conversions in the range of 38--49% was found to be suitable. At a gas hourly space velocity of 5,000 sL/Kg-hr and a methanol:isobutanol selectivity ratio of 1.03, the target catalyst productivity ranges from 370 to 460 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the petroleum refinery scenario, high conversions ({approximately}95%) are required to avoid overloading the refinery fuel system with low Btu content unconverted syngas. To achieve these high conversions with the low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas, a recycle system was required (because of the limit imposed by methanol equilibrium), steam was injected into the LPMAS reactor, and CO{sub 2} was removed from the recycle loop. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 265 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the standalone LPMAS scenario, essentially complete conversions are required to achieve a fuel balanced plant. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 285 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. The economics of this scenario are highly dependent on the cost of the natural gas feedstock and the location of the plant. For all three case scenarios, the economics of a LPMAS plant is marginal at current ether market prices. Large improvements over demonstrated catalyst productivity and alcohol selectivity are required.

  16. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  17. Alternate-fueled transport aircraft possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    The paper is organized to describe: (1) NASA's cryogenically fueled aircraft program; (2) LH2 subsonic and supersonic transport design possibilities (3) the fuel system and ground side problems associated with LH2 distribution; (4) a comparison of LCH4 with LH2; (5) the design possibilities for LCH4 fueled aircraft; and (6) a summary of where NASA's cryogenically fueled programs are headed.

  18. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  19. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AP17 Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for... alternative test method for olefin content in gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility to the... environmental benefits achieved from our fuels programs. ] DATES: This rule is effective November 21,...

  20. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    properties of experimental membranes, 9) fabrication and FC performance testing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) from experimental membranes, and 10) measurement of ex situ and in situ membrane durability of experimental membranes. Although none of the experimental hydrocarbon membranes that issued from the project displayed proton conductivities that met DOE requirements, the project contributed to our basic understanding of membrane structure-property relationships in a number of key respects. An important finding of the benchmark studies is that physical degradation associated with humidity and temperature variations in the FC tend to open new fuel crossover pathways and act synergistically with chemical degradation to accelerate overall membrane degradation. Thus, for long term membrane survival and efficient fuel utilization, membranes must withstand internal stresses due to humidity and temperature changes. In this respect, rigid aromatic hydrocarbon fuel cell membranes, e.g. PAES, offer an advantage over un-modified Nafion membranes. The benchmark studies also showed that broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool in assessing shifts in the fundamental macromolecular dynamics caused by Nafion chemical degradation, and thus, this technique is of relevance in interrogating proton exchange membrane durability in fuel cells and macromolecular dynamics as coupled to proton migration, which is of fundamental relevance in proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. A key finding from the hydrocarbon membrane synthesis effort was that rigid aromatic polymers containing isolated ion exchange groups tethered tightly to the backbone (short tether), such as HPPS, provide excellent mechanical and durability properties but do not provide sufficient conductivity, in either random or block configuration, when used as the sole ion exchange monomer. However, we continue to hypothesize that longer tethers, and tethered groups spaced more closely within the

  1. Preliminary studies of combustor sensitivity to alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humenik, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    Combustion problems associated with using alternative fuels ground power and aeropropulsion applications were studied. Rectangular sections designed to simulate large annular combustor test conditions were examined. The effects of using alternative fuels with reduced hydrogen content, increased aromatic content, and a broad variation in fuel property characteristics were also studied. Data of special interest were collected which include: flame radiation characteristics in the various combustor zones; the correponding increase in liner temperature from increased radiant heat flux; the effect of fuel bound nitrogen on oxides of nitrogen (NO sub x) emissions; and the overall total effect of fuel variations on exhaust emissions.

  2. Gas detection for alternate-fuel vehicle facilities.

    PubMed

    Ferree, Steve

    2003-05-01

    Alternative fuel vehicles' safety is driven by local, state, and federal regulations in which fleet owners in key metropolitan [table: see text] areas convert much of their fleet to cleaner-burning fuels. Various alternative fuels are available to meet this requirement, each with its own advantages and requirements. This conversion to alternative fuels leads to special requirements for safety monitoring in the maintenance facilities and refueling stations. A comprehensive gas and flame monitoring system needs to meet the needs of both the user and the local fire marshal.

  3. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... substantially exceed the cost of using imported petroleum as a primary energy source as defined in § 503.6 (Cost... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply. 503.21 Section 503.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Temporary Exemptions for...

  4. Commercial Training Issues: Heavy Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Douglas

    The needs and opportunities in the heavy-duty alternative fuel vehicle training arena were examined in an informal ethnographic study of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the instructional materials currently being used in such training. Interviews were conducted with eight instructors from the National Alternative Fuels Training Program…

  5. Commercial Training Issues: Heavy Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Douglas

    The needs and opportunities in the heavy-duty alternative fuel vehicle training arena were examined in an informal ethnographic study of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the instructional materials currently being used in such training. Interviews were conducted with eight instructors from the National Alternative Fuels Training Program…

  6. Simulating the Use of Alternative Fuels in a Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Chin, Jeffrey Chevoor; Liu, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The interest in alternative fuels for aviation has created a need to evaluate their effect on engine performance. The use of dynamic turbofan engine simulations enables the comparative modeling of the performance of these fuels on a realistic test bed in terms of dynamic response and control compared to traditional fuels. The analysis of overall engine performance and response characteristics can lead to a determination of the practicality of using specific alternative fuels in commercial aircraft. This paper describes a procedure to model the use of alternative fuels in a large commercial turbofan engine, and quantifies their effects on engine and vehicle performance. In addition, the modeling effort notionally demonstrates that engine performance may be maintained by modifying engine control system software parameters to account for the alternative fuel.

  7. Impact of fuel fabrication and fuel management technologies on uranium utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberger, P.L.; Stucker, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Uranium utilization in commercial pressurized water reactors is a complex function of original NSSS design, utility energy requirements, fuel assembly design, fuel fabrication materials and fuel management optimization. Fuel design and fabrication technologies have reacted to the resulting market forcing functions with a combination of design and material changes. The technologies employed have included ever-increasing fuel discharge burnup, non-parasitic structural materials, burnable absorbers, and fissile material core zoning schemes (both in the axial and radial direction). The result of these technological advances has improved uranium utilization by roughly sixty percent from the infancy days of nuclear power to present fuel management. Fuel management optimization technologies have also been developed in recent years which provide fuel utilization improvements due to core loading pattern optimization. This paper describes the development and impact of technology advances upon uranium utilization in modem pressurized water reactors.

  8. 16 CFR 309.15 - Posting of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Duties of Retailers § 309.15 Posting of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel rating. (a) If you are a retailer who offers for sale or sells non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel...

  9. 16 CFR 309.15 - Posting of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Duties of Retailers § 309.15 Posting of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel rating. (a) If you are a retailer who offers for sale or sells non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel...

  10. 16 CFR 309.15 - Posting of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Duties of Retailers § 309.15 Posting of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel rating. (a) If you are a retailer who offers for sale or sells non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel...

  11. 16 CFR 309.15 - Posting of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Duties of Retailers § 309.15 Posting of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel rating. (a) If you are a retailer who offers for sale or sells non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel...

  12. Preliminary ecotoxicity assessment of new generation alternative fuels in seawater.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gunther; Dolecal, Renee E; Colvin, Marienne A; George, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    The United States Navy (USN) is currently demonstrating the viability of environmentally sustainable alternative fuels to power its fleet comprised of aircraft and ships. As with any fuel used in a maritime setting, there is potential for introduction into the environment through transport, storage, and spills. However, while alternative fuels are often presumed to be eco-friendly relative to conventional petroleum-based fuels, their environmental fate and effects on marine environments are essentially unknown. Here, standard laboratory-based toxicity experiments were conducted for two alternative fuels, jet fuel derived from Camelina sativa (wild flax) seeds (HRJ5) and diesel fuel derived from algae (HRD76), and two conventional counterparts, jet fuel (JP5) and ship diesel (F76). Initial toxicity tests performed on water-accommodated fractions (WAF) from neat fuels partitioned into seawater, using four standard marine species in acute and chronic/sublethal tests, indicate that the alternative fuels are significantly less toxic to marine organisms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Bushnell, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, aviation alone uses 85 to 95 billion gallons of nonrenewable fossil fuel per year (2008). General transportation fueling can accommodate several different fuels; however, aviation fuels have very specific requirements. Biofuels have been flight demonstrated, are considered renewable, have the capacity to become "drop-in" replacements for Jet-A fuel, and solve the CO2 climate change problem. The major issue is cost; current biomass biofuels are not economically competitive. Biofuel feedstock sources being researched are halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, weeds-to-crops, wastes with contingent restraints on use of crop land, freshwater, and climate change. There are five major renewable energy sources: solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, drilled geothermal and biomass, each of which have an order of magnitude greater capacity to meet all energy needs. All five address aspects of climate change; biomass has massive potential as an energy fuel feedstock.

  14. Black carbon emissions reductions from combustion of alternative jet fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speth, Raymond L.; Rojo, Carolina; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurement campaigns for alternative aviation fuels indicate that black carbon emissions from gas turbines are reduced significantly with the use of alternative jet fuels that are low in aromatic content. This could have significant climate and air quality-related benefits that are currently not accounted for in environmental assessments of alternative jet fuels. There is currently no predictive way of estimating aircraft black carbon emissions given an alternative jet fuel. We examine the results from available measurement campaigns and propose a first analytical approximation (termed 'ASAF') of the black carbon emissions reduction associated with the use of paraffinic alternative jet fuels. We establish a relationship between the reduction in black carbon emissions relative to conventional jet fuel for a given aircraft, thrust setting relative to maximum rated thrust, and the aromatic volume fraction of the (blended) alternative fuel. The proposed relationship is constrained to produce physically meaningful results, makes use of only one free parameter and is found to explain a majority of the variability in measurements across the engines and fuels that have been tested.

  15. Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

  16. Utilization of refuse derived fuels by the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Lehr, D.L.

    1983-07-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act are forcing those in charge of landfills to adhere to more stringent operating standards. This, along with the growing scarcity of landfill availability, makes the use of landfills less desirable for solid waste disposal. As such, new disposal methods that are environmentally safe and economically practical must be found. One alternative, that is not really new but which has gained renewed interest, is incineration. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act also requires that government agencies should direct their installations to recover as many resources as possible. Therefore if incineration is to be implemented, heat recovery should be incorporated into the system. There are several processes available to convert raw refuse into a fuel for use in a heat recovery system. Refuse derived fuels (RDF) can be in the form of raw refuse, densified refuse, powdered refuse, gas, or pyrolytic oil. The only form of RDF that is economically feasible for systems designed to process less than 200 TPD (tons per day) is raw refuse. Most Navy bases generate far less than 200 TPD of solid waste and therefore the Navy has focused most of its attention on modular heat recovery incinerator (HRI) systems that utilize raw refuse as fuel.

  17. Combustion characteristics of gas turbine alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. James

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance values for specific heavyend, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. A flame tube combustor modified to duplicate an advanced gas turbine engine combustor was used for the tests. Each fuel was tested at steady-state operating conditions over a range of mass flow rates, fuel-to-air mass ratio, and inlet air temperatures. The combustion pressure, as well as the hardware, were kept nearly constant over the program test phase. Test results were obtained in regards to geometric temperature pattern factors as a function of combustor wall temperatures, the combustion gas temperature, and the combustion emissions, both as affected by the mass flow rate and fuel-to-air ratio. The synthetic fuels were reacted in the combustor such that for most tests their performance was as good, if not better, than the baseline gasoline or diesel fuel tests. The only detrimental effects were that at high inlet air temperature conditions, fuel decomposition occurred in the fuel atomizing nozzle passages resulting in blockage. And the nitrogen oxide emissions were above EPA limits at low flow rate and high operating temperature conditions.

  18. Do alternative energy sources displace fossil fuels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Richard

    2012-06-01

    A fundamental, generally implicit, assumption of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and many energy analysts is that each unit of energy supplied by non-fossil-fuel sources takes the place of a unit of energy supplied by fossil-fuel sources. However, owing to the complexity of economic systems and human behaviour, it is often the case that changes aimed at reducing one type of resource consumption, either through improvements in efficiency of use or by developing substitutes, do not lead to the intended outcome when net effects are considered. Here, I show that the average pattern across most nations of the world over the past fifty years is one where each unit of total national energy use from non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel energy use and, focusing specifically on electricity, each unit of electricity generated by non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-tenth of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These results challenge conventional thinking in that they indicate that suppressing the use of fossil fuel will require changes other than simply technical ones such as expanding non-fossil-fuel energy production.

  19. Alternative Fuels and Their Potential Impact on Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, D.; Hendricks, R.; Walther, R.

    2006-01-01

    With a growing gap between the growth rate of petroleum production and demand, and with mounting environmental needs, the aircraft industry is investigating issues related to fuel availability, candidates for alternative fuels, and improved aircraft fuel efficiency. Bio-derived fuels, methanol, ethanol, liquid natural gas, liquid hydrogen, and synthetic fuels are considered in this study for their potential to replace or supplement conventional jet fuels. Most of these fuels present the airplane designers with safety, logistical, and performance challenges. Synthetic fuel made from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstock shows significant promise as a fuel that could be easily integrated into present and future aircraft with little or no modification to current aircraft designs. Alternatives, such as biofuel, and in the longer term hydrogen, have good potential but presently appear to be better suited for use in ground transportation. With the increased use of these fuels, a greater portion of a barrel of crude oil can be used for producing jet fuel because aircraft are not as fuel-flexible as ground vehicles.

  20. Alternative transport fuels from natural gas. Technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, R.; Bailey, D.G.F.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and synthetic gasoline and diesel. The analysis includes various scenarios to establish break-even points between these competing fuels under different assumptions.

  1. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane conversions. This guide may be

  2. Driving the Nation Toward a Clean Energy Future: Fuels Utilization Program Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.

    2000-12-12

    The transportation market in the United States is evolving. As the number of vehicles and miles traveled on American roadways continues to grow, the nation is looking toward advanced vehicles and fuels to meet the increasing demand for more energy efficient, environmentally friendly modes of transport. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems' Fuel Utilization Program is doing its part. We're developing and demonstrating engine and fuel technologies that allow alternative and advanced petroleum fuels to compete with their conventional counterparts.

  3. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  4. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson III, George R. ); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin ); Freerks, Robert L. )

    2013-01-15

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend

  5. Case Study: Transportation Initiative Incorporates Alternative Fuels and Electric Vehicles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center in North Chicago, Illinois, reduced greenhouse gases by incorporating electric vehicles and alternative fuels into fleet operations. Lovell FHCC increased its electric fleet by 200 in one year.

  6. Intelligent Engine Systems: Alternate Fuels Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballal, Dilip

    2008-01-01

    The performance and gaseous emissions were measured for a well-stirred reactor operating under lean conditions for two fuels: JP8 and a synthetic Fisher-Tropsch fuel over a range of equivalence ratios from 0.6 down to the lean blowout. The lean blowout characteristics were determined in LBO experiments at loading parameter values from 0.7 to 1.4. The lean blowout characteristics were then explored under higher loading conditions by simulating higher altitude operation with the use of nitrogen as a dilution gas for the air stream. The experiments showed that: (1) The lean blowout characteristics for the two fuels were close under both low loading and high loading conditions. (2) The combustion temperatures and observed combustion efficiencies were similar for the two fuels. (3) The gaseous emissions were similar for the two fuels and the differences in the H2O and CO2 emissions appear to be directly relatable to the C/H ratio for the fuels.

  7. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... by the OBD system may include misfire, oxygen sensors, catalyst monitor, exhaust gas recirculation... fuel conversion systems may demonstrate compliance with vehicle and engine emissions requirements... manufacturers of clean alternative fuel conversion systems against a tampering violation, depending on the age...

  8. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  9. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  10. Fuel cells for electric utility and transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, S.

    1980-01-01

    This review article presents: the current status and expected progress status of the fuel cell research and development programs in the USA, electrochemical problem areas, techno-economic assessments of fuel cells for electric and/or gas utilities and for transportation, and other candidate fuel cells and their applications. For electric and/or gas utility applications, the most likely candidates are phosphoric, molten carbonate, and solid electrolyte fuel cells. The first will be coupled with a reformer (to convert natural gas, petroleum-derived, or biomass fuels to hydrogen), while the second and third will be linked with a coal gasifier. A fuel cell/battery hybrid power source is an attractive option for electric vehicles with projected performance characteristics approaching those for internal combustion or diesel engine powered vehicles. For this application, with coal-derived methanol as the fuel, a fuel cell with an acid electrolyte (phosphoric, solid polymer electrolyte or super acid) is essential; with pure hydrogen (obtained by splitting of water using nuclear, solar or hydroelectric energy), alkaline fuel cells show promise. A fuel cell researcher's dream is the development of a high performance direct methanol-air fuel cell as a power plant for electric vehicles. For long or intermittent duty cycle load leveling, regenerative hydrogen-halogen fuel cells exhibit desirable characteristics.

  11. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Jeffery K; Pawel, Steven J; Wilson, Dane F

    2013-05-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  12. Engine Materials Compatability with Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steve; Moore, D.

    2013-04-05

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  13. Alternative fuel capabilities of the Mod II Stirling vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandin, Albert W.; Ernst, William D.

    1988-01-01

    The Stirling engine's characteristics make it a prime candidate for both multifuel and alternative fuel uses. In this paper, the relevant engine characteristics of the Mod II Stirling engine are examined, including the external heat system and basic operation. Adaptation of the Stirling to multifuel operation is addressed, and its experience with alternative fuels in automotive applications is summarized. The results of the U.S. Air Force review of the Stirling's multifuel capability are described, and the Stirling's advantages with liquid, gaseous, and solid fuels are discussed.

  14. Alternative fuel capabilities of the Mod II Stirling vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandin, Albert W.; Ernst, William D.

    1988-01-01

    The Stirling engine's characteristics make it a prime candidate for both multifuel and alternative fuel uses. In this paper, the relevant engine characteristics of the Mod II Stirling engine are examined, including the external heat system and basic operation. Adaptation of the Stirling to multifuel operation is addressed, and its experience with alternative fuels in automotive applications is summarized. The results of the U.S. Air Force review of the Stirling's multifuel capability are described, and the Stirling's advantages with liquid, gaseous, and solid fuels are discussed.

  15. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-22

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels development Unit (AFDU). The program will initially involve a continuation of the work performed under the Liquid Phase Methanol Program but will later draw upon information and technologies generated in current and future DOE-funded contracts, as well as test commercially available catalysts. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Alternate fuels use in a vehicular gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Marchionna, N.R.

    1984-01-01

    Practical aspects of combustor design for the use of alternate fuels in the AGT 1500 vehicular gas turbine engine are discussed. Engine performance test results are related to laboratory data and to combustor component performance over the range of engine operating conditions. Fuel effects on starting and low power efficiency are related to atomizer performance and to drop size distribution. Smoke emissions are correlated with fuel characteristics, engine operating conditions, and combustor primary zone design parameters. Results are presented for fuels ranging from gasoline to No. 6 oil.

  17. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2009-01-01

    Must use earth's most abundant natural resources - Biomass, Solar, Arid land (43%), Seawater (97%) with nutrients (80%) plus brackish waters and nutrients resolve environmental triangle of conflicts energy-food-freshwater and ultrafine particulate hazards. Requires Paradigm Shift - Develop and Use Solar* for energy; Biomass for aviation and hybrid-electric-compressed air mobility fueling with transition to hydrogen long term.

  18. Alternative fuels in fire debris analysis: biodiesel basics.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Eric; Byron, Doug

    2007-03-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming more prominent on the market today and, soon, fire debris analysts will start seeing them in liquid samples or in fire debris samples. Biodiesel fuel is one of the most common alternative fuels and is now readily available in many parts of the United States and around the world. This article introduces biodiesel to fire debris analysts. Biodiesel fuel is manufactured from vegetable oils and/or animal oils/fats. It is composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and is sold pure or as a blend with diesel fuel. When present in fire debris samples, it is recommended to extract the debris using passive headspace concentration on activated charcoal, possibly followed by a solvent extraction. The gas chromatographic analysis of the extract is first carried out with the same program as for regular ignitable liquid residues, and second with a program adapted to the analysis of FAMEs.

  19. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  20. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  1. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  2. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  3. The causes and effects of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yimin

    The corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard is the major policy tool to improve the fleet average miles per gallon of automobile manufacturers in the U.S. The Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) provides special treatment in calculating the fuel economy of alternative fuel vehicles to give manufacturers CAFE incentives to produce more alternative fuel vehicles. AMFA has as its goals an increase in the production of alternative fuel vehicles and a decrease in gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This dissertation examines theoretically the effects of the program set up under AMFA. It finds that, under some conditions, this program may actually increase gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The dissertation also uses hedonic techniques to examine whether the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) has a significant effect on the implicit price of fuel economy and whether the marginal value of vehicle fuel efficiency changes over time. It estimates the change of implicit price in miles per gallon after the production of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Results indicate that every year consumers may evaluate vehicle fuel economy differently, and that since AFVs came to the market, the marginal value of fuel economy from specific companies producing AFVs has decreased. This finding suggests that since the AMFA provides extra Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) credit for those automakers producing AFVs, the automakers can take advantage of the incentive to produce more profitable conventional vehicles and meet CAFE standards without improving the fleet fuel economy. In this way, manufacturers who produce AFVs are willing to offer a lower price for the fuel economy under the AMFA. Additionally, this paper suggests that the flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the market are not significantly more expensive than comparable conventional vehicles, even if FFVs are also able to run on an alternative fuel and may cost more than conventional vehicles

  4. Developing alternative feedstocks for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, V.K.

    1982-06-01

    This paper briefly reviews recent research to examine the viability of energy sorghum as a feedstock for producing fuel alcohol. Energy sorghum is the name given to any sweet sorghum shown to be feasible for producing fuel alcohol. Energy sorghum can grow on a variety of soils, in 90 day cycles, with up to three crops a year. Crop rotation is rarely needed; most of the nitrogen and potassium returns to the soil. Harmon Engineering and Testing initiated an inhouse program to research sweet sorghum development. Equipment specifications and preliminary results are given. An ''energy farm'' process is explained step by step. Stalk juice, grain, and stalk fiber yields are listed. The use of bagasse and carbon dioxide is also considered.

  5. Additive Effectiveness Investigations in Alternative Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    refers to synthetic paraffinic kerosene generated through the Fischer-Tropsch process. Basically, a carbon source (coal, natural gas, biomass) is...converted to process gas ( carbon monoxide, CO, and hydrogen, H) and then catalytically reassembled into larger hydrocarbons. There are two basic types...derived from pine tree resin 2) Fuel System Icing Inhibitor (FSII) – Di Ethylene Glycol Methyl Ether (DiEGME). 3) Static Dissipater Additive (SDA

  6. Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2001-10-02

    The fuel utilization of a direct methanol fuel cell is enhanced for improved cell efficiency. Distribution plates at the anode and cathode of the fuel cell are configured to distribute reactants vertically and laterally uniformly over a catalyzed membrane surface of the fuel cell. A conductive sheet between the anode distribution plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. In a preferred embodiment, the distribution plate is a perforated corrugated sheet. The mass transport barrier may be conveniently increased by increasing the thickness of an anode conductive sheet adjacent the membrane surface of the fuel cell.

  7. Utilization of silt as CFB boiler fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Herb, B.; Tsao, T.R.; Bickley, D.

    1994-12-31

    Bituminous silt represents an enormous source of discarded energy that is polluting the environment. Although bituminous silt is a potential opportunity fuel for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers, handling problems and uncertainties about the impact of this fuel on CFB boiler performance and operating economics have prevented its use. Under sponsorship of the Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority, five different technologies having the potential to process silt into CFB boiler fuel were evaluated. The technologies evaluated include: washing, pelletizing, thermal drying, mulling and flaking. The desired goal was to process the silt into a form that can be fed to CFB boilers using conventional coal handling equipment and combusted in an environmentally acceptable manner. Criteria were developed for the product characteristics that are desired and tests were run to evaluate the technical feasibility of each silt processing technology. Based on these test results, the design and cost bases for a commercial silt processing facility were developed for each technology capable of achieving the desired product characteristics. As a result of considering both engineering and economic factors, the technology that best meets the objectives for use of processed silt as CFB boiler fuel was selected for further demonstration testing. This paper will present the results of this project up through the selection of the best silt processing technology.

  8. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  9. 10 CFR 490.504 - Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. 490.504 Section 490.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.504 Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. At the request...

  10. 10 CFR 490.504 - Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. 490.504 Section 490.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.504 Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. At the request...

  11. 10 CFR 490.504 - Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. 490.504 Section 490.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.504 Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. At the request...

  12. 10 CFR 490.504 - Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. 490.504 Section 490.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.504 Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. At the request...

  13. 10 CFR 490.504 - Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. 490.504 Section 490.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.504 Use of alternative fueled vehicle credits. At the request...

  14. Examination of physical properties of fuels and mixtures with alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lown, Anne Lauren

    ABSTRACT. EXAMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FUELS AND MIXTURES WITH ALTERNATIVE FUELS. By. Anne Lauren Lown. The diversity of alternative fuels is increasing due to new second generation biofuels. By modeling alternative fuels and fuel mixtures, types of fuels can be selected based on their properties, without producing and testing large batches. A number of potential alternative fuels have been tested and modeled to determine their impact when blended with traditional diesel and jet fuels. The properties evaluated include cloud point and pour point temperature, cetane number, distillation curve, and speed of sound. This work represents a novel approach to evaluating the properties of alternative fuels and their mixtures with petroleum fuels. Low temperature properties were evaluated for twelve potential biofuel compounds in mixtures with three diesel fuels and one jet fuel. Functional groups tested included diesters, esters, ketones, and ethers, and alkanes were used for comparison. Alkanes, ethers, esters, and ketones with a low melting point temperature were found to decrease the fuel cloud point temperature. Diesters added to fuels display an upper critical solution temperature, and multiple methods were used to confirm the presence of liquid-liquid immiscibility. These behaviors are independent of chain length and branching, as long as the melting point temperature of the additive is not significantly higher than the cloud point temperature of the fuel. Physical properties were estimated for several potential fuel additive molecules using group contribution methods. Quantum chemical calculations were used for ideal gas heat capacities. Fuel surrogates for three petroleum based fuels and six alternative fuels were developed. The cloud point temperature, distillation curve, cetane number, and average molecular weight for different fuel surrogates were simultaneously represented. The proposed surrogates use the experimental mass fractions of paraffins, and

  15. Exploring Alternative Fuels in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, John F.; Stewardson, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative energy sources have become increasingly important as the production of domestic oil has declined and dependence on foreign oil has increased. Historically, there have been four time periods during which the United States was in fact crippled by oil shortages. These time periods include: (1) the early 1900s; (2) World War II; (3) the…

  16. Exploring Alternative Fuels in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, John F.; Stewardson, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative energy sources have become increasingly important as the production of domestic oil has declined and dependence on foreign oil has increased. Historically, there have been four time periods during which the United States was in fact crippled by oil shortages. These time periods include: (1) the early 1900s; (2) World War II; (3) the…

  17. Alternative methods for Inspection for Fuel Cleanliness Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    STEGEN, G.E.

    2002-10-31

    The current fuel cleanliness inspection process and has been a bottleneck that has frequently resulted in process delays and loss of production capacity. The current inspection process is based on a rolling lot inspection process wherein individual fuel assemblies are inspected by using the manipulators to handle the assembly during the process and then loading the assembly into a fuel basket. This process is slow, depends on the operability of one of the least reliable systems of the process, and has resulted in several delays in the fuel production process. Preliminary discussions and analysis have identified alternative methods of inspection that would move the inspections away from the manipulators, resulting in improved reliability of the process. This test plan defines investigations and testing of the identified alternative inspection methods.

  18. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  19. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center; Vol. 2, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-05-01

    Official publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center featuring alternative fuels activity in every state, the Clean Cities game plan '98, and news from the Automakers.

  20. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Fuel Transportation Program (AFTP or Program), by including EISA-specified electric drive vehicles and... Fueled Vehicle 3. Automobile 4. Dedicated Vehicle 5. Dual Fueled Vehicle 6. Electric Motor Vehicle and Electric-Hybrid Vehicle 7. Section 133--Identified Vehicles That Already Qualify as AFVs B. New Definitions...

  1. An update in the 'development of alternate liquid fuels'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, M. J.

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory has formulated a series of Alternate Liquid Fuels (AIF), compounded from combustible fluids such as alcohols, mineral oils and solvents, found in the waste streams of the cosmetic, petrochemical, electronics and other industries. These fuels are now being processed by a pilot plant with a productive capacity of 40,000 gallons in 8 hours, at direct costs ranging from $0.26 to $0.29 a gallon depending on selected feedstocks and blend ratios

  2. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. A theoretical expression for the rotating ring-disk electrode technique; the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures are covered.

  3. Dimethyl ether fuel proposed as an alternative to LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi; Aoki, Ichizo

    1998-04-06

    To cope with the emerging energy demand in Asia, alternative fuels to LNG must be considered. Alternative measures, which convert the natural gas to liquid fuel, include the Fischer-Tropsch conversion, methanol synthesis, and dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis. Comparisons are evaluated based on both transportation cost and feed-gas cost. The analysis will show that DME, one alternative to LNG as transportation fuel, will be more economical for longer distances between the natural-gas source and the consumer. LNG requires a costly tanker and receiving terminal. The break-even distance will be around 5,000--7,000 km and vary depending on the transported volume. There will be risk, however, since there has never been a DME plant the size of an LNG-equivalent plant [6 million metric tons/year (mty)].

  4. Increasing Fuel Utilization of Breed and Burn Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sanzo, Christian Diego

    Breed and Burn reactors (B&B), also referred to Traveling Wave Reactors, are fast spectrum reactors that can be fed indefinitely with depleted uranium only, once criticality is achieved without the need for fuel reprocessing. Radiation damage to the fuel cladding limits the fuel utilization of B&B reactors to ˜ 18-20% FIMA (Fissions of Initial Metal Atoms) -- the minimum burnup required for sustaining the B&B mode of operation. The fuel discharged from this type of cores contain ˜ 10% fissile plutonium. Such a high plutonium content poses environmental and proliferation concerns, but makes it possible to utilize the fuel for further energy production. The objectives of the research reported in this dissertation are to analyze the fuel cycle of B&B reactors and study new strategies to extend the fuel utilization beyond ˜ 18-20% FIMA. First, the B&B reactor physics is examined while recycling the fuel every 20% FIMA via a limited separation processing, using either the melt refining or AIROX dry processes. It was found that the maximum attainable burnup varies from 54% to 58% FIMA -- depending on the recycling process and on the fraction of neutrons lost via leakage and reactivity control. In Chapter 3 the discharge fuel characteristics of B&B reactors operating at 20% FIMA and 55% FIMA is analyzed and compared. It is found that the 20% FIMA reactor discharges a fuel with about ˜ 80% fissile plutonium over total plutonium content. Subsequently a new strategy of minimal reconditioning, called double cladding is proposed to extend the fuel utilization in specifically designed second-tier reactors. It is found that with this strategy it is possible to increase fuel utilization to 30% in a sodium fast reactor and up to 40% when a subcritical B&B core is driven by an accelerator-driven spallation neutron source. Lastly, a fuel cycle using Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) to reduce the plutonium content of discharged B&B reactors is analyzed. It was found that it is

  5. Fuel effects on the TF30 engine (Alternate test procedure)

    SciTech Connect

    Karpovich, P.A.; Musters, A.I.

    1984-09-01

    The objective of the Alternate Test Procedure (ATP) is to develop the capability to qualify new fuels for Navy aircraft use with a minimum of testing. The effect of fuel composition and properties on engine performance and component life has been shown to vary significantly from one engine configuration to another. The PandWA approach to the ATP has been to define fuel effects on the TF30 engine and then apply the methodology to other engines of interest to the Navy. Investigations of the TF30 conducted under the ATP Program and other Navy and Air Force Contracts have produced one of the most complete fuel effect characterizations available for any gas turbine engine. Major fuel effects which have been quantified are the relationships of lubricity to main fuel control reliability, viscosity and volatility to main burner and augmentor ignition limits, and hydrogen content to smoke and combustor life. The effects of fuel properties and composition on combustion efficiency and elastomeric seal life were found to be of secondary importance. Remaining uncertainties are the effects of fuel properties on turbine life and fuel nozzle fouling rate.

  6. Utilization of domestic fuels for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Mirabal, S.T.; Ingley, H.A.; Goel, N.; Goswami, D.Y.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes the present status of the conventional hydrogen production technologies and some of recent developments in the production of hydrogen using solar energy resources. The authors outline the technological status for commercial and near-commercial technologies using both fossil-based and renewable energy sources such as electrolysis using PV and solar thermal power. The conversion of fossil fuels and electrolysis of water using solar conversion technologies are some of the most important methods of H{sub 2} production. An economic analysis for hydrogen production costs is presented comparing steam reformation, partial oxidation, coal gasification, and electrolysis via photovoltaic and solar thermal power. Although fossil fuels are currently the cheapest and most widely used sources of hydrogen production, it is argued from an economic standpoint that renewable sources of hydrogen, such as biomass and solar, are the most promising options for the future. Further, solar hydrogen represents a storable fuel that is produced from this nonstorable and intermittent source of energy. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan; Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  8. Demonstrating and evaluating heavy-duty alternative fuel operations

    SciTech Connect

    Peerenboom, W.

    1998-02-01

    The principal objectives of this project was to understand the effects of using an alternative fuel on a truck operating fleet through actual operation of trucks. Information to be gathered was expected to be anecdotal, as opposed to statistically viable, because the Trucking Research institute (TRI) recognized that projects could not attract enough trucks to produce statistically credible volumes of data. TRI was to collect operational data, and provide them to NREL, who would enter the data into the alternative fuels database being constructed for heavy-duty trucks at the time. NREL would also perform data analysis, with the understanding that the demonstrations were generally pre-production model engines and vehicles. Other objectives included providing information to the trucking industry on the availability of alternative fuels, developing the alternative fuels marketplace, and providing information on experience with alternative fuels. In addition to providing information to the trucking industry, an objective was for TRI to inform NREL and DOE about the industry, and give feedback on the response of the industry to developments in alternative fuels in trucking. At the outset, only small numbers of vehicles participated in most of the projects. Therefore, they had to be considered demonstrations of feasibility, rather than data gathering tests from which statistically significant conclusions might be drawn. Consequently, data gathered were expected to be useful for making estimates and obtaining valuable practical lessons. Project data and lessons learned are the subjects of separate project reports. This report concerns itself with the work of TRI in meeting the overall objectives of the TRI-NREL partnership.

  9. Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M.

    1998-11-19

    The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

  10. Impact of alternative energy forms on public utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, F. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of alternative energy sources by the electric utility industry is discussed. Research projects are reviewed in each of the following areas; solar energy, wind energy conversion, photosynthesis of biomass, ocean thermal energy conversion, geothermal energy, fusion, and the environmental impact of alternative energy sources.

  11. Process Developed for Fabricating Engineered Pore Structures for High- Fuel-Utilization Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofie, Stephen W.; Cable, Thomas L.; Salamone, Sam M.

    2005-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have tremendous commercial potential because of their high efficiency, high energy density, and flexible fuel capability (ability to use fossil fuels). The drive for high-power-utilizing, ultrathin electrolytes (less than 10 microns), has placed an increased demand on the anode to provide structural support, yet allow sufficient fuel entry for sustained power generation. Concentration polarization, a condition where the fuel demand exceeds the supply, is evident in all commercial-based anode-supported cells, and it presents a significant roadblock to SOFC commercialization.

  12. Waste floor covering is an economical alternative fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, N.W.

    1995-03-01

    This article examines why power plants that can use it call waste carpeting an economical alternative fuel. According to recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data, 1.7 millions tons per year (tpy) of post-consumer carpet (PCC) waste are generated by residential and commercial sources. Monsanto and other major nylon producers responded to the magnitude of this figure and their increased environmental sensitivity by sponsoring a project to assess alternatives to landfill disposal of PCC materials. Many alternatives to landfill disposal exist for waste carpet. These include demonstrated recycling options, such as the reuse of thermoplastic resins for polymer applications and carpet reuse in landfill capping systems. Not all materials can be recycled economically, hence, thermal recycling alternatives to landfills are used, including combustion as a substitute fuel in power plant boilers.

  13. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  14. An alternative fuel for urban buses-biodiesel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, L.G.; Weber, J.A.; Russell, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative biodiesel fueling performance and operational data have been collected from urban mass transit buses at Bi-State Development Agency in St. Louis Missouri. A total of 10 vehicles were selected for fueling; 5-6V92 TA Detroit Diesel engines have been fueled with a 20/80 biodiesel/diesel fuel blend and 5-6V92 TA Detroit Diesel control vehicles have been fueled on petroleum based low sulfur diesel fuel (LSD). The real-world impact of a biodiesel blend on maintenance, reliability, cost, fuel economy and safety compared to LSD will be presented. In addition, engine exhaust emissions data collected by the University of West Virginia Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored mobile emissions laboratory will be presented. Operational data from Bi-State Development Agency is collected by the University of Missouri and quality control procedures are performed prior to placing the data in the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC). The AFDC is maintained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. This effort, which enables transit operators to review a real-world comparison of biodiesel and LSD, has been funded by the National Biodiesel Board with funds provided by the United Soybean Board with national checkoff dollars and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  15. TAFV Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Choice Model Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    2001-07-27

    A model for predicting choice of alternative fuel and among alternative vehicle technologies for light-duty motor vehicles is derived. The nested multinomial logit (NML) mathematical framework is used. Calibration of the model is based on information in the existing literature and deduction based on assuming a small number of key parameters, such as the value of time and discount rates. A spreadsheet model has been developed for calibration and preliminary testing of the model.

  16. Alternative fuel and chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Development of a reliable and cost-effective method of wax/catalyst separation is a key step toward a commercially viable slurry reactor process with iron oxide-based catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbon transportation fuels. Although a variety of suitable catalysts (including, for example, cobalt-based catalysts) are available, iron oxide-based catalysts are preferred for coal-derived, CO-rich syngas because, in addition to catalyzing the F-T reaction, they simultaneously catalyze the reaction stifling CO to H{sub 2}, obviating a separate shift process block and associated costs. Because of the importance of development of this wax/catalyst separation, a study was initiated in February 1991. P. Z. Zhou of Burns and Roe reviewed the status of F-T wax/catalyst separation techniques. This led to the selection of a filtration system for the separation. Pilot tests were conducted by Mott Porous Metal Products in 1992 to develop this system. Initial results were good, but problems were encountered in follow-up testing. As a result of the testing, a filter was selected for use on the pilot plant. In LaPorte, Texas, APCI has been operating a pilot plant for the development of various synthesis gas technologies with DOE and industry support. The APCI F-T program builds on the DOE-sponsored laboratory-scale work by Mobil, reported in the mid-1980s, which used an iron oxide catalyst to produce high-quality F-T liquids in relatively compact reactors. Separation of the catalyst solids from the wax still represents a challenge. In the summer of 1992, testing of the selected filter was begun as part of the pilot plant testing. The filter performed poorly. Separation of the catalyst was primarily by sedimentation. It was recommended that the wax/catalyst separation be developed further.

  17. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel... TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.10 Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle...

  18. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel... TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.10 Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle...

  19. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel... TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.10 Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle...

  20. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel... TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.10 Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle...

  1. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel... TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.10 Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle...

  2. A Life-Cycle Comparison of Alternative Automobile Fuels.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B; Lankey, Rebecca; Joshi, Satish

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  3. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    PubMed

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  4. Experimental Investigation of Turbine Vane Heat Transfer for Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, Andrew Carl

    2015-03-23

    modern turbine engines; and What advancements in film cooling hole geometry and design can increase effectiveness of film cooling in turbines burning high-hydrogen coal syngas due to the higher heat loads and mass flow rates of the core flow? Experimental and numerical investigations of advanced cooling geometries that can improve resistance to surface deposition were performed. The answers to these questions were investigated through experimental measurements of turbine blade surface temperature and coolant coverage (via infrared camera images and thermocouples) and time-varying surface roughness in the NETL high-pressure combustion rig with accelerated, simulated surface deposition and advanced cooling hole concepts, coupled with detailed materials analysis and characterization using conventional methods of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), 3-D Surface Topography (using a 3-D stylus profilometer). Detailed surface temperatures and cooling effectiveness could not be measured due to issues with the NETL infrared camera system. In collaboration with faculty startup funding from the principal investigator, experimental and numerical investigations were performed of an advanced film cooling hole geometry, the anti-vortex hole (AVH), focusing on improving cooling effectiveness and decreasing the counter-rotating vortex of conventional cooling holes which can entrain mainstream particulate matter to the surface. The potential benefit of this program is in gaining a fundamental understanding of how the use of alternative fuels will effect the operation of modern gas turbine engines, providing valuable data for more effective cooling designs for future turbine systems utilizing alternative fuels.

  5. Are We There Yet? Alternative Fuels for School Buses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Dennis; Carter, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    America's annual oil consumption continues to increase and is projected to continue the upward spiral into the foreseeable future. Alternative-fuel options are available that are not only cheaper in some cases on an energy-equivalent basis but are also more environmentally friendly. Education leaders need to be concerned with both these facts.…

  6. Other Alternative Diesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The energy crises of the 1970’s and early 1980’s provided impetus for developing alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils and animal fats. Other driving forces may be derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments and farmers desire to develop new uses for surplus agricultural commodities. ...

  7. The Implications of Alternative Aviation Fuels on Airbase Air Quality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    quality. The American Petroleum Institute (API) empirical equations (References 7, 8, 9) predict the HC evaporative emissions. These equations compute...8217 Alternative Hydrocarbon Fuels: Combustion and Chemical Kinetics, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics Vol 62, AIAA, (1978). 5. American Petroleum Institute , "API

  8. The market for utility-scale fuel cell plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Masaru; Takasu, Kazuhiko

    This paper is devoted to a survey of the current technology and future market for utility-scale fuel cell plants. The phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is entering into the stage where it is practically available for use with natural gas. Large capacity plants such as 11, 5 and 1 MW have been installed and operated in Italy and Japan. Their efficiency ranges from 36 to 42%. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is in the demonstrating stage, both the fuel cell and the balance-of-plant (BOP) for natural gas. Demonstration plants of 2 and 1 MW have been under construction in the USA and Japan. Their efficiency will range from 40 to 50%. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is in the experimental stage around 100 kW for co-generation. Its conceptual system design has been conducted for both centralized and dispersed power plant in a cooperation with Westinghouse and NEDO. A market survey is now considered on the basis that future fuel cells will run for around 40 000 h in a stable manner with competitive performance. The market for fuel cells will be roughly at 2000 MW in Japan by the year 2010. Half of them will be installed for electric companies on the utility scale. The market will be shared between PAFC and MCFC by 10 and 90%, respectively. Current technologies have not reached the stage to precisely forecast when fuel cells will be entering into the market on a utility scale. At the present time, it is worthwhile to consider how the technological and economic requirements will be definitely achieved. After achieving these requirements, fuel cells will be positively introduced and socially accepted as the best energy converting option to save energy and environmental impact. Further efforts will be devoted to meeting the market from the technological and economic aspects.

  9. The Impact of Alternative Fuels on Combustion Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-30

    The research targets the development of detailed kinetic models to quantitatively characterize the impact of alternative fuels on the performance of Navy turbines and diesel engines. Such impacts include kinetic properties such as cetane number, flame speed, and emissions as well as physical properties such as the impact of boiling point distributions on fuel vaporization and mixing. The primary focus will be Fischer-Tropsch liquids made from natural gas, coal or biomass. The models will include both the effects of operation with these alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional petroleum-based fuels. The team will develop the requisite kinetic rules for specific reaction types and incorporate these into detailed kinetic mechanisms to predict the combustion performance of neat alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional fuels. Reduced kinetic models will be then developed to allow solution of the coupled kinetics/transport problems. This is a collaboration between the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CSM/LLNL team plans to build on the substantial progress made in recent years in developing accurate detailed chemical mechanisms for the oxidation and pyrolysis of conventional fuels. Particular emphasis will be placed upon reactions of the isoalkanes and the daughter radicals, especially tertiary radicals, formed by abstraction from the isoalkanes. The various components of the program are described. We have been developing the kinetic models for two iso-dodecane molecules, using the same kinetic modeling formalisms that were developed for the gasoline and diesel primary reference fuels. These mechanisms, and the thermochemical and transport coefficient submodels for them, are very close to completion at the time of this report, and we expect them to be available for kinetic simulations early in the coming year. They will provide a basis for prediction and

  10. Conditions for energy generation as an alternative approach to compost utilization.

    PubMed

    Raclavska, H; Juchelkova, D; Skrobankova, H; Wiltowski, T; Campen, A

    2011-01-01

    Very strict limits constrain the current possibilities for compost utilization in agriculture and for land reclamation, thus creating a need for other compost utilization practices. A favourable alternative can be compost utilization as a renewable heat source - alternative fuel. The changes of the basic physical-chemical parameters during the composting process are evaluated. During the composting process, energy losses of 920 kJ/kg occur, caused by carbohydrate decomposition (loss of 12.64% TOC). The net calorific value for mature compost was 11.169 kJ/kg dry matter. The grain size of compost below 0.045 mm has the highest ash content. The energetic utilization of compost depended on moisture, which can be influenced by paper addition or by prolonging the time of maturation to six months.

  11. Moving beyond alternative fuel hype to decarbonize transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Noel; Axsen, Jonn; Sperling, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    In the past three decades, government, industry and other stakeholders have repeatedly been swept up with the ‘fuel du jour’, claiming that a particular alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) technology can succeed in replacing conventional gasoline-powered vehicles. However, AFV technologies have experienced relatively little success, with fossil fuels still accounting for about 95% of global transport energy use. Here, using the US as a case study, we conduct a media analysis to show how society’s attention has skipped among AFV types between 1980 and 2013, including methanol, natural gas, plug-in electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen and biofuels. Although our results provide no indication as to whether hype ultimately has a net positive or negative impact on AFV innovation, we offer several recommendations that governments can follow to move past hype to support significant AFV adoption and displace fossil fuel use in the transportation sector.

  12. Military Fuel and Alternative Fuel Effects on a Modern Diesel Engine Employing a Fuel-Lubricated High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    injected, turbo- charged, air- water intercooled engine which employs a fuel- lubricated high pressure common rail pump , and piezo- electric fuel injectors...military fuels. Many of these modern HPCR systems utilize fuel-lubricated high pressure pumps , and can generate upwards of 2000-bar fuel rail pressures...steps were allowed to meet their own steady state temperatures. In addition, engine oil sump temperature was dictated by an internal jacket water

  13. Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends.

    PubMed

    Altiparmak, Duran; Keskin, Ali; Koca, Atilla; Gürü, Metin

    2007-01-01

    In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO(x) emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke opacity did not vary significantly.

  14. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  15. Utilization of peat as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, D.F.; Evans, G.O. II; Whitehurst, B.M.

    1981-10-01

    This work has dealt primarily with the development and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM). POM and PAM slurries with varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents, and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios in jacketed glass tubes and slurry drain times from the tubes along with the slurry viscosities. The peat moisture content was found to be especially critical in forming stable slurries. Also, in both the PAM and POM systems, it was found that use of the more finely ground peat led to significantly higher sedimentation ratios than the use of coarse peat. Numerous additives selected to improve slurry suspension and flow characteristics have been evaluated. Cab-O-Sil M-5 and Cab-O-Sil PTG were most effective in the POM systems while Attagel X-2059 and Bentone 27 were most effective in the PAM systems. Viscosities have been measured for slurries of varied particle size and modified by selected additives. Viscosities in the PAM system were lower using the coarser peat with higher moisture content while viscosities in the POM system seemed to be lower using the finer, drier peat. Calorimetric studies of powdered peat as well as PAM and POM slurries, with and without additives, were completed. Combustion tests of POM and PAM slurries were carried out using a salamander type shop heater. Successful burns of the POM slurry were accomplished when the slurries were heated to reduce viscosities and the peat was prescreened to remove large wood fibers to avoid plugging of the small burner nozzle. Since the toxicity and low flash point of methanol precluded heating of the PAM slurries, plugging of the small burner routinely occurred. It was also demonstrated that ground peat could be burned by using an eductor connector to a compressed air line.

  16. Effect of Selected Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials on the Cement Clinker Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigáč, Július

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with the study of the effects of alternative fuels and raw materials on the cement clinker quality. The clinker quality was expressed by the content of two principal minerals alite C3S and belite C2S. The additions of alternative fuels ashes and raw materials, in principle, always increased the belite content and conversely reduced the amount of alite. The alternative fuels with high ash content were used such as the meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge and the used alternative raw materials were metallurgical slags - granulated blastfurnace slag, air cooled blastfurnace slag and demetallized steel slag, fluidized bed combustion fly ash and waste glass. Meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge were evaluated as moderately suitable alternative fuels which can be added in the amounts of 2.8 wt. % addition of meat-bone meals ash, 3.64 wt. % addition of sewage sludge ash and 3.8 wt. % addition of paper sludge ash to the cement raw mixture. Demetallised steel slag is suitable for production of special sulphate resistant cement clinker for CEM I -SR cement with addition up to 5 wt. %. Granulated blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4 wt. %. Air cooled blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4.2 wt. %. Waste glass is not very appropriate alternative raw material with addition only 1.16 wt. %. Fluidized bed combustion fly ash appears not to be equally appropriate alternative raw material for cement clinker burning with less potential utilization in the cement industry and with addition 3.41 wt. %, which forms undesired anhydrite CaSO4 in the cement clinker.

  17. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.M.

    1992-05-19

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products' laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively benign'' system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE's program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

  18. The California Multimedia Risk Assessment Protocol for Alternative Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, T.; Ginn, T. R.; McKone, T. E.; Rice, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Any new fuel in California requires approval by the state agencies overseeing human and environmental health. In order to provide a systematic evaluation of new fuel impacts, California now requires a multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for fuel approval. The fuel MMRA involves all relevant state agencies including: the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), the Office of Environmental Health Hazards Assessment (OEHHA), and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) overseen by the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA). The lead agency for MMRAs is the CARB. The original law requiring a multimedia assessment is California Health and Safety Code 43830.8. In addition, the low carbon fuel standard (LCFS), the Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), and the Verified Diesel Emission Control Strategy (VDECS) have provisions that can require a multimedia assessment. In this presentation, I give an overview of the California multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for new fuels that has been recently developed and applied to several alternative fuels. The objective of the California MMRA is to assess risk of potential impacts of new fuels to multiple environmental media including: air, water, and soil. Attainment of this objective involves many challenges, including varying levels of uncertainty, relative comparison of incommensurate risk factors, and differing levels of priority assigned to risk factors. The MMRA is based on a strategy of relative risk assessment and flexible accommodation of distinct and diverse fuel formulations. The approach is tiered by design, in order to allow for sequentially more sophisticated investigations as knowledge gaps are identified and re-prioritized by the ongoing research. The assessment also involves peer review in order to provide coupling between risk assessment and stakeholder investment, as well as constructive or confrontational feedback. The multimedia assessment

  19. A study of ethanol low grade as an alternative fuel for small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiarto, Bambang; Darsono, Dody; Nurhuda, M.; Wardhana, Ing

    2012-06-01

    The availability of non renewable petroleum fuels insists people to make use of alternative energy sources. Currently petroleum dominates the main source of fuel for combustion. Renewable energy is a solution to deal with this issue. One source of renewable energy is bio ethanol. The previous study conducted distillator compact design by utilizing exhaust gases from motor fuels as a primary means of ethanol processing. The goal is to produce viable products into fuel ethanol of which levels above 90%. In this study, it is conducted at the evaporator temperature control with a load of 300 Watt which this conclusions obtained in previous studies on the load 300 Watts has maximum results obtained to be able of consumption needs of fuel on the genset. At 90°C temperature-controlled at the evaporator produces maximum that is able to meet the fuel consumption for the genset. At 85°C temperature-controlled at the evaporator produces high concentric of alcohol but did not meet of fuel consumption. At temperatures of 90°C can be concluded get the most out due to meet the fuel consumption and also has high concentric of alcohol. Gas have low levels of CO (± 1.2% Vol.), low HC (± 150 ppm Vol.).

  20. Sweet Sorghum Alternative Fuel and Feed Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Slack, Donald C.; Kaltenbach, C. Colin

    2013-07-30

    The University of Arizona undertook a “pilot” project to grow sweet sorghum on a field scale (rather than a plot scale), produce juice from the sweet sorghum, deliver the juice to a bio-refinery and process it to fuel-grade ethanol. We also evaluated the bagasse for suitability as a livestock feed and as a fuel. In addition to these objectives we evaluated methods of juice preservation, ligno-cellulosic conversion of the bagasse to fermentable sugars and alternative methods of juice extraction.

  1. (Production and environmental impacts of alternative motor fuels)

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, R.N.

    1990-12-04

    The traveler participated in the 13th meeting of the Executive Committee on Alternative Motor Fuels (International Energy Agency). Participating countries in addition to the US are Canada, Italy, Finland, Japan, Sweden, and New Zealand (absent). The status of five existing annexes was reviewed and a pre-proposal for an additional annex to be a review of environmental impacts of fuels was presented by the traveler. This was well received by committee members, and a detailed proposal for such work will be developed for presentation at the next Executive Committee meeting.

  2. Greenfield Alternative Study LEU-Mo Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Division of URS

    2008-07-01

    This report provides the initial “first look” of the design of the Greenfield Alternative of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC); a facility to be built at a Greenfield DOE National Laboratory site. The FFC is designed to fabricate LEU-Mo monolithic fuel for the 5 US High Performance Research Reactors (HPRRs). This report provides a pre-conceptual design of the site, facility, process and equipment systems of the FFC; along with a preliminary hazards evaluation, risk assessment as well as the ROM cost and schedule estimate.

  3. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the laboratory effort to identify and quantify organic exhaust species generated from alternative-fueled light-duty vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline. The exhaust species from these vehicles were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without a vehicle catalyst in place to determine the influence of a catalytic converter on species formation.

  4. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. The areas covered were: (1) development of a theoretical expression for the rotating ring disk electrode technique; (2) determination of the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; (3) determination of oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoreomethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) which was considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and (4) the measurement of transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures.

  5. 75 FR 26165 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...EPA is issuing a proposed rule to amend the diesel sulfur regulations to allow refiners, importers, distributors, and retailers of highway diesel fuel the option to use an alternative affirmative defense if the Agency finds highway diesel fuel samples above the specified sulfur standard at retail facilities. This rule also proposes to amend the gasoline benzene regulations to allow disqualified small refiners the same opportunity to generate gasoline benzene credits as that afforded to non-small refiners.

  6. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  7. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  8. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-02

    This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  9. Effects of Fuel Composition on Combustion Stability and NO X Emissions for Traditional and Alternative Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijlee, Shazib Z.

    Synthetic jet fuels are studied to help understand their viability as alternatives to traditionally derived jet fuel. Two combustion parameters -- flame stability and NOX emissions -- are used to compare these fuels through experiments and models. At its core, this is a fuels study comparing how chemical makeup and behavior relate. Six 'real', complex fuels are studied in this work -- four are synthetic from alternative sources and two are traditional from petroleum sources. Two of the synthetic fuels are derived from natural gas and coal via the Fischer Tropsch catalytic process. The other two are derived from Camelina oil and tallow via hydroprocessing. The traditional military jet fuel, JP8, is used as a baseline as it is derived from petroleum. The sixth fuel is derived from petroleum and is used to study the effects of aromatic content on the synthetic fuels. The synthetic fuels lack aromatic compounds, which are an important class of hydrocarbons necessary for fuel handling systems to function properly. Several single-component fuels are studied (through models and/or experiments) to facilitate interpretation and understanding. The flame stability study first compares all the 'real', complex fuels for blowout. A toroidal stirred reactor is used to try and isolate temperature and chemical effects. The modeling study of blowout in the toroidal reactor is the key to understanding any fuel-based differences in blowout behavior. A detailed, reacting CFD model of methane is used to understand how the reactor stabilizes the flame and how that changes as the reactor approaches blowout. A 22 species reduced form of GRI 3.0 is used to model methane chemistry. The knowledge of the radical species role is utilized to investigate the differences between a highly aliphatic fuel (surrogated by iso-octane) and a highly aromatic fuel (surrogated by toluene). A perfectly stirred reactor model is used to study the chemical kinetic pathways for these fuels near blowout. The

  10. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel... government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities. 921150...

  11. Alternative Fuels in Epilepsy and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Tesfaye W; Tan, Kah Ni; McDonald, Tanya S; Borges, Karin

    2017-06-01

    This review summarises the recent findings on metabolic treatments for epilepsy and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) in honour of Professor Ursula Sonnewald. The metabolic impairments in rodent models of these disorders as well as affected patients are being discussed. In both epilepsy and ALS, there are defects in glucose uptake and reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycling, at least in part due to reduced amounts of C4 TCA cycle intermediates. In addition there are impairments in glycolysis in ALS. A reduction in glucose uptake can be addressed by providing the brain with alternative fuels, such as ketones or medium-chain triglycerides. As anaplerotic fuels, such as the triglyceride of heptanoate, triheptanoin, refill the TCA cycle C4/C5 intermediate pool that is deficient, they are ideal to boost TCA cycling and thus the oxidative metabolism of all fuels.

  12. Interim Results from Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Chandler; Paul Norton; Nigel Clark

    1999-05-03

    The objective of this project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is to provide a comprehensive comparison of heavy-duty trucks operating on alternative fuels and diesel fuel. Data collection from up to eight sites is planned. Currently, the project has four sites: Raley's in Sacramento, CA (Kenworth, Cummins LlO-300G, liquefied natural gas - LNG); Pima Gro Systems, Inc. in Fontana, CA (White/GMC, Caterpillar 31768 Dual-Fuel, compressed natural gas - CNG); Waste Management in Washington, PA (Mack, Mack E7G, LNG); and United Parcel Service in Hartford, CT (Freightliner Custom Chassis, Cummins B5.9G, CNG). This paper summarizes current data collection and evaluation results from this project.

  13. Alternative fuels for low emissions and improved performance in CI and heavy duty engines

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Contents include: Limited durability of the diesel engine with a dual-fuel system on neat sunflower oil; Analysis and testing of a high-pressure micro-compressor; Spark-assisted alcohol operation in a low heat rejection engine; Combustion improvement of heavy-duty methanol engine by using autoignition system; Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels demonstration project; Vehicle fuel economy -- the Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Safety and occupational hygiene results -- Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Vehicle reliability and maintenance -- Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Flammability tests of alcohol/gasoline vapors; Flame luminosity enhancement of neat methanol fuel by non-aromatic hydrocarbon additives; and more.

  14. Pyrolysis decomposition of tamarind seed for alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Kader, M A; Islam, M R; Parveen, M; Haniu, H; Takai, K

    2013-12-01

    The conversion of tamarind seed into bio-oil by pyrolysis has been taken into consideration in the present work. The major components of the system were fixed bed fire-tube heating reactor, liquid condenser and collector. The crushed tamarind seed in particle form was pyrolyzed in an electrically heated fixed bed reactor. The products were liquid, char and gasses. The parameters varied were reactor temperature, running time, gas flow rate and feed particle size. The maximum liquid yield was 45 wt% at 400°C for a feed size of 3200 μm diameter at a gas flow rate of 6l/min with a running time of 30 min. The obtained pyrolysis liquid at these optimum process conditions were analyzed for physical and chemical properties to be used as an alternative fuel. The results show the potential of tamarind seed as an important source of alternative fuel and chemicals as well.

  15. Alternative utilization of wheat starch, Grafton, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In 1978, North Dakota State University (NDSU), in cooperation with the Economic Development Administration, completed a study of the feasibility of a vital wheat gluten starch processing plant in North Dakota. The overall objective of this study is to determine the most feasible alternatives for utilizing the by-product starch slurry from a vital wheat gluten processing plant.

  16. Low Floor Americans with Disabilities Compliant Alternate Fuel Vehicle Project

    SciTech Connect

    James Bartel

    2004-11-26

    This project developed a low emission, cost effective, fuel efficient, medium-duty community/transit shuttle bus that meets American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and meets National Energy Policy Act requirements (uses alternative fuel). The Low Profile chassis, which is the basis of this vehicle is configured to be fuel neutral to accommodate various alternative fuels. Demonstration of the vehicle in Yellowstone Park in summer (wheeled operation) and winter (track operation) demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility for this vehicle to provide year around operation throughout the Parks system as well as normal transit operation. The unique configuration of the chassis which provides ADA access with a simple ramp and a flat floor throughout the passenger compartment, provides maximum access for all passengers as well as maximum flexibility to configure the vehicle for each application. Because this product is derived from an existing medium duty truck chassis, the completed bus is 40-50% less expensive than existing low floor transit buses, with the reliability and durability of OEM a medium duty truck.

  17. Development of alternate extractant systems for fast reactor fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Suresh, A.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Raj, Baldev

    2007-07-01

    Due to the limitations of TBP in processing of high burn-up, Pu-rich fast reactor fuels, there is a need to develop alternate extractants for fast reactor fuel processing. In this context, our Centre has been examining the suitability of alternate tri-alkyl phosphates. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(IV) by TBP, tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) and tri-2-methyl-butyl phosphate (T2MBP) from nitric acid media has been investigated under various conditions to derive conclusions on their application for extraction of Pu at macro levels. The chemical and radiolytic degradation of tri-n-amyl-phosphate (TAP) diluted in normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) in the presence of nitric acid has been investigated by the measurement of plutonium retention in organic phase. The potential application of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been explored. Extraction of uranium (VI) and palladium (II) from nitric acid medium by commercially available RTIL and tri-n-butyl phosphate solution in RTIL have been studied and the feasibility of electrodeposition of uranium as uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) and palladium (II) as metallic palladium from the loaded organic phase have been demonstrated. This paper describes results of the above studies and discusses the suitability of the systems for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. (authors)

  18. DOD Alternative Fuels: Policy, Initiatives and Legislative Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    Biorefinery Systems Program. p. 40. 30 U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, USDA FY2013 Budget Summary and Annual Performance Plan...Energy: Biomass and Biorefinery Systems Program. p. 40. DOD Alternative Fuels: Policy, Initiatives and Legislative Activity Congressional... Biorefinery Systems R&D. — ... The Committee recommends $203,000,000 for Biomass and Biorefinery Systems R&D, $3,000,000 above fiscal year 2012 and

  19. Fuel Cells Utilizing Oxygen From Air at Low Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan; Boyer, Chris; Greenwald, Charles

    2006-01-01

    A fuel cell stack has been developed to supply power for a high-altitude aircraft with a minimum of air handling. The fuel cell is capable of utilizing oxygen from ambient air at low pressure with no need for compression. For such an application, it is advantageous to take oxygen from the air (in contradistinction to carrying a supply of oxygen onboard), but it is a challenging problem to design a fuel-cell stack of reasonable weight that can generate sufficient power while operating at reduced pressures. The present fuel-cell design is a response to this challenge. The design features a novel bipolar plate structure in combination with a gas-diffusion structure based on a conductive metal core and a carbon gas-diffusion matrix. This combination makes it possible for the flow fields in the stack to have a large open fraction (ratio between open volume and total volume) to permit large volumes of air to flow through with exceptionally low backpressure. Operations at reduced pressure require a corresponding increase in the volume of air that must be handled to deliver the same number of moles of oxygen to the anodes. Moreover, the increase in the open fraction, relative to that of a comparable prior fuel-cell design, reduces the mass of the stack. The fuel cell has been demonstrated to operate at a power density as high as 105 W/cm2 at an air pressure as low as 2 psia (absolute pressure 14 kPa), which is the atmospheric pressure at an altitude of about 50,000 ft ( 15.2 km). The improvements in the design of this fuel cell could be incorporated into designs of other fuel cells to make them lighter in weight and effective at altitudes higher than those of prior designs. Potential commercial applications for these improvements include most applications now under consideration for fuel cells.

  20. A Comparison Study of Various Nuclear Fuel Cycle Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Eun-ha; Ko, Won-il

    2007-07-01

    As a nation develops its nuclear strategies, it must consider various aspects of nuclear energy such as sustainability, environmental-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics, technologies, and so on. Like all the policy decision, however, a nuclear fuel cycle option can not be superior in all aspects; the nation must identify its top priority and accordingly evaluate all the possible nuclear fuel cycle options. For such a purpose, this paper takes four different fuel cycle options that are likely adopted by the Korean government, considering the current status of nuclear power generation and the 3. Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (CNEPP) - Once-through Cycle, DUPIC Recycle, Thermal Recycle and GEN-IV Recycle. The paper then evaluates each option in terms of resource utilization and waste generation. The analysis shows that the GEN-IV Recycle appears to be most competitive from these aspects. (authors)

  1. Genomics of alternative sulfur utilization in ascomycetous yeasts.

    PubMed

    Linder, Tomas

    2012-10-01

    Thirteen ascomycetous yeast strains with sequenced genomes were assayed for their ability to grow on chemically defined medium with 16 different sulfur compounds as the only significant source of sulfur. These compounds included sulfoxides, sulfones, sulfonates, sulfamates and sulfate esters. Broad utilization of alternative sulfur sources was observed in Komagataella pastoris (syn. Pichia pastoris), Lodderomyces elongisporus, Millerozyma farinosa (syn. Pichia sorbitophila), Pachysolen tannophilus, Scheffersomyces stipitis (syn. Pichia stipitis), Spathaspora passalidarum, Yamadazyma tenuis (syn. Candida tenuis) and Yarrowia lipolytica. Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were mainly able to utilize sulfonates and sulfate esters, while Lachancea thermotolerans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe were limited to aromatic sulfate esters. Genome analysis identified several candidate genes with bacterial homologues that had been previously shown to be involved in the utilization of alternative sulfur sources. Analysis of candidate gene promoter sequences revealed a significant overrepresentation of DNA motifs that have been shown to regulate sulfur metabolism in Sacc. cerevisiae.

  2. Extraction of alternative fuels from fire debris samples*.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Raymond J; Spagnola, Michael V

    2008-09-01

    Alternative fuels, specifically biodiesel, biodiesel blends, and E85 fuel, have been gaining a market share over the past few years. With the emergence of these fuels, fire debris analysts should be able to recognize their characteristics since these fuels may be encountered in casework. In this study, pure biodiesel (B100) and a 20% blend of pure biodiesel with petroleum diesel (B20) are examined as liquids and are extracted from debris samples using both passive headspace concentration and solvent extraction. Typical fire debris instrumental conditions are used to analyze these samples. Components of B100 and B20 may be observed in debris samples extracted using the passive headspace concentration method, but the chromatographic patterns are different from the pure liquid samples. When solvent extraction is used as a secondary extraction method on debris samples, the resulting patterns are consistent with the pure liquids of B100 and B20. E85 fuel, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, can be extracted using a typical fire debris extraction technique but requires slight modifications to typical fire debris instrumental conditions. E85 is shown at various stages of evaporation to demonstrate the resiliency of the ethanol. Additionally, samples of E85 were placed on carpet, burned and extinguished to demonstrate the effects of the suppression medium on the retention of ethanol.

  3. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from alternative fuels in Australian heavy vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Tom; Grant, Tim; Williams, David; Watson, Harry

    This paper quantifies the expected pre-combustion and combustion emissions of greenhouse gases from Australian heavy vehicles using alternative fuels. We use the term exbodied emissions for these full fuel-cycle emissions. The fuels examined are low sulfur diesel (LSD), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULS), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol (from lignocellulose), biodiesel and waste oil. Biodiesel and ethanol have the lowest exbodied greenhouse gas emissions (in grams greenhouse gases per kilometre travelled). Biodiesel reduces exbodied greenhouse gas emissions from 41% to 51% whereas ethanol reduces emissions by 49-55%. In fact, both emit larger quantities of CO 2 than conventional fuels, but as most of the CO 2 is from renewable carbon stocks that fraction is not counted towards the greenhouse gas emissions from the fuel. The gaseous fuels (LPG, CNG) come next with emissions that range from 88% to 92% of diesel. The emissions of greenhouse gases from diesel are reduced if waste oil is used as a diesel extender, but the processing energy required to generate LSD and ULS in Australia increase their greenhouse gas emissions compared to diesel fuel. The extra energy required liquefy and cool LNG means that it has the highest exbodied greenhouse gas emissions of the fuels that were considered.

  4. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  5. 10 CFR 490.203 - Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. 490.203 Section 490.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.203 Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. (a) General Provisions...

  6. 10 CFR 490.201 - Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.201 Section 490.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.201 Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate...

  7. 10 CFR 490.201 - Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.201 Section 490.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.201 Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate...

  8. 10 CFR 490.203 - Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. 490.203 Section 490.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.203 Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. (a) General Provisions...

  9. 10 CFR 490.201 - Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.201 Section 490.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.201 Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate...

  10. 10 CFR 490.203 - Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. 490.203 Section 490.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.203 Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. (a) General Provisions...

  11. 10 CFR 490.203 - Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. 490.203 Section 490.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.203 Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. (a) General Provisions...

  12. 10 CFR 490.201 - Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.201 Section 490.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.201 Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate...

  13. 10 CFR 490.201 - Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.201 Section 490.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.201 Alternative fueled vehicle acquisition mandate...

  14. 10 CFR 490.203 - Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. 490.203 Section 490.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.203 Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. (a) General Provisions...

  15. Informal Market Survey of Training Issues: Heavy Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Doug

    The needs and opportunities in the heavy-duty alternative fuel vehicle training arena were examined in an informal marketing survey. A list of 277 potential respondents was compiled from the 220 individuals in the National Alternative Fuels Training Program database and 57 names identified from journals in the field of alternative fuels. When 2…

  16. 41 CFR 102-117.130 - Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... use alternative fuels? 102-117.130 Section 102-117.130 Public Contracts and Property Management... § 102-117.130 Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels? No, but, whenever possible, you are encouraged to select TSPs that use alternative fuel vehicles and equipment, under policy in the Clean Air...

  17. 41 CFR 102-117.130 - Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use alternative fuels? 102-117.130 Section 102-117.130 Public Contracts and Property Management... § 102-117.130 Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels? No, but, whenever possible, you are encouraged to select TSPs that use alternative fuel vehicles and equipment, under policy in the Clean Air...

  18. 41 CFR 102-117.130 - Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... use alternative fuels? 102-117.130 Section 102-117.130 Public Contracts and Property Management... § 102-117.130 Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels? No, but, whenever possible, you are encouraged to select TSPs that use alternative fuel vehicles and equipment, under policy in the Clean Air...

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.130 - Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... use alternative fuels? 102-117.130 Section 102-117.130 Public Contracts and Property Management... § 102-117.130 Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels? No, but, whenever possible, you are encouraged to select TSPs that use alternative fuel vehicles and equipment, under policy in the Clean Air...

  20. 41 CFR 102-117.130 - Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... use alternative fuels? 102-117.130 Section 102-117.130 Public Contracts and Property Management... § 102-117.130 Must I select TSPs who use alternative fuels? No, but, whenever possible, you are encouraged to select TSPs that use alternative fuel vehicles and equipment, under policy in the Clean Air...

  1. Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems. Summary technical progress report, August 15, 1978-January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Wong, E.

    1980-02-27

    The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resources. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternative fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are: (a) develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternative fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and (b) provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. This is the second major report of the program. Key experimental findings during this reporting period concern stirred combustor soot production during operation at controlled temperature conditions, soot production as a function of combustor residence time, an improved measurement technique for total hydrocarbons and initial stirred combustor results of fuel nitrogen conversion. While the results to be presented concern a stirred combustor which utilizes premixed fuel vapor/oxidant mixtures, a new combustor which combusts liquid fuel injected into the reactor as a spray has been developed and will be described. Analytical program progress includes the development of new quasiglobal models of soot formation and assessment of needs for other submodel development.

  2. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... various fuel parameters including olefin content. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D1319... 80.46(b). On July 6, 2006, the American Petroleum Institute (API) petitioned the Agency to allow ASTM..., that would allow ASTM D6550 as an alternative test method provided no adverse comment was received by...

  3. Utility reduces fuel cost with heat recovery, industrial byproduct fuel, cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    A 50-MW North Dakota power plant is refurbished to recover major waste-heat sources. Use of agricultural byproduct fuel and cogeneration also helps to cut future costs. The plant is saving on fuel costs by burning 150-200 tons/day of sunflower seed hulls from a local processing plant. The hulls are pulverized and mixed with the primary fuel, North Dakota lignite. At the same time, the processing plant that supplies the sunflower hulls buys steam from the power plant, thus giving the utility some of the economic benefits of cogeneration.

  4. Apparatus for reforming fuel oil wherein ultrasonic waves are utilized

    SciTech Connect

    Kunishio, M.; Shirai, K.; Takezi, H.

    1981-08-04

    An apparatus for reforming fuel oil wherein ultrasonic waves are utilized. The apparatus comprises a closed vessel, a rotary collector formed in a cylindrical shape, an inlet conduit for supplying fuel oil to be reformed into the vessel, an outlet conduit for delivering reformed oil from the vessel, and a ultrasonic irradiating device. The rotary collector has a layered mesh structure of a fine mesh, preferably of mesh size between 2 mu M and 20 mu m, mounted thereon so that sludge contained in the fuel oil to be reformed is collected on the layered mesh structure. One end of a horn connected to the ultrasonic wave irradiating device faces the layered mesh structure forming a small gap therebetween so that the sludge collected on the layered mesh structure is dissociated by the ultrasonic waves.

  5. Fuel-flexible combined cycles for utility power and cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, P. B.; Duffy, T. E.; Schreiber, H.

    1980-03-01

    Two combustion turbine combined cycle power plants have been studied for performance and operating economics. Both power plants are in the sizing range that will be suitable for small utility application and use less than 106 GJ/hr (100 million Btu/hr). The first power plant is based on the Solar Turbines International (STI) Mars industrial gas turbine. The combined gas turbine/steam cycle is direct fired with No. 2 diesel fuel. A total installed cost for the system is estimated to be within the band 545 to 660 $/kW. The second power plant is based on STI's Centaur industrial gas turbine. The combined gas turbine/steam cycle is indirectly fired with solid fuel although it is intended that the installation can be initially fired with a liquid fuel.

  6. Vehicle Data for Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) and Hybrid Fuel Vehicles (HEVs) from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFCD)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The AFDC provides search capabilities for many different models of both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Engine and transmission type, fuel and class, fuel economy and emission certification are some of the facts available. The search will also help users locate dealers in their areas and do cost analyses. Information on alternative fuel vehicles and on advanced technology vehicles, along with calculators, resale and conversion information, links to incentives and programs such as Clean Cities, and dozens of fact sheets and publications make this section of the AFDC a valuable resource for car buyers.

  7. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    PubMed

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  8. Development of biomass as an alternative fuel for gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrick, J T

    1991-04-01

    A program to develop biomass as an alternative fuel for gas turbines was started at Aerospace Research Corporation in 1980. The research culminated in construction and installation of a power generation system using an Allison T-56 gas turbine at Red Boiling Springs, Tennessee. The system has been successfully operated with delivery of power to the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Emissions from the system meet or exceed EPA requirements. No erosion of the turbine has been detected in over 760 hours of operation, 106 of which were on line generating power for the TVA. It was necessary to limit the turbine inlet temperature to 1450{degrees}F to control the rate of ash deposition on the turbine blades and stators and facilitate periodic cleaning of these components. Results of tests by researchers at Battelle Memorial Institute -- Columbus Division, give promise that deposits on the turbine blades, which must be periodically removed with milled walnut hulls, can be eliminated with addition of lime to the fuel. Operational problems, which are centered primarily around the feed system and engine configuration, have been adequately identified and can be corrected in an upgraded design. The system is now ready for development of a commercial version. The US Department of Energy (DOE) provided support only for the evaluation of wood as an alternative fuel for gas turbines. However, the system appears to have high potential for integration into a hybrid system for the production of ethanol from sorghum or sugar cane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, C. J.; Purohit, G. P.; Degrey, S. P.; Finegold, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements in fuel economy for a broad spectrum of truck engines and waste heat utilization concepts are evaluated and compared. The engines considered are the diesel, spark ignition, gas turbine, and Stirling. The waste heat utilization concepts include preheating, regeneration, turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. Predictions were based on fuel-air cycle analyses, computer simulation, and engine test data. The results reveal that diesel driving cycle performance can be increased by 20% through increased turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. The Rankine engine compounding provides about three times as much improvement as turbocompounding but also costs about three times as much. Performance for either is approximately doubled if applied to an adiabatic diesel.

  10. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Environmental impact of alternative fuel on Tehran air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ebtekar, T.

    1995-12-31

    Seventy percent of the air pollution in the city of Tehran stems from mobile sources, and in comparison with other major cities of the world, Iran`s capital experiences one of the most polluted metropolitan areas. There exists a surplus of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in the Persian Gulf and Iranian market, in addition, Iran possesses the second largest reservoir of natural gas in the world. These alternative energy resources create a favorable potential fuel for city of Tehran. Experiments carried out in Tehran indicate that in converting the taxis from gasoline to a dual fuel (LPG/gasoline) car or to a dual fuel natural gas vehicle (NGV) reduce all major pollutants (CO, HC, NOX, Pb) substantially. Following the author`s recommendation, the number of LPG dispensing units in gas stations are increasing and the number of dual fuel taxis amount to several thousands in the metropolitan area. The conversion of diesel buses in the Tehran Public Transportation Corporation to natural gas (NGV) has been recommended by the author and vast experimental works are underway at the present time.

  12. Technology assessment: Municipal solid waste as a utility fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neparstek, M. I.; Cymny, G. A.

    1982-05-01

    This study updates a 1974 EPRI technology assessment of municipal solid waste (MSW) as a utility fuel. An independent and consistent assessment of the development status and conceptual design and economics is presented for the following refuse-to-electricity technologies; mass burning of MSW in a dedicated boiler; preparation of coarse RDF and firing in a dedicated boiler; preparation of wet RDF and firing in a dedicated boiler; preparation of fluff RDF and cofiring with coal in a utility boiler; and preparation of dust RDF and cofiring with coal in a utility boiler. The generated steam is used to drive a turbine-generator and produce electricity. Utility ownership and financing are assumed for the coal-fired power plant used for RDF cofiring and the turbine generators driven by refuse-generated steam. Municipal ownership is assumed for the RDF preparation facilities and the MSW mass burning and RDF-fired dedicated boilers.

  13. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-06

    Electric utilities received a record 687.0 million short tons of coal in 1986, surpassing the previous record of 684.1 million short tons set in 1984. Receipts of coal increased over 20 million short tons from 1985. Petroleum receipts were 228.5 barrels, up significantly from the 164.9 million barrels reported in 1985. A large decline in petroleum prices during the first seven months of 1986 (Table HL6) led to higher demand of No. 6 fuel oil by electric utilities. Gas receipts totaled 2,437.8 billion cubic feet (Bcf), a decrease of over 400.0 Bcf from 1985 totals. 7 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  15. Update from the NREL Alternative Fuel Transit Bus Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    1999-05-01

    The object of this project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is to provide a comprehensive comparison of heavy-duty urban transit buses operating on alternative fuels and diesel fuel. Final reports from this project were produced in 1996 from data collection and evaluation of 11 transit buses from eight transit sites. With the publication of these final reports, three issues were raised that needed further investigation: (1) the natural gas engines studied were older, open-loop control engines; (2) propane was not included in the original study; and (3) liquefied natural gas (LNG) was found to be in the early stages of deployment in transit applications. In response to these three issues, the project has continued by emissions testing newer natural gas engines and adding two new data collection sites to study the newer natural gas technology and specifically to measure new technology LNG buses.

  16. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  17. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  18. Coal/biomass fuels and the gas turbine: Utilization of solid fuels and their derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    DeCorso, M.; Newby, R.; Anson, D.; Wenglarz, R.; Wright, I.

    1996-06-01

    This paper discusses key design and development issues in utilizing coal and other solid fuels in gas turbines. These fuels may be burned in raw form or processed to produce liquids or gases in more or less refined forms. The use of such fuels in gas turbines requires resolution of technology issues which are of little or no consequence for conventional natural gas and refined oil fuels. For coal, these issues are primarily related to the solid form in which coal is naturally found and its high ash and contaminant levels. Biomass presents another set of issues similar to those of coal. Among the key areas discussed are effects of ash and contaminant level on deposition, corrosion, and erosion of turbine hot parts, with particular emphasis on deposition effects.

  19. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Fuel System Supply Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-19

    VA : Coordinating Research Council, Inc. Vols. 2013 Aviation Technical Committee Meetings, May 2012. 10. Dallas, A .,Block, J., Klick, P., Grove, B ...utilizing Fuel System Supply Point Joel Schmitigal U S Army Tank Automotive Research DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A . Approved for public release; distribution...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Distribution Statement A . Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In June 2013

  20. Effect of Fuel Additives on Spray Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Role of alternative fuels on reducing the combustion pollutants is gaining momentum in both land and air transport. Recent studies have shown that addition of nanoscale metal particles as fuel additives to liquid fuels have a positive effect not only on their combustion performance but also in reducing the pollutant formation. However, most of those studies are still in the early stages of investigation with the addition of nanoparticles at low weight percentages. Such an addition can affect the hydrodynamic and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this study, the near nozzle spray performance of gas-to-liquid jet fuel with and without the addition of alumina nanoparticles are investigated at macro- and microscopic levels using optical diagnostic techniques. At macroscopic level, the addition of nanoparticles is seen to enhance the sheet breakup process when compared to that of the base fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet size and velocity are also found to be affected. Although the addition of nanoscale metal particles at low weight percentages does not affect the bulk fluid properties, the atomization process is found to be affected in the near nozzle region. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund.

  1. Taking an Alternative Route: A guide for fleet operators and individual owners using alternative fuels in cars and trucks

    SciTech Connect

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-04-18

    Taking an Alternative Route is a 30-page guide for fleet managers and individual owners on using alternative fuels in cars and trucks. Discussed in detail are all fuels authorized for federal credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The publication informs federal and state fleet managers about how to comply with EPAct, and provides information about the Clean Air Act Amendments.

  2. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2014/ FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2014 / fiscal year 2015.

  3. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL

  4. Lubricity and Derived Cetane Number Measurements of Jet Fuels, Alternative Fuels and Fuel Blends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    ASTM conditions. The base fuels chosen were Syntroleum S-8, Jet A, JP-8, SASOL GTL and No. 2DS15. BOCLE (ASTM D5001), HFRR (ASTM D6078) and SLBOCLE...fuels used for this task are EPA certified ULSD #2, Syntroleum S-8, JP-8, SASOL GTL , and biodiesel. Cetane Index was calculated per ASTM D976 and...5. Blend-2: 50% S-8 and 50% JP-8 ...................................................................................... 2  Table 6. SASOL GTL

  5. ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF SEALING PLANAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Coyle, Christopher A.; Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Xia, Gordon

    2005-03-01

    One of the key limiting issues in designing and fabricating a high performance planar solid oxide fuel cell (pSOFC) stack is the development of the appropriate materials and techniques for hermetically sealing the metal and ceramic components. There are essentially two standard methods of sealing: (1) by forming a rigid joint or (2) by constructing a compressive “sliding” seal. While short-term success has been achieved with both techniques, it is apparent that to meet the long-term operational needs of stack designers, alternative sealing concepts will need to be conceived. Described below are two alternative pSOFC sealing methods that have been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  6. Evaluation of Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal-derived liquid as utility diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heater, W.R.; Froh, T.W.; Ariga, S.; Baker, Q.A.; Piispanen, W.; Webb, P.; Trayser, D.; Keane, W.J.

    1983-10-01

    The program consisted of three phases: (I) characterization of the physical and chemical properties of EDS, (II) evaluation of EDS in a laboratory medium-speed diesel engine, and (III) evaluation of EDS in a low-speed diesel engine operating at a utility. The characteristics of high aromatic content and low cetane number that were found during Phase I made it unlikely that EDS could be used as a direct substitute for diesel fuel without engine modification to provide ignition assistance. Phase II was conducted on a 12-cylinder General Electric Company 7FDL diesel engine. Blends of up to 30% EDS and 70% 0.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing engine fuel oil system and injecting DF-2 through an auxiliary nozzle as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 5 to 10% pilot oil heat input. Phase III was conducted on a 16-cylinder Cooper-Bessemer LSV-16-GDT diesel engine at an EUC plant in Easton, Maryland. Blends of up to 66.7% EDS and 33.3% DF-2 were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing fuel oil system and using a natural-gas-fueled precombustion chamber as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 3 to 6% pilot gas heat input. The program confirmed that it is feasible to consume significant proportions of EDS in a diesel engine, but more development is needed before EDS can be considered a viable alternative liquid fuel for diesel engines, and an industrial hygiene program is needed to assure safe handling of the fuel.

  7. Determination of internal resistance and electrocatalyst utilization of fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, José A.; Ward, C. A.; Venter, R. D.; Ho, S.

    Analytical methods have been proposed recently for determining both the internal resistance of fuel cell electrodes and the fraction of the electrocatalyst that is completely utilized. To apply these methods requires that the Tafel slope and the equilibrium exchange current for the electrolyte-electrocatalyst combination to be known when this combination is exposed to O 2 and when it is exposed to H 2. The Tafel parameters have been previously reported for O 2 and their measurement for H 2 is reported herein. Also, to apply one of these analytical methods maximum power method — requires that the current and potential to be measured when a fuel cell is operating at steady state and at maximum power. To apply the second method — approximate maximum power method — requires that the cell potential and slope of the potential versus current curve be measured at a current that is less than that corresponding to maximum power. To evaluate these methods, a series of porous carbon electrodes were constructed, and to give them different resistances nickel was electro-deposited on the one side of each. These electrodes were then assembled into fuel cells and tested. Their internal resistance was determined by the current-interrupt technique, and by using the analytical methods. These results agree to within the experimental error, 12%. Electro-depositing nickel on the gas side of the electrodes was found to decrease their internal resistance by an order of magnitude and increase the electrocatalyst utilization by a factor of three.

  8. Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-05-31

    This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO), to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at the LaPorte, Texas Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). Laboratory work was performed by Air Products and a variety of subcontractors, and focused on the study of the kinetics of production of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, the production of DME using the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) Process, the conversion of DME to fuels and chemicals, and the production of other higher value products from syngas. Four operating campaigns were performed at the AFDU during the performance period. Tests of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process and the LPDME{trademark} Process were made to confirm results from the laboratory program and to allow for the study of the hydrodynamics of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) at a significant engineering scale. Two campaigns demonstrated the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon products via the slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Other topics that were studied within this program include the economics of production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the identification of trace components in coal-derived syngas and the means to economically remove these species, and the study of systems for separation of wax from catalyst in the F-T process. The work performed under this Cooperative Agreement has continued to promote the development of technologies that use clean syngas produced from any one of a

  10. Prospectives on the risks of alternative fuel cycles.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D H; Kastenberg, W E; Griesmeyer, J M

    1981-01-01

    A commentary is provided on the uncertainties in the data and in qualifying the phenomena relating to the risks imposed by the various steps involved in the use of coal, oil, natural gas, hydropower, and nuclear fuels for the generation of electricity. Uncertainties appear to be extremely large for hydropower which exhibits both large scale ecological impacts and the potential for high consequence, moderate frequency events at specific sites. Major risk-related uncertainties with the use of nuclear fuels include those surrounding nuclear weapons proliferation and reactor accident frequencies and consequences. Uncertainties for coal and oil include specification of the damage function of air transported sulfates and the effects of atmospheric CO2 buildup, acid rain, and groundwater contamination from mine water runoff. Compounding these problems is the potential impact of the growing global competition for a diminishing supply of oil. In the studies reviewed herein, the assessed risks of the nuclear fuel cycle are no greater than those of the primary alternatives. Prudence suggests that we do not totally reject any particular option at this time on the basis of health effects alone; similarly, no option is an undisputed choice. PMID:7270773

  11. Prospectives on the risks of alternative fuel cycles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D H; Kastenberg, W E; Griesmeyer, J M

    1981-09-01

    A commentary is provided on the uncertainties in the data and in qualifying the phenomena relating to the risks imposed by the various steps involved in the use of coal, oil, natural gas, hydropower, and nuclear fuels for the generation of electricity. Uncertainties appear to be extremely large for hydropower which exhibits both large scale ecological impacts and the potential for high consequence, moderate frequency events at specific sites. Major risk-related uncertainties with the use of nuclear fuels include those surrounding nuclear weapons proliferation and reactor accident frequencies and consequences. Uncertainties for coal and oil include specification of the damage function of air transported sulfates and the effects of atmospheric CO2 buildup, acid rain, and groundwater contamination from mine water runoff. Compounding these problems is the potential impact of the growing global competition for a diminishing supply of oil. In the studies reviewed herein, the assessed risks of the nuclear fuel cycle are no greater than those of the primary alternatives. Prudence suggests that we do not totally reject any particular option at this time on the basis of health effects alone; similarly, no option is an undisputed choice.

  12. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance: Part A: Combustor Performance Part B: Combustor Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shouse, D. T.; Neuroth, C.; Henricks, R. C.; Lynch, A.; Frayne, C.; Stutrud, J. S.; Corporan, E.; Hankins, T.

    2010-01-01

    Alternate aviation fuels for military or commercial use are required to satisfy MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 (2010) standards, respectively, and are classified as drop-in fuel replacements. To satisfy legacy issues, blends to 50% alternate fuel with petroleum fuels are certified individually on the basis of feedstock. Adherence to alternate fuels and fuel blends requires smart fueling systems or advanced fuel-flexible systems, including combustors and engines without significant sacrifice in performance or emissions requirements. This paper provides preliminary performance (Part A) and emissions and particulates (Part B) combustor sector data for synthetic-parafinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type fuel and blends with JP-8+100 relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling.

  13. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  14. Geospatial Analysis and Optimization of Fleet Logistics to Exploit Alternative Fuels and Advanced Transportation Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, W.; Singer, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is developing geographical information system (GIS) tools to evaluate alternative fuel availability in relation to garage locations and to perform automated fleet-wide optimization to determine where to deploy alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles and fueling infrastructure.

  15. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1987. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-19

    In 1987, electric utilities received 721.3 million short tons of coal, 34.3 million short tons more than in 1986. Higher coal consumption levels, new coal-fired units entering commercial operation, and a buildup of coal stocks contributed to this record demand for coal by electric utilities. Petroleum receipts at electric utilities in 1987 totaled 194.6 million barrels, 15% less than the 228.5 million barrels received in 1986. Part of the decrease in petroleum receipts in 1987 can be attributed to the higher price charged for No. 6 fuel oil. The 1987 gas receipts at electric utilities totaled 2,666.9 billion cubic feet (Bcf), 229.1 Bcf (9%) more than the 1986 receipts. Unlike petroleum, the average price of gas receipts at electric utilities declined in 1987. The resulting price differential of 74 cents per million Btu (No. 6 oil, 297.4; gas, 223.5) made gas a likely alternative to higher priced petroleum at electric utilities capable of burning either fuel. 52 tabs.

  16. Canadian offshore oil production solution gas utilization alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.V.

    1999-07-01

    Oil and gas development in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is in its early stage and the offshore industry emphasis is almost exclusively on oil production. At the Hibernia field, the Gravity Base Structure (GBS) is installed and the first wells are in production. The Terra Nova project, based on a Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) ship shaped concept, is in its engineering and construction stage and first oil is expected by late 2000. Several other projects, such as Husky's White Rose and Chevron's Hebron, have significant potential for future development in the same area. It is highly probably that these projects will employ the FPSO concept. It is also expected that the solution gas disposal issues of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and the operators may be forced to look for alternatives to gas reinjection. Three gas utilization alternatives for a FPSO concept based project have been considered and evaluated in this paper: liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and gas-to-liquids conversion (GTL). The evaluation and the relative ranking of these alternatives is based on a first pass screening type of study which considers the technical and economical merits of each alternative. Publicly available information and in-house data, compiled within Fluor Daniel's various offices, was used to establish the basic parameters.

  17. Air emission from the co-combustion of alternative derived fuels within cement plants: Gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Richards, Glen; Agranovski, Igor E

    2015-02-01

    Cement manufacturing is a resource- and energy-intensive industry, utilizing 9% of global industrial energy use while releasing more than 5% of global carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. With an increasing demand of production set to double by 2050, so too will be its carbon footprint. However, Australian cement plants have great potential for energy savings and emission reductions through the substitution of combustion fuels with a proportion of alternative derived fuels (ADFs), namely, fuels derived from wastes. This paper presents the environmental emissions monitoring of 10 cement batching plants while under baseline and ADF operating conditions, and an assessment of parameters influencing combustion. The experiential runs included the varied substitution rates of seven waste streams and the monitoring of seven target pollutants. The co-combustion tests of waste oil, wood chips, wood chips and plastic, waste solvents, and shredded tires were shown to have the minimal influence when compared to baseline runs, or had significantly reduced the unit mass emission factor of pollutants. With an increasing ADF% substitution, monitoring identified there to be no subsequent emission effects and that key process parameters contributing to contaminant suppression include (1) precalciner and kiln fuel firing rate and residence time; (2) preheater and precalciner gas and material temperature; (3) rotary kiln flame temperature; (4) fuel-air ratio and percentage of excess oxygen; and (5) the rate of meal feed and rate of clinker produced.

  18. Gas turbine materials evaluation program utilizing coal derived gaseous fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. L.; Yates, C. C.; Manning, G. B.; Peterson, R. R.

    1981-03-01

    A gas turbine materials evaluation test facility under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy is described. The objective of the mobile test facility is to obtain dynamic and static test data on the erosion/corrosion characteristics of materials exposed to the hot products of the combustion of coal-derived fuels. The engine being utilized for the tests is the WR 24-7 aircraft turbojet unit reconfigurated to burn coke oven gas. Approximately 100 hours of engine operating time have been logged to date.

  19. Fuel Cells for Electric Utility and Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, S.

    1980-01-01

    This review encompasses the following topics: (1) historical, (2) types of fuel cells, (3) thermodynamic and electrode kinetic aspects of fuel cells, (4) overview of present status of fuel cell research and development, (5) electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions, (6) fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicles, and (7) regenerative hydrogen-halogen fuel cells for energy storage. (WHK)

  20. Fuel Economy Improvement by Utilizing Thermoelectric Generator in Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Hu, T.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in thermoelectric technology have made exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (TEGs) promising for recovery of waste heat. Utilization of exhaust-based TEGs in heavy-duty vehicles was studied in this work. Given that the generated power is limited, the alternator is still indispensable. To improve the fuel economy, the generated electricity must be integrated into the automotive electrical system and consumed by electrical loads. Therefore, two feasible ways of integrating the generated electricity into the automotive electrical system are discussed: one in which the original alternator works only under certain conditions, i.e., the "thermostat" strategy, and another in which a smaller alternator is adopted and works together with the TEG, i.e., the "cooperative work" strategy. The overall performance and efficiency are obtained through simulation analysis. The simulation results show that both methods can improve the fuel economy, but the former provides better results. Moreover, if the electrical loads can be properly modified, the fuel economy is further improved. These simulation results lay a solid foundation for application of TEGs in vehicles in the future.

  1. Fuel Economy Improvement by Utilizing Thermoelectric Generator in Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Hu, T.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in thermoelectric technology have made exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (TEGs) promising for recovery of waste heat. Utilization of exhaust-based TEGs in heavy-duty vehicles was studied in this work. Given that the generated power is limited, the alternator is still indispensable. To improve the fuel economy, the generated electricity must be integrated into the automotive electrical system and consumed by electrical loads. Therefore, two feasible ways of integrating the generated electricity into the automotive electrical system are discussed: one in which the original alternator works only under certain conditions, i.e., the "thermostat" strategy, and another in which a smaller alternator is adopted and works together with the TEG, i.e., the "cooperative work" strategy. The overall performance and efficiency are obtained through simulation analysis. The simulation results show that both methods can improve the fuel economy, but the former provides better results. Moreover, if the electrical loads can be properly modified, the fuel economy is further improved. These simulation results lay a solid foundation for application of TEGs in vehicles in the future.

  2. Combustion quality analysis of briquettes from variety of agricultural waste as source of alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.; Yuliah, Y.; Mulyana, C.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing in world population and the industrial sector led to increased demand for energy sources. To do this by utilizing the agricultural waste as a fuel source of alternative energy in the form of bio briquette. The aim at this study was to obtain data onto the characteristics of a wide variety of biomass briquettes from waste agricultural industry. The basic ingredients used are biomass waste from coconut husks, sawdust, rice husks and coffee husks. Each of these biomass residues are dried, crushed, then mixed with starch adhesives. This mixture is molded and dried using sunlight. Each type of briquettes was characterized and analyzed the physical-chemical properties, including calorific value, water content, fixed carbon content and the results were compared with charcoal and coal that was used as fuel in public. The results showed that bio briquettes from coconut husks get the highest calorific value of 4,451 cal/g.

  3. Current State of Research of Alternate Fuel Sources for Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Lee

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to report on the current state of research in the field of alternate fuel sources for passenger vehicles. Because the number of alternate fuel options is very large, this study focuses on selected bio-fuels and briefly describes a couple of the most popular non-bio and non-renewable alternatives. The fuel and energy sources studied are compared using well-to-wheel and well-to-tank net energy balances. Data also includes relative production capabilities by volume in terms of current fossil fuels. Qualitative data includes production methods and transportability.

  4. Use of certain alternative fuels in road transport in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gis, W.; Pielecha, J.; Waśkiewicz, J.; Gis, M.; Menes, M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of biomethane and hydrogen technology in the road transport in the EU countries is recommended, among the others, in the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014. Under the provisions of the said Directive, it is recommended to EU countries to use biomethane and progressively ensure accessibility to hydrogen cars on their territories, and above all to ensure the possibility of driving hydrogen vehicles between the member States. The territorial accessibility for biomethane vehicles is determined by the availability of biomethane refuelling infrastructure in the first place in cities and then on the road network distances recommended in this directive. The territorial accessibility for hydrogen vehicles is determined by the availability of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, in the first place along the TEN-T network. The article presents the possibilities of using these alternative fuels in Poland, presenting some of the results of research and analysis in this area.

  5. Alternative Fuel Research in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Yen, Chia H.; Nakley, Leah M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has recently constructed an Alternative Fuels Laboratory which is solely being used to perform Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reactor studies, novel catalyst development and thermal stability experiments. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst screening experiments while focusing on reducing energy inputs, reducing CO2 emissions and increasing product yields within the F-T process. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is considered a gas to liquid process which reacts syn-gas (a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), over the surface of a catalyst material which is then converted into liquids of various hydrocarbon chain length and product distributions1. These hydrocarbons can then be further processed into higher quality liquid fuels such as gasoline and diesel. The experiments performed in this laboratory will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics to focus on newly formulated catalysts, improved process conditions and enhanced catalyst activation methods. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor used solely for cobalt catalyst activation.

  6. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase 5/6 report

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, S.; Graham, J.; Taylor, P.; Dellinger, B.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on alternative automotive fuels, the subcontractor has been conducting studies on the origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels. Laboratory experiments were conducted simulating cold start of four alterative fuels (compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol-gasoline mix, and ethanol-gasoline mix) using a commercial three-way catalyst under fuel-lean conditions. This report summarizes the results of these experiments. It appears that temperature of the catalyst is a more important parameter for fuel conversion and pollutant formation than oxygen concentration or fuel composition.

  7. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... limited to, the following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric...

  8. Transitioning to a Hydrogen Future: Learning from the Alternative Fuels Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.

    2006-02-01

    This paper assesses relevant knowledge within the alternative fuels community and recommends transitional strategies and tactics that will further the hydrogen transition in the transportation sector.

  9. Use of MRF residue as alternative fuel in cement production.

    PubMed

    Fyffe, John R; Breckel, Alex C; Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Single-stream recycling has helped divert millions of metric tons of waste from landfills in the U.S., where recycling rates for municipal solid waste are currently over 30%. However, material recovery facilities (MRFs) that sort the municipal recycled streams do not recover 100% of the incoming material. Consequently, they landfill between 5% and 15% of total processed material as residue. This residue is primarily composed of high-energy-content non-recycled plastics and fiber. One possible end-of-life solution for these energy-dense materials is to process the residue into Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) that can be used as an alternative energy resource capable of replacing or supplementing fuel resources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum coke, or biomass in many industrial and power production processes. This report addresses the energetic and environmental benefits and trade-offs of converting non-recycled post-consumer plastics and fiber derived from MRF residue streams into SRF for use in a cement kiln. An experimental test burn of 118 Mg of SRF in the precalciner portion of the cement kiln was conducted. The SRF was a blend of 60% MRF residue and 40% post-industrial waste products producing an estimated 60% plastic and 40% fibrous material mixture. The SRF was fed into the kiln at 0.9 Mg/h for 24h and then 1.8 Mg/h for the following 48 h. The emissions data recorded in the experimental test burn were used to perform the life-cycle analysis portion of this study. The analysis included the following steps: transportation, landfill, processing and fuel combustion at the cement kiln. The energy use and emissions at each step is tracked for the two cases: (1) The Reference Case, where MRF residue is disposed of in a landfill and the cement kiln uses coal as its fuel source, and (2) The SRF Case, in which MRF residue is processed into SRF and used to offset some portion of coal use at the cement kiln. The experimental test burn and accompanying analysis indicate

  10. Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.

    2014-11-01

    When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

  11. Proceedings of the 1995 SAE alternative fuels conference. P-294

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This volume contains 32 papers and five panel discussions related to the fuel substitution of trucks, automobiles, buses, cargo handling equipment, diesel passenger cars, and pickup trucks. Fuels discussed include liquefied natural gas, natural gas, ethanol fuels, methanol fuels, dimethyl ether, methyl esters from various sources (rape oil, used cooking oils, soya, and canola oils), hydrogen fuels, and biodiesel. Other topics include fuel cell powered vehicles, infrastructure requirements for fuel substitution, and economics. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. Used sunflower oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Cigizoglu, K.B.; Oezaktas, T.; Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1997-07-01

    Used sunflower oil was blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The fuel blend was tested in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. The fuel blend and the diesel fuel were rated according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use the fuel blend has characteristics similar to those of the baseline diesel fuel and that it displayed less smoke emission than the diesel fuel.

  13. The study on injection parameters of selected alternative fuels used in diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balawender, K.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Lew, K.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents selected results concerning fuel charging and spraying process for selected alternative fuels, including regular diesel fuel, rape oil, FAME, blends of these fuels in various proportions, and blends of rape oil with diesel fuel. Examination of the process included the fuel charge measurements. To this end, a set-up for examination of Common Rail-type injection systems was used constructed on the basis of Bosch EPS-815 test bench, from which the high-pressure pump drive system was adopted. For tests concerning the spraying process, a visualisation chamber with constant volume was utilised. The fuel spray development was registered with the use of VisioScope (AVL).

  14. Metabolic fuel utilization and pyruvate oxidation during the postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Medina, J M; Tabernero, A; Tovar, J A; Martín-Barrientos, J

    1996-01-01

    The transplacental supply of nutrients is interrupted at birth, which diverts maternal metabolism to lactation. After birth, energy homeostasis is rapidly regained through milk nutrients which supply the newborn with the fatty acids and ketone bodies required for neonatal development. However, immediately after birth and before the onset of suckling there is a time lapse in which the newborn undergoes a unique kind of starvation. During this period glucose is scarce and ketone bodies are not available owing to the delay in ketogenesis. Under these circumstances, the newborn is supplied with another metabolic fuel, lactate, which is utilized as a source of energy and carbon skeletons. Neonatal rat lung, heart, liver and brain utilize lactate for energy production and lipogenesis. Lactate is also utilized by the brain of human babies with type I glycogenosis. Both rat neurons and astrocytes in primary culture actively use lactate as an oxidizable substrate and as a precursor of phospholipids and sterols. Lactate oxidation is enhanced by dichloroacetate, an inhibitor of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase in neurons but not in astrocytes, suggesting that the pyruvate dehydrogenase is regulated differently in each type of cell. Despite the low activity of this enzyme in newborn brain, pyruvate decarboxylation is the main fate of glucose in both neurons and astrocytes. The occurrence of a yeast-like pyruvate decarboxylase activity in neonatal brain may explain these results.

  15. Issues and Potential Program on Denatured Fuel Utilization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    to current U02 fuel performance codes. The parameters of interest include the following: 0 fuel densification; * pellet- clad interaction (ratcheting...Mechanical sorting used. Tube rolling Expands tube and crushes fuel in tube. fuel chrushing Fuel cladding Mechanical screen device separates fuel...separator from cladding pieces. Assumes tube shear and whole bundle shear are comparable in cost. Special dissolvers Constructed of material to contain

  16. Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, C. J.; Purohit, G. P.; Degrey, S. P.; Finegold, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The waste heat utilization concepts include preheating, regeneration, turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. Predictions are based on fuel-air cycle analyses, computer simulation, and engine test data. All options are evaluated in terms of maximum theoretical improvements, but the Diesel and adiabatic Diesel are also compared on the basis of maximum expected improvement and expected improvement over a driving cycle. The study indicates that Diesels should be turbocharged and aftercooled to the maximum possible level. The results reveal that Diesel driving cycle performance can be increased by 20% through increased turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. The Rankine engine compounding provides about three times as much improvement as turbocompounding but also costs about three times as much. Performance for either can be approximately doubled if applied to an adiabatic Diesel.

  17. Pretreatment of automobile shredder residue (ASR) for fuel utilization.

    PubMed

    Hwang, I H; Yokono, S; Matsuto, T

    2008-03-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) was pretreated to improve its quality for fuel utilization. Composition analysis revealed that ASR components could be classified into four groups: (1) urethane and textile-light fraction and combustibles containing low levels of ash and Cl; (2) plastics and rubber-light or heavy fraction and combustibles containing high levels of Cl; (3) metals and electrical wire-heavy fraction and incombustibles, and (4) particles smaller than 5.6mm with high ash contents. Based on these results, we successively performed sieving to remove particles smaller than 5.6mm, float and sink separations to reject the heavy fraction and plastics and rubber containing Cl, thermal treatment under an inert atmosphere to remove Cl derived from PVC, and char washing to remove soluble chlorides. This series of pretreatments enabled the removal of 78% of the ash and 91% of the Cl from ASR. Sieving using a 5.6-mm mesh removed a considerable amount of ash. Product quality was markedly improved after the float and sink method. Specifically, the sink process using a 1.1 g cm(-3) medium fluid rejected almost all rubber containing Cl and a large amount of PVC. The remaining Cl in char, after heating at 300 degrees C under an inert atmosphere and washing, was considered to be present as insoluble chlorides that volatilized at temperatures above 300 degrees C. Based on a tradeoff relationship between product quality and treatment cost, ASR may be utilized as a form of refuse plastic fuel or char.

  18. Uranium resource utilization improvements in the once-through PWR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R A

    1980-04-01

    In support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), Combustion Engineering, Inc. performed a comprehensive analytical study of potential uranium utilization improvement options that can be backfit into existing PWRs operating on the once-through uranium fuel cycle. A large number of potential improvement options were examined as part of a preliminary survey of candidate options. The most attractive of these, from the standpoint of uranium utilization improvement, economic viability, and ease of implementation, were then selected for detailed analysis and were included in a single composite improvement case. This composite case represents an estimate of the total savings in U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ consumption that can be achieved in current-design PWRs by implementing improvements which can be developed and demonstrated in the near term. The improvement options which were evaluated in detail and included in the composite case were a new five-batch, extended-burnup fuel management scheme, low-leakage fuel management, modified lattice designs, axial blankets, reinsertion of initial core batches, and end-of-cycle stretchout.

  19. APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the

  20. Carpet As An Alternative Fuel in Cement Kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew J Realff

    2007-02-06

    Approximately 5 billion lbs of carpet will be removed from buildings in the US each year for the foreseeable future. This carpet is potentially a valuable resource because it contains plastic in the face of the carpet that can be re-used. However, there are many different types of carpet, and at least four major different plastics used to make the face. The face is woven through a backing fabric and held in place by a “glue” that is in most cases a latex cross-linked polymer which is heavily loaded with chalk (calcium carbonate). This backing has almost no value as a recycled material. In addition, carpet is a bulky material that is difficult to handle and ship and must be kept dry. It would be of significant benefit to the public if this stream of material could be kept out of landfills and some of its potential value unlocked by having high volume alternatives for recycled carpet use. The research question that this project investigated was whether carpet could be used as a fuel in a cement kiln. If this could be done successfully, there is significant capacity in the US cement industry to absorb carpet and use it as a fuel. Cement kilns could serve as a way to stimulate carpet collection and then side streams be taken for higher value uses. The research demonstrated that carpet was technically a suitable fuel, but was unable to conclude that the overall system could be economically feasible at this time with the constraints placed on the project by using an existing system for feeding the kiln. Collection and transportation were relatively straightforward, using an existing collector who had the capacity to collect high volumes of material. The shredding of the carpet into a suitable form for feeding was more challenging, but these problems were successfully overcome. The feeding of the carpet into the kiln was not successfully carried out reliably. The overall economics were not positive under the prevailing conditions of costs for transportation and size

  1. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  2. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  3. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year does...

  4. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year does...

  5. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year does...

  6. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  7. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  8. Alternative fuel vehicles for the Federal fleet: Results of the 5-year planning process. Executive Order 12759, Section 11

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report describes five-year plans for acquisition of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) by the Federal agencies. These plans will be used to encourage Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to expand the variety of AFVs produced, reduce the incremental cost of AFVs, and to encourage fuel suppliers to expand the alternative fuel infrastructure and alternative fuel availability. This effort supplements and extends the demonstration and testing of AFVs established by the Department of Energy under the alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988.

  9. Analysis of U.S. School Bus Populations and Alternative Fuel Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, M.

    2004-04-01

    This Clean Cities final report provides information concerning different school bus types, school bus populations, school bus miles and fuel use, school bus emissions, alternative fuel school buses, and potential for alternative fuel school bus use through 2010. It is intended to provide general information concerning the size of the school bus market in the U.S., as well as to provide some quantification of the potential for alternative fuel use in school buses in the U.S., and what that might mean for petroleum displacement and emissions reductions.

  10. Issues for Storing Plant-Based Alternative Fuels in Marine Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-09

    of aerobic metabolites that exacerbated subsequent corrosion processes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS biodiesel , alternative fuel, seawater, corrosion, carbon...2013 Accepted 17 December 2013 Available online 24 December 2013 Keywords: Biodiesel Alternative fuel Seawater Corrosion Carbon steel...these experiments including soy- derived fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel (B100), U.S. military specified petroleum diesel (F-76) and petroleum jet

  11. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    In 1988 the Department of Energy (DOE) undertook a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States. During the next two decades, alternative fuels such as alcohol (methanol or ethanol), compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity could become practical alternatives to oil-based fuels in the US transportation sector. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability. To keep interested parties informed about the progress of the DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment, the Department periodically publishes reports dealing with particular aspects of this complex study. This report provides an analysis of the expected costs to produce methanol from biomass feedstock.

  12. Segregated exhaust SOFC generator with high fuel utilization capability

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; Veyo, Stephen E.; Kothmann, Richard E.

    2003-08-26

    A fuel cell generator contains a plurality of fuel cells (6) in a generator chamber (1) and also contains a depleted fuel reactor or a fuel depletion chamber (2) where oxidant (24,25) and fuel (81) is fed to the generator chamber (1) and the depleted fuel reactor chamber (2), where both fuel and oxidant react, and where all oxidant and fuel passages are separate and do not communicate with each other, so that fuel and oxidant in whatever form do not mix and where a depleted fuel exit (23) is provided for exiting a product gas (19) which consists essentially of carbon dioxide and water for further treatment so that carbon dioxide can be separated and is not vented to the atmosphere.

  13. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  14. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT NO. 10

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  15. The 21st Century - Barrels of Alternative Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-08

    Gas ( GTL ) Coal (CTL) Pet Coke Biomass (BTL...Wastes Synthesis Gas Production Oxygen Plant Air O2 FT Liquid Synthesis Product Recovery Liquid Fuels Transportation Fuels Tail Gas Power...Generation H2 Hydrogen Recovery Wax Hydrocracking Wax Hydrogen Separation Hydrogen Liquid Fuels An Option CO H2 CO2 to Sequestration unclassified

  16. Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

    1999-11-15

    The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

  17. Maintenance and operation of the U.S. DOE Alternative Fuel Center. Final subcontract report, 5 August 1994--4 August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Erwin, J.; Moulton, D.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Alternative Fuel Center (AFC) was established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Alternative Fuel Utilization Program (AFUP). The AFC is designed to provide drum quantities of finished transportation fuels from a variety of sources. DOE funded the design, construction, and installation of a hydrogenation pilot plant capable of performing a range of hydrotreating, reforming, and hydrocracking operations. Southwest Research Institute provided the building, utilities, and laboratory and safety systems needed for the pilot plant. The AFC work reported here contributes to the two primary objectives of the AFUP: data for alternative-fuel-capable vehicles to enhance energy security, and data for controlling emissions for improved air quality.

  18. Alternative approach for cavitation damage study utilizing repetitive laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fei; Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Cavitation is a common phenomenon in fluid systems that can lead to dramatic degradation of solid materials surface in contact with the cavitating media. Study of cavitation damage has great significance in many engineering fields. Current techniques for cavitation damage study either require large scale equipments or tend to introduce damages from other mechanisms. In this project, we utilized the cavitation phenomenon induced by laser optical breakdown and developed a prototype apparatus for cavitation damage study. In our approach, cavitation was generated by the repetitive pressure waves induced by high-power laser pulses. As proof of principal study, stainless steel and aluminum samples were tested using the novel apparatus. Surface characterization via scanning electron microscopy revealed damages such as indentation and surface pitting, which were similar to those reported in literature using other state-of-the-art techniques. These preliminary results demonstrated the new device was capable of generating cavitation damages and could be used as an alternative method for cavitation damage study.

  19. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    an asset which provides an ongoing research capability dedicated to the testing of alternative fuels for aircraft engines. The test stand is now entirely functional with the exception of the electronic ignition unit which still needs adjustments.

  20. Waste fuel utilization in existing boilers on US naval bases. Final report for period ending Sep 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hollander, H.I.; Broderick, J.E.; Klett, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act encourages the recovery of material and energy from waste to the maximum extent practicable at federal facilities while complying with state and local requirements. The Navy's solid waste research project is designed to identify and develop cost effective alternatives for meeting RCRA requirements. Additionally to reduce Navy dependence on dwindlying supplies of natural gas and fuel oil, the Navy has issued guidelines concering the construction of intermediate and larger boiler plants requiring the capability to burn solid forms of fuel including waste derived fuels as well as coal. This report provides perspective on the ramifications of firing solid forms of waste derived fuel, separately or in combination with conventional fossil fuels for existing or new installations. The report is divided into two parts, the first part presents a general discussion of typical characteristics of proposed waste fuels and the potential of utilizing these fuels in existing Navy boilers. The second part is a case study addressing a typical installation and assesses the changes, capital costs and potential problem areas that may be encountered in accommodating waste fuel firing.

  1. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Catherine Riddle; Keri Campbell; Edward Mausolf

    2013-10-01

    Most of the aqueous processes developed, or under consideration worldwide for the recycling of used nuclear fuel (UNF) utilize the oxido-reduction properties of actinides to separate them from other radionuclides. Generally, after acid dissolution of the UNF, (essentially in nitric acid solution), actinides are separated from the raffinate by liquid-liquid extraction using specific solvents, associated along the process, with a particular reductant that will allow the separation to occur. For example, the industrial PUREX process utilizes hydroxylamine as a plutonium reductant. Hydroxylamine has numerous advantages: not only does it have the proper attributes to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III), but it is also a non-metallic chemical that is readily decomposed to innocuous products by heating. However, it has been observed that the presence of high nitric acid concentrations or impurities (such as metal ions) in hydroxylamine solutions increase the likelihood of the initiation of an autocatalytic reaction. Recently there has been some interest in the application of simple hydrophilic hydroxamic ligands such as acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) for the stripping of tetravalent actinides in the UREX process flowsheet. This approach is based on the high coordinating ability of hydroxamic acids with tetravalent actinides (Np and Pu) compared with hexavalent uranium. Thus, the use of AHA offers a route for controlling neptunium and plutonium in the UREX process by complexant based stripping of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from the TBP solvent phase, while U(VI) ions are not affected by AHA and remain solvated in the TBP phase. In the European GANEX process, AHA is also used to form hydrophilic complexes with actinides and strip them from the organic phase into nitric acid. However, AHA does not decompose completely when treated with nitric acid and hampers nitric acid recycling. In lieu of using AHA in the UREX + process, formohydroxamic acid (FHA), although not commercially available, hold

  2. Toxic emissions from mobile sources: a total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, J J; Wang, M Q; He, D

    2001-07-01

    Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants--benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde--in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions, and the use of methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) may result in increased formaldehyde emissions. When the modeling results for the four air toxics are considered together with their cancer risk factors, all the fuels and vehicle technologies show air toxic emission reduction benefits.

  3. Method and apparatus for utilizing alcohol as fuel for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Concepcion, J.M.

    1982-08-03

    This invention broadly relates to a fuel system for an internal combustion engine. More particularly the invention concerns a method and apparatus for utilizing alcohol as fuel for gasoline fed internal combustion engine, wherein the alcohol to gasoline ratio is controlled by a double acting metering device and the alcohol fuel is vaporized using heated positive crankcase ventilation gas.

  4. Fuel injector utilizing non-thermal plasma activation

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don M.; Rosocha, Louis A.

    2009-12-01

    A non-thermal plasma assisted combustion fuel injector that uses an inner and outer electrode to create an electric field from a high voltage power supply. A dielectric material is operatively disposed between the two electrodes to prevent arcing and to promote the formation of a non-thermal plasma. A fuel injector, which converts a liquid fuel into a dispersed mist, vapor, or aerosolized fuel, injects into the non-thermal plasma generating energetic electrons and other highly reactive chemical species.

  5. Assessment of capital requirements for alternative fuels infrastructure under the PNGV program

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, K.; Singh, M.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an assessment of the capital requirements of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a new Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels include two petroleum-based fuels (reformulated gasoline and low-sulfur diesel) and four alternative fuels (methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen). This study develops estimates of cumulative capital needs for establishing fuels production and distribution infrastructure to accommodate 3X vehicle fuel needs. Two levels of fuel volume-70,000 barrels per day and 1.6 million barrels per day-were established for meeting 3X-vehicle fuel demand. As expected, infrastructure capital needs for the high fuel demand level are much higher than for the low fuel demand level. Between fuel production infrastructure and distribution infrastructure, capital needs for the former far exceed those for the latter. Among the four alternative fuels, hydrogen bears the largest capital needs for production and distribution infrastructure.

  6. Alcohol Fuel By-Product Utilization and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerboom, Jim

    Ten lessons comprise this curriculum intended to assist vocational teachers in establishing and conducting an alcohol fuels workshop on engine modification and plant design. A glossary is provided first. The 10 lessons cover these topics: the alcohol fuel plant, feedstock preparation lab, distillation lab, fuel plant processes, plant design lab,…

  7. Alcohol Fuel By-Product Utilization and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerboom, Jim

    Ten lessons comprise this curriculum intended to assist vocational teachers in establishing and conducting an alcohol fuels workshop on engine modification and plant design. A glossary is provided first. The 10 lessons cover these topics: the alcohol fuel plant, feedstock preparation lab, distillation lab, fuel plant processes, plant design lab,…

  8. A laboratory fuel efficiency and emissions comparison between Tanzanian traditional and improved biomass cooking stoves and alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B. R.; Maggio, J. C.; Paterson, K.

    2010-12-01

    Large amounts of aerosols are emitted from domestic biomass burning globally every day. Nearly three billion people cook in their homes using traditional fires and stoves. Biomass is the primary fuel source which results in detrimental levels of indoor air pollution as well as having a strong impact on climate change. Variations in emissions occur depending on the combustion process and stove design as well as the condition and type of fuel used. The three most commonly used fuels for domestic biomass burning are wood, charcoal, and crop residue. In addition to these commonly used fuels and because of the increased difficulty of obtaining charcoal and wood due to a combination of deforestation and new governmental restrictions, alternative fuels are becoming more prevalent. In the Republic of Tanzania a field campaign was executed to test previously adopted and available traditional and improved cooking stoves with various traditional and alternative fuels. The tests were conducted over a two month period and included four styles of improved stoves, two styles of traditional cooking methods, and eight fuel types. The stoves tested include a sawdust stove, ceramic and brick insulated metal stoves, and a mud stove. A traditional three-stone fire was also tested as a benchmark by which to compare the other stoves. Fuel types tested include firewood, charcoal (Acacia), sawdust, pressed briquettes, charcoal dust briquettes, and carbonized crop residue. Water boiling tests were conducted on each stove with associated fuel types during which boiling time, water temperature, CO, CO2, and PM2.5μm emissions were recorded. All tests were conducted on-site in Arusha, Tanzania enabling the use of local materials and fuels under local conditions. It was found that both stove design and fuel type play a critical role in the amount of emissions produced. The most influential design aspect affecting emissions was the size of the combustion chamber in combination with air intake

  9. Diesel fuel processor for PEM fuel cells: Two possible alternatives (ATR versus SR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutillo, A.; Specchia, S.; Antonini, M.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, V.

    There are large efforts in exploring the on-board reforming technologies, which would avoid the actual lack of hydrogen infrastructure and related safety issues. From this view point, the present work deals with the comparison between two different 10 kW e fuel processors (FP) systems for the production of hydrogen-rich fuel gas starting from diesel oil, based respectively on autothermal (ATR) and steam-reforming (SR) process and related CO clean-up technologies; the obtained hydrogen rich gas is fed to the PEMFC stack of an auxiliary power unit (APU). Based on a series of simulations with Matlab/Simulink, the two systems were compared in terms of FP and APU efficiency, hydrogen concentration fed to the FC, water balance and process scheme complexity. Notwithstanding a slightly higher process scheme complexity and a slightly more difficult water recovery, the FP based on the SR scheme, as compared to the ATR one, shows higher efficiency and larger hydrogen concentration for the stream fed to the PEMFC anode, which represent key issues for auxiliary power generation based on FCs as compared, e.g. to alternators.

  10. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, P.; Riddle, C.; Campbell, K.; Mausolf, E.

    2013-07-01

    The most widely used reductant to partition plutonium from uranium in the Purex process was ferrous sulfamate, other alternates were proposed such as hydrazine-stabilized ferrous nitrate or uranous nitrate, platinum catalyzed hydrogen, and hydrazine, hydroxylamine salts. New candidates to replace hydrazine or hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) are pursued worldwide. They may improve the performance of the industrial Purex process towards different operations such as de-extraction of plutonium and reduction of the amount of hydrazine which will limit the formation of hydrazoic acid. When looking at future recycling technologies using hydroxamic ligands, neither acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) nor formohydroxamic acid (FHA) seem promising because they hydrolyze to give hydroxylamine and the parent carboxylic acid. Hydroxyethylhydrazine, HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 3} (HEH) is a promising non-salt-forming reductant of Np and Pu ions because it is selective to neptunium and plutonium ions at room temperature and at relatively low acidity, it could serve as a replacement of HAN or AHA for the development of a novel used nuclear fuel recycling process.

  11. Life cycle assessment of the use of alternative fuels in cement kilns: A case study.

    PubMed

    Georgiopoulou, Martha; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2017-07-14

    The benefits of using alternative fuels (AFs) in the cement industry include reduction of the use of non-renewable fossil fuels and lower emissions of greenhouse gases, since fossil fuels are replaced with materials that would otherwise be degraded or incinerated with corresponding emissions and final residues. Furthermore, the use of alternative fuels maximizes the recovery of energy. Seven different scenaria were developed for the production of 1 ton of clinker in a rotary cement kiln. Each of these scenaria includes the use of alternative fuels such as RDF (Refuse derived fuel), TDF (Tire derived fuel) and BS (Biological sludge) or a mixture of them, in partial replacement of conventional fuels such as coal and pet coke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of the use of alternative fuels in relation to conventional fuels in the kiln operation. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to quantify the potential environmental impacts in each scenario. The interpretation of the results provides the conclusion that the most environmentally friendly prospect is the scenario based on RDF while the less preferable scenario is the scenario based on BS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Technical and economic feasibility of alternative fuel use in process heaters and small boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using alternate fuels - fuels other than oil and natural gas - in combustors not regulated by the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA) was evaluated. FUA requires coal or alternate fuel use in most large new boilers and in some existing boilers. Section 747 of FUA authorizes a study of the potential for reduced oil and gas use in combustors not subject to the act: small industrial boilers with capacities less than 100 MMBtu/hr, and process heat applications. Alternative fuel use in combustors not regulated by FUA was examined and the impact of several measures to encourage the substitution of alternative fuels in these combustors was analyzed. The primary processes in which significant fuel savings can be achieved are identified. Since feedstock uses of oil and natural gas are considered raw materials, not fuels, feedstock applications are not examined in this analysis. The combustors evaluated in this study comprise approximately 45% of the fuel demand projected in 1990. These uses would account for more than 3.5 million barrels per day equivalent fuel demand in 1990.

  13. Alternative Fuels: Are we Making the Right Choices?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    diesel at any ratio with little to no modification. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002) Homogeneous charge compression ignition ( HCCI ) engines ...have the potential to provide high, diesel-like efficiencies and very low emissions. In an HCCI engine , a dilute, premixed fuel/air charge auto...replacements for fossil fuels in the internal combustion engine . Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), better known as propane, is a clean-burning fossil fuel

  14. An Evaluation of Very Large Airplanes and Alternative Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    1000-W LMFBRs ); 20,000 tons of U30 recoverable 1rom copper ore leach solutions between now and year 2000; 70,000 tons of U308 recoverable from...thin-walled metal tubing (the fuel rods) in a process called cladding . These fuel rods are as- sembled in groups called fuel elements. (The fuel...currently derived from crude oil) 376 LCH4 Liquid methane LH2 Liquid hydrogen LMFBR Liquid-metal fast breeder reactor LOCA Loss-of-coolant accident

  15. Minimum Fuel Trajectory Design in Multiple Dynamical Environments Utilizing Direct Transcription Methods and Particle Swarm Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    MINIMUM-FUEL TRAJECTORY DESIGN IN MULTIPLE DYNAMICAL ENVIRONMENTS UTILIZING DIRECT TRANSCRIPTION METHODS AND PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION THESIS...250 MINIMUM-FUEL TRAJECTORY DESIGN IN MULTIPLE DYNAMICAL ENVIRONMENTS UTILIZING DIRECT TRANSCRIPTION METHODS AND PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION THESIS... Education and Training Command in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Astronautical Engineering Alfredo G

  16. Electric utility acid fuel cell stack technology advancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, J. V.; Goller, G. J.; Greising, G. J.; Obrien, J. J.; Randall, S. A.; Sandelli, G. J.; Breault, R. D.; Austin, G. W.; Bopse, S.; Coykendall, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal effort under this program was directed at the fuel cell stack technology required to accomplish the initial feasibility demonstrations of increased cell stack operating pressures and temperatures, increased cell active area, incorporation of the ribbed substrate cell configuration at the bove conditions, and the introduction of higher performance electrocatalysts. The program results were successful with the primary accomplishments being: (1) fabrication of 10 sq ft ribbed substrate, cell components including higher performing electrocatalysts; (2) assembly of a 10 sq ft, 30-cell short stack; and (3) initial test of this stack at 120 psia and 405 F. These accomplishments demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and handling large area cells using materials and processes that are oriented to low cost manufacture. An additional accomplishment under the program was the testing of two 3.7 sq ft short stacks at 12 psia/405 F to 5400 and 4500 hours respectively. These tests demonstrate the durability of the components and the cell stack configuration to a nominal 5000 hours at the higher pressure and temperature condition planned for the next electric utility power plant.

  17. Addressing the Need for Alternative Transportation Fuels: The Joint BioEnergy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Blanch, Harvey; Adams, Paul; Andrews-Cramer, Katherine; Frommer, Wolf; Simmons, Blake; Keasling, Jay

    2008-01-18

    Today, carbon-rich fossil fuels, primarily oil, coal, and natural gas, provide 85% of the energy consumed in the U.S. As world demand increases, oil reserves may become rapidly depleted. Fossil fuel use increases CO{sub 2} emissions and raises the risk of global warming. The high energy content of liquid hydrocarbon fuels makes them the preferred energy source for all modes of transportation. In the U.S. alone, transportation consumes >13.8 million barrels of oil per day and generates 0.5 gigatons of carbon per year. This release of greenhouse gases has spurred research into alternative, nonfossil energy sources. Among the options (nuclear, concentrated solar thermal, geothermal, hydroelectric, wind, solar, and biomass), only biomass has the potential to provide a high-energy-content transportation fuel. Biomass is a renewable resource that can be converted into carbon-neutral transporation fuels. Currently, biofuels such as ethanol are produced largely from grains, but there is a large, untapped resource (estimated at more than a billion tons per year) of plant biomass that could be utilized as a renewable, domestic source of liquid fuels. Well-established processes convert the starch content of the grain into sugars that can be fermented to ethanol. The energy efficiency of starch-based biofuels is however not optimal, while plant cell walls (lignocellulose) represent a huge untapped source of energy. Plant-derived biomass contains cellulose, which is more difficult to convert to sugars; hemicellulose, which contains a diversity of carbohydrates that have to be efficiently degraded by microorganisms to fuels; and lignin, which is recalcitrant to degradation and prevents cost-effective fermentation. The development of cost-effective and energy-efficient processes to transform lignocellulosic biomass into fuels is hampered by significant roadblocks, including the lack of specifically developed energy crops, the difficulty in separating biomass components, low

  18. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  19. Alternative-engine-fuels demonstration and materials test

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.

    1981-01-01

    A portable demonstration was constructed to measure peak power and specific fuel consumption of a gasoline engine burning gasoline and ethanol, and a diesel engine burning No. 2 diesel and sunflower oil. The demonstrations were given at farm field days. Several metals were subjected to wet ethanol fuels to measure corrosion.

  20. Alternative Fuels Compatibility with Army Equipment Testing - Existent Gum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    emerging synthetic turbine fuels based on iso-paraffinic kerosene (IPK), synthetic paraffinic kerosene ( SPK ), and Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids...Material compatibility, HEFA, IPK, SPK , Fischer Tropsch, jet fuel, diesel, gums, collapsible tank, hose 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...paraffinic kerosene (IPK), synthetic paraffinic kerosene ( SPK ), and Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) typically contain no aromatics. Many of

  1. Industrial Base Assessment of Alternative Fuels for Military Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-07

    MTG – Methanol to Gasoline ................................................................................. 34  3.1.6  DCL – Direct Coal Liquefaction ...be converted to liquid fuels using a direct liquefaction process. Again the process was developed in Germany and used extensively during World War...Current biomass-to-fuel methods of xxiii production present a significant environmental burden (GHG, soil depletion and erosion, waste water, etc

  2. Aircraft emissions of methane and nitrous oxide during the alternative aviation fuel experiment.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Gregory W; Lee, Ben H; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Wofsy, Steven C; McManus, J Barry; Nelson, David D; Zahniser, Mark S

    2011-08-15

    Given the predicted growth of aviation and the recent developments of alternative aviation fuels, quantifying methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emission ratios for various aircraft engines and fuels can help constrain projected impacts of aviation on the Earth's radiative balance. Fuel-based emission indices for CH(4) and N(2)O were quantified from CFM56-2C1 engines aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the first Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-I) in 2009. The measurements of JP-8 fuel combustion products indicate that at low thrust engine states (idle and taxi, or 4% and 7% maximum rated thrusts, respectively) the engines emit both CH(4) and N(2)O at a mean ± 1σ rate of 170 ± 160 mg CH(4) (kg Fuel)(-1) and 110 ± 50 mg N(2)O (kg Fuel)(-1), respectively. At higher thrust levels corresponding to greater fuel flow and higher engine temperatures, CH(4) concentrations in engine exhaust were lower than ambient concentrations. Average emission indices for JP-8 fuel combusted at engine thrusts between 30% and 100% of maximum rating were -54 ± 33 mg CH(4) (kg Fuel)(-1) and 32 ± 18 mg N(2)O (kg Fuel)(-1), where the negative sign indicates consumption of atmospheric CH(4) in the engine. Emission factors for the synthetic Fischer-Tropsch fuels were statistically indistinguishable from those for JP-8.

  3. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...On March 12, 2012, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a notice of proposed rulemaking to implement section 142 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which amended the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and directed the Secretary of Energy to issue implementing regulations for a statutorily-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets. With this Request for Information (RFI), DOE requests public comment on whether the proposed method for calculating the fiscal year 2005 alternative fuel consumption baseline should include the alternative fuel consumed by exempt vehicles and low-speed electric vehicles.

  4. Diesel-fuel alternatives for engines in civil works prime movers. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Sliwinski, B.J.; Corcoran, E.

    1984-09-01

    This is the first phase of research to determine fuel alternatives for Corps of Engineers medium-speed diesel engines. The literature has been searched to provide a background in current research and to identify the most promising alternatives to petroleum fuel. The criteria assessed were performance-based, with most variables compared to a No. 2 diesel fuel baseline. Results indicate that liquified coal, cetane-improved alcohol, and vegetable oils may be suitable alternatives. However, since much of the data reviewed were based on high-speed engines, additional data on medium-speed engines must be gathered making final recommendations.

  5. Solar-powered electrochemical energy storage: an alternative to solar fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D.; Huang, Zhongjie; Trang, Brittany B.; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Wu, Yiying

    2016-01-01

    Because of the intermittent nature of solar radiation, being able to simultaneously convert and store solar energy is a significant advance for efficiently harnessing solar energy. Solar fuels have already been recognized as a promising method towards this goal and have attracted tremendous research interest recently. Alternatively, this goal can also be achieved by using the solar-powered electrochemical energy storage (SPEES) strategy, which integrates a photoelectrochemical cell and an electrochemical cell into a single device. The integrated device is able to harvest solar energy and store it in situ within the device via a photocharging process and also distribute the energy as electric power when needed. This essay reviews the past SPEES research and analyzes its future prospects with a special emphasis on chemical design and material choices. We hope that the article will help draw more research attention to this field and stimulate additional exciting investigations toward more efficient solar energy utilization.

  6. Experimental clean combustor program, alternate fuels addendum, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, C. C.; Bahr, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The characteristics of current and advanced low-emissions combustors when operated with special test fuels simulating broader range combustion properties of petroleum or coal derived fuels were studied. Five fuels were evaluated; conventional JP-5, conventional No. 2 Diesel, two different blends of Jet A and commercial aromatic mixtures - zylene bottoms and haphthalene charge stock, and a fuel derived from shale oil crude which was refined to Jet A specifications. Three CF6-50 engine size combustor types were evaluated; the standard production combustor, a radial/axial staged combustor, and a double annular combustor. Performance and pollutant emissons characteristics at idle and simulated takeoff conditions were evaluated in a full annular combustor rig. Altitude relight characteristics were evaluated in a 60 degree sector combustor rig. Carboning and flashback characteristics at simulated takeoff conditions were evaluated in a 12 degree sector combustor rig. For the five fuels tested, effects were moderate, but well defined.

  7. Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

  8. Biodiesel: The use of vegetable oils and their derivatives as alternative diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Knothe, G.; Bagby, M.O.

    1996-10-01

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters), commonly referred to as {open_quotes}biodiesel{close_quotes}, are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. Besides being a renewable resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. Several problems, however, remain, which include economics, combustion, some emissions, lube oil contamination, and low-temperature properties. An overview on all the mentioned aspects of biodiesel will be presented.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1993-04-01

    Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed, as am the major R&D issues.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed, as am the major R D issues.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K. M.

    Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed.

  12. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  13. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  14. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  15. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES...

  16. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source...

  17. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

  18. Carbon deposition thresholds on nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell anodes I. Fuel utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2015-03-01

    In the first of a two part publication, the effect of fuel utilization (Uf) on carbon deposition rates in solid oxide fuel cell nickel-based anodes was studied. Representative 5-component CH4 reformate compositions (CH4, H2, CO, H2O, & CO2) were selected graphically by plotting the solutions to a system of mass-balance constraint equations. The centroid of the solution space was chosen to represent a typical anode gas mixture for each nominal Uf value. Selected 5-component and 3-component gas mixtures were then delivered to anode-supported cells for 10 h, followed by determination of the resulting deposited carbon mass. The empirical carbon deposition thresholds were affected by atomic carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) fractions of the delivered gas mixtures and temperature. It was also found that CH4-rich gas mixtures caused irreversible damage, whereas atomically equivalent CO-rich compositions did not. The coking threshold predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations employing graphite for the solid carbon phase agreed well with empirical thresholds at 700 °C (Uf ≈ 32%); however, at 600 °C, poor agreement was observed with the empirical threshold of ˜36%. Finally, cell operating temperatures correlated well with the difference in enthalpy between the supplied anode gas mixtures and their resulting thermodynamic equilibrium gas mixtures.

  19. Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2010/FY 2011, EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This annual report summarizes the compliance results of state and alternative fuel provider fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) for model year 2010/fiscal year 2011. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state and alternative fuel provider (SFP) fleets under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. For model year (MY) 2010, the compliance rate for the 2911 covered SFP fleets was 100%. Fleets used either Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. The 279 fleets that used Standard Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 acquisition requirements by 61%. The 12 covered fleets that complied using Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 petroleum-use-reduction requirements by 89%. Overall, DOE saw modest decreases from MY 2009 in biodiesel fuel use credits earned and in the number of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) acquired. Compared to years before MY 2009, these rates were far lower. Because covered fleets acquired fewer new vehicles overall in MY 2010, the requirement for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which is proportional to new acquisitions, also dropped.

  20. Emissions tradeoffs among alternative marine fuels: total fuel cycle analysis of residual oil, marine gas oil, and marine diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Corbett, James J; Winebrake, James J

    2008-04-01

    Worldwide concerns about sulfur oxide (SOx) emissions from ships are motivating the replacement of marine residual oil (RO) with cleaner, lower-sulfur fuels, such as marine gas oil (MGO) and marine diesel oil (MDO). Vessel operators can use MGO and MDO directly or blended with RO to achieve environmental and economic objectives. Although expected to be much cleaner in terms of criteria pollutants, these fuels require additional energy in the upstream stages of the fuel cycle (i.e., fuel processing and refining), and thus raise questions about the net impacts on greenhouse gas emissions (primarily carbon dioxide [CO2]) because of production and use. This paper applies the Total Energy and Environmental Analysis for Marine Systems (TEAMS) model to conduct a total fuel cycle analysis of RO, MGO, MDO, and associated blends for a typical container ship. MGO and MDO blends achieve significant (70-85%) SOx emissions reductions compared with RO across a range of fuel quality and refining efficiency assumptions. We estimate CO2 increases of less than 1% using best estimates of fuel quality and refinery efficiency parameters and demonstrate how these results vary based on parameter assumptions. Our analysis suggests that product refining efficiency influences the CO2 tradeoff more than differences in the physical and energy parameters of the alternative fuels, suggesting that modest increases in CO2 could be offset by efficiency improvements at some refineries. Our results help resolve conflicting estimates of greenhouse gas tradeoffs associated with fuel switching and other emissions control policies.

  1. Potential alternative fuel sources for agricultural crops and plant components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The changing landscape of agricultural production is placing unprecedented demands on farmers as they face increasing global competition and greater natural resource conservation challenges. However, shrinking profit margins due to increasing input costs, particularly of fuel and fertilizer, can res...

  2. Alternative fuel transit buses: The Pierce Transit Success Story

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Pierce transit program for operating mass transit buses on compressed natural gas (CNG) is described. Cost, reliability, fuel efficiency, emission of combustion products, and future trends are discussed.

  3. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography.” For the purposes of this section, fuel ratings for the... methods set forth in ASTM D 1946-90, “Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas...

  4. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography.” For the purposes of this section, fuel ratings for the... methods set forth in ASTM D 1946-90, “Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas...

  5. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography.” For the purposes of this section, fuel ratings for the... methods set forth in ASTM D 1946-90, “Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas...

  6. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography.” For the purposes of this section, fuel ratings for the... methods set forth in ASTM D 1946-90, “Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas...

  7. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography.” For the purposes of this section, fuel ratings for the... methods set forth in ASTM D 1946-90, “Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas...

  8. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  9. Accuracy of trace element determinations in alternate fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenbauer-Seng, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    NASA-Lewis Research Center's work on accurate measurement of trace level of metals in various fuels is presented. The differences between laboratories and between analytical techniques especially for concentrations below 10 ppm, are discussed, detailing the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and DC Arc Emission Spectrometry (dc arc) techniques used by NASA-Lewis. Also presented is the design of an Interlaboratory Study which is considering the following factors: laboratory, analytical technique, fuel type, concentration and ashing additive.

  10. Mastication: A fuel reduction and site preparation alternative

    Treesearch

    Jeff Halbrook; Han-Sup Han; Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain; Robert Denner

    2006-01-01

    During the fall of 2005, a study was conducted at Priest River Experimental Forest (PREF) in northern Idaho to investigate the economics of mastication used to treat activity and standing live fuels. In this study, a rotary head masticator was used to crush and chop activity fuels within harvest units on 37.07 acres. Production averaged 0.57 acres/hour (range 0.21-0.89...

  11. Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen; Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; McQueen, S.; Brinch, J.

    2008-07-01

    DOE sponsored the Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen workshop to understand how lessons from past experiences can inform future efforts to commercialize hydrogen vehicles. This report contains the proceedings from the workshop.

  12. Atmospheric Photochemistry Studies of Pollutant Emissions from Transportation Vehicles Operating on Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, H.; Sexton, K.; Yu, J.

    1998-07-01

    This project was undertaken with the goal of improving our ability to predict the changes in urban ozone resulting from the widespread use of alternative fuels in automobiles. This report presents the results in detail.

  13. NEUTRON REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT UTILIZING ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.; Szumachowski, E.R.

    1957-11-12

    This patent relates to clad fuel elements for use in neutronic reactors and is drawn to such a fuel element which consists of a core of fissionable material, comprised of an alloy of zirconium and U/sup 235/ enriched uranium, encased in a jacket of a binary zirconium-tin alloy in which the tin content ranges between 1 and 15% by weight.

  14. The road to Clean Cities: Promoting energy security and cleaner air through alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, C.A.

    1997-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program is a locally-based government/industry partnership program coordinated by DOE to expand the use of alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. By combining local decision-making with the voluntary action of partners, the Clean Cities grass roots approach departs from traditional government programs. It creates an effective plan, carried out at the local level, to establish a sustainable alternative fuels market. The broad goals of the Clean Cities Program are to: reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve the environment, and increase economic growth and competitiveness. The key element of success for this program is partnerships -- public/private partnerships that engage the necessary market forces to accomplish the infusion of new alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) technologies. DOE does not provide direct funding for acquisition of AFVs and products, but rather, provides market development assistance. DOE technical and management resources are targeted at building local coalitions, coordinating technology product suppliers, and improving market and customer information. Clean Cities works directly with local governments and local businesses and shares innovations along the network of Clean Cities coalitions. Since 1993, Clean Cities has made great strides in diversifying transportation fuel consumption. Voluntary Clean Cities partnerships around the United States have heightened public awareness of alternative fuel usage, increased the number of AFVs on the road, and developed alternative fuels infrastructure throughout North America. The Clean Cities Program encourages sustainable development by reducing a community`s dependence on nonrenewable fossil fuels (both domestic and imported), cleaning up the local and global environment, and boosting local economies through the development of alternative fuels industries.

  15. Comparison of Man-Portable Power Generation Alternatives Based on Fuel-Cell Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    drocarbons, as well as fuel processing for hydrogen or syngas generation and subsequent oxidation of these intermediates in a fuel cell. Micro power...high temper- atures, under water operation. 4 ALTERNATIVES CONSIDERED As possible fuel/chemicals we consider hydrocar- bons, methanol, ammonia and...production from ammonia decomposition on ruthenium. In- dustrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 43, 2986–2999. [Douglas(1988)] Douglas, J. M., 1988

  16. Jet Propellant 8 versus Alternative Jet Fuels: A Life-Cycle Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    United States imports.26 The CBTL process uses three existing technologies to convert coal and biomass into liquid fuel: gasification , FT synthesis...and carbon capture and storage. Gasification converts coal and biomass into CO and H2, a mixture commonly referred to as “syngas.” FT synthesis...com- pare petroleum-derived jet fuel (i.e., JP-8) to an alternative jet fuel derived from a coal- biomass -to-liquid (CBTL) process. The EIO- LCA

  17. An Evaluation of Very Large Airplanes and Alternative Fuels: Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    petroleum, coal , oil shale). In mid-1974, the Chief Scientist requested that the initial de- tailed assessment of alternative aviation fuels he made in the...8217 liquefaction , distribution, storage, etc.). Similarly, energy expended in uranium enrichment, re- processing, etc., is included. Our energy consumption...estimates in Fig, S-2 are based on synthesizing the chemical fuels from coal (as are our fuel cost estimates). We believe this assumption is

  18. Analysis of thorium-salted fuels to improve uranium utilization in the once-through fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Eschbach, E.A.; Merrill, E.T.; Prichard, A.W.

    1981-09-01

    Calculations and analyses indicate that no improvement can be achieved in uranium utilization for the once-through LWR fuel cycle over use of slightly enriched uranium by employing thorium distributed with uranium. The study included thorium additions: (1) slight amounts, (2) larger amounts, in either intimately mixed or in duplex pellets, (3) in spectrally shifted or not spectrally shifted reactors, and (4) in three- or five-year reactivity limited exposures. While thorium-uranium combinations improves the initial conversion ratio, the reactivity lifetime was not extended enough to override the additional uranium required. The effective fission cross-section of the bred /sup 233/U relative to /sup 239/Pu's in typical LWR neutron spectra is not large enough for /sup 233/U to make as great a contribution to end-of-life reactivity as /sup 239/Pu in a slightly enriched uranium fuel element. /sup 233/U's reactivity contribution relative to /sup 239/Pu's is lower in fuel configurations such as slightly enriched uranium LWR fuel loads. On the other hand, /sup 233/U's reactivity contribution appears more positive for reactors that involve lower average concentrations of thermal neutron absorbers. If /sup 238/U-thorium fuels reprocessed, the recovered /sup 233/U would increase uranium utilization, but may not reduce fuel cycle costs. The thorium-salted fuels exhibit substantially flatter reactivity characteristics with exposure time. Spectral shift helped the utilization of uranium and thorium.

  19. Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

    1988-05-01

    This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

  20. Alternative fuel trucks case studies: Running refuse haulers on compressed natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-07-01

    This document details the experience of New York City`s compressed natural gas refuse haulers. These 35 ton vehicles have engines that displace 10 liters and provide 240 horsepower. Fuel economy, range, cost, maintenance, repair issues, and emissions are discussed. Photographs and figures illustrate the attributes of these alternative fuel vehicles.

  1. Evaluating alternative fuel treatment strategies to reduce wildfire losses in a Mediterranean area

    Treesearch

    Michele Salis; Maurizio Laconi; Alan A. Ager; Fermin J. Alcasena; Bachisio Arca; Olga Lozano; Ana Fernandes de Oliveira; Donatella Spano

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate by a modeling approach the effectiveness of alternative fuel treatment strategies to reduce potential losses from wildfires in Mediterranean areas. We compared strategic fuel treatments located near specific human values vs random locations, and treated 3, 9 and 15% of a 68,000 ha study area located in Sardinia, Italy. The...

  2. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2000-11-07

    In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

  3. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-25

    In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

  4. Utilization of the catalyzed-DD fuel cycle in reversed-field pinch reactors (RFPRs)

    SciTech Connect

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of deuterium-based fuels offers the potential advantages of greater flexibility in blanket design, significantly reduced tritium inventory, potential reduction in radioactivity level, and utilization of an inexhaustible fuel supply. The extension of the conventional DT-fueled Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) designs to advanced-fuel (catalyzed-DD) operation has recently been reported. Attractive and economically competitive DD/RFPR systems are identified having power densities and plasma parameters comparable to the DT systems. These designs are compared to other fusion reactor designs.

  5. On the Utilization of Pozzolanic Wastes as an Alternative Resource of Cement

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Md. Rezaul; Hossain, Md. Maruf; Khan, Mohammad Nabi Newaz; Zain, Muhammad Fauzi Mohd; Jamil, Maslina; Lai, Fook Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Recently, as a supplement of cement, the utilization of pozzolanic materials in cement and concrete manufacturing has increased significantly. This study investigates the scope to use pozzolanic wastes (slag, palm oil fuel ash and rice husk ash) as an alkali activated binder (AAB) that can be used as an alternative to cement. To activate these materials, sodium hydroxide solution was used at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 molar concentration added into the mortar, separately. The required solution was used to maintain the flow of mortar at 110% ± 5%. The consistency and setting time of the AAB-paste were determined. Mortar was tested for its flow, compressive strength, porosity, water absorption and thermal resistance (heating at 700 °C) and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results reveal that AAB-mortar exhibits less flow than that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Surprisingly, AAB-mortars (with 2.5 molar solution) achieved a compressive strength of 34.3 MPa at 28 days, while OPC shows that of 43.9 MPa under the same conditions. Although water absorption and porosity of the AAB-mortar are slightly high, it shows excellent thermal resistance compared to OPC. Therefore, based on the test results, it can be concluded that in the presence of a chemical activator, the aforementioned pozzolans can be used as an alternative material for cement. PMID:28788277

  6. On the Utilization of Pozzolanic Wastes as an Alternative Resource of Cement.

    PubMed

    Karim, Md Rezaul; Hossain, Md Maruf; Khan, Mohammad Nabi Newaz; Zain, Muhammad Fauzi Mohd; Jamil, Maslina; Lai, Fook Chuan

    2014-12-05

    Recently, as a supplement of cement, the utilization of pozzolanic materials in cement and concrete manufacturing has increased significantly. This study investigates the scope to use pozzolanic wastes (slag, palm oil fuel ash and rice husk ash) as an alkali activated binder (AAB) that can be used as an alternative to cement. To activate these materials, sodium hydroxide solution was used at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 molar concentration added into the mortar, separately. The required solution was used to maintain the flow of mortar at 110% ± 5%. The consistency and setting time of the AAB-paste were determined. Mortar was tested for its flow, compressive strength, porosity, water absorption and thermal resistance (heating at 700 °C) and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results reveal that AAB-mortar exhibits less flow than that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Surprisingly, AAB-mortars (with 2.5 molar solution) achieved a compressive strength of 34.3 MPa at 28 days, while OPC shows that of 43.9 MPa under the same conditions. Although water absorption and porosity of the AAB-mortar are slightly high, it shows excellent thermal resistance compared to OPC. Therefore, based on the test results, it can be concluded that in the presence of a chemical activator, the aforementioned pozzolans can be used as an alternative material for cement.

  7. Integration of alternative feedstreams for biomass treatment and utilization

    DOEpatents

    Hennessey, Susan Marie [Avondale, PA; Friend, Julie [Claymont, DE; Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Elander, Richard T [Evergreen, CO; Hames, Bonnie [Westminster, CO

    2011-03-22

    The present invention provides a method for treating biomass composed of integrated feedstocks to produce fermentable sugars. One aspect of the methods described herein includes a pretreatment step wherein biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream and the resulting integrated feedstock, at relatively high concentrations, is treated with a low concentration of ammonia relative to the dry weight of biomass. In another aspect, a high solids concentration of pretreated biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream for saccharifiaction.

  8. Alternative-liquid-fuels project. Volume II. Alcohol-fuels information update

    SciTech Connect

    Herz, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The demand for alcohol fuels, production processes and economics, energy balance, engine performance, environmental impact, Alabama's role, and the major developmental work needed are discussed. The practical aspects of ethanol fuel production and usage are presented as follows: steps in the ethyl alcohol fermentation proces; raw materials selection; cooking and conversion; fermentation; distillation; alcohol as a fuel; economic aspects; and suppliers, contractors, and organizations.

  9. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-494), Section 400EE, states that the Secretary of Energy ...shall study methanol plants, including the costs and practicability of such plants that are (A) capable of utilizing current domestic supplies of unutilized natural gas; (B) relocatable; or (C) suitable for natural gas to methanol conversion by natural gas distribution companies...'' The purpose of this report is to characterize unutilized gas within the lower 48 states and to perform an economic analysis of methanol plants required by the act. The approach with regard to unutilized lower 48 gas is to (1) compare the costs of converting such gas to methanol against the expected price of gasoline over the next 20 years, and (2) compare the economics of converting such gas to methanol against the economics of using the gas as a pipeline-transported fuel. This study concludes that remote gas and low-Btu gas generally cannot be converted to methanol at costs near the expected competitive value of gasoline because of the poor economies of scale of small methanol plants.

  10. Gasification: An alternative solution for energy recovery and utilization of vegetable market waste.

    PubMed

    Narnaware, Sunil L; Srivastava, Nsl; Vahora, Samir

    2017-03-01

    Vegetables waste is generally utilized through a bioconversion process or disposed of at municipal landfills, dumping sites or dumped on open land, emitting a foul odor and causing health hazards. The presents study deals with an alternative way to utilize solid vegetable waste through a thermochemical route such as briquetting and gasification for its energy recovery and subsequent power generation. Briquettes of 50 mm diameter were produced from four different types of vegetable waste. The bulk density of briquettes produced was increased 10 to 15 times higher than the density of the dried vegetable waste in loose form. The lower heating value (LHV) of the briquettes ranged from 10.26 MJ kg(-1) to 16.60 MJ kg(-1) depending on the type of vegetable waste. The gasification of the briquettes was carried out in an open core downdraft gasifier, which resulted in syngas with a calorific value of 4.71 MJ Nm(-3) at the gasification temperature between 889°C and 1011°C. A spark ignition, internal combustion engine was run on syngas and could generate a maximum load up to 10 kWe. The cold gas efficiency and the hot gas efficiency of the gasifier were measured at 74.11% and 79.87%, respectively. Energy recovery from the organic vegetable waste was possible through a thermochemical conversion route such as briquetting and subsequent gasification and recovery of the fuel for small-scale power generation.

  11. Barriers to the utilization of synthetic fuels for transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, H. W.; Reilly, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The principal types of engines for transportation uses are reviewed and the specifications for conventional fuels are compared with specifications for synthetic fuels. Synfuel processes nearing the commercialization phase are reviewed. The barriers to using synfuels can be classified into four groups: technical, such as the uncertainty that a new engine design can satisfy the desired performance criteria; environmental, such as the risk that the engine emissions cannot meet the applicable environmental standards; economic, including the cost of using a synfuel relative to conventional transportation fuels; and market, involving market penetration by offering new engines, establishing new distribution systems and/or changing user expectations.

  12. A high fuel utilizing solid oxide fuel cell cycle with regard to the formation of nickel oxide and power density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehter, Pedro

    Within this study a novel high fuel utilizing (High-uf) SOFC system is presented with special focus on the formation of nickel oxide, system efficiency and the required cell area at a fixed system performance of 1 MW. Within the High-uf SOFC cycle, a second SOFC stack is used to utilize a further part of the residual hydrogen of the first SOFC stack. This could be feasible by using an anode gas condenser, which is implemented between the first and the second stack. This reduces the water fraction of the anode gas and thereby the tendency of nickel oxide formation in case of a further fuel utilization. Thus, a higher total fuel utilization can be reached with the second SOFC stack. With the High-uf SOFC cycle, the system efficiency is increased by 7%-points compared to the simple atmospheric SOFC cycle. Furthermore, the average cell voltage and the fuel utilization are varied to carry out a first optimization of the stack's power density. The results of this optimization have shown that the required cell area of the simple SOFC cycle can be slightly reduced by decreasing the fuel utilization, whereas the High-uf SOFC cycle shows an opposite effect. Here, the required cell area can be reduced at constant voltages by increasing the fuel utilization. Thus, higher system efficiencies could be reached with the High-uf SOFC cycle by using the same cell area as the simple SOFC cycle and at the same tendency of nickel oxide formation. A second condenser behind the second SOFC stack could be used to increase the carbon dioxide mass fraction up to 92%. This could be interesting for CO 2-sequestring applications as well.

  13. Application of fuel cells with heat recovery for integrated utility systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, V.; King, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of fuel cell powerplants with heat recovery for use in an integrated utility system. Such a design provides for a low pollution, noise-free, highly efficient integrated utility. Use of the waste heat from the fuel cell powerplant in an integrated utility system for the village center complex of a new community results in a reduction in resource consumption of 42 percent compared to conventional methods. In addition, the system has the potential of operating on fuels produced from waste materials (pyrolysis and digester gases); this would provide further reduction in energy consumption.

  14. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    PubMed

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-07

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  15. Spent fuel utilization in a compact traveling wave reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartanto, Donny; Kim, Yonghee

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, several innovative designs of nuclear reactors are proposed. One of them is Traveling Wave Reactor (TWR). The unique characteristic of a TWR is the capability of breeding its own fuel in the reactor. The reactor is fueled by mostly depleted, natural uranium or spent nuclear fuel and a small amount of enriched uranium to initiate the fission process. Later on in the core, the reactor gradually converts the non-fissile material into the fissile in a process like a traveling wave. In this work, a TWR with spent nuclear fuel blanket was studied. Several parameters such as reactivity coefficients, delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron generation lifetime, and fission power, were analyzed. The discharge burnup composition was also analyzed. The calculation is performed by a continuous energy Monte Carlo code McCARD.

  16. Alternative Practices to Improve Surface Fleet Fuel Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    FITREP fitness report FY fiscal year GPH gallons per hour GTG gas turbine generator hr hour JP5 jet propulsion fuel, type 5 kts knots kW kilowatt...can often be supported by one gas turbine generator (GTG). If the Navy’s DDGs and CGs engage in single-generator operations 25% of the time they are...2014). 1. Saving as a Fleet iENCON tracks the fuel burn rate for every non- nuclear surface ship in the Navy. Ship’s burn rates vary depending on

  17. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Fourth quarterly report, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  18. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  19. Utilization of Refuse Derived Fuels by the United States Navy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    makes the use of landfills less desirable for solid waste disposal. As such, new disposal methods that are environmentally safe and economi- cally...fuel for use in a heat recove:y system. Refuse * derived fuels (MDF) can be in the form of raw rieiuse, %leaksified riuse, puw- dered refuse, gas, or...maximum allowable as specified in 40 CFR 261.24. A URI can theoretically produce steam at a lower cost than conventional methods being used today. These

  20. The history, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions: part 4 - alternative fuels.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Much progress has been made in reducing the pollutants emitted from various combustors (including diesel engines and power plants) by the use of alternative fuels; however, much more progress is needed. Not only must researchers improve fuels and combustors, but also there is a need to improve the toxicology testing and analytical chemistry methods associated with these complex mixtures. Emissions from many alternative carbonaceous fuels are mutagenic and carcinogenic. Depending on their source and derivation, alternative carbonaceous fuels before combustion may or may not be genotoxic; however, in order to know their genotoxicity, appropriate chemical analysis and/or bioassay must be performed. Newly developed fuels and combustors must be tested to determine if they provide a public health advantage over existing technologies - including what tradeoffs can be expected (e.g., decreasing levels of PAHs versus increasing levels of NOx and possibly nitroarenes in ambient air). Another need is to improve exposure estimations which presently are a weak link in doing risk analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The life cycle assessment of alternative fuel chains for urban buses and trolleybuses.

    PubMed

    Kliucininkas, L; Matulevicius, J; Martuzevicius, D

    2012-05-30

    This paper describes a comparative analysis of public transport alternatives in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. An LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) inventory analysis of fuel chains was undertaken using the midi urban bus and a similar type of trolleybus. The inventory analysis of fuel chains followed the guidelines provided by the ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 standards. The ReCiPe Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology was used to quantify weighted damage originating from five alternative fuel chains. The compressed biogas fuel chain had the lowest weighted damage value, namely 45.7 mPt/km, whereas weighted damage values of the fuel chains based on electricity generation for trolleybuses were 60.6 mPt/km (for natural gas) and 78.9 mPt/km (for heavy fuel oil). The diesel and compressed natural gas fuel chains exhibited considerably higher damage values of 114.2 mPt/km and 132.6 mPt/km, respectively. The comparative life cycle assessment of fuel chains suggested that biogas-powered buses and electric trolleybuses can be considered as the best alternatives to use when modernizing the public transport fleet in Kaunas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aviation Management Perception of Biofuel as an Alternative Fuel Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marticek, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore lived experiences and perceptions from a population of 75 aviation managers in various locations in Pennsylvania about the use of aviation biofuel and how it will impact the aviation industry. The primary research question for this study focused on the impact of biofuel on the airline industry and how management believes biofuel can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel. Grounded in the conceptual framework of sustainability, interview data collected from 27 airline and fueling leaders were analyzed for like terms, coded, and reduced to 3 themes. Data were organized and prioritized based on frequency of mention. The findings represented themes of (a) flight planning tools, (b) production, and (c) costs that are associated with aviation fuel. The results confirmed findings addressed in the literature review, specifically that aviation biofuel will transform the airline industry through lower cost and production. These findings have broad applicability for all management personnel in the aviation industry. Implications for social change and improved business environments could be realized with a cleaner environment, reduced fuel emissions, and improved air quality.

  3. 77 FR 14583 - Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... identified as being capable of meeting the Vehicle Category 1 requirements. Technical Requirements: The FAA's Voluntary Airport Low Emission Program (VALE) Technical Report Version 7.0 Section 3.1.1, AIP Eligible Fuels... (VALE) Technical Report Version 7.0, Section 5.2, defines the requirements for Vehicle Category 1....

  4. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-01

    General Electric Global Research will define, develop, and test new fuel nozzle technology concepts for gas turbine operation on a wide spectrum of opportunity fuels and/or fuel blends. This will enable gas turbine operation on ultra-low Btu fuel streams such as very weak natural gas, highly-diluted industrial process gases, or gasified waste streams that are out of the capability range of current turbine systems.

  5. Findings and Recommendations from the NIST Workshop on Alternative Fuels and Materials: Biocorrosion

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Sowards, Jeffrey W.; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Applied Chemicals and Materials Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) hosted a workshop to identify and prioritize research needs in the area of biocorrosion. Materials used to store and distribute alternative fuels have experienced an increase in corrosion due to the unique conditions caused by the presence of microbes and the chemistry of biofuels and biofuel precursors. Participants in this workshop, including experts from the microbiological, fuel, and materials communities, delved into the unique materials and chemical challenges that occur with production, transport, and storage of alternative fuels. Discussions focused on specific problems including: a) the changing composition of “drop-in” fuels and the impact of that composition on materials; b) the influence of microbial populations on corrosion and fuel quality; and c) state-of-the-art measurement technologies for monitoring material degradation and biofilm formation. PMID:26958436

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of alternative marine fuels for marine gas turbine power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gohary, Mohamed M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2016-03-01

    The marine shipping industry faces challenges to reduce engine exhaust emissions and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from ships, and in particular, carbon dioxide. International regulatory bodies such as the International Maritime Organization and National Environmental Agencies of many countries have issued rules and regulations to drastically reduce GHG and emissions emanating from marine sources. This study investigates the possibility of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuels to diesel oil for marine gas turbines and uses a mathematical model to assess the effect of these alternative fuels on gas turbine thermodynamic performance. Results show that since natural gas is categorized as a hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using natural gas was close to that of the diesel case. However, the gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be slightly lower for natural gas and hydrogen fuels compared to diesel fuel.

  7. Findings and Recommendations from the NIST Workshop on Alternative Fuels and Materials: Biocorrosion.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Sowards, Jeffrey W; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Applied Chemicals and Materials Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) hosted a workshop to identify and prioritize research needs in the area of biocorrosion. Materials used to store and distribute alternative fuels have experienced an increase in corrosion due to the unique conditions caused by the presence of microbes and the chemistry of biofuels and biofuel precursors. Participants in this workshop, including experts from the microbiological, fuel, and materials communities, delved into the unique materials and chemical challenges that occur with production, transport, and storage of alternative fuels. Discussions focused on specific problems including: a) the changing composition of "drop-in" fuels and the impact of that composition on materials; b) the influence of microbial populations on corrosion and fuel quality; and c) state-of-the-art measurement technologies for monitoring material degradation and biofilm formation.

  8. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, Ralph; Schindler, Anton; Duke, Steve; Burch, Thom; Bransby, David; Stafford, Don

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  9. An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of the Department of Energy's research and development (R&D) efforts have historically been estimated under business-as-usual market and policy conditions. In recognition of the insurance value of R&D, however, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been exploring options for evaluating the benefits of their R&D programs under an array of alternative futures. More specifically, an FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group (the Working Group) has proposed to EERE and FE staff the application of an initial set of three scenarios for use in the Working Group's upcoming analyses: (1) a Reference Case Scenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includes heightened natural gas and oil prices, and (3) a Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. The immediate goal is to use these scenarios to conduct a pilot analysis of the benefits of EERE and FE R&D efforts. In this report, the two alternative scenarios being considered by EERE and FE staff--carbon cap-and-trade and high fuel prices--are compared to other scenarios used by energy analysts and utility planners. The report also briefly evaluates the past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We find that the natural gas prices through 2025 proposed in the FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group's High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable based on current natural gas prices and other externally generated gas price forecasts and scenarios. If anything, an even more extreme gas price scenario might be considered. The price escalation from 2025 to 2050 within the proposed High Fuel Price Scenario is harder to evaluate, primarily because few existing forecasts or scenarios extend beyond 2025, but, at first blush, it also appears reasonable. Similarly, we find that the oil prices originally proposed by the Working Group in the High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable, if not conservative, based on: (1) the current forward market for oil, (2) current oil prices

  10. Utilization of Alternate Chirality Enantiomers in Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Our previous study of chirality led to interesting findings for some anaerobic extremophiles: the ability to metabolize substrates with alternate chirality enantiomers of amino acids and sugars. We have subsequently found that not just separate microbial species or strains but entire microbial communities have this ability. The functional division within a microbial community on proteo- and sugarlytic links was also reflected in a microbial diet with L-sugars and D-amino acids. Several questions are addressed in this paper. Why and when was this feature developed in a microbial world? Was it a secondary de novo adaptation in a bacterial world? Or is this a piece of genetic information that has been left in modern genomes as an atavism? Is it limited exclusively to prokaryotes, or does this ability also occur in eukaryotes? In this article, we have used a broader approach to study this phenomenon using anaerobic extremophilic strains from our laboratory collection. A series of experiments were performed on physiologically different groups of extremophilic anaerobes (pure and enrichment cultures). The following characteristics were studied: 1) the ability to grow on alternate chirality enantiomers -- L-sugars and D- amino acids; 2) Growth-inhibitory effect of alternate chirality enantiomers; 3) Stickland reaction with alternate chirality amino acids. The results of this research are presented in this paper.

  11. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Technology readiness and development trends are discussed for three advanced power generation systems: combined cycle gas turbine, fuel cells, and magnetohydrodynamics. Power plants using these technologies are described and their performance either utilizing a medium-Btu coal derived fuel supplied by pipeline from a large central coal gasification facility or integrated with a gasification facility for supplying medium-Btu fuel gas is assessed.

  12. Implementation of alternative bio-based fuels in aviation: The Clean Airports Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1997-12-31

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, was designated, in March 1996, by the US Department of Energy (US DOE) as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. There are two major fuels used in aviation today, the current piston engine aviation gasoline, and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation Gasoline (100LL), currently used in the General Aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the USA today. In the case of the turbine engine fuel (Jet fuel), there are two major environmental impacts to be considered: the local, in the vicinity of the airports, and the global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to promote the use of clean burning fuels in order to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinities of airports through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles.

  13. Liquid fuel molten salt reactors for thorium utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, Jess C.; Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2016-04-08

    Molten salt reactors (MSRs) represent a class of reactors that use liquid salt, usually fluoride- or chloride-based, as either a coolant with a solid fuel (such as fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors) or as a combined coolant and fuel with fuel dissolved in a carrier salt. For liquid-fuelled MSRs, the salt can be processed online or in a batch mode to allow for removal of fission products as well as introduction of fissile fuel and fertile materials during reactor operation. The MSR is most commonly associated with the 233U/thorium fuel cycle, as the nuclear properties of 233U combined with the online removal of parasitic absorbers allow for the ability to design a thermal-spectrum breeder reactor; however, MSR concepts have been developed using all neutron energy spectra (thermal, intermediate, fast, and mixed-spectrum zoned concepts) and with a variety of fuels including uranium, thorium, plutonium, and minor actinides. Early MSR work was supported by a significant research and development (R&D) program that resulted in two experimental systems operating at ORNL in the 1960s, the Aircraft Reactor Experiment and the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment. Subsequent design studies in the 1970s focusing on thermal-spectrum thorium-fueled systems established reference concepts for two major design variants: (1) a molten salt breeder reactor (MSBR), with multiple configurations that could breed additional fissile material or maintain self-sustaining operation; and (2) a denatured molten salt reactor (DMSR) with enhanced proliferation-resistance. T MSRs has been selected as one of six most promising Generation IV systems and development activities have been seen in fast-spectrum MSRs, waste-burning MSRs, MSRs fueled with low-enriched uranium (LEU), as well as more traditional thorium fuel cycle-based MSRs. This study provides an historical background of MSR R&D efforts, surveys and summarizes many of the recent development, and provides

  14. Liquid fuel molten salt reactors for thorium utilization

    DOE PAGES

    Gehin, Jess C.; Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2016-04-08

    Molten salt reactors (MSRs) represent a class of reactors that use liquid salt, usually fluoride- or chloride-based, as either a coolant with a solid fuel (such as fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors) or as a combined coolant and fuel with fuel dissolved in a carrier salt. For liquid-fuelled MSRs, the salt can be processed online or in a batch mode to allow for removal of fission products as well as introduction of fissile fuel and fertile materials during reactor operation. The MSR is most commonly associated with the 233U/thorium fuel cycle, as the nuclear properties of 233U combined with themore » online removal of parasitic absorbers allow for the ability to design a thermal-spectrum breeder reactor; however, MSR concepts have been developed using all neutron energy spectra (thermal, intermediate, fast, and mixed-spectrum zoned concepts) and with a variety of fuels including uranium, thorium, plutonium, and minor actinides. Early MSR work was supported by a significant research and development (R&D) program that resulted in two experimental systems operating at ORNL in the 1960s, the Aircraft Reactor Experiment and the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment. Subsequent design studies in the 1970s focusing on thermal-spectrum thorium-fueled systems established reference concepts for two major design variants: (1) a molten salt breeder reactor (MSBR), with multiple configurations that could breed additional fissile material or maintain self-sustaining operation; and (2) a denatured molten salt reactor (DMSR) with enhanced proliferation-resistance. T MSRs has been selected as one of six most promising Generation IV systems and development activities have been seen in fast-spectrum MSRs, waste-burning MSRs, MSRs fueled with low-enriched uranium (LEU), as well as more traditional thorium fuel cycle-based MSRs. This study provides an historical background of MSR R&D efforts, surveys and summarizes many of the recent development, and provides analysis comparing

  15. The Sport-Utility Vehicle: Debating Fuel-Economy Standards in Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a debate about national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) used as a foundation for exploring a public policy issue in the physical science classroom. The subject of automobile fuel economy benefits from a familiarity with thermodynamics, specifically heat engines, and is therefore applicable to a broad…

  16. The Sport-Utility Vehicle: Debating Fuel-Economy Standards in Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a debate about national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) used as a foundation for exploring a public policy issue in the physical science classroom. The subject of automobile fuel economy benefits from a familiarity with thermodynamics, specifically heat engines, and is therefore applicable to a broad…

  17. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  18. Roll splitting as an alternative intermediate process for wood fuel

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Barnett; Donald L. Sirois

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to develop mobile equipment for harvesting and processing woody biomass from power line rights-of-way and precommerial thinnings, numerous alternative concepts were evaluated by Tennessee Valley Authority's Timber Harvesting Project.

  19. Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

  20. Plasma ARC/SCWO Sysems for Waste-to-Energy Applications Utilizing Milwaste Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2013-00213 PLASMA ARC/SCWO SYSTEMS FOR WASTE-TO- ENERGY APPLICATIONS UTILIZING MILWASTE FUELS Ralph H. Yates General...APPLICATIONS UTILIZING MILWASTE FUELS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8651-04-C-0158 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0909999F 6. AUTHOR(S...program was a research and development program aimed at developing a solid waste treatment technology to compliment General Atomics’ (GA’s) existing